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Sample records for 48h organic destruction

  1. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    TTT steam reforming process ability to destroy organics in the Tank 48 simulant and produce a soluble carbonate waste form. The ESTD was operated at varying feed rates and Denitration and Mineralization Reformer (DMR) temperatures, and at a constant Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) temperature of 950 C. The process produced a dissolvable carbonate product suitable for processing downstream. ESTD testing was performed in 2009 at the Hazen facility to demonstrate the long term operability of an integrated FBSR processing system with carbonate product and carbonate slurry handling capability. The final testing demonstrated the integrated TTT FBSR capability to process the Tank 48 simulant from a slurry feed into a greater than 99.9% organic free and primarily dissolved carbonate FBSR product slurry. This paper will discuss the SRNL analytical results of samples analyzed from the 2008 and 2009 THOR{reg_sign} steam reforming ESTD performed with Tank 48H simulant at HRI in Golden, Colorado. The final analytical results will be compared to prior analytical results from samples in terms of organic, nitrite, and nitrate destruction.

  2. STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS ON ACTUAL DOE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE 9138

    SciTech Connect

    Burket, P

    2009-02-24

    This paper describes the design of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR); a processing unit for demonstrating steam reforming technology on actual radioactive waste [1]. It describes the operating conditions of the unit used for processing a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 48H waste. Finally, it compares the results from processing the actual waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in the BSR to processing simulant waste in a large pilot scale unit, the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR), operated at Hazen Research Inc. in Golden, CO. The purpose of this work was to prove that the actual waste reacted in the same manner as the simulant waste in order to validate the work performed in the pilot scale unit which could only use simulant waste.

  3. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  4. Disposition of Tank 48H Organics by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2003-12-02

    In order to make space in the Savannah River Site Tank farm, the Tank 48H waste must be removed. Therefore, the Tank 48H waste must be processed to reduce or eliminate levels of nitrates, nitrites, and sodium tetraphenyl borate in order to reduce impacts of these species before it is vitrified. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming is being considered as a candidate technology for destroying the nitrates and the NaTPB prior to melting. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked to perform a proof-of-concept steam reforming test to evaluate the technical feasibility for pretreating the Tank 48H waste. The crucible (bench scale) tests conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center were initiated to optimize and augment the parameters subsequently tested at the pilot scale at INEEL. The purposes of the current study, organic destruction and downstream processing of T48H waste slurry were fulfilled. TPB was destroyed in all 19 samples tested with the simulated FB SR process at operational temperatures 650-725 degrees Celsius. A test temperature of 650 degrees Celsius optimized NO3 destruction during the formation of an Na2CO3 FBSR product. A test temperature of 725 degrees Celsius optimized NO3 destruction during formation of a sodium silicate FBSR product. Destruction of nitrate at greater than 99 per cent was achieved with addition of sugar as a reductant at 1X stoichiometry and total organic carbon analyses indicated that excess reductant was not present in the FBSR product. The use of sugar at 1X stoichiometry appears to ensure that excess reductant is not contained in the FBSR product that would alter the REDuction/OXidation equilibrium of the DWPF melter, while simultaneously assuring that NO3 is destroyed adequately. Destruction of antifoam with the simulated FBSR process was also achieved at operating temperatures between 650-725 degrees Celsius. based on measured total organic carbon.

  5. Disposition of Tank 48H Organics By Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) (U)

    SciTech Connect

    JANTZEN, CAROLM.

    2004-03-29

    An In Tank Processing (ITP) technology was developed at the Savannah River Site to remove Cs-137 from high-level waste supernates. During the ITP process monosodium titanate and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were added to the salt supernate to adsorb Sr-90/Pu-238 and precipitate Cs-137 as CsTPB, respectively. This process was demonstrated at the SRS in 1983. The demonstration produced 53,000 gallons of 2.5 weight per cent Cs rich precipitate containing TPB, which was later washed and diluted to 250,000 gallons. This material is currently stored in SRS tanks. The washed precipitate was to ultimately be disposed in borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. Due to safety concerns the ITP process was abandoned in 1998, and new technologies are being researched for Cs-137 removal. In order to make space in the SRS Tank farm, the tank waste must be removed. Therefore, the tank waste must be processed to reduce or eliminate levels of nitrates, nitrites, and sodium tetra phenylborate (NaTPB) in order to reduce impacts of these species before it is vitrified at the DWPF. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a candidate technology for destroying the nitrates and the NaTPB prior to melting. The purposes of the current study, organic destruction and downstream processing of T48H waste slurry were fulfilled. TPB was destroyed in all 19 samples tested with the simulated FBSR process at operational temperatures 650-725 degrees Celsius.

  6. Organic waste destruction by indirect electrooxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Leffrang, U.; Ebert, K.; Flory, K.

    1995-04-01

    The destruction of organic model substances by indirect electrooxidation was investigated. The oxidation agent Co(III) was used because of the high redox potential of the Co(III)/Co(II) redox couple (E{sub O}=1.808 V). Experiments were performed in a batch and in a continuous electrolytic cell by using various model substances (especially phenol and different chlorophenols). Intermediate and final products of the oxidation were identified and quantified. Organic carbon is ultimately transformed to CO{sub 2} and to small amounts of CO. The residual carbon in the process solution was determined by TOC measurement to be about 20 ppm. Organic chlorine is oxidized via chlorate to perchlorate. The remaining amount of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) was less than 3 ppm. Based on these results, a pilot plant was constructed and is presently in operation.

  7. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Sealock, Jr., L. John; Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1997-01-01

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials.

  8. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1997-05-20

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250 to 500 C and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials. 7 figs.

  9. Catalytic Destruction Of Toxic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed process disposes of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil or carbon beds safely and efficiently. Oxidizes toxic materials without producing such other contaminants as nitrogen oxides. Using air, fuel, catalysts, and steam, system consumes less fuel and energy than decontamination processes currently in use. Similar process regenerates carbon beds used in water-treatment plants.

  10. Catalytic Destruction Of Toxic Organic Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed process disposes of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil or carbon beds safely and efficiently. Oxidizes toxic materials without producing such other contaminants as nitrogen oxides. Using air, fuel, catalysts, and steam, system consumes less fuel and energy than decontamination processes currently in use. Similar process regenerates carbon beds used in water-treatment plants.

  11. Nonthermal plasma technology for organic destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, W.O.; Birmingham, J.G.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of nonthermal, electrically driven plasmas for destroying organic contaminants near ambient temperatures and pressures. Three different plasma systems have been developed to treat organics in air, water, and soil. These systems are the Gas-Phase Corona Reactor (GPCR)III for treating air, the Liquid-Phase Corona Reactor for treating water, and In Situ Corona for treating soils. This presentation focuses on recent technical developments, commercial status, and project costs of OPCR as a cost-effective alternative to other air-purification technologies that are now in use to treat off-gases from site-remediation efforts as well as industrial emissions.

  12. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  13. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  14. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  15. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48 RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FBSR TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, C; William Pepper, W

    2008-09-19

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  16. Benzene Generation Testing for Tank 48H Waste Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T

    2005-05-13

    In support for the Aggregation option1, researchers performed a series of tests using actual Tank 48H slurries. The tests were designed to examine potential benzene generation issues if the Tank 48H slurry is disposed to Saltstone. Personnel used the archived Tank 48H sample (HTF-E-03-127, collected September 17, 2003) for the experiments. The tests included a series of three experiments (Tests A, B, and F) performed in duplicate, giving a total of six experiments. Test A used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}20:1 with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H. Test B used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}2.7:1 with DWPF Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H, while Test F used Tank 48H slurry as-is. Tests A and B occurred at 45 C, while Test F occurred at 55 C. Over a period of 8 weeks, personnel collected samples for analysis, once per week. Each sample was tested with the in-cell gamma counter. The researchers noted a decline in the cesium activity in solution which is attributed to temperature dependence of the complex slurry equilibrium. Selected samples were sent to ADS for potassium, boron, and cesium analysis. The benzene generation rate was inferred from the TPB destruction which is indirectly measured by the in-growth of cesium, potassium or boron. The results of all the analyses reveal no discernible in-growth of radiocesium, potassium or boron, indicating no significant tetraphenylborate (TPB) decomposition in any of the experiments. From boron measurements, the inferred rate of TPB destruction remained less than 0.332 mg/(L-h) implying a maximum benzene generation rate of <0.325 mg/(L-h).

  17. Low temperature hydrothermal destruction of organics in Hanford tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Schmidt, A.J.; Jones, E.O.; Hart, T.R.; Poshusta, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate and develop a low temperature hydrothermal process (HTP) for the destruction of organics that are present wastes temporarily stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Organic compounds contribute to tank waste safety issues, such as hydrogen generation. Some organic compounds act as complexants, promoting the solubility of radioactive constituents such as {sup 90}Sr and {sup 241}Am, which is undesirable for waste pretreatment processing. HTP is thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that is typically operated between 250{degrees}C and 375{degrees}C and approximately 200 atm. Testing with simulated tank waste, containing a variety of organics has been performed. The distribution of strontium, cesium and bulk metals between the supernatant and solid phases as a function of the total organic content of the waste simulant will be presented. Test results using simulant will be compared with similar tests conducted using actual radioactive waste.

  18. Catalytic destruction of hazardous organics in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1988-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a process for destroying hazardous organics and chlorinated organics in aqueous solutions. The process is targeted at liquid waste streams that are difficult and costly to treat with conventional or developing technologies. Examples of these waste streams include contaminated groundwater and surface water and industrial wastewater. Aqueous solutions are treated with a transition metal catalyst at 300/degree/C to 460/degree/C and 2000 to 5000 psig pressure to convert the wastes to innocuous gases. During proof-of-principle tests conducted in a 1-L batch reactor, destruction of over 99/percent/ (in most cases approaching 99.9/percent/) of the organic material was achieved. Hexone (methyl is isobutyl ketone, MIBK), p-cresol, hexane, benzene, and naphthalene were used as model waste materials. The only major product with all of the organic compounds was a gas containing 50/percent/ to 75/percent/ methane, 25/percent/ to 45/percent/ carbon dioxide, and 0/percent) to 5/percent/ hydrogen. Reduced nickel was the only effective catalyst and that the optimal operating conditions for destroying nonchlorinated organics were 350/degree/C to 400/degree/C, 2000 to 4000 psig, and 30/endash/ to 60/endash/min residence time. These tests also indicated that catalyst deactivation or fouling would not be a problem at these conditions. Chlorobenzene and trichloroethylene (TEC), were also tested. Destruction of both compounds was 99/percent/ or greater, but the products were different from those obtained from hydrocarbons. With TCE, the major product was carbon dioxide; with chlorobenzene the major product identified was benzene. In the tests with the chlorinated hydrocarbons, the chlorine was converted to HC1 and the reduced nickel was converted to nickel hydroxide, which may be detrimental to long-term catalyst activity. (15 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs).

  19. Destruction of organic compounds in water using supported photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Crittenden, J.C.; Hand, D.W.; Perram, D.L.

    1996-05-01

    Photocatalytic destruction of organic compounds in water is investigated using tanning lamps and fixed-bed photoreactors. Platinized titanium dioxide (Pt-TiO{sub 2}) supported on silica gel is used as a photocatalyst. Complete mineralization of influent concentrations of 4.98 mg/L tetrachloroethylene and 2.35 mg/L p-dichlorobenzene requires a reactor residence time less than 1.3 minutes. While for influent concentrations of 3.58 mg/L 2-chlorobiphenyl, 2.50 mg/L methyl ethyl ketone and 0.49 mg/L carbon tetrachloride, complete mineralization requires reactor residence times of 1.6, 10.5, and 16.8 minutes, respectively. A reactor model is developed using Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and the model parameters are determined using a reference compound, trichloroethylene. Based on the results of experiments with trichloroethylene, the model predicts the mineralization of the aforementioned compounds from ultraviolet (UV) irradiance, influent concentration, hydroxyl radical rate constants, and the known physical properties of the compounds. The model is also able to predict organic destruction using solar insolation (which has a different spectral distribution from the tanning lamps) based on the UV absorption characteristics of titanium dioxide.

  20. Photocatalytic destruction of volatile organic compounds in water. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Oluic, S.

    1991-12-10

    Ground water at the Anniston Army Depot in Anniston, Alabama has been found to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Recent research has indicated that advanced oxidation processes, namely hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ultraviolet light radiation, can be successful in destroying these contaminants. In this process hydrogen peroxide is decomposed by ultraviolet radiation producing hydroxyl free radicals which in turn oxidize the organic compounds present. A series of batch tests and flow through experiments using this oxidation process was performed on a synthetic wastewater that closely duplicated contaminant concentration levels found at Anniston. These contaminants, 1,2 dichloroethene, trichloroethene, dichloromethane and benzene, were found readily destructed by the UV/H2O2 process both individually and in mixtures during batch testing and in flow-through experiments. All experimentation was performed utilizing a thin film reactor.

  1. DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Spritzer

    2003-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) has recently completed a Phase I program for the development of a two-step alternative to incineration for the destruction of organics in transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Site. This process is known as thermal desorption-supercritical water oxidation, or TD-SCWO. The GA TD process uses heat to volatilize and transport organics from the waste material for subsequent treatment by SCWO. SCWO oxidizes organics in a steam medium at elevated temperatures and pressures in a manner that achieves excellent destruction efficiencies and compliance with all environmental requirements without the need for complex pollution-abatement equipment. This application of TD-SCWO is focused on a full-scale batch process for 55-gallon drums of mixed transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site. The Phase I reduced-scale test results show that the process operates as intended on surrogate waste matrices chosen to be representative of Savannah River Site transuranic mixed wastes. It provides a high degree of hydrogen removal and full containment of the radionuclide surrogate, with minimal requirements for pre-treatment and post-treatment. Other test objectives were to verify that the process produces no dioxins or furans, and meets all applicable regulatory criteria for retention of toxic metals, particulate, and criteria pollutants, while meeting WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II requirements. Thermal desorption of surrogate SRS mixed wastes at 500 psi and 1000 F met all tested requirements for WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II. SCWO of the desorbed surrogate organic materials at 500 psi and 1500 F also appears to meet all requirements for a nonincineration alternative, although >99.99% DRE for chlorinated solvents has not yet been demonstrated.

  2. Rapid destruction of organic chemicals in groundwater using sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E.; Haslund, C.A.; Pacheco, J.E.; Holmes, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    We are currently investigating a solar-driven photocatalytic process that promises to destroy low concentrations of hazardous organic molecules in large volumes of contaminated groundwater or industrial waste streams. Preliminary results of laboratory-scale screening tests using a model compound, salicylic acid, and titanium dioxide catalyst have shown that no measurable reaction occurs without both uv light and catalyst; no measurable volatilization of the salicylic acid occurs at room temperature; salicylic acid destruction rates depend on catalyst supplier and concentration and on uv light intensity; and some intermediates are being formed and subsequently destroyed. Observed reaction rates are consistent with those observed in an initial pilot-scale solar test of a falling-film reactor, although further testing will be required to quantify the comparison. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  4. Temperature sensitivity of organic compound destruction in SCWO process.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yaqin; Shen, Zhemin; Guo, Weimin; Ouyang, Chuang; Jia, Jinping; Jiang, Weili; Zhou, Haiyun

    2014-03-01

    To study the temperature sensitivity of the destruction of organic compounds in supercritical water oxidation process (SCWO), oxidation effects of twelve chemicals in supercritical water were investigated. The SCWO reaction rates of different compounds improved to varying degrees with the increase of temperature, so the highest slope of the temperature-effect curve (imax) was defined as the maximum ratio of removal ratio to working temperature. It is an important index to stand for the temperature sensitivity effect in SCWO. It was proven that the higher imax is, the more significant the effect of temperature on the SCWO effect is. Since the high-temperature area of SCWO equipment is subject to considerable damage from fatigue, the temperature is of great significance in SCWO equipment operation. Generally, most compounds (imax > 0.25) can be completely oxidized when the reactor temperature reaches 500°C. However, some compounds (imax > 0.25) need a higher temperature for complete oxidation, up to 560°C. To analyze the correlation coefficients between imax and various molecular descriptors, a quantum chemical method was used in this study. The structures of the twelve organic compounds were optimized by the Density Functional Theory B3LYP/6-311G method, as well as their quantum properties. It was shown that six molecular descriptors were negatively correlated to imax while other three descriptors were positively correlated to imax. Among them, dipole moment had the greatest effect on the oxidation thermodynamics of the twelve organic compounds. Once a correlation between molecular descriptors and imax is established, SCWO can be run at an appropriate temperature according to molecular structure.

  5. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah River Site to demonstrate

  6. Developments in solar photocatalysis for destruction of organics in water

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.E. ); Carwile, C. ); Magrini, K.A.; Mehos, M. )

    1989-01-01

    We are developing a process that has the potential to destroy a wide range of organic contaminants in water using solar energy and a titanium dioxide photocatalyst, TiO{sub 2}. Contaminated water flows through a reactor on which sunlight is focused to activate the catalyst forming hydroxyl radicals and super oxide ions. These reactive species readily attack and decompose organics in solution producing only water, CO{sub 2} and halo acids. Tests have been conducted at three levels: at a benchtop scale (liter), with a small outdoor trough (100 liters) and with a large outdoor parabolic trough (2000 liters). The experimental variables examined include ultraviolet light intensity, catalyst loading, the effect of adding hydrogen peroxide, and the performance of catalyst supports. The intensity of ultraviolet irradiation significantly affected decomposition rates of a chlorinated solvent, trichloroethylene (TCE) yielding faster reaction rates at higher intensities. The amount of catalyst in suspension affected the destruction rate of trichloroethylene; the rate increased as the amount of catalyst was increased from 0.01 to 0.1 wt%. Hydrogen peroxide used in conjunction with TiO{sub 2} significantly enhanced the photocatalytic decomposition rate of a model compound, salicylic acid, by as much as 8 times over the rate with TiO{sub 2} alone. Supported TiO{sub 2} on silica glass beads performed less effectively compared to suspended TiO{sub 2} for TCE decomposition with simulated sunlight as did TiO{sub 2} on alumina ceramic frits for decomposing salicylic acid in natural sunlight. TiO{sub 2} on fiberglass mesh performed about as well as the ceramic frits. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. RESULTS OF COPPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION (CCPO) OF TANK 48H SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Pareizs, J.; Newell, J.; Fondeur, F.; Nash, C.; White, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-14

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. The following observations were made with respect to the major processing variables investigated. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. Testing with simulated slurries continues. Current testing is examining lower copper concentrations, refined peroxide addition rates, and alternate acidification methods. A revision of this report will provide updated findings with emphasis on defining recommended conditions for similar tests with actual waste samples.

  8. The destruction of halogenated organic chemicals by plasma pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Barton, T G; Mordy, J A

    1984-08-01

    Very high destruction efficiencies for halogenated chemicals have been achieved by plasma pyrolysis. Destruction efficiencies exceeded 99.9999999% for tests with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Preliminary tests with tetrachloromethane have obtained destruction efficiencies exceeding 99.99%. The plasma pyrolysis process involved the creation of a 250-kW plasma with a temperature in excess of 25 000 degrees C. The toxic material was injected into the plasma zone at a rate between 1 and 2 L/min. Thermochemical and photochemical dissociation of the toxic materials produced atoms and ions which recombined to form primarily H2, CO, HCl, and particulate carbon. The HCl was neutralized by NaOH. The flaring of the H2 and CO should destroy to a high degree any trace residuals. The application of plasma pyrolysis for the ultimate disposal of toxicological waste was also investigated. Rat carcasses containing mean lethal dosage of PCB were pyrolyzed.

  9. Transition metal catalysts for the ambient temperature destruction of organic wastes using peroxydisulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, G B

    1998-08-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's.

  10. Engineering-scale destruction of organics at Savannah River Site using the silver(II) ion

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, S.D.; Pierce, R.A.

    1991-09-04

    Electrochemical destruction of organics to carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic salts using the silver(II) ion as an oxidizer has been demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on a laboratory scale. An engineering-scale facility has been constructed at SRS for a process demonstration of the technology using benzene. Organic destruction rates, cell efficiencies and off gas generation will be related to key process variables. Electrocell design, peripheral support equipment, engineering considerations, safety issues, and operating parameters will be discussed. Future test plans and the impact of early results on the direction of the organics destruction program at SRS will also be addressed.

  11. Engineering-scale destruction of organics at Savannah River Site using the silver(II) ion

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, S.D.; Pierce, R.A.

    1991-09-04

    Electrochemical destruction of organics to carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic salts using the silver(II) ion as an oxidizer has been demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on a laboratory scale. An engineering-scale facility has been constructed at SRS for a process demonstration of the technology using benzene. Organic destruction rates, cell efficiencies and off gas generation will be related to key process variables. Electrocell design, peripheral support equipment, engineering considerations, safety issues, and operating parameters will be discussed. Future test plans and the impact of early results on the direction of the organics destruction program at SRS will also be addressed.

  12. Electrochemical destruction of organics and nitrates in simulated and actual radioactive Hanford tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M.R.; Lawrence, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has conducted an evaluation of electrochemical processing for use in radioactive tank waste cleanup activities. An electrochemical organic destruction (ECOD) process was evaluated, with the main focus being the destruction of organic compounds (especially organic complexants of radionuclides) in simulated and actual radioactive Hanford tank wastes. A primary reason for destroying the organic species in the complexant concentrate tank waste is to decomplex/defunctionalize species that chelate radionuclides. the separations processes required to remove the radionuclides are much less efficient when chelators are present. A second objective, the destruction of nitrates and nitrites in the wastes, was also assessed. Organic compounds, nitrates, and nitrites may affect waste management and safety considerations, not only at Hanford but at other US Department of Energy sites that maintain high- level waste storage tanks.

  13. Thermal destruction of organic waste hydrophobicity for agricultural soils application.

    PubMed

    Comino, Francisco; Aranda, Víctor; Domínguez-Vidal, Ana; Ayora-Cañada, María José

    2017-11-01

    Use of organic amendments is a good strategy for combating the growing problem of soil degradation due to deterioration of organic matter content, particularly severe in semi-arid European Mediterranean regions, while at the same time providing an opportunity for recycling organic wastes. Olive mill pomace (OMP), the main by-product of the olive oil industry, is being used increasingly in olive grove soils for this purpose. Although the positive effects of OMP amendments have been widely studied, they also have some negative effects on soil. One of the most critical is that they increase water repellency (WR) due to the presence of poorly evolved, strongly aliphatic compounds. This detrimental effect has received very little attention, although it may impair plant water availability and infiltration rates, increase erosion and lower long-term soil quality. This study proposed, for the first time, thermal treatment as an effective way of reducing WR in organic amendments (i.e. mixtures of OMP, olive tree pruning, chicken manure and spent coffee grounds) prior to their application to soil. Thermal treatment at 275 °C proved effective in removing WR, while lower temperatures (175 or 225 °C) can even increase it. Changes by thermal treatment in the characteristics of the organic amendments studied with FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that it strongly reduced the aliphatic compounds mainly responsible for their hydrophobicity, concentrated aromatic compounds and increased thermostability. Heating also reduced phytotoxicity, making all of the organic amendments usable in the field (germination index over 100%). Therefore, heating at 275 °C could be an acceptable option for removing WR from organic amendments, enhancing their quality with more stable evolved characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Air-nitric acid destructive oxidation of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-09-01

    Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution with air sparging. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sub +2} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. The rate for aliphatic organic compounds (polyethylene, PVC, and n-dodecane) is relatively very slow. This is due to the large energy required to abstract a hydrogen atom from these compounds, 99 kcal/mole. The combination of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} and H{center_dot} to produce HNO{sub 2} releases only 88 kcal/mole. Under conditions of high NO{sub 2}{center_dot} concentration it should be possible to oxidize these aliphatic compounds.

  15. Case study on the destruction of organic dyes in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.

    1994-11-01

    Organic dyes, which were used in Navy shells to mark ships and structures, need to be disposed of without burning. A study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation to destroy organic dyes. Experimental destruction efficiencies, product analyses, and process configuration are reported.

  16. SIMULTANEOUS DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS AND STABILIZATION OF METALS IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulchem Process reacts the material being treated with elemental sulfur at elevated temperatures in an inert reactor system. Organic hydrocarbons react with the sulfur to form an inert fine solid of carbon and sulfur, hydrogen sulfide gas, and modest amounts of carbon disulfi...

  17. SIMULTANEOUS DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS AND STABILIZATION OF METALS IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulchem Process reacts the material being treated with elemental sulfur at elevated temperatures in an inert reactor system. Organic hydrocarbons react with the sulfur to form an inert fine solid of carbon and sulfur, hydrogen sulfide gas, and modest amounts of carbon disulfi...

  18. Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-01-09

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

  19. The Photocatalytic Destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-10

    presently done using packed bed aeration or granular activated carbon (GAC) to remove the VOCs from the groundwater. There are problems associated with using...into another phase. UV light accelerates the rate of removal of a VOC by activating the H202, which splits into two hydroxyl radicals. These hydroxyl...540/2-90,1990). The ability of UV light to destroy organics alone is sometimes negligible. Photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation process that uses the

  20. Destruction of trace organics in otherwise ultra pure water

    SciTech Connect

    Prairie, M.R.; Stange, B.M.; Showalter, S.K.; Magrini, K.A.

    1995-12-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to determine the economic viability of applying various ultraviolet (UV) oxidation processes to a waste water stream containing approximately 12 mg/L total organic carbon (TOC), predominately ethylene glycol. In all experiments, a test solution was illuminated with either near-UV or a far-UV light alone or in combination with a variety of photocatalysts and oxidants. Based upon the outcomes of this project, both UV/photocatalysis and UV/ozone processes are capable of treating the water sample to below detection capabilities of TOC. However, the processes are fairly energy intensive; the most efficient case tested required 11 kWh per order of magnitude reduction in TOC per 1000 L. If energy consumption rates of 5-10 kWh/1000 L are deemed reasonable, then further investigation is recommended.

  1. Destruction of Trace Organics in Otherwise Ultra Pure Water

    SciTech Connect

    Prairie, M. R.; Stange, B. M.; Showalter, S. K.; Magrini, K. A.

    1995-12-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to determine the economic viability of applying various ultraviolet (UV) oxidation processes to a waste water stream containing approximately 12 mg/L total organic carbon (TOC), predominately ethylene glycol. In all experiments, a test solution was illuminated with either near-UV or a far-UV light alone or in combination with a variety of photocatalysts and oxidants. Based upon the outcomes of this project, both UV/photocatalysis and UV/ozone processes are capable of treating the water sample to below detection capabilities of TOC. However, the processes are fairly energy intensive; the most efficient case tested required 11 kWh per order of magnitude reduction in TOC per 1000 L. If energy consumption rates of 5-10 kWh/1000 L are deemed reasonable, then further investigation is recommended.

  2. Homogeneously catalyzed oxidation for the destruction of aqueous organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, D.D.; Horbath, J.S.; Abraham, M.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Several organic species, specifically atrazine, 2,4-dichlorophenozyacetic acid, and biphenyl, were converted to CO{sub 2} and other non-harmful gases through oxidation catalyzed by inorganic acid. Nearly complete conversion was obtained through homogeneous liquid-phase oxidation with ammonium nitrate. The kinetics of reaction have been investigated and indicate parallel oxidation and thermal degradation of the oxidant. This results in a maximum conversion at an intermediate temperature. Increasing oxidant concentration accelerates the rate of conversion and shifts the location of the optimum temperature. Reaction at varying acid concentration revealed that conversion increased with an approximately linear relationship as the pH of the solution was increased. Conversion was increased to greater than 99% through the addition of small amounts of transition metal salts demonstrating the suitability of a treatment process based on this technology for wastestreams containing small quantities of heavy metals.

  3. Destruction of nitrates, organics, and ferrocyanides by hydrothermal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.M.; Foy, B.R.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Anderson, G.; Archuleta, F.; Atencio, J.; Breshears, D.; Brewer, R.; Eaton, H.; McFarland, R.; McInroy, R.; Reynolds, T.; Sedillo, M.; Wilmanns, E.; Buelow, S.J.

    1993-03-01

    This work targets the remediation of the aqueous mixed wastes stored in the underground tanks at the Department of Energy site in Hanford, Washington via hydrothermal processing. The feasibility of destroying the nitrate, organic, and ferrocyanide components of the wastes under supercritical and near critical conditions (623 {degree}K to 873{degree}K, 22.1 MPa to 103.4 MPa) is addressed. A novel method was developed for determining the solubility of nitrate salts in supercritical water solutions at pressures ranging from 24.8 MPa to 30.3 MPa (3600 psi to 4400 psi) and temperatures from 723 {degree}K to 798 {degree}K. Sodium nitrate solubilities ranged from 293 mg/kg at 24.8 MPa and 798 {degree}K to 1963 mg/kg at 30.3 MPa and 723{degree}K. Solubility was found to vary directly with pressure, and inversely with temperature. An empirical relationship was developed for the estimation of sodium nitrate solubility at water densities between 0.08 and 0.16 kg/L and temperatures between 723{degree}K and 798{degree}K. A small volume batch reactor equipped with optical diagnostics was used to monitor the phase behavior of a diluted variant of a tank 101-SY simulant. Preliminary results suggest that a single phase is formed at 83 MPa at 773 {degree}K.

  4. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVEWASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAMREFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANICDESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C

    2008-07-31

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  5. Integrated system for the destruction of organics by hydrolysis and oxidation with peroxydisulfate

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Balazs, G. Bryan; Hsu, Peter; Lewis, Patricia R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated system for destruction of organic waste comprises a hydrolysis step at moderate temperature and pressure, followed by direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. This system can be used to quantitatively destroy volatile or water-insoluble halogenated organic solvents, contaminated soils and sludges, and the organic component of mixed waste. The hydrolysis step results in a substantially single phase of less volatile, more water soluble hydrolysis products, thus enabling the oxidation step to proceed rapidly and with minimal loss of organic substrate in the off-gas.

  6. Site-emerging technologies: Laser induced photochemical oxidative destruction of toxic organics in leachates and groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The technology described in the report has been developed under the Emerging Technology Program of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to photochemically oxidize organic compounds in wastewater by applying ultraviolet radiation using an excimer laser. The energy supplied by the laser is sufficient to stimulate photochemical reactions between the organics and hydrogen peroxide employed as a chemical oxidant, causing photooxidation and/or phototransformation of the toxic species to carbon dioxide, water and the corresponding halogenated acid. The photochemical reaction is capable of producing the complete destruction of low to moderate concentrations of toxic organics in water. Optimum conditions for the complete destruction of several different classes of compounds were developed and demonstrated in the laboratory.

  7. Direct chemical oxidation: a non-thermal technology for the destruction of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Balazs, G.B.; Cooper, J. F.; Lewis, P. R.; Adamson, M. G.

    1998-02-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's. [1-15] The process normally operates at 80-100 C, a heating requirement which increases the difficulty of surface decontamination of large objects or, for example, treatment of a wide area contaminated soil site. The driver for DCO work in FY98 was thus to investigate the use of catalysts to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology for organics destruction at temperatures closer to ambient. In addition, DCO is at a sufficiently mature stage of development that technology transfer to a commercial entity was a logical next step, and was thus included in FY98 tasks.

  8. Can predatory bird feathers be used as a non-destructive biomonitoring tool of organic pollutants?

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, Veerle L.B; Voorspoels, Stefan; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring of different types of pollutants that are released into the environment and that present risks for both humans and wildlife has become increasingly important. In this study, we examined whether feathers of predatory birds can be used as a non-destructive biomonitor of organic pollutants. We demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are measurable in one single tail feather of common buzzards (Buteo buteo) and that levels in this feather and internal tissues are significantly related to each other (0.35destructive biomonitoring of organic pollutants, although further validation may be necessary. PMID:17148383

  9. Treatment of SRS Tank 48H Simulants Using Fenton's Reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, PA

    2003-11-18

    High-level-waste Tank 48H at the Savannah River Site (SRS) contains about 50,000 lb of tetraphenylborate (TPB), which must be destroyed to return the tank to active service. Laboratory-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the use of Fenton's Reagent (hydrogen peroxide and a metal catalyst) to treat simulants of the Tank 48H waste. Samples of the treated slurry and the off-gas were analyzed to determine the reaction products. Process parameters developed earlier by AEA Technology were used for these tests; namely (for 500 mL of waste simulant), reduce pH to 7.5 with nitric acid, heat to boiling, add hydrogen peroxide at 1 mL/min for 1 h, reduce pH to 3.5, and add the remaining peroxide at 2 mL/min. These parameters were developed to minimize the formation of tarry materials during the early part of the reaction and to minimize the concentration of total organic carbon in the final treated slurry. The treated samples contained low concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and no detectable TPB. Tests using a mixture of iron and copper salts as the Fenton's catalyst had a lower TOC concentration in the final treated slurry than did tests that used a copper-only catalyst. TPB is known to hydrolyze to benzene, particularly at high temperature and low pH, and copper is known to increase the rate of hydrolysis. Significant amounts of benzene were present in the off-gas from the tests, especially during the early portion of the treatment, indicating that the hydrolysis reaction was occurring in parallel with the oxidation of the TPB by Fenton's reagent. For the reaction conditions used in these tests, approximately equal fractions of the TPB were converted to benzene and carbon dioxide. Minimizing the formation of benzene is important to SRS personnel; however, this consideration was not addressed in the AEA-recommended parameters, since they did not analyze for benzene in the off-gas. Smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and other organics were also produced. One test

  10. Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank waste. Organic destruction technology development task annual report -- FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Zacher, A.H.

    1993-09-01

    Low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) is a thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that can be used to destroy organics and ferrocyanide in Hanford tank waste at temperatures from 250 C to 400 C. With HTP, organics react with oxidants, such as nitrite and nitrate, already present in the waste. Ferrocyanides and free cyanide will hydrolyze at similar temperatures and may also react with nitrates or other oxidants in the waste. No air or oxygen or additional chemicals need to be added to the autogenous HTP system. However, enhanced kinetics may be realized by air addition, and, if desired, chemical reductants can be added to the system to facilitate complete nitrate/nitrate destruction. Tank waste can be processed in a plug-flow, tubular reactor, or a continuous-stirred tank reactor system designed to accommodate the temperature, pressure, gas generation, and heat release associated with decomposition of the reactive species. The work described in this annual report was conducted in FY 1993 for the Organic Destruction Technology Development Task of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This task is part of an overall program to develop organic destruction technologies originally funded by TWRS to meet tank safety and waste form disposal criteria and condition the feed for further pretreatment. During FY 1993 the project completed seven experimental test plans, a 30-hr pilot-scale continuous run, over 200 hr of continuous bench-scale HTP testing, and 20 batch HTP tests; two contracts were established with commercial vendors, and a commercial laboratory reactor was procured and installed in a glovebox for HTP testing with actual Hanford tank waste.

  11. Formulation Development for Processing Tank 48H in Saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    COZZI, ALEX

    2004-10-01

    Salt Program Engineering (SPE) requested research to help evaluate the Saltstone process as a disposition path for the contents of Tank 48H. The main objective of the task was to evaluate the processing and cured properties of Saltstone prepared with Tank 48H material aggregated with other Tank 50H inflows to determine the suitability of Saltstone as a disposition path for the contents of Tank 48H. The Tank 48H waste was aggregated with inhibited water (IW) and a simulant of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The aggregates targeted three tetraphenyl borate (TPB) concentrations: (1) 5500 mg/L, the aggregate determined from assumptions at the maximum reasonable limits, (2) 1500 mg/L, the aggregate containing the minimum proportion of Tank 48H material that is programmatically acceptable, and (3) 3500 mg/L, the average of the two endpoints. Saltstone prepared with Tank 48H waste aggregated with IW and a simulant of the recycle stream from the DWPF was produced in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) shielded cells. Processable Saltstone slurry formulations can be prepared with Tank 48H material and both DWPF recycle simulant and inhibited water with concentrations of 1500, 3500, and 5500 mg/L TPB. Toxic Characterization Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extractions were performed on the six aggregates. The extracts were analyzed for benzene, nitrobenzene and mercury. All of the samples passed TCLP. Saltstone was also prepared with a Tank 48H simulant and DWPF recycle simulant. Testing of the fresh Saltstone slurry and cured Saltstone prepared with simulants indicate that neither the fresh nor cured Saltstone is hazardous for ignitability. After transferring Tank 48H material to Tank 50H and prior to processing through the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), Tank 50H should be sampled to verify processability.

  12. Destruction of organic wastes by ammonium peroxydisulfate with electrolytic regeneration of the oxidant

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, J.F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.

    1997-07-01

    Research is reported concerning a new aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes. This process uses acidified ammonium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at 80- to 100 {degrees}C. The oxidant may be efficiently regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by-product at Pt anodes, even in the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants expected to be entrained in the cycle. Integral rate constants were determined for the oxidation of 25 diverse organic compounds at low (50 ppm) concentrations through fixed-time experiments with excess oxidant and a Pt wire catalyst. For high initial concentrations, uncatalyzed mineralization rates were measured for waste surrogates including kerosene, triethylamine, ion exchange resin, oxalic acid, trinitrotoluene, and cellulose. A packed bed reactor was tested with ethylene glycol, with offgas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Rate data extrapolate to throughputs of approximately 200 kg/m{sub 3}-day. The process may benefit the destruction of highly toxic or specialized industrial wastes as well as the organic fraction of mixed wastes.

  13. Kinetics of the Destruction of Organic Pollutants in Water with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiros, Mauricio

    Stricter clean water standards are compelling chemical process industries to reduce and eliminate the toxicity of their waste water discharges. Several techniques are widely employed to remove dissolved organic contaminants. These include carbon adsorption, ultraviolet light, and biodegradation. However, several waste water problems require development of innovative techniques. Sonochemistry (chemistry with ultrasound) is a process that uses localized high temperatures and pressures to accelerate chemical reactions such hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide formation. These agents can then highly degrade organic compounds in aqueous systems. Thus, it offers great potential within the hazardous waste treatment area. The principal objective of this research was to explore the application of ultrasound to the destruction of toxic aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons found in contaminated water and soil. The organic compounds studied were 1,2-dichloroethane, benzene, and toluene. Specifically it was quantified the rates of conversion, assesed the effect of process variables, and determined the enhancement of the action of the wet oxidant hydrogen peroxide in the system. At the end of the study, the effects of changing the reactor temperature and the initial solute concentration were evaluated. The equipment used for the study was an ultrasound generator using a horn mounted transducer and coupled to a flow through cell reactor. This ultrasound generator was calibrated using a calorimetric procedure. The frequency of the sound was constant at 20 kHz. The treatment process was studied by carrying out a statistical factorial design experiment at two levels in four variables. The variables considered in the statistical program included intensity of the sound wave, 30 and 60 watt/cm ^2, duration of ultrasound application, 1 and 2 hr, initial pH of the problem solution, 7 and 11, and presence of the wet oxidant hydrogen peroxide. The analysis of results showed reductions

  14. Tank 48 Chemical Destruction - 13237

    SciTech Connect

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-07-01

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents. (authors)

  15. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  16. Results Of Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation (CCPO) Of Tank 48H Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Pareizs, J. M.; Newell, J. D.; Fondeur, F. F.; Nash, C. A.; White, T. L.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. A processing temperature of 50°C as part of an overall set of conditions appears to provide a viable TPB destruction time on the order of 4 days. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. The data in this report suggests 100-250 mg/L as a minimum. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. An addition rate of 0.4 mL/hour, scaled to the full vessel, is suggested for the process. SRNL recommends that for pH adjustment, an acid addition rate 42 mL/hour, scaled to the full vessel, is used. This is the same addition rate used in the testing. Even though the TPB and phenylborates can be destroyed in a relative short time period, the residual organics will take longer to degrade to <10 mg/L. Low level leaching on titanium occurred, however, the typical concentrations of released titanium are very low (~40 mg/L or less). A small amount of leaching under these conditions is not

  17. Non-destructive monitoring of viability in an ex vivo organ culture model of osteochondral tissue.

    PubMed

    Elson, K M; Fox, N; Tipper, J L; Kirkham, J; Hall, R M; Fisher, J; Ingham, E

    2015-06-30

    Organ culture is an increasingly important tool in research, with advantages over monolayer cell culture due to the inherent natural environment of tissues. Successful organ cultures must retain cell viability. The aim of this study was to produce viable and non-viable osteochondral organ cultures, to assess the accumulation of soluble markers in the conditioned medium for predicting tissue viability. Porcine femoral osteochondral plugs were cultured for 20 days, with the addition of Triton X-100 on day 6 (to induce necrosis), camptothecin (to induce apoptosis) or no toxic additives. Tissue viability was assessed by the tissue destructive XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide tetrazolium salt) assay method and LIVE/DEAD® staining of the cartilage at days 0, 6 and 20. Tissue structure was assessed by histological evaluation using haematoxylin & eosin and safranin O. Conditioned medium was assessed every 3-4 days for glucose depletion, and levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Necrotic cultures immediately showed a reduction in glucose consumption, and an immediate increase in LDH, GAG, MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Apoptotic cultures showed a delayed reduction in glucose consumption and delayed increase in LDH, a small rise in MMP-2 and MMP-9, but no significant effect on GAGs released into the conditioned medium. The data showed that tissue viability could be monitored by assessing the conditioned medium for the aforementioned markers, negating the need for tissue destructive assays. Physiologically relevant whole- or part-joint organ culture models, necessary for research and pre-clinical assessment of therapies, could be monitored this way, reducing the need to sacrifice tissues to determine viability, and hence reducing the sample numbers necessary.

  18. Formation and Destruction Processes of Interstellar Dust: From Organic Molecules to carbonaceous Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Biennier, L.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the formation and destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. interstellar dust presents a continuous size distribution from large molecules, radicals and ions to nanometer-sized particles to micron-sized grains. The lower end of the dust size distribution is thought to be responsible for the ubiquitous spectral features that are seen in emission in the IR (UIBs) and in absorption in the visible (DIBs). The higher end of the dust-size distribution is thought to be responsible for the continuum emission plateau that is seen in the IR and for the strong absorption seen in the interstellar UV extinction curve. All these spectral signatures are characteristic of cosmic organic materials that are ubiquitous and present in various forms from gas-phase molecules to solid-state grains. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of dust. Recent space observations in the UV (HST) and in the IR (ISO) help place size constraints on the molecular component of carbonaceous IS dust and indicate that small (ie., subnanometer) PAHs cannot contribute significantly to the IS features in the UV and in the IR. Studies of large molecular and nano-sized IS dust analogs formed from PAH precursors have been performed in our laboratory under conditions that simulate diffuse ISM environments (the particles are cold -100 K vibrational energy, isolated in the gas phase and exposed to a high-energy discharge environment in a cold plasma). The species (molecules, molecular fragments, ions, nanoparticles, etc) formed in the pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) plasma source are detected with a high-sensitivity cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS). We will present new experimental results that indicate that nanoparticles are generated in the

  19. Formation and Destruction Processes of Interstellar Dust: From Organic Molecules to carbonaceous Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Biennier, L.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the formation and destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. interstellar dust presents a continuous size distribution from large molecules, radicals and ions to nanometer-sized particles to micron-sized grains. The lower end of the dust size distribution is thought to be responsible for the ubiquitous spectral features that are seen in emission in the IR (UIBs) and in absorption in the visible (DIBs). The higher end of the dust-size distribution is thought to be responsible for the continuum emission plateau that is seen in the IR and for the strong absorption seen in the interstellar UV extinction curve. All these spectral signatures are characteristic of cosmic organic materials that are ubiquitous and present in various forms from gas-phase molecules to solid-state grains. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of dust. Recent space observations in the UV (HST) and in the IR (ISO) help place size constraints on the molecular component of carbonaceous IS dust and indicate that small (ie., subnanometer) PAHs cannot contribute significantly to the IS features in the UV and in the IR. Studies of large molecular and nano-sized IS dust analogs formed from PAH precursors have been performed in our laboratory under conditions that simulate diffuse ISM environments (the particles are cold -100 K vibrational energy, isolated in the gas phase and exposed to a high-energy discharge environment in a cold plasma). The species (molecules, molecular fragments, ions, nanoparticles, etc) formed in the pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) plasma source are detected with a high-sensitivity cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS). We will present new experimental results that indicate that nanoparticles are generated in the

  20. In-tank processes for destruction of organic complexants and removal of selected radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, W.W.; Kupfer, M.J.; McKeon, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    This report establishes the need and technical feasibility for using in-tank pretreatment processes for destruction of organic complexants and removal of {sup 90}Sr, transuranic (TRU) elements, and {sup 99}Tc from double-shell tank (DST) liquid wastes. Neither {sup 90}Sr nor {sup 99}{Tc} have to be removed from any DST solution to obtain vitrified product containing less than the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criteria for Class C commercial low-level waste (LLW). To meet the NRC criterion for Class C LLW, TRU elements must be removed from liquid wastes in three (possibly five) DSTs. No {sup 90}Sr will have to be removed from any solution for the total vitrified waste from both DSTs and single-shell tanks to meet a goal of <7 MCi of radionuclides and a NRC ruling for Hanford Site Incidental Waste. Guidance from ALARA principles and the TWRS Environmental Impact Statement may dictate additional removal of radionuclides from DST supernatant liquids. Scavenging processes involving precipitation of strontium phosphate and/or hydrated iron oxide effectively remove {sup 90}Sr and/or TRU elements from actual DST wastes including complexant concentrate (CC) wastes. Destruction of organic complexants is not required for these scavenging processes to reduce the {sup 90}Sr and/or TRU element concentrations of DST waste solutions to or below the NRC criteria for Class C commercial LLW. However, substantially smaller amounts of scavenging agents would be required for removal of {sup 90}Sr and TRU elements from CC waste if organic complexants were destroyed. Low concentrations of added Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} are desirable to minimize the volume of HLW glass.

  1. Supercritical water oxidation of tannery sludge: stabilization of chromium and destruction of organics.

    PubMed

    Zou, Daoan; Chi, Yong; Dong, Jun; Fu, Chao; Wang, Fei; Ni, Mingjiang

    2013-10-01

    The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of industrial tannery sludge was investigated to understand the simultaneous destruction of organic pollutants and recovery of high content chromium. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor at temperatures of 350-500 °C, reaction time of 150-300 s and different oxygen ratios, to exhibit the effect of operation conditions. Results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased with higher temperature, larger oxidant amount and reaction time; a maximum value of 96% was obtained. Meanwhile, destruction yield was much higher under supercritical conditions than that in subcritical water. In addition, removal efficiency of Cr from sludge reached more than 98% under all conditions; higher temperature played a positive role. Further, leaching toxicity tests of heavy metals in solid products were conducted based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. All heavy metals except nickel showed a greatly reduced leaching toxicity through their stabilization. The chromium oxide recovered in ash was amorphous below 550 °C, so that the structure of Cr could not be identified by X-ray diffraction pattern. Special attention should be paid on nickel as its leaching toxicity increased due to the corrosion of reactor surface under severe reaction conditions.

  2. PROCESSING ALTERNATIVES FOR DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-02-27

    Two processes were chosen in the 1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to decontaminate the soluble High Level Waste (HLW). The In Tank Precipitation (ITP) process (1,2) was developed at SRS for the removal of radioactive cesium and actinides from the soluble HLW. Sodium tetraphenylborate was added to the waste to precipitate cesium and monosodium titanate (MST) was added to adsorb actinides, primarily uranium and plutonium. Two products of this process were a low activity waste stream and a concentrated organic stream containing cesium tetraphenylborate and actinides adsorbed on monosodium titanate (MST). A copper catalyzed acid hydrolysis process was built to process (3, 4) the Tank 48H cesium tetraphenylborate waste in the SRS's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Operation of the DWPF would have resulted in the production of benzene for incineration in SRS's Consolidated Incineration Facility. This process was abandoned together with the ITP process in 1998 due to high benzene in ITP caused by decomposition of excess sodium tetraphenylborate. Processing in ITP resulted in the production of approximately 1.0 million liters of HLW. SRS has chosen a solvent extraction process combined with adsorption of the actinides to decontaminate the soluble HLW stream (5). However, the waste in Tank 48H is incompatible with existing waste processing facilities. As a result, a processing facility is needed to disposition the HLW in Tank 48H. This paper will describe the process for searching for processing options by SRS task teams for the disposition of the waste in Tank 48H. In addition, attempts to develop a caustic hydrolysis process for in tank destruction of tetraphenylborate will be presented. Lastly, the development of both a caustic and acidic copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation process will be discussed.

  3. Chimera states in a network-organized public goods game with destructive agents.

    PubMed

    Kouvaris, Nikos E; Requejo, Rubén J; Hizanidis, Johanne; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2016-12-01

    We found that a network-organized metapopulation of cooperators, defectors, and destructive agents playing the public goods game with mutations can collectively reach global synchronization or chimera states. Global synchronization is accompanied by a collective periodic burst of cooperation, whereas chimera states reflect the tendency of the networked metapopulation to be fragmented in clusters of synchronous and incoherent bursts of cooperation. Numerical simulations have shown that the system's dynamics switches between these two steady states through a first order transition. Depending on the parameters determining the dynamical and topological properties, chimera states with different numbers of coherent and incoherent clusters are observed. Our results present the first systematic study of chimera states and their characterization in the context of evolutionary game theory. This provides a valuable insight into the details of their occurrence, extending the relevance of such states to natural and social systems.

  4. Chimera states in a network-organized public goods game with destructive agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Nikos E.; Requejo, Rubén J.; Hizanidis, Johanne; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2016-12-01

    We found that a network-organized metapopulation of cooperators, defectors, and destructive agents playing the public goods game with mutations can collectively reach global synchronization or chimera states. Global synchronization is accompanied by a collective periodic burst of cooperation, whereas chimera states reflect the tendency of the networked metapopulation to be fragmented in clusters of synchronous and incoherent bursts of cooperation. Numerical simulations have shown that the system's dynamics switches between these two steady states through a first order transition. Depending on the parameters determining the dynamical and topological properties, chimera states with different numbers of coherent and incoherent clusters are observed. Our results present the first systematic study of chimera states and their characterization in the context of evolutionary game theory. This provides a valuable insight into the details of their occurrence, extending the relevance of such states to natural and social systems.

  5. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Musgrave, B.C.; Drake, R.N.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX{sup SM}, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis.

  6. Destruction of nuclear organic waste by supercritical water oxidation. Scale-up of the process

    SciTech Connect

    Moussiere, S.; Roubaud, A.; Fournel, B.

    2007-07-01

    In order to design and then define appropriate dimensions for a supercritical oxidation reactor, a 2D and 3D simulation of the fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the oxidation process has been performed. The solver used is a commercial code, Fluent 6.2. The turbulent flow field in the reactor, created by the stirrer is taken into account with a k-omega model and a swirl imposed to the fluid. In the 3D case the rotation of the stirrer can be modeled thanks to the sliding mesh model. The reactivity of the system is taken into account with a classical combustion model EDC. Comparisons with experimental temperature measurements validate the ability of the CFD modeling to simulate the supercritical water oxidation process. Simulation results provide us a view inside the reactor on the flow, temperature fields and the oxidation localization and development. Results indicate that the flow can be considered as piston-like, heat transfers are strongly enhanced by the stirring. Hence the scaling up of the reactor volume, to reach a treatment capacity of 1 Kg/h of pure organics, can be done regarding the necessary residence times and temperature distribution needed for a complete destruction of the organic matter. (authors)

  7. High-temperature photochemical destruction of toxic organic wastes using concentrated solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dellinger, B.; Graham, J.L.; Berman, J.M.; Taylor, P.H.

    1994-05-01

    Application of concentrated solar energy has been proposed to be a viable waste disposal option. Specifically, this concept of solar induced high-temperature photochemistry is based on the synergistic contribution of concentrated infrared (IR) radiation, which acts as an intense heating source, and near ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) radiation, which can induce destructive photochemical processes. Some significant advances have been made in the theoretical framework of high-temperature photochemical processes (Section 2) and development of experimental techniques for their study (Section 3). Basic thermal/photolytic studies have addressed the effect of temperature on the photochemical destruction of pure compounds (Section 4). Detailed studies of the destruction of reaction by-products have been conducted on selected waste molecules (Section 5). Some very limited results are available on the destruction of mixtures (Section 6). Fundamental spectroscopic studies have been recently initiated (Section 7). The results to date have been used to conduct some relatively simple scale-up studies of the solar detoxification process. More recent work has focused on destruction of compounds that do not directly absorb solar radiation. Research efforts have focused on homogeneous as well as heterogeneous methods of initiating destructive reaction pathways (Section 9). Although many conclusions at this point must be considered tentative due to lack of basic research, a clearer picture of the overall process is emerging (Section 10). However, much research remains to be performed and most follow several veins, including photochemical, spectroscopic, combustion kinetic, and engineering scale-up (Section 11).

  8. Death within 48 h--adverse events after general surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Russell; Scollay, John M; Hecht, Garry; McPhillips, Gillian; Thompson, Alastair M

    2012-02-01

    Comorbidity and emergency intervention are established risk factors for post-operative mortality. This study sought to identify adverse events associated with death within 48 h of general surgical procedures. All general surgical patients who died within 48 h of operative intervention from 2002-2006 in Scotland underwent retrospective peer review using established Scottish Audit of Surgical Mortality (SASM) methodologies (www.SASM.org). During the 5 years, 1299 patients died within 48 h of surgery, 1134 (87.3%) admitted as an emergency, with a mean age of 71 years; 898 patients (69.1%) were ASA grade 3, 4 or 5; 727 (56.0%) patients had cardiovascular, 398 (30.6%) respiratory and 191 (14.7%) renal comorbidity. Over time exploratory laparotomy (443, 34.1%) was carried out less often (p = 0.004) prior to death due to cardiovascular disease (435, 33.5%), mesenteric ischaemia (264, 20.3%) or multi-organ failure (255, 19.6%). The decision to operate by consultant surgeons rose significantly (p < 0.001). Adverse events were identified in 721 of the 1299 cases; concerns about inappropriate operations (p = 0.018) and poor pre-operative assessment (p = 0.012) decreased significantly. Patients dying within 48 h of surgery are usually elderly, emergency admissions with significant comorbidities who die of cardiovascular events. Timely, appropriate surgery and high quality peri-operative care delivered by consultant staff may prevent early post-operative mortality. Copyright © 2011 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 48H WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.; Young, Joan K.; Berkowitz, Joan B.; Devine, John C.; Sutter, Herbert G.

    2008-10-25

    ABSTRACT One of U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) primary missions at Savannah River Site (SRS) is to retrieve and treat the high level waste (HLW) remaining in SRS tanks and close the F&H tank farms. At present, a significant impediment to timely completion of this mission is the presence of significant organic chemical contamination in Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a 1.3 million gallon tank with full secondary containment, located and interconnected within the SRS tank system. However, the tank has been isolated from the system and unavailable for use since 1983, because its contents – approximately 250,000 gallons of salt solution containing Cs-137 and other radioisotopes – are contaminated with nearly 22,000 Kg of tetraphenylborate, a material which can release benzene vapor to the tank head space in potentially flammable concentrations. An important element of the DOE SRS mission is to remove, process, and dispose of the contents of Tank 48H, both to eliminate the hazard it presents to the SRS H-Tank Farm and to return Tank 48H to service. Tank 48H must be returned to service to support operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility, to free up HLW tank space, and to allow orderly tank closures per Federal Facility Agreement commitments. The Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), the SRS prime contractor, has evaluated alternatives and selected two processes, Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) and Fluidized Steam Bed Reforming (FBSR) as candidates for Tank 48H processing. Over the past year, WSRC has been testing and evaluating these two processes, and DOE is nearing a final technology selection in late 2007. In parallel with WSRC’s ongoing work, DOE convened a team of independent qualified experts to conduct a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA). The purpose of the TRA was to determine the maturity level of the Tank 48H treatment technology candidates – WAO and FBSR. The methodology used for this TRA is based on detailed guidance for conducting TRAs contained in

  10. Alumina-supported noble metal catalysts for destructive oxidation of organic pollutants in effluent from a softwood kraft pulp mill

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Chuang, K.T.

    1998-08-01

    The effectiveness of alumina-supported noble metal catalysts for the destructive oxidation of organic pollutants in effluent from a softwood kraft pulp mill was evaluated in a slurry reactor at 463 K and an oxygen pressure of 1.5 MPa. The effects of catalyst preparation procedures, such as metal loading, calcination, or reduction treatment on the catalytic activities, were also tested. Alumina-supported palladium catalysts were found to be more effective than supported manganese, iron, or platinum catalysts. The rate of oxidation over Pd/alumina catalyst was significantly higher than that of the uncatalyzed reaction. Adding Ce on the alumina support was found to promote the activity of alumina-supported Pt catalyst but inhibit the activity of alumina-supported Pd catalyst. The reaction mechanisms for the catalytic wet oxidation process and the roles of Ce on catalytic activity for destructive oxidation of organic pollutants in wastewater are discussed.

  11. High-Energy Corona for destruction of volatile organic contaminants in process off-gases

    SciTech Connect

    Virden, J.W.; Heath, W.O.; Goheen, S.C.; Miller, M.C.; Mong, G.M.; Richardson, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    A small (2 scfm) High-Energy Corona (HEC) reactor was developed to produce a non-equilibrium plasma in a concentric-cylinder geometry. A volume-filling plasma was produced in a packed bed, and initial tests have demonstrated the ability to destroy up to 1500 ppM trichloroethylene at a flow rate of 1.4 scfm, with greater than 99% destruction observed. Destruction efficiency is examined as a function of inlet TCE concentration, bed height (residence time) and applied voltage. Hydrochloric acid appears to be the primary chlorinated byproduct, and can be removed by conventional wet or dry scrubbing.

  12. The relationship of total copper 48-h LC50s to Daphnia magna dry weight

    SciTech Connect

    Lazorchak, J.M. ); Waller, W.T. )

    1993-05-01

    A study was conducted with Daphnia magna to determine the effect of neonate weight loss or lack of weight gain on experimentally derived copper 48-h LC50s. Standard unfed tests as well as algal-fed (Selenastrum capricornutum) tests were used to look at weight loss and gain. No significant relationship was found between amount of weight loss and copper LC50s. However, dry weight of unfed and algal-fed control organisms could be used to predict total copper LC50s.

  13. Steam Regeneration of Adsorbents and Photocatalytic Destruction of Organic Compounds (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process. This process involves the use of photoactive catalysts illuminated with UV light to generate highly... heterogeneous photocatalysis. The heterogeneous photocatalytic process involves the use of an n-type semiconductor as the catalyst to oxidize organic...compounds. The primary oxidant responsible for the heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds is the highly reactive hydroxyl radical

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM THE THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF CFCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed rates. (NOTE.- As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international accord...

  15. SITE - EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: LASER INDUCED PHOTO- CHEMICAL OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN LEACHATES AND GROUNDWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology described in this report has been developed under the Emerging Technology Program of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to photochemically oxidize organic compounds in wastewater by applying ultraviolet radiation using an excimer laser. T...

  16. SITE - EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: LASER INDUCED PHOTO- CHEMICAL OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN LEACHATES AND GROUNDWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology described in this report has been developed under the Emerging Technology Program of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to photochemically oxidize organic compounds in wastewater by applying ultraviolet radiation using an excimer laser. T...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM THE THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF CFCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed rates. (NOTE.- As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international accord...

  18. The Study and Development of Metal Oxide Reactive Adsorbents for the Destruction of Toxic Organic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-15

    exposure of personnel and systems to chemical warfare agents and other toxic organic compounds. The research program that was developed built upon earlier...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-04-1-0377 406038 Form Approved OMB NO. 0704...of the exposure of personnel and systems to chemical warfare agents and other toxic organic compounds. The research program that was developed

  19. Meteorites, Organics and Fischer-Tropsch Type Reaction: Production and Destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Natasha M.; Burton, A. S.; Nurth, J. A., III

    2011-01-01

    There has been an ongoing debate about the relative importance about the various chemical reactions that fonned organics in the early solar system. One proposed method that has long been recognized as a potential source of organics is Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis. This process is commonly used in industry to produce fuels (i.e., complex hydrocarbons) by catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Hill and Nuth were the first to publish results of FTT experiments that also included Haber-Bosch (HB) processes (hydrogenation of nitrogen. Their findings included the production of nitrilebearing compounds as well as trace amounts of methyl amine. Previous experience with these reactions revealed that the organic coating deposited on the grains is also an efficient catalyst and that the coating is composed of insoluble organic matter (10M) and could be reminiscent of the organic matrix found in some meteorites. This current set of FTT-styled experiments tracks the evolution of a set of organics, amino acids, in detail.

  20. Combining adsorption with anodic oxidation as an innovative technique for removal and destruction of organics.

    PubMed

    Brown, N W; Roberts, E P L

    2013-01-01

    Coupling of adsorption with electrochemical oxidation is a novel approach to the treatment of aqueous organics that has demonstrated a number of key benefits over the individual application of these processes. This is based on a highly conducting adsorbent material, developed under the trade name Nyex™, that is able to rapidly adsorb the organics and anodically oxidise them within a single treatment unit. Successful scale up of the process (in both continuous and batch operation) has been achieved for the polishing of two separate groundwaters (one containing relatively simple petrol, diesel and their degradation products and the other with a range of more complex organics). Treatment showed that low discharge consents can be achieved, including the removal of more complex and difficult to treat compounds to below the limits of detection. Energy consumption for electrochemical regeneration was relatively low (down to 0.5 kWh/m(3)) suggesting that the process could be a practical alternative approach for effluent polishing.

  1. Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)

  2. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: DESTRUCTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AIR USING ADVANCED ULTRAVIOLET FLASHLAMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet source, a Purus xenon flashlamp. The flashlamps have greater output at 200-250 nm than medium-pressure mercury lamps at the same power and therefore ca...

  3. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY - SIMULTANEOUS DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS AND STABILIZATION OF METALS IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulchem Process reacts the material being treated with elemental sulfur at elevated temperatures in an inert reactor system. Organic hydrocarbons react with the sulfur to form an inert fine solid of carbon and sulfur, hydrogen sulfide gas, and modest amounts of carbon disulfi...

  4. Photocatalytic Destruction of an Organic Dye Using TiO2 and Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kimberly D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a general chemistry experiment that is carried out in sunlight to illustrate the ability of TiO2 to act as a photocatalyst by mineralizing an organic dye into carbon dioxide. Details about the construction of the reactor system used to perform this experiment are included. (DDR)

  5. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY - SIMULTANEOUS DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS AND STABILIZATION OF METALS IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulchem Process reacts the material being treated with elemental sulfur at elevated temperatures in an inert reactor system. Organic hydrocarbons react with the sulfur to form an inert fine solid of carbon and sulfur, hydrogen sulfide gas, and modest amounts of carbon disulfi...

  6. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: DESTRUCTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AIR USING ADVANCED ULTRAVIOLET FLASHLAMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet source, a Purus xenon flashlamp. The flashlamps have greater output at 200-250 nm than medium-pressure mercury lamps at the same power and therefore ca...

  7. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Walker , D.D.

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  8. Molten salt oxidation: a versatile and promising technology for the destruction of organic-containing wastes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhitong; Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Xiangyang

    2011-08-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO), a robust thermal but non-flame process, has the inherent capability of destroying organic constituents in wastes, while retaining inorganic and radioactive materials in situ. It has been considered as an alternative to incineration and may be a solution to many waste disposal problems. The present review first describes the history and development of MSO, as well as design and engineering details, and then focuses on reaction mechanisms and its potential applications in various wastes, including hazardous wastes, medical wastes, mixed wastes, and energetic materials. Finally, the current status of and prospects for the MSO process and directions for future research are considered.

  9. Organic compound destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for plasma incinerator off-gases using an electrically heated secondary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, C.G.; Babko-Malyi, S.; Battleson, D.M.; Olstad, S.J.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a series pilot-scale plasma incineration tests of simulated mixed wastes at the MSE Technology Applications, Inc. technology development test facility in Butte, MT. One of the objectives of the test series was to assess the ability of an electrically heated afterburner to destroy organic compounds that may be present in the off-gases resulting from plasma incineration of mixed wastes. The anticipated benefit of an electrically heated afterburner was to decrease total off-gas volume by 50% or more, relative to fossil fuel-fired afterburners. For the present test series, feeds of interest to the DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) were processed in a plasma centrifugal furnace while metering selected organic compounds upstream of the electrically heated afterburner. The plasma furnace was equipped with a transferred-mode torch and was operated under oxidizing conditions. Feeds consisted of various mixtures of soil, plastics, portland cement, silicate fines, diesel fuel, and scrap metals. Benzene, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were selected for injection as simulates of organics likely to be present in DOE mixed wastes, and because of their relative rankings on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) thermal stability index. The organic compounds were injected into the off-gas system at a nominal concentration of 2,000 ppmv. The afterburner outlet gas stream was periodically sampled, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the electrically heated afterburner, at operating temperatures of 1,800--1,980 F (982--1,082 C), organic compound destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for benzene, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were found to be > 99.99%.

  10. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  11. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  12. Saliva indices track hypohydration during 48h of fluid restriction or combined fluid and energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Samuel J; Laing, Stewart J; Wilson, Sally; Bilzon, James L J; Walsh, Neil P

    2008-10-01

    To investigate whether unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (UFR) and osmolality (Sosm) track changes in hydration status during 48h of restricted fluid intake (RF) or combined fluid and energy restriction (RF+RE). Following the 48h periods, UFR and Sosm were assessed after acute exercise dehydration and rehydration. Thirteen healthy males completed three trials in a randomised order: control (CON) where participants received their estimated energy (12,154+/-230kJ/d: mean+/-S.E.M) and fluid (3912+/-140ml/d) requirements, RF trial where participants received their energy requirements and 193+/-19ml/d water to drink (total fluid 960+/-15ml/d) and RF+RE where participants received 1214+/-25kJ/d and 962+/-16ml/d. After 48h, participants completed 30min of maximal exercise followed by rehydration (0-2h) and refeeding (2-6h). At 48h body mass loss exceeded 3% on RF and RF+RE. UFR decreased during 48h on RF (510+/-122 to 169+/-37microl/min) and RF+RE (452+/-92 to 265+/-53microl/min) and was lower than CON at 48h (441+/-90microl/min: P<0.05). Sosm increased during 48h on RF (54+/-3 to 73+/-5mOsmol/kg) and RF+RE (52+/-3 to 68+/-5mOsmol/kg) and was greater than CON at 48h (52+/-2mOsmol/kg: P<0.05). Unlike UFR, Sosm identified the additional hypohydration associated with exercise (P<0.05) and returned to within 0h values with rehydration. Sosm, and to a lesser extent UFR, track hydration status during a 48h period of RF or RF+RE and after subsequent exercise and rehydration.

  13. Data and Summaries for Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-Fired Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Table 1 summarizes and explanis the Operating Conditions of the SCR Reactor used in the Benzene-Destruction.Table 2 summarizes and explains the Experimental Design and Test Results.Table 3 summarizes and explains the Estimates for Individual Effects and Cross Effects Obtained from the Linear Regression Models for Destruction of C6H6 and Reduction of NO.Fig. 1 shows the Down-flow SCR reactor system in detail.Fig. 2 shows the graphical summary of the Effect of the inlet C6H6 concentration to the SCR reactor on the destruction of C6H6.Fig.3 shows the summary of Carbon mass balance for C6H6 destruction promoted by the V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Lee , C., Y. Zhao, S. Lu, and W.R. Stevens. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Polutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems. AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 30(3): 2240-2247, (2016).

  14. Development of a New Thermal HF Plasma Reactor for the Destruction of Radioactive Organic Halogen Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bournonville, B.; Meillot, E.; Girold, C.

    2006-07-01

    A newly patented process employing thermal plasma for destruction of radioactive organic halogen liquid wastes is proposed. This studied safe system can destroy a great variety of wastes, even mixed together, using plasma torch as high temperature source. At the exit of the process, only non-toxic products are formed as atmospheric gases, liquid water and halogen sodium salt. The process has been built with the help of thermodynamic and kinetic simulations. A good atomic stoichiometry is necessary for avoiding the formation of solid carbon (soot) or toxic COCl{sub 2}. That why liquid water is added to the waste in the plasma flow. Then, an introduction of air cools and dilutes the formed gases and adds oxidant agent achieving oxidation of explosive H{sub 2} and toxic CO. Due to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid, an efficient wet treatment using soda traps it. Subsequently, the exhaust gases are only composed of Ar, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In the first experimental step, pure organic molecules, mixed or not, without halogen have been destroyed. The experimental results show that all the compounds have been completely destroyed and only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O have been formed without formation of any toxic compound or soot. After these encouraging results, chlorinated compounds as dichloromethane or chloroform have been destroyed by the process. In this case, the results are close to the previous one with an important formation of hydrochloric acid, as expected, which was well trapped by the soda to respect the French norm of rejection. A specific parameter study has been done with dichloromethane for optimising the operating condition to experimentally observe the influence of different parameters of the process as the stoichiometry ratio between waste and water, the air addition flow, the waste flow. The final aim of this study is to develop a clean process for treatment of radioactive organic halogen compounds. A small scale reactor

  15. Analysis of Tank 48H Samples HTF-E-04-049 and HTF-E-04-050

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D

    2004-08-23

    Due to the need for additional HLW storage, successful disposition of the material in Tank 48H and return of the tank to routine service are two critically needed activities. As an initial step in the process, SRNL compositionally characterized the components of the Tank 48H slurry. A nominal Tank 48H Tank 48H slurry sample was collected on August 23, 2004 (HTF-E-04-049 and HTF-E-04-050). The August 23, 2004 sample contained approximately 2 Liters of Tank 48H slurry. This document provides the chemical and radiological properties of a Tank 48H slurry sample. A Technical Task Request defines the required analyses. A Task Plan summarized the analyses required and the methods for completing these analyses. The Tank 48H volume was 239,000 gallons (68.2 inches) at the time of the sampling.

  16. FATE OF FISSILE MATERIAL BOUND TO MONOSODIUM TITANATE DURING COOPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-08-09

    precipitate from solution, while the U remains in solution throughout the remaining processes, including pH adjustment to 1 M free hydroxide. The Ti is likely forming a peroxotitanate material, which can then resorb the leached Pu from solution, but has a low affinity for U. Since Pu was not detected in the SEMEDS studies, it cannot be conclusively determined in what form the Pu returns to the solids; however, the Pu likely resorbed onto the peroxotitanate material. Based on the results of this experiment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommends the following experiments to further examine the fate of fissile material in CCPO processing of Tank 48H: (1) Repeat with full simulant matrix (organic and Cu catalyst present along with simulated radioactive sludge); and (2) Repeat of the above test after selection of final conditions (i.e., pH, temperature) if they differ from conditions tested.

  17. ANALYSIS OF TANK 48H SAMPLE HTF-E-05-021

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F

    2005-10-03

    Due to the need for additional HLW storage, successful disposition of the material in Tank 48H and return of the tank to routine service are two critically needed activities. As an initial step in the process, SRNL compositionally characterized the components of the Tank 48H slurry. Previously, a Tank 48H slurry sample was collected on August 23, 2004 (HTF-E-04-049 and HTF-E-04-050). The August 23, 2004 sample contained approximately 2 Liters of Tank 48H slurry. In December 7, 2004, Tank farm personnel added 3,019 gallons of 50 wt% caustic solution to Tank 48H. On March 6, 2005, about of 4L of slurry was pulled from Tank 48H sample using a new 4.2 L sampler and sent to SRNL. Part of this sample was used for saltstone aggregation studies. The remaining Tank 48H sample was placed in a carboy for future analysis. Small portions of this sample were analyzed and the results are reported in this document. This document provides the chemical and radiological characterization of a Tank 48H slurry sample as defined in the Technical Task Request Plan and task technical and quality assurance plan. At the time of the sampling, the Tank 48H volume was 242,190 gallons (69 inches from the bottom of the tank) and the pumps were ran for 27 hours prior to sampling. The sample was collected within approximately 10 minutes of pump shutdown. A description of the sampler and method is given in Appendix A. This report compares results with those reported elsewhere (WSRC-TR-2004-00514 [HTF-E-04-049 and HTF-E-04-050] analysis), CBU-PIT-2005-00066 [Tank 48 Best Estimate Chemical Characterization as of March 17, 2005] and CBU-PIT-2005-00046 [Tank 48 Radionuclide Characterization to Support Material Disposition]. Since there was addition of 3,019 gallons of 50 wt% caustic solution to Tank 48H after issuing the WSRCTR-2004-00514 characterization report, the data from WSRC-TR-2004-00514 needs to be adjusted by dividing the results by a factor of 1.013. This adjustment is necessary to ensure

  18. Data destruction.

    PubMed

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2005-08-01

    School nurses are caretakers of a vast amount of sensitive student and family health information. In schools, older computer hardware that previously stored education records is recycled for less demanding student and employee functions. Sensitive data must be adequately erased before electronic storage devices are reassigned or are discarded. State and federal laws must be considered when permanently destroying personally identifiable student information. To fulfill their ethical and legal responsibilities, school nurses must be aware of record retention and data destruction policies and procedures for both paper and electronic records.

  19. Do physiological scoring and a novel point of care metabolic screen predict 48-h outcome in admissions from the emergency department resuscitation area?

    PubMed

    Jafar, Anisa J N; Junghans, Cornelia; Kwok, Chun Shing; Hymers, Chrissie; Monk, Kerri J; Gold, Ed; Harris, Tim R

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to compare the performance of a widely used physiological score [Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS)] and a novel metabolic score (derived from a blood gas) in predicting outcome in emergency department patients. We carried out a prospective observational study using a convenience sample of 200 patients presenting to the resuscitation area of an inner-city teaching hospital over 4 months. We looked primarily at whether either score predicted new organ failure at 48 h. Our secondary outcome measures were escalation of care and mortality at 48 h. In univariate analysis, MEWS and the metabolic score predicted 48-h organ failure [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.35, P=0.009, and OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.015-1.56, P<0.001, respectively]. Both MEWS and the metabolic score predicted 48-h death (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.02-1.71, P=0.03, and OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.18-2.06, P=0.002, respectively) in univariate analysis. Neither predicted 48-h escalation of care. The metabolic score remained statistically significant at predicting organ failure or death after controlling for MEWS parameters (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62, P=0.001, and OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.13-2.69, P=0.01, respectively). In contrast, MEWS was no longer associated with these outcomes; however, our study has small participant numbers. This pilot data suggest that a blood gas-derived metabolic score on emergency department arrival may be superior to MEWS at predicting organ failure and death at 48 h.

  20. 48-h glucose infusion in humans: effect on hormonal responses, hunger and food intake.

    PubMed

    Teff, Karen L; Petrova, Maja; Havel, Peter J; Townsend, Raymond R

    2007-04-23

    Experimentally-induced hyperglycemia by prolonged glucose infusion allows investigation of the effects of sustained stimulation of the pancreatic beta-cell on insulin secretion and sensitivity. Hormonal responses to a meal following prolonged glucose infusions have not been investigated. To determine if a 48-h glucose infusion alters hormonal responses to a test meal as well as food intake and hunger in normal weight individuals, 16 subjects (8 men, 8 women, age 18-30 years, mean BMI=21.7+/-1.6 kg/m2) were infused for 48 h with either saline (50 ml/h) or 15% glucose (200 mg/m2/min). Subjects ingested a 600 kcal mixed nutrient meal 3 h after infusion termination. Blood samples were taken during the 48 h and for 4 h following food ingestion. The 48-h glucose infusion elicited a metabolic profile of a glucose intolerant obese subjects, with increased plasma glucose, insulin and leptin (all P<0.01) and increased HOMA-IR (P<0.001). During meal ingestion, early insulin secretion was increased (P<0.05) but post-prandial glucose (P<0.01) and insulin (P<0.01) excursions were lower following the glucose infusion. Post-prandial plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased after glucose compared with saline. Food intake and hunger ratings were not different between the two conditions. Plasma leptin levels were inversely correlated with hunger (P<0.03) in both conditions and with food intake (P<0.003) during the glucose condition only. Thus, a 48-h glucose infusion does not impair post-prandial hormonal responses, alter food intake or hunger in normal weight subjects. The glucose-induced increases in plasma leptin result in a stronger inverse relationship between plasma leptin and hunger as well as food intake. These data are the first to demonstrate a relationship between leptin and hunger in normal weight, non-calorically restricted human subjects.

  1. Flameless thermal destruction of VOCs

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, H.M.

    1997-04-01

    A new technology controls volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions with high destruction efficiencies. This article describes the technology developed by Thermatrix, Inc. of San Jose, CA. The field proven flameless thermal oxidation (FTO) is capable of destroying over 99.99 percent of a wide range of organic air pollution. Topics covered include FTO technology, high destruction efficiencies, VOCs in wastewater from chemical manufacturing; refinery fugitive emissions.

  2. Endurance running performance after 48 h of restricted fluid and/or energy intake.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Samuel J; Laing, Stewart J; Wilson, Sally; Bilzon, James L J; Walsh, Neil

    2007-02-01

    To determine the effect of a 48-h period of either fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER), or fluid and energy restriction (F + ER) on 30-min treadmill time trial (TT) performance in temperate conditions. Thirteen males participated in four randomized 48-h trials (mean +/- SD: age, 21 +/- 3 yr; VO2max 50.9 +/- 4.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Control (CON) participants received their estimated energy (2903 +/- 199 kcal x d(-1)) and water (3912 +/- 500 mL x d(-1)) requirements. For FR, participants received their energy requirements and 193 +/- 50 mL x d(-1) water to drink, and for ER, participants received their water requirements and 290 +/- 20 kcal x d(-1). F + ER was a combination of FR and ER. After 48 h, participants performed a 30-min treadmill TT in temperate conditions (19.7 +/- 0.6 degrees C). A separate investigation (N = 10) showed the TT to be highly reproducible (CV 1.6%). Body mass loss (BML) was 0.6 +/- 0.4% (CON), 3.2 +/- 0.5% (FR), 3.4 +/- 0.3% (ER), and 3.6 +/- 0.3% (F + ER). Compared with CON (6295 +/- 513 m), less distance was completed on ER (10.3%) and F + ER (15.0%: P < 0.01). Although less distance was completed on FR (2.8%), this was not significantly different from CON. These results show a detrimental effect of a 48-h period of ER but no significant effect of FR on 30-min treadmill TT performance in temperate conditions. Therefore, these results do not support the popular contention that modest hypohydration (2-3% BML) significantly impairs endurance performance in temperate conditions.

  3. Persistent digital hyperthermia over a 48 h period does not induce laminitis in horses.

    PubMed

    de Laat, Melody A; Pollitt, Christopher C; Walsh, Donald M; McGowan, Catherine M; Sillence, Martin N

    2012-06-01

    Persistent digital hyperthermia, presumably due to vasodilation, occurs during the developmental and acute stages of insulin-induced laminitis. The objectives of this study were to determine if persistent digital hyperthermia is the principal pathogenic mechanism responsible for the development of laminitis. The potent vasodilator, ATP-MgCl(2) was infused continuously into the distal phalanx of the left forefoot of six Standardbred racehorses for 48 h via intra-osseous infusion to promote persistent digital hyperthermia. The right forefoot was infused with saline solution and acted as an internal control. Clinical signs of lameness at the walk were not detected at 0 h, 24h or 48 h post-infusion. Mean ± SE hoof wall temperatures of the left forefoot (29.4 ± 0.25°C) were higher (P<0.05) than those on the right (27.5 ± 0.38°C). Serum insulin (15.0 ± 2.89 μIU/mL) and blood glucose (5.4 ± 0.22 mM) concentrations remained unchanged during the experiment. Histopathological evidence of laminitis was not detected in any horse. The results demonstrated that digital vasodilation up to 30°C for a period of 48 h does not trigger laminitis in the absence of hyperinsulinaemia. Thus, although digital hyperthermia may play a role in the pathogenesis of laminitis, it is not the sole mechanism involved.

  4. Sample Results From Tank 48H Samples HTF-48-14-158, -159, -169, and -170

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Hang, T.

    2015-04-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 48H in support of determining the cause for the unusually high dose rates at the sampling points for this tank. A set of two samples was taken from the quiescent tank, and two additional samples were taken after the contents of the tank were mixed. The results of the analyses of all the samples show that the contents of the tank have changed very little since the analysis of the previous sample in 2012. The solids are almost exclusively composed of tetraphenylborate (TPB) salts, and there is no indication of acceleration in the TPB decomposition. The filtrate composition shows a moderate increase in salt concentration and density, which is attributable to the addition of NaOH for the purposes of corrosion control. An older modeling simulation of the TPB degradation was updated, and the supernate results from a 2012 sample were run in the model. This result was compared to the results from the 2014 recent sample results reported in this document. The model indicates there is no change in the TPB degradation from 2012 to 2014. SRNL measured the buoyancy of the TPB solids in Tank 48H simulant solutions. It was determined that a solution of density 1.279 g/mL (~6.5M sodium) was capable of indefinitely suspending the TPB solids evenly throughout the solution. A solution of density 1.296 g/mL (~7M sodium) caused a significant fraction of the solids to float on the solution surface. As the experiments could not include the effect of additional buoyancy elements such as benzene or hydrogen generation, the buoyancy measurements provide an upper bound estimate of the density in Tank 48H required to float the solids.

  5. Comparison of various organic compounds destruction on rare earths doped Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yu-Hong; Feng, Yu-Jie; Liu, Junfeng; Ren, Nanqi

    2012-11-15

    Ti/Sb-SnO2 and three kinds of rare earths (REs), namely Ce, Gd, and Eu doped Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrodes were prepared and tested for their capacity on electrocatalytic degradation of three kinds of basal aromatic compounds (benzoquinone, hydroquinone and catechol) and six kinds of aliphatic acids (maleic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and acetic acid). The elimination of selected organics as well as their TOC removal with different doped Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrodes was described by first-order kinetics. Compared with Ti/Sb-SnO2, the Gd and Eu doped electrodes show better performance on the degradation of most of the selected organics, while Ce doped electrode shows either closely or lower efficiency on the degradation of these selected organics. Besides electrode material, the molecular structure of organic compound has obvious effect on its degradation in the electrocatalytic process. Catechol is more resistant to the electrophilic attack by hydroxyl radicals than benzoquinone and hydroquinone. The compound with more complicate molecular structure or longer carbon chain is more difficult to be mineralized. The aliphatic acid with higher oxygen content or more double bonds is more readily to be oxidized in the electrocatalytic process.

  6. [Indices of tissue necrosis markers in acute pyo-destructive diseases of organs of the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Ostrovskiĭ, V K; Makarov, S V; Rodionov, P N; Kochetkov, L N

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of indices of lactate dehydrogenase (LDG) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in a group of patients with extensive necrotic alterations in organs of the abdominal cavity and in a group of patients without extensive necroses has shown that in the first group there were higher levels of LDG and CPK. It shows that the LDG and CPK indices may be used as markers of tissue necrosis of the abdominal organs. In addition, in patients who died against the background of growing polyorganic insufficiency the LDG and CPK level by the end of treatment was statistically reliably higher than on admission of the same patients that may be an indicator of growing phenomena of dystrophy and micronecroses in vitals, so the indices of LDG and CPK may show the degree of severity of polyorganic insufficiency and determine its prognosis.

  7. Fluorine-doped carbon nanotubes as an efficient metal-free catalyst for destruction of organic pollutants in catalytic ozonation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Hongtao

    2017-09-27

    Metal-free carbon materials have been presented to be potential alternatives to metal-based catalysts for heterogeneous catalytic ozonation, yet the catalytic performance still needs to be enhanced. Doping carbon with non-metallic heteroatoms (e.g., N, B, and F) could alter the electronic structure and electrochemical properties of original carbon materials, has been considered to be an effective method for improving the catalytic activity of carbon materials. Herein, fluorine-doped carbon nanotubes (F-CNTs) were synthesized via a facile method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The as-synthesized F-CNTs exhibited notably enhanced catalytic activity towards catalytic ozonation for the degradation of organic pollutants. The oxalic acid removal efficiency of optimized F-CNTs was approximately two times as much as that of pristine CNTs, and even exceeded those of four conventional metal-based catalysts (ZnO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and MnO2). The XPS and Raman studies confirmed that the covalent CF bonds were formed at the sp(3) C sites instead of sp(2) C sites on CNTs, not only resulting in high positive charge density of C atoms adjacent to F atoms, but remaining the delocalized π-system with intact carbon structure of F-CNTs, which then favored the conversion of ozone molecules (O3) into reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contributed to the high oxalic acid removal efficiency. Furthermore, electron spin resonance (ESR) studies revealed that superoxide radicals (O2(-)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) might be the dominant ROS that responsible for the degradation of oxalic acid in these catalytic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ANALYSES OF HTF-48-12-20/24 (FEBRUARY, 2012) AND ARCHIVED HTF-E-05-021 TANK 48H SLURRY SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Peters, T.

    2012-08-02

    Personnel characterized a Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) archived sample of Tank 48H slurry (HTF-E-05-021) in addition to the composite of samples HTF-48-12-20 and HTF-48-12-24, which were both retrieved in February 2012. The combined February 2012 sample is referred to as HTF-48-12-20/24 in this report. The results from these analyses are compared with Tank 48H samples analyzed in 2003, 2004, and 2005. This work supports the effort to demonstrate copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) of organic content in this material. The principal findings with respect to the chemical and physical characteristics of the most recent sample are: (1) The measured potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) solid concentration is 1.76 wt %; (2) Titanium was in line with 2004 and 2005 slurry measurements at 897 mg/L, it represents 0.1535 {+-} 0.0012 wt % monosodium titanate (MST); (3) The measured insoluble solids content was 1.467 wt %; (4) The free hydroxide concentration in the Tank 48H filtrate sample (1.02 {+-} 0.02 M) is close to the Tank 48H limit (1.0 M); (5) Carbonate reported by total inorganic carbon (TIC, 1.39 {+-} 0.03 M) is more than double the concentrations measured in past (2003-2005) samples; (6) The soluble potassium content (measured at 286 {+-} 23 mg/L) in the filtrate is in line with all past measurements; and (7) The measured {sup 137}Cs concentration is 7.81E + 08 {+-} 3.9E + 07 dpm/mL of slurry (1.33 {+-} 5% Ci/gallon or 3.18E + 05 {+-} 5% curies of {sup 137}Cs in the tank) in the slurry which is in agreement with the 2005 report of 3.14E + 05 {+-} 1.5% curies of {sup 137}Cs in the tank. The filtrate {sup 137}Cs concentration is 2.57E + 07 {+-} 2.6E + 05 dpm/mL. This result is consistent with previous results. Significant analytical data are summarized in Table 1.

  9. Streaming current and wall dissolution over 48 h in silica nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Bruus, Henrik; Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Pennathur, Sumita

    2011-08-01

    We present theoretical and experimental studies of the streaming current induced by a pressure-driven flow in long, straight, electrolyte-filled nanochannels. The theoretical work builds on our recent one-dimensional model of electro-osmotic and capillary flow, which self-consistently treats both the ion concentration profiles, via the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and the chemical reactions in the bulk electrolyte and at the solid-liquid interface. We extend this model to two dimensions and validate it against experimental data for electro-osmosis and pressure-driven flows, using eight 1-μm-wide nanochannels of heights varying from 40 nm to 2000 nm. We furthermore vary the electrolyte composition using KCl and borate salts, and the wall coating using 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane. We find good agreement between prediction and experiment using literature values for all parameters of the model, i.e., chemical reaction constants and Stern-layer capacitances. Finally, by combining model predictions with measurements over 48 h of the streaming currents, we develop a method to estimate the dissolution rate of the silica walls, typically around 0.01 mg/m(2)/h, equal to 45 pm/h or 40 nm/yr, under controlled experimental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-power laser irradiation fails to improve liver regeneration in elderly rats at 48 h after 70 % resection.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Tiago G; Oliveira, Alexandre G; Tobar, Natália; Moreira, Luciana R; Reis, Edmyr R; Nicola, Ester M D; de L Jorge, Gracinda; dos R Tártaro, Rodolfo; Boin, Ilka F S F; Saad, Mário J Abdalla; Teixeira, Antonio R Franchi

    2015-09-01

    The liver regeneration is an important clinical issue after major hepatectomies. Unfortunately, many organs (including the liver) exhibit age-related impairments regarding their regenerative capacity. Recent studies found that low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has a stimulatory effect on the liver regeneration process. However, its effects in elderly remain unknown. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the main molecular mechanisms involved in liver regeneration of partially hepatectomized elderly rats exposed to LPLI. The effects of 15 min of LPLI (wavelength of 632.8 nm; fluence of 0.97 J/cm(2); total energy delivered of 3.6 J) were evaluated in hepatectomized elderly Wistar male rats. Afterwards, through immunoblotting approaches, the protein expression and phosphorylation levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), Met, Akt and Erk 1/2 signaling pathways as well as the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were investigated. It was observed that LPLI was not able to improve liver regeneration in elderly rats as evidenced by the lack of improvement of HGF and PCNA protein expression or phosphorylation levels of Met, Akt and Erk 1/2 in the remnant livers. In sum, this study demonstrated that the main molecular pathway, i.e. HGF/Met → Akt and Erk 1/2 → PCNA, involved in the hepatic regeneration process was not improved by LPLI in elderly hepatectomized rats, which in turn rules out LPLI as an adjuvant therapy, as observed in this protocol of liver regeneration evaluation (i.e. at 48 h after 70 % resection), in elderly.

  11. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  12. The role of HCG increment in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment as a predictor for treatment success.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aviad; Almog, Benny; Cohen, Yoni; Bibi, Guy; Rimon, Eli; Levin, Ishai

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the role HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment as a predictor for treatment success. Medical records of all women who were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy between January 2001 and June 2013 were reviewed. Four hundred and nine patients received methotrexate due to ectopic pregnancy. The "single dose" methotrexate protocol with 50mg/m(2) was administered to patients with progressing ectopic pregnancy. HCG levels in days 1, 4 and 7 were used to evaluate methotrexate treatment success. The percentage of HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment was compared between patients who were successfully treated and those who failed treatment with methotrexate. Single dose methotrexate was successful in 309 patients (75.4%, success group). The medians of HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate administration were significantly higher in the "failure group" (21% vs. 4%, p<0.01). In a logistic regression analysis, the of HCG percent increment prior to methotrexate administration was shown to be an independent predictor for treatment outcome. Receiver operator characteristic curve for HCG percent change was 0.751, at a cutoff value of HCG increment <12% the positive predictive value for treatment success reached 86%. Percentage of HCG increment in the 48h prior to methotrexate administration is an independent predictor for methotrexate treatment success. HCG increment <12% prior to methotrexate treatment is a good predictor for treatment success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Azotemia (48 h) decreases the risk of brain damage in rats after correction of chronic hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Soupart, A; Penninckx, R; Stenuit, A; Decaux, G

    2000-01-03

    /24 in pooled controls 1 and 2, p < 0.001). In conclusion, we showed for the first time that chronic hyponatremic rats with azotemia (48 h) tolerated large increases in SNa (approximately 30 mEq/l/24 h) without significant brain damage.

  14. THE SITE OF ANGIOTONIN DESTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Sapirstein, Leo A.; Reed, Racheal K.; Page, Ernest W.

    1946-01-01

    1. Theoretical considerations render it unlikely that the greatest part of the angiotonase found in the organism is available for the destruction of angiotonia. A priori considerations support the view that only plasma angiotonase is involved in angiotonin destruction in vivo. 2. We have utilized the magnitude and duration of the presser response to angiotonin as an index of available angiotonase, and we have found that: (a) Nephrectomy and evisceration are without marked effect on angiotonin response. (b) Hemorrhage and hemodilution without shock cause a striking increase in the response to angiotonin and this appears to be due to removal of the plasma rather than the cells. Shock developing after hemorrhage results in a state of refractoriness to angiotonin. (c) Intact red cells in vitro have no destructive action on angiotonin, but after hemolysis they have several hundred times the activity of plasma, (d) Intravascular hemolysis, whether produced in vitro or in vivo, decreases the response to angiotonin to a degree which is consistent with the hypothesis that the normal animal destroys angiotonin entirely in its plasma. The active principle in hemolyzed blood is destroyed by heating to 65–70°C. for 15 minutes. 3. These findings support the hypothesis that all or at least the greatest part of angiotonin destruction under physiological circumstances occurs in the plasma, and the significance of this hypothesis is discussed. PMID:19871540

  15. Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dzieżyc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Wilson's disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (<50 μg/dl). The aim of this study was to establish the usefulness of this method as a compliance assessment in these patients. We examined consecutive patients treated with d-penicillamine (DPA) undergoing routine follow-up studies at our center. We performed 24-h urinary copper excretion analysis 48 h after interruption of chelating therapy. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. After DPA cessation, normalization of copper excretion was observed in 91% of reportedly compliant patients. The specificity and sensitivity values of this test were 87% and 77%, respectively. Measurement of 24-h urinary copper excretion after a 48-h interruption of DPA therapy in patients with WD is a reliable method for confirming patients' compliance.

  16. Efficiency of inductively torch plasma operating at atmospheric pressure on destruction of chlorinated liquid wastes- A path to the treatment of radioactive organic halogen liquid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamgang-Youbi, G.; Poizot, K.; Lemont, F.

    2012-12-01

    The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ~4 kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl3 feed rates up to 400 g·h-1 with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g·kWh-1. The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO2, HCl and H2O) and redox titration (Cl2). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (< 1 g·h-1) even with high waste feed rates. The experimental results were very close to the equilibrium composition predicted by thermodynamic calculations. At the bottom of the reactor, the chlorinated acids were successfully trapped in a scrubber and transformed into mineral salts, hence, only CO2 and H2O have been found in the final off-gases composition.

  17. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1991-08-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag{sup 2+} or Ce{sup +4} are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  18. The impact of a 48-h fast on SIRT1 and GCN5 in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Edgett, Brittany A; Scribbans, Trisha D; Raleigh, James P; Matusiak, Jennifer B L; Boonstra, Kristen; Simpson, Craig A; Perry, Christopher G R; Quadrilatero, Joe; Gurd, Brendon J

    2016-09-01

    The present study examined the impact of a 48 h fast on the expression and activation status of SIRT1 and GCN5, the relationship between SIRT1/GCN5 and the gene expression of PGC-1α, and the PGC-1α target PDK4 in the skeletal muscle of 10 lean healthy men (age, 22.0 ± 1.5 years; peak oxygen uptake, 47.2 ± 6.7 mL/(min·kg)). Muscle biopsies and blood samples were collected 1 h postprandial (Fed) and following 48 h of fasting (Fasted). Plasma insulin (Fed, 80.8 ± 47.9 pmol/L; Fasted, not detected) and glucose (Fed, 4.36 ± 0.86; Fasted, 3.74 ± 0.25 mmol/L, p = 0.08) decreased, confirming participant adherence to fasting. Gene expression of PGC-1α decreased (p < 0.05, -24%), while SIRT1 and PDK4 increased (p < 0.05, +11% and +1023%, respectively), and GCN5 remained unchanged. No changes were observed for whole-muscle protein expression of SIRT1, GCN5, PGC-1α, or COX IV. Phosphorylation of SIRT1, AMPKα, ACC, p38 MAPK, and PKA substrates as well as nuclear acetylation status was also unaltered. Additionally, nuclear SIRT1 activity, GCN5, and PGC-1α content remained unchanged. Preliminary findings derived from regression analysis demonstrate that changes in nuclear GCN5 and SIRT1 activity/phosphorylation may contribute to the control of PGC-1α, but not PDK4, messenger RNA expression following fasting. Collectively, and in contrast with previous animal studies, our data are inconsistent with the altered activation status of SIRT1 and GCN5 in response to 48 h of fasting in human skeletal muscle.

  19. Enhancing Biopolymer Dynamics through Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    Microtubules are cytoskeletal filaments that organize intracellular space structurally and through active transport along their lengths. They need to be organized and remodeled quickly during development of differentiated cells or in mitosis. Much work has focused on remodeling from the ends because these long polymers can stochastically disassemble through dynamic instability or be actively disassembled. Microtubule-severing enzymes are a novel class of microtubule regulators that create new ends by cutting the filament. Thus, these proteins add a new dimension to microtubule regulation by their ability to create new microtubule ends. Interestingly, despite their destructive capabilities, severing has the ability to create new microtubule networks in cells. We are interested in the inherent biophysical activities of these proteins and their ability to remodel cellular microtubule networks. Interestingly, despite their destructive capabilities, severing has the ability to create new microtubule networks in cells. We use two-color single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence imaging to visualize purified severing enzymes and microtubules in vitro. We have examined two families of severing enzymes to find that their biophysical activities are distinct giving them different network-regulating abilities.

  20. Caffeine and modafinil promote adult neuronal cell proliferation during 48 h of total sleep deprivation in rat dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Surajit; Kauser, Hina; Ray, Koushik; Kishore, Krishna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panjwani, Usha

    2013-10-01

    It has been established that sleep deprivation (SD) reduces the proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult hippocampus. It has also been reported that psychostimulant drugs modulate adult neurogenesis. We examined the modulatory role of two psychostimulant drugs modafinil and caffeine on adult neuronal cell proliferation (NCP) during 48 h of total SD. A novel automated cage shaking stimulus was used to induce SD based on animal activity. 5-Bromo-2″-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 50mg/kg/day i.p.) was injected at the onset of the light phase for two days. Rats were successfully sleep deprived for 85-94% of total time. Stereological analysis showed that both caffeine and modafinil treatments during SD improved the number of BrdU positive cells as compared to the SD group. Caffeine treatment during SD, significantly increased early proliferative and post-mitotic stages of doublecortin (DCX) positive cells while modafinil treatment during SD, increased intermediate and post-mitotic stages of DCX positive cells compared to SD+Vehicle group. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) expression on BrdU positive cells as well as in the dentate gyrus (DG) region was decreased significantly after sleep deprivation. Both caffeine and modafinil significantly improved BDNF expression in the DG region. Modafinil, but not caffeine, significantly decreased hippocampal adenosine level during SD in comparison to the SD+Vehicle group. It may be concluded that caffeine or modafinil treatment during 48 h of SD prevents the SD induced decline in neuronal proliferation and differentiation. Caffeine and modafinil induced alterations of NCP during SD may involve modulation of BDNF and adenosine levels.

  1. Prospective audit and feedback in antimicrobial stewardship: is there value in early reviewing within 48 h of antibiotic prescription?

    PubMed

    Liew, Yi Xin; Lee, Winnie; Tay, Daniel; Tang, Sarah Si Lin; Chua, Nathalie Grace Sy; Zhou, Yvonne; Kwa, Andrea Lay-Hoon; Chlebicki, Maciej Piotr

    2015-02-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) methodologies are not well defined, with most preferring to wait ≥72-96 h following antibiotic prescription before reviewing patients. However, we hypothesise that early ASP reviews and interventions are beneficial and do not adversely impact patient safety. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of early ASP interventions within 48 h of antibiotic prescription on patient outcomes and safety. A prospective review of ASP interventions made within 48 h of antibiotic prescription in Singapore General Hospital (SGH) from January to December 2012 was conducted. Patient demographics and outcomes were extracted from the database maintained by the ASP team. For culture-directed treatment, there was a shorter mean duration of therapy (DOT) in the accepted group compared with the rejected group (2.26 days vs. 5.56 days; P<0.001). ASP interventions did not alter the length of hospital stay (LOS), 30-day mortality, 14-day Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), 30-day re-admissions and 14-day re-infection (all P>0.05). For empirical treatment, a shorter DOT (3.61 days vs. 6.25 days; P<0.001) and decreased 30-day all-cause mortality (P=0.003) and infection-related mortality (P=0.002) were observed among patients in the accepted group compared with the rejected group. There was no significant difference in LOS, 14-day CDI and 30-day re-admission (all P>0.05). In conclusion, acceptance of early interventions recommended by ASP in SGH was associated with a reduction in DOT without compromising patient safety. This is evident even during empirical therapy when not all clinical information was available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Refeeding with a high-protein diet after a 48 h fast causes acute hepatocellular injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Oarada, Motoko; Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Nikawa, Takeshi; Kohno, Shohei; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Gonoi, Tohru

    2012-05-01

    Elucidating the effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting on disease development is of interest in relation to excessive protein ingestion and irregular eating habits in developed countries. The objective of the present study was to address the hepatic effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting. Mice were fasted for 48 h and then refed with a test diet containing 3, 15, 35, 40, 45 or 50 % casein. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and liver immediate-early gene expression levels were sequentially measured for the first 24 h after initiation of refeeding. Refeeding with a 50 % casein diet after 48 h of fasting led to a rapid (within 2-3 h) and abnormal elevation in serum ALT (P = 0·006) and AST (P = 0·001) activities and a marked increase in liver Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ) osteosarcoma oncogene (P = 0·007) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (P = 0·002) mRNA levels. In contrast, refeeding of the 3, 15 or 35 % casein diets produced no substantial increases in serum ALT and AST activities in mice. Refeeding of 40, 45 or 50 % casein increased serum ALT and AST activities in proportion to this dietary casein content. In mice refed the 3, 15 or 35, but not 50 %, casein diets, liver heat shock protein 72 transcript levels greatly increased. We conclude from these data that the consumption of a high-protein diet after fasting causes acute hepatocellular injury in healthy animals, and propose that careful attention should be paid to the use of such diets.

  3. Treatments (12 and 48 h) with systemic and brain-selective hypothermia techniques after permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Clark, Darren L; Penner, Mark; Wowk, Shannon; Orellana-Jordan, Ian; Colbourne, Frederick

    2009-12-01

    Mild hypothermia lessens brain injury when initiated after the onset of global or focal ischemia. The present study sought to determine whether cooling to approximately 33 degrees C provides enduring benefit when initiated 1 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO, via electrocautery) in adult rats and whether protection depends upon treatment duration and cooling technique. In the first experiment, systemic cooling was induced in non-anesthetized rats through a whole-body exposure technique that used fans and water mist. In comparison to normothermic controls, 12- and 48-h bouts of hypothermia significantly lessened functional impairment, such as skilled reaching ability, and lesion volume out to a 1-month survival. In the second experiment, brain-selective cooling was induced in awake rats via a water-cooled metal strip implanted underneath the temporalis muscle overlying the ischemic territory. Use of a 48-h cooling treatment significantly mitigated injury and behavioral impairment whereas a 12-h treatment did not. These findings show that while systemic and focal techniques are effective when initiated after the onset of pMCAO, they differ in efficacy depending upon the treatment duration. A direct and uncomplicated comparison between methods is problematic, however, due to unknown gradients in brain temperature and the use of two separate experiments. In summary, prolonged cooling, even when delayed after onset of pMCAO, provides enduring behavioral and histological protection sufficient to suggest that it will be clinically effective. Nonetheless, further pre-clinical work is needed to improve treatment protocols, such as identifying the optimal depth of cooling, and how these factors interact with cooling method.

  4. In vitro alterations in fecal short chain fatty acids and organic anions induced by the destruction of intestinal microflora under hypotonic and aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoshio; Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Itoh, Akihiko; Bamba, Tadao

    2002-06-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. It has been suggested that luminal factors such as the microflora, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), food antigens and so on play important roles in the disease progression. Many reports have revealed alterations in the SCFA and organic acid concentration of the colon, especially increased lactate and decreased butyrate, in IBD patients. The mechanisms responsible for these alterations, however, remain unclear. Therefore, the effects of aerobic conditions on the alterations in the SCFA and organic anion levels in the feces was evaluated. Fecal specimens were collected from 5 healthy volunteers. Under aerobic condition, a mixture of feces and distilled water was incubated in 37 degrees C for 1 and 3 h. The pH, osmotic pressures, the concentrations of potassium, bicarbonate, SCFA and organic anion, and the activities of alpha-amylase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the mixture were then measured. We also examined any changes in the microscopic microflora under the hypotonic and aerobic conditions. The results showed the osmotic pressure, and the concentrations of lactate and SCFAs (formate, acetate, propionate and n-valerate) were progressively increased with longer incubation times, and reached a statistically significant difference. In particular, the ratios of lactate, succinate and n-valerate after 1 and 3 h of incubation increased remarkably. In contrast, the electrolyte levels and both alpha-amylase and LDH activities were not altered significantly. Microscopically, the microflora in the mixture decreased with prolonged incubation times. These data suggest that under these in vitro conditions, the organic anion and SCFA levels in the feces easily increased. It is probable that the alterations in the SCFA and organic anion levels in IBD patients may be partly due to intracellular components derived from microflora destroyed under hypotonic and aerobic conditions in the colonic lumen, for

  5. TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION AND LEACHING OF A THERMOWELL AND CONDUCTIVITY PROBE PIPE SAMPLE FROM TANK 48H

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F

    2005-11-02

    A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. The material on the Tank 48H internal tank surfaces is estimated to have a total volume of approximately 115 gallons consisting of mostly water soluble solids with approximately 20 wt% insoluble solids (33 Kg TPB). This film is assumed to be readily removable. The material on the internal equipment/surfaces of Tank 48H is presumed to be easily removed by slurry pump operation. For Tank 49H, the slurry pumps were operated almost continuously for approximately 6 months after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids--Na{sub 3}H(CO){sub 2}, Al(OH){sub 3}, NaTPB, NaNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 2}. Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. Depending on when the Recycle material or inhibited water can be added to Tank 48H, the tank may not be allowed to agitate for this same amount of time. The tank will be filled above 150 inches and agitated at least once during the Aggregation process. If the material cannot be removed after completion of these batches, the material may be removed with additional fill and agitation operations. There is a risk that this will not remove the material from the internal surfaces. As a risk mitigation activity, properties of the film and the ease of removing the film from the tank will be evaluated prior to initiating Aggregation. This task will investigate the dissolution of Tank 48H solid deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, tank personnel plan to cut and remove a thermowell pipe from Tank 48H and submit the cut pieces to SRNL for both characterization and leaching behavior. A plan for the removal, packaging and transport of the thermowell pipe

  6. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  7. Surgical management for the first 48 h following blunt chest trauma: state of the art (excluding vascular injuries).

    PubMed

    de Lesquen, Henri; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Gust, Lucile; Ford, Robert Michael; Beranger, Fabien; Natale, Claudia; Bonnet, Pierre-Mathieu; D'Journo, Xavier-Benoît

    2015-03-01

    This review aims to answer the most common questions in routine surgical practice during the first 48 h of blunt chest trauma (BCT) management. Two authors identified relevant manuscripts published since January 1994 to January 2014. Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement, they focused on the surgical management of BCT, excluded both child and vascular injuries and selected 80 studies. Tension pneumothorax should be promptly diagnosed and treated by needle decompression closely followed with chest tube insertion (Grade D). All traumatic pneumothoraces are considered for chest tube insertion. However, observation is possible for selected patients with small unilateral pneumothoraces without respiratory disease or need for positive pressure ventilation (Grade C). Symptomatic traumatic haemothoraces or haemothoraces >500 ml should be treated by chest tube insertion (Grade D). Occult pneumothoraces and occult haemothoraces are managed by observation with daily chest X-rays (Grades B and C). Periprocedural antibiotics are used to prevent chest-tube-related infectious complications (Grade B). No sign of life at the initial assessment and cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration >10 min are considered as contraindications of Emergency Department Thoracotomy (Grade C). Damage Control Thoracotomy is performed for either massive air leakage or refractive shock or ongoing bleeding enhanced by chest tube output >1500 ml initially or >200 ml/h for 3 h (Grade D). In the case of haemodynamically stable patients, early video-assisted thoracic surgery is performed for retained haemothoraces (Grade B). Fixation of flail chest can be considered if mechanical ventilation for 48 h is probably required (Grade B). Fixation of sternal fractures is performed for displaced fractures with overlap or comminution, intractable pain or respiratory insufficiency (Grade D). Lung herniation, traumatic diaphragmatic rupture and pericardial rupture are life

  8. ICG angiography predicts burn scarring within 48 h of injury in a porcine vertical progression burn model.

    PubMed

    Fourman, Mitchell S; McKenna, Peter; Phillips, Brett T; Crawford, Laurie; Romanelli, Filippo; Lin, Fubao; McClain, Steve A; Khan, Sami U; Dagum, Alexander B; Singer, Adam J; Clark, Richard A F

    2015-08-01

    The current standard of care in determining the need to excise and graft a burn remains with the burn surgeon, whose clinical judgment is often variable. Prior work suggests that minimally invasive perfusion technologies are useful in burn prognostication. Here we test the predictive capabilities of Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) and indocyanine green dye (ICG) angiography in the prediction of burn scarring 28 days after injury using a previously validated porcine burn model that shows vertical progression injury. Twelve female Yorkshire swine were burned using a 2.5 × 2.5 cm metal bar at variable temperature and application times to create distinct burn depths. Six animals (48 injuries total) each were analyzed with LDI or ICG angiography at 1, 24, 48, and 72 h following injury. A linear regression was then performed correlating perfusion measurements against wound contraction at 28 days after injury. ICG angiography showed a peak linear correlate (r(2)) of .63 (95% CI .34 to .92) at 48 h after burn. This was significantly different from the LDI linear regression (p < .05), which was measured at r(2) of .20 (95% CI .02 to .39). ICG angiography linear regression was superior to LDI at all timepoints. Findings suggest that ICG angiography may have significant potential in the prediction of long-term burn outcomes.

  9. Albumin decrease is associated with spontaneous preterm delivery within 48 h in women with threatened preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Heng, Yujing J; Taylor, Lorne; Larsen, Brett G; Chua, Hon Nian; Pung, Soke May; Lee, Mary W F; Tucholska, Monika; Tate, Stephen; Kupchak, Peter; Pennell, Craig E; Pawson, Tony; Lye, Stephen J

    2015-01-02

    Threatened preterm labor (TPTL) accounts for ∼30% of pregnancy-related hospital admissions. Maternal peripheral leukocytes can be used to monitor a variety of physiological processes occurring in the body. Two high-throughput mass spectrometry methodologies, SWATH and iTRAQ, were used to study differentially expressed peripheral blood leukocyte lysate proteins in symptomatic women admitted for TPTL who had a preterm birth within 48 h (n = 16) and those who did not (n = 24). The SWATH spectral library consisted of 783 proteins. SWATH methodology quantified 258 proteins (using ≥2 peptides) and 5 proteins (ALBU, ANXA6, HNRPK, HSP90A, and PDIA1) were differentially expressed (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U). iTRAQ workflow identified 765 proteins; 354 proteins were quantified and 14 proteins (MIF, UBIQ, HXK3, ALBU, HNRPD, ST1A2, RS15A, RAP1B, CAN1, IQGA2, ST1A1, COX5A, ADDA, and UBQL1) were significantly different between the two groups of women (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U). Albumin was the only common differentially expressed protein in both SWATH (28% decrease) and iTRAQ studies (45% decrease). This decrease in albumin was validated using ELISA (11% decrease, p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U) in another 23 TPTL women. This work suggests that albumin is a broad indicator of leukocyte activation with impending preterm birth and provides new future work directions to understand the pathophysiology of TPTL.

  10. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  11. New composites of nanoparticle Cu (I) oxide and titania in a novel inorganic polymer (geopolymer) matrix for destruction of dyes and hazardous organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Falah, Mahroo; MacKenzie, Kenneth J D; Knibbe, Ruth; Page, Samuel J; Hanna, John V

    2016-11-15

    New photoactive composites to efficiently remove organic dyes from water are reported. These consist of Cu2O/TiO2 nanoparticles in a novel inorganic geopolymer matrix modified by a large tertiary ammonium species (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) whose presence in the matrix is demonstrated by FTIR spectroscopy. The CTAB does not disrupt the tetrahedral geopolymer structural silica and alumina units as demonstrated by (29)Si and (27)Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. SEM/EDS, TEM and BET measurements suggest that the Cu2O/TiO2 nanoparticles are homogenously distributed on the surface and within the geopolymer pores. The mechanism of removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from solution consists of a combination of adsorption (under dark conditions) and photodegradation (under UV radiation). MB adsorption in the dark follows pseudo second-order kinetics and is described by Freundlich-Langmuir type isotherms. The performance of the CTAB-modified geopolymer based composites is superior to composites based on unmodified geopolymer hosts, the most effective composite containing 5wt% Cu2O/TiO2 in a CTAB-modified geopolymer host. These composites constitute a new class of materials with excellent potential in environmental protection applications.

  12. Dust Formation and Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Dmitry

    Recent infrared and sub-millimeter observations have opened up a new window in dust evolution studies. High angular resolution of Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes from near to far-infrared wavelengths allows observing dust emission in galactic and extragalactic star-forming complexes, covering a broad range of metallicities, radiation field properties, etc. A wide-scale picture of dust evolution starts to arise from these observations. In my contribution I will try to cover major recent advances in studies of dust formation and destruction, including such topics as a diverse role of supernovae in dust evolution, possibility of dust formation and/or growth in molecular clouds, and VSG and PAH evolution in HII regions and complexes.

  13. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a fast and non-destructive tool to predict foliar organic constituents of several woody species.

    PubMed

    Petisco, C; García-Criado, B; Mediavilla, S; Vázquez de Aldana, B R; Zabalgogeazcoa, I; García-Ciudad, A

    2006-11-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to estimate N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), lignin and cellulose contents in leaves of a heterogeneous group of 17 woody species from the Central Western region of the Iberian Peninsula. The sample set consisted of 182 samples of leaves of deciduous and evergreen species, showing a wide range of concentrations determined by reference methods: 6.60-35.2 g kg-1 (N), 15.5-66.0% (NDF), 10.2-57.3% (ADF), 3.45-27.4% (lignin) and 5.79-31.3% (cellulose). Reflectance spectra, obtained for samples of dried and ground leaves, were recorded as log1/R (R=reflectance) from 1,100 to 2,500 nm. NIRS calibrations were developed using multiple linear (MLR) and partial least-squares (PLSR) regressions, and tested by external validation. Spectral data were transformed to the first and second derivative (1D, 2D). The PLSR method and derivative transformations provided the best statistics and showed lower standard errors of calibration (SEC) and higher coefficients of multiple determination (R2). In the external validation the standard errors of prediction (SEP) were 0.76 g kg-1 (N), 2.11% (NDF), 1.47% (ADF), 0.85% (lignin) and 0.86% (cellulose). The results obtained show that NIRS is very effective for the estimation of these organic constituents in leaf tissue of woody species. This technique can be used in ecological or ecophysiological studies as an alternative to the more time-consuming standard methods.

  14. Thermal Screening Of Residues From Acidification And Copper-Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation Of Tank 48H Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F. F.; Newell, J. D.; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-10-04

    This study evaluated the residues generated from copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) of Tank 48H simulant. The first step of the CCPO calls for pH adjustment of the simulant, and early testing used either 15wt% or 50wt % nitric acid to reach a slurry pH of between 12 and 5. Residues obtained by ambient temperature pH adjustment with 50wt % nitric acid followed by oxidation with 50 wt % hydrogen peroxide at 35, 50, and 65°C (from a recently conducted Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation or CCPO) were also analyzed. Slurry samples at pH 7 or lower especially made from adding nitric acid at the process equivalent of one gallon per minute had the largest enthalpy of decomposition. The thermogravimetric characteristics of some samples from the CCPO test generated at pH 9 or lower exhibited rapid weight loss. Taken together, residues generated at pH 9 or lower may be classified as energetic upon decomposition in confined spaces or under adiabatic conditions. Therefore, additional testing is recommended with larger (up to 50mL) samples in an adiabatic calorimeter. To minimize risk of formation of energetic byproducts, an intermediate slurry pH of 9 or greater is recommended following the acidification step in the CCPO and prior to start of peroxide addition. In practice, process temperature needs to reach 150°C or greater to decompose residues obtained a pH 9 or lower which is unlikely. Oxidation temperature had no significant effect on the thermal characteristics of the final residues generated.

  15. Histological Evaluation of Prostate Tissue Response to Image-Guided Transurethral Thermal Therapy After a 48h Recovery Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyes, Aaron; Tang, Kee; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Image-guided transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy shows strong potential for sparing of critical adjacent structures during prostate cancer treatment. Preclinical experiments were conducted to provide further information on the extent of the treatment margin. Four experiments were carried out in a canine model to investigate the pathology of this margin during the early stages of recovery and were compared to previous results obtained immediately post-treatment. Sedated animals were placed in a 1.5T clinical MRI, and the heating device was positioned accurately within the prostatic urethra with image guidance. Using an MRI-compatible system, the ultrasound device was rotated 365° treating a prescribed volume contained within the gland. Quantitative temperature maps were acquired throughout the treatment, providing feedback information for device control. Animals were allowed to recover and, after 48h, an imaging protocol including T2 and contrast enhanced (CE) MRI was repeated before the animals were sacrificed. Prostate sections were stained with H&E. Careful slice alignment methods during histological procedures and image registration were employed to ensure good correspondence between MR images and microscopy. Although T2 MRI revealed no lesion acutely, a hypo-intense region was clearly visible 2 days post-treatment. The lesion volume defined by CE-MRI increased appreciably during this time. Whole-mount H&E sections showed that the margin between coagulated and normal-appearing cells narrowed during recovery, typically to a width of under 1mm compared to 3mm acutely. These results illustrate the high level of precision achievable with transurethral thermal therapy and suggest methods to monitor the physiological response non-invasively.

  16. Refeeding with a standard diet after a 48-h fast elicits an inflammatory response in the mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Oarada, Motoko; Miki, Takashi; Kohno, Shohei; Sakai, Kanae; Nikawa, Takeshi; Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi; Gonoi, Tohru

    2013-07-01

    Unhealthy eating behaviors increase the risk of metabolic diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Because inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, it is important to understand the effects of unhealthy eating on the inflammatory state. The objective of our present study was to address the effects of a fasting-refeeding regime, a model of irregular eating, on the hepatic inflammatory responses in mouse. The animals were fasted for 48 h and then refed either a standard or low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. Inflammatory gene expression in the liver was then sequentially measured for the first 17 h after initiation of refeeding. To assess the roles of dietary carbohydrates and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the refeeding-induced inflammatory changes, gene expression levels in mice refed only carbohydrates (α-corn starch and sucrose) at different doses and in TLR2-deficient mice refed a standard diet were also analyzed. Refeeding with a standard diet increased the liver expression of Tlr2, proinflammatory mediators (Cxcl10, Cxcl1, Cxcl2, Icam-1) and negative regulators of TLR-signaling (A20 and Atf3). These increases were attenuated in mice refed a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. Refeeding only α-corn starch and sucrose also increased the expression of these inflammatory pathway genes depending on the doses. TLR2 deficiency significantly attenuated the refeeding-induced increase in the liver expression of Cxcl10, Cxcl1, Icam-1 and A20. These findings suggest that an irregular eating behavior can elicit a liver inflammatory response, which is at least partly mediated by TLR2, and that dietary carbohydrates play critical roles in this process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of 48-h food deprivation on the expressions of myosin heavy-chain isoforms and fiber type-related factors in rats.

    PubMed

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Sawano, Shoko; Iwamoto, Yohei; Sato, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 48-h food deprivation on rat skeletal muscle fiber type, according to myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform composition and some metabolism-related factors in both slow-type dominant and fast-type dominant muscle tissues. Male Wistar rats (7 wk old) were treated with 48-h food deprivation or ad libitum feeding as control. After the treatment, the soleus muscle (slow-type dominant) and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-type dominant) were excised. We found that 48-h food deprivation did not affect MyHC composition in either the soleus or EDL, compared with fed rats by electrophoretic separation of MyHC isoforms. However, 48-h food deprivation significantly increased the mRNA expression of fast-type MyHC2B in the EDL muscle. Moreover, food deprivation increased fatty acid metabolism, as shown by elevated levels of related serum energy substrates and mRNA expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) 3 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both the soleus and EDL. UCP3 and LPL are generally expressed at higher levels in slow-type fibers. Furthermore, we found that food deprivation significantly decreased the protein amounts of PGC1α and phosphorylated FOXO1, which are known as skeletal muscle fiber type regulators. In conclusion, 48-h food deprivation increased mRNA expression of fast-type MyHC isoform and oxidative metabolism-related factors in EDL, whereas MyHC composition at the protein level did not change in either the soleus or EDL.

  18. Shock destruction armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Froeschner, K.E.

    1993-05-25

    A shock destruction armor system mounted in a vertical relationship on an external surface of a vehicle for destroying the force of impact of an incoming projectile having a length, L, equal to an aspect ratio, m, times its diameter, D, said armor system is described comprising: armor plate means, comprising a plurality of substantially vertical super-imposed armor plates secured at only one edge thereof to said vehicle, each of said armor plates having a predetermined thickness and separated one-from another by a predetermined distance, said thickness of each of said armor plates progressively increasing from a frontal armor plate, adapted to receive the force of impact of an incoming projectile, to a last armor plate thereof, said distance between said armor plates progressively increasing from a first distance between said frontal armor plate and its next-following armor plate through a last distance between said last armor plate and its next-preceding armor plate, for hydrodynamically and sequentially at least substantially destroying an incoming projectile impacting a first of said armor plates, and for inducing debris generated from the explosion on an area of impact on the first armor plate to egress from such area prior to impact of such an incoming projectile on the next-following armor plate.

  19. Catalytic Destruction of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    cations and especially Co, preferentially occupy the Si and Si1 sites within the hexagonal prisms and the sodalite cages of the zeolite. With less...than 50 percent exchange of the Y zeolite most of the exchanged cations are usually located in these smaller sodalite cages and hexagonal prisms, with...almost none available in the larger supercages. However, with the Co2+ ions (ionic radius s 0.72 A) located inside the small sodalite cages (pore

  20. Anode materials for electrochemical waste destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molton, Peter M.; Clarke, Clayton

    1990-01-01

    Electrochemical Oxidation (ECO) offers promise as a low-temperature, atmospheric pressure method for safe destruction of hazardous organic chemical wastes in water. Anode materials tend to suffer corrosion in the intensely oxidizing environment of the ECO cell. There is a need for cheaper, more resistant materials. In this experiment, a system is described for testing anode materials, with examples of several common anodes such as stainless steel, graphite, and platinized titanium. The ECO system is simple and safe to operate and the experiment can easily be expanded in scope to study the effects of different solutions, temperatures, and organic materials.

  1. A randomized trial of levonorgestrel intrauterine system insertion 6 to 48 h compared to 6 weeks after vaginal delivery; lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Lesko, Catherine R; Stuebe, Alison M; Bryant, Amy G; Levi, Erika E; Danvers, Antoinette I

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this randomized trial was to compare breastfeeding among women who received a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system within 6-48 h (early) or 4-6 weeks (standard) after an uncomplicated vaginal birth. Analysis groups of 86 women in each arm were needed to demonstrate a 20% difference in any breastfeeding. Thirty-five women were randomized to the early (N=17) and standard (N=18) arms. The combination of unsuccessful placement (2/17; 12%), expulsions (7/17; 41%) and removals (3/17; 18%) reached 71% (12/17) in the early arm, so the study was stopped. In our small study cohort, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system insertion between 6 and 48 h after vaginal birth was associated with a high rate of expulsion or removal soon after insertion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of destructive methods for managing decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Piciulo, P.L.; Adams, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Results are discussed of a laboratory evaluation of destructive methods for processing chemical decontamination wastes. Incineration, acid digestion and wet-air oxidation are capable of degrading decontamination reagents and organic ion-exchange resins. The extent of destruction as a function of operating parameters was waste specific. The reagents used in the testing were: EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, picolinic acid and LND-101A.

  3. Impact of endpoint definition on the outcome of antifungal susceptibility tests with Candida species: 24- versus 48-h incubation and 50 versus 80% reduction in growth.

    PubMed

    St-Germain, G

    2001-01-01

    The growth inhibition patterns of 764 clinical yeast isolates, in response to amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole and fluconazole, were studied in order to determine the frequency of trailing growth and any impact this, as well as 24- or 48-h incubation periods, may have on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results. A broth microdilution method following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard No. M27A recommendations was used. Trailing growth was observed mainly with azoles. Furthermore, over 98% of isolates exhibiting a trailing effect at 24 h with fluconazole and itraconazole were either Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis. When comparing 24- and 48-h IC50 values, discrepancies were observed with itraconazole and fluconazole, respectively, in 18 and 11% of C. albicans and 24 and 30% of C. tropicalis. When comparing IC50 and IC80 values at 24 h, discrepancies were again essentially seen with itraconazole and fluconazole, respectively, in 11 and 10% of C. albicans, and 17 and 27% of C. tropicalis. In susceptibility tests performed with a microdilution method and read spectrophotometrically, 48-h IC80 values result in an unlikely high number of resistant isolates, indicating that a 24-h incubation and a 50% reduction in optical density may correlate better with clinical outcome.

  4. Sperm fertility and viability following 48h of refrigeration: evaluation of different extenders for the preservation of bull semen in liquid state.

    PubMed

    Crespilho, A M; Nichi, M; Guasti, P N; Freitas-Dell'Aqua, C P; Sá Filho, M F; Maziero, R R; Dell'aqua, J A; Papa, F O

    2014-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of different extenders conventionally used for semen cryopreservation to maintain the viability and fertility of cooled bull semen. In Experiment 1, sperm samples obtained from 20 Nellore bulls were preserved at 5°C for 48h using two extenders containing 20% of egg yolk [Tris (TRIS-R) and Botu-Bov(®) (BB)] and another composed of 1% soy lecithin [Botu-Bov(®)-Lecithin (BB-L)] as substitutes for animal origin products. The samples were evaluated at 6, 24 and 48h for plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity, quantification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (ng of TBARS/10(8) cells) and sperm motility parameters by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). In Experiment 2, pregnancy rate (P/AI) of 973 fixed-time artificially inseminated Nellore cows were compared when cows were inseminated with conventionally cryopreserved semen in TRIS-egg yolk glycerol (TRIS-C Control, n=253) or semen cooled for 48h in TRIS-R (n=233), BB (n=247) or BB-L (n=240). Although none of the extenders used was effective on maintaining total progressive motility and cellular integrity throughout the 48-h of the refrigeration period (P<0.01), BB-L conferred greater protection against oxidative stress (P<0.05) than egg yolk-based medias. The P/AI for semen samples preserved in TRIS-C, TRIS-R, BB and BB-L were 39.92(a), 25.32(b), 26.32(b) and 33.33(ab), respectively. These results demonstrate that the three conventional extenders used for semen cryopreservation do not provide the protection required to maintain bull semen fertility under refrigeration for a 48-h period, resulting in reduced pregnancy rates. However, the use of lecithin-based medium instead of egg yolk results in greater protection against lipid peroxidation, producing P/AI results comparable to those obtained using frozen semen.

  5. Craton destruction and related resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rixiang; Zhang, Hongfu; Zhu, Guang; Meng, Qingren; Fan, Hongrui; Yang, Jinhui; Wu, Fuyuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zheng, Tianyu

    2017-02-01

    Craton destruction is a dynamic event that plays an important role in Earth's evolution. Based on comprehensive observations of many studies on the North China Craton (NCC) and correlations with the evolution histories of other cratons around the world, craton destruction has be defined as a geological process that results in the total loss of craton stability due to changes in the physical and chemical properties of the involved craton. The mechanisms responsible for craton destruction would be as the follows: (1) oceanic plate subduction; (2) rollback and retreat of a subducting oceanic plate; (3) stagnation and dehydration of a subducting plate in the mantle transition zone; (4) melting of the mantle above the mantle transition zone caused by dehydration of a stagnant slab; (5) non-steady flow in the upper mantle induced by melting, and/or (6) changes in the nature of the lithospheric mantle and consequent craton destruction caused by non-steady flow. Oceanic plate subduction itself does not result in craton destruction. For the NCC, it is documented that westward subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate should have initiated at the transition from the Middle-to-Late Jurassic, and resulted in the change of tectonic regime of eastern China. We propose that subduction, rollback and retreat of oceanic plates and dehydration of stagnant slabs are the main dynamic factors responsible for both craton destruction and concentration of mineral deposits, such as gold, in the overriding continental plate. Based on global distribution of gold deposits, we suggest that convergent plate margins are the most important setting for large gold concentrations. Therefore, decratonic gold deposits appear to occur preferentially in regions with oceanic subduction and overlying continental lithospheric destruction/modification/growth.

  6. Nonlinear coherent destruction of tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Xiaobing; Xie Qiongtao; Wu Biao

    2007-11-15

    We study theoretically two coupled periodically curved optical waveguides with Kerr nonlinearity. We find that the tunneling between the waveguides can be suppressed in a wide range of parameters. This suppression of tunneling is found to be related to the coherent destruction of tunneling in a linear medium, which in contrast occurs only at isolated parameter points. Therefore, we call this suppression nonlinear coherent destruction of tunneling. This localization phenomenon can be observed readily with current experimental capability; it may also be observable in a different physical system, the Bose-Einstein condensate.

  7. A Reduction in Maximal Incremental Exercise Test Duration 48 h Post Downhill Run Is Associated with Muscle Damage Derived Exercise Induced Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chrismas, Bryna C. R.; Taylor, Lee; Siegler, Jason C.; Midgley, Adrian W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) and muscle soreness reduce treadmill maximal incremental exercise (MIE) test duration, and true maximal physiological performance as a consequence of exercise induced pain (EIP) and perceived effort. Methods: Fifty (14 female), apparently healthy participants randomly allocated into a control group (CON, n = 10), or experimental group (EXP, n = 40) visited the laboratory a total of six times: visit 1 (familiarization), visit 2 (pre 1), visit 3 (pre 2), visit 4 (intervention), visit 5 (24 h post) and visit 6 (48 h post). Both groups performed identical testing during all visits, except during visit 4, where only EXP performed a 30 min downhill run and CON performed no exercise. During visits 2, 3, and 6 all participants performed MIE, and the following measurements were obtained: time to exhaustion (TTE), EIP, maximal oxygen consumption (V·O2max), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), maximum heart rate (HRmax), maximum blood lactate (BLamax), and the contribution of pain to terminating the MIE (assessed using a questionnaire). Additionally during visits 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 the following markers of EIMD were obtained: muscle soreness, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), creatine kinase (CK). Results: There were no significant differences (p ≥ 0.32) between any trials for any of the measures obtained during MIE for CON. In EXP, TTE decreased by 34 s (3%), from pre 2 to 48 h post (p < 0.001). There was a significant association between group (EXP, CON) and termination of the MIE due to “pain” during 48 h post (χ2 = 14.7, p = 0.002). Conclusion: EIMD resulted in premature termination of a MIE test (decreased TTE), which was associated with EIP, MVC, and VA. The exact mechanisms responsible for this require further investigation. PMID:28337151

  8. Caffeine and modafinil given during 48 h sleep deprivation modulate object recognition memory and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, M; Sahu, S; Kumari, P; Kauser, H; Ray, K; Panjwani, U

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of caffeine/modafinil on sleep deprivation (SD) induced alterations in recognition memory and synaptic proteins. The data revealed a beneficial effect of caffeine/modafinil against deficit in the familiar object retrieval performance and object exploration ratio after 48 h SD. Caffeine treatment prevented the SD induced down-regulation of synaptophysin and synapsin I proteins with no change in PSD-95 protein in hippocampus. However, modafinil administration improved the down-regulation of synaptophysin, synapsin I and PSD-95 proteins in hippocampus. Hence, caffeine/modafinil can serve as counter measures in amelioration of SD induced consequences at behavioural and protein levels.

  9. Atlantis Non-destructive Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-29

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility, the nose cap (foreground) removed from Atlantis (behind) waits to be shipped to the original manufacturing company, Vought in Ft. Worth, Texas, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, to undergo non-destructive testing such as CAT scan and thermography.

  10. Destructive wrist arthropathy of pseudogout

    SciTech Connect

    Smathers, R.L.; Keats, T.E.; Stelling, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The wrist is a frequent site of arthropathy in the pseudogout syndrome (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease). Three cases of severe wrist arthropathy are presented to emphasize the destructive changes which may occur, including necrosis or collapse of the lunate and navicular bones. The roentgenographic findings characteristic of pseudogout in the wrist are discussed.

  11. Conceptualizing Chronic Self-Destructiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Kathryn

    Self-destructiveness can be viewed in two ways: as performing an act which one knows cognitively is not conducive to one's welfare but nonetheless leads to some pleasurable affect (e.g., overeating, smoking); or not performing an act one knows one should perform but which has some negative affective consequences (e.g., dental checkups, saving…

  12. Redistribution of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Detected by Laser Microdissection of the Rat Dentate Gyrus 48 h following LTP Induction In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, Jeremy T. T.; Guévremont, Diane; Mason-Parker, Sara E.; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Williams, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence and input specificity of long-term potentiation (LTP) make it attractive as a mechanism of information storage. In its initial phase, both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that LTP is associated with increased membrane localization of AMPA receptor subunits, but the molecular basis of LTP maintenance over the long-term is still unclear. We have previously shown that expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits is elevated in whole homogenates prepared from dentate gyrus 48 h after LTP induction in vivo. In the present study, we utilized laser microdissection (LMD) techniques to determine whether AMPA and NMDA receptor upregulation occurs specifically in the stimulated regions of the dentate gyrus dendritic arbor. Receptor proteins GluN1, GluA1 and GluA2, as well as postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa and tubulin were detected by Western blot analysis in microdissected samples. Gradients of expression were observed for GluN1 and GluA2, decreasing from the inner to the outer zones of the molecular layer, and were independent of LTP. When induced at medial perforant path synapses, LTP was associated with an apparent specific redistribution of GluA1 and GluN1 to the middle molecular layer that contains these synapses. These data indicate that glutamate receptor proteins are delivered specifically to dendritic regions possessing LTP-expressing synapses, and that these changes are preserved for at least 48 h. PMID:24667777

  13. Photooxidative destruction in the photochemical purification of water

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipova, M.B.; Tereshchenko, L.Ya.; Martynova, I.A.

    1994-09-20

    The authors studied the possibility of using the combined action of UV radiation and an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, for removing organic pollutants from drinking water and industrial sewage in a single-lamp continuous reactor. Using phenol as an example, it was found that nearly complete destruction of phenol and intermediate aromatic compounds can be achieved as a result of photooxidative treatment.

  14. Chondrule Destruction in Nebular Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios epsilon >~ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of "sandblasting" by finer dust. A flow with epsilon >~ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (~2 versus 8 km s-1) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  15. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  16. Worse than enemies. The CEO's destructive confidant.

    PubMed

    Sulkowicz, Kerry J

    2004-02-01

    The CEO is often the most isolated and protected employee in the organization. Few leaders, even veteran CEOs, can do the job without talking to someone about their experiences, which is why most develop a close relationship with a trusted colleague, a confidant to whom they can tell their thoughts and fears. In his work with leaders, the author has found that many CEO-confidant relationships function very well. The confidants keep their leaders' best interests at heart. They derive their gratification vicariously, through the help they provide rather than through any personal gain, and they are usually quite aware that a person in their position can potentially abuse access to the CEO's innermost secrets. Unfortunately, almost as many confidants will end up hurting, undermining, or otherwise exploiting CEOs when the executives are at their most vulnerable. These confidants rarely make the headlines, but behind the scenes they do enormous damage to the CEO and to the organization as a whole. What's more, the leader is often the last one to know when or how the confidant relationship became toxic. The author has identified three types of destructive confidants. The reflector mirrors the CEO, constantly reassuring him that he is the "fairest CEO of them all." The insulator buffers the CEO from the organization, preventing critical information from getting in or out. And the usurper cunningly ingratiates himself with the CEO in a desperate bid for power. This article explores how the CEO-confidant relationship plays out with each type of adviser and suggests ways CEOs can avoid these destructive relationships.

  17. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  18. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of the...

  19. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of the...

  20. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of the...

  1. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of the...

  2. CORONA DESTRUCTION: AN INNOVATIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR VOCS AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the work and results to date leading to the demonstration of the corona destruction process at pilot scale. The research effort in corona destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air toxics has shown significant promise for providing a valuable co...

  3. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  4. Investigation of carbon tetrachloride destruction by copper acetate.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Halogenated synthetic organic compounds are used in a wide variety of pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, fire retardants, and paints that cause extensive pollution to the air, surface water, groundwater, and soils. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl) is a typical halogenated synthetic organic compound that has been suspected to be toxic and carcinogenic and to cause ozone depletion. In the present work, molecular-level destruction of CCl by copper acetate was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structural spectra, X-ray absorption near-edge spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Experimentally, the Cl species dissociated from CCl were abstracted by copper species and formed CuCl. At 473 to 533 K, reaction products (copper chloride) aggregated on the surfaces of CuO, which might cause the obstruction of further CCl destruction. Due to the insertion of Cl species into the matrix of CuO, the bond distances of Cu-O and Cu-(O)-Cu were increased by 0.3 to 0.4 Å and 0.3 to 0.6 Å, respectively. However, at 603 K, because 79.5% of the Cu was in the CCl destruction solid products, the coordination number of Cu-(O)-Cu increased to 5.6. Molecular level investigations are a key to identifying the mechanisms of the CCl destruction process. In addition, identification of the molecular characteristics of the products may help in safe disposal of the toxic substances. The success of this study paved the way for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds by copper acetate.

  5. Mechanisms of contrast agent destruction.

    PubMed

    Chomas, J E; Dayton, P; Allen, J; Morgan, K; Ferrara, K W

    2001-01-01

    Various applications of contrast-assisted ultrasound, including blood vessel detection, perfusion estimation, and drug delivery, require controlled destruction of contrast agent microbubbles. The lifetime of a bubble depends on properties of the bubble shell, the gas core, and the acoustic waveform impinging on the bubble. Three mechanisms of microbubble destruction are considered: fragmentation, acoustically driven diffusion, and static diffusion. Fragmentation is responsible for rapid destruction of contrast agents on a time scale of microseconds. The primary characteristics of fragmentation are a very large expansion and subsequent contraction, resulting in instability of the bubble. Optical studies using a novel pulsed-laser optical system show the expansion and contraction of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles with the ratio of maximum diameter to minimum diameter greater than 10. Fragmentation is dependent on the transmission pressure, occurring in over 55% of bubbles insonified with a peak negative transmission pressure of 2.4 MPa and in less than 10% of bubbles insonified with a peak negative transmission pressure of 0.8 MPa. The echo received from a bubble decorrelates significantly within two pulses when the bubble is fragmented, creating an opportunity for rapid detection of bubbles via a decorrelation-based analysis. Preliminary findings with a mouse tumor model verify the occurrence of fragmentation in vivo. A much slower mechanism of bubble destruction is diffusion, which is driven by both a concentration gradient between the concentration of gas in the bubble compared with the concentration of gas in the liquid, as well as convective effects of motion of the gas-liquid interface. The rate of diffusion increases during insonation, because of acoustically driven diffusion, producing changes in diameter on the time scale of the acoustic pulse length, thus, on the order of microseconds. Gas bubbles diffuse while they are not being insonified, termed

  6. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  7. Destruction of polyvinyl chloride under extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, M. T.; Serebriakova, R. V.; Serebriakov, V. N.; Zimin, P. N.; Nastenko, A. V.; Derevianchenko, L. G.; Antsifirova, N. P.; Visloukh, V. V.

    1982-08-01

    An common industrial application of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the extrusive insulation of electric wires and cables. Experimental results are presented on the thermal and mechanical destruction of PVC under extrusion. Under extrusion conditions (at temperatures higher than 150 C), the evolution of hydrogen chloride determines practically the entire process of PVC destruction. The use of the present data to establish hygienic standards regarding safe concentrations of PVC destruction products in the work environment is discussed.

  8. Meteorology: are there trends in hurricane destruction?

    PubMed

    Pielke, Roger A

    2005-12-22

    Since the record impact of Hurricane Katrina, attention has focused on understanding trends in hurricanes and their destructive potential. Emanuel reports a marked increase in the potential destructiveness of hurricanes based on identification of a trend in an accumulated annual index of power dissipation in the North Atlantic and western North Pacific since the 1970s. If hurricanes are indeed becoming more destructive over time, then this trend should manifest itself in more destruction. However, my analysis of a long-term data set of hurricane losses in the United States shows no upward trend once the data are normalized to remove the effects of societal changes.

  9. Correlation between the destruction of tight junction by patulin treatment and increase of phosphorylation of ZO-1 in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kawauchiya, Tomoko; Takumi, Ryo; Kudo, Yukako; Takamori, Akiko; Sasagawa, Tatuya; Takahashi, Kohei; Kikuchi, Hideaki

    2011-08-28

    Patulin is a mycotoxin and its contamination of food has been reported to cause gastrointestinal inflammation, ulcers, and bleeding. The toxicity of patulin is thought to be due to the destruction of tight junctions (TJs) in gastrointestinal tissues. However, the precise mechanism has not been clarified. Here, we investigated the phosphorylation of TJ components. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of Caco-2 human colon cancer cells decreased gradually during the first 24h of treatment with 50μM patulin. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the TJ proteins ZO-1 and claudin-4, but not occludin, had decreased after 24h and decreased from the cell-cell contact regions of TJs after 48h of patulin treatment. Western blotting showed that the level of ZO-1 decreased after 48h of patulin treatment, but the levels of claudin-4 and occludin remained at the initial level until 72h. Phosphorylation of ZO-1 was detected by 24h and increased markedly after 72h of patulin treatment. However, phosphorylation of claudin-4 and occludin was not detected by probing with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Immunoprecipitation showed that interaction of ZO-1 with claudin-4 had decreased after 48h and was completely absent after 72h. These results suggest that phosphorylation caused the degradation of ZO-1 protein and the decrease in TER induced by patulin treatment of Caco-2 cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Destruction of chlorofluorocarbons and halons

    SciTech Connect

    Matchett, J.M.; Miller, K.B.; Purcell, C.W.

    1995-06-01

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer requires the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances in most developed countries by January 1, 1996. Developing, or Article 5, countries have been allowed additional time in which to produce these chemicals. Contrary to the Protocol`s intent, current estimates indicate that production of these chemicals by Article 5 countries could easily equal that of the developed world before their production is required to be eliminated. The Montreal Protocol also requires that used chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) and halons are disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. One mechanism devised by the Montreal Protocol to reduce the amount of ozone-depleting substances that may need to be destroyed is to transfer those chemicals to Article 5 countries. Theoretically, this has the added benefit of also eliminating the need for additional production by those countries. This paper discusses the major issues associated with the disposal/destruction of ozone-depleting substances, including the transfer of these chemicals to Article 5 countries. Potential implications of the barriers to ozone-depleting substance transfer on the viability of the Montreal Protocol will also be discussed.

  11. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H

    2007-08-01

    Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection.

  12. Explosive destruction of 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimizu, H.; Abe, K.; Beliuskina, O.; Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Ge, Z.; Hayakawa, S.; Kwag, M. S.; Kim, D. H.; Moon, J. Y.; Park, S. Y.; Yang, L.

    2017-09-01

    The γ -ray emission associated with the radioactive decay of 26Al is one of the key pieces of observational evidence indicating stellar nucleosynthesis is an ongoing process in our Galaxy, and it was the first such radioactivity to be detected. Despite numerous efforts in stellar modeling, observation, nuclear theory, and nuclear experiment over the past four decades, the precise sites and origin of Galactic ^{26} Al remain elusive. We explore the present experimental knowledge concerning the destruction of ^{26} Al in massive stars. The precise stellar rates of neutron-induced reactions on ^{26} Al, such as (n,p) and (n, α , have among the largest impacts on the total ^{26} Al yield. Meanwhile, reactions involving the short-lived isomeric state of ^{26} Al such as radiative proton capture are highly-uncertain at present. Although we presented on-going experimental work from n_TOF at CERN with an ^{26} Al target, the present proceeding focuses only on the ^{26} Al isomeric radioactive beam production aspect and the first experimental results at CRIB.

  13. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  14. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  15. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  16. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  17. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  18. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  19. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  20. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  1. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  2. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  3. 27 CFR 20.222 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction. 20.222 Section 20.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Destruction §...

  4. 27 CFR 20.222 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction. 20.222 Section 20.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Destruction §...

  5. 27 CFR 19.617 - Destruction records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction records. 19.617 Section 19.617 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....617 Destruction records. Each time that a proprietor voluntarily destroys spirits, denatured...

  6. 27 CFR 20.222 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction. 20.222 Section 20.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Destruction §...

  7. Legal Weapons of Mass Destruction Consequence Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    LEGAL WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENT SEMINAR REPORT Defense Threat Reduction Agency Advanced Systems ...guidance documents pertinent to WMD CM ; • Contribute to the development of a Federal Legal Reference Deskbook for WMD consequence management . The...of medical responders during a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)–Consequence Management ( CM ) event. Use of the Military Posse Comitatus

  8. 5 CFR 1312.29 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Information § 1312.29 Destruction. The destruction of classified material will be accomplished under the.... Classified official record material will be processed to the Information Systems and Technology, Records.... Classified nonrecord material will be destroyed as soon as it becomes excess to the needs of the office....

  9. Self-Destructive Behavior in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessel, Greer; Chrisler, Joan C.

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling) and delicate self-cutting are self-destructive behaviors which utilize the body as a vehicle for self-expression. Like anorexia and bulimia, these behaviors occur primarily in young women. This study compared groups of women college students who engage in these self-destructive behaviors with those who do not. It…

  10. 27 CFR 20.222 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction. 20.222 Section 20.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Destruction §...

  11. 27 CFR 20.222 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction. 20.222 Section 20.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Destruction §...

  12. Energetic materials destruction using molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-04-29

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. LLNL has built a small-scale unit to test the destruction of HE using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process. In addition to the high explosive HMX, destruction has been carried out on RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. Also destroyed was a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, destruction has been carried out on a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, and PBX-9404.

  13. Formation and Destruction Processes of Carbonaceous Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras C, S.; Ricketts, C. L.; Salama, F.

    2011-05-01

    The study of the formation and the destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important chemical building blocks of interstellar dust. They are detected in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical point to PAHs, in their neutral and ionized forms, as an important component of the interstellar medium. Therefore, it is imperative that laboratory experiments be conducted to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation from PAH precursors. Studies of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors (CH4, C2H4, C2H2) as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) plasma source are detected and characterized with a high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS) coupled to a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS), thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. We report the first measurements obtained in these experiments. The formation and destruction paths of carbonaceous molecules will be discussed. From these unique measurements, we derive information on the size and the structure of interstellar dust grain particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules.

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK 23H SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON TANK 48H WALLS

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F; Thomas02 White, T; Lawrence Oji, L; Chris Martino, C; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2006-07-31

    Solid residues on two sets of thermowell pipe samples from the D2 riser in SRS Tank 48H were characterized. The residue thickness was determined using the ASTM standard D 3483-05 and was found to be three order of magnitudes below the 1mm thickness estimated from an earlier video of the tank cooling coil inspection. The actual estimated thickness ranged from 4 to 20.4 microns. The mass per unit area ranged from 1 to 5.3 milligrams per square inch. The residues appear to consist primarily of potassium tetraphenylborate (39.8 wt% KTPB) and dried salt solution (33.5 wt% total of nitrates, nitrites and oxalate salts), although {approx}30% of the solid mass was not accounted for in the mass balance. No evidence of residue buildup was found inside the pipe, as expected. The residue leaching characteristics were measured by placing one pipe in inhibited water and one pipe in DWPF Recycle simulant. After soaking for less than 4 weeks, the inhibited water was 95.4% effective at removing the residue and the DWPF Recycle simulant was 93.5% effective. The surface appearance of the pipes after leaching tests appeared close to the clean shiny appearance of a new pipe. Total gamma counts of leachates averaged 48.1 dpm/ml, or an equivalent of 2.35E-11 Ci/gm Cs-137 (dry solids basis), which is much lower than the 1.4 E-03 Ci/gm expected for Tank 48 dry slurry solids.

  15. The effects of a single bout of downhill running and ensuing delayed onset of muscle soreness on running economy performed 48 h later.

    PubMed

    Braun, William A; Dutto, Darren J

    2003-09-01

    Delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) is a common response to exercise involving significant eccentric loading. Symptoms of DOMS vary widely and may include reduced force generating capacity, significant alterations in biochemical indices of muscle and connective tissue health, alteration of neuromuscular function, and changes in mechanical performance. The purpose of the investigation was to examine the effects of downhill running and ensuing DOMS on running economy and stride mechanics. Nine, well-trained distance runners and triathletes participated in the study. Running economy was measured at three relative intensities [65, 75, and 85% of maximal aerobic capacity ( VO(2peak))] before (RE1) and 48 h after (RE2) a 30-min downhill run (-10%) at 70% VO(2peak). Dependent variables included leg muscle soreness, rate of oxygen consumption ( VO(2)), minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, lactate, heart rate, and stride length. These measurements were entered into a two-factor multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The analysis revealed a significant time effect for all variables and a significant interaction (time x intensity) for lactate. The energy cost of locomotion was elevated at RE2 by an average of 3.2%. This was coupled with a significant reduction in stride length. The change in VO(2) was inversely correlated with the change in stride length ( r= -0.535). Lactate was significantly elevated at RE2 for each run intensity, with a mean increase of 0.61 mmol l(-1). Based on these findings, it is suggested that muscle damage led to changes in stride mechanics and a greater reliance on anaerobic methods of energy production, contributing to the change in running economy during DOMS.

  16. Maternal exposure to hurricane destruction and fetal mortality.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Breunig, Ian M; Link, Bruce G; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Weiler, Stephan; Mielke, Howard W

    2014-08-01

    The majority of research documenting the public health impacts of natural disasters focuses on the well-being of adults and their living children. Negative effects may also occur in the unborn, exposed to disaster stressors when critical organ systems are developing and when the consequences of exposure are large. We exploit spatial and temporal variation in hurricane behaviour as a quasi-experimental design to assess whether fetal death is dose-responsive in the extent of hurricane damage. Data on births and fetal deaths are merged with Parish-level housing wreckage data. Fetal outcomes are regressed on housing wreckage adjusting for the maternal, fetal, placental and other risk factors. The average causal effect of maternal exposure to hurricane destruction is captured by difference-in-differences analyses. The adjusted odds of fetal death are 1.40 (1.07-1.83) and 2.37 (1.684-3.327) times higher in parishes suffering 10-50% and >50% wreckage to housing stock, respectively. For every 1% increase in the destruction of housing stock, we observe a 1.7% (1.1-2.4%) increase in fetal death. Of the 410 officially recorded fetal deaths in these parishes, between 117 and 205 may be attributable to hurricane destruction and postdisaster disorder. The estimated fetal death toll is 17.4-30.6% of the human death toll. The destruction caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita imposed significant measurable losses in terms of fetal death. Postdisaster migratory dynamics suggest that the reported effects of maternal exposure to hurricane destruction on fetal death may be conservative. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Rubidium dimer destruction by a diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, T.; Aumiler, D.; Pichler, G.

    2005-02-01

    We observed rubidium dimer destruction by excitation of rubidium vapor with diode laser light tuned across the Rb D{sub 2} resonance line in a 2400 GHz tuning interval. The destruction was measured for rubidium atom concentrations in the (1-9)x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} range, pump beam power up to 43 mW, and with a 5 Torr of the helium buffer gas. We discuss the physical mechanisms involved and specify the molecular pathways which may effectively lead to the observed dimer destruction.

  18. Non-destructive identification of twisted light.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyun; Wang, Bo; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    The non-destructive identification of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to various applications in the optical information processing. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method to identify non-destructively the OAM by using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our schemes are applicable not only to the case with integer charges, but also to optical vortices with noninteger charges. Our Letter presents the first experimental demonstration of the non-destructive identification of twisted light with integer or noninteger topological charges, which has potential applications in the OAM-based data transmission for optical communications.

  19. Microbial destruction of cyanide wastes in gold mining: process review.

    PubMed

    Akcil, Ata; Mudder, Terry

    2003-03-01

    Microbial destruction of cyanide and its related compounds is one of the most important biotechnologies to emerge in the last two decades for treating process and tailings solutions at precious metals mining operations. Hundreds of plant and microbial species (bacteria, fungi and algae) can detoxify cyanide quickly to environmentally acceptable levels and into less harmful by-products. Full-scale bacterial processes have been used effectively for many years in commercial applications in North America. Several species of bacteria can convert cyanide under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using it as a primary source of nitrogen and carbon. Other organisms are capable of oxidizing the cyanide related compounds of thiocyanate and ammonia under varying conditions of pH, temperature, nutrient levels, oxygen, and metal concentrations. This paper presents an overview of the destruction of cyanide in mining related solutions by microbial processes.

  20. Tank 50H Tetraphenylborate Destruction Results

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2003-10-03

    We conducted several scoping tests with both Tank 50H surrogate materials (KTPB and phenol) as well as with actual Tank 50H solids. These tests examined whether we could destroy the tetraphenylborate in the surrogates or actual Tank 50H material either by use of Fenton's Reagent or by hydrolysis (in Tank 50H conditions at a maximum temperature of 50 degrees C) under a range of conditions. The results of these tests showed that destruction of the solids occurred only under a minority of conditions. (1)Using Fenton's Reagent and KTPB as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at pH ranges greater than 9. (2)Using Fenton's Reagent and phenol as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at a pH of 14. (3)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, a reaction occurred at a pH of 9.5 in the presence of ECC additives. (4)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, after a thirty three day period, all attempts at hydrolysis (at pH 14) were too slow to be viable. This happened even in the case of higher temperature (50 degrees C) and added (100 ppm) copper. Tank 50H is scheduled to return to HLW Tank Farm service with capabilities of transferring and receiving salt supernate solutions to and from the Tank Farms and staging feed for the Saltstone Facility. Before returning Tank 50H to Tank Farm service as a non-organic tank, less than 5 kg of TPB must remain in Tank 50H. Recently, camera inspections in Tank 50H revealed two large mounds of solid material, one in the vicinity of the B5 Riser Transfer Pump and the other on the opposite side of the tank. Personnel sampled and analyzed this material to determine its composition. The sample analysis indicated presence of a significant quantity of organics in the solid material. This quantity of organic material exceeds the 5 kg limit for declaring only trace amounts of organic material remain in Tank 50H. Additionally, these large volumes of solids, calculated as approximately 61K gallons, present other

  1. TECHNOLOGIES FOR CFC/HALON DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an overview of the current status of possible technologies used to destroy chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons chemicals implicated in the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol an international treaty to control the production a...

  2. TECHNOLOGIES FOR CFC/HALON DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an overview of the current status of possible technologies used to destroy chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons chemicals implicated in the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol an international treaty to control the production a...

  3. Habitat destruction and the extinction debt revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1996-02-01

    A very important analysis of the problem of habitat destruction concluded that such destruction may lead to an extinction debt, which is the irreversible loss of species following a prolonged transient or delay. An error in interpretation of this model led the authors to apply the results to all types of habitat destruction, but in fact the model applies only to an across-the-board decrease in fecundity, not to disturbances. For repeated, spatially random disturbance, a different model applies. For habitat destruction on regional scales (reduction in ecosystem area without disturbance in remnant areas), one must, in contrast, apply species-area relations based on the distribution of different habitat types (e.g., elevational and rainfall gradients, physiographic and edaphic variability). The error in interpretation of the basic model is presented, followed by clarification of model usage and development of a new model that applies to disturbance events.

  4. 32 CFR 644.497 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Destruction. Disposal by the Corps of Engineers, as authorized in AR 405-90, does not contemplate expenditure... appropriate Army of Air Force command for disposal action under AR 405-90 or AFR 87-4 as appropriate. However...

  5. Benefiting from a trail of destruction.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Julie

    2013-09-01

    Data destruction and IT asset disposal are heavily regulated and complex areas, especially within the NHS, which is responsible for the safekeeping of extremely personal data on millions of UK citizens. In the light of escalating efforts by the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) to ensure compliance with the Data Protection Act 1998, data destruction specialist, Julie Pickersgill, of Advanced Digital Dynamics, outlines the requirements on estates departments for the secure disposal of IT equipment - and how to avoid falling foul of the law.

  6. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  7. Prediction of Eggshell Ultrastructure via Some Non-destructive and Destructive Measurements in Fayoumi Breed

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Lamiaa M.; Galal, A.; Shemeis, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Possibilities of predicting eggshell ultrastructure from direct non-destructive and destructive measurements were examined using 120 Fayoumi eggs collected from the flock at 45 weeks of age. The non-destructive measurements included weight, length and width of the egg. The destructive measurements were breaking strength and shell thickness. The eggshell ultrastructure traits involved the total thickness of eggshell layer, thickness of palisade layer, cone layer and total score. Prediction of total thickness of eggshell layer based on non-destructive measurements individually or simultaneously was not possible (R2 = 0.01 to 0.16). The destructive measurements were far more accurate than the non-destructive in predicting total thickness of eggshell layer. Prediction based on breaking strength alone was more accurate (R2 = 0.85) than that based on shell thickness alone (R2 = 0.72). Adding shell thickness to breaking strength (the best predictor) increased the accuracy of prediction by 5%. The results obtained indicated that both non-destructive and destructive measurements were not useful in predicting the cone layer (R2 not exceeded 18%). The maximum accuracy of prediction of total score (R2 = 0.48) was obtained from prediction based on breaking strength alone. Combining shell thicknesses and breaking strength into one equation was no help in improving the accuracy of prediction. PMID:26104404

  8. Prediction of Eggshell Ultrastructure via Some Non-destructive and Destructive Measurements in Fayoumi Breed.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Lamiaa M; Galal, A; Shemeis, A R

    2015-07-01

    Possibilities of predicting eggshell ultrastructure from direct non-destructive and destructive measurements were examined using 120 Fayoumi eggs collected from the flock at 45 weeks of age. The non-destructive measurements included weight, length and width of the egg. The destructive measurements were breaking strength and shell thickness. The eggshell ultrastructure traits involved the total thickness of eggshell layer, thickness of palisade layer, cone layer and total score. Prediction of total thickness of eggshell layer based on non-destructive measurements individually or simultaneously was not possible (R(2) = 0.01 to 0.16). The destructive measurements were far more accurate than the non-destructive in predicting total thickness of eggshell layer. Prediction based on breaking strength alone was more accurate (R(2) = 0.85) than that based on shell thickness alone (R(2) = 0.72). Adding shell thickness to breaking strength (the best predictor) increased the accuracy of prediction by 5%. The results obtained indicated that both non-destructive and destructive measurements were not useful in predicting the cone layer (R(2) not exceeded 18%). The maximum accuracy of prediction of total score (R(2) = 0.48) was obtained from prediction based on breaking strength alone. Combining shell thicknesses and breaking strength into one equation was no help in improving the accuracy of prediction.

  9. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    completely.Amplifying EncountersFor stars that survive their encounter with the black hole, Guillochon and McCourt find that the process of partial disruption and re-accretion can amplify the magnetic field of the star by up to a factor of 20. Repeated encounters of the star with the black hole could amplify the field even more.The authors suggest an interesting implication of this idea: a population of highly magnetized stars may have formed in our own galactic center, resulting from their encounters with the supermassive black hole Sgr A*.A turbulent magnetic field forms after a partial stellar disruption and re-accretion of the tidal tails. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]Effects in DestructionFor stars that are completely shredded and form a tidal stream after their encounter with the black hole, the authors find that the magnetic field geometry straightens within the stream of debris. There, the pressure of the magnetic field eventually dominates over the gas pressure and self-gravity.Guillochon and McCourt find that the fields new configuration isnt ideal for powering jets from the black hole but it is strong enough to influence how the stream interacts with itself and its surrounding environment, likely affecting what we can expect to see from these short-lived events.These simulations have clearly demonstrated the need to further explore the role of magnetic fields in the disruptions of stars by black holes.BonusCheck out the full (brief) video from one of the simulations by Guillochon and McCourt (be sure to watch it in high-res!). It reveals the evolution of a stars magnetic field configuration as the star is partially disrupted by the forces of a supermassive black hole and then re-accretes.CitationJames Guillochon and Michael McCourt 2017 ApJL 834 L19. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/834/2/L19

  10. VOC destruction by water diluted hydrogen mild combustion.

    PubMed

    Sabia, P; Romeo, F; de Joannon, M; Cavaliere, A

    2007-06-01

    This study represents a preliminary numerical evaluation of the effect of steam dilution and hydrogen addition on the oxidation of formaldehyde and benzene, chosen as representative of the volatile organic compounds (VOC), in mild condition by evaluating the autoignition time and the steady state attainment. These parameters are important in the design of thermal VOC destruction plants since they influence the abatement efficiency and, therefore, the plant dimension. It has come out that, in comparison with the system diluted in nitrogen, steam induces lower autoignition times and, on the other hand, longer times for the attainment of the steady state. In contrast, for very high water content the autoignition time slightly increases. In particular results have shown that is possible to identify an optimum value of steam content that allows for the attainment of the steady state condition by the lowest residence time. Hydrogen addition to systems diluted in nitrogen promotes the oxidation reactions and anticipates the steady state condition. In steam diluted systems hydrogen delays the autoignition of the mixtures even though anticipates the attainment of the complete destruction of the VOC. The rate of production analysis has showed that the H(2)/O(2) reactions, that promote the ignition and the destruction of VOC, are sensibly modified by the presence of water and hydrogen.

  11. [Prognostic significance of helical CT in patients with destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, T V

    2000-01-01

    Spiral scanning computed tomography (CT) is able not only to image the pancreas and to evaluate its structure, but to interpret the status of the adjacent organs and tissues. CT symptoms of pancreatic necrotic changes and multiorgan failure were studied in the prospective follow-up of 47 patients with prior destructive pancreatitis (158 studies). CT differentially substantiated indications for choosing treatment policy for different forms of pancreatic lesions. The paper gives a quantitative assessment of necrotic pancreatic parencymatous areas and shows its prognostic value.

  12. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  14. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  16. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials via Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the use of ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging for the non-destructive evaluation of the degree of cure, aging, and other properties of resin-based composite materials. This method can be used in air, and is portable for field use. This method operates in reflectance, absorbance, and luminescence modes. The ultraviolet source is used to illuminate a composite surface of interest. In reflectance mode, the reflected response is acquired via the imaging system or via the spectrometer. The spectra are analyzed for organic compounds (conjugated organics) and inorganic compounds (semiconducting band-edge states; luminescing defect states such as silicates, used as adhesives for composite aerospace applications; and metal oxides commonly used as thermal coating paints on a wide range of spacecraft). The spectra are compared with a database for variation in conjugation, substitution, or length of molecule (in the case of organics) or band edge position (in the case of inorganics). This approach is useful in the understanding of material quality. It lacks the precision in defining the exact chemical structure that is found in other materials analysis techniques, but it is advantageous over methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and chromatography in that it can be used in the field to assess significant changes in chemical structure that may be linked to concerns associated with weaknesses or variations in structural integrity, without disassembly of or destruction to the structure of interest.

  17. Destruction of commercial pesticides by cerium redox couple mediated electrochemical oxidation process in continuous feed mode.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Subramanian; Chung, Sang Joon; Ryu, Jae-Yong; Moon, Il Shik

    2009-12-30

    Mediated electrochemical oxidation was carried out for the destruction of commercial pesticide formulations using cerium(IV) in nitric acid as the mediator electrolyte solution in a bench scale set up. The mediator oxidant was regenerated in situ using an electrochemical cell. The real application of this sustainable process for toxic organic pollutant destruction lies in its ability for long term continuous operation with continuous organic feeding and oxidant regeneration with feed water removal. In this report we present the results of fully integrated MEO system. The task of operating the continuous feed MEO system for a long time was made possible by continuously removing the feed water using an evaporator set up. The rate of Ce(IV) regeneration in the electrochemical cell and the consumption for the pesticide destruction was matched based on carbon content of the pesticides. It was found that under the optimized experimental conditions for Ce(III) oxidation, organic addition and water removal destruction efficiency of ca. 99% was obtained for all pesticides studied. It was observed that the Ce(IV) concentration was maintained nearly the same throughout the experiment. The stable operation for 6h proved that the process can be used for real applications and for possible scale up for the destruction of larger volumes of toxic organic wastes.

  18. Entropic destruction of a moving heavy quarkonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Tabatabaei, Seyed Kamal

    2016-07-01

    Recently it has been shown that the peak of the quarkonium entropy at the deconfinement transition is related to the emergent entropic force which destructs the quarkonium. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we consider dissociation of a moving heavy quarkonium by entropic force. For larger distance of quark and antiquark, the entropy of moving quarkonium increases, monotonically. We find that the entropic force destructs the moving quarkonium easier than the static case. By considering the Maxwell charge, we study the effect of the medium on the destruction of heavy quarkonium. It is shown that the quarkonium dissociates easier in the medium. Our results imply that the quarkonium dissociates easier when it moves orthogonal to the plasma wind rather than parallel.

  19. [Comparative toxicity of photosensitizers in varying destruction].

    PubMed

    Sinitsina, O O; Zholdakova, Z I; Poliakova, E E; Golovach, E N; Sycheva, L P; Beliaeva, N N; Kuznetsova, N A

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity of the photosensitizers proflavine acetate (PA) versus methylene blue (MB) was evaluated during their varying destruction. Under the influence of visible light, a partial (25%) transformation of the photosensitizers was shown to be attended by their enhanced toxicity and 100% destruction of the parent substances caused a reduction in their hazard. PA and its phototransformation products mainly affect the antiperoxide protection system and the structural and functional states of the liver, kidney, and duodenum. The maximum noneffective dose is 0.002 mg/kg. The possibility of using PA for water disinfection depends on the ratio of safe and effective concentrations. A partial (25%) MB destruction products cause mutagenic effects; the permissible dose of the mutagen is 0.00025 mg/kg. MB is not recommended for disinfection of all types of waters.

  20. Creative Destruction and Subjective Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Aghion, Philippe; Akcigit, Ufuk; Deaton, Angus; Roulet, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the relationship between turnover-driven growth and subjective wellbeing. Our model of innovation-led growth and unemployment predicts that: (i) the effect of creative destruction on expected individual welfare should be unambiguously positive if we control for unemployment, less so if we do not; (ii) job creation has a positive and job destruction has a negative impact on wellbeing; (iii) job destruction has a less negative impact in US Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) within states with more generous unemployment insurance policies; (iv) job creation has a more positive effect on individuals that are more forward-looking. The empirical analysis using cross-sectional MSA-level and individual-level data provide empirical support to these predictions.

  1. Non-Destructive State Machine Reverse Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jessica L.

    2013-10-10

    Most of the integrated circuits (ICs) that are in electronic systems today are based on state machines. We are taking advantage of this to develop a hardware reverse engineering method that discovers the IC’s underlying state machine, rather than its transistors and gates. While there are other methods for destructively reverse engineering ICs or for non-destructively characterizing ICs, our method offers a fast and accurate analysis while remaining non-destructive. To do this, we present an intelligent brute-force method of exploring the logic of the IC using only the input and outputs designed into the IC - the I/O pins. From this exploration, we can apply a folding algorithm to discover the designed state machine.

  2. Synthesis of Triptorelin Lactate Catalyzed by Lipase in Organic Media

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hong; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Hong; Xun, Erna; Chen, Ge; Yue, Hong; Tang, Ning; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Triptorelin lactate was successfully synthesized by porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) in organic solvents. The effects of acyl donor, substrate ratio, organic solvent, temperature, and water activity were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a yield of 30% for its ester could be achieved in the reaction for about 48 h. PMID:22949842

  3. Synthesis of triptorelin lactate catalyzed by lipase in organic media.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hong; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Hong; Xun, Erna; Chen, Ge; Yue, Hong; Tang, Ning; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Triptorelin lactate was successfully synthesized by porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) in organic solvents. The effects of acyl donor, substrate ratio, organic solvent, temperature, and water activity were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a yield of 30% for its ester could be achieved in the reaction for about 48 h.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinases in destructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Houghton, A McGarry

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play essential physiologic roles in numerous processes ranging from development to wound repair. Unfortunately, given the broad substrate specificity of the MMP family as a whole, aberrant degradation of extracellular matrix proteins can result in destructive disease. Emphysema, the result of destroyed lung elastin and collagen matrix, is the prototypical example of such a destructive process. More recent data has highlighted that MMPs play much more elaborate physiologic and pathophysiologic roles than simple matrix protein cleavage. Key pathophysiological roles for MMPs in emphysema will be discussed herein.

  5. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs

  6. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  7. 27 CFR 40.253 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction. 40.253 Section 40.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  8. Climatology of destructive hailstorms in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Jorge A.; Brand, Veronika S.; Capucim, Mauricio N.; Felix, Rafael R.; Martins, Leila D.; Freitas, Edmilson D.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; Hallak, Ricardo; Dias, Maria A. F. Silva; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Hail is considered to be among the most complex extreme weather phenomena of the atmosphere. Every year, notably in the southern Brazilian States, destructive hailstorms result in serious economic losses and cause a great social impact destroying crops, homes, medical facilities and schools. The aim of this study is to document the spatial, annual, and diurnal variation in destructive hailstorm frequency during a 22 year period from 1991 to 2012 in Brazil. The analysis is based on a collection of reports released by the Brazilian National Civil Protection Secretariat - SEDEC. Based on reports of emergency assistance given to the population affected by a disaster, the information discussed in this work is assumed as representative only of destructive hailstorms. The analysis reveals a large spatial variability, with the majority of hailstorm occurrences distributed in the three southernmost Brazilian States. Within those states, the number of hail reports was observed to increase with increasing population density in rural areas. Hailstorms were reported most often in the late afternoon and evening of the winter/spring transition, in agreement with a few other areas in the subtropics with available studies, but different from the majority of studies for temperate zones, which suggest spring/summer as the hail season. Although the results show some discrepancies compared to satellite hail signatures, the findings of this work confirm that southern Brazil is a region prone to the development of strong convective storms, with high annual numbers of destructive hail events.

  9. Destruction of dirty ice mantles by sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aannestad, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Dirty ice mantles are destroyed efficiently by sputtering of He atoms when clouds encounter shock velocities greater than 13-15 km/sec. Destruction due to grain-grain collisions is found to be about .001 times less efficient. Sputtering in the hot intercloud medium should make intercloud grains smaller than cloud grains.

  10. Home destruction within the Hayman Fire perimeter

    Treesearch

    Jack Cohen; Rick Stratton

    2003-01-01

    The Hayman Fire report on home destruction examines the following four questions: 1. How many homes were destroyed out of the total number of homes within the Hayman Fire perimeter? 2. What was the relative wildland fire intensity associated with the destroyed homes? 3. What was the categorical cause of home ignition suggested by the associated wildland fire intensity...

  11. Neutron capture nuclei-containing carbon nanoparticles for destruction of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kuo Chu; Lai, Po Dong; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Wang, Pei-Jen; Yuan, Chiun-Jye

    2010-11-01

    HeLa cells were incubated with neutron capture nuclei (boron-10 and gadolinium)-containing carbon nanoparticles, followed by irradiation of slow thermal neutron beam. Under a neutron flux of 6 x 10(11) n/cm(2) (or 10 min irradiation at a neutron flux of 1 x 10(9) n/cm(2) s), the percentages of acute cell death at 8 h after irradiation are 52, 55, and 28% for HeLa cells fed with BCo@CNPs, GdCo@CNPs, and Co@CNPs, respectively. The proliferation capability of the survived HeLa cells was also found to be significantly suppressed. At 48 h after neutron irradiation, the cell viability further decreases to 35 +/- 5% as compared to the control set receiving the same amount of neutron irradiation dose but in the absence of carbon nanoparticles. This work demonstrates "proof-of-concept" examples of neutron capture therapy using (10)B-, (157)Gd-, and (59)Co-containing carbon nanoparticles for effective destruction of cancer cells. It will also be reported the preparation and surface functionalization of boron or gadolinium doped core-shell cobalt/carbon nanoparticles (BCo@CNPs, GdCo@CNPs and Co@CNPs) using a modified DC pulsed arc discharge method, and their characterization by various spectroscopic measurements, including TEM, XRD, SQUID, FT-IR, etc. Tumor cell targeting ability was introduced by surface modification of these carbon nanoparticles with folate moieties.

  12. DESTRUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CATALYTIC OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the application of catalytic oxidation to four types of air emission sources: (1) groundwater stripping operations, (2) graphic arts facilities, (3) f1exographic printing plants, and (4) latex monomer production. Characteristics of each of these emissions are ...

  13. Electrochemical Destruction of Nitrates and Organics FY1995 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1995-05-30

    Production of nuclear materials within the DOE complex has yielded large volumes of high-level waste containing hazardous species such as nitrate, nitrite, chromium, and mercury. Processes being developed for the permanent disposal of these wastes are aimed at separating the bulk of the radioactivity, primarily 137-Cs and 90-Sr, into a small volume for incorporation into a vitrified wasteform, with the remainder being incorporated into a low-level wasteform.

  14. Nerve-gas destruction with metal organic frameworks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as saran, soman, and tabun have been developed since World War I. Their mode of action involves the rapid formation of phosphate ester bonds with acetylcholinesterase to attenuate activity. The cumulative result of this activity loss leads to a...

  15. Nerve-gas destruction with metal organic frameworks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as saran, soman, and tabun have been developed since World War I. Their mode of action involves the rapid formation of phosphate ester bonds with acetylcholinesterase to attenuate activity. The cumulative result of this activity loss leads to a...

  16. DESTRUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CATALYTIC OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the application of catalytic oxidation to four types of air emission sources: (1) groundwater stripping operations, (2) graphic arts facilities, (3) f1exographic printing plants, and (4) latex monomer production. Characteristics of each of these emissions are ...

  17. Abundance patterns in multi-species communities exposed to habitat destruction.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Andrew; Li, Bai-Lian

    2008-04-21

    Habitat destruction resulting from human activity is a serious threat to biodiversity. The model developed by Tilman et al. [Tilman, D., May, R.M., Lehman, C.L., Nowak, M.A., 1994. Habitat destruction and the extinction debt. Nature 371, 65-66] has become an important tool for analyzing persistence of species in habitats under destruction. However, most analysis and applications of this model have been limited to the studies of species richness and the order of extinction. In this paper, we address other important issues related to succession of species abundances. We are interested in how the abundance ranking (i.e., the ranking of species according to their relative abundances), the rank-abundance curve and the community diversity alter in habitats under destruction. We treat analytically the model of Tilman et al. and investigate three different scenarios. We consider that before destruction: (i) best competitors are most abundant; (ii) all species are equally abundant; (iii) poor competitors are most abundant. In each case, we have derived explicit expressions for equilibrium species abundances depending on proportion of destroyed sites. Then we follow analytically alteration in the initial abundance ranking, show complex patterns of succession of species abundances and consider transformations in the rank-abundance curve. We demonstrate patterns of self-organization in abundance distributions emerging as a response to habitat destruction. We show non-monotonic dependence of community diversity and community evenness on proportion of destroyed sites.

  18. Photocatalytic destruction of chlorinated solvents with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.; Prairie, M.; Yellowhorse, L.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Solar Energy Research Institute are developing a photocatalytic process to destroy organic contaminants in water. Tests with common water pollutants are being conducted at Sandia's Solar Thermal Test Facility using a near commercial-scale single-axis tracking parabolic trough system with glass pipe mounted at its focus. Experiments at this scale provide verification of laboratory studies and allow examination of design and operation issues at a real-life scale. The catalyst, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is a harmless material found in paint, cosmetics and toothpaste. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of key process parameters on destruction rates of two chlorinated organic compounds which are common water pollutants: trichloroethylene and trichloroethane. In this paper, we summarize the engineering-scale results of these experiments and analyses. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Destructive and Non-Destructive Analysis Techniques for Failure Detection of QFN Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhila, M. N.; Wedianti, S.; Suhaimi, W. S. W. M.; Aishah, I.

    2010-03-01

    One of the latest developments in packaging technology is the QFN (Quad Flat Non-Lead) packages, which is both a chip scale package and plastic encapsulated package with lead pad at the bottom. In this paper, different type of commercial QFN single die packages were characterized by using destructive and non-destructive techniques. Non-destructive techniques such as Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) and X-Ray analysis were used to observe package cracking, delamination and other failure mode. Application of SAM include detection of delaminations between lead frame, die face, paddle, heat sink, cracks and plastic encapsulant. In comparison to other techniques, SAM is sensitive to detect beneath the surface of devices which would be inaccessible otherwise by both conventional optical and electron microscopy inspection methods. Destructive technique such as Field Emission Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was implemented to address the failures of the QFN single die packages such as die cracking, lifted ball bonds and other failure mode.

  20. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: specific activity and influence on the production of acetic acid, ethanol and higher alcohols in the first 48 h of fermentation of grape must.

    PubMed

    Millán, C; Mauricio, J C; Ortega, J M

    1990-01-01

    The changes in the specific activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-I and ADH-II) and aldehyde dehydrogenases [AIDH-NADP+ and AIDH-NAD(P)+] from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the first 48 h of fermentation of grape must were investigated. The biosynthesis of ADH-I and AIDH-NADP+ took place basically during the adaptation of the yeasts to the must (first 4 h), while that of ADH-II occurred immediately after exponential growth (after 12 h). From the products produced by the yeast, only the specific rate of production of ethanol was found to be directly related to the specific activity of ADH-I.

  1. Technical area status report for waste destruction and stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, J.D.; Harris, T.L.; DeWitt, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs/activities throughout the DOE complex. In order to successfully achieve the goal of properly managing waste and the cleanup of the DOE sites, the EM was divided into five organizations: the Office of Planning and Resource Management (EM-10); the Office of Environmental Quality Assurance and Resource Management (EM-20); the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30); the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40); and the Office of Technology and Development (EM-50). The mission of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to develop treatment technologies for DOE`s operational and environmental restoration wastes where current treatment technologies are inadequate or not available. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by OTD to assist in the development of treatment technologies for the DOE mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) whose purpose is to identify, evaluate, and develop treatment technologies within five general technical areas representing waste treatment functions from initial waste handling through generation of final waste forms. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Physical/Chemical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. This report describes the functions of the Waste Destruction and Stabilization (WDS) group. Specifically, the following items are discussed: DOE waste stream identification; summary of previous efforts; summary of WDS treatment technologies; currently funded WDS activities; and recommendations for future activities.

  2. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  3. Radiation-thermal destruction of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Ershov, B.G.; Samuilova, S.D.; Petropavlovskii, G.A.; Vasil'eva, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    A method of reducing the degree of polymerization of cellulose is explored. The cellulose is irradiated with gamma radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. The temperature is controlled between 303-433/sup 0/K. The temperature dependence of the depolymerization is described graphically. The radiation destruction of cellulose is accompanied by the formation of carboxyl and carbonyl groups. The carbonyl concentration is considerably higher than carboxyl at all temperatures. The concentrations of these groups increases with increasing temperature.

  4. Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Kanna, R.L.; Chambers, R.D.; Upadhye, R.S.; Promeda, C.O.

    1996-10-01

    There is a great need for alternatives to open burn/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except for CO from PBXN-109 processing. This report describes experimental results of the destruction of the base hydrolysates.

  5. Freon destruction in a nanosecond corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmedzhanov, R.A.; Vikharev, A.L.; Gorbachev, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the main reasons for destruction of the ozone layer is high content of freon in the Earth atmosphere. The life time of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in the stratosphere is tens of years, therefore, along with abandonment of the use of CFC compositions. of importance is the search for efficient ways to purify both industrial gaseous wastes and the atmosphere proper from pollution. Among various purification methods the most promising seems to be the method based on freon destruction during processes of dissociative electron attachment. Freon molecules in this case are destroyed selectively mainly at the stage of plasma decay by cold electrons, for which the constant of dissociative attachment is especially high (k{sub a} = 10{sup -7} - 10{sup -9}cm{sup 3}/s). By that, as the source of electrons we propose using nanosecond discharges with a high level of the reduced electric field, E/N, when the main share of the pulse energy goes into ionization, and gas heating is insignificant. These requirements are best met by the use of barrier and pulse corona discharge, which are widely employed for ozone generation and purification of gaseous wastes. Plasma of such discharges is composed of chaotically arising nanosecond microdischarges. The possibility to purify atmosphere from freons directly by means of a nanosecond microwave discharge produced the troposphere by ground-based sources is also studied. An important problem for the said applications, along with estimation of efficiency of freon destruction is determination of chemical composition of the products that appear at the post-discharge stage as the result of plasma chemical reaction. This presentation gives results of experimental studies of freon destruction in a pulse-periodic nanosecond corona discharge.

  6. Technologies Underlying Weapons of Mass Destruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Safeguards and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle 181 Appendix 4-D: Dual -Use Export Controls 191 5 The Proliferation of Delivery Systems summary 198...to which ‘‘ dual -use’ technologies or products—those also having legitimate applications-are involved in the devel- opment of weapons of mass...destruction is important, since both the feasibility of controlling dual -use items and the implications of doing so depend on the extent of their other

  7. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Aerospace Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Master of Science in Materials Science Jeremy D. Johnson, BS Captain, USAF March 2009 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...non-destructive material evaluation (NDE) were used to inspect various forms of damage commonly found in aerospace fiberglass composites: voids...ultrasound, and flash IR thermography were analyzed for the detection of defects. Test results and analysis of each NDE method’s capabilities

  8. Emergency Destruction of Information Storing Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Section G HEAT and INCINERATION APPENDIX H- DESTRUCT TECHNOLOGY COMlPENDIM Section A SHREDDERS Section B PULVERIZERS Section C HAMMERMILLS Section D...Mechanical mutilation devices that are based on cutting can be grouped into three cate- gories: shredders, rotary knife mills, and hammermills . The...by the rotating blades and passed through the cutting stage again. c. Hammermiils A hammermill is a device that destroys material by pounding it

  9. Acoustic Responses after Total Destruction of the Cochlear Receptor: Brainstem and Auditory Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazals, Yves; Aran, Jean-Marie; Erre, Jean-Paul; Guilhaume, Anne

    1980-10-01

    Acoustically evoked neural activity has been recorded from the brainstem and auditory cortex of guinea pigs after complete destruction of the organ of Corti by the aminoglycosidic antibiotic amikacin. These responses to sound differ in important respects from the evoked potentials normally recorded from the auditory pathways. At the brainstem level they resemble the potentials reported by others after stimulation of the vestibular nerve.

  10. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.25 Proof of destruction. The Veterinarian in Charge will accept... accredited veterinarian attesting to the destruction of the animals; (d) A written, sworn statement by the...

  11. Destructive Single-Event Failures in Schottky Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Gigliuto, Robert A.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak; Chen, Dakai; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains test results for destructive failures in DC-DC converters. We have shown that Schottky diodes are susceptible to destructive single-event effects. Future work will be completed to identify parameter that determines diode susceptibility.

  12. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  13. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  14. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  15. Facing towards or Turning away from Destructive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Denis; Skogstad, Helga

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…

  16. Facing towards or Turning away from Destructive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Denis; Skogstad, Helga

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…

  17. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine...

  18. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine...

  19. Hair cell regeneration in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs following aminoglycoside toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. A.; Torres, M. A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1993-01-01

    Adult bullfrog were given single intraotic injections of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and sacrificed at postinjection times ranging from 0.5 to 9 days. The saccular and utricular maculae of normal and injected animals were examined in wholemount and cross-section. Intraotic 200 microM gentamicin concentrations resulted in the uniform destruction of the hair bundles and, at later times, the cell bodies of saccular hair cells. In the utriculus, striolar hair cells were selectively damaged while extrastriolar hair cells were relatively unaffected. Regenerating hair cells, identified in sectioned material by their small cell bodies and short, well-formed hair bundles, were seen in the saccular and utricular maculae as early as 24-48 h postinjection. Immature versions of mature hair cell types in both otolith organs were recognized by the presence or absence of a bulbed kinocilia and the relative lengths of their kinocilia and longest stereocilia. Utricular hair cell types with kinocilia longer than their longest stereocilia were observed at earlier than hair cell types with shorter kinocilia. In the sacculus, the hair bundles of gentamicin-treated animals, even at 9 days postinjection, were significantly smaller than those of normal animals. The hair bundles of utricular hair cells, on the other hand, reached full maturity within the same time period.

  20. Hair cell regeneration in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs following aminoglycoside toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. A.; Torres, M. A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1993-01-01

    Adult bullfrog were given single intraotic injections of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and sacrificed at postinjection times ranging from 0.5 to 9 days. The saccular and utricular maculae of normal and injected animals were examined in wholemount and cross-section. Intraotic 200 microM gentamicin concentrations resulted in the uniform destruction of the hair bundles and, at later times, the cell bodies of saccular hair cells. In the utriculus, striolar hair cells were selectively damaged while extrastriolar hair cells were relatively unaffected. Regenerating hair cells, identified in sectioned material by their small cell bodies and short, well-formed hair bundles, were seen in the saccular and utricular maculae as early as 24-48 h postinjection. Immature versions of mature hair cell types in both otolith organs were recognized by the presence or absence of a bulbed kinocilia and the relative lengths of their kinocilia and longest stereocilia. Utricular hair cell types with kinocilia longer than their longest stereocilia were observed at earlier than hair cell types with shorter kinocilia. In the sacculus, the hair bundles of gentamicin-treated animals, even at 9 days postinjection, were significantly smaller than those of normal animals. The hair bundles of utricular hair cells, on the other hand, reached full maturity within the same time period.

  1. Hair cell regeneration in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs following aminoglycoside toxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.; Torres, M. A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Adult bullfrogs were given single intraotic injections of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin sulfate and sacrificed at postinjection times ranging from 0.5 to 9 days. The saccular and utricular maculae of normal and injected animals were examined in wholemount and cross-section. Intraotic 200 (mu) M gentamicin concentrations resulted in the uniform destruction of the hair bundles and, at later times, the cell bodies of saccular hair cells. In the utriculus, striolar hair cells were selectively damaged while extrastriolar hair cells were relatively unaffected. Regenerating hair cells, identified in sectioned material by their small cell bodies and short, well-formed hair bundles, were seen in the saccular and utricular maculae as early as 24-48 h postinjection. Immature versions of mature hair cell types in both otolith organs were recognized by the presence of absence of a bulbed kinocilia and the relative lengths of their kinocilia and longest sterocilia. Utricular hair cell types with kinocilia longer than their longest stereocilia were observed at earlier times than hair cell types with shorter kinocilia. In the same sacculus, the hair bundles of gentamicin-treated animals, even at 9 days postinjection, were significantly smaller than those of normal animals. The hair bundles of utricular hair cells, on the other hand, reached full maturity within the same time period.

  2. Black carbon-mediated destruction of nitroglycerin and RDX by hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqing; Dana, Kathryn E; Mitch, William A

    2010-08-15

    The in situ remediation of sediments contaminated with explosives, including nitroglycerin and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), is desirable, particularly at bombing ranges where unexploded ordnance (UXO) renders excavation dangerous. Sulfides generated by biological sulfate reduction in sediments are potent nucleophiles and reductants that may contribute to the destruction of explosives. However, moderately hydrophobic explosives are likely to sorb to black carbons, which can constitute 10-30% of sediment organic carbon. In this study, we evaluated whether the black carbons accelerate these reactions or simply sequester explosives from aqueous phase reactions. Using environmentally-relevant sulfide and black carbon concentrations, our results indicated that black carbons accelerated the destruction of both compounds, yielding relatively harmless products on the time scale of hours. For both compounds, destruction increased with sulfide and graphite concentrations. Using sheet graphite as a model for graphene regions in black carbons, we evaluated whether graphene regions mediated the reduction of explosives by promoting electron transfer from sulfides. Our results demonstrated that the process was more complex. Using an electrochemical cell that enabled electron transfer from sulfides to explosives through graphite, but prevented nucleophilic substitution reactions, we found that nitroglycerin destruction, but not RDX destruction, could be explained by an electron transfer mechanism. Furthermore, surface area-normalized destruction rates for the same explosive varied for different black carbons. While black carbon-mediated destruction of explosives by sulfides is likely to be a significant contributor to their natural attenuation in sediments, a fundamental characterization of the reaction mechanisms is needed to better understand the process.

  3. Destruction of hazardous military wastes using plasma arc technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaras, L.; Qazi, M.

    1996-12-31

    A Plasma Arc Technology (PAT) system treats hazardous wastes in a furnace, at temperatures of 2,000 C, or higher, using a plasma torch. The organic components vaporize, decompose or oxidize. The off-gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitric oxides. A wet air scrubber is used to remove most of these gases. The scrubber water is treated and recycled. Metal-bearing solids are melted or vaporized. The solids are usually recovered as molten metal, or as non-leachable vitrified slag, suitable for disposal in a landfill. A Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment system was used to evaluate this technology for destruction of four military hazardous wastes: sludge from Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, TX; blast media from Letterkenny Army Depot, PA; medical incineration ash from Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; and contaminated soil from open burning/open detonation ground at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ.

  4. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOEpatents

    McNab, Jr., Walt W.; Reinhard, Martin

    2002-01-01

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  5. Destruction of hazardous wastes cofired in industrial boilers: pilot-scale parametrics testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbach, C.D.; Garman, A.R.

    1985-08-01

    Thermal destruction of wastes by direct incineration or by cofiring with conventional fuels in boilers, furnaces, or kilns is one of the most-effective methods currently available for disposal of hazardous organic material. However, more information is needed on the potential for emissions to the environment during thermal destruction. The specific objectives of the current study were to identify which of several boiler operational parameters have a major impact on boiler destruction and removal efficiency; and to evaluate and if practical, establish a mathematical model for predicting an upper limit on the amount of cofired waste that could be emitted. The program was carried out in three phases: a detailed characterization of thermal history and environment of a pilot-scale furnace under various sets of operating conditions; a study of the DRE of one compound as conditions were varied; and finally, a study of DRE's of several compounds burned simultaneously (a composite soup).

  6. Polymer mechanochemistry: from destructive to productive.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Nagamani, Chikkannagari; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2015-08-18

    When one brings "polymeric materials" and "mechanical action" into the same conversation, the topic of this discussion might naturally focus on everyday circumstances such as failure of fibers, fatigue of composites, abrasion of coatings, etc. This intuitive viewpoint reflects the historic consensus in both academia and industry that mechanically induced chemical changes are destructive, leading to polymer degradation that limits materials lifetime on both macroscopic and molecular levels. In the 1930s, Staudinger observed mechanical degradation of polymers, and Melville later discovered that polymer chain scission caused the degradation. Inspired by these historical observations, we sought to redirect the destructive mechanical energy to a productive form that enables mechanoresponsive functions. In this Account, we provide a personal perspective on the origin, barriers, developments, and key advancements of polymer mechanochemistry. We revisit the seminal events that offered molecular-level insights into the mechanochemical behavior of polymers and influenced our thinking. We also highlight the milestones achieved by our group along with the contributions from key comrades at the frontier of this field. We present a workflow for the design, evaluation, and development of new "mechanophores", a term that has come to mean a molecular unit that chemically responds in a selective manner to a mechanical perturbation. We discuss the significance of computation in identifying pairs of points on the mechanophore that promote stretch-induced activation. Attaching polymer chains to the mechanophore at the most sensitive pair and locating the mechanophore near the center of a linear polymer are thought to maximize the efficiency of mechanical-to-chemical energy transduction. We also emphasize the importance of control experiments to validate mechanochemical transformations, both in solution and in the solid state, to differentiate "mechanical" from "thermal" activation

  7. Destruction of Refractory Carbon in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana E.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Visser, Ruud; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2017-08-01

    The Earth and other rocky bodies in the inner solar system contain significantly less carbon than the primordial materials that seeded their formation. These carbon-poor objects include the parent bodies of primitive meteorites, suggesting that at least one process responsible for solid-phase carbon depletion was active prior to the early stages of planet formation. Potential mechanisms include the erosion of carbonaceous materials by photons or atomic oxygen in the surface layers of the protoplanetary disk. Under photochemically generated favorable conditions, these reactions can deplete the near-surface abundance of carbon grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by several orders of magnitude on short timescales relative to the lifetime of the disk out to radii of ˜20-100+ au from the central star depending on the form of refractory carbon present. Due to the reliance of destruction mechanisms on a high influx of photons, the extent of refractory carbon depletion is quite sensitive to the disk’s internal radiation field. Dust transport within the disk is required to affect the composition of the midplane. In our current model of a passive, constant-α disk, where α = 0.01, carbon grains can be turbulently lofted into the destructive surface layers and depleted out to radii of ˜3-10 au for 0.1-1 μm grains. Smaller grains can be cleared out of the planet-forming region completely. Destruction may be more effective in an actively accreting disk or when considering individual grain trajectories in non-idealized disks.

  8. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  9. Biologic and chemical weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, William P; Dilbero, Deanna; Schauben, Jay L

    2002-11-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) are capable of producing massive casualties and are typically grouped into nuclear, biologic, and chemical weapons. In the wake of the September 11th disasters, attention to terrorist groups and the potential for use of WMDs has increased. Biologic and chemical weapons are relatively accessible and inexpensive to develop, and are thought to be the most available to foreign states and subnational terrorist groups. This article reviews various biologic and chemical weapons, including emergency diagnosis and management of selected agents.

  10. [Oxidative destruction of estradiol after treatment with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase and methemoglobin].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Iu M; Matiushin, A I; Titov, V Iu

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that estradiol in the presence of horse radish peroxidase interacts with hydrogen peroxide, which is evidenced by an increase in its optical density at 280 nm. The photometering of samples containing estradiol and horse radish peroxidase upon their titration with hydrogen peroxide indicated that the increase in optical density stops after introducing hydrogen peroxide equimolar in concentration to estradiol. The stoichiometric ratio of estradiol consumed during oxidative destruction to hydrogen peroxide was 1:1. In the presence of ascorbate, the oxidative destruction of estradiol by the action of hydrogen peroxide, catalyzed by horse radish peroxidase, was observed only after a latent period and showed the same regularities as in the absence of ascorbate. It was found by calorimetry that, during the latent period, estradiol catalyzes the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate without undergoing oxidative destruction. The substrates of the peroxidase reaction benzidine, 1-naphthol, and phenol interact with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ascorbate and horse radish peroxidase in a similar way. Presumably, upon interaction with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of horse radish peroxidase, estradiol, like other substrates of this reaction, undergoes oxidative destruction by the mechanism of peroxidase reaction. It is shown that oxidative destruction of estradiol by the action of hydrogen peroxide can also be catalyzed by methemoglobin by the same mechanism. These data are important for understanding the role of estradiol in the organism and the pathways of its metabolic conversions.

  11. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    HALGREN DL

    2008-07-30

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation.

  12. Non-Inflammatory Destructive Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    José Ricardo Kina; Yumi Umeda Suzuki, Thaís; Fumico Umeda Kina, Eunice; Kina, Juliana; Kina, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-Inflammatory Destructive Periodontal Disease (NIDPD), is a severe destructive periodontal disease, that is characterized by the attachment loss and alveolar bone loss, without signs of the gingival inflammation, and the periodontal pocket development. Objective: Despite the fact that various cases of NIDPD have been reported; their etiology and disease evolution is still indefinite, and therefore, are open for discussion. Method: An NIDPD case was studied in order to demonstrate features of the disease, and discuss the possible etiology and treatment. Results: In this clinical case, the etiology of NIDPD seems to be an association of endogenous opportunist bacteria with anatomical aspects, occlusion pattern, emotional stress and mouth breathing condition. Conclusion: In spite of all cases described in the literature are comparable and may have similar etiology as related in this clinical case, additional research is needed to identify and clarify the role of the etiologic factors which determine the disease. PMID:27053968

  13. Brittle Destruction of Carbon Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koza, Y.; Amouroux, S.; Bazylev, B. N.; Berthe, E.; Kuehnlein, W.; Linke, J.; Penkalla, H. J.; Singheiser, L.

    Erosion mechanisms for different carbon based materials (graphite, carbon fiber composites (CFCs), Si-doped CFC) have been studied under brittle destruction under intense transient thermal loads (ELMs, plasma disruptions, VDEs) with respect to material erosion in different particle emission regimes, characterization of emitted particles, and behavior of preheated samples. Furthermore, the experimental data were compared with 3-D numerical simulation on the onset of brittle destruction. From a morphological point of view, the resulting erosion patterns on the test samples and ejected particles differ significantly for the three materials. The isotropic graphite shows a homogeneous erosion profile with flat craters, while the CFC forms no crater and only preferential erosion in localized spots in the PAN fiber area while the pitch fiber strands remain almost undamaged. The particles originating from graphite samples which have been collected on TEM grids are composed of nano sized amorphous carbon. CFCs have been the source for sub Î 1/4 m sized agglomerated fragments of crystalline carbon or silicon particles with âe 1/4 50 nm diameter. Preheating of the test samples to 500 or 800°C results in a remarkable increase of the erosion depth and weight loss compared to the samples loaded at room temperature and identical heat fluxes. In particular, melting phenomena in the Si-doped CFC materials became essential at elevated temperatures.

  14. Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation Cost Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    At space vehicle launch sites such as Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and Kennedy Space Center (KSC), toxic vapors and hazardous liquid wastes result from the handling of commodities (hypergolic fuels and oxidizers), most notably from transfer operations where fuel and oxidizer are transferred from bulk storage tanks or transfer tankers to space launch vehicles. During commodity transfer at CCAFS and KSC, wet chemical scrubbers (typically containing four scrubbing towers) are used to neutralize fuel saturated vapors from vent systems on tanks and tanker trailers. For fuel vapors, a citric acid solution is used to scrub out most of the hydrazine. Operation of both the hypergolic fuel and oxidizer vapor scrubbers generates waste scrubber liquor. Currently, scrubber liquor from the fuel vapor scrubber is considered non-hazardous. The scrubber liquor is defined as spent citric acid scrubber solution; the solution contains complexed hydrazine I methylhydrazine and is used to neutralize nonspecification hypergolic fuel generated by CCAFS and KSC. This project is a collaborative effort between Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Space and Missile Center (SMC), the CCAFS, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate microwave destruction technology for the treatment of non-specification hypergolic fuel generated at CCAFS and KSC. The project will capitalize on knowledge gained from microwave treatment work being accomplished by AFSPC and SMC at V AFB. This report focuses on the costs associated with the current non-specification hypergolic fuel neutralization process (Section 2.0) as well as the estimated costs of operating a mobile microwave unit to treat non-specification hypergolic fuel (Section 3.0), and compares the costs for each (Section 4.0).The purpose of this document is to assess the costs associated with waste hypergolic fuel. This document will report the costs associated with the current fuel

  15. PREFACE: III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing (SibTest 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    This issue of the journal is devoted to the research and studies presented at the III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing SibTest. The conference was held in Altai, Russia, on 27-31 July 2015. The conference brought together experts from different countries and organizations who had a great opportunity to share knowledge during oral and poster presentations and to initiate discussions on topics that are of interest to the conference attendees. The conference aimed to discuss innovative methods and the application of advanced technologies in non-destructive testing. The conference also attempted to bring together university, academic and industrial science, to expand the co-operation of scientists from different countries in research and development and the commercialization of innovative technologies in non-destructive testing. The key themes of the conference were: ultrasonic and acoustic testing; electromagnetic and thermal testing; various types of radiation non-destructive testing; passive and active testing techniques. The conference organizers are the Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Tomsk Polytechnic University, with the assistance of the Russian Society for Non-Destructive Testing and Technical Diagnostics, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research Tomsk State University, Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation.

  16. Dissociation of Tissue Destruction and Bacterial Expansion during Bubonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Guinet, Françoise; Avé, Patrick; Filali, Sofia; Huon, Christèle; Savin, Cyril; Huerre, Michel; Fiette, Laurence; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Activation and/or recruitment of the host plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme also active on extracellular matrix components, is a common invasive strategy of bacterial pathogens. Yersinia pestis, the bubonic plague agent, expresses the multifunctional surface protease Pla, which activates plasmin and inactivates fibrinolysis inhibitors. Pla is encoded by the pPla plasmid. Following intradermal inoculation, Y. pestis has the capacity to multiply in and cause destruction of the lymph node (LN) draining the entry site. The closely related, pPla-negative, Y. pseudotuberculosis species lacks this capacity. We hypothesized that tissue damage and bacterial multiplication occurring in the LN during bubonic plague were linked and both driven by pPla. Using a set of pPla-positive and pPla-negative Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains in a mouse model of intradermal injection, we found that pPla is not required for bacterial translocation to the LN. We also observed that a pPla-cured Y. pestis caused the same extensive histological lesions as the wild type strain. Furthermore, the Y. pseudotuberculosis histological pattern, characterized by infectious foci limited by inflammatory cell infiltrates with normal tissue density and follicular organization, was unchanged after introduction of pPla. However, the presence of pPla enabled Y. pseudotuberculosis to increase its bacterial load up to that of Y. pestis. Similarly, lack of pPla strongly reduced Y. pestis titers in LNs of infected mice. This pPla-mediated enhancing effect on bacterial load was directly dependent on the proteolytic activity of Pla. Immunohistochemistry of Pla-negative Y. pestis-infected LNs revealed extensive bacterial lysis, unlike the numerous, apparently intact, microorganisms seen in wild type Y. pestis-infected preparations. Therefore, our study demonstrates that tissue destruction and bacterial survival/multiplication are dissociated in the bubo and that the primary action of Pla is to protect

  17. Dissociation of Tissue Destruction and Bacterial Expansion during Bubonic Plague.

    PubMed

    Guinet, Françoise; Avé, Patrick; Filali, Sofia; Huon, Christèle; Savin, Cyril; Huerre, Michel; Fiette, Laurence; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Activation and/or recruitment of the host plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme also active on extracellular matrix components, is a common invasive strategy of bacterial pathogens. Yersinia pestis, the bubonic plague agent, expresses the multifunctional surface protease Pla, which activates plasmin and inactivates fibrinolysis inhibitors. Pla is encoded by the pPla plasmid. Following intradermal inoculation, Y. pestis has the capacity to multiply in and cause destruction of the lymph node (LN) draining the entry site. The closely related, pPla-negative, Y. pseudotuberculosis species lacks this capacity. We hypothesized that tissue damage and bacterial multiplication occurring in the LN during bubonic plague were linked and both driven by pPla. Using a set of pPla-positive and pPla-negative Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains in a mouse model of intradermal injection, we found that pPla is not required for bacterial translocation to the LN. We also observed that a pPla-cured Y. pestis caused the same extensive histological lesions as the wild type strain. Furthermore, the Y. pseudotuberculosis histological pattern, characterized by infectious foci limited by inflammatory cell infiltrates with normal tissue density and follicular organization, was unchanged after introduction of pPla. However, the presence of pPla enabled Y. pseudotuberculosis to increase its bacterial load up to that of Y. pestis. Similarly, lack of pPla strongly reduced Y. pestis titers in LNs of infected mice. This pPla-mediated enhancing effect on bacterial load was directly dependent on the proteolytic activity of Pla. Immunohistochemistry of Pla-negative Y. pestis-infected LNs revealed extensive bacterial lysis, unlike the numerous, apparently intact, microorganisms seen in wild type Y. pestis-infected preparations. Therefore, our study demonstrates that tissue destruction and bacterial survival/multiplication are dissociated in the bubo and that the primary action of Pla is to protect

  18. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this

  19. Developmentally programmed nuclear destruction during yeast gametogenesis.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Michael D; Cheung, Sally W T; Lee, Kwan Yin; Moffat, Jason; Meneghini, Marc D

    2012-07-17

    Autophagy controls cellular catabolism in diverse eukaryotes and modulates programmed cell death in plants and animals. While studies of the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided fundamental insights into the mechanisms of autophagy, the roles of cell death pathways in yeast are less well understood. Here, we describe widespread developmentally programmed nuclear destruction (PND) events that occur during yeast gametogenesis. PND is executed through apoptotic-like DNA fragmentation in coordination with an unusual form of autophagy that is most similar to mammalian lysosomal membrane permeabilization and mega-autophagy, a form of plant autophagic cell death. Undomesticated strains execute gametogenic PND broadly in maturing colonies to the apparent benefit of sibling cells, confirming its prominence during the yeast life cycle. Our results reveal that diverse cell-death-related processes converge during gametogenesis in a microbe distantly related to plants or animals, highlighting gametogenesis as a process during which programmed cell death mechanisms may have evolved.

  20. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  1. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  2. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  3. Destructive Single-Event Failures in Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, Megan C.; Gigliuto, Robert A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Kim, Hak; Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony M.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In this summary, we have shown that diodes are susceptible to destructive single-event effects, and that these failures occur along the guard ring. By determining the last passing voltages, a safe operating area can be derived. By derating off of those values, rather than by the rated voltage, like what is currently done with power MOSFETs, we can work to ensure the safety of future missions. However, there are still open questions about these failures. Are they limited to a single manufacturer, a small number, or all of them? Is there a threshold rated voltage that must be exceeded to see these failures? With future work, we hope to answer these questions. In the full paper, laser results will also be presented to verify that failures only occur along the guard ring.

  4. Is work conducive to self-destruction?

    PubMed

    Karcher, C J; Linden, L L

    1982-01-01

    While the current literature contains numerous studies and even more numerous assumptions linking aspects of the work setting, stress, and mortality; no systematic investigation has been made of possible patterns of stress-induced self-destructive behaviors among the work settings per se. This research paper attempts to help fill that gap by reporting on an analysis of data on industry, age and mortality rates for seven stress-related causes of death (suicide, homocide, hypertensive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, arteriosclerotic heart disease, ulcer of the stomach, and hypertension). Using available United States' mortality statistics, a consistent pattern is found for all of the stress-related types of deaths by industry and age. A suggested explanation of this pattern is based on status integration theory.

  5. NON-DESTRUCTIVE FLAW DETECTION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stateman, M.J.; Holloway, H.R.

    1957-12-17

    An apparatus is described for the non-destructive detection of flaws in electrical conducting articles. The particular feature of the detection apparatus is that a flaw in the front or back of the test article will not be masked by signals caused by the passage of the end and front of the article through the detection apparatus. The present invention alleviates the above problem by mounting detection coils on directly opposite sides of the test passageway so that the axes of the pickup coils are perpendicular to the axis of an energizing coil through which the article is passed. A flaw in the article will cause a change in the voltage induced in one pickup coil, but passage of the end or front of the article will not produce unequal signals. The signals are compared in appropriate electrical circuitry to actuate a recorder only when unequal signals are present, indicating the presence of a flaw.

  6. Non-destructive evaluation of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1996-01-01

    The composite materials have been used in aerospace industries for quite some time. Several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been developed to inspect composites in order to detect flaws, matrix cracking, and delamination. These methods include ultrasonics, acoustic emission, shearography, thermography, X-ray, and digital image correlation. The NDE Branch of Marshall Space Flight Center has recently acquired a thermal imaging NDE system. The same system has been used at NASA Langley Research Center for detecting disbonds. In order to compare different NDE methods, three carbon/carbon composite panels were used for experiment using ultrasonic C-scan, shearography, and thermography methods. These panels have teflon inserts to simulate the delamination between plies in a composite panel. All three methods have successfully located the insert. The experiment and results are presented in the following sections.

  7. Galaxy simulation with dust formation and destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Shohei; Hou, Kuan-Chou; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Todoroki, Keita; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2017-04-01

    We perform smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of an isolated galaxy with a new treatment for dust formation and destruction. To this aim, we treat dust and metal production self-consistently with star formation and supernova (SN) feedback. For dust, we consider a simplified model of grain size distribution by representing the entire range of grain sizes with large and small grains. We include dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by SN shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation and grain disruption by shattering. We find that the assumption of fixed dust-to-metal mass ratio becomes no longer valid when the galaxy is older than 0.2 Gyr, at which point the grain growth by accretion starts to contribute to the non-linear rise of dust-to-gas ratio. As expected in our previous one-zone model, shattering triggers grain growth by accretion since it increases the total surface area of grains. Coagulation becomes significant when the galaxy age is greater than ∼ 1 Gyr; at this epoch, the abundance of small grains becomes high enough to raise the coagulation rate of small grains. We further compare the radial profiles of dust-to-gas ratio (D) and dust-to-metal ratio (D/Z, i.e. depletion) at various ages with observational data. We find that our simulations broadly reproduce the radial gradients of dust-to-gas ratio and depletion. In the early epoch (≲ 0.3 Gyr), the radial gradient of D follows the metallicity gradient with D/Z determined by the dust condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta, while the D gradient is steeper than the Z gradient at the later epochs because of grain growth by accretion. The framework developed in this paper is applicable to any SPH-based galaxy evolution simulations including cosmological ones.

  8. Hypoxia and tissue destruction in pulmonary TB

    PubMed Central

    Belton, Moerida; Brilha, Sara; Manavaki, Roido; Mauri, Francesco; Nijran, Kuldip; Hong, Young T; Patel, Neva H; Dembek, Marcin; Tezera, Liku; Green, Justin; Moores, Rachel; Aigbirhio, Franklin; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Fryer, Tim D; Elkington, Paul T; Friedland, Jon S

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether lesions in human TB are hypoxic or whether this influences disease pathology. Human TB is characterised by extensive lung destruction driven by host matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly collagenases such as matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). Methods We investigated tissue hypoxia in five patients with PET imaging using the tracer [18F]-fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO) and by immunohistochemistry. We studied the regulation of MMP secretion in primary human cell culture model systems in normoxia, hypoxia, chemical hypoxia and by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibition. Results [18F]FMISO accumulated in regions of TB consolidation and around pulmonary cavities, demonstrating for the first time severe tissue hypoxia in man. Patlak analysis of dynamic PET data showed heterogeneous levels of hypoxia within and between patients. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb)-infected human macrophages, hypoxia (1% pO2) upregulated MMP-1 gene expression 170-fold, driving secretion and caseinolytic activity. Dimethyloxalyl glycine (DMOG), a small molecule inhibitor which stabilises the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, similarly upregulated MMP-1. Hypoxia did not affect mycobacterial replication. Hypoxia increased MMP-1 expression in primary respiratory epithelial cells via intercellular networks regulated by TB. HIF-1α and NF-κB regulated increased MMP-1 activity in hypoxia. Furthermore, M.tb infection drove HIF-1α accumulation even in normoxia. In human TB lung biopsies, epithelioid macrophages and multinucleate giant cells express HIF-1α. HIF-1α blockade, including by targeted siRNA, inhibited TB-driven MMP-1 gene expression and secretion. Conclusions Human TB lesions are severely hypoxic and M.tb drives HIF-1α accumulation, synergistically increasing collagenase activity which will lead to lung destruction and cavitation. PMID:27245780

  9. Delivery of Hydrogen Sulfide by Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia-reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gangbin; Yang, Li; Zhong, Lintao; Kutty, Shelby; Wang, Yuegang; Cui, Kai; Xiu, Jiancheng; Cao, Shiping; Huang, Qiaobing; Liao, Wangjun; Liao, Yulin; Wu, Juefei; Zhang, Wenzhu; Bin, Jianping

    2016-07-29

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an attractive agent for myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, however, systemic delivery of H2S may cause unwanted side effects. Ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction has become a promising tool for organ specific delivery of bioactive substance. We hypothesized that delivery of H2S by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and could avoid unwanted side effects. We prepared microbubbles carrying hydrogen sulfide (hs-MB) with different H2S/C3F8 ratios (4/0, 3/1, 2/2, 1/3, 0/4) and determined the optimal ratio. Release of H2S triggered by ultrasound was investigated. The cardioprotective effect of ultrasound targeted hs-MB destruction was investigated in a rodent model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. The H2S/C3F8 ratio of 2/2 was found to be an optimal ratio to prepare stable hs-MB with higher H2S loading capability. Ultrasound targeted hs-MB destruction triggered H2S release and increased the concentration of H2S in the myocardium and lung. Ultrasound targeted hs-MB destruction limited myocardial infarct size, preserved left ventricular function and had no influence on haemodynamics and respiratory. This cardioprotective effect was associated with alleviation of apoptosis and oxidative stress. Delivery of H2S to the myocardium by ultrasound targeted hs-MB destruction attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and may avoid unwanted side effects.

  10. Delivery of Hydrogen Sulfide by Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia-reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gangbin; Yang, Li; Zhong, Lintao; Kutty, Shelby; Wang, Yuegang; Cui, Kai; Xiu, Jiancheng; Cao, Shiping; Huang, Qiaobing; Liao, Wangjun; Liao, Yulin; Wu, Juefei; Zhang, Wenzhu; Bin, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an attractive agent for myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, however, systemic delivery of H2S may cause unwanted side effects. Ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction has become a promising tool for organ specific delivery of bioactive substance. We hypothesized that delivery of H2S by ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and could avoid unwanted side effects. We prepared microbubbles carrying hydrogen sulfide (hs-MB) with different H2S/C3F8 ratios (4/0, 3/1, 2/2, 1/3, 0/4) and determined the optimal ratio. Release of H2S triggered by ultrasound was investigated. The cardioprotective effect of ultrasound targeted hs-MB destruction was investigated in a rodent model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. The H2S/C3F8 ratio of 2/2 was found to be an optimal ratio to prepare stable hs-MB with higher H2S loading capability. Ultrasound targeted hs-MB destruction triggered H2S release and increased the concentration of H2S in the myocardium and lung. Ultrasound targeted hs-MB destruction limited myocardial infarct size, preserved left ventricular function and had no influence on haemodynamics and respiratory. This cardioprotective effect was associated with alleviation of apoptosis and oxidative stress. Delivery of H2S to the myocardium by ultrasound targeted hs-MB destruction attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and may avoid unwanted side effects. PMID:27469291

  11. Habitat destruction and the extinction debt revisited: the Allee effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-ling; Hui, Cang; Lin, Z S

    2009-09-01

    Habitat destruction, often caused by anthropogenic disturbance, can lead to the extinction of species at an unprecedented rate. It is important, therefore, to consider habitat destruction when assessing population viability. Another factor often ignored in population viability analysis, is the Allee effect that adds to the risk of populations already on the verge of extinction. Understanding the Allee effect on species dynamics and response to habitat destruction has intrinsic value in conservation prioritization. Here, the Allee effect was considered in a multi-species hierarchical competition model. Results showed that species persistence declines dramatically due to the Allee effect, and certain species become more susceptible to habitat destruction than others. Two extinction orders emerged under habitat destruction: either the best competitor becomes extinct first or the best colonizer first. The extinction debt and order, as well as the time lag between habitat destruction and species extinction, were found to be determined by species abundance and the intensity of the Allee effect.

  12. Destruction of Interstellar Dust in Evolving Supernova Remnant Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al. (1996), we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities 200 km s(exp -1) for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of approximately 2 compared to those of Jones et al. (1996), who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of approximately 3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of approximately 2-3 Gyr. These increases, while not able resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step towards understanding the origin, and evolution of dust in the ISM.

  13. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil

  14. Efficient destruction of hexachlorobenzene by calcium carbide through mechanochemical reaction in a planetary ball mill.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjie; Liu, Qingnan; Li, Wenfeng; Lu, Yingzhou; Meng, Hong; Li, Chunxi

    2017-01-01

    Mechanochemical destruction (MCD) is a good alternative to traditional incineration for the destruction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the key is to find an efficient co-milling reagent. Toward this aim, HCB was milled with various reagents in a planetary ball mill at room temperature, and CaC2 was found to be the best one. HCB can be destroyed completely within 20 min at a mass ratio of CaC2/HCB = 0.9 and a rotation speed of 300 rpm. The ground samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the destruction products are nonhazardous CaCl2 and carbon material with both crystalline and amorphous structures. On these bases, possible reaction pathways were proposed. Considering its excellent efficiency and safety, CaC2 may be the most feasible co-milling regent for MCD treatment of HCB. Further, the results are instructive for the destruction of other POPs.

  15. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-11-02

    As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput) unit to test the destruction of HE using the MSD process. The authors have demonstrated that HE`s and liquid propellants can be safely and fully destroyed using the molten salt destruction process. The authors are currently working on a number of improvements to the process. They are modifying the design of unit to obtain more throughput without any increase in salt entrainment. They are implementing an advanced nozzle design for injection of larger particles. They are defining operating envelopes for a number of high explosives and formulations. They are developing models to study the temperature profile of a top-feed nozzle for feeding larger particles into the unit.

  16. Application of microwave air plasma in the destruction of trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Rubio, S J; Quintero, M C; Rodero, A

    2011-02-15

    In this study, the destruction rate of a volatile waste destruction system based on a microwave plasma torch operating at atmospheric pressure was investigated. Atmospheric air was used to maintain the plasma and was introduced by a compressor, which resulted in lower operating costs compared to other gases such as argon and helium. To isolate the output gases and control the plasma discharge atmosphere, the plasma was coupled to a reactor. The effect of the gas flow rate, microwave power and initial concentration of compound on the destruction efficiency of the system was evaluated. In this study, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride were used as representative volatile organic compounds to determine the destruction rate of the system. Based on the experimental results, at an applied microwave power less than 1000 W, the proposed system can reduce input concentrations in the ppmv range to output concentrations at the ppbv level. High air flow rates and initial concentrations produced energy efficiency values greater than 1000 g/kW h. The output gases and species present in the plasma were analysed by gas chromatography and optical emission spectroscopy, respectively, and negligible amounts of halogenated compounds resulting from the cleavage of C(2)HCl(3) and CCl(4) were observed. The gaseous byproducts of decomposition consisted mainly of CO(2), NO and N(2)O, as well as trace amounts of Cl(2) and solid CuCl. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An investigation of the efficiency of plasma incineration for destruction of aromatics in incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect

    Retarides, C.J.; Chevis, E.A.; Busch, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma incineration is being investigated as a means for the vitrification of ash from a conventional incinerator. Incinerator ash, consisting of 20% bottom ash and 80% fly ash, is introduced into a plasma incinerator operated at a power of 100 kW. The sample is vitrified, leaving a glassy material that is more dense and therefore less voluminous than the ash, for disposal. Volume reduction by up to a factor of twenty may be achieved through this process. The resulting material can be used as concrete fill or can be disposed of in a landfill at a much lower cost than the original ash. Plasma incineration should also result in the nearly complete destruction of hazardous organic compounds. Plasma temperatures commonly reach more than 3000 Kelvin resulting in the thermal destruction of most organic compounds. The extent of the destruction of organic compounds found in incinerator ash has been investigated. Plasma incineration was completed at the Georgia Tech Research Institute Plasma Research Center (GTRI). All ash vitrified product samples were obtained from GTRI.

  18. State of the art. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of alveolar destruction in emphysema: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Tuder, Rubin M; Yoshida, Toshinori; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Petrache, Irina

    2006-08-01

    Emphysema consists of a unique pattern of alveolar destruction, resulting in marked airspace enlargement with reduction of alveolar capillary exchange area. Classical concepts of the pathogenesis of emphysema have relied on the paradigm set by the inflammation and protease/antiprotease imbalance. We propose herein that cigarette smoke constitutes an environmental hazard that causes alveolar destruction by the interaction of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and protease/antiprotease imbalance. We draw a parallel between organismal aging, organ structural maintenance, and the damage resulting from chronic cigarette smoke inhalation. The stochastic interaction between environmental hazards and the effort of an organism or a particular organ to fend off these hazards results in the accumulation of cellular damage and features characteristic of aging. Inflammation follows as the result of the multiplication of injuries. We highlight the importance of understanding the biology of the interaction of alveolar cells in homeostasis and in alveolar destruction, and the potential role of novel processes related to senescence and stress response. An evolutionary perspective of emphysema that incorporates mechanisms related to aging may lead to important advances in the understanding and therapeutic targeting of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  19. Amplifying elements of arthritis and joint destruction.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L; Joosten, Leo A B; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; Koenders, Marije I

    2007-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by chronic joint inflammation and variable degrees of bone and cartilage erosion. Studies in animal models of arthritis provide insight into elements which can amplify destructive features. The presence of immune complexes in the joint makes arthritis more erosive. Although considerable bone erosion still occurs in the absence of FcgammaR triggering by immune complexes, through cytokine-induced RANKL and direct osteoclast activation, cartilage erosion is heavily dependent on the FcgammaR pathway. T cell factors such as IFNgamma and IL17 further amplify erosion through upregulation of the damaging FcgammaRI and stimulation of the influx of granulocytes, respectively. Apart from immune elements, environmental pressure and components of tissue damage contribute through innate pathways. Spontaneous T cell-dependent arthritis in IL1Ra-/- mice is absent under germ-free conditions, and markedly suppressed in TLR4-deficient mice. Moreover, TLR4 blocking with a receptor antagonist suppresses erosive arthritis.

  20. Detection of weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkholm, Paul J.

    2003-07-01

    High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

  1. Hodoscope Cineradiography Of Nuclear Fuel Destruction Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Volpi, A.

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear reactor safety studies have applied cineradiographic techniques to achieve key information regarding the durability of fuel elements that are subjected to destructive transients in test reactors. Beginning with its development in 1963, the fast-neutron hodoscope has recorded data at the TREAT reactor in the United States of America. Consisting of a collimator instrumented with several hundred parallel channels of detectors and associated instrumentation, the hodoscope measures fuel motion that takes place within thick-walled steel test containers. Fuel movement is determined by detecting the emission of fast neutrons induced in the test capsule by bursts of the test reactor that last from 0.3 to 30 s. The system has been designed so as to achieve under certain typical conditions( horizontal) spatial resolution less than lmm, time resolution close to lms, mass resolution below 0.1 g, with adequate dynamic range and recording duration. A variety of imaging forms have been developed to display the results of processing and analyzing recorded data.*

  2. Photocatalytic destruction of trichloroethylene in air

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, W.A.; Nimlos, M.R.; Blake, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    Trichlorethylene (TCE) in air reacts in contact with irradiated TiO{sub 2} to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen chloride as well as the following products: dichloroacethylchloride, phosgene, carbon dioxide, and molecular chlorine. The stoichiometry of the reaction will be discussed and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate expression relating the TCE destruction rate to the partial pressures of TCE and oxygen will be presented. The reaction has been studied in both the differential and integral modes. The reaction rate and product distribution have been investigated as a function of water vapor partial pressure as well as the intensity and wavelength of the UV light. The apparatus employs annular and flat photoreactors with thin films of TiO{sub 2}. All effluent from the photoreactors flows directly into a 10 meter path length cell in an Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectrometer. This allows accurate and precise determination of reaction products (except chlorine) as evidenced by excellent carbon balances, event at very high conversions.

  3. Amplifying elements of arthritis and joint destruction

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L; Joosten, Leo A B; Abdollahi‐Roodsaz, Shahla; Koenders, Marije I

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by chronic joint inflammation and variable degrees of bone and cartilage erosion. Studies in animal models of arthritis provide insight into elements which can amplify destructive features. The presence of immune complexes in the joint makes arthritis more erosive. Although considerable bone erosion still occurs in the absence of FcγR triggering by immune complexes, through cytokine‐induced RANKL and direct osteoclast activation, cartilage erosion is heavily dependent on the FcγR pathway. T cell factors such as IFNγ and IL17 further amplify erosion through upregulation of the damaging FcγRI and stimulation of the influx of granulocytes, respectively. Apart from immune elements, environmental pressure and components of tissue damage contribute through innate pathways. Spontaneous T cell‐dependent arthritis in IL1Ra–/– mice is absent under germ‐free conditions, and markedly suppressed in TLR4‐deficient mice. Moreover, TLR4 blocking with a receptor antagonist suppresses erosive arthritis. PMID:17934095

  4. Photocatalytic destruction of automobile exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaviranta, P.D.; Peden, C.H.F.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides contained in automobile exhaust emissions are among the major atmospheric air pollutants. During the first few minutes of a cold start of the engine, the emission levels of unburned hydrocarbon and CO pollutants are very high due to the inefficiency of the cold engine and the poor activity of the catalysts lower temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an alternative approach to deal with this specific problem in order to meet near-term regulatory requirements. Our approach has been to use known photocatalytic reactions obtainable on semiconducting powders such as titanium dioxide. In this presentation we describe our recent studies aimed at the photocatalytic reduction of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust emissions. Our results demonstrate the effective destruction of propylene into water and carbon dioxide. The conversion was found to be dependent on the propylene flow rate. The reaction rate was studied as a function of time, humidity and temperature. The effect of the power of the UV source on conversion will also be presented.

  5. The preventive destruction of a hazardous asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, A. G.; Galushina, T. Yu.; Prishchepenko, A. B.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2016-06-01

    One means of countering a hazardous asteroid is discussed: destruction of the object using a nuclear charge. Explosion of such an asteroid shortly before its predicted collision would have catastrophic consequences, with numerous highly radioactive fragments falling onto the Earth. The possibility of exploding the asteroid several years before its impact is also considered. Such an approach is made feasible because the vast majority of hazardous objects pass by the Earth several times before colliding with it. Computations show that, in the 10 years following the explosion, only a negligible number of fragments fall onto the Earth, whose radioactivity has substantially reduced during this time. In most cases, none of these fragments collides with the Earth. Thus, this proposed method for eliminating a threat from space is reasonable in at least two cases: when it is not possible to undergo a soft removal of the object from the collisional path, and to destroy objects that are continually returning to near-Earth space and require multiple removals from hazardous orbits.

  6. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  7. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  8. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  9. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  10. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  11. Self-Destructive Behavior in People with Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Chawla, Neharika; Van der Kolk, Bessel

    2002-01-01

    Study assesses self-destructive behavior in a group of inpatients who have dissociative disorders compared to those who report few dissociative symptoms. Results reveal that these patients more frequently engage in self-destructive behaviors, use more methods of self-injury, and begin to injure themselves at an earlier age then patients who do not…

  12. 19 CFR 191.44 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.44 Section 191.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Rejected Merchandise § 191.44 Destruction under...

  13. 19 CFR 191.25 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.25 Section 191.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Manufacturing Drawback § 191.25 Destruction under...

  14. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  15. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  16. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  17. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  18. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  19. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  20. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  1. 21 CFR 884.4500 - Obstetric fetal destructive instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric fetal destructive instrument. 884.4500 Section 884.4500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... destructive instrument is a device designed to crush or pull the fetal body to facilitate the delivery of...

  2. Self-Destructive Behavior in People with Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Chawla, Neharika; Van der Kolk, Bessel

    2002-01-01

    Study assesses self-destructive behavior in a group of inpatients who have dissociative disorders compared to those who report few dissociative symptoms. Results reveal that these patients more frequently engage in self-destructive behaviors, use more methods of self-injury, and begin to injure themselves at an earlier age then patients who do not…

  3. 49 CFR 15.19 - Destruction of SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of SSI. 15.19 Section 15.19... Destruction of SSI. (a) DOT. Subject to the requirements of the Federal Records Act (5 U.S.C. 105), including... essential transactions, DOT destroys SSI when no longer needed to carry out the agency's function. (b) Other...

  4. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  5. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  6. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  7. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  8. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  9. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  10. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  11. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  12. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  13. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  14. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  15. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  16. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  17. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  18. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  19. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  20. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  1. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  2. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  3. Principles in the Psychotherapy of Self-Destructive Borderline Patients

    PubMed Central

    PLAKUN, ERIC M.

    1994-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder often exhibit lethal or nonlethal self-destructive behavior. The author offers seven principles for establishing and maintaining a therapeutic alliance in the insight-oriented psychodynamic psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder patients with self-destructive behavior serious enough to threaten the continuity of the therapy. PMID:22700187

  4. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture...

  5. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture...

  6. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture...

  7. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture...

  8. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture...

  9. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  10. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.25 Proof of destruction. The Veterinarian in Charge will...

  11. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.25 Proof of destruction. The Veterinarian in Charge will...

  12. Destructive Leadership: The Hatfield and McCoy Feud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, George; Wolf, Patricia; Zurick, Andryce M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of destructive leadership using the historical case study of the feud between the Hatfields and McCoys. The characteristics of destructive leadership as well as the consequences of this leadership style are reviewed, examined and analyzed. Utilizing a case from history to shine light on a contemporary problem,…

  13. Horseradish Peroxidase Inactivation: Heme Destruction and Influence of Polyethylene Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liang; Luo, Siqiang; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe

    2013-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mediates efficient conversion of many phenolic contaminants and thus has potential applications for pollution control. Such potentially important applications suffer however from the fact that the enzyme becomes quickly inactivated during phenol oxidation and polymerization. The work here provides the first experimental data of heme consumption and iron releases to support the hypothesis that HRP is inactivated by heme destruction. Product of heme destruction is identified using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The heme macrocycle destruction involving deprivation of the heme iron and oxidation of the 4-vinyl group in heme occurs as a result of the reaction. We also demonstrated that heme consumption and iron releases resulting from HRP destruction are largely reduced in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), providing the first evidence to indicate that heme destruction is effectively suppressed by co-dissolved PEG. These findings advance a better understanding of the mechanisms of HRP inactivation. PMID:24185130

  14. Horseradish peroxidase inactivation: heme destruction and influence of polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Luo, Siqiang; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe

    2013-11-04

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mediates efficient conversion of many phenolic contaminants and thus has potential applications for pollution control. Such potentially important applications suffer however from the fact that the enzyme becomes quickly inactivated during phenol oxidation and polymerization. The work here provides the first experimental data of heme consumption and iron releases to support the hypothesis that HRP is inactivated by heme destruction. Product of heme destruction is identified using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The heme macrocycle destruction involving deprivation of the heme iron and oxidation of the 4-vinyl group in heme occurs as a result of the reaction. We also demonstrated that heme consumption and iron releases resulting from HRP destruction are largely reduced in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), providing the first evidence to indicate that heme destruction is effectively suppressed by co-dissolved PEG. These findings advance a better understanding of the mechanisms of HRP inactivation.

  15. Destruction and Sequestration of H2O on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    The availability of water in biologically useable form on any planet is a quintessential resource, even if the planet is in a zone habitable with temperature regimes required for growth of organisms (above -18 °C). Mars and most other planetary objects in the solar system do not have sufficient liquid water at their surfaces that photosynthesis or chemolithoautotrophic metabolism could occur. Given clear evidence of hydrous mineral alteration and geomorphological constructs requiring abundant supplies of liquid water in the past, the question arises whether this H2O only became trapped physically as ice, or whether there could be other, more or less accessible reservoirs that it has evolved into. Salts containing S or Cl appear to be ubiquitous on Mars, having been measured in soils by all six Mars landed missions, and detected in additional areas by orbital investigations. Volcanoes emit gaseous H2S, S, SO2, HCl and Cl2. A variety of evidence indicates the geochemical fate of these gases is to be transformed into sulfates, chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates. Depending on the gas, the net reaction causes the destruction of between one and up to eight molecules of H2O per atom of S or Cl (although hydrogen atoms are also released, they are lost relatively rapidly to atmospheric escape). Furthermore, the salt minerals formed often incorporate H2O into their crystalline structures, and can result in the sequestration of up to yet another six (sometimes, more) molecules of H2O. In addition, if the salts are microcrystalline or amorphous, they are potent adsorbents for H2O. In certain cases, they are even deliquescent under martian conditions. Finally, the high solubility of the vast majority of these salts (with notable exception of CaSO4) can result in dense brines with low water activity, aH, as well as cations which can be inimical to microbial metabolism, effectively "poisoning the well." The original geologic materials on Mars, igneous rocks, also provide some

  16. Non destructive testing of soft body armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhise, Karan

    Pristine bullet proof vests are extremely effective at halting pre-determined projectile threats and have saved over 3000 lives. However, the effectiveness of these vests to halt a bullet is seen to decrease over time.Owing to the importance of bullet proof vests over a period of time, tests to determine their effectiveness have been carried out on every batch of vests at the time of inception and at certain time intervals by shooting a bullet through them. A few vests from every batch are picked up and shot at to check for bullet penetration during this process while these results are extrapolated onto the other vests from the batch.One of the main issues with this method is the fact that testing a few jackets among a large set of jackets does not guarantee the safety of every jacket in the entire batch.Further the jackets that are shot-at have the possibility of undergoing substantial damage during the process thus compromising its safety rendering them unsafe for future use.As the vest penetration phenomenon is extremely complex too, there arose a need for a better testing procedure that could not only help ensure more safety, but also save time and money.The new testing procedure proposed a non-destructive evaluation of the jackets that would solve the issues previous faced in testing the vests. This would lead to the building of a portable set up which could be carried to any location to test jackets in a matter of minutes thus saving time and money.

  17. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  18. VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-10

    This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of

  19. In Vivo Dual Fluorescence Imaging to Detect Joint Destruction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hongsik; Bhatti, Fazal-Ur-Rehman; Lee, Sangmin; Brand, David D; Yi, Ae-Kyung; Hasty, Karen A

    2016-10-01

    Diagnosis of cartilage damage in early stages of arthritis is vital to impede the progression of disease. In this regard, considerable progress has been made in near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) optical imaging technique. Arthritis can develop due to various mechanisms but one of the main contributors is the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that can degrade components of the extracellular matrix. Especially, MMP-1 and MMP-13 have main roles in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis because they enhance collagen degradation in the process of arthritis. We present here a novel NIRF imaging strategy that can be used to determine the activity of MMPs and cartilage damage simultaneously by detection of exposed type II collagen in cartilage tissue. In this study, retro-orbital injection of mixed fluorescent dyes, MMPSense 750 FAST (MMP750) dye and Alexa Fluor 680 conjugated monoclonal mouse antibody immune-reactive to type II collagen, was administered in the arthritic mice. Both dyes were detected with different intensity according to degree of joint destruction in the animal. Thus, our dual fluorescence imaging method can be used to detect cartilage damage as well as MMP activity simultaneously in early stage arthritis. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mechanisms of tumor destruction caused by photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuannong

    2005-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a relatively new treatment modality and is becoming widely accepted as a standard treatment of a variety of solid tumors. This includes palliative treatments for advanced or obstructive cancers in many organs as well as a curative treatment for some early cancers and pre-cancerous lesions. It has been approved by health authorities in a number of countries in America, Europe and Asia [1]. PDT is a procedure requiring 3 elements: photosensitizer, light and oxygen [2]. The typical technique involves an intravenous administration of a photosensitizing agent, which is preferentially accumulated or retained in tumor tissue, followed by irradiation of the tumor area with light of appropriate wavelength. In the presence of oxygen it generates highly reactive and cytotoxic molecular species, in particular, singlet oxygen (1O2), which may oxidize various bio-molecules and finally leading to cell death and tumor destruction [3]. The most widely used photosensitizer in clinical treatment of cancers is Photofrin (porfimer sodium), and most widely used light sources are lasers of various types, in recent years preferentially, diode laser, which emits a red light of 630 nm wavelength.

  1. Autoimmune destruction of pericytes as the cause of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Duncan D

    2008-06-01

    In diabetic retinopathy, collapse of the retinal vasculature is associated with loss of the pericytes. These are contractile cells that together with endothelial cells form the terminal arterioles of the retina. The cause of the loss of pericytes is not known. Recently, it has been discovered that type 1 diabetes is caused by forbidden clones of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which destroy the insulin-making cells with exquisite specificity. In the light of this, I postulate that an antigenically-related forbidden clone of cytotoxic T lymphocytes selectively destroys the pericytes and that this is the cause of the vascular collapse of diabetic retinopathy. If this is so, the therapeutic implications are immense, involving a switch from ineffectual tight glycemic control to immunotherapy. This is already used as immunosuppression to prevent organ transplant rejection, and as the immune ablation and autologous bone marrow cell reconstitution that has saved the lives of patients with lethally-severe scleroderma. Once the pericyte surface auto-antigen for the T lymphocytes has been isolated, selective destruction of the pathogenic T lymphocytes would be possible by manufacture and use of cytotoxic auto-antigen complexes, which arrests progression of the retinopathy.

  2. Three decades of neoliberalism in Mexico: the destruction of society.

    PubMed

    Laurell, Asa Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Neoliberalism has been implemented in Latin America for about three decades. This article reviews Mexico's neoliberal trajectory to illustrate the political, economic, and social alterations that have resulted from this process. It finds that representative democracy has been perverted through fear, putting central political decisions in the hands of power groups with special interests. The border between the state of law and the state of exception is blurred. Economic structural adjustment with liberalization and privatization has provoked recurrent crisis, but has been maintained, leading to the destruction of the national productive structure in favor of supranational corporations, particularly financial capital. The association between criminal economy and economic criminality is also discussed. The privatization of social benefits and services requires state subsidies and allows the privatization of profits and the socialization of losses. The social impact of this process has been devastating, with a polarized income distribution, falling wages, increased precarious jobs, rising inequality, and extreme violence. Health conditions have also deteriorated and disorders associated with violence, chronic stress, and a changing nutritional culture have become dominating. However, in Latin America, massive, organized political and social mobilization has broken the vicious neoliberal circle and elected progressive governments that are struggling to reverse social and economic devastation. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Necrotroph Attacks on Plants: Wanton Destruction or Covert Extortion?

    PubMed Central

    Laluk, Kristin; Mengiste, Tesfaye

    2010-01-01

    Necrotrophic pathogens cause major pre- and post-harvest diseases in numerous agronomic and horticultural crops inflicting significant economic losses. In contrast to biotrophs, obligate plant parasites that infect and feed on living cells, necrotrophs promote the destruction of host cells to feed on their contents. This difference underpins the divergent pathogenesis strategies and plant immune responses to biotrophic and necrotrophic infections. This chapter focuses on Arabidopsis immunity to necrotrophic pathogens. The strategies of infection, virulence and suppression of host defenses recruited by necrotrophs and the variation in host resistance mechanisms are highlighted. The multiplicity of intraspecific virulence factors and species diversity in necrotrophic organisms corresponds to variations in host resistance strategies. Resistance to host-specific necrotophs is monogenic whereas defense against broad host necrotrophs is complex, requiring the involvement of many genes and pathways for full resistance. Mechanisms and components of immunity such as the role of plant hormones, secondary metabolites, and pathogenesis proteins are presented. We will discuss the current state of knowledge of Arabidopsis immune responses to necrotrophic pathogens, the interactions of these responses with other defense pathways, and contemplate on the directions of future research. PMID:22303261

  4. Destruction kinetic of PCDDs/Fs in MSWI fly ash using microwave peroxide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Min; Fang, Wen-Bin; Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long; Chen, Ching-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Microwave peroxide oxidation is a less greenhouse gas emission and energy-efficient technology to destroy toxic organic compounds in hazardous waste. The research novelty is to adopt the innovative microwave peroxide oxidation in H2SO4/HNO3 solution to efficiently destroy the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/Fs in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. The major objective of this paper is to study dynamic destruction of PCDDs/Fs using the microwave peroxide oxidation. Almost all PCDDs/Fs in the raw fly ash can be destructed in 120 min at a temperature of 423 K using the microwave peroxide oxidation treatment. It was found that the microwave peroxide oxidation provides the potential to destruct the PCDDs/Fs content in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash to a low level as a function of treatment time. A useful kinetic correlation between destruction efficiency and treatment conditions is proposed on the basis of the experimental data obtained in this study. The significance of this work in terms of practical engineering applications is that the necessary minimum treatment time can be solved using a proposed graphic illustration method, by which the minimum treatment time is obtained if the desired destruction efficiency and treatment temperature are known. Because of inorganic salt dissolution, the temperature would be a critical factor facilitating the parts of fly ash dissolution. Material loss problem caused by the microwave peroxide oxidation and the effects of treatment time and temperature are also discussed in this paper.

  5. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the evaporative emissions of modern passenger cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Tingting; Yue, Xin; Chai, Fahe; Hu, Jingnan; Lai, Yitu; He, Liqang; Zhu, Rencheng

    2017-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vehicle evaporative emissions contribute substantially to photochemical air pollution. Yet, few studies of the characteristics of VOCs emitted from vehicle evaporative emissions have been published. We investigate the characteristics of 57 VOCs in hot soak, 24 h diurnal and 48 h diurnal emissions by applying the Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination unit (SHED) test to three modern passenger cars (one US Tier 2 and two China IV vehicles) using two different types of gasoline. The characteristics of the VOCs from the hot soak, 24 h diurnal and 48 h diurnal emissions were different due to their different emission mechanisms. In the hot soak emissions, toluene, isopentane/n-pentane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane were dominant species. In the 24 h and 48 h diurnal emissions, isopentane and n-pentane were dominant species. Toluene was the third most dominant component in the 24 h diurnal emissions but decreased by a mass of 42%-80% in the 48 h diurnal emissions. In the hot soak, 24 h diurnal and 48 h diurnal emissions, alkanes were generally the dominant hydrocarbons, followed by aromatics and olefins. However, owing to different evaporative emission mechanisms, the weight percentages of the aromatic hydrocarbons decreased and the weight percentages of the alkanes increased from the hot soak test to the 24 h diurnal and 48 h diurnal tests for each vehicle. The dominant contributors to the ozone formation potentials (OFPs) were also different in the hot soak, 24 h diurnal and 48 h diurnal emissions. The OFPs (g O3/g VOC) of the hot soak emissions were higher than those of the 24 h and 48 h diurnal emissions. In addition, the combined effect of decreasing the olefin and aromatic contents of gasoline on vehicle evaporative emissions was investigated. The aromatics all decreased substantially in the hot soak, 24 h and 48 h diurnal emissions, and the total masses of the VOCs and OFPs decreased, with the greatest reduction occurring in

  6. 40 CFR 63.4362 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Printing, Coating, and Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles Performance Testing and Monitoring Requirements....4350. You must conduct three test runs as specified in § 63.7(e)(3) and each test run must last at...)). (e) For each test run, determine the add-on control device organic emissions destruction or removal...

  7. Annual cycle and destruction of Eighteen Degree Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billheimer, Sam; Talley, Lynne D.

    2016-09-01

    Eighteen Degree Water (EDW), the subtropical mode water of the western North Atlantic, is a voluminous, weakly stratified upper ocean water mass that acts as a subsurface reservoir of heat, nutrients, and CO2. This thick layer persists throughout the year, but nearly half of its volume is dispersed or mixed away, diffusing its properties into the thermocline, from the time it outcrops in winter until it is renewed the following year. CTD observations from Argo profiling floats and acoustically tracked, isothermally bound profiling floats are used to quantify EDW destruction rates and investigate the relevant processes responsible for the large annual cycle of EDW. EDW destruction occurs primarily at the top of the EDW layer, with the highest EDW destruction rates occurring during early summer. Slower, steadier EDW destruction is observed in early winter. EDW destruction is dominated by 1-D vertical diffusion, while mesoscale, along-isopycnal stirring is also significant, explaining approximately 1/3 of the total annual EDW destruction. Destruction via along-isopycnal processes is more prevalent near the Gulf Stream than in the southern Sargasso Sea, due to higher potential vorticity gradients and enhanced mesoscale activity.

  8. Chlorophyll Destruction by the Bisulfite-Oxygen System 1

    PubMed Central

    Peiser, Galen D.; Yang, Shang Fa

    1977-01-01

    Destruction of chlorophyll, as determined by the loss in absorbance at 665 nm, occurred in two in vitro systems in the presence of bisulfite in 76% ethanol. The first system required light and O2 in addition to bisulfite and exhibited an optimum pH of 4. Chlorophyll functioned as a photosensitizer and there was little chlorophyll destruction occurring above pH 5. With 286 μeinsteins m−2 irradiation, approximately 80% of the chlorophyll was destroyed in three minutes. In the second system, chlorophyll destruction in the presence of bisulfite occurred in the dark and required Mn2+, O2, and glycine. Destruction of chlorophyll in this system was much more rapid than in the light system with approximately 70% destruction occurring in two seconds. In both systems, chlorophyll destruction was linked to bisulfite oxidation. The free radical scavengers hydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonic acid, and α-tocopherol were effective in inhibiting the destruction of chlorophyll in both systems. The singlet O2 scavengers, 2,5-dimethylfuran and 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, were ineffective inhibitors and β-carotene only slightly effective when tested in the light system. The evidence suggests that in these two systems chlorophyll was destroyed by free radicals, probably superoxide radical, which was produced during the aerobic oxidation of bisulfite. PMID:16660075

  9. A FUNCTIONAL GROUP CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC PM 2.5 EXPOSURE: RESULTS FROM THE RIOPA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The functional group (FG) composition of urban residential outdoor, indoor, and personal fine particle (PM2.5) samples is presented and used to provide insights relevant to organic PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 samples (48 h) were collected during the Rel...

  10. A FUNCTIONAL GROUP CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC PM 2.5 EXPOSURE: RESULTS FROM THE RIOPA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The functional group (FG) composition of urban residential outdoor, indoor, and personal fine particle (PM2.5) samples is presented and used to provide insights relevant to organic PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 samples (48 h) were collected during the Rel...

  11. DESTRUCTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST IN EVOLVING SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCK WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-04-10

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however, that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al., we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities ≳200 km s{sup −1} for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of ∼2 compared to those of Jones et al., who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of ∼3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of ∼2–3 Gyr. These increases, while not able to resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step toward understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the ISM.

  12. Coral reef destruction of Small island in 44 years and destructive fishing in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Rani, Chair; Supriadi; Fakhriyyah, Sitti; Agus

    2016-11-01

    Coral reefs are among the most diverse and threatened ecosystems on the planet. The most commonly stated for developing coral reef remote sensing techniques is to asses and or to monitor the status of these ecosystems. The study site was selected one of small island in inner zone Spermonde archipelago, Indonesia. We used Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM, and Landsat OLI data to examine changes in the coral reefs of inner zone island in the Spermonde Archipelago from 1972 to 2016. The image processing are gap fills, atmospheric correction, geometric corrections, image composites, water column corrections, unsupervised classifications, and reclassification. Some of component change detection procedure was applied to define change. The results showed significant changes in 44 years. Disturbed coral reefs are typically characterized by loss of coral cover by increase in the abundance of dead corals and rubble. Local factors such as destructive fishing is direct destruction of inner zone island. While the impact of local threats may be reduced through management action, global threats to coral reefs are likely to increase in severity in the coming years.

  13. [Rapidly destructive hip disease with resultant iliopectineal bursitis].

    PubMed

    Luning, H A; Koster, M N; Coene, L N

    2003-06-28

    A man aged 72 years developed complete destruction of his right hip joint within 12 weeks: 'rapidly destructive hip disease' (RDHD). Analysis of weight loss also revealed iliopectineal bursitis. Nine months after total hip arthroplasty, the patient was free of complaints and the bursitis had disappeared. The cause of RDHD is unclear. Associations have been made with osteonecrosis, chondrocalcinosis and arthropathies of other joints. The destruction of the acetabulum and the femoral head can lead to hydrops in the hip joint and, via a communication between the joint and the iliopectineal bursa, to inflammation of the bursa. This combination of diagnoses has not been described before.

  14. Destructive spondylarthropathy in hemodialyzed patients. A new syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, D; Naveau, B; Bardin, T; Drueke, T; Treves, R; Dryll, A

    1984-04-01

    Spinal radiologic lesions suggestive of destructive spondylarthropathy were found in 10 patients on long-term hemodialysis. These lesions were characterized by severe narrowing of the intervertebral disc, associated with erosions and geodes of the adjacent vertebral plates without osteophytosis. In 9 of the 10 patients the lesions were located in the cervical spine, and in 1 patient, in the lumbar spine. Microbial spondylitis, degenerative disc disease, and destructive spondylarthropathy of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease were each, in turn, ruled out. The finding of apatite crystals by transmission electron microscopy in 1 disc specimen suggests that these crystals may be associated with destructive vertebral disc lesions in dialysis patients.

  15. The Primitive Edge of Creativity: Destruction and Reparation in Louise Bourgeois's Art.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Viewed within the psychic geography of Thomas Ogden's modes of generating and organizing experience, in particular the autistic-contiguous mode, Louise Bourgeois's creative imagination can be seen as originating on what Ogden (1989) has called the primitive edge of experience. This mode, dominated by the sensory, is characterized by chaos, fragmentation, and a loss of boundaries. In dynamic movements between the depressive and the autistic-contiguous positions, between destructive and reparative impulses, Bourgeois transforms experiences of chaos, as well as destructive aggression, into aesthetic order and form, into works of art. She is able to delve into the most elemental and presymbolic modes of psychic experience and artistically harness raw feelings and sensations on what can be called the primitive edge of creativity.

  16. Non-destructive imaging of buried electronic interfaces using a decelerated scanning electron beam

    PubMed Central

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Murphy, Benedict A.; Vick, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology enables the production of atomically abrupt interfaces in multilayered junctions, allowing for an increase in the number of transistors in a processor. However, uniform electron transport has not yet been achieved across the entire interfacial area in junctions due to the existence of local defects, causing local heating and reduction in transport efficiency. To date, junction uniformity has been predominantly assessed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, which requires slicing and milling processes that can potentially introduce additional damage and deformation. It is therefore essential to develop an alternative non-destructive method. Here we show a non-destructive technique using scanning electron microscopy to map buried junction properties. By controlling the electron-beam energy, we demonstrate the contrast imaging of local junction resistances at a controlled depth. This technique can be applied to any buried junctions, from conventional semiconductor and metal devices to organic devices. PMID:27586090

  17. Non-destructive imaging of buried electronic interfaces using a decelerated scanning electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Murphy, Benedict A.; Vick, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology enables the production of atomically abrupt interfaces in multilayered junctions, allowing for an increase in the number of transistors in a processor. However, uniform electron transport has not yet been achieved across the entire interfacial area in junctions due to the existence of local defects, causing local heating and reduction in transport efficiency. To date, junction uniformity has been predominantly assessed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, which requires slicing and milling processes that can potentially introduce additional damage and deformation. It is therefore essential to develop an alternative non-destructive method. Here we show a non-destructive technique using scanning electron microscopy to map buried junction properties. By controlling the electron-beam energy, we demonstrate the contrast imaging of local junction resistances at a controlled depth. This technique can be applied to any buried junctions, from conventional semiconductor and metal devices to organic devices.

  18. Non-destructive imaging of buried electronic interfaces using a decelerated scanning electron beam.

    PubMed

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Murphy, Benedict A; Vick, Andrew J

    2016-09-02

    Recent progress in nanotechnology enables the production of atomically abrupt interfaces in multilayered junctions, allowing for an increase in the number of transistors in a processor. However, uniform electron transport has not yet been achieved across the entire interfacial area in junctions due to the existence of local defects, causing local heating and reduction in transport efficiency. To date, junction uniformity has been predominantly assessed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, which requires slicing and milling processes that can potentially introduce additional damage and deformation. It is therefore essential to develop an alternative non-destructive method. Here we show a non-destructive technique using scanning electron microscopy to map buried junction properties. By controlling the electron-beam energy, we demonstrate the contrast imaging of local junction resistances at a controlled depth. This technique can be applied to any buried junctions, from conventional semiconductor and metal devices to organic devices.

  19. Destructive and non-destructive determination of the transport current density radial distribution: Application to Bi-2212 textured rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, E.; Natividad, E.; Angurel, L. A.; Navarro, R.; Yang, Y.; Beduz, C.

    2003-03-01

    Destructive and non-destructive methods to estimate the radial distribution of the transport critical current, Jc( r), of long cylindrical superconductors are presented. The non-destructive method is based on the measurement of self-field AC losses as a function of the current amplitude, Q( I0) and takes into account the E- J characteristics of the material. Both methods have been used to derive the Jc( r) profiles of long and thin Bi-2212 rods textured by laser-induced zone melting techniques. The obtained results have been correlated with the microstructure of the samples and their critical temperature.

  20. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands...

  1. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands...

  2. Destructive electronics from electrochemical-mechanically triggered chemical dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Kyoseung; Wang, Xu; Li, Yuhang; Linghu, Changhong; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Yu, Cunjiang

    2017-06-01

    The considerable need to enhance data and hardware security suggest one possible future for electronics where it is possible to destroy them and even make them disappear physically. This paper reports a type of destructive electronics which features fast transience from chemical dissolution on-demand triggered in an electrochemical-mechanical manner. The detailed materials, mechanics, and device construction of the destructive electronics are presented. Experiment and analysis of the triggered releasing and transience study of electronic materials, resistors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors illustrate the key aspects of the destructive electronics. The reported destructive electronics is useful in a wide range of areas from security and defense, to medical applications

  3. [Mechanism of bone destruction and the contribution of T lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Noriko

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), one of the most common autoimmune diseases, is characterized by inflammation and bone destruction in the joints. Abnormal activation of the immune system leads to RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation, which ultimately results in bone destruction in RA. A newly identified Th17 subset induces osteoclastogenesis potently by upregulating RANKL on synovial fibroblasts, indicating a synergy between T-synovial fibroblast plays a primary role in the bone destruction. Immune-regulating factors, such as CTLA-4 highly expressed on regulatory T cells, are identified as new bone-regulating factors and can be attractive therapeutic targets for bone destruction in RA. The mechanism by which T cells contribute to the RA pathogenesis will help understand the etiology of RA and develop therapeutic approach against it.

  4. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks...

  5. Senseless demolition in progress, showing destruction of perfectly decent and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Senseless demolition in progress, showing destruction of perfectly decent and recyclable mill building. Problem exacerbated by high value of scrap iron. - Phoenix Iron Company, Rolling Mill, North of French Creek, west of Fairview Avenue, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  6. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-09-01

    In order to compare a few non-destructive classification techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  7. A Treatment Program for a Self-Destructive Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Richard L.; Howard, Gail A.

    1971-01-01

    The treatment program for the modification of self-destructive behavior of an institutionalized mentally retarded boy who needed constant physical restraints employed a variety of approaches and emphasized the development of an interpersonal relationship. (KW)

  8. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  9. Thermal Destruction Of CB Contaminants Bound On Building ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper An experimental and theoretical program has been initiated by the U.S. EPA to investigate issues of chemical/biological agent destruction in incineration systems when the agent in question is bound on common porous building interior materials. This program includes 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling with matrix-bound agent destruction kinetics, bench-scale experiments to determine agent destruction kinetics while bound on various matrices, and pilot-scale experiments to scale-up the bench-scale experiments to a more practical scale. Finally, model predictions are made to predict agent destruction and combustion conditions in two full-scale incineration systems that are typical of modern combustor design.

  10. Chlorophyll destruction in the presence of bisulfite. [Spinach oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Peiser, G.; Yang, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Chlorophyll extracted from Spinacia oleracea leaves as well as purified chlorophyll a in ethanolic solutions (pH 4) was rapidly destroyed, as measured by a decrease in absorbance, in the presence of sodium bisulfite, oxygen and light. Omission of sodium bisulfite, oxygen or light resulted in negligible destruction. The light requirement could be partially substituted by addition of manganous sulfate and destruction was further stimulated in the presence of linoleic acid. Hydroquinone, a free radical scavenger, inhibited both light and Mn/sup 2 +/-mediated (dark) destruction. These results suggest that free radicals produced during the aerobic oxidation of bisulfite are involved in the destruction of chlorophyll. When /sub 35/S-bisulfite was used, two labeled degradation products of chlorophyll were observed.

  11. Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-13-52 Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria Distribution Statement A...Z39.18 00-07-2015 Technical N/A Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria HDTRA1-10-1-0108 Emily M. Hunt, Ph.D. West...understand the interaction between spore forming bacteria and thermite reactions and products and to exploit energetic material reactions with

  12. A Review of Non-destructive Detection for Fruit Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Zhu, Fengmei; Cai, Jinxing

    An overview of non-destructive detection in quality of post-harvest fruit was presented in this paper, and the research and application were discussed. This paper elaborated the fruit quality detection methods which were based on one of the following properties: optical properties, sonic vibration, machine vision technique, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electronic noses, electrical properties, computed tomography. At last, the main problems of non-destructive detection in application were also explained.

  13. Perchlorate Removal, Destruction and Field Monitoring Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    ionization constant PLC programmable logic controller PM Program Manager ppb parts per billion PPE Personal Protective Equipment psig pounds per...TPM Technical Program Manager VOC volatile organic carbon WBA weak base anion vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The success of this...regenerable resin systems (Calgon Carbon Corporation’s ISEP system) and less than 50% of the least expensive single-use resin systems. 3 2.0

  14. The Combine Use of Semi-destructive and Non-destructive Methods for Tiled Floor Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štainbruch, Jakub; Bayer, Karol; Jiroušek, Tomáš; Červinka, Josef

    2017-04-01

    The combination of semi-destructive and non-destructive methods was used to asset the conditions of a tiled floor in the historical monument Minaret, situated in the park complex of the Chateau Lednice (South Moravia Region, Czech Republic), before its renovation. Another set of measurements is going to be performed after the conservation works are finished. (The comparison of the results collected during pre- and post-remediation measurements will be known and presented during the General Assembly meeting in Wien.) The diagnostic complex of methods consisted of photogrammetry, resistivity drilling and georadar. The survey was aimed to contour extends of air gaps beneath the tiles and the efficiency of filling gaps by means of injection, consolidation and gluing individual layers. The state chateau Lednice creates a part of the Lednice-Valtice precinct, a UNESCO landmark, and belongs among the greatest historic monuments in Southern Moravia. In the chateau park there is a romantic observation tower in the shape of a minaret built according to the plans of Josef Hardtmuth between 1798-1804. The Minaret has been extensively renovated for many decades including the restoration of mosaic floors from Venetian terazzo. During the static works of the Minaret building between 1999-2000, the mosaic floors in the rooms on the second floor were transferred and put back onto concrete slabs. Specifically, the floor was cut up to tiles and these were glued to square slabs which were then attached to the base plate. The transfer was not successful and the floor restoration was finalized between 2016-2017. The damage consisted in separating the original floor from the concrete plate which led to creating gaps. Furthermore, the layers of the floor were not compact. It was necessary to fill the gaps and consolidate and glue the layers. The existence of air gap between individual layers of the tiles and their degradation was detected using two different diagnostic methods: semi-destructive

  15. Destruction of XM-46 (aka LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-03-01

    The experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant XM-46 (or LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. The current methods of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), propellants and wastes containing energetic materials by open burning or open detonation (OB/OD), or by incineration, are becoming undesirable. LLNL is developing MSD as an alternative to OB/OD and incineration of energetic materials. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of XM-46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, show that: XM-46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration. Under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the XM-46 is converted to NO{sub x}, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO. There exist, however, a number of technical uncertainties: We need to understand better why nitrates build up in the salt bath, and what we can do to reduce this amount. We need to understand the mechanism of XM-46 oxidation and ways to minimize the formation of CO and NO{sub x}. In addition, we would like to find out ways by which a more concentrated solution of XM-46 can be introduced into the reactor, so as to increase the throughputs.

  16. Proteus - Geology, shape, and catastrophic destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1992-01-01

    Least-squares fits to the two available limb profiles of Proteus yield a sphericity close to unity; the visual irregularity is due to a degree of surface roughness comparable to that of Hyperion and the smaller icy satellites. A network of streaks that can be interpreted as tectonic troughs cuts the surface of Proteus, and is organized concentrically around either one of the two nearly-coincident Proteus-Neptune of Pharos axes of symmetry. If the streaks are tectonic, they may be due to tidal stresses generated by a past change in Proteus' equilibrium orientation. The streaks may also be disruptive-stress fractures.

  17. Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Larry Young

    2009-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

  18. TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR OUT-OF-TANK DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE VIA WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY: PHASE I - BENCH SCALE TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K

    2006-03-31

    Tank 48H return to service is critical to the processing of high level waste (HLW) at Savannah River Site (SRS). Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) management has the goal of returning Tank 48H to routine service by January 2010 or as soon as practical. Tank 48H currently holds legacy material containing organic tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds from the operation of the In-Tank Precipitation process. This material is not compatible with the waste treatment facilities at SRS and must be removed or undergo treatment to destroy the organic compounds before the tank can be returned to Tank Farm service. Tank 48H currently contains {approx}240,000 gallons of alkaline slurry with about 2 wt % potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). The main radioactive component in Tank 48H is {sup 137}Cs. The waste also contains {approx}0.15 wt % Monosodium Titanate (MST) which has adsorbed {sup 90}Sr, U, and Pu isotopes. A System Engineering Evaluation of technologies/ideas for the treatment of TPB identified Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) as a leading alternative technology to the baseline aggregation approach. Over 75 technologies/ideas were evaluated overall. Forty-one technologies/ideas passed the initial screening evaluation. The 41 technologies/ideas were then combined to 16 complete solutions for the disposition of TPB and evaluated in detail. Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is an aqueous phase process in which soluble or suspended waste components are oxidized using molecular oxygen contained in air. The process operates at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 to 320 C and 7 to 210 atmospheres, respectively. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). The basic flow scheme for a typical WAO system is as follows. The waste solution or slurry is pumped through a high-pressure feed pump. An air stream containing sufficient oxygen to meet the oxygen requirements of the waste stream is

  19. [Biological rhythm as a reflection of the unity of creation and destruction (life and death)].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, S I; Galichiĭ, V A

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of fundamental aspects of nature of the biological rhythm, antinomies incident to this phenomenon, its relation to the phenomena of life and death. The biological rhythm is viewed as an exemplification of the singleness of two qualitatively different states--destruction and creation, dissimilation and assimilation. Since destruction of biological structures in the course of dissimilation is irreversible by character, there is every reason to equal it with death, and to consider life the counter process of assimilative synthesis (creation) of chemical compounds directed toward revival of living substance. From this standpoint, the day phase of the circadian rhythm marked by dominance of destructive processes is a kind of death, whereas the night phase characterized by prevalence of the recovery processes signifies life. That is why the daytime status of organism differs from that at night, which is directly related to diagnostics of internal diseases: in the daytime and at night the same patient seems to be two different persons. Therefore, investigating him not only in the daytime but also at night, we could get more intimate understanding of his diseases, that is make an exhaustive diagnosis. Efficiency of night investigations combined with daytime ones has been confirmed by clinical investigations.

  20. Cocaine-induced midline destruction lesions with positive ANCA test mimicking Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Stahelin, Letícia; Fialho, Sonia Cristina de Magalhães Souza; Neves, Fabrício Souza; Junckes, Larissa; Werner de Castro, Gláucio Ricardo; Pereira, Ivânio Alves

    2012-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine by inhalation may induce midline destructive lesions (CIMDL), which can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from the ear, nose and throat lesions of Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG). We describe the case of a 43-year-old female patient admitted with a two-year history of nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. She had been diagnosed with WG for five months, being on prednisone and cyclophosphamide. On her physical examination, perforation of her nasal septum and palate was observed. Laboratory tests showed elevated acute phase proteins and a positive p-ANCA test. ELISA assays anti-proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase were negative. The paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) showed destruction of the nasal septum and palate, in addition to bilateral maxillary sinusitis. Chest CT was normal. Nasal mucosal biopsy revealed an inflammatory infiltrate, with neither granuloma nor vasculitis. When questioned, she admitted being a cocaine user for five years. Medical therapy and cocaine use were withdrawn. She has been followed up for six months and no other lesion or other organ symptoms occurred. Differential diagnosis in patients with midline destructive lesions can be very challenging. Evaluation should include enquiry about intranasal use of cocaine. Although ANCA testing does not clearly differentiate the ANCA found in some patients with CIMDL from those found in WG patients, the localized involvement and the biopsy findings non-characteristic of small vessel granulomatous vasculitis should be recognized as features for cocaine-induced lesions.

  1. Technical area status report for second-stage destruction and offgas treatment

    SciTech Connect

    French, N.B.; Dalton, J.D.; Vavruska, J.

    1994-08-01

    This report was sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), Office of Technology Development (OTD). DOE/EM carries the charter to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation throughout the DOE complex. Within EM, the OTD established the MWIP to identify and develop new technologies for treatment of DOE low-level mixed waste. This report represents the second TASR for the Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment technical area. This TASR updates technology information, a design methodology for air pollution control systems for mixed waste treatment, and technology development needs for DOE/EM. The TASRs form the basis of a technology development program that addresses the highest priority DOE environmental needs and is coordinated with other technology development efforts both inside and outside DOE. The main functions of the second-stage destruction and offgas treatment system are to treat the gaseous effluent from the primary treatment process to acceptable levels for release to the atmosphere. Specific functions include (1) destruction of volatile organics; (2) capture of particulate matter; (3) capture of volatile metals; (4) capture and control of volatile, condensed-phase, and solid-phase radionuclides; (5) control of acid gases; (6) NO{sub x} abatement; and (7) gas cooling and reheating as required to perform these functions.

  2. Relationship-based nursing care and destructive demands.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Margareth; Friberg, Febe

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between the nurse and the patient is understood as fundamental in nursing care. However, numerous challenges can be related to the provision of relationship-based nursing care. Challenges exist when nurses do not respond adequately to the patient's appeal for help. Moreover, challenges arising in the nurse-patient relationship can be understood as more destructive demands from the patient to the nurse, thus begging inquiry into such a relationship. The overall aim is to explore and argue the relevance of problematizing destructive demands evident within relationship-based nursing care. This theoretical article explores destructive demands based on the phenomenological philosophy of the Danish theologian and philosopher Knud E. Løgstrup and provides examples of nurses' experiences in everyday nursing care. The examples are drawn from a Norwegian empirical study based on a hermeneutical research design. Participants and research context: Data consisted of qualitative interviews and qualitative follow-up interviews with 13 nurses with varying work experience within the primary and secondary somatic and psychiatric health service, from inside as well as outside institutions. Ethical consideration: The original empirical study was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Information was given and consent was obtained from the participants. Two themes are described: strong impressions formed in meetings with patients and persistent concern over the burden of work and ability to endure. Destructive demands related to relationship-based nursing care are discussed along two lines, first, by further elucidating nurses' everyday experiences connected to destructive demands and, second, by highlighting the significance of including destructive demands within the relationship-based nursing care. Including destructive demands related to relationship-based nursing care is of particular significance in enabling the proposition that radical, one

  3. Hamster and Murine Models of Severe Destructive Lyme Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Erik; Nardelli, Dean T.; Du Chateau, Brian K.; Callister, Steven M.; Schell, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    Arthritis is a frequent complication of infection in humans with Borrelia burgdorferi. Weeks to months following the onset of Lyme borreliosis, a histopathological reaction characteristic of synovitis including bone, joint, muscle, or tendon pain may occur. A subpopulation of patients may progress to a chronic, debilitating arthritis months to years after infection which has been classified as severe destructive Lyme arthritis. This arthritis involves focal bone erosion and destruction of articular cartilage. Hamsters and mice are animal models that have been utilized to study articular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection of immunocompetent LSH hamsters or C3H mice results in a transient synovitis. However, severe destructive Lyme arthritis can be induced by infecting irradiated hamsters or mice and immunocompetent Borrelia-vaccinated hamsters, mice, and interferon-gamma- (IFN-γ-) deficient mice with viable B. burgdorferi. The hamster model of severe destructive Lyme arthritis facilitates easy assessment of Lyme borreliosis vaccine preparations for deleterious effects while murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis allow for investigation of mechanisms of immunopathology. PMID:22461836

  4. Molecular beam, mass spectrometric sampling in hazardous waste destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Nimlos, M.R.; Milne, T.A.; McKinnon, J.T.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes the study of the destruction of hazardous waste in which compounds and conditions are screened and byproducts are detected with a molecular beam, mass spectrometer (MBMS). Three destruction techniques were investigated as potential solar-driven processes: catalytic steam reforming, photothermal oxidation, and photocatalytic oxidation. These processes were investigated using an MBMS-equipped with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The MS/MS capabilities of this instrument were used to characterize products using daughter and parent ion scanning modes. With catalytic steam reforming, a number of chlorinated and nonchlorinated compounds were screened for their susceptibility to destruction using a rhodium catalyst. The destruction efficiencies were high at modest temperatures (700-900{degrees}C) and few byproducts were measured. Choloronaphthalene was studied as a model compound for the photothermal oxidation processes. An enhancement in the destruction rate in air was measured by adding near UV light (300-340 nm). Byproducts were measured and the identities of these products were determined using daughter ion MS/MS spectrometry. The gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) was measured at ambient temperatures using the MBMS. The identity of these byproducts was determined using parent ion MS/MS spectrometry.

  5. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVisscher, A.; Dewulf, J.; Van Durme, J.; Leys, C.; Morent, R.; Van Langenhove, H.

    2008-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation.

  6. "Stop importing weapons of family destruction!": cyberdiscourses, patriarchal anxieties, and the men's backlash movement in India.

    PubMed

    Lodhia, Sharmila

    2014-08-01

    A critical, albeit understudied, dimension of the backlash against women's anti-violence advocacy is the rise of Indian men's rights organizations formed to lobby for changes to, and in some cases, the complete abolition of vital legal protections for women. Utilizing cyber forums, public protests, and print media, these groups disseminate narratives of women wreaking destruction on the Indian family through their alleged misuse of "gender-biased" laws. These activities are significant because they operate as transnational sites of meaning making about the realities of violence against women in India and because they conspire in a distortion of reality that jeopardizes ongoing advocacy efforts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Non-destructive qualification tests for ITER cryogenic axial insulating breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kosek, Jacek; Lopez, Roberto; Tommasini, Davide; Rodriguez-Mateos, Felix

    2014-01-29

    In the ITER superconducting magnets the dielectric separation between the CICC (Cable-In-Conduit Conductors) and the helium supply pipes is made through the so-called insulating breaks (IB). These devices shall provide the required dielectric insulation at a 30 kV level under different types of stresses and constraints: thermal, mechanical, dielectric and ionizing radiations. As part of the R and D program, the ITER Organization launched contracts with industrial companies aimed at the qualification of the manufacturing techniques. After reviewing the main functional aspects, this paper describes and discusses the protocol established for non-destructive qualification tests of the prototypes.

  8. Supercritical water oxidation for wastewater treatment Preliminary study of urea destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timberlake, S. H.; Hong, G. T.; Simson, M.; Modell, M.

    1982-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation is being investigated as a method of treating spacecraft wastewater for recycle. In this process, oxidation is conducted in an aqueous phase maintained above the critical temperature (374 C) and pressure (215 bar) of water. Organic materials are oxidized with efficiencies greater than 99.99 percent in residence times of less than 1 minute. This paper presents preliminary results for urea destruction. Above 650 C, urea can be completely broken down to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide and water by supercritical water oxidation, without the use of a specific catalyst.

  9. Supercritical water oxidation for wastewater treatment Preliminary study of urea destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timberlake, S. H.; Hong, G. T.; Simson, M.; Modell, M.

    1982-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation is being investigated as a method of treating spacecraft wastewater for recycle. In this process, oxidation is conducted in an aqueous phase maintained above the critical temperature (374 C) and pressure (215 bar) of water. Organic materials are oxidized with efficiencies greater than 99.99 percent in residence times of less than 1 minute. This paper presents preliminary results for urea destruction. Above 650 C, urea can be completely broken down to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide and water by supercritical water oxidation, without the use of a specific catalyst.

  10. Bacterially induced bone destruction: mechanisms and misconceptions.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, S P; Meghji, S; Wilson, M; Reddi, K; White, P; Henderson, B

    1996-01-01

    replacement of bone matrix. At the present time, it is not possible to define a general mechanism by which bacteria promote loss of bone matrix. Many bacteria are capable of stimulating bone matrix loss, and the information available would suggest that each organism possesses different factors which interact with bone in different ways. With the rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus and M. tuberculosis, organisms responsible for much bone pathology in developed countries only two generations ago, we would urge that much greater attention should be focused on the problem of bacterially induced bone remodelling in order to define pathogenetic mechanisms which could be therapeutic targets for the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:8698454

  11. Destruction of Representative Navy Wastes Using Supercritical Water Oxidation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.F.; Steeper, R.R.; LaJeunesse, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly emerging technology that presents potential as a hazardous waste treatment method for a wide variety of industrial chemicals ranging from common organic solvents to complex formulations such as paints, lubricating oils, and degreasers. The Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory is contributing to the development of this technology for application to waste materials generated at naval shipyards and bases. These wastes include paint stripping and changeout fluids generated from equipment service procedures as well as herbicides, pesticides, paint, and numerous other materials associated with base facility maintenance. An important design consideration in the development of SCWO systems centers on choosing a reactor operating temperature such that the destruction of the waste organic is sufficiently complete. This report examines the temperature dependence of the oxidation in supercritical water of seven common organic compounds and three industrial commercial materials over the temperature range of 430{degree}C to 585{degree}C and reaction times ranging from seven to thirty seconds at a pressure of 27.5 MPa (4000 psi). The materials studies are methanol, phenol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, methylene chloride, 1,1,1-tichloroethane (TCA), latex paint, motor oil, and Roundup, a commercial general purpose herbicide. The results indicate that for most materials, temperatures over 530{degree}C and residence times near 20 seconds afford destruction efficiencies of greater than 99.95%

  12. Assessment of disinfectants in explosive destruction system for biological agent destruction : LDRD final report FY04.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Didlake, John E. Jr.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Crooker, Paul J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Treatment systems that can neutralize biological agents are needed to mitigate risks from novel and legacy biohazards. Tests with Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus steurothemophilus spores were performed in a 190-liter, 1-112 lb TNT equivalent rated Explosive Destruction System (EDS) system to evaluate its capability to treat and destroy biological agents. Five tests were conducted using three different agents to kill the spores. The EDS was operated in steam autoclave, gas fumigation and liquid decontamination modes. The first three tests used EDS as an autoclave, which uses pressurized steam to kill the spores. Autoclaving was performed at 130-140 deg C for up to 2-hours. Tests with chlorine dioxide at 750 ppm concentration for 1 hour and 10% (vol) aqueous chlorine bleach solution for 1 hour were also performed. All tests resulted in complete neutralization of the bacterial spores based on no bacterial growth in post-treatment incubations. Explosively opening a glass container to expose the bacterial spores for treatment with steam was demonstrated and could easily be done for chlorine dioxide gas or liquid bleach.

  13. Photochemical destruction of cyanide in landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.R.; Podsiadlik, D.H.; Hartlund, J.L.; Gaines, W.A.; Kalis, E.M.

    1998-11-01

    The Allen Park Clay Mine Landfill, owned by Ford, produces a leachate that occasionally contains cyanide at levels marginally below the discharge limit. The form of the cyanide in the leachate was found to be iron-cyanide complexes that resist oxidation by a conventional treatment method, alkaline oxidation. Furthermore, the leachate also was found to contain a relatively large amount of organics which would exert additional demand for oxidizing agents (e.g., chlorine). A study was performed to determine what treatment technology could be employed in the event treatment becomes necessary because of potential changes in the leachate characteristics and/or discharge limits. In this study, among several chemical oxidation methods, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with or without ozone was investigated as a treatment option. The following are the primary findings: (1) UV irradiation alone was effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex in both the leachate and the clean water; (2) the demand for UV or ozone by chemical oxygen demand was relatively low for this leachate; (3) ozone alone was not effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex; and (4) UV irradiation alone and UV irradiation with ozone resulted in the same removal for total cyanide in clean-water experiments, but the UV irradiation alone left some free cyanide whereas the UV irradiation with ozone did not.

  14. Destruction of Staphylococcus aureus during frankfurter processing.

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, S A; Smith, J L; Kissinger, J C

    1977-01-01

    We studied the thermal resistance of Staphylococcus aureus during frankfurter processing in respect to whether staphylococci are killed by the heating step of the process and whether heat injury interferes with the quantitative estimation of the survivors. With S. aureus 198E, heat injury could be demonstrated only when large numbers of cells (10(8)/g) were present and at a product temperature of 140 degrees F (60 degrees C). On tryptic soy agar and tryptic soy agar plus 7% NaCl media, at temperatures less than 140 degrees F, the counts were virtually identical; above 140 degrees F, the counts converged, with the organisms dying so rapidly that heat injury was not demonstrable. Heat injury was thus judged not to interfere with the quantitative estimation of staphylococci surviving the normal commercial heating given frankfurters. By using a combination of direct plating on tryptic soy agar and a most-probable-number technique, we detected no viable cells (less than 0.3/g) of several strains of S. aureus in frankfurters heated to 160 degrees F (71.1 degrees C). This temperature is compatible with the normal final temperature to which federally inspected processors heat their frankfurters and with the temperature needed to destroy salmonellae. PMID:563701

  15. In situ hydrothermal oxidative destruction of DNAPLS in a creosote contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Leif, R. N., LLNL

    1998-02-27

    Hydrous Pyrolysis / Oxidation (HPO) is an in situ thermal remediation technology that uses hot, oxygenated groundwater to completely mineralize a wide range of organic pollutants. A field demonstration of HPO was performed at a creosote contaminated site during the summer of 1997. The groundwater was heated by steam injections and oxygen was added by coinjection of compressed air. The remediation was monitored from multiple groundwater monitoring wells. Dissolved organic carbon levels increased in response to steam injections as a result of the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of the creosote into the heated groundwater. Elevated concentrations of partially oxidized organic compounds (i.e. phenols, benzoic acid, fluorenone, anthrone and 9,10- anthracenedione), decreased levels of dissolved oxygen and isotopic shifts in the dissolved inorganic pool were indicators of partial to complete oxidative destruction of the creosote in the heated aquifer as a result of the HPO process.

  16. Hypothyroidism presenting as destructive arthropathy of the fingers.

    PubMed Central

    Gerster, J. C.; Quadri, P.; Saudan, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A patient presenting with destructive arthropathy of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the hands is described. She was initially believed to have rheumatoid arthritis but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were of no help. The patient was subsequently found to have hypothyroidism and erosive osteoarthritis of the fingers. Joint swelling, pain and stiffness responded dramatically to thyroid hormone substitution. The PIP joint spaces reappeared on the radiographs within 9 months. This case suggest that hypothyroidism may induce destructive arthropathy of the finger joints. As thyroxine replacement may reverse the rheumatic complaints, hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a destructive arthropathy of unclear aetiology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3983045

  17. Winnicott on Jung: destruction, creativity and the unrepressed unconscious.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Owen, William

    2011-02-01

    This paper considers Winnicott's critique of Jung, principally expressed in his review of Memories, Dreams, Reflections, which asserts that Jung's creative contribution to analysis was constrained by his failure to integrate his 'primitive destructive impulses', subsequent to inadequate early containment. It is argued that although Winnicott's diagnosis illuminates Jung's shadow, particularly his constraints vis-à-vis the repressed Freudian unconscious, it fails to appreciate the efficacy of the compensatory containment Jung found in the collective unconscious. This enigmatic relationship between destruction and creativity-so central to late Winnicott-is illuminated by Matte Blanco's bi-logic, and further explored in relation to William Blake. Winnicott's personal resolution through his Jung-inspired 'splitting headache' dream of destruction-previously considered in this Journal by Morey (2005) and Sedgwick (2008)-is given particular attention.

  18. Community Destruction and Traumatic Stress in Post-Tsunami Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Nobles, Jenna; Sumantri, Cecep

    2013-01-01

    How are individuals affected when the communities they live in change for the worse? This question is central to understanding neighborhood effects, but few study designs generate estimates that can be interpreted causally. We address issues of inference through a natural experiment, examining post-traumatic stress at multiple time points in a population differentially exposed to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The data, from the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery, include interviews with over 16,000 Indonesian adults before and after the event. These data are combined with satellite imagery, direct observation, and informant interviews to examine the consequences of community destruction for post-traumatic stress. Using multilevel linear mixed models, we show that community destruction worsens post-traumatic stress, net of rigorous controls for individual experiences of trauma and loss. Furthermore, the effect of community destruction persists over time and extends across a wide range of community types. PMID:22940603

  19. Community destruction and traumatic stress in post-tsunami Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Nobles, Jenna; Sumantri, Cecep

    2012-01-01

    How are individuals affected when the communities they live in change for the worse? This question is central to understanding neighborhood effects, but few study designs generate estimates that can be interpreted causally. We address issues of inference through a natural experiment, examining post-traumatic stress at multiple time points in a population differentially exposed to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The data, from the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery, include interviews with over 16,000 Indonesian adults before and after the event. These data are combined with satellite imagery, direct observation, and informant interviews to examine the consequences of community destruction for post-traumatic stress. Using multilevel linear mixed models, we show that community destruction worsens post-traumatic stress, net of rigorous controls for individual experiences of trauma and loss. Furthermore, the effect of community destruction persists over time and extends across a wide range of community types.

  20. Catalytic destruction of tars in biomass-derived gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L K; Baker, E G; Brown, M D; Wilcox, W A

    1988-02-01

    The Biomass and Municipal Waste Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring studies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on catalytic destruction of condensible hydrocarbons (tars) in biomass-derived gases. Currently gasifiers generate a significant amount of tars in the product gases. These tars create problems with plugging in downstream equipment and with wastewater treatment. Partial oxidation of the gas stream in a secondary fluid bed of catalyst destroys the tars in biomass-derived gases while increasing the energy content of the product gas by over 20%. Catalysts that remain active for tar destruction are used in the secondary reactor which is specially designed to promote destruction of tars and minimize oxidation of combustible gases such as CO and H/sub 2/. Results of studies with different catalysts which have been tested for this application are described.

  1. Severe periodontal destruction in alpha-mannosidosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Jagdip S; Auplish, Gita; Johnson, Adele R; Darbar, Ulpee R

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Severe periodontal breakdown in alpha-mannosidosis patients has not previously been reported in the literature. The purposes of this paper are to: present the cases of 2 siblings diagnosed with alpha-mannosidosis, each of whom had varying severity of periodontal destruction; and provide an overview of alpha-mannosidosis, the possible reasons for the periodontal destruction, and the periodontal management in the 2 affected siblings. Both had preventive and nonsurgical periodontal therapy followed by a 5-year period of supportive therapy. Their pattern of bone loss was consistent with those with periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases, with the extent of periodontal destruction being related to the severity of the alpha-mannosidosis. Alpha-mannosidosis patients present with social disfigurements and, to prevent tooth loss that can add to this, early periodontal diagnosis is important to optimize management and intervention.

  2. A kind of specific osteolytic destruction of the vertebral bodies

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Baogan; Chen, Jinhong; Pang, Xiaodong; Hei, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This report describes two young patients with osteolytic destruction in two adjacent vertebral bodies along with the intervertebral disc, and reveals its possible mechanism. A lateral radiograph and CT scan displayed a giant osteolytic cavity in the L4 vertebral body. An MRI or CT scan with a two-dimensional reconstruction displayed the same changes in the L4 vertebral body and lower endplate erosion in the L3 vertebral body. A comprehensive preoperative evaluation did not identify a specific cause of vertebral destruction. Both patients underwent anterior lumbar fusion surgery. The lesions were removed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Histopathological study of the destructed vertebral bodies in the two patients revealed the disruption or atrophy of bone trabeculae with infiltration of a large amount of B-lymphocytes and macrophages into the marrow cavities. Studies of its pathogenesis reveal that it is likely to be a B-lymphocyte-mediated local immune inflammatory reaction in the lumbar spine. PMID:22675148

  3. Waste destruction with 500 kW three phase AC plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Polovtsev, I.S.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments for gas destruction with the help of the new three phase AC plasma generator were performed. Advantages of the new type plasma generator were studied. It was shown that this generator can be successfully used for destruction of hazardous waste. Tests of methane, freon and malathion destruction were performed. Results of the tests shows complete destruction of the injected gases.

  4. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  5. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  6. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  7. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  8. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  9. Habitat destruction and metacommunity size in pen shell communities.

    PubMed

    Munguia, Pablo; Miller, Thomas E

    2008-11-01

    1. In spatially structured communities, habitat destruction can have two effects: first, a main effect that occurs because of the loss of habitat area within a larger region, and a secondary effect due to changes in the spatial arrangement of local communities. Changes to the spatial arrangement can, in turn, affect the migration and extinction rates within local communities. 2. Our study involved the experimental destruction of entire local communities within larger regions in natural marine microcosms. Large and small arrays of dead pen shells were created in a shallow bay in north Florida, and the colonization by both encrusting and motile species on this empty substrate were followed through time. After most species had become established, half of the large arrays were perturbed to create small arrays by removal of half the shells, simulating habitat destruction. 3. After 48 days of further community development, comparisons of the large arrays, reduced arrays and original small arrays suggested that the mechanisms by which habitat destruction affects diversity could depend upon the size of the region affected and the natural history of the species being studied. 4. Habitat destruction reduced the diversity of motile species to a level lower than that found in the undisturbed small arrays, suggesting that the species that assembled in the original large metacommunities negatively influenced the species that occurred ultimately in the converted small arrays. 5. With sessile species, habitat destruction created richness levels that were intermediate to those of small and large arrays. The initial predestruction richness appears to have had a positive effect; because sessile species cannot disperse as adults, they may not respond to significant shifts in metacommunity size later in succession. Initial metacommunity size may be important for allowing individuals to select appropriate habitats before they settle.

  10. Periodontium destruction associated with oncology therapy. Five case reports

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.E.

    1987-08-01

    Radiation treatment to the head and neck and cytotoxic chemotherapy can produce deleterious side effects to the periodontium that are generally transient in nature, reversible, and do not result in permanently visible defects. However, combinations of the malignant disease itself, the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and associated oral infections, along with local trauma can lead to periodontal tissue destruction with resulting permanent architectural defects. Five case reports illustrate destructive alterations of the periodontium that were associated with oncology therapy. Proposed guidelines for periodontal treatment of compromised individuals undergoing oncology therapies are suggested.

  11. Cambium Destruction in Conifers Caused by Pinewood Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Ronald F.

    1986-01-01

    Percentage and rate of mortality in 2-4-year-old conifers depended upon the numbers of pinewood nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus inoculated into their stems. In addition, percentage of conifer mortality was greater for spring inoculations when cambial activity was greater than for late summer and fall inoculations. Gross and histological examination of stems revealed destruction of the cambial layer, including fusiform and ray intitials and their derivatives. These data suggest that cambial and ray destruction causes tree death through blockage of tracheids by gas, oleoresin, or metabolites from dying ray tissues. PMID:19294198

  12. Coupled field induced conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Sun, Xiudong

    2016-12-01

    We study the control of quantum interference in a four-level atom driven by three coherent fields forming a closed loop. The spontaneous emission spectrum shows two sets of peaks which are dramatically influenced by the fields. Due to destructive quantum interference, a dark line can be observed in the emission spectrum, and the condition of the dark line is given. We found that the conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference can be achieved through controlling the Rabi frequency of the external fields.

  13. Morphine: a protective or destructive role in neurons?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Qiuyue; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    Morphine has received intensive research interest for a long time. However, until recently, the protective versus destructive roles of morphine in the neuronal system have not been studied. There is evidence suggesting that morphine induces apoptotic cell death in neuronal and glial cells, whereas controversial studies support a neuroprotective role for morphine. The exact mechanisms for both protective and destructive pathways are not clear and are still under investigation. Improved understanding of morphine neuroprotection and neurotoxicity will be helpful to control morphine side effects in medical applications and to identify new targets for potential therapies and prevention strategies to opioid addiction.

  14. Mechanisms of CFR composites destruction studying with pulse acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronyuk, Y. S.; Morokov, E. S.; Levin, V. M.; Ryzhova, T. B.; Chernov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Non-destructive inspection of carbon-fiber-reinforced (CFR) composites applied in aerospace industry attracts a wide attention. In the paper, high frequency focused ultrasound (50-100 MHz) has been applied to study the bulk microstructure of the CFR material and mechanisms of its destruction under the mechanical loading. It has been shown impulse acoustic microscopy provides detecting the areas of adhesion loss at millimeter and micron level. Behavior of the CFR laminate structure fabricated by prepreg or infusion technology has been investigated under the tensile and impact loading.

  15. Destruction of dimethyl methylphosphonate using a microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Cho, Soon C.; Hong, Yong C.; Park, Yang G.; Park, Ju S.

    2008-02-01

    A microwave plasma torch with a microwave power of 1.2kW destroys dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) with a destruction rate of 1.14l/h, demonstrating a safe removal capability of stockpiled chemical weapons. The FTIR spectra of the discharge gas from DMMP destruction indicates near perfect elimination of DMMP when the proper amount of oxygen gas is added. This can be confirmed by the gas chromatography spectra, which show the disappearance of even intermediary compounds. The compactness and light weight of the microwave plasma torch provide an effective means of on-site removal of the chemical warfare agents found on a battlefield.

  16. Coupled field induced conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiangqian Sun, Xiudong

    2016-12-15

    We study the control of quantum interference in a four-level atom driven by three coherent fields forming a closed loop. The spontaneous emission spectrum shows two sets of peaks which are dramatically influenced by the fields. Due to destructive quantum interference, a dark line can be observed in the emission spectrum, and the condition of the dark line is given. We found that the conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference can be achieved through controlling the Rabi frequency of the external fields.

  17. Product acceptance environmental and destructive testing for reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, Michael A.; Kerschen, Thomas J.; Collins, Elmer W.

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether a component is meeting its reliability requirement during production, acceptance sampling is employed in which selected units coming off the production line are subjected to additional environmental and/or destructive tests that are within the normal environment space to which the component is expected to be exposed throughout its life in the Stockpile. This report describes what these tests are and how they are scored for reliability purposes. The roles of screens, Engineering Use Only tests, and next assembly product acceptance testing are also discussed, along with both the advantages and disadvantages of environmental and destructive testing.

  18. Pairing correlations near a Kondo-destruction quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pixley, J. H.; Deng, Lili; Ingersent, Kevin; Si, Qimiao

    2015-05-01

    Motivated by the unconventional superconductivity observed in heavy-fermion metals, we investigate pairing susceptibilities near a continuous quantum phase transition of the Kondo-destruction type. We solve two-impurity Bose-Fermi Anderson models with Ising and Heisenberg forms of the interimpurity exchange interaction using continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo and numerical renormalization-group methods. Each model exhibits a Kondo-destruction quantum critical point separating Kondo-screened and local-moment phases. For antiferromagnetic interimpurity exchange interactions, singlet pairing is found to be enhanced in the vicinity of the transition. Implications of this result for heavy-fermion superconductivity are discussed.

  19. Feather loss and feather destructive behavior in pet birds.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Jonathan; Lightfoot, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Feather loss in psittacine birds is a common and frustrating clinical presentation. Causes include medical and nonmedical causes of feather loss with and without overt feather destructive behavior. Underlying causes include inappropriate husbandry and housing; parasitic, viral and bacterial infections; metabolic and allergic diseases; and behavioral disorders. Prior to a diagnosis of a behavioral disorder, medical causes of feather loss must be excluded through a complete medical work-up including history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. This article focuses on common medical and nonmedical causes of feather loss and feather destructive behavior and approaches to diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E.

    1995-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

  1. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, PLEUROPNEUMONIA, RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.5 Disinfection or destruction of materials. (a) In order to prevent the spread of disease, materials...

  2. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, PLEUROPNEUMONIA, RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.5 Disinfection or destruction of materials. (a) In order to prevent the spread of disease, materials...

  3. 19 CFR 158.41 - Destruction of prohibited merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of prohibited merchandise. 158.41 Section 158.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... in force on the date of entry or withdrawal for consumption, may be destroyed under Government...

  4. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-06100

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-11-07

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-06100. This package was selected for examination based on several characteristics: - This was the first destructively examined package in which the fiberboard assembly was fabricated from softwood fiberboard. - The package contained a relatively high heat load to contribute to internal temperature, which is a key environmental factor for fiberboard degradation. - The package has been stored in the middle or top of a storage array since its receipt in K- Area, positions that would contribute to increased service temperatures. No significant changes were observed for attributes that were measured during both field surveillance and destructive examination. Except for the axial gap, all observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. The axial gap met the 1 inch maximum criterion during field surveillance, but was just over the criterion during SRNL measurements. When re-measured at a later date, it again met the criterion. The bottom of the lower fiberboard assembly and the drum interior had two small stains at matching locations, suggestive of water intrusion. However, the fiberboard assembly did not contain any current evidence of excess moisture. No evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. Despite exposure to the elevated temperatures of this higher-then-average wattage package, properties of the fiberboard and O-rings are consistent with those of new packages.

  5. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  6. Destruction of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect by Disorder

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1985-07-01

    It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Training Foster Parents to Handle Destructive Behavior. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Patricia

    This manual, one of a series of manuals developed for the Foster Parent Training Project at Eastern Michigan University, was designed to assist instructors in presenting course content to foster parents on how to deal with destructive behavior in their foster children. The introductory section presents information for the instructor on aspects of…

  8. Treatment of multiply controlled destructive behavior with food reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Adelinis, J D; Piazza, C C; Goh, H L

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which the positive reinforcement of communication would reduce multiply controlled destructive behavior in the absence of relevant extinction components. When edible reinforcement for appropriate communication and nonfood reinforcers for problem behavior were available simultaneously, responding was allocated almost exclusively toward the behavior that produced edible reinforcement. PMID:11317997

  9. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.41 Section 26.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar containers...

  10. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.207 Section 26.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar...

  11. 15 CFR 721.3 - Destruction or disposal of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction or disposal of records. 721.3 Section 721.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  12. 19 CFR 191.37 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.37 Section 191.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Customs supervision. A claimant may destroy merchandise and obtain unused merchandise drawback...

  13. Treatment of multiply controlled destructive behavior with food reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Adelinis, J D; Piazza, C C; Goh, H L

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which the positive reinforcement of communication would reduce multiply controlled destructive behavior in the absence of relevant extinction components. When edible reinforcement for appropriate communication and nonfood reinforcers for problem behavior were available simultaneously, responding was allocated almost exclusively toward the behavior that produced edible reinforcement.

  14. Evaluation of nitrate and nitrite destruction/separation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-08-29

    This report describes and evaluates four types of nitrate and nitrite destruction and separation technologies that could be used to treat the aqueous, alkaline, nitrate-bearing mixed waste that is generated by the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The technologies considered in this report include thermal, hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical technologies.

  15. ADSORPTION AND CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

  16. Music as a Treatment Channel of Adolescent Destructivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Kimmo; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    A young person showing strong destructive symptoms often has too much hatred toward adults, other authorities, and society for the "voice of reason" to penetrate or reach some fixed point in his or her psyche. Music, however, activates emotions raising problems of the real field of life to be dealt with in symbolic form. This paper discusses the…

  17. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  18. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  19. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  20. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  1. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  2. ADSORPTION AND CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

  3. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) consigning the animal from a farm or livestock market directly to a slaughter establishment; or (f) In unique... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. NonDestructive Evaluation for Industrial & Development Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, James F.

    2016-10-12

    Provide overview of weld inspection for Non-Destructive Testing at LANL. This includes radiography (RT/DR/CR/CT for x-ray & neutron sources), ultrasonic testing (UT/PAUT), dye penetrant inspection (PT), eddy current inspection (ET) and magnetic particle testing (MT). Facilities and capabilities for weld inspection will be summarized with examples.

  5. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed to...

  6. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  7. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  8. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed to...

  9. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  10. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  11. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  12. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed to...

  13. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed to...

  14. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  15. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  16. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed to...

  17. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  18. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  19. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  20. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  1. Textbook Coverage of the Destruction of the Armenians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance as the event establishing that the 20th century would be known as "the age of genocide," the destruction of the Armenians that occurred between the mid-1890s and 1923 is given marginal coverage in contemporary U. S. high school history textbooks. This article critiques that coverage and identifies the overall flow…

  2. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  3. Educational Reform: Its Role in the Economic Destruction of Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard

    This paper examines the role played by educational reform (as advocated by economic rationalism) in the economic destruction of Australian society. It is argued that two mechanisms for containing economic difficulties are the plundering of the nation state and the application of new technologies of production. Strategies of educational reform, as…

  4. Longitudinal Relations Between Constructive and Destructive Conflict and Couples’ Sleep

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Koss, Kalsea J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Rauer, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples’ sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples’ sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor–partner interdependence models indicated that husbands’ use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives’ sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands’ and wives’ use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. PMID:25915089

  5. Implications of Sensory Stimulation in Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Stephen M.

    1984-01-01

    The author extends the self stimulatory theory of self destructive behavior in autistic, schizophrenic, and mentally retarded individuals to suggest that damage of the skin's nerve structure lowers the tactile sensory threshold for physical input and enables individuals to obtain sensory stimulation by repeatedly depressing the damaged area. (CL)

  6. Destruction of Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Using an Arcjet Plasma Torch*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleddermann, C. B.; Snyder, H. R.; Gahl, J. M.

    1996-10-01

    A small-scale thermal plasma torch has been used for the disposal of hazardous industrial chemicals including alcohols, ketones, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The plasma jet is operated at currents up to 200 Amperes and waste flow rates up to 600 ml/hr. Argon is used as the plasma gas with oxygen added to the reactor to alter the reaction chemistry. Destruction of the waste and by-product formation are monitored using a residual gas analyzer, and the temperature of the plasma plume is measured using an enthalpy probe. The by-products of the destruction of acetone are primarily carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of hydrocarbons. Adding oxygen to the reactor increases the production of carbon dioxide and significantly decreases the amount of acetone in the exhaust gases. This reactor has achieved greater than 99 percent destruction efficiency for acetone when oxygen is added to the reaction mixture at an arcjet current of 75 Amperes, with similar destruction efficiencies observed for ethanol and trichloroethylene. *Supported by the U.S. DOE through the WERC program administered by New Mexico State University.

  7. Destructive Leadership Behaviors and Workplace Attitudes in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woestman, Daniel S.; Wasonga, Teresa Akinyi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated destructive leadership behaviors (DLBs) and their influence on K-12 workplace attitudes (subordinate consideration for leaving their job, job satisfaction, and levels of stress). Quantitative survey method was used to gather data from experienced professional educators. Analyses of data show that the practice of DLB exists…

  8. Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food texture is important to the successful marketing and profitability of food products. Non-destructive sensing would allow food producers and processors to inspect, sort, grade, or track individual product items, so that they can deliver consistent, superior food products to the marketplace. Over...

  9. Aggressive nasopalatine duct cyst with complete destruction of palatine bone

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, D.; Muthusubramanian, Veerabahu; Nathan, J. A.; Nutalapati, Ravi Sankar; Jose, Yasmin Mary; kumar, Y. Naren

    2016-01-01

    Nasopalatine duct cyst is the nonodontogenic developmental cyst, frequently occurring in the midline of the anterior maxillary region. The clinical presentation of the cyst is often varied and presents a diagnostic difficulty and frequently misdiagnosed as developmental or inflammatory odontogenic cystic lesion. This paper represents a large infected nasopalatine duct cyst presenting with complete destruction of anterior palate and pyriform rim. PMID:27829777

  10. Education in Somalia: History, Destruction, and Calls for Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.

    1998-01-01

    Traces the history of education in Somalia: in precolonial traditional Somalia; during colonial rule by Italy; under civilian rule, 1960-69; and under military rule, 1969-90. Describes the total destruction of the education system since the 1991 collapse of the state, widespread illiteracy and adolescent involvement in thuggery, and the urgent…

  11. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…

  12. 14 CFR 249.7 - Restrictions on record destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on record destruction. 249.7 Section 249.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... shall retain all records remaining in its custody as of the beginning of an “open mail rate...

  13. Destructive Leadership Behaviors and Workplace Attitudes in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woestman, Daniel S.; Wasonga, Teresa Akinyi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated destructive leadership behaviors (DLBs) and their influence on K-12 workplace attitudes (subordinate consideration for leaving their job, job satisfaction, and levels of stress). Quantitative survey method was used to gather data from experienced professional educators. Analyses of data show that the practice of DLB exists…

  14. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH...

  15. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH...

  16. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH...

  17. Education in Somalia: History, Destruction, and Calls for Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.

    1998-01-01

    Traces the history of education in Somalia: in precolonial traditional Somalia; during colonial rule by Italy; under civilian rule, 1960-69; and under military rule, 1969-90. Describes the total destruction of the education system since the 1991 collapse of the state, widespread illiteracy and adolescent involvement in thuggery, and the urgent…

  18. The association between periodontal disease and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis extends the link between the HLA-DR shared epitope and severity of bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Marotte, H; Farge, P; Gaudin, P; Alexandre, C; Mougin, B; Miossec, P

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate a possible association between wrist and periodontal destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, and between periodontal destruction, dry mouth, and labial salivary gland biopsy and the contribution of genetic factors (the shared epitope (SE) and IL1B (+3954) or TNFA (-238 or -308) gene polymorphisms). 147 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled. Periodontal damage was defined according to the Hugoson and Jordan criteria on panoramic dental x rays. Typing for the SE and cytokine polymorphisms was undertaken by enzyme linked oligosorbent assay. Odds ratios (OR), relative risk (RR), and chi2 values were calculated to quantify associations. An association was observed between wrist and periodontal bone destruction (chi2=11.82; p<0.001): 63 patients had both wrist and periodontal destruction, 31 had wrist destruction alone, 20 had periodontal destruction alone, and 33 had no destruction at either site. An association was seen between a positive labial salivary gland biopsy and periodontal bone destruction (RR=2.73 (95% CI, 1.35 to 5.51), p<0.01, n=41) or wrist bone destruction (RR=4.52 (1.96 to 10.45), p<0.001, n=41). The SE was associated with wrist bone destruction (OR=2.5 (1.16 to 5.42), p<0.05) and periodontal bone destruction (OR=2.2 (1.04 to 4.84), p<0.05). No association was found between the selected cytokine polymorphisms and bone destruction. A strong association was found between wrist and periodontal bone destruction. The destruction risk was further increased in patients with sicca syndrome. The SE appears to be a severity genetic marker for both wrist and periodontal bone destruction.

  19. The association between periodontal disease and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis extends the link between the HLA‐DR shared epitope and severity of bone destruction

    PubMed Central

    Marotte, H; Farge, P; Gaudin, P; Alexandre, C; Mougin, B; Miossec, P

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a possible association between wrist and periodontal destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, and between periodontal destruction, dry mouth, and labial salivary gland biopsy and the contribution of genetic factors (the shared epitope (SE) and IL1B (+3954) or TNFA (−238 or −308) gene polymorphisms). Methods 147 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled. Periodontal damage was defined according to the Hugoson and Jordan criteria on panoramic dental x rays. Typing for the SE and cytokine polymorphisms was undertaken by enzyme linked oligosorbent assay. Odds ratios (OR), relative risk (RR), and χ2 values were calculated to quantify associations. Results An association was observed between wrist and periodontal bone destruction (χ2 = 11.82; p<0.001): 63 patients had both wrist and periodontal destruction, 31 had wrist destruction alone, 20 had periodontal destruction alone, and 33 had no destruction at either site. An association was seen between a positive labial salivary gland biopsy and periodontal bone destruction (RR = 2.73 (95% CI, 1.35 to 5.51), p<0.01, n = 41) or wrist bone destruction (RR = 4.52 (1.96 to 10.45), p<0.001, n = 41). The SE was associated with wrist bone destruction (OR = 2.5 (1.16 to 5.42), p<0.05) and periodontal bone destruction (OR = 2.2 (1.04 to 4.84), p<0.05). No association was found between the selected cytokine polymorphisms and bone destruction. Conclusions A strong association was found between wrist and periodontal bone destruction. The destruction risk was further increased in patients with sicca syndrome. The SE appears to be a severity genetic marker for both wrist and periodontal bone destruction. PMID:16284099

  20. Loss of cftr function leads to pancreatic destruction in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Navis, Adam; Bagnat, Michel

    2015-03-15

    The development and function of many internal organs requires precisely regulated fluid secretion. A key regulator of vertebrate fluid secretion is an anion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Loss of CFTR function leads to defects in fluid transport and cystic fibrosis (CF), a complex disease characterized by a loss of fluid secretion and mucus buildup in many organs including the lungs, liver, and pancreas. Several animal models including mouse, ferret and pig have been generated to investigate the pathophysiology of CF. However, these models have limited accessibility to early processes in the development of CF and are not amenable for forward genetic or chemical screens. Here, we show that Cftr is expressed and localized to the apical membrane of the zebrafish pancreatic duct and that loss of cftr function leads to destruction of the exocrine pancreas and a cystic fibrosis phenotype that mirrors human disease. Our analyses reveal that the cftr mutant pancreas initially develops normally, then rapidly loses pancreatic tissue during larval life, reflecting pancreatic disease in CF. Altogether, we demonstrate that the cftr mutant zebrafish is a powerful new model for pancreatitis and pancreatic destruction in CF. This accessible model will allow more detailed investigation into the mechanisms that drive CF of the pancreas and facilitate development of new therapies to treat the disease.