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Sample records for 48k apple ii

  1. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  2. A new photosystem II reaction center component (4.8 kDa protein) encoded by chloroplast genome.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, M; Inoue, Y

    1988-12-05

    The photosystem II reaction center complex, so-called D1-D2-cytochrome b-559 complex, isolated from higher plants contains a new component of about 4.8 kDa [(1988) Plant Cell Physiol. 29, 1233-1239]. The partial amino acid sequence of this component from spinach was determined after release of N-terminal blockage. The determined sequence matched an open reading frame (ORF36) of the chloroplast genome from tobacco and liverwort, which is located downstream from the psbK gene and forms an operon with psbK. The predicted product consists of 36 amino acid residues and has a single membrane-spanning segment. High homology between the tobacco and liverwort genes, and its presence in the reaction center complex suggest an important role for this component in the photosystem II complex. Since this gene corresponds to a part of the formerly designated psbI gene, we propose to revise the definition of psbI as the gene encoding the 4.8 kDa reaction center component.

  3. Using the Apple II as a Laboratory Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.; Layman, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses using Apple II microcomputers for measuring resistance, temperature, and light intensity. Also discusses digital input and output and timing techniques. Although focusing on Apple II, the circuits and programs described may be applicable to other microcomputers. (JN)

  4. SuperPILOT: A Comprehensive Computer-Assisted Instruction Programming Language for the Apple II Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleur, David M.

    This presentation describes SuperPILOT, an extended version of Apple PILOT, a programming language for developing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with the Apple II computer that includes the features of its early PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching) ancestors together with new features that make use of the Apple computer's advanced…

  5. A Fixed Gap APPLE II Undulator for SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A.; Ingold, G.; Jakob, B.; Vollenweider, C.

    2007-01-19

    To vary the polarization vector of an APPLE II undulator continuously from 0 - 180 deg., all four magnet arrays need to be movable. Following the adjustable-phase undulator approach by R. Carr, a 3.4 m long fixed gap undulator for SLS with a gap of 11.6 mm has been constructed. It will be installed in fall 2006. The gap drive is replaced by a pair-wise shift of the magnet arrays to change the energy, while the polarization is changed by shifts of diagonal arrays. The high injection efficiency and standard operation top-up mode at the SLS allows this simplified undulator design. The design as well as the operational aspects will be discussed.

  6. New Editions for the Apple II of the Chelsea Science Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipeline, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Ten computer simulations for the Apple II are described. Subject areas of programs include: population dynamics, plant competition, enzyme kinetics, evolution and natural selection, genetic mapping, ammonia synthesis, reaction kinetics, wave interference/diffraction, satellite orbits, and particle scattering. (JN)

  7. To Build on Appleworks and the Apple II, or Not--Seven Points to Guide Your Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebrough, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses seven factors to consider in deciding whether or not to build on AppleWorks and Apple II technology now that Apple Computer is developing little new software for the system. Factors include the impact of change on users and the existence of mail-order support services, which are listed in a sidebar. (KRN)

  8. Scientific Applications of the Apple Game Port: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratzlaff, Kenneth

    1984-01-01

    The Apple game port has two types of inputs: the paddle input and the button input. Scientific applications of these input-output units are discussed, examining analog inputs (potentiometers, thermistors, and photoresistors), single bit digital inputs, and single-bit outputs. (JN)

  9. Maintenance of Microcomputers. Manual and Apple II Session, IBM Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Michael A.; And Others

    This guide describes maintenance procedures for IBM and Apple personal computers, provides information on detecting and diagnosing problems, and details diagnostic programs. Included are discussions of printers, terminals, disks, disk drives, keyboards, hardware, and software. The text is supplemented by various diagrams. (EW)

  10. Computer Aided Drafting Packages for Secondary Education. Edition 1. Apple II and Macintosh. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim

    This report reviews software packages for Apple Macintosh and Apple II computers available to secondary schools to teach computer-aided drafting (CAD). Products for the report were gathered through reviews of CAD periodicals, computers in education periodicals, advertisements, and teacher recommendations. The first section lists the primary…

  11. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators.

    PubMed

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used.

  12. Active and passive compensation of APPLE II-introduced multipole errors through beam-based measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Huang, Szu-Jung; Fu, Huang-Wen; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Hwang, Ching-Shiang

    2016-08-01

    The effect of an APPLE II-type elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) on the beam dynamics were investigated using active and passive methods. To reduce the tune shift and improve the injection efficiency, dynamic multipole errors were compensated using L-shaped iron shims, which resulted in stable top-up operation for a minimum gap. The skew quadrupole error was compensated using a multipole corrector, which was located downstream of the EPU for minimizing betatron coupling, and it ensured the enhancement of the synchrotron radiation brightness. The investigation methods, a numerical simulation algorithm, a multipole error correction method, and the beam-based measurement results are discussed.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles impregnated on apple pomace to enhanced adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chand, Piar; Pakade, Yogesh B

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized, and impregnated onto apple pomace surface (HANP@AP) for efficient removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions from water. HANP@AP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and surface area analysis. Batch sorption studies were carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters as amount of dose (g), pH, time (min), and initial concentration (mg L(-1)) on adsorption process. Experimental kinetic data followed pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium data well fitted to Langmuir adsorption model with maximum adsorption capacities of 303, 250, and 100 mg g(-1) for Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions, respectively. Competitive adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions in presences of each other was studied to evaluate the removal efficiency of HANP@AP against multi metal-loaded water. HANP@AP was successfully applied to real industrial wastewater with 100 % removal of all three metal ions even at high concentration. HANP@AP could be recycled for four, four, and three cycles in case of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II), respectively. The study showed that HANP@AP is fast, cost effective, and environmental friendly adsorbent for removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II) ions from real industrial wastewater.

  14. Elementary, My Dear Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Robert

    1981-01-01

    A review of "Elementary, My Dear Apple," a commercial software package for the Apple II microcomputer. The package contains four computer programs which present elementary-level spelling, math, and economics learning activities in game-like formats. (SJL)

  15. Biosorption of lead (II) ions by NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimurti, Devita Dwi; Heraldy, Eddy; Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    This research studied the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue. Biosorbent was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The effects of biosorbent dosage, pH, contact time and initial metal ion concentration had been investigated in batch-adsorption method. The biosorption kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Freundlich and Langmuir's isotherm were used to describe the biosorption process. The optimum conditions of Pb(II) adsorption was observed at 60 min of contact time, pH 4, and 0.1 g biosorbent dosage in 25 ml solution. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, resulted biosorption constant rate of 0.184 g.mg-1.min-1. The Langmuir isotherm model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. The maximum biosorption capacity of Pb(II) determined according to the Langmuir model was 90.90 mg.g-1 at 302 K, with the adsorption energy of 26.429 kJ.mol-1.

  16. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  17. Evidence for regulation of columnar habit in apple by a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pieter J; Schouten, Henk J; Velasco, Riccardo; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Baldi, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms controlling columnar-type growth in the apple mutant 'Wijcik' will provide insights on how tree architecture and growth are regulated in fruit trees. In apple, columnar-type growth is controlled by a single major gene at the Columnar (Co) locus. By comparing the genomic sequence of the Co region of 'Wijcik' with its wild-type 'McIntosh', a novel non-coding DNA element of 1956 bp specific to Pyreae was found to be inserted in an intergenic region of 'Wijcik'. Expression analysis of selected genes located in the vicinity of the insertion revealed the upregulation of the MdCo31 gene encoding a putative 2OG-Fe(II) oxygenase in axillary buds of 'Wijcik'. Constitutive expression of MdCo31 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in compact plants with shortened floral internodes, a phenotype reminiscent of the one observed in columnar apple trees. We conclude that MdCo31 is a strong candidate gene for the control of columnar growth in 'Wijcik'.

  18. Heat-shock-mediated elimination of the nptII marker gene in transgenic apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Herzog, Katja; Flachowsky, Henryk; Deising, Holger B; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2012-04-25

    Production of marker-free genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the major challenges of molecular fruit breeding. Employing clean vector technologies, allowing the removal of undesired DNA sequences from GM plants, this goal can be achieved. The present study describes the establishment of a clean vector system in apple Malus×domestica Borkh., which is based on the use of the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII) as selectable marker gene and kanamycin/paramomycin as selective agent. The nptII gene can be removed after selection of GM shoots via site-specific excision mediated by heat-shock-inducible expression of the budding yeast FLP recombinase driven by the soybean Gmhsp17.5-E promoter. We created a monitoring vector containing the nptII and the flp gene as a box flanked by two direct repeats of the flp recognition target (FRT) sites. The FRT-flanked box separates the gusA reporter gene from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter. Consequently, GUS expression does only occur after elimination of the FRT-flanked box. Transformation experiments using the monitoring vector resulted in a total of nine transgenic lines. These lines were investigated for transgenicity by PCR, RT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Among different temperature regimes tested, exposure to 42 °C for 3.5 to 4h led to efficient induction of FLP-mediated recombination and removal of the nptII marker gene. A second round of shoot regeneration from leaf explants led to GM apple plants completely free of the nptII gene.

  19. The Easy Method to Creating an Interactive Videodisc Presentation with the Apple II E System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adir, Aviva; Caravello-Hibbert, Stephanie

    This guide presents step-by-step instructions for authoring interactive video lessons with the Apple IIe system. Software and hardware requirements are listed, and a glossary of terms and commands is included. Three sample pages demonstrating the data input process are appended. (GL)

  20. An Apple II Implementation of Man-Mod Manpower Planning Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Ut Ofmm 4968 01111 a"P mW m10 1 0W This thesis presents an Apple 11 Markov chain model software package pro- grained to be flexible, practical, and...chain model software package programmed to be flexible, practical, and user interactive. The program addresses the future de- termination of manpower...7 MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEM ............................. 1 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT ............................. 8 MAN-MOD

  1. MICRO-VERS. Micro-computer Software for the Vocational Education Reporting System. User's Guide and Reference Manual. Version 2.0 Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This manual is designed for use with the Apple II microcomputer and software packages for the Microcomputer Vocational Education Reporting System 2.0 MICRO-VERS. It is intended to aid local agencies in building and managing a database of information required by the State Board for reporting vocational program enrollment. An introductory section,…

  2. MICRO-VERS. Micro-computer Software for the Vocational Education Reporting System. User's Guide and Reference Manual. Version 3.1. Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This manual is intended to accompany a software system for the Apple II microcomputer that is designed to aid local districts in completing vocational education enrollment claims and Vocational Education Data System (VEDS) reports. Part I, Introduction, gives a brief overview of the Microcomputer Vocational Education Reporting System (MICRO-VERS),…

  3. MICRO-VERS. Microcomputer Software for the Vocational Education Reporting System. User's Guide and Reference Manual. Version 1.0 Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This manual is designed for use with the Apple II microcomputer and software packages for the Microcomputer Vocational Education Reporting System 1.0 (MICRO-VERS). It is intended to aid local agencies in building and managing a database of information required by the State Board for reporting vocational program enrollment. An introduction…

  4. Study of Row Phase Dependent Skew Quadrupole Fields in Apple-II Type EPUs at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Marks, S.; Prestemon, Soren; Robin, David; Schlueter, Ross; Wolski, Andrzej

    2004-05-07

    Since about 5 years, Apple-II type Elliptically Polarizing Undulators (EPU) have been used very successfully at the ALS to generate high brightness photon beams with arbitrary polarization. However, both EPUs installed so far cause significant changes of the vertical beamsize, especially when the row phase is changed to change the polarization of the photons emitted. Detailed measurements indicate this is caused by a row phase dependent skew quadrupole term in the EPUs. Magnetic measurements revealed the same effect for the third EPU to be installed later this year. All measurements to identify and quantify the effect with beam will be presented, as well as some results of magnetic bench measurements and numeric field simulations.

  5. Retinal S Antigen Identified as the 48K Protein Regulating Light-Dependent Phosphodiesterase in Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, C.; Chabre, M.; Plouet, J.; Tuyen, V. V.; de Kozak, Y.; Faure, J. P.; Kuhn, H.

    1985-05-01

    Retinal S antigen chromatographically purified from whole retina, induces experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in laboratory animals. The 48K protein, a soluble protein found in rod outer segments, is purified through its specific binding to photoexcited rhodopsin and is involved in the quenching of light-induced guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate-phosphodiesterase activity. Biochemical, immunological, functional, and pathological tests showed that retinal S antigen and the 48K protein are identical.

  6. Flavonoid-enriched apple fraction AF4 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA topoisomerase II inhibition, and apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Sudhanshu; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Apples are a major source of dietary phytochemicals such as flavonoids in the Western diet. Here we report anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action of apple flavonoid-enriched fraction (AF4) isolated from the peels of Northern Spy apples in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2. Treatment with AF4 induced cell growth inhibition in HepG2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. Concentration of 50 μg/ml (50 μg total monomeric polyphenols/ml) AF4 was sufficient to induce a significant reduction in cell viability within 6 h of treatment (92%, P < 0.05) but had very low toxicity (minimum 4% to maximum 16%) on primary liver and lung cells, which was significantly lower than currently prescribed chemotherapy drug Sorafenib (minimum 29% to maximum 49%, P < 0.05). AF4 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells within 6 h of treatment via activation of caspase-3. Cell cycle analysis via flow-cytometer showed that AF4 induced G2/M phase arrest. Further, results showed that AF4 acts as a strong DNA topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, which may be a plausible reason to drive the cells to apoptosis. Overall, our data suggests that AF4 possesses a significantly stronger antiproliferative and specific action than Sorafenib in vitro and is a potential natural chemotherapy agent for treatment of liver cancer.

  7. Apple Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) in Geneva, NY part of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System. The PGRU maintains 55 species of apple (Malus) in both field and seed collections. The main field collection of apples has 2621 diverse clones grafted onto EMLA 9 rootstock. Ninety-seven p...

  8. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  9. Development of Wood Apple Shell (Feronia acidissima) Powder Biosorbent and Its Application for the Removal of Cd(II) from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Ch.; Reddy, D. Harikisore Kumar; Harinath, Yapati; Naik, B. Ramesh; Seshaiah, K.; Reddy, Annareddy V. Ramana

    2014-01-01

    A biosorbent was prepared by using wood apple shell (WAS) powder and studied its application for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution by a batch method. The biosorbent was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. WAS is principally made up of lignin and cellulose, containing functional groups such as alcoholic, ketonic, and carboxylic groups which can be involved in complexation reactions with Cd(II). The effect of experimental parameters like initial pH, contact time, metal ion concentration, and sorbent dose on adsorption was investigated. The optimum pH for biosorption of Cd(II) onto WAS was found to be pH 5.0 and the quantitative removal of Cd(II) ions was achieved in 30 min. The kinetic study showed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order rate. Experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Desorption studies were carried out using HCl solution. PMID:24977180

  10. Development of wood apple shell (Feronia acidissima) powder biosorbent and its application for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Ch; Reddy, D Harikisore Kumar; Harinath, Yapati; Naik, B Ramesh; Seshaiah, K; Reddy, Annareddy V Ramana

    2014-01-01

    A biosorbent was prepared by using wood apple shell (WAS) powder and studied its application for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution by a batch method. The biosorbent was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. WAS is principally made up of lignin and cellulose, containing functional groups such as alcoholic, ketonic, and carboxylic groups which can be involved in complexation reactions with Cd(II). The effect of experimental parameters like initial pH, contact time, metal ion concentration, and sorbent dose on adsorption was investigated. The optimum pH for biosorption of Cd(II) onto WAS was found to be pH 5.0 and the quantitative removal of Cd(II) ions was achieved in 30 min. The kinetic study showed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order rate. Experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Desorption studies were carried out using HCl solution.

  11. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  12. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation…

  13. Kinetic, Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera - 'Sodom apple'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukwudumebi Overah, Loretta; Babalola, Oyebamiji.; Babarinde, Adesola; Oninla, Vincent; Olatunde, Abimbola

    2013-04-01

    The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the biosorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera popularly known in western Nigeria as 'bom bom' and generally known as Sodom apple were investigated at different experimental conditions. Optimum conditions of pH,contact time, biomass dosage, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were determined to be 5, 60 minutes, 110 mg, 0.3 mM and 27°C respectively. The maximum biosorption capacity was found to be 8.91 mg/g. The kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of the metal ion followed the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models with an R-square value of 0.998 and 0.985 respectively. Equilibrium studies showed that the biosorption of Cd (II) is well represented by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms but the Langmuir model gave a better fit with an R-square value of 0.979,Langmuir constant, bm of 0.0080 and monolayer adsorption capacity, μm of 123.46. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG° -4.846 kJmol-1, ΔH° 10.60 kJmol-1 and ΔS° 0.052 kJK-1mol-1) showed that the biosorption of Cd (II)is feasible, spontaneous, endothermic and highly disordered in nature under the experimental conditions. Thesefindings indicate that the leaf of Calotropis procera could be employed in the removal of Cd (II) from industrial effluents. Key words: Calotropis procera, Cadmium, Adsorption isotherm.

  14. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    PubMed

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

  15. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  16. Salicylic acid activates a 48-kD MAP kinase in tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Klessig, D F

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway leading to pathogenesis-related gene induction has previously been demonstrated using kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Here, we show that in tobacco suspension cells, SA induced a rapid and transient activation of a 48-kD kinase that uses myelin basic protein as a substrate. This kinase is called the p48 SIP kinase (for SA-Induced Protein kinase). Biologically active analogs of SA, which induce pathogenesis-related genes and enhanced resistance, also activated this kinase, whereas inactive analogs did not. Phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue(s) in the SIP kinase was associated with its activation. The SIP kinase was purified to homogeneity from SA-treated tobacco suspension culture cells. The purified SIP kinase is strongly phosphorylated on a tyrosine residue(s), and treatment with either protein tyrosine or serine/threonine phosphatases abolished its activity. Using primers corresponding to the sequences of internal tryptic peptides, we cloned the SIP kinase gene. Analysis of the SIP kinase sequence indicates that it belongs to the MAP kinase family and that it is distinct from the other plant MAP kinases previously implicated in stress responses, suggesting that different members of the MAP kinase family are activated by different stresses. PMID:9165755

  17. Evaluation of OXA-48 K-Se T: an immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Javier; Fleites, Ana; Rodcio, María Rosario; Vazquez, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The OXA-48 K-Se T, a new immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae, has been evaluated in a Spanish Hospital during a 3-month period. A collection of 100 Enterobacteriaceae including 79 isolates producing OXA-48 has been tested. Sensitivity and specificity of 100% were obtained.

  18. Evaluation of Reference Genes for the Relative Quantification of Apple stem grooving virus and Apple mosaic virus in Apple Trees.

    PubMed

    Gadiou, S; Kundu, J K

    2012-06-01

    A SYBR Green(®)-based one step RT-qPCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). The RT-qPCR assay employed seven plant-expressed genes-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA, ubiquitin, ribosomal protein S19, Rubisco, RNA polymerase subunit II and β-actin-as internal reference housekeeping genes in a relative quantification system in three apple cultivars (i.e. Idared, Champion, Fragrance). The average expression stability (M) found by GeNorm software suggest that GAPDH and S19 were the most stable reference genes. We propose employing GAPDH and S19 as housekeeping genes for accurate quantification of ASGV and ApMV in apple leaf samples. The detection limit for both viruses was found around 70 copies of viral genome by one-step RT-qPCR.

  19. Reduction of microbial pathogens during apple cider production using sodium hypochlorite, copper ion, and sonication.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Stephanie L; Ryser, Elliot T

    2004-04-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (100 ppm), copper ion water (1 ppm), and sonication (22 to 44 kHz and 44 to 48 kHz) were assessed individually and in combination for their ability to reduce populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on apples and in apple cider. Commercial unpasteurized cider was inoculated to contain approximately 10(6) CFU/ml of either pathogen and then sonicated at 44 to 48 kHz, with aliquots removed at intervals of 30 to 60 s for up to 5 min and plated to determine numbers of survivors. Subsequently, whole apples were inoculated by dipping to contain approximately 10(6) CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes, held overnight, and then submerged in 1 ppm copper ion water with or without 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite for 3 min with or without sonication at 22 to 44 kHz and examined for survivors. Treated apples were also juiced, with the resulting cider sonicated for 3 min. Populations of both pathogens decreased 1 to 2 log CFU/ml in inoculated cider following 3 min of sonication. Copper ion water alone did not significantly reduce populations of either pathogen on inoculated apples. However, when used in combination with sodium hypochlorite, pathogen levels decreased approximately 2.3 log CFU/g on apples. Sonication of this copper ion-sodium hypochlorite solution at 22 to 44 kHz did not further improve pathogen reduction on apples. Numbers of either pathogen in the juice fraction were approximately 1.2 log CFU/ml lower after being juiced, with sonication (44 to 48 kHz) of the expressed juice decreasing L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 populations an additional 2 log. Hence, a 5-log reduction was achievable for both pathogens with the use of copper ion water in combination with sodium hypochlorite followed by juicing and sonication at 44 to 48 kHz.

  20. Making Apple Computers Accessible to Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Andrew; Phillips, Susan

    The study examined the feasibility of adapting commercially available educational software to a speech synthesizer compatible with the Apple II for use with 15 visually impaired students 8 to 12 years old. Ss were pre-tested on measures of auditory discrimination, computer literacy, keyboard proficiency, spelling, and language. Ss then received…

  1. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  2. [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part II. Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), apple allergenicity governed by Mal d 1 gene].

    PubMed

    Bokszczanin, Kamila Ł; Przybyła, Andrzej A

    2012-03-01

    Of the plant allergens listed in the Official Allergen Database of the International Union of Immunological Societies, approximately 25% belong to the group of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). They have been classified into 17 PR families based on similarities in their amino acid sequence, enzymatic activities, or other functional properties. Plant-derived allergens have been identified with sequence similarities to PR families 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, and 14. The main birch allergen in northern Europe is a class 10 (PR-10) protein from the European white birch (Betula pendula) termed Bet v 1. Pollen of other Fagales species contains PR-10 homologues that share epitopes with Bet v 1, as do several fruits, nuts and vegetables. Among the plant food fruits of the Rosaceae family are the most frequently responsible for allergenic reactions. It is documented, that approximately 2% of European population is allergic to apples. The article presents molecular characterization of PR-10 proteins with regard to their structure and function as well as apple Mal d 1 gene-determined allergenicity.

  3. Apple (Malus x domestica).

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teo, Gianni; Uratsu, Sandra L; Tricoli, David

    2006-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand - permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. In this paper we describe an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol that utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing.

  4. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...

  5. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  6. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations.

  7. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Lateral Flow Assay (OXA-48 K-SeT) for Rapid Detection of OXA-48-Like Carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rishita; Betts, Jonathan W.; Phee, Lynette M.; Momin, Muhd Haziq F. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated an immunochromatographic lateral flow assay to detect OXA-48-like carbapenemases (OXA-48 K-SeT) in Enterobacteriaceae (n = 82). One hundred percent sensitivity and specificity were observed using bacteria recovered from both solid medium and spiked blood culture bottles, and the results were obtained in <10 min. PMID:26607983

  8. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers.

  9. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  10. Apple mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  11. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post

  12. Polyphenol profiles of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Kathrin; Kraus, Michael; Richling, Elke

    2005-08-01

    Focusing on 17 constituents, the polyphenol profiles of juices freshly made from various dessert (n = 4) and cider apple cultivars (n = 7) as well as commercially available apple juices (n = 24) were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(neg)-MS/MS) analyses. Significant differences in the total polyphenol content as well as the profiles of the apple cultivars under study were observed. For dessert apples the total polyphenol content ranged from 154 to 178 mg/L, whereas for 'old' German cider apple cultivars 261-970 mg/L were determined. Boskoop showed the highest (970 mg/L) and Granny Smith the lowest (154 mg/L) polyphenol content of the freshly prepared samples under study. Hydroxycinnamic acids, with chlorogenic acid as dominating constituent, ranged from 57 to 68 mg/L as well as from 134-593 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that from cider apples, respectively. Dessert apple juices showed lower contents of dihydrochalcones (10-35 mg/L) and flavan-3-ols (50-95 mg/L) compared to that of cider apples (34-171 mg/L and 70-393 mg/L, respectively). Quercetin and its derivatives were found from 0.4-4 mg/L and 0.4-27 mg/L in juices made from dessert apples and that of cider apples, respectively. Compared with freshly made juices, lower contents of polyphenols were determined in the commercial samples under study. Amounts ranging from 110-459 mg/L, dominated by chlorogenic acid with concentrations from 53-217 mg/L, were determined. Information about cultivar-typical apple polyphenol content and profile is important for bioactivity studies and, consequently, essential for the development of consumer-relevant products with particular nutritional functionalities.

  13. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.

  14. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  15. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  16. Apple rootstock resistance to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water for irrigation will likely be less available in apple-growing regions due to climate change and competition with human needs other than agriculture. Apple cultivars and rootstocks may differ in water use necessary for acceptable cropping. In two greenhouse experiments in 2014 and 2015, roots...

  17. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  18. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples.

  19. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  20. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  1. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  2. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  3. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  4. Laser scatter feature of surface defect on apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin; Cen, YiKe; Huang, Haibo

    2006-10-01

    A machine vision system for real-time fruit quality inspection was developed. The system consists of a chamber, a laser projector, a TMS-7DSP CCD camera (PULNIX Inc.), and a computer. A Meteor-II/MC frame grabber (Matrox Graphics Inc.) was inserted into the slot of the computer to grab fruit images. The laser projector and the camera were mounted at the ceiling of the chamber. An apple was put in the chamber, the spot of the laser projector was projected on the surface of the fruit, and an image was grabbed. 2 breed of apples was test, Each apple was imaged twice, one was imaged for the normal surface, and the other for the defect. The red component of the images was used to get the feature of the defect and the sound surface of the fruits. The average value, STD value and comentropy Value of red component of the laser scatter image were analyzed. The Standard Deviation value of red component of normal is more suitable to separate the defect surface from sound surface for the ShuijinFuji apples, but for bintang apples, there is more work need to do to separate the different surface with laser scatter image.

  5. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  6. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  7. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  8. Loading Appleworks into the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to loading AppleWorks V2.0 into the Apple IIGS computer provides instructions for energizing the computer and monitor, inserting the disk, using the Apple-control-reset function, and loading the program. Seven sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  9. What's an Adam's Apple? (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? A A A You're at the high ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  10. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... in its juice than any other company. Does organic apple juice have less arsenic than non-organic apple juice? The FDA is unaware of any ... States. Is the arsenic in apple juice predominantly organic or inorganic? Due to limited data available to ...

  11. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  12. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  13. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  14. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-05-12

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  15. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  16. Apples prevent mammary tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui Hai; Liu, Jiaren; Chen, Bingqing

    2005-03-23

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables has been consistently shown to be associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Apples are commonly consumed and are the major contributors of phytochemicals in human diets. It was previously reported that apple extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of apples. Here it is shown that whole apple extracts prevent mammary cancer in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner at doses comparable to human consumption of one, three, and six apples a day. This study demonstrated that whole apple extracts effectively inhibited mammary cancer growth in the rat model; thus, consumption of apples may be an effective strategy for cancer protection.

  17. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar.

    PubMed

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara; Trček, Janja

    2016-03-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90%), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50%), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35%) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25%). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70%) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30%). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial production of

  18. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    PubMed Central

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Summary Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process. In this way we isolated and characterized 96 bacteria from organic and 72 bacteria from conventional apple cider vinegar. Using the restriction analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S−23S rRNA gene ITS regions, we identified four different HaeIII and five different HpaII restriction profiles for bacterial isolates from organic apple cider vinegar. Each type of restriction profile was further analyzed by sequence analysis of the 16S−23S rRNA gene ITS regions, resulting in identification of the following species: Acetobacter pasteurianus (71.90%), Acetobacter ghanensis (12.50%), Komagataeibacter oboediens (9.35%) and Komagataeibacter saccharivorans (6.25%). Using the same analytical approach in conventional apple cider vinegar, we identified only two different HaeIII and two different HpaII restriction profiles of the 16S‒23S rRNA gene ITS regions, which belong to the species Acetobacter pasteurianus (66.70%) and Komagataeibacter oboediens (33.30%). Yeasts that are able to resist 30 g/L of acetic acid were isolated from the acetic acid production phase and further identified by sequence analysis of the ITS1−5.8S rDNA‒ITS2 region as Candida ethanolica, Pichia membranifaciens and Saccharomycodes ludwigii. This study has shown for the first time that the bacterial microbiota for the industrial

  19. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant

  20. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  1. Verifying apple cider plant sanitation and hazard analysis critical control point programs: choice of indicator bacteria and testing methods.

    PubMed

    Lang, M M; Ingham, S C; Ingham, B H

    1999-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the survival of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci in refrigerated apple cider; (ii) to develop simple and inexpensive presumptive methods for detection of these bacteria; (iii) to perform a field survey to determine the prevalence of these bacteria on apples and in apple cider; and (iv) based on our results, to recommend the most useful of these three indicator groups for use in verifying apple cider processing plant sanitation and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs. Eight of 10 coliform strains (5 E. coli, 1 Enterobacter aerogenes, and 2 Klebsiella spp.) inoculated into preservative-free apple cider (pH 3.4, 13.3(o) Brix) survived well at 4 degrees C for 6 days (< or = 3.0 log10 CFU/ml decrease). Of 21 enterococci strains (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and E. durans), only 2 E. durans and 3 E. faecium strains survived well. Simple broth-based colorimetric methods were developed that detected the presence of approximately 10 cells of coliforms or enterococci. In three field studies, samples of unwashed apples (drops and picked), washed apples, and freshly pressed cider were presumptively analyzed for total coliforms, E. coli, and enterococci using qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Drop apples were more likely than picked apples to be contaminated with E. coli (26.7% vs. 0%) and enterococci (20% vs. 0%). Washing had little effect on coliform populations and in one field study was associated with increased numbers. Total coliform populations in cider ranged from < 1 CFU/ml to > 738 most probable number/ml, depending on the enumeration method used and the sample origin. E. coli was not recovered from washed apples or cider, but enterococci were present on 13% of washed apple samples. The qualitative coliform method successfully detected these bacteria on apples and in cider. Based on its exclusively fecal origin, good survival in apple cider, and association with drop apples

  2. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  3. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  4. Significance of skin flavonoids for UV-B-protection in apple fruits.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela

    2003-08-01

    An attempt has been made to assess the UV-B-protective capacity of phenolic compounds accumulated in superficial structures of plants using apple fruit as a model. Two apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars (Braeburn and Granny Smith) differing in response to high fluxes of solar radiation were selected and exposed to increasing doses of UV-B radiation. The extent of UV-B-induced damage to photosystem II of apple skin correlated with its quercetin glycoside (but not anthocyanin) content. Granny Smith apples did not demonstrate a pronounced response to high sunlight in terms of the accumulation of phenolic substances in the skin and exhibited similar patterns of Fo, Fm, and Fv/Fm changes in the course of UV-B irradiation both on sun-exposed and shaded surfaces of a fruit. Unlike Granny Smith, Braeburn fruits were characterized by a significant accumulation of quercetin glycosides in sun-exposed skin, however, shaded skin contained these compounds in similar amounts to those in Granny Smith. Accordingly, photosystem II in sun-exposed skin of Braeburn apples was resistant to high doses of UV-B radiation (up to 97 kJ m-2), whereas the susceptibility of the photosynthetic apparatus in shaded skin of Braeburn to UV-B-induced damage was much higher and similar to that of both sun-exposed and shaded skin of Granny Smith fruits. Anthocyanins, at least in the amounts found in Braeburn, did not show an additional effect in UV-B protection.

  5. Alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for killing pupae and preventing emergence of apple maggot fly (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of methyl bromide, ECO2FUME (phosphine gas + CO2), Vapam (sodium methyldithiocarbamate), chloropicrin, Telone II (1, 3 dichloropropene), and chloropicrin + Telone II on killing the pupae and preventing adult emergence of apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) was determined. In an e...

  6. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  7. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  8. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  9. The apple genome: ripe for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An international consortium of plant report sequencing of the cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) genome (Velasco et al., this issue). Apples are among the most widely grown and consumed fruits in temperate regions of the world. This is in part due to years of extensive breeding and selection the ...

  10. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  11. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  12. Preparing the BESSY APPLE Undulators for Top-Up Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrdt, J.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M.

    2007-01-19

    BESSY plans to go to topping up operation in the near future. A high injection efficiency is essential to avoid particle losses inside the undulator magnets and to ensure a low radiation background in the beamlines. Dynamic and static multipoles of the insertion devices have to be minimized to accomplish this requirement. APPLE II devices show strong dynamic multipoles in the elliptical and vertical polarization mode. Measurements before and after shimming of these multipoles are presented. The static multipoles of the BESSY UE56-2 which are due to systematic block inhomgeneities have successfully been shimmed recovering the full dynamic aperture.

  13. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  14. New SRC APPLE ll Variable Polarization Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    M Severson; M Bissen; M Fisher; G Rogers; R Reininger; M Green; D Eisert; B Tredinnick

    2011-12-31

    SRC has recently commissioned a new Varied Line-Spacing Plane Grating Monochromator (VLS-PGM) utilizing as its source a 1 m long APPLE II insertion device in short-straight-section 9 of the Aladdin storage ring. The insertion device reliably delivers horizontal, vertical, and right and left circularly polarized light to the beamline. Measurements from an in situ polarimeter can be used for undulator corrections to compensate for depolarizing effects of the beamline. The beamline has only three optical elements and covers the energy range from 11.1 to 270 eV using two varied line-spacing gratings. A plane mirror rotates to illuminate the gratings at the correct angle to cancel the defocus term at all photon energies. An exit slit and elliptical-toroid refocusing mirror complete the beamline. Using a 50 {mu}m exit slit, the beamline provides moderate to high resolution, with measured flux in the mid 10{sup 12} (photons/s/200 mA) range, and a spot size of 400 {mu}m horizontal by 30 {mu}m vertical.

  15. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  16. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  17. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  18. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  19. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  20. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  1. EFFECT OF COLD PLASMA TREATMENT ON THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF FRESH-CUT APPLES.

    PubMed

    Ramazzina, Ileana; Tappi, Silvia; Rocculi, Pietro; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Berardinelli, Annachiara; Marseglia, Angela; Rizzi, Federica

    2016-10-06

    The atmospheric double barrier discharge (DBD) plasma technology is a promising tool in food industry as an alternative to traditional food preservation methods. However, the effect of the reactive chemical species generated during the treatment on the qualitative and quantitative content of bioactive compounds in food is still little studied, as well as there are no data concerning potential deleterious effects of DBD treated foods on human cells. We measured antioxidants content and antioxidant capacity of DBD-treated minimally processed Pink Lady® apples in comparison with untreated matched samples. Moreover, we compared the effects of polyphenols extracts obtained from DBD-treated apples on cell viability, reactive oxygen species production and phase II enzyme activation. The results show that the plasma treatment causes a slight reduction of antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, apple treated polyphenols extracts do not reduce cell viability and do not suppress the beneficial physiological cell response to oxidative stress.

  2. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  3. Evolution of the population structure of Venturia inaequalis, the apple scab fungus, associated with the domestication of its host.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Róldan-Ruiz, Isabel; Caffier, Valérie; Leroy, Thibault; Devaux, Martine; Van Glabeke, Sabine; Coart, Els; Le Cam, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    Evaluating the impact of plant domestication on the population structure of the associated pathogens provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of how and why diseases emerge. Here, we investigated the evolution of the population structure of the apple scab fungus Venturia inaequalis in response to the domestication of its host. Inferences were drawn from multilocus microsatellite data obtained from samples collected on (i) the Central Asian Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of apple, (ii) the European crabapple, Malus sylvestris, a secondary progenitor of apple, and (iii) the cultivated apple, Malus x domestica, in orchards from Europe and Central Asia. Using clustering methods, we identified three distinct populations: (i) a large European population on domesticated and wild apples, (ii) a large Central Asian population on domesticated and wild apples in urban and agricultural areas, and (iii) a more geographically restricted population in M. sieversii forests growing in the eastern mountains of Kazakhstan. Unique allele richness and divergence time estimates supported a host-tracking co-evolutionary scenario in which this latter population represents a relict of the ancestral populations from which current populations found in human-managed habitats were derived. Our analyses indicated that the domestication of apple induced a significant change in the genetic differentiation of populations of V. inaequalis in its centre of origin, but had little impact on its population dynamics and mating system. We discuss how the structure of the apple-based agrosystem may have restricted changes in the population structure of the fungus in response to the domestication of its host.

  4. Dueling Digits: Fighting for Equivalency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Henry F. Jr

    1982-01-01

    Reviews "Dueling Digits," an arcade-style computer game, in which the player creates mathematical equations. Discusses features of the program, educational value, design quality, documentation, and ease of use. Tested on Apple II/Apple II-Plus, the program (requiring 48K, disk drive and game paddles/joystick) is rated as an excellent…

  5. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  6. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  7. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production. PMID:28115895

  8. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  9. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  10. Apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S; Beacham-Bowden, Tina; Keller, Susanne E; Adhikari, Chaitali; Taylor, Kirk T; Chirtel, Stewart J; Merker, Robert I

    2003-04-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, a mold responsible for rot in apples and other fruits. The growth of this fungus and the production of patulin are common in fruit that has been damaged. However, patulin can be detected in visibly sound fruit. The purpose of this project was to determine how apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from fresh tree-picked apples (seven cultivars) but was found at levels of 40.2 to 374 microg/liter in cider pressed from four cultivars of fresh ground-harvested (dropped) apples. Patulin was not detected in cider pressed from culled tree-picked apples stored for 4 to 6 weeks at 0 to 2 degrees C but was found at levels of 0.97 to 64.0 microg/liter in cider pressed from unculled fruit stored under the same conditions. Cider from controlled-atmosphere-stored apples that were culled before pressing contained 0 to 15.1 microg of patulin per liter, while cider made from unculled fruit contained 59.9 to 120.5 microg of patulin per liter. The washing of ground-harvested apples before pressing reduced patulin levels in cider by 10 to 100%, depending on the initial patulin levels and the type of wash solution used. These results indicate that patulin is a good indicator of the quality of the apples used to manufacture cider. The avoidance of ground-harvested apples and the careful culling of apples before pressing are good methods for reducing patulin levels in cider.

  11. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  12. Constructing AppleWorks Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to constructing word processing files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the word processor option; (4) naming the file; (5) setting tabs; (6) selecting print options; and (7) saving the file. Sixteen sample screen displays…

  13. Constructing AppleWorks Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to creating database files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the database option; (4) naming the file; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) inserting data; (7) changing database file formats; (8) altering the file layout;…

  14. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the…

  15. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a…

  16. The history of Newton's apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesing, R. G.

    1998-05-01

    This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of

  17. A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  18. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  19. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  20. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  1. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  2. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  3. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  4. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  5. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  6. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated...

  7. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  8. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  9. Apples to apples A2 - II. Cluster selection functions for next-generation surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascaso, B.; Mei, S.; Bartlett, J. G.; Benítez, N.

    2017-01-01

    We present the cluster selection function for three of the largest next-generation stage-IV surveys in the optical and infrared: Euclid-Optimistic, Euclid-Pessimistic and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). To simulate these surveys, we use the realistic mock catalogues introduced in the first paper of this series. We detected galaxy clusters using the Bayesian Cluster Finder in the mock catalogues. We then modelled and calibrated the total cluster stellar mass observable-theoretical mass (M^{*}_CL-M_h) relation using a power-law model, including a possible redshift evolution term. We find a moderate scatter of σ _{M^{*}_CL | M_h} of 0.124, 0.135 and 0.136 dex for Euclid-Optimistic, Euclid-Pessimistic and LSST, respectively, comparable to other work over more limited ranges of redshift. Moreover, the three data sets are consistent with negligible evolution with redshift, in agreement with observational and simulation results in the literature. We find that Euclid-Optimistic will be able to detect clusters with >80 per cent completeness and purity down to 8 × 1013 h-1 M⊙ up to z < 1. At higher redshifts, the same completeness and purity are obtained with the larger mass threshold of 2 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ up to z = 2. The Euclid-Pessimistic selection function has a similar shape with ˜10 per cent higher mass limit. LSST shows ˜5 per cent higher mass limit than Euclid-Optimistic up to z < 0.7 and increases afterwards, reaching a value of 2 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ at z = 1.4. Similar selection functions with only 80 per cent completeness threshold have also been computed. The complementarity of these results with selection functions for surveys in other bands is discussed.

  10. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  11. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  12. Prediction and diagnosis of apple fruit physiological disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses in commercial operations. Stakeholders have identified the need for effective, consistent control measures for apple postharvest physiological disorders and the developme...

  13. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  14. The Macolumn - the Mac gets geophysical. [A review of geophysical software for the Apple Macintosh computer

    SciTech Connect

    Busbey, A.B. )

    1990-02-01

    Seismic Processing Workshop, a program by Parallel Geosciences of Austin, TX, is discussed in this column. The program is a high-speed, interactive seismic processing and computer analysis system for the Apple Macintosh II family of computers. Also reviewed in this column are three products from Wilkerson Associates of Champaign, IL. SubSide is an interactive program for basin subsidence analysis; MacFault and MacThrustRamp are programs for modeling faults.

  15. Enhanced recovery of Salmonella from apple cider and apple juice with universal preenrichment broth.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Thomas S; Johnson, Mildred L; Jacobson, Andrew P; Andrews, Wallace H

    2002-01-01

    A comparison was made of the relative efficiencies of Universal Preenrichment (UP) broth and lactose broth for the recovery of a variety of Salmonella serovars from pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice. Bulk portions of juice were contaminated with single Salmonella serovars at high and low levels of 0.4 and 0.04 CFU/mL, respectively. The juice was aged for a minimum of 5 days at 2-5 degrees C. On the day analysis was initiated, each of 20 test portions (25 mL) of the contaminated juice was preenriched in UP broth and in lactose broth. The Bacteriological Analytical Manual Salmonella culture method was followed thereafter. For pasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly (p < 0.05) more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (112 and 75, respectively). For unpasteurized apple cider, UP broth recovered significantly more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (326 and 221, respectively). For pasteurized apple juice, UP broth recovered more Salmonella-positive test portions than did lactose broth (93 and 81, respectively). However, this difference was not statistically significant. These results indicate that UP broth should replace lactose broth for the analysis of pasteurized and unpasteurized apple cider and pasteurized apple juice.

  16. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Tracer-based investigations of water exchanges between soil and trees in natural forested catchments are receiving relevant attention in modern ecohydrology. However, the interactions between tree water use and the hydrological cycle in agricultural environments are still poorly understood. In this work, we use stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O) and electric conductivity as tracers to improve our understanding of the functional interrelations between water generating surface runoff and recharging groundwater, and water taken up by apple trees (Malus domestica, cv. 'Pinova') in an Alpine valley in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. From April to October 2015 we monitored two orchards approximately of the same size (roughly 400 m2) and soil texture (silt loam) located in a flat area at different distance from the Adige/Etsch River (50 m vs. 450 m). We have addressed the following questions: i) at which soil depth do apple trees take up water? ii) do apple trees take up water from shallow groundwater? iii) are there differences in the isotopic composition of the water fluxes between the two sites? Samples for isotopic analysis were taken approximately fortnightly from the river, two groundwater wells close to each field, mobile soil water (from suction cups at 25 cm and 50 cm), open area precipitation, throughfall, irrigation and sap (through a portable pressure bomb). Tightly-bound soil water was also cryogenically extracted from samples taken every 10 cm from 60 cm-long soil cores taken at three locations for each field on one occasion in mid-summer. Ancillary measurements were electrical conductivity of all water sources except for sap. In addition to meteorological and discharge data, soil moisture was continuously measured at 10 cm and 50 cm in three locations, and sap flow on three trees, for each field. Preliminary results show that two water pools with distinct isotopic signature exist: i) river water, groundwater and irrigation water show values relatively

  17. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  18. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  19. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  20. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  1. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. The ripening behavior and texture attributes of two apple cultivars, ‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Honey...

  3. Identification of external inoculum sources of apple replant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important disease world-wide and occurs when old apple orchards are replanted with apple. The disease is mainly caused by biological agents, since fumigation alleviates symptom development. The main ARD causative agents are fungi (Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and AG-6, a...

  4. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  5. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding…

  6. Polygalacturonase gene pgxB in Aspergillus niger is a virulence factor in apple fruit

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Yang, Feng; Li, Yan-Hong; Liu, He-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus niger, a saprophytic fungus, is widely distributed in soil, air and cereals, and can cause postharvest diseases in fruit. Polygalacturonase (PG) is one of the main enzymes in fungal pathogens to degrade plant cell wall. To evaluate whether the deletion of an exo-polygalacturonase gene pgxB would influence fungal pathogenicity to fruit, pgxB gene was deleted in Aspergillus niger MA 70.15 (wild type) via homologous recombination. The ΔpgxB mutant showed similar growth behavior compared with the wild type. Pectin medium induced significant higher expression of all pectinase genes in both wild type and ΔpgxB in comparison to potato dextrose agar medium. However, the ΔpgxB mutant was less virulent on apple fruits as the necrosis diameter caused by ΔpgxB mutant was significantly smaller than that of wild type. Results of quantitive-PCR showed that, in the process of infection in apple fruit, gene expressions of polygalacturonase genes pgaI, pgaII, pgaA, pgaC, pgaD and pgaE were enhanced in ΔpgxB mutant in comparison to wild type. These results prove that, despite the increased gene expression of other polygalacturonase genes in ΔpgxB mutant, the lack of pgxB gene significantly reduced the virulence of A. niger on apple fruit, suggesting that pgxB plays an important role in the infection process on the apple fruit. PMID:28257463

  7. Exercising AppleWorks V2.0 Data Base Print Options with the Apple IIgs Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a step-by-step guide to using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIGS computer to print AppleWorks database files in two types of formats--labels and tables. Steps covered for printing labels include naming the report, arranging or sorting, deleting a category, inserting a category, printing the category name and entry, selecting…

  8. Developing Simple Financial Records Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Duodisk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing simple financial records using the AppleWorks spreadsheet subprogram with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 34 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the…

  9. Setting Up Letters Using the AppleWorks Word Processor Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for setting up letter word processing files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 16 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages…

  10. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory…

  11. Developing Simple Budgets Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Single Disk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing spreadsheet files in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with a single disk drive. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 36 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the spreadsheet development sequence. (EW)

  12. Building Parts Inventory Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file…

  13. Evaluation of Interactive Video Disc System for Training the Operation of the DCT-9000 in the MOS 72G Course.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    from the lack of other OCT-9000s For a small g roup (6) i t was ve ry eff ic ient for us No commnents The apple computors helped a great deal No problems...300,000 Initial Cost: Apple II microcomputer, $ 6,000 48K; Pioneer Video Disc Player Model No. PR7820; Sanyo monitor with a HAT touch panel

  14. Free galactose concentrations in fresh and stored apples (Malus domestica) and processed apple products.

    PubMed

    Scaman, Christine H; Jim, Vickie Jin Wai; Hartnett, Carol

    2004-02-11

    Gas chromatography was used to quantitate free galactose in Braeburn, Fuji, Red Delicious, and Spartan apples during cold storage, after thermal processing of apple slices and in juice produced using clarification and/or liquifaction enzymes. Spartan had significantly higher galactose levels as compared to Red Delicious apples, but changes in galactose in all varieties during 9 months of cold storage were insignificant. Blanching and canning decreased galactose levels, but doubling the thermal processing during canning increased the free galactose concentration detected in plant tissue. An enzymatic liquefaction aid used to prepare apple juice dramatically increased the free galactose content while a clarification aid caused only a slight increase due to its selective action on soluble pectin. These findings provide useful information for dietitians to base diet recommendations for galactosemic patients.

  15. Transferring data oscilloscope to an IBM using an Apple II+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. L.; Frenklach, M. Y.; Laughlin, P. J.; Clary, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    A set of PASCAL programs permitting the use of a laboratory microcomputer to facilitate and control the transfer of data from a digital oscilloscope (used with photomultipliers in experiments on soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion) to a mainframe computer and the subsequent mainframe processing of these data is presented. Advantages of this approach include the possibility of on-line computations, transmission flexibility, automatic transfer and selection, increased capacity and analysis options (such as smoothing, averaging, Fourier transformation, and high-quality plotting), and more rapid availability of results. The hardware and software are briefly characterized, the programs are discussed, and printouts of the listings are provided.

  16. TLC for Growing Minds. APPLE II Programming Manual, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taitt, Kathy

    Designed to improve students' thinking, learning, and creative skills while they learn to program a microcomputer in BASIC programing language, this instructional manual for advanced learners provides a brief section of information for each new topic together with a sample program to enter, run on the computer, and observe; a suggested change to…

  17. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-05

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects.

  18. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  19. Hormonal and anatomical effects of apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse experiments, two-year-old 'Fuji' apple scions (Malus ×domestica, 'Fuji') on size-controlling rootstocks (dwarfing to vigorous), were grown for one season and shoot growth was measured to confirm size-controlling effects. In the next season, xylem sap was collected to determine hydraul...

  20. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation of case A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple. Discussion Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h. Conclusion This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration. PMID:25841159

  1. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with…

  2. APPLE In-Service Programming for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    This book is designed to provide teachers with techniques for entering and modifying BASIC programs on Apple computers. The underlying theme is that a teacher need not become a programmer to benefit from being able to use and modify BASIC programs. The key to the successful use of software in the classroom is the ability to individualize software…

  3. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients.

  4. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  5. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  6. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  7. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ancient practice of clonal propagation of perennial fruit crops by means of grafting was transformed when humans realized that certain properties of selected root systems could be beneficial for increasing productivity of that fruit crop. Certain clonal apple rootstocks were recognized for their...

  8. Overexpressing MhNPR1 in transgenic Fuji apples enhances resistance to apple powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Kong; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Xiao-Li; Du, Bei-Bei; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Fuji is susceptible to fungal diseases like apple powdery mildew. Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1) plays a key role in regulating salicylic acid (SA)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Previous studies show that overexpressing the Malus hupehensis-derived NPR1 (MhNPR1) gene in tobacco induces the transcript expression of pathogenesis-related genes (PRs) and resistance to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. In this study we introduced the MhNPR1 gene into the 'Fuji' apple via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Four transgenic apple lines were verified by PCR and RT-PCR. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced the expression of MdPRs and MdMLO genes known to interact with powdery mildew. Furthermore, the transgenic apple plants resisted infection by apple powdery mildew better than the wild-type plants. As a result, transcript overexpression of the MhNPR1 gene induced SAR and enhanced the Fuji apple's resistance to fungal disease.

  9. SEPALLATA1/2-suppressed mature apples have low ethylene, high auxin and reduced transcription of ripening-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Robert J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Ross, John J.; Ling, Toby J.; David, Karine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Fruit ripening is an important developmental trait in fleshy fruits, making the fruit palatable for seed dispersers. In some fruit species, there is a strong association between auxin concentrations and fruit ripening. We investigated the relationship between auxin concentrations and the onset of ethylene-related ripening in Malus × domestica (apples) at both the hormone and transcriptome levels. Methodology Transgenic apples suppressed for the SEPALLATA1/2 (SEP1/2) class of gene (MADS8/9) that showed severely reduced ripening were compared with untransformed control apples. In each apple type, free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations were measured during early ripening. The changes observed in auxin were assessed in light of global changes in gene expression. Principal results It was found that mature MADS8/9-suppressed apples had a higher concentration of free IAA. This was associated with increased expression of the auxin biosynthetic genes in the indole-3-acetamide pathway. Additionally, in the MADS8/9-suppressed apples, there was less expression of the GH3 auxin-conjugating enzymes. A number of genes involved in the auxin-regulated transcription (AUX/IAA and ARF classes of genes) were also observed to change in expression, suggesting a mechanism for signal transduction at the start of ripening. Conclusions The delay in ripening observed in MADS8/9-suppressed apples may be partly due to high auxin concentrations. We propose that, to achieve low auxin associated with fruit maturation, the auxin homeostasis is controlled in a two-pronged manner: (i) by the reduction in biosynthesis and (ii) by an increase in auxin conjugation. This is associated with the change in expression of auxin-signalling genes and the up-regulation of ripening-related genes. PMID:23346344

  10. Transcriptomics Analysis of Apple Leaves in Response to Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Longming; Ni, Weichen; Liu, Shuai; Cai, Binhua; Xing, Han; Wang, Sanhong

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop an understanding of how apples respond to A. alternata apple pathotype (AAAP) infection, we examined the host transcript accumulation over the period between 0 and 72 h post AAAP inoculation. Large-scale gene expression analysis was conducted of the compatible interaction between “Starking Delicious” apple cultivar and AAAP using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling methods. Our results show that a total of 9080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected (>two-fold and FDR < 0.001) by RNA-Seq. During the early phase of infection, 12 h post inoculation (HPI), AAAP exhibited limited fungal development and little change in the transcript accumulation status (950 DEGs). During the intermediate phase of infection, the period between 18 and 36 HPI, increased fungal development, active infection, and increased transcript accumulation were detected (4111 and 3838 DEGs detected at each time point, respectively). The majority of DEGs were detected by 72 HPI, suggesting that this is an important time point in the response of apples' AAAP infection. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses showed that DEGs are predominately involved in biological processes and metabolic pathways; results showed that almost gene associated with photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction were down-regulated, while transcription factors (i.e., WRKY, MYB, NAC, and Hsf) and DEGs involved in cell wall modification, defense signaling, the synthesis of defense-related metabolites, including pathogenesis-related (PRs) genes and phenylpropanoid/cyanoamino acid /flavonoid biosynthesis, were activated during this process. Our study also suggested that the cell wall defensive vulnerability and the down-regulation of most PRs and HSP70s in “Starking Delicious” following AAAP

  11. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic characterization of tropical soda apple mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara; D'Elia, Tom

    2016-08-01

    We report the first complete genome sequence of tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV), a tobamovirus originally isolated from tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) collected in Okeechobee, Florida. The complete genome of TSAMV is 6,350 nucleotides long and contains four open reading frames encoding the following proteins: i) 126-kDa methyltransferase/helicase (3354 nt), ii) 183-kDa polymerase (4839 nt), iii) movement protein (771 nt) and iv) coat protein (483 nt). The complete genome sequence of TSAMV shares 80.4 % nucleotide sequence identity with pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and 71.2-74.2 % identity with other tobamoviruses naturally infecting members of the Solanaceae plant family. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the 126-kDa and 183-kDa proteins and the complete genome sequence place TSAMV in a subcluster with PMMoV within the Solanaceae-infecting subgroup of tobamoviruses.

  12. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-06-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  13. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  14. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    PubMed

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  15. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    PubMed

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.

  16. UV inactivation of bacteria in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Geveke, David J

    2005-08-01

    Apple cider, inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, was processed using a simple UV apparatus. The apparatus consisted of a low-pressure mercury lamp surrounded by a coil of UV transparent tubing. Cider was pumped through the tubing at flow rates of 27 to 83 ml/min. The population of E. coli K-12 was reduced by 3.4 +/- 0.3 log after being exposed for 19 s at a treatment temperature of 25 degrees C. The population of L. innocua, which was more resistant to UV, was reduced by 2.5 +/- 0.1 log after being exposed for 58 s. The electrical energy for the process was 34 J/ml and is similar to that for conventional thermal processing. UV processing has the potential to improve the safety and extend the shelf life of apple cider.

  17. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice.

  18. Sustainability of three apple production systems.

    PubMed

    Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

    2001-04-19

    Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last.

  19. Getting Started with AppleWorks Data Base. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a hands-on teaching tool for beginning users of the AppleWorks database software. It was developed to allow Apple IIGS users who are generally familiar with their machine and its peripherals to build a simple AppleWorks database file using version 2.0 or 2.1 of the program, and to store, print, and manipulate the file. The materials…

  20. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Gopaljee; Thakur, Karnika; Thakur, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed. PMID:20150969

  1. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  2. Developing Data Base Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Developed around the technology of the Apple duodisk drive, five and one-fourth inch floppy disks, and the 1.3 version of the AppleWorks program, this manual is designed for use as a "how to" training device in developing database files. The guide is meant to be used with Apple IIe or IIGS computers which have a duodisk or two disk…

  3. Apples in the Apple Library--How One Library Took a Byte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, Monica

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes automation of a specialized library at Apple Computer, Inc., describing software packages chosen for the following functions: word processing/text editing; cataloging and circulation; reference; and in-house databases. Examples of each function and additional sources of information on software and equipment mentioned in the article are…

  4. Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

  5. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  6. Interview with Michael Apple: The Biography of a Public Intellectual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists…

  7. Sugar apple emerges as tempting treat for Florida Growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sugar Apple, Annona squamosa, is described as a potential alternative crop for the Florida east coast. Sugar Apple is highly productive of fruit on bushes from seed beginning at about 1-2 years of age, and produces a very flavorful and highly sought after tropical fruit. Several cultivars of Sug...

  8. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  9. Morphological and chemical characterization of the kei apple (Dovyalis spp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dovyalis (Tropical apple) is an exotic fruit originated in Africa, reddish-orange color and high acidity. Tropical apricot or Kei apple (Dovyalis hebecarpa X D. abyssinica) P.I. 112086, is a natural cross which resulted from a mixed planting of D. hebecarpa and D. abyssinica at the Subtropical Horti...

  10. Apple juice greatly reduces systemic exposure to atenolol

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyewon; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Kotegawa, Tsutomu; Ieiri, Ichiro; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lim, Kyoung Soo

    2013-01-01

    AIM Fruit juice reduces the plasma concentrations of several β-adrenoceptor blockers, likely by inhibiting OATP2B1-mediated intestinal absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apple juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol. METHODS Twelve healthy Korean volunteers with genotypes of SLCO2B1 c.1457C> T (*1/*1 (n= 6) and *3/*3 (n= 6)) were enrolled in this study. In a three-phase, one-sequence crossover study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of atenolol was evaluated after administration of 50 mg atenolol. Subjects received atenolol with either 300 ml water, 1200 ml apple juice or 600 ml apple juice. RESULTS Apple juice markedly reduced the systemic exposure to atenolol. The geometric mean ratios (95% confidence intervals) of apple juice : water were 0.18 (0.13, 0.25, 1200 ml) and 0.42 (0.30, 0.59, 600 ml) for the AUC(0,tlast). In this study, the PK parameters of atenolol responded in a dose-dependent manner to apple juice. CONCLUSIONS Apple juice markedly reduced systemic exposure to atenolol. The genetic variation of SLCO2B1 c.1457C>T had a minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol when the drug was administered with water or apple juice. PMID:22574741

  11. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  12. Formatting Data Disks for Use with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to formatting disks using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) formatting the disk; (3) volume naming; and (4) exiting the format options. Eleven sample screen displays illustrate the steps. (MES)

  13. Genome to phenome mapping in apple using historical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficien...

  14. Unraveling apple fruit metabolism: Storage management opportunities and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple fruit has become a staple fruit commodity in many markets worldwide, making year-round availability crucial to retail chains. Consequently, apple storage practices have become increasingly sophisticated to meet rising quality expectations of fresh taste and a blemish free appearance. Modern ...

  15. Apple-products phytochemicals and processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; Soriano, José M; Mañes, Jordi

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. Extensive research exists on apples and the health benefits of their beverages and phytochemicals. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature in this area focusing on phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior.

  16. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  17. Classworks: AppleWorks for the Classroom. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rick

    This book provides a brief and succinct introduction to AppleWorks and is designed for use by teachers who are already familiar with the three AppleWorks tools: the word processor, the database, and the spreadsheet. "Classworks" (developed for grades 8 and 9) emphasizes computer work in which the teacher serves as troubleshooter,…

  18. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  19. Characterization of the Support and Drive System of the PETRA III APPLE Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrdt, J.; Baecker, H.-J.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Gottschlich, S.; Kuhn, C.; Scheer, M.; Schulz, B.; Gast, M.; Englisch, U.; Schoeps, A.; Tischer, M.

    2010-06-23

    Helmholtzzentrum Berlin has built an APPLE II undulator for the storage ring PETRA III. The device has a total length of 5m and a minimum gap of 11mm. The high magnetic forces in particular in the inclined mode have been analyzed by means of finite element methods (FEM). Specific mechanic components such as flexible joints have been optimized to cope with the gap- and shift-dependent 3D-forces and a sophisticated control and drive system has been implemented. After completion of the device, detailed laser interferometer measurements for all operation modes have been performed. The data are compared to the FEM simulations.

  20. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-03-12

    There is some evidence that chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, may occur as a result of oxidative stress. Apple peels have high concentrations of phenolic compounds and may assist in the prevention of chronic diseases. Millions of pounds of waste apple peels are generated in the production of applesauce and canned apples in New York State each year. We proposed that a valuable food ingredient could be made using the peels of these apples if they could be dried and ground to a powder without large losses of phytochemicals. Rome Beauty apple peels were treated with citric acid dips, ascorbic acid dips, and blanches before being oven-dried at 60 degrees C. Only blanching treatments greatly preserved the phenolic compounds, and peels blanched for 10 s had the highest total phenolic content. Rome Beauty apple peels were then blanched for 10 s and dried under various conditions (oven-dried at 40, 60, or 80 degrees C, air-dried, or freeze-dried). The air-dried and freeze-dried apple peels had the highest total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents. On a fresh weight basis, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these samples were similar to those of the fresh apple peels. Freeze-dried peels had a lower water activity than air-dried peels on a fresh weight basis. The optimal processing conditions for the ingredient were blanching for 10s and freeze-drying. The process was scaled up, and the apple peel powder ingredient was characterized. The total phenolic content was 3342 +/- 12 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried peels, the flavonoid content was 2299 +/- 52 mg catechin equivalents/100 g dried peels, and the anthocyanin content was 169.7 +/- 1.6 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dried peels. These phytochemical contents were a significantly higher than those of the fresh apple peels if calculated on a fresh weight basis (p < 0.05). The apple peel powder had a total antioxidant activity of 1251 +/- 56 micromol vitamin C

  1. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  2. Alar and apples: newspapers, risk and media responsibility.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S M; Villamil, K; Suriano, R A; Egolf, B P

    1996-01-01

    During 1989, a major environmental and health risk issue, the spraying of Alar on apples, created a furor among the American people. After hearing charges from the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) that eating Alar-laden apples significantly increased a child's risk of developing cancer, numbers of school districts dropped apples from their menus and parents poured apple juice down the drains. Apple sales plummeted. The NRDC's charges, which were disseminated by a well-planned and effective public relations campaign, brought counter-charges from the US environmental Protection Agency, which accused the NRDC of basing its study on poor data, among other things. The core of the dispute was in the risk figures and risk interpretations being used by each organization.

  3. Prevalence of Escherichia coli in apple cider manufactured in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Dingman, D W

    1999-06-01

    Cider samples obtained from 11 cider mills operating in Connecticut during the 1997 to 1998 production season were tested for the presence of Escherichia coli. Cider production began in mid August and continued through March, with peak production in September and October. Of 314 cider samples tested, 11 (4%) were found to contain E. coli. Of the 11 mills, 6 (55%) tested positive for E. coli in the cider at least once during the production year. E. coli was first observed in cider samples produced in mid to late October and was not detected in samples made after January. A trend was observed for cider to decrease in acidity and increase in Brix (soluble sugars) throughout the production season. No correlation between pH and soluble sugars of cider and the presence of E. coli was detected. Eight mills used both dropped apples and tree-picked apples, whereas three mills used tree-picked apples only. The use of dropped apples in cider production began 5 weeks before the first detection of E. coli in cider. E. coli was isolated from cider samples produced using dropped apples and from samples produced using only tree-picked apples. No direct correlation between the use of dropped apples or tree-picked apples and the presence of E. coli in the cider was observed. An association between the time of apple harvest and the appearance of E. coli in cider was noted. For mills providing adequate records, all contaminated cider was produced from apples harvested between mid October and mid November.

  4. Characteristics and performance of four new apple rootstock from the Cornell-USDA apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, the apple rootstock breeding program at Geneva, NY released 4 new apple rootstocks (Geneva® 210, Geneva® 214, Geneva® 890 and Geneva® 969). G.210 is a semi-dwarfing rootstock with vigor similar to M.7, with high productivity similar to M.9 and resistance to fire blight, phytophthora root ro...

  5. Dw2 a new dwarfing locus in apple rootstocks and relationship to induction of early bearing in apple scions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of certain apple rootstocks to dwarf their scions has been known for centuries and spurred a revolution in apple production. In this investigation, several breeding populations, in multiple replicated field and pot experiments were used to ascertain the degree of dwarfing of segregating...

  6. Obtaining Help with AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for obtaining help with AppleWorks version 2.0 word processing files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading; selecting the help list; and using the help list to copy text, delete text, find parts of a document,…

  7. Merging Spreadsheet and Word Processing Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging spreadsheet and word processing files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet and word processor files, transferring spreadsheet files to the clipboard, merging…

  8. Using AppleWorks V2.0 To Construct Spreadsheet Files for the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for constructing spreadsheet files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for program loading, selecting the spreadsheet option, setting column widths, naming columns and fields, entering category…

  9. Merging Data Base and Word Processing Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging database and word processing files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading database files, transferring database files to the clipboard, merging database files into word processor…

  10. Converting Spreadsheet Files into Data Base Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for converting spreadsheet files into database files using AppleWorks version 2.0 on the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files, transferring spreadsheet files to the monitor, printing spreadsheet files, and…

  11. Economic analysis of a self-propelled apple harvest and in-field sorting machine for the apple industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. apple industry, which generated more than $2.7 billion revenue at the farm gate in 2013, is facing critical challenges in decreased availability of labor and increased labor and production cost. To address these challenges, a self-propelled apple harvest and automated in-field sorting machi...

  12. 2015 Progress Report – Evaluation of the Cornell-Geneva Apple Rootstocks and Other Promising Apple Rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva, NY which are resistant to fire blight are rapidly becoming available to the industry. These rootstocks are also dwarfing, tolerant to replant disease and productive. Data on cumulative yield...

  13. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    PubMed Central

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  14. Kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2013-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT® UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1 mg·L(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40 min at UV irradiance of 3.00 mW·cm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763 mJ·cm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1 mW·cm(-2)·min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4 s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4 s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4 s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4 s(-1), p < 0.05) when applied UV irradiance and sample thickness were consistent. The reaction rate constant of patulin degradation in apple juice was significantly higher than model solution (p < 0.05). Although further investigations are still needed, the results of this study demonstrated that UV radiation may be an effective method for

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider by trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2010-06-30

    This study investigated the antimicrobial effect of low concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into apple juice or cider at approximately 6.0 log CFU/ml, followed by the addition of TC (0%v/v, 0.025%v/v, 0.075%v/v and 0.125%v/v). The inoculated apple juice samples were incubated at 23 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 21 days, whereas the cider samples were stored only at 4 degrees C. The pH of apple juice and cider, and E. coli O157:H7 counts were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21. TC was effective (P<0.05) in inactivating E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. At 23 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice (negative by enrichment) on days 1 and 3, respectively. At 4 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC decreased the pathogen counts in the juice and cider to undetectable levels on days 3 and 5, respectively. Results indicate that low concentrations of TC could be used as an effective antimicrobial to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider.

  16. Characterization of fludioxonil-resistant and pyrimethanil-resistant phenotypes of Penicillium expansum from apple.

    PubMed

    Li, H X; Xiao, C L

    2008-04-01

    , all four fludioxonil highly-resistant mutants had an increased sensitivity to osmotic stress on PDA amended with NaCl, while the pyrimethanil-resistant mutants did not. Pyrimethanil was effective against blue mold caused by fludioxonil-resistant mutants at both 0 and 20 degrees C. Pyrimethanil and fludioxonil reduced blue mold incited by pyrimethanil-resistant mutants during 12-week storage at 0 degrees C but were not effective at 20 degrees C. TBZ was not effective against pyrimethanil-resistant mutants derived from TBZ-S wild-type isolates at room temperature but provided some control at 0 degrees C. The results indicate that: (i) a fitness cost was associated with fludioxonil highly resistant mutants of P. expansum in both saprophytic and pathogenic phases of the pathogen but not pyrimethanil-resistant mutants; (ii) pyrimethanil possessed a higher risk than fludioxonil in the development of resistance in P. expansum; and (iii) triple resistance to the three apple-postharvest fungicides could emerge and become a practical problem if resistance to pyrimethanil develops in P. expansum populations.

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  1. Use of cyclodextrin-based polymer for patulin analysis in apple juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum, one of the patulin producing fungi that causes decay on apple, is recognized as the main source of patulin contamination on apple and apple products. The widely used method for patulin analysis in apple juice is liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate followed by HPLC-UV or...

  2. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  3. Gene expression profiles for two auxin transporters during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maturation and ripening patterns of apple varieties differ greatly due to their long history of cultivation, self-incompatible nature and the high-level heterozygosity of the apple genome. The ripening season across elite apple cultivars can span more than three months. Apple maturation and ripe...

  4. Evaluation of nitrogen fertilization effect on apple-tree leaves and fruit by fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowinska, Malgorzata; Deckers, Tom; Eckert, Caroline; Heisel, Francine; Valcke, Roland L.; Miehe, Joseph-Albert

    1998-07-01

    The work aims to validate the laser-induced fluorescence imaging method for detecting nutrient deficiency of fruit- trees and testing the storage ability of the fruits. Measurements concerned apple-trees (Malus x domestica Borkh.cv.Jonagold 2361) submitted or not to nitrogen fertilization (60 kg/ha) via roots. Besides recordings of fluorescence images of fruits and of leaves at the characteristic emission wavelengths, images which always showed an effect of the nitrogen, chemical and physiological analysis have been performed. The essential results were: (1) For rosette leaves, with a total chlorophyll content significantly lower for nitrogen depleted leaves, and a Chl a/b ratio as well as (phi) po (PS II efficiency of open reaction centers) independent of the treatment, images recorded in the red and in the far-red (690 and 740 nm chlorophyll a emissions) showed red/far-red intensities ratios higher in the absence of fertilization, in agreement with the lower chlorophyll a content. (2) For leaves of one year shoots, having all similar chlorophyll content and PS II efficiency, nitrogen supply led to a slight decrease of the red/far-red ratio value for 532 nm excitation, and for 355 nm excitation to an important decrease of the blue fluorescence/chlorophyll emission ratio, that was not observed for rosette leaves. (3) For apple fruits, presenting a high K/Ca ratio (approximately equals 42) i.e. a bad storage ability, the chlorophylls content of the green face skin as well as (phi) po were the same for both samplings, with a dramatic decrease of (phi) po (0.68 till to 0.45) during conservation (6 months). Under 355 nm excitation, the fluorescence ratios the most sensitive to the nitrogen deficiency were for the green face the blue/red ratios which decreased with nitrogen supply and increased with time, and the blue/green ratio for the apple red face.

  5. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world’s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders. To advance MAS for storage disorders in apple, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to generate high-density genetic maps in two F1 apple populations, which were then used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of soft scald. In total, 900 million DNA sequence reads were generated, but after several data filtering steps, only 2% of reads were ultimately used to create two genetic maps that included 1918 and 2818 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two QTL associated with soft scald were identified in one of the bi-parental populations originating from parent 11W-12-11, an advanced breeding line. This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies for QTL mapping in F1 populations, and provides a basis for the advancement of MAS to improve storability of apples. PMID:27651916

  6. The effect of apple feeding on markers of colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Langkilde, Søren; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended to lower DNA damage in the liver (P = 0.136 in DMH-initiated and P = 0.284 in noninitiated rats). Liver alanine aminotransferase was significantly increased in rats fed apples (P = 0.008 in DMH-initiated and P = 0.019 in noninitiated rats). In conclusion, feeding whole fresh apple may affect the occurrence of preneoplastic changes in the rat colon, but the effect was not gradual.

  7. Fixed precision sampling plans for white apple leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on apple.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P

    2004-10-01

    Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.

  8. Comparison between volatile emissions from transgenic apples and from two representative classically bred apple cultivars.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Ute; Rott, Anja S; Gessler, Cesare; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    While most risk assessments contrast a transgenic resistant to its isogenic line, an additional comparison between the transgenic line and a classically bred cultivar with the same resistance gene would be highly desirable. Our approach was to compare headspace volatiles of transgenic scab resistant apple plants with two representative cultivars (the isogenic 'Gala' and the scab resistance gene-containing 'Florina'). As modifications in volatile profiles have been shown to alter plant relationships with non-target insects, we analysed headspace volatiles from apple plants subjected to different infection types by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Marked differences were found between healthy and leafminer (Phyllonorycter blancardella) infested genotypes, where emissions between the transgenic scab resistant line and the two cultivars differed quantitatively in four terpenes and an aromatic compound. However, these modified odour emissions were in the range of variability of the emissions recorded for the two standard cultivars that proved to be crucial references.

  9. Patulin reduction in apple juice from concentrate by UV radiation and comparison of kinetic degradation models between apple juice and apple cider.

    PubMed

    Assatarakul, Kitipong; Churey, John J; Manns, David C; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-04-01

    Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by several genera of fungi, including Byssochlamys, Aspergillus, and Penicillium, has been an important concern in apple cider and apple juice due to its toxicity and health consequences. In this study, the effects of UV on the patulin level, physical and chemical properties, and sensory attributes in apple juice from concentrate were investigated. Kinetic modeling of patulin reduction by UV radiation in apple juice from concentrate was calculated and compared with the degradation rate observed previously in apple cider. From an initial patulin contamination of approximately 1,000 ppb (μg/liter), the UV exposure, ranging from 14.2 mJ/cm(2) (one pass) to 99.4 mJ/cm(2) (seven passes), was successful in reducing patulin levels by 72.57% ± 2.76% to 5.14% ± 0.70%, respectively. Patulin reduction by UV radiation followed first-order kinetic modeling in a fashion similar to first-order microbial inactivation. An exponential correlation between UV exposure and the percentage of patulin remaining was observed, giving an r(2) value of 0.9950. Apple juice was repeatedly exposed to 14.2 mJ/cm(2) for each treatment, and patulin levels were significantly decreased when compared with the level obtained with the previous UV exposure treatment. While there were no significant differences in the percentages of titratable acidity and ascorbic acid (P > 0.05), there were minor yet random sampling differences in pH and degrees Brix (1 °Brix is 1 g of sucrose in 100 g of solution; the °Brix represents the soluble solids content of the solution as percentage by weight [%, wt/wt]) (P ≤ 0.05). A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in sensory perception for the finished apple juice was detected between the control and the full seven-pass UV radiation treatment using an experienced consumer panel and a triangle test. Patulin reduction by UV radiation from both the current study and a previous study involving apple cider was compared, which showed that

  10. Mapping of the apple scab-resistance gene Vb.

    PubMed

    Erdin, N; Tartarini, S; Broggini, G A L; Gennari, F; Sansavini, S; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A

    2006-10-01

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the major production constraint in temperate zones with humid springs. Normally, its control relies on frequent and regular fungicide applications. Because this control strategy has come under increasing criticism, major efforts are being directed toward the breeding of scab-resistant apple cultivars. Modern apple breeding programs include the use of molecular markers, making it possible to combine several different scab-resistance genes in 1 apple cultivar (pyramiding) and to speed up the breeding process. The apple scab-resistance gene Vb is derived from the Siberian crab apple 'Hansen's baccata #2', and is 1 of the 6 "historical" major apple scab-resistance genes (Vf, Va, Vr, Vbj, Vm, and Vb). Molecular markers have been published for all these genes, except Vr. In testcross experiments conducted in the 1960s, it was reported that Vb segregated independently from 3 other major resistance genes, including Vf. Recently, however, Vb and Vf have both been mapped on linkage group 1, a result that contrasts with the findings from former testcross experiments. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify the precise position of Vb in a cross of 'Golden Delicious' (vbvb) and 'Hansen's baccata #2' (Vbvb). A genome scanning approach, a fast method already used to map apple scab-resistance genes Vr2 and Vm, was used, and the Vb locus was identified on linkage group 12, between the SSR markers Hi02d05 and Hi07f01. This finding confirms the independent segregation of Vb from Vf. With the identification of SSR markers linked to Vb, another major apple scab-resistance gene has become available; breeders can use it to develop durable resistant cultivars with several different resistance genes.

  11. Crop-to-wild gene flow and its fitness consequences for a wild fruit tree: Towards a comprehensive conservation strategy of the wild apple in Europe.

    PubMed

    Feurtey, Alice; Cornille, Amandine; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris, the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative, Malus domestica. With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M. domestica ancestry on individual tree fitness and (iii) pollen dispersal abilities in relation to crop-to-wild gene flow. We found substantial contemporary crop-to-wild gene flow in crab-apple tree populations and superior fitness of hybrids compared to wild seeds and seedlings. Using paternity analyses, we showed that pollen dispersal could occur up to 4 km and decreased with tree density. The seed network furnishing the wild apple reintroduction agroforestry programmes was found to suffer from poor genetic diversity, introgressions and species misidentification. Overall, our findings indicate supported threats for the European wild apple steering us to provide precise recommendations for its conservation.

  12. Vitiligo and alopecia areata: apples and oranges?

    PubMed

    Harris, John E

    2013-12-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments.

  13. Cell Biology Apps for Apple Devices

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  14. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  15. Metabolomic change precedes apple superficial scald symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Hertog, Maarten L A T M

    2009-09-23

    Untargeted metabolic profiling was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with 'Granny Smith' apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, and storage duration. Models revealed metabolomic differentiation between untreated controls and fruit treated with DPA or 1-MCP within 1 week following storage initiation. Metabolic divergence between controls and DPA-treated fruit after 4 weeks of storage preceded scald symptom development by 2 months. alpha-Farnesene oxidation products with known associations to scald, including conjugated trienols, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, were associated with presymptomatic as well as scalded control fruit. Likewise, a large group of putative triterpenoids with mass spectral features similar to those of ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were associated with control fruit and scald. Results demonstrate that extensive metabolomic changes associated with scald precede actual symptom development.

  16. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation.

  17. Can an Apple a Day Keep COPD Away?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163759.html Can an Apple a Day Keep COPD Away? See which fruits, veggies may ... more servings of certain fruits and vegetables a day were 35 percent less likely to develop COPD ...

  18. Despite Raves for IBook, Tide Still Turns against Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2001-01-01

    Describes how Apple's latest laptop computer, the IBook, may have many admirers, but that few believe the company will ever regain prominence in higher education. Issues include increased competition from other computer vendors and software availability (EV)

  19. [Nondestructive discrimination of waxed apples based on hyperspectral imaging technology].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The potential of hyperspectral imaging technology was evaluated for discriminating three types of waxed apples. Three types of apples smeared with fruit wax, with industrial wax, and not waxed respectively were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range of 308-1 024 nm. ENVI software processing platform was used for extracting hyperspectral image object of diffuse reflection spectral response characteristics. Eighty four of 126 apple samples were selected randomly as calibration set and the rest were prediction set. After different preprocess, the related mathematical models were established by using the partial least squares (PLS), the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and BP neural network methods and so on. The results showed that the model of MSC-SPA-LSSVM was the best to discriminate three kinds of waxed apples with 100%, 100% and 92.86% correct prediction respectively.

  20. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Vanessa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Silvestri, Romano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components. PMID:22970337

  1. Is there room for improving the nutraceutical composition of apple?

    PubMed

    Farneti, Brian; Masuero, Domenico; Costa, Fabrizio; Magnago, Pierluigi; Malnoy, Mickael; Costa, Guglielmo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we assessed the main bioactive compounds of a broad apple germplasm collection, composed by 247 accessions of wild (97) and domesticated (150) species. Among the stilbenes, trans- and cis-piceid were found to be ubiquitary components of both wild and cultivated apples. Apple was suggested to be the second dietary source of resveratrols. Results confirmed that the selection pressure of breeding and domestication did not uniformly affect all the phytochemicals contained in apples. For instance, organic acids (malic and ascorbic acid) and some phenolics (stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) were significantly influenced by selection, while some relevant flavonoids (flavonols and flavan-3-ols) and triterpenoids (ursolic, oleanolic, and betulinic acids) were not. This comprehensive screening will assist in the selection of Malus accessions with specific nutraceutical traits suitable to establish innovative breeding strategies or to patent new functional foods and beverages.

  2. Effect of sonication on eliminating of phorate in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xiaosong

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of phorate in apple juice by sonication was investigated in the present study. Results showed that sonication was effective in eliminating phorate in apple juice, and the ultrasonic power and sonication time significantly influenced the degradation of phorate (p<0.05). The degradation of phorate followed the first-order kinetics model well. Phorate-oxon and phorate sulfoxide were identified as the degradation products of phorate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, the toxicity of apple juice samples spiked with phorate was significantly reduced by sonication (p<0.05). The quality indexes of apple juice including pH, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble solids (TSS), and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose were not affected by sonication, and no visible difference in color was observed between the sonicated samples and the control.

  3. A study of ethylene in apple, red raspberry, and cherry.

    PubMed

    Blanpied, G D

    1972-04-01

    High ethylene levels were associated with flower abscission in apple (Malus sylvestris) and cherry (Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus), "June drop" of immature cherries, and harvest drop of apple and red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). However, an increase in ethylene content was not associated with June drop of apples and harvest drop of cherries. During the period of fruit ripening on the plant, the largest increases in ethylene occurred in apple flesh and red raspberry receptacular tissue. Ethylene remained low throughout the period of sweet and tart cherry ripening. The data obtained indicated marked ethylene gradients between adjacent tissues. Increases of ethylene in some tissues may have resulted from ethylene diffusion from adjacent tissues containing high levels of ethylene.

  4. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  5. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  6. Analysis and evaluation of a fruit bin for apples.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Ashraful; Yadama, Vikram; Cofer, William F; Englund, Karl R

    2014-12-01

    A fruit bin is an essential part of apple harvesting, storage, and transport. The lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls by apples in the bin are not well understood, thus making it harder to predict the behavior of the vertical walls of the bin. In this study, a bin was loaded with apples and deflections of the base and a vertical wall were experimentally measured and then modeled using finite element methods to understand typical static load distribution. One of the factors determining the accuracy of an analytical model is accurate representation of load distribution on the structure. A mathematical model was used to validate the lateral pressure distribution applied by the apples on the vertical walls and the bottom plate of the bin. The effect of unit weight of an apple and the angle of repose of apples on load distribution in the bin has been analyzed. Angle of repose is found to be a significant parameter for the lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls. A nonlinear lateral pressure distribution was observed along the depth from top to bottom of the bin. The resulting finite element model allows for comparison of deformation behavior of fruit bins constructed with a variety of materials, such as plywood, wood plastic composites, or a thermoplastic polymer. Although this study dealt with bins for apples, the sensitivity analyses for a range of unit weights and angles of repose for apples makes the analysis results versatile for use with other kinds of fruits and vegetables that fall within the reported range of unit weight and angle of repose.

  7. Translocation of Paclobutrazol, a Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitor, in Apple Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiow Y.; Sun, Tung; Faust, Miklos

    1986-01-01

    The [(2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1- yl)-pentan-3-ol] (paclobutrazol, PP333) measured in apple seedlings (`York Imperial' Malus domestica Borkh) was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data showed that paclobutrazol was taken up through roots and transported primarily in the xylem through the stems and accumulated in leaves. No detectable basipetal movement of paclobutrazol in apple seedlings was found. PMID:16664976

  8. Potential sources of microbial contamination in unpasteurized apple cider.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luis; Henderson, John; Fabri, Martha; Oke, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify possible sources of microbial contamination and to assess the effect of good cleaning and sanitation practices on the microbial quality and safety of unpasteurized apple cider. Raw unwashed apples, washed apples, cleaning water, fresh cider, and finished cider samples were collected from five Ontario producers over 4 months and microbiologically tested. Total coliforms were found in 31, 71 and 38% of the unwashed apple, water, and washed apple samples, respectively. Escherichia coli was found in 40% of the water samples from one producer alone. The washing step was identified as a potential source of contamination, possibly due to water in the dump tanks seldom being refreshed, and because scrubbers, spray nozzles, and conveyors were not properly cleaned and sanitized. Higher total coliform counts (P < 0.0001) and prevalence (P < 0.0001) in fresh cider compared with those in unwashed apples and washed apples indicated considerable microbial buildup along the process, possibly explained by the lack of appropriate equipment sanitation procedures. Results showed that producers who had better sanitary practices in place had lower (P < 0.001) total coliform prevalence than the rest of the producers. Overall results show that good sanitation procedures are associated with improved microbial quality of fresh cider in terms of total coliforms and that operators who pasteurize and/or UV treat their product should still be required to have a sound good manufacturing practices program in place to prevent recontamination. Cryptosporidium parvum, an important pathogen for this industry, was found in different sample types, including washed apples, water, and fresh and finished cider.

  9. Blank Computer Floppy Disk Formatting Using the AppleWorks Program, Apple IIe or GS Computers and a Duodisk or Two Disk Drives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for formatting blank floppy disks in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 11 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the formatting sequence. (EW)

  10. Developing Simple Grade Books Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Duodisk or Two Disk Drives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing grade books using the AppleWorks spreadsheet subprogram with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 41 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of…

  11. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  12. CLIPS, AppleEvents, and AppleScript: Integrating CLIPS with commercial software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Michael M.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    1994-01-01

    Many of today's intelligent systems are comprised of several modules, perhaps written in different tools and languages, that together help solve the user's problem. These systems often employ a knowledge-based component that is not accessed directly by the user, but instead operates 'in the background' offering assistance to the user as necessary. In these types of modular systems, an efficient, flexible, and eady-to-use mechanism for sharing data between programs is crucial. To help permit transparent integration of CLIPS with other Macintosh applications, the AI Research Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has extended CLIPS to allow it to communicate transparently with other applications through two popular data-sharing mechanisms provided by the Macintosh operating system: Apple Events (a 'high-level' event mechanism for program-to-program communication), and AppleScript, a recently-released scripting language for the Macintosh. This capability permits other applications (running on either the same or a remote machine) to send a command to CLIPS, which then responds as if the command were typed into the CLIPS dialog window. Any result returned by the command is then automatically returned to the program that sent it. Likewise, CLIPS can send several types of Apple Events directly to other local or remote applications. This CLIPS system has been successfully integrated with a variety of commercial applications, including data collection programs, electronics forms packages, DBMS's, and email programs. These mechanisms can permit transparent user access to the knowledge base from within a commercial application, and allow a single copy of the knowledge base to service multiple users in a networked environment.

  13. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...

  14. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica) and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Menghan; Wang, Sanhong; Dong, Hui; Cai, Binhua; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus mume) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca) in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA]), while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA). Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR). Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae. PMID:27186637

  15. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica) and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Menghan; Wang, Sanhong; Dong, Hui; Cai, Binhua; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus mume) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca) in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA]), while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA). Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR). Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  16. Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies genes induced in response to UV-B irradiation in apple skin: isolation of a putative UDP-glucose 4-epimerase.

    PubMed

    Ban, Yusuke; Honda, Chikako; Bessho, Hideo; Pang, Xiao-Ming; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2007-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) successfully identified 11 cDNAs in apple skin with highly induced expression as a result of ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation. Apart from three putative flavonoid biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase (CHS; A5C), flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H; B5F), and flavonol synthase (FLS; D1F), five clones (A1H, A10E, B11G, D5F, and D11H) were induced by low temperature (17 degrees C) as well, which is also known to induce anthocyanin accumulation in apple skin. Moreover, four clones (A1H, A10E, B11G, and D11H), showing higher expression levels in the skin, accumulated higher anthocyanin concentrations than their counterparts. Of the four clones, only A10E, a putative UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE), was deemed to play an important role in anthocyanin accumulation in apple skin based on the facts that: (i) its transcription level was higher in the deep red cultivar, 'Jonathan', than in the pale red cultivar, 'Tsugaru'; and (ii) it could reversibly catalyse UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose, and the latter molecule is a major sugar donor for cyanidin-glycoside in apple. Therefore, the full-length cDNA of A10E was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and designated as MdUGE1. Further analysis demonstrated that UGE enzymatic activity was positively correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in apple skin. Thus, MdUGE1 isolated by SSH could play an important role in anthocyanin biosynthesis in apple skin in concert with other flavonoid biosynthetic genes.

  17. APPLEPIPS /Apple Personal Image Processing System/ - An interactive digital image processing system for the Apple II microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.; Rose, J.; Quattromani, M.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments related to microprocessor-based personal computers have made low-cost digital image processing systems a reality. Image analysis systems built around these microcomputers provide color image displays for images as large as 256 by 240 pixels in sixteen colors. Descriptive statistics can be computed for portions of an image, and supervised image classification can be obtained. The systems support Basic, Fortran, Pascal, and assembler language. A description is provided of a system which is representative of the new microprocessor-based image processing systems currently on the market. While small systems may never be truly independent of larger mainframes, because they lack 9-track tape drives, the independent processing power of the microcomputers will help alleviate some of the turn-around time problems associated with image analysis and display on the larger multiuser systems.

  18. Arsenic and lead in juice: apple, citrus, and apple-base.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise; Hooper, Cassandra; Shi, Xingyi

    2012-12-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic and lead in drinking water have long been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and new regulations regarding the presence of these contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in 2009. No comparable exposure limits or regulations are available, however, for juices and other beverages that may contain arsenic and lead. In the study described in this article, 20 apple juices (or ciders), 15 apple-containing juices, one grape, and one citrus juice were analyzed for arsenic and lead. Arsenic was detected in all juices while lead was detected in more than 94% of juices analyzed. Twelve samples (32%) demonstrated arsenic levels nearly at or above the drinking water exposure limit of 10 parts per billion. No juices contained lead above drinking water exposure limits. Expanding drinking water limits to include juices (and other frequently consumed beverages) would better protect consumers while regular testing of these juices would better inform consumers of the risks posed by specific juices and brands.

  19. 3D surface reconstruction of apples from 2D NIR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bin; Jiang, Lu; Cheng, Xuemei; Tao, Yang

    2005-11-01

    Machine vision methods are widely used in apple defect detection and quality grading applications. Currently, 2D near-infrared (NIR) imaging of apples is often used to detect apple defects because the image intensity of defects is different from normal apple parts. However, a drawback of this method is that the apple calyx also exhibits similar image intensity to the apple defects. Since an apple calyx often appears in the NIR image, the false alarm rate is high with the 2D NIR imaging method. In this paper, a 2D NIR imaging method is extended to a 3D reconstruction so that the apple calyx can be differentiated from apple defects according to their different 3D depth information. The Lambertian model is used to evaluate the reflectance map of the apple surface, and then Pentland's Shape-From-Shading (SFS) method is applied to reconstruct the 3D surface information of the apple based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Pentland's method is directly derived from human perception properties, making it close to the way human eyes recover 3D information from a 2D scene. In addition, the FFT reduces the computation time significantly. The reconstructed 3D apple surface maps are shown in the results, and different depths of apple calyx and defects are obtained correctly.

  20. Thermotolerance of apple tree leaves probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection during seasonal shift.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ying; Zhang, Mengxia; Gao, Jin; Li, Pengmin; Goltsev, Vasilij; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-11-01

    During the seasonal shift from June to August, air temperatures increase. To explore how apple trees improve their thermotolerance during this shift, we examined the photochemical reaction capacity of apple tree leaves by simultaneous measurement of prompt chlorophyll fluorescence, delayed chlorophyll fluorescence, and modulated 820 nm reflection at varying temperatures. It was found that the reaction centers and antennae of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI), the donor side of PSII, the electron transfer capacity from QA to QB, and the reoxidation capacity of plastoquinol were all sensitive to heat stress, particularly in June. As the season shifted, apple tree leaves improved in thermotolerance. Interestingly, the acclimation to seasonal shift enhanced the thermotolerance of PSII and PSI reaction centers more than that of their antennae, and the activity of PSII more than that of PSI. This may be a strategy for plant adaptation to changes in environmental temperatures. In addition, results from prompt and delayed fluorescence, as well as modulated 820 nm reflection corroborate each other. We suggest that the simultaneous measurement of the three independent signals may provide more information on thermal acclimation mechanisms of photochemical reactions in plant leaves.

  1. Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption.

  2. Native fructose extracted from apple improves glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Dray, C; Colom, A; Guigné, C; Legonidec, S; Guibert, A; Ouarne, F; Valet, P

    2009-12-01

    Fructose is one of the most abundant monosaccharide in nature. It is also the sweetest naturally occurring carbohydrate. Since decades, fructose used for food preparations is not provided by fruit or vegetable but by a chemical process of starch or inulin conversion. We processed a new method of fructose extraction from apple and investigated the acute and long term effect of this carbohydrate on glucose metabolism in C57Bl6/j mice. By using the glycemic index (GI), we have shown that one of the sugars obtained from apple, FructiLight, has a very low impact on glycemic and insulin response during acute treatment compared to other sugars. This carbohydrate, essentially constituted by fructose, has also beneficial properties when administrated for long term treatment. Indeed, as two other sugars extracted from apple (FructiSweetApple and FructiSweet67), FructiLight exposure during 21 weeks in beverage has promoted an enhancement of glucose tolerance compared to glucose treatment without affecting food intake and weight. All these results indicate that apple-extracted sugars and more precisely fructose from these fruits could be a promising way to produce new food and sweet beverages.

  3. Multiple plant hormones and cell wall metabolism regulate apple fruit maturation patterns and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. In this study, a parallel transcriptome profile analysis, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination and...

  4. Transcriptome profiling analysis of cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. In this study, transcriptome profile analysis, scanning electron microscopic examination an...

  5. Transcriptomic events associated with internal browning of apple during postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although apple (Malus x domestica) is of economic importance, little information is available about the transriptomic profiling of postharvest disorders, particularly internal browning. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with development of flesh browning durin...

  6. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  7. A high-density, multi-parental SNP genetic map on apple validates a new mapping approach for outcrossing species

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Erica A; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Di Guardo, Mario; Koehorst-van Putten, Herma JJ; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; Longhi, Sara; Troggio, Michela; Bianco, Luca; Muranty, Hélène; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Letschka, Thomas; Lozano Luis, Lidia; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Micheletti, Diego; Bink, Marco CAM; Voorrips, Roeland E; Aziz, Ebrahimi; Velasco, Riccardo; Laurens, François; van de Weg, W Eric

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approaches rely on the correct ordering of molecular markers along the chromosomes, which can be obtained from genetic linkage maps or a reference genome sequence. For apple (Malus domestica Borkh), the genome sequence v1 and v2 could not meet this need; therefore, a novel approach was devised to develop a dense genetic linkage map, providing the most reliable marker-loci order for the highest possible number of markers. The approach was based on four strategies: (i) the use of multiple full-sib families, (ii) the reduction of missing information through the use of HaploBlocks and alternative calling procedures for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, (iii) the construction of a single backcross-type data set including all families, and (iv) a two-step map generation procedure based on the sequential inclusion of markers. The map comprises 15 417 SNP markers, clustered in 3 K HaploBlock markers spanning 1 267 cM, with an average distance between adjacent markers of 0.37 cM and a maximum distance of 3.29 cM. Moreover, chromosome 5 was oriented according to its homoeologous chromosome 10. This map was useful to improve the apple genome sequence, design the Axiom Apple 480 K SNP array and perform multifamily-based QTL studies. Its collinearity with the genome sequences v1 and v3 are reported. To our knowledge, this is the shortest published SNP map in apple, while including the largest number of markers, families and individuals. This result validates our methodology, proving its value for the construction of integrated linkage maps for any outbreeding species. PMID:27917289

  8. The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Velasco, Riccardo; Zharkikh, Andrey; Affourtit, Jason; Dhingra, Amit; Cestaro, Alessandro; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Fontana, Paolo; Bhatnagar, Satish K; Troggio, Michela; Pruss, Dmitry; Salvi, Silvio; Pindo, Massimo; Baldi, Paolo; Castelletti, Sara; Cavaiuolo, Marina; Coppola, Giuseppina; Costa, Fabrizio; Cova, Valentina; Dal Ri, Antonio; Goremykin, Vadim; Komjanc, Matteo; Longhi, Sara; Magnago, Pierluigi; Malacarne, Giulia; Malnoy, Mickael; Micheletti, Diego; Moretto, Marco; Perazzolli, Michele; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Vezzulli, Silvia; Zini, Elena; Eldredge, Glenn; Fitzgerald, Lisa M; Gutin, Natalia; Lanchbury, Jerry; Macalma, Teresita; Mitchell, Jeff T; Reid, Julia; Wardell, Bryan; Kodira, Chinnappa; Chen, Zhoutao; Desany, Brian; Niazi, Faheem; Palmer, Melinda; Koepke, Tyson; Jiwan, Derick; Schaeffer, Scott; Krishnan, Vandhana; Wu, Changjun; Chu, Vu T; King, Stephen T; Vick, Jessica; Tao, Quanzhou; Mraz, Amy; Stormo, Aimee; Stormo, Keith; Bogden, Robert; Ederle, Davide; Stella, Alessandra; Vecchietti, Alberto; Kater, Martin M; Masiero, Simona; Lasserre, Pauline; Lespinasse, Yves; Allan, Andrew C; Bus, Vincent; Chagné, David; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Lavezzo, Enrico; Fawcett, Jeffrey A; Proost, Sebastian; Rouzé, Pierre; Sterck, Lieven; Toppo, Stefano; Lazzari, Barbara; Hellens, Roger P; Durel, Charles-Eric; Gutin, Alexander; Bumgarner, Roger E; Gardiner, Susan E; Skolnick, Mark; Egholm, Michael; Van de Peer, Yves; Salamini, Francesco; Viola, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    We report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica). We show that a relatively recent (>50 million years ago) genome-wide duplication (GWD) has resulted in the transition from nine ancestral chromosomes to 17 chromosomes in the Pyreae. Traces of older GWDs partly support the monophyly of the ancestral paleohexaploidy of eudicots. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Pyreae and the genus Malus, relative to major Rosaceae taxa, identified the progenitor of the cultivated apple as M. sieversii. Expansion of gene families reported to be involved in fruit development may explain formation of the pome, a Pyreae-specific false fruit that develops by proliferation of the basal part of the sepals, the receptacle. In apple, a subclade of MADS-box genes, normally involved in flower and fruit development, is expanded to include 15 members, as are other gene families involved in Rosaceae-specific metabolism, such as transport and assimilation of sorbitol.

  9. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection.

  10. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time. PMID:27721694

  11. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-10-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  12. Using the Apple LaserWriter at ANL

    SciTech Connect

    Errion, S.M.; Thommes, M.M. Caruthers, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    Using the Apple LaserWriter at ANL (ANL/TM 452) explains how Argonne computer users (with CMS, MVS, or VAX/VMS accounts) can print quality text and graphics on the Apple LaserWriter. Currently, applications at Argonne that are compatible with the Apple LaserWriter include Waterloo Script, CA/ISSCO graphics software (i.e., Cuechart, Tellagraf, and Disspla), SAS/Graph, ANSYS (version 4.2), and some personal computer test and graphics software. This manual does not attempt to cover use of the Apple LaserWriter with other applications, though some information on the handling of PostScript-compatible files may be valid for other applications. Refer to the documentation of those applications to learn how they work with the Apple LaserWriter. Most of the information in this manual applies to the Allied Linotype L300P typesetter in Building 222. However, the typesetter is not a high volume output device and should be used primarily for high quality (1250 and 2500 dots per inch) final copy output for Laboratory publications prior to making printing plates. You should print all drafts and proof pages on LaserWriers or other printers compatible with the PostScript page description language. Consult with Graphic Arts (at extension 2-5603) to determine the availability of the typesetter for printing the final copy of your document or graphics application. Since the Apple LaserWriter itself produces good quality output (300 dots per inch), we expect that most internal documents consisting of test or graphics will continue to be printed at LaserWriters distributed throughout the Laboratory. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. EFFICACY OF METAMITRON IN APPLE THINNING IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Stevanovic, M; Dolovac, N; Marisavljevic, D; Andjelkovic, A; Radivojevic, L; Aleksic, G; Gavrilovic, V

    2015-01-01

    The thinning of fruits is a required pomotechnical measure in intensive fruit production which ensures the production of good quality fruits and high yields. Metamitron, known as inhibitor of photosynthesis, has been successfully used in the thinning of apple fruits. This study had the aim to determine the efficacy of metamitron on the thinning of apple fruits in the agroecological conditions of Serbia and to evaluate the possibility of its practical application. Two varieties of apples that are widely grown in Serbia, dared and Golden Delicious, have been chosen for this research. The experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 according to the EPPO PP 1/158 (3) method. Metamitron has shown a good efficacy in the thinning of apple fruits. The effect of metamitron on the thinning of apple fruits depends on multiple factors, pri- marily the application dose, time of application, apple variety, but also on the number of fruits developed. The best efficacy on the Idared variety was in plots where metamitron was applied at a dose of 1.1 kg ha⁻¹, once (in the growth stage when the fruits were 8 mm in diameter) or twice (in the growth stages when the fruits were 8 mm and 12 mm in diameter), when the number of developed fruits per tree is smaller, or 1.65 kg ha⁻¹ applied once when the fruits are 12 mm in size when a larger number of fruits per tree is developed. On the Golden Delicious variety, the best efficacy was in treatments when metamitron was applied twice (in the growth stages when the fruits were 8 mm and 12 mm in diameter) in quantities of 1.1 kg ha⁻¹, when less fruits per tree were formed or 1.65 kg ha⁻¹, applied once or twice when a larger number of fruits per tree were formed.

  14. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  15. Chemeketa Community College Developmental Education Enrollment Record Keeping System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemeketa Community Coll., Salem, OR.

    This manual for a management system for student enrollment records in a community college presents and explains the main menu options, print options, and a special menu for English as a second language (ESL) students. Written in BASIC for use on the Apple II Plus microcomputer with 48K memory and two diskette drives with DOS 3.2, the package…

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  2. 78 FR 11173 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... AGENCY Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan... kasugamycin (CAS No. 6980-18-3) to treat up to 10,000 acres of apples to control fire blight. The applicant... kasugamycin on apples to control fire blight. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part 166 was submitted...

  3. Teaching Bad Apples: A Fun Way to Tackle Difficult Teaching Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Nathaniel; Betrus, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    "Teaching Bad Apples" is a game developed in 2014 for current and future teachers. It plays much like "Apples to Apples" or "Cards Against Humanity," with each player in turn reading a situation card, followed by the other players choosing their response cards. Each situation, however dramatic or bizarre, is…

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of... and Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States from Japan and the Republic of Korea only in...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  6. Biodiversity of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, and Juice Quality in Apple Cider Taxa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples are known to contain antioxidants that may play an important role in human health by providing protection against reactive free radicals affecting a wide range of biological molecules including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. While fresh apple juice is a main product of processed apples,...

  7. Effect of home processing on the distribution and reduction of pesticide residues in apples.

    PubMed

    Kong, Z; Shan, W; Dong, F; Liu, X; Xu, J; Li, M; Zheng, Y

    2012-08-01

    The effect of home processing (washing, peeling, coring and juicing) on residue levels of chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim in apple segments was investigated. The pesticide residues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS and GC with a flame photometric (FPD) and electron capture detection (ECD). The results indicated that the pesticide residue levels in the apple peel and core were higher compared with in the apple flesh. After peeled and cored apple was processed into apple juice and pomace, chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin and tebuconazole were concentrated in the apple pomace. However, residues of acetamiprid and carbendazim were exceptions. The apple pomace was free of acetamiprid, which was mainly present in the apple juice. After washing the mean loss of chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim from apples under recommended dosage and twofold higher dosage were 17-21%, 6.7-7.1%, 13-32%, 42-67% and 47-50%, respectively. The pesticide residues were significantly reduced in the edible part of the apple except for β-cypermethrin during peeling and coring process. The removal effect of apple juicing was found to be the most pronounced on β-cypermethrin residue, which was reduced in the range of 81-84%, and the reductions of chlorpyrifos, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim upon apple juicing were in the range of 15-36%.

  8. 75 FR 60817 - Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China AGENCY: United States International Trade... concentrated apple juice from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted a... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China...

  9. Occurrence and phenotypes of pyrimethanil resistance in penicillium expansum from apple in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum is the primary cause of blue mold of apple. Pyrimethanil is a recently registered postharvest fungicide for control of postharvest diseases in apple. To monitor pyrimethanil resistance, 779 isolates of P. expansum were collected from decayed apple fruit in 2010 and 2011 from fiv...

  10. Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

  11. Choosing between an Apple and a Chocolate Bar: the Impact of Health and Taste Labels

    PubMed Central

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Walker, Alexander D.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple (’healthy & succulent’ 65.9% and ‘succulent & healthy’ 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection (‘healthy’ 50.5% and ‘succulent’ 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone. PMID:24155964

  12. Apple Seeks To Regain Its Stature in World of Academic Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1998-01-01

    Managers of Apple Computer, the company that pioneered campus personal computing and later lost most of its share of the market, are again focusing energies on academic buyers. Campus technology officials, even those fond of Apples, are greeting the company's efforts with caution. Some feel it may be too late for Apple to regain a significant…

  13. First report of Penicillium carneum causing blue mold on stored apples in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold decay occurs during long term storage of apples and is predominantly caused by Penicillium expansum Link. Apples harvested in 2010 were stored in controlled atmosphere at a commercial Pennsylvania apple packing and storage facility, and were examined for occurrence of decay in May 2011. ...

  14. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  15. Language Arts, Social Studies and Science. Apple IIGS Computer Appleworks Data Base Training Mini Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    These training minicourse materials include class schedules, a description of class composition, class outlines, and a list of handouts for using AppleWorks database applications with the Apple IIGS computer in language arts, social studies, and science. Classes for each content area include introductions to the Apple IIGS computer, to the…

  16. Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.

    This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high…

  17. Catch a falling apple: Isaac Newton and myths of genius.

    PubMed

    Fara, P

    1999-01-01

    Newton has become a legendary figure belonging to the distant past rather than a historical person who lived at a specific time. Historians and scientists have constantly reinterpreted many anecdotal tales describing Newton's achievements and behaviour, but the most famous concerns the falling apple in his country garden. Newton's apple conjures up multiple allegorical resonances, and examining its historical accuracy is less important than uncovering the mythical truths embedded within this symbol. Because interest groups fashion different collective versions of the past, analysing mythical tales can reveal fundamental yet conflicting attitudes towards science and its practices.

  18. Ocular toxicity by seeds of Annona squamosa (custard apple)

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Harsha; Kugar, Thungappa; Shivanna, Yathish; Agrawal, Archita; Shetty, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Custard apple seeds have been used in native medicine from time immemorial for the management of head lice and skin exfoliation. We report six consecutive patients who developed toxic keratoconjunctivitis within 6–12 h of ocular exposure to custard apple seeds. The use of topical steroid worsens the toxicity and predisposes to the development of microbial keratitis in such cases. Patients showed a good response to primary treatment with topical fortified antibiotics and lubricants. This case series highlights the need to educate the patients regarding the potential toxic effects of the custard seeds and the treating physicians about possible deleterious effects on using topical steroid. PMID:27688289

  19. [Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar].

    PubMed

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Veerman, E C I

    2012-12-01

    Erosive tooth wear was diagnosed in the dentition of a 15-year-old girl with a Moroccan background. After an anamnesis, extensive analysis of possible risk factors and a study of the pattern of erosion, it was concluded that the erosive tooth wear was induced by daily consumption of a glass of apple cider vinegar Further investigation revealed that in North-African culture, women have used apple cider vinegar to achieve weight loss for generations. Bodybuilders are also known to make use of this method of weight reduction.

  20. Cytokinin-induced changes in the chlorophyll content and fluorescence of in vitro apple leaves.

    PubMed

    Dobránszki, Judit; Mendler-Drienyovszki, Nóra

    2014-10-15

    Cytokinins (CKs) are one of the main regulators of in vitro growth and development and might affect the developmental state and function of the photosynthetic apparatus of in vitro shoots. Effects of different cytokinin regimes including different types of aromatic cytokinins, such as benzyl-adenine, benzyl-adenine riboside and 3-hydroxy-benzyladenine alone or in combination were studied on the capacity of the photosynthetic apparatus and the pigment content of in vitro apple leaves after 3 weeks of culture. We found that the type of cytokinins affected both chlorophyll a and b contents and its ratio. Chlorophyll content of in vitro apple leaves was the highest when benzyl-adenine was applied as a single source of cytokinin in the medium (1846-2176 μg/1g fresh weight (FW) of the leaf). Increasing the concentration of benzyl-adenine riboside significantly decreased the chlorophyll content of the leaves (from 1923 to 1183 μg/1g FW). The highest chl a/chl b ratio was detected after application of meta-topolin (TOP) at concentrations of 2.0 and 6.0 μM (2.706 and 2.804). Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured both in dark-adapted (Fv/Fm test) and in light-adapted leaf samples (Yield test; Y(II)). The maximum quantum yield and efficiency of leaves depended on the cytokinin source of the medium varied between 0.683 and 0.861 (Fv/Fm) indicating a well-developed and functional photosynthetic apparatus. Our results indicate that the type and concentration of aromatic cytokinins applied in the medium affect the chlorophyll content of the leaves in in vitro apple shoots. Performance of the photosynthetic apparatus measured by chlorophyll fluorescence in the leaves was also modified by the cytokinin supply. This is the first ever study on the relationship between the cytokinin supply and the functionability of photosystem II in plant tissue culture and our findings might help to increase plantlet survival after transfer to ex vitro conditions.

  1. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes within a Caramel-Coated Apple Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Max C.; Wanless, Brandon J.; Bedale, Wendy; Czuprynski, Charles

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 2014 multistate listeriosis outbreak was linked to consumption of caramel-coated apples, an unexpected and previously unreported vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. This outbreak was unanticipated because both the pH of apples (<4.0) and the water activity of the caramel coating (<0.80) are too low to support Listeria growth. In this study, Granny Smith apples were inoculated with approximately 4 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes (a cocktail of serotype 4b strains associated with the outbreak) on each apple’s skin, stem, and calyx. Half of the apples had sticks inserted into the core, while the remaining apples were left intact. Apples were dipped into hot caramel and stored at either 7°C or 25°C for up to 11 or 28 days, respectively. Data revealed that apples with inserted sticks supported significantly more L. monocytogenes growth than apples without sticks under both storage conditions. Within 3 days at 25°C, L. monocytogenes populations increased >3 log10 in apples with sticks, whereas only a 1-log10 increase was observed even after 1 week for caramel-coated apples without sticks. When stored at 7°C, apples with sticks exhibited an approximately 1.5-log10 increase in L. monocytogenes levels at 28 days, whereas no growth was observed in apples without sticks. We infer that insertion of a stick into the apple accelerates the transfer of juice from the interior of the apple to its surface, creating a microenvironment at the apple-caramel interface where L. monocytogenes can rapidly grow to levels sufficient to cause disease when stored at room temperature. PMID:26463161

  2. 75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of... the antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate (``apple juice'') from the... Villanueva, Program Manager, New Shipper Review: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the...

  3. Experimental investigation on light propagation through apple tissue structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askoura, Mohamed Lamine; Piron, Vianney; Vaudelle, Fabrice; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre; Madieta, Emmanuel; Mehinagic, Emira

    2015-07-01

    The interaction of light with biological materials, such as fruits and vegetables, is a complex process which involves both absorption, and scattering events at different scales. Measuring the optical properties of a fruit allows understanding the physical and chemical characteristics. In this paper, an optical bench based on the use of a continuous laser source and a CCD camera was developed to study the light diffusion inside apple tissue structures. The method refers to the well-known steady-state spatially resolved method. First, the optoelectronics system was tested with a tissue phantom in order to show the optimal sensing range required to obtain the best estimated optical properties. Second, experimental results were obtained using peeled and unpeeled apples as interrogated tissues. The data were confronted with a diffusion model in order to extract the optical properties at two wavelengths of 633, and 852 nm. To better understand the effect of the apple tissue structures, investigations into the propagation of light through a half cut apple were also performed.

  4. Diversity in wild apple species of Chinese origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Malus collection in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System has twelve wild species of apple collected from China at the Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) in Geneva, NY. Between 8 and 148 individual trees represent each species. The assignment of seedling trees to specific species has be...

  5. Metagenomic approach to tracking microorganisms on apples - a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding to the microflora species composition and frequency on apple trees is important in understanding the potential for biocontrol to succeed. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is an environmental factor that limits microbial growth and SurroundTM particle film and is highly reflective of UV r...

  6. Geographical classification of apple based on hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Zhao, Chunjiang; Peng, Yankun

    2013-05-01

    Attribute of apple according to geographical origin is often recognized and appreciated by the consumers. It is usually an important factor to determine the price of a commercial product. Hyperspectral imaging technology and supervised pattern recognition was attempted to discriminate apple according to geographical origins in this work. Hyperspectral images of 207 Fuji apple samples were collected by hyperspectral camera (400-1000nm). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on hyperspectral imaging data to determine main efficient wavelength images, and then characteristic variables were extracted by texture analysis based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) from dominant waveband image. All characteristic variables were obtained by fusing the data of images in efficient spectra. Support vector machine (SVM) was used to construct the classification model, and showed excellent performance in classification results. The total classification rate had the high classify accuracy of 92.75% in the training set and 89.86% in the prediction sets, respectively. The overall results demonstrated that the hyperspectral imaging technique coupled with SVM classifier can be efficiently utilized to discriminate Fuji apple according to geographical origins.

  7. Storage Test on Apple Juice After Ultrasound Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Novelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice. PMID:27800306

  8. Newton's Apple: 15th Season. Free Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

    This guide helps teachers use the 15th season of the television program "Newton's Apple" in the classroom and lists show segments on asthma, car engines, glacier climbing, glass blowing, glaucoma, gliders, gold mine, greenhouse effect, kids on Mars, lightning, "Lost World" dinosaurs, mammoth dig, NASA robots, Novocain (TM),…

  9. The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ofelia, Ed.; Fishman, Joshua A., Ed.

    This collection of papers tells the story of how languages other than English have contributed to making New York City a culturally vibrant and linguistically diverse city. Part 1, "Introduction to the Multilingual Apple," features "New York's Multilingualism: World Languages and Their Role in a U.S. City" (Ofelia Garcia). Part…

  10. Distribution of apple fruit epidermal non-polar metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple peel epidermis provides a resilient protective barrier against external stimuli while, also, comprising much of what is considered as fruit appearance and related phenotypic components. This dynamic structure is subject to many changes throughout the production and supply chain that can impac...

  11. An Apple for Your IBM PC--The Quadlink Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, G. Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes nature and installation of the QUADLINK board which allows Apple software to be run on IBM PC microcomputers. Although programs tested ran without problems, users should test their own programs since there are some copy protection schemes that can baffle the board. (JN)

  12. A Computerized Weather Station for the Apple IIe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorson, Mark V.

    Predicting weather conditions is a topic of interest for students who want to make plans for outside activities. This paper discusses the development of an inexpensive computer-interfaced classroom weather station using an Apple IIe computer that provides the viewer with up to the minute digital readings of inside and outside temperature,…

  13. Is It Still an Apple for the Teacher? Plenary Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deninger, Michael L.

    1985-01-01

    Questionnaires on computer use were completed by 74 residential schools, 25 day schools, 207 day classes, and 4 colleges for the deaf. Results revealed a continued trend in use of Apple microcomputers in deaf education, with computer technology for the deaf growing at a rate similar to that of general education. (CL)

  14. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  15. The Network Advantage in Education for the Apple Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durance, Carl M.; Fenton, Shirley L.

    1986-01-01

    "Waterloo MacJANET," a local area network developed by the University of Waterloo for the Apple Macintosh computer, provides an environment appropriate for developing students' computer-related skills, minimizing both the human and the computing resources needed to support such courses. The system also serves as an efficient distributor…

  16. Development of a strategy to conserve worldwide apple genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Access to diverse apple (Malus) genetic resources is critical for future breeding efforts and improved production of this important tree fruit species. Wild Malus species offer desirable sources of resistance to pathogens as well as tolerance to abiotic stress. Novel cultivars may have unique alleli...

  17. A strategy to conserve worldwide apple genetic resources: Survey results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Access to diverse apple (Malus) genetic resources is critical for future breeding efforts and improved production of this important tree fruit genus. Wild Malus species offer desirable sources of resistance to pathogens as well as tolerance to abiotic stress. Novel cultivars may have unique allelic ...

  18. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil, eugenol, and a eugenol based herbicide (Matran EC) were applied to apple and peach trees during bloom to evaluate the thinning effect of these materials. Several additional bloom thinners including ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), liquid lime sulfur, and sulfcarbamide were included in...

  19. Computers in Astronomy: Astronomy on an Apple Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a review of computer programs written for the Apple Macintosh computer that teach astronomy. Reviews general programs, along with some which deal more specifically with sky travel, star charting, the solar system, Halley's Comet, and stargazing. Includes the name and address of each producer. (TW)

  20. Newton's Apple 13th Season. Free Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

    This educational materials packet was designed to help teachers use the Public Broadcasting Service's (PBS) program called "Newton's Apple" in the classroom. This book contains information on how these materials support the latest science standards; an index to the 13th season lesson pages and an index to the past three seasons; a…

  1. Apple Stack Cake for Dessert: Appalachian Regional Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortridge, Barbara G.

    2005-01-01

    How is the culture of Appalachia conveyed through its foods? Local experts in Appalachian counties were asked to create a hypothetical menu for a meal that was representative of their home region. Fried chicken and ham were the preferred main dishes and dessert selections focused on apple pie and peach or blackberry cobbler. Virtually everyone…

  2. Ultrastructure study of apple meristem cells during cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  3. Ultrastructure Study of Apple Meristem Cells During Cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  4. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  5. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  6. Development and application of multispectral algorithms for defect apple inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research developed and evaluated the multispectral algorithm derived from hyperspectral line-scan imaging system which equipped with an electron-multiplying-charge-coupled-device camera and an imaging spectrograph for the detection of defect Red Delicious apples. The algorithm utilized the fluo...

  7. Power ultrasound treatment of Listeria monocytogenes in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Adam R; Martin, Scott E; Feng, Hao

    2005-11-01

    Inactivation experiments with Listeria monocytogenes 10403S, an ultrasound-resistant strain, were conducted at sublethal (20, 30, and 40 degrees C) and lethal (50, 55, and 60 degrees C) temperatures in saline solution (pH 7.0), acidified saline solution (pH 3.4), and apple cider (pH 3.4) with and without application of ultrasound (20 kHz, 457 mW.ml(-l)). The survival of recoverable L. monocytogenes 10403S in apple cider was evaluated, and the effects of temperature, ultrasound, pH, and food matrix on inactivation were studied. Application of ultrasound increased the inactivation rate at both sublethal and lethal temperatures. Additional death of L. monocytogenes 10403S was due to low acidity at the lethal temperatures. The reduction in surviving L. monocytogenes 10403S followed first order kinetics at sublethal temperatures, but at lethal temperatures, a two-section linear model described the inactivation behavior. The bactericidal effect of thermosonication was additive in apple cider. The survival tests of L. monocytogenes 10403S in apple cider indicated the possibility of using a mild treatment condition in combination with ultrasound to achieve a 5-log reduction in number of listerial cells.

  8. Biochemical characteristics and biological properties of Annurca apple cider.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; De Giulio, Alfonso; Sada, Alfonso; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    Our work aimed to investigate the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of the de-alcoholized extract of cider obtained from the Annurca apple (Malus domestica var. Annurca). The antimicrobial effect of the extract against different pathogens, including Chronobacter sakazakii, was also examined. The extract's potential anti-quorum-sensing (AQS) activity was assessed using the test microorganism Chromobacterium violaceum. Biochemical analysis of the extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography revealed catechin and caffeic acid as the most abundant polyphenols present, which represented about 35.5% and 36.6% of the total phenolics identified, respectively. An antioxidant capacity was also found (50% effective concentraiton=10 μL). The extract exhibited clear antimicrobial activity against all strains used in the experiments. Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus were the most sensitive bacteria to the antimicrobial activity. The extract also inhibited the growth of the emergent pathogen strain C. sakazakii. The AQS activity of apple cider is reported here for the first time. In conclusion, our results demonstrate some biological properties of the apple cider and contribute to reinforcing the potential of the apple and its derivatives as functional components of the diet.

  9. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

  10. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (Anacardium occidentale L.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Ana Cristina Silva; Soares, Denise Josino; da Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; de Abreu Menezes, Eveline

    2014-10-15

    Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. As a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fraction were 15% and 11.5% and for zinc this level was 3.7%. Regarding the cashew apple fibre, the bioaccessible fraction for these minerals was lower than 5%. The ascorbic acid, total extractable polyphenols and total antioxidant activity bioaccessible fraction for whole cashew apple juice showed bioaccessibility percentages of 26.2%, 39% and 27%, respectively, while for the cashew apple fibre, low bioaccessibles levels were found. The bioacessible percentage of zinc, ascorbic acid and total extractable polyphenols were higher in cashew apple juice than cashew apple fibre.

  11. The volatile profiles of a rare apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) honey: shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, terpenes, and others.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka

    2013-09-01

    The volatile profiles of rare Malus domestica Borkh. honey were investigated for the first time. Two representative samples from Poland (sample I) and Spain (sample II) were selected by pollen analysis (44-45% of Malus spp. pollen) and investigated by GC/FID/MS after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The apple honey is characterized by high percentage of shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, as well as terpenes, norisoprenoids, and some other compounds such as coumaran and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate. The main compounds of the honey headspace were (sample I; sample II): benzaldehyde (9.4%; 32.1%), benzyl alcohol (0.3%; 14.4%), hotrienol (26.0%, 6.2%), and lilac aldehyde isomers (26.3%; 1.7%), but only Spanish sample contained car-2-en-4-one (10.2%). CH2 Cl2 and pentane/Et2 O 1 : 2 (v/v) were used for USE. The most relevant compounds identified in the extracts were: benzaldehyde (0.9-3.9%), benzoic acid (2.0-11.2%), terpendiol I (0.3-7.4%), coumaran (0.0-2.8%), 2-phenylacetic acid (2.0-26.4%), methyl syringate (3.9-13.1%), vomifoliol (5.0-31.8%), and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate (1.9-10.2%). Apple honey contained also benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, vanillin, and linalool that have been found previously in apple flowers, thus disclosing similarity of both volatile profiles.

  12. New Hampshire Apple Orchards as a Source of Arsenic Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Renshaw, C. E.; Feng, X.; Sturup, S.

    2002-05-01

    Concern about high trace metal contamination in New Hampshire water supplies has focused attention on the fate of both natural and anthropogenic trace metals in the environment. We investigate apple orchards as a possible source of As in surface water and groundwater of New Hampshire. Lead arsenate sprays were widely used as fungicides and insecticides in apple orchards for more than a century and they represent the largest single anthropogenic input of arsenic into the environment. The applied As may 1) have remained in the surface soil, 2) have moved downward in the soil column and become stored in deeper soil horizons and/or regional groundwater system, or 3) have been transported as a result of overland surface runoff and/or erosion to surface reservoirs. We examine these pathways using two types of samples collected from a Southern New Hampshire apple orchard: soil profiles from apple orchards having different pesticide application (sprayed or not sprayed with lead arsenate) and land use (tilled or untilled) history, and stream sediment cores that may have accumulated sediments transported from nearby apple orchards. Preliminary analyses provide the following observations. First, apple orchards which used lead arsenate pesticides contain significantly elevated As and Pb concentrations (up to 80æg/g and 600æg/g, and about 1 and 2 orders of magnitude above the background levels, respectively) in the surface soils. Second, As and Pb are generally limited to the upper 10-15 cm of soil, showing little evidence of downward transport. This suggests that As is largely chemically immobile in the soil environment and that the main mechanism for As removal from its source may be physical erosion. We hypothesize that, if left undisturbed, lead arsenate remains immobile in the soil column. However, any disturbances that increase physical erosion of the soil may mobilize the arsenic and lead and concentrate these metals in nearby stream and lake sediments. We test this

  13. Characterization of cider apples on the basis of their fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Mangas Alonso, Juan J; Margolles Cabrales, Inmaculada; Arias Abrodo, Pilar

    2002-02-27

    In the current study, the fatty acids composition of 30 monovarietal apple juices from six cider apple varieties belonging to two categories was analyzed. The different apple juices were obtained from three consecutive harvests (1997, 1998, and 1999). The fatty acids concentration in apple juice together with chemometric techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed us to differentiate apple juices on the basis of the sweet or sharp category to which the cider apple variety belongs. Fatty acids such as the unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids, and saturated caprylic, capric, stearic, and palmitic acids were related to the sweet cider apple category, while pentadecanoic acid is related to the sharp class.

  14. Physical and sensory properties of ready to eat apple chips produced by osmo-convective drying.

    PubMed

    Velickova, Elena; Winkelhausen, Eleonora; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka

    2014-12-01

    The low cost raw material, apple variety Idared, was turned into value-added product, apple chips. The apple chips were produced in a two-step process consisting of osmotic treatment and conventional drying. Osmotic treatment was carried out in 40 % glucose solution at room temperature, followed by convective drying at 105 °C, till reaching water activity of 0.3. Mechanical properties of the apple chips measured by compression and penetration tests were correlated with the sorption properties. The low browning index, 25.5 and high whitening index, 63.7, proved the good retention of the color of the apple chips. The instrumental characteristics of the apple chips were correlated with the sensory characteristics of the product. The new product was accepted by the 95 % of the panelists. The stored apple chips under modified atmosphere showed no significant changes in the quality parameters over 6 month period.

  15. Nondestructive Detection of the Internalquality of Apple Using X-Ray and Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuzeng; Yang, Liangliang; Yang, Qing; Kang, Likui

    The internal quality of apple is impossible to be detected by eyes in the procedure of sorting, which could reduce the apple’s quality reaching market. This paper illustrates an instrument using X-ray and machine vision. The following steps were introduced to process the X-ray image in order to determine the mould core apple. Firstly, lifting wavelet transform was used to get a low frequency image and three high frequency images. Secondly, we enhanced the low frequency image through image’s histogram equalization. Then, the edge of each apple's image was detected using canny operator. Finally, a threshold was set to clarify mould core and normal apple according to the different length of the apple core’s diameter. The experimental results show that this method could on-line detect the mould core apple with less time consuming, less than 0.03 seconds per apple, and the accuracy could reach 92%.

  16. Portable programming on parallel/networked computers using the Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, Angela; Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    The Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) is a subroutine-based library of communication primitives that is callable from applications written in FORTRAN or C. APPL provides a consistent programmer interface to a variety of distributed and shared-memory multiprocessor MIMD machines. The objective of APPL is to minimize the effort required to move parallel applications from one machine to another, or to a network of homogeneous machines. APPL encompasses many of the message-passing primitives that are currently available on commercial multiprocessor systems. This paper describes APPL (version 2.3.1) and its usage, reports the status of the APPL project, and indicates possible directions for the future. Several applications using APPL are discussed, as well as performance and overhead results.

  17. New biotechnological tools to accelerate scab-resistance trait transfer to apple.

    PubMed

    Cusin, Roberta; Revers, Luís Fernando; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos

    2017-02-13

    Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective.

  18. Placental immune response to apple allergen in allergic mothers.

    PubMed

    Abelius, Martina Sandberg; Enke, Uta; Varosi, Frauke; Hoyer, Heike; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Jenmalm, Maria C; Markert, Udo R

    2014-12-01

    The immunological milieu in the placenta may be crucial for priming the developing foetal immune system. Early imbalances may promote the establishment of immune-mediated diseases in later life, including allergies. The initial exposure to allergens seems to occur in utero, but little is known about allergen-induced placental cytokine and chemokine release. The release of several cytokines and chemokines from placenta tissue after exposure to mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 or apple allergen in placentas from allergic and healthy mothers was to be analysed. Four placentas from women with apple allergy and three controls were applied in a placental perfusion model with two separate cotyledons simultaneously perfused with and without apple allergen (Mal d 1). Two control placentas were perfused with compound 48/80. In outflow, histamine was quantified spectrophotofluorometrically, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ by a cytometric multiplex bead array and IL-13 and CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22 with an in-house multiplex Luminex assay. Compound 48/80 induced a rapid release of histamine, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL17 and CCL22, but not of the other factors. Apple allergen induced a time-dependent release of IL-6 and TNF, but not of histamine, in placentas of women with apple allergy compared with the unstimulated cotyledon. CCL17 levels were slightly increased after allergen stimulation in control placentas. Allergens can induce placental cytokines and chemokines distinctly in allergic and healthy mothers. These mediators may affect the prenatal development of the immune system and modify the risk of diseases related to immune disorders in childhood such as allergies.

  19. Analyses of Expressed Sequence Tags from Apple1

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Richard D.; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Rikkerink, Erik H.A.; Allan, Andrew C.; Beuning, Lesley L.; Bowen, Judith H.; Gera, Emma; Jamieson, Kim R.; Janssen, Bart J.; Laing, William A.; McArtney, Steve; Nain, Bhawana; Ross, Gavin S.; Snowden, Kimberley C.; Souleyre, Edwige J.F.; Walton, Eric F.; Yauk, Yar-Khing

    2006-01-01

    The domestic apple (Malus domestica; also known as Malus pumila Mill.) has become a model fruit crop in which to study commercial traits such as disease and pest resistance, grafting, and flavor and health compound biosynthesis. To speed the discovery of genes involved in these traits, develop markers to map genes, and breed new cultivars, we have produced a substantial expressed sequence tag collection from various tissues of apple, focusing on fruit tissues of the cultivar Royal Gala. Over 150,000 expressed sequence tags have been collected from 43 different cDNA libraries representing 34 different tissues and treatments. Clustering of these sequences results in a set of 42,938 nonredundant sequences comprising 17,460 tentative contigs and 25,478 singletons, together representing what we predict are approximately one-half the expressed genes from apple. Many potential molecular markers are abundant in the apple transcripts. Dinucleotide repeats are found in 4,018 nonredundant sequences, mainly in the 5′-untranslated region of the gene, with a bias toward one repeat type (containing AG, 88%) and against another (repeats containing CG, 0.1%). Trinucleotide repeats are most common in the predicted coding regions and do not show a similar degree of sequence bias in their representation. Bi-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant with one found, on average, every 706 bp of transcribed DNA. Predictions of the numbers of representatives from protein families indicate the presence of many genes involved in disease resistance and the biosynthesis of flavor and health-associated compounds. Comparisons of some of these gene families with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggest instances where there have been duplications in the lineages leading to apple of biosynthetic and regulatory genes that are expressed in fruit. This resource paves the way for a concerted functional genomics effort in this important temperate fruit crop. PMID:16531485

  20. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  1. Differentiation of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in European fruit trees by PCR using specific primers derived from the sequence of a chromosomal fragment of the apple proliferation MLO.

    PubMed

    Jarausch, W; Saillard, C; Dosba, F; Bové, J M

    1994-08-01

    A 1.8-kb chromosomal DNA fragment of the mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) associated with apple proliferation was sequenced. Three putative open reading frames were observed on this fragment. The protein encoded by open reading frame 2 shows significant homologies with bacterial nitroreductases. From the nucleotide sequence four primer pairs for PCR were chosen to specifically amplify DNA from MLOs associated with European diseases of fruit trees. Primer pairs specific for (i) Malus-affecting MLOs, (ii) Malus- and Prunus-affecting MLOs, and (iii) Malus-, Prunus-, and Pyrus-affecting MLOs were obtained. Restriction enzyme analysis of the amplification products revealed restriction fragment length polymorphisms between Malus-, Prunus, and Pyrus-affecting MLOs as well as between different isolates of the apple proliferation MLO. No amplification with either primer pair could be obtained with DNA from 12 different MLOs experimentally maintained in periwinkle.

  2. Aphis pomi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) population development, shoot characteristics, and antibiosis resistance in different apple genotypes.

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Mody, Karsten; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-08-01

    In high-value crops such as apple, Malus X domestica (Borkh.), insecticidal pest control is of high relevance. The use of resistant apple cultivars can increase the sustainability of pest management in apple orchards. Besides variation in plant chemistry that may influence plant resistance by antibiosis or antixenosis, plant growth characteristics also can affect plant susceptibility to pests such as aphids. Variable susceptibility to the apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been described for different apple cultivars. These observations were based on phenotypic surveys and no information on genetically based apple resistance to A. pomi is yet available. The objective of this study was to relate shoot growth characteristics with aphid population development, and to assess the genetic background of apple antibiosis-based resistance to A. pomi by quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Aphid population development was repeatedly studied in the field in sleeve cages attached to 200 apple trees of different genotypes. Aphid population development was positively correlated to shoot length and growth, and it also was affected by climatic conditions. Indications for antibiosis-based resistance to A. pomi remained weak in the studied apple genotypes, and the only detected putative QTL on linkage group 11 of'Fiesta' apples was not stable for the different replications of the experiment. This lack of quantifiable resistance may be partly explained by environmental conditions related to aphid development in sleeve cages.

  3. Dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization of patulin in apple juice and apple-based food with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Mai, Huy; Trucksess, Mary W

    2014-05-07

    A dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine patulin in apple juice and apple-based food. Different dopants, dopant flow rates, and LC separation conditions were evaluated. Using toluene as the dopant, the LC-APPI-MS/MS method achieved a linear calibration from 12.5 to 2000 μg/L (r(2) > 0.99). Matrix-dependent limits of quantitation (LOQs) were from 8 μg/L (solvent) to 12 μg/L (apple juice). [(13)C]-Patulin-fortified apple juice samples were directly analyzed by the LC-APPI-MS/MS method. Other apple-based food was fortified with [(13)C]-patulin, diluted using water (1% formic acid), centrifuged, and filtered, followed by LC-APPI-MS/MS analysis. In clear apple juice, unfiltered apple cider, applesauce, and apple-based baby food, average recoveries were 101 ± 6% (50 μg/kg), 103 ± 5% (250 μg/kg), and 102 ± 5% (1000 μg/kg) (av ± SD, n = 16). Using the suggested method, patulin was detected in 3 of 30 collected market samples with concentrations ranging from

  4. Consumption of apples is associated with a better diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most children do not meet the recommendation for fruit consumption. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the US; however, no studies have examined the association of total apple products, apples, apple sauce, and 100 % apple juice consumption on diet quality and weight/adiposity in ...

  5. Comparative Toxicities and Synergism of Apple Orchard Pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski)

    PubMed Central

    Biddinger, David J.; Robertson, Jacqueline L.; Mullin, Chris; Frazier, James; Ashcraft, Sara A.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Joshi, Neelendra K.; Vaughn, Mace

    2013-01-01

    The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG), λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II), dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC), phosmet (Imidan 70W), and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F). At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F) was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species) was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards. PMID:24039783

  6. Collaboration for Education with the Apple Learning Interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Patrick A.; Zimmerman, T.; Knierman, K. A.

    2006-12-01

    We present a progressive effort to deliver online education and outreach resources in collaboration with the Apple Learning Interchange, a free community for educators. We have created a resource site with astronomy activities, video training for the activities, and the possibility of interactive training through video chat services. Also in development is an online textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in stellar evolution, featuring an updatable and annotated text with multimedia content, online lectures, podcasts, and a framework for interactive simulation activities. Both sites will be highly interactive, combining online discussions, the opportunity for live video interaction, and a growing library of student work samples. This effort promises to provide a compelling model for collaboration between science educators and corporations. As scientists, we provide content knowledge and a compelling reason to communicate, while Apple provides technical expertise, a deep knowledge of online education, and a way for us to reach a wide audience of higher education, community outreach, and K-12 educators.

  7. Flavonoid and hydroxycinnamate profiles of english apple ciders.

    PubMed

    Marks, Serena C; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2007-10-17

    Seventeen phenolic compounds in 23 English apple ciders were identified and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS (2). The total phenolic content of the ciders varied greatly ranging from 44 to 1559 mg/L. Four groups of compounds were identified, flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and dihydrochalcones. Hydroxycinnamates were the predominant group of phenolics in the majority of the ciders. Procyanidins were analyzed by HPLC after thiolysis, and total procyanidin content ranged from 8 to 722 mg/L and an average degree of polymerization of 2.5-3.5. This investigation of a wide range of ciders has shown a substantial variation in the profile and quantity of the phenolics. The analysis of single variety ciders highlighted the importance of using an apple cultivar with a high phenolic content to produce a phenolic-rich cider. Adaptations to the cider-making process could be used to increase the phenolic content with potential health benefits.

  8. Stimulation of Ethylene Production in Apple Tissue Slices by Methionine

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Morris; Kunishi, Alice; Mapson, L. W.; Wardale, D. A.

    1966-01-01

    Methionine can induce more than a 100% increase in ethylene production by apple tissue slices. The increased amount of ethylene derives from carbons 3 and 4 of methionine. Only post-climacteric fruit tissues are stimulated by methionine, and stimulation is optimum after 8 months' storage. Copper chelators such as sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate and cuprizone very markedly inhibit ethylene production by tissue slices. Carbon monoxide does not effect ethylene production by the slices. These data suggest that the mechanism for the conversion of methionine to ethylene, in apple tissues, is similar to the previously described model system for producing ethylene from methionine and reduced copper. Therefore, it is suggested that one of the ethylene-forming systems in tissues derives from methionine and proceeds to ethylene via a copper enzyme system which may be a peroxidase. PMID:16656267

  9. Colonic response to dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W; Jenkins, D J; Southgate, D A; Houston, H; James, W P

    1978-01-07

    Approximately 20 g/day of concentrated dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran, and guar gum was added to the controlled basal diet of nineteen healthy volunteers. Faecal weight increased by 12% on bran, 69% on cabbage, 59% on carrot, 40% on apple, and 20% on guar gum. These changes in faecal weight were correlated with an increased intake of pentose-containing polysaccharides from the fibre. On the basal diet there were pronounced individual differences in faecal weight, and from these the response of subjects to the fibre preparations could be predicted. Addition of fibre shortened mean transit-time through the gut and significantly diluted an inert marker in the faeces. Diet-induced changes in colonic function may explain international differences in the prevalence of colonic disease, whilst personal variation in the response to dietary fibre may determine individual susceptibility to large-bowel disease within a community.

  10. Active-passive path-length encoded (APPLE) Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Wartak, Andreas; Haindl, Richard; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernhard; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel active-passive path-length encoded (APPLE) swept source Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) approach, enabling three-dimensional velocity vector reconstruction of moving particles without prior knowledge of the orientation of motion. The developed APPLE DOCT setup allows for non-invasive blood flow measurements in vivo and was primarily designed for quantitative human ocular blood flow investigations. The system’s performance was demonstrated by in vitro flow phantom as well as in vivo retinal vessel bifurcation measurements. Furthermore, total retinal blood flow – a biomarker aiding in diagnosis and monitoring of major ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy or central/branch retinal vein occlusion – was determined in the eyes of healthy human volunteers. PMID:28018739

  11. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A.; Bennetts, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. A new antioxidant beverage produced with green tea and apple.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Perez, Jose M; Vidal-Guevara, Maria L; Zafrilla, Pilar; Morillas-Ruiz, Juana M

    2014-08-01

    Green tea and apple are natural products with health benefits. These healthy properties are linked closely to the antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. These antioxidant compounds have a potential for preventing and treating cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The aim of the present work was to design a new beverage with high antioxidant power combining extracts of green tea and apple, studying the antioxidant composition and activity, organoleptic properties (colour) and stability status during storage at different temperatures. The majority compounds identified in the beverage were flavan-3-ols, being the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate which had the highest concentration. After storage, floridzine was the compound with lower decrease of concentration. The new designed beverage had a good colour, and high antioxidant activity and stability at room temperature, so that the beverage needs no refrigeration, showing potential for the development of new healthy functional beverages.

  13. Slow softening of Kanzi apples (Malus×domestica L.) is associated with preservation of pectin integrity in middle lamella.

    PubMed

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Verlinden, Bert E; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2016-11-15

    Kanzi is a recently developed apple cultivar that has an extremely low ethylene production, and maintains its crispiness during ripening. To identify key determinants of the slow softening behaviour of Kanzi apples, a comparative analysis of pectin biochemistry and tissue fracture pattern during different ripening stages of Kanzi apples was performed against Golden Delicious, a rapid softening cultivar. While substantial pectin depolymerisation and solubilisation was observed during softening in Golden Delicious apples, no depolymerisation or increased solubilisation was observed in Kanzi apples. Moreover, tissue failure during ripening was mainly by cell breakage in Kanzi apples and, in contrast, by cell separation in Golden Delicious apples. Kanzi apples had lower activity of beta-galactosidase, with no decline in the extent of branching of the pectin chain. A sudden decrease in firmness observed during senescence in Kanzi apples was not due to middle lamella dissolution, as tissue failure still occurred by cell breakage.

  14. A Tour of the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardenski, Brooke; Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) is located in a remote area of the Mojave Desert, 40 miles north of Barstow, California. The antenna, identified as DSS-12, is a 34-meter diameter dish, 11 times the diameter of a ten foot microwave dish used for satellite television. DSS-12 has been used by NASA to communicate with robotic space probes for more than thirty years.

  15. Histological effects of calcium chloride in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature apples, Malus domestica Borkh., cv. 'Golden Delicious' were immersed for 2 min in 0, 0.14, 0.27, or 0.41 mol L-1 (0, 2%, 4%, or 6%, respectively) aqueous solutions (w/v) of CaCl2 at 0 or 68.95 Kpa, and stored at 0°C. Histological samples of peel/cortex were taken at harvest and at four month...

  16. Apple Tree Dental: An Innovative Oral Health Solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Deborah; Helgeson, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health called attention to the "silent epidemic" of dental disease. Older adults and other vulnerable people continue to suffer disproportionately from dental disease and inadequate access to care. As a society and as dental professionals, we face multiple challenges to care for our aging patients, parents and grandparents. Apple Tree Dental's community collaborative practice model illustrates a sustainable, patient-centered approach to overcoming barriers to care across the lifespan.

  17. Protection of epigallocatechin gallate against degradation during in vitro digestion using apple pomace as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liangyu; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2014-12-17

    Apple pomace, a byproduct of the apple juice processing industry, may be used as a matrix for carrying phytochemicals. High-pressure processing (600 MPa for 5 min) or heat treatment (121 °C for 5 min) of wet apple pomace can increase the shelf life of the pomace but may influence the carrier properties of the wet pomace for phytochemicals. We examined the effects of these processing treatments on the adsorption capacity of apple pomace for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and the stability of EGCG in simulated gastrointestinal fluids in vitro. Both processing treatments reduced the adsorption capacity but protected EGCG against degradation in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The extent of EGCG degradation in simulated gastrointestinal fluids in vitro in the presence of apple pomace was not influenced by gastric and intestinal enzymes, suggesting that pH had the overriding influence on EGCG degradation. This study showed the potential of apple pomace as a carrier for EGCG in functional food applications.

  18. Ursolic acid from apple pomace and traditional plants: A valuable triterpenoid with functional properties.

    PubMed

    Cargnin, Simone Tasca; Gnoatto, Simone Baggio

    2017-04-01

    Apple juice production generates a large amount of residue comprising mainly peels, seeds, and pulp, known as apple pomace. In the global context, Brazil ranks 11th in apple production and thousands of tons of apple pomace are produced every year. This by-product is little explored, since it is a rich and heterogeneous mixture, containing interesting phytochemical groups. Among them, ursolic acid (UA) has attracted attention because of its therapeutic potential. UA is a pentacyclic triterpene found too in several traditional plants, and has shown several functional properties such as antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory and antitumor. Therefore, this review attempts to shed some light on the economical viability of apple and apple pomace as sources of bioactive compounds, highlighting the UA extraction, and its main functional properties published in the last 5years (2010-2015).

  19. Texture Studies and Compression Behaviour of Apple Flesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bryony; Fonseca, Celia

    Compressive behavior of fruit flesh has been studied using mechanical tests and microstructural analysis. Apple flesh from two cultivars (Braeburn and Cox's Orange Pippin) was investigated to represent the extremes in a spectrum of fruit flesh types, hard and juicy (Braeburn) and soft and mealy (Cox's). Force-deformation curves produced during compression of unconstrained discs of apple flesh followed trends predicted from the literature for each of the "juicy" and "mealy" types. The curves display the rupture point and, in some cases, a point of inflection that may be related to the point of incipient juice release. During compression these discs of flesh generally failed along the centre line, perpendicular to the direction of loading, through a barrelling mechanism. Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to examine the behavior of the parenchyma cells during fracture and compression using a purpose designed sample holder and compression tester. Fracture behavior reinforced the difference in mechanical properties between crisp and mealy fruit flesh. During compression testing prior to cryo-SEM imaging the apple flesh was constrained perpendicular to the direction of loading. Microstructural analysis suggests that, in this arrangement, the material fails along a compression front ahead of the compressing plate. Failure progresses by whole lines of parenchyma cells collapsing, or rupturing, with juice filling intercellular spaces, before the compression force is transferred to the next row of cells.

  20. Development of complete hydrolysis of pectins from apple pomace.

    PubMed

    Wikiera, Agnieszka; Mika, Magdalena; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena

    2015-04-01

    Enzymatically extracted pectins have a more complex structure than those obtained by conventional methods. As a result, they are less susceptible to hydrolysis, which makes the precise determination of their composition difficult. The aim of the study was to develop a method of complete hydrolysis of enzymatically extracted apple pectins. Substrates were pectins isolated from apple pomace by the use of xylanase and multicatalytic preparation Celluclast and apple pomace. Hydrolysis was performed by a chemical method with 2M TFA at 100 °C and 120 °C and a combined acidic/enzymatic method. After hydrolysis, the contents of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars were measured by HPLC. Complete hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid occurred after 2.5h incubation with 2M TFA at 120 °C. The efficient hydrolysis of neutral sugars in pectins was performed with 2M TFA at 100 °C for 2.5h. Monomers most susceptible to concentrated acid were rhamnose, mannose and arabinose.

  1. Postharvest treatments for the reduction of mancozeb in fresh apples.

    PubMed

    Hwang, E S; Cash, J N; Zabik, M J

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and hydrogen peroxyacetic acid (HPA) treatments on the degradation of mancozeb and ethylenethiourea (ETU) in apples. This study was based on model experiments at neutral pH and temperature. Fresh apples were treated with two different levels of mancozeb (1 and 10 microg/mL). Several of the treatments were effective in reducing or removing mancozeb and ETU residues on spiked apples. Mancozeb residues decreased 56-99% with chlorine and 36-87% with chlorine dioxide treatments. ETU was completely degraded by 500 ppm of calcium hypochlorite and 10 ppm of chlorine dioxide at a 1 ppm spike level. However, at a 10 ppm spike level, the effectiveness of ETU degradation was lower than observed at 1 ppm level. Mancozeb residues decreased 56-97% with ozone treatment. At 1 and 3 ppm of ozone, no ETU residue was detected at 1 ppm of spiked mancozeb after both 3 and 30 min. HPA was also effective in degrading the mancozeb residues, with 44-99% reduction depending on treatment time and HPA concentrations. ETU was completely degraded at 500 ppm of HPA after 30 min of reaction time. These treatments indicated good potential for the removal of pesticide residues on fruit and in processed products.

  2. [Application of fingerprint chromatogram in quality assessment of apple cider].

    PubMed

    Xu, Kangzhen; Song, Jirong; Ren, Yinghui; Ma, Haixia; Huang, Jie; Du, Xiaodan

    2007-01-01

    Fingerprints of 14 apple cider samples from different manufacturers were studied using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an electrochemical detector (ECD). The analysis was carried out on a Zorbax SB-C18 column at 30 degrees C with 2% (v/v) methanol aqueous solution-4% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The electrochemical detector was set at 0.7 V. By calculating the relative retention times of certain peaks with chlorogenic acid as the reference standard, 8 common peaks in the samples were analyzed. Relative retention times for the common peaks of various samples were calculated, and the similarities of all the samples were figured out through each peak area with the vectorial angle cosine method and correlative coefficient method. The results indicated that apple cider products of the same manufacturer have good similarity, with the similarities greater than 92.7%. According to this experiment, effectual microcosmic information for apple cider analysis was gained through HPLC and ECD. Moreover, this test method will help the analysis and the control of product quality, the development of new products and the establishment of trade standard.

  3. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-12-07

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer.

  4. Anti-inflammatory procyanidins and triterpenes in 109 apple varieties.

    PubMed

    Andre, Christelle M; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Walker, Edward G; Rassam, Maysoon; Sullivan, Michael; Evers, Danièle; Perry, Nigel B; Laing, William A

    2012-10-24

    We evaluated the potential of apple to reduce inflammation. Phenolic compounds and triterpenes were analyzed in 109 apple cultivars. Total phenolics ranged from 29 to 7882 μg g(-1) of fresh weight (FW) in the flesh and from 733 to 4868 μg g(-1) FW in the skin, with flavanols including epicatechin and procyanidins as major components. Ursolic (44.7 to 3522 μg g(-1) FW) and oleanolic (47.2 to 838 μg g(-1) FW) acids dominated the skin triterpene profile. Five chemically contrasting cultivars were fractionated and their immune-modulating activity measured using two cell-based assays targeting key points in the inflammation process. Cultivars exhibiting high contents of procyanidins were the most potent at inhibiting NF-κB while triterpene-rich fractions reduced the promoter activity of the gene of TNFα. This study provides new insights into how apple genetic diversity could be used to alleviate inflammation.

  5. Nutrient recovery from apple pomace waste by vermicomposting technology.

    PubMed

    Hanc, Ales; Chadimova, Zuzana

    2014-09-01

    The present work was focused on vermicomposting apple pomace waste and its mixtures with straw in volume proportions of 25%, 50%, and 75%. The feasibility was evaluated on the basis of agrochemical properties and earthworm biomass. Vermicomposting was able to reduce the weight and volume of the feedstock by 65% and 85%, respectively. The resulting vermicomposts were characterized by slightly acidic to neutral pH (5.9-6.9), and optimal EC (1.6-4.4mS/cm) and C:N ratios (13-14). The total content of nutrients increased during vermicomposting for all of the treatments with the following average final values: N=2.8%, P=0.85%, K=2.3%, and Mg=0.38%. The addition of straw to apple pomace did not enhance earthworm biomass, but did increase the available content of nutrients during vermicomposting. The data reveals that vermicomposting is a suitable technology for the decomposition of apple pomace waste into a value added product.

  6. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer. PMID:25493015

  7. Evidence for a photoprotective function of low-temperature-induced anthocyanin accumulation in apple and pear peel.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Willem J; Wand, Stephanie J E; Jacobs, Gerard; Rosecrance, Richard C; Roberts, Stephanie C

    2009-08-01

    The light requirement and low-temperature stimulation of anthocyanin synthesis in peel of apple (Malus domestica) and pears (Pyrus communis) and the presence of anthocyanins in immature fruits are not congruent with a visual function in dispersal. We hypothesized that anthocyanins afford photoprotection to peel during low-temperature-induced light stress and that the protection is not a fortuitous side-effect of light absorption by anthocyanin. The extent of photoinhibition at harvest and after light stress treatment in pear cultivars differing in redness decreased with increasing red color on the sun-exposed sides of fruits. Green-shaded sides of the pears showed comparable levels of photoinhibition indicating that pears did not differ in their inherent photosensitivity. Apple and pear peel show considerable short-term fluctuation in redness in response to temperature, with red color increasing rapidly in response to low temperature and just as quickly fading in response to high temperature. Briefly, shading pears and apples during cold conditions for 2 days reduced the accumulation of anthocyanin and increased the photosensitivity of peel. Subsequent shading during warm conditions did not affect the accumulation of anthocyanin or the photosensitivity of peel indicating that the response at low temperature was not due to shade adaptation. The assessment of photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence between 16 and 40 degrees C indicated that 'Forelle' pear peel was particularly sensitive to photostress at low temperature. The photosynthetic system in mature 'Forelle' leaves was comparatively much less sensitive to light stress at low temperature. Results support the view that anthocyanins are adaptable light screens deployed to modulate light absorption in sensitive tissues such as fruit peel in response to environmental triggers such as cold front snaps.

  8. Physical and antibacterial properties of edible films formulated with apple skin polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Friedman, M; McHugh, T H

    2011-03-01

    Fruit and vegetable skins have polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and phenols with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. These flavoring plant essential oil components are generally regarded as safe. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing apple skin polyphenols have the potential to be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica of apple skin polyphenols at 0% to 10% (w/w) concentrations in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films. Commercial apple skin polyphenol powder had a water activity of 0.44 and high total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (995.3 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g and 14.4 mg Trolox/g, respectively). Antimicrobial activities of edible film containing apple skin polyphenols were determined by the overlay method. Apple edible film with apple skin polyphenols was highly effective against L. monocytogenes. The minimum concentration need to inactive L. monocytogenes was 1.5%. However, apple skin polyphenols did not show any antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica even at 10% level. The presence of apple skin polyphenols reduced water vapor permeability of films. Apple skin polyphenols increased elongation of films and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that apple skin polyphenols can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by direct contact.

  9. Cold Environment Assessment Tool (CEAT) User’s Guide for Apple Mobile Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    CEAT) application (from here on also referred to as the “app”) for iOS (Apple mobile operating system) mobile devices (smart phones and tablets...ARL-TR-7324 ● JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Cold Environment Assessment Tool (CEAT) User’s Guide for Apple Mobile ...Tool (CEAT) User’s Guide for Apple Mobile Devices by David Sauter Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  10. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts after storage of experimentally contaminated apples.

    PubMed

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Santín, Mónica; Bauchan, Gary; Fayer, Ronald

    2010-10-01

    Irrigation water and washing water have been inferred to be associated with contamination of fresh fruits and vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms infectious for humans. The objective of the present study was to determine whether apples experimentally contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts represent a food safety concern. Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed no morphological changes in Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts attached to apples after 6 weeks of cold storage, suggesting that oocysts might remain viable and possibly infectious during prolonged storage. Mice were fed apple peels from experimentally contaminated apples to determine whether oocysts had remained infectious on apples stored for 4 weeks. All mice developed cryptosporidiosis. To evaluate the strength of oocyst attachment to apples, washing methods that have been reported to be helpful for recovery of oocysts from various foodstuffs were evaluated, except that the intensity of washing was increased in the present study. None of the tested washing methods succeeded in completely removing oocysts from the apple peel. The most efficient removal (37.5%) was achieved by rigorous manual washing in water with a detergent and by agitation in an orbital shaker with Tris-sodium dodecyl sulfate buffer. Glycine and phosphate-buffered saline buffers had no effect on oocyst removal. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that some oocysts were attached in deep natural crevices in the apple exocarp and others were attached to the smooth surface of the peel. Some oocysts were closely associated with what appeared to be an amorphous substance with which they might have been attached to the apple surface.

  11. Study of the cross-contamination and survival of Salmonella in fresh apples.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rodriguez, F; Begum, M; Johannessen, G S

    2014-08-01

    The present work aimed at studying the cross contamination of apples by Salmonella during the processing of commercial fresh apples and its survival capacity on apple at room temperature. For the first study, the typical process of fresh apples was simulated at laboratory scale in which an apple that was artificially contaminated by Salmonella at different concentration levels (8, 6 and 5 log cfu/apple) was introduced in one batch and processed including a simulated transport/washing step and drying step using sponges to simulate the porous material used in the industry. Results indicated that at 8 log cfu/apple, 50% fresh apples were contaminated after processing, with all analysed environmental samples being positive for the pathogen, consisting of washing water and sponges. However, at lower inoculum levels (5-6 log cfu/apple) no cross contamination was detected in apples, and only environmental samples showed contamination by Salmonella after processing including both water and sponges. Experiments on the survival of Salmonella on apple showed that the pathogen was capable to survive for 12 days, only showing a significant drop at the end of the experiment. Finally, two-class attribute sampling plans were assessed as tool to detect Salmonella in different contamination scenarios in fresh apple. This analysis indicated that with the highest inoculum level, a total of 16 apples would be needed to reach 95% of detecting Salmonella (i.e. lot rejection). In turn, when low levels were assessed (5-6 log cfu/apple), a large number of apples (n=1021) would have to be sampled to obtain the same confidence level (95%). If the environment is sampled (i.e. water and sponges), a lower number of samples would be needed to detect the pathogen. However, the feasibility of environmental sampling has not been assessed from a practical point of view. Overall, the results in this study evidenced that cross contamination by Salmonella might occur during processing of fresh apples

  12. Mapping the sensory perception of apple using descriptive sensory evaluation in a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Amyotte, Beatrice; Bowen, Amy J.; Banks, Travis; Rajcan, Istvan; Somers, Daryl J.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel. The trained sensory panel scored randomized sliced samples of each apple cultivar for seventeen taste, flavour and texture attributes using controlled sensory evaluation practices. In addition, the apple collection was subjected to genotyping by sequencing for marker discovery. A genome wide association analysis suggested significant genomic associations for several sensory traits including juiciness, crispness, mealiness and fresh green apple flavour. The findings include previously unreported genomic regions that could be used in apple breeding and suggest that similar sensory association mapping methods could be applied in other plants. PMID:28231290

  13. Apple App Store as a Business Model Supporting U.S. Navy Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-25

    Apple App Store as a Business Model Supporting U.S. Navy Requirements 25 October 2011 by Lt. Col. (Ret.) Brad R. Naegle, Senior Lecturer...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Apple App Store as a Business Model Supporting U.S. Navy Requirements 5a...in the public sector is the Apple App Store. As of October 2011, Apple lists more than 425,000 applications available. The purpose of this research is

  14. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  15. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Manu E.; Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems. PMID:27413639

  16. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  17. Triterpenoids isolated from apple peels have potent antiproliferative activity and may be partially responsible for apple's anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    He, Xiangjiu; Liu, Rui Hai

    2007-05-30

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of apple peels was used to determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents. Thirteen triterpenoids were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified. Antiproliferative activities of the triterpenoids against human HepG2 liver cancer cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and Caco-2 colon cancer cells were evaluated. Most of the triterpenoids showed high potential anticancer activities against the three human cancer cell lines. Among the compounds isolated, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-{[(2E)-3-phenyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid showed higher antiproliferative activity toward HepG2 cancer cells. Ursolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cancer cells. All triterpenoids tested showed antiproliferative activity against Caco-2 cancer cells, especially 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, maslinic acid, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-{[(2E)-3-phenyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, which displayed much higher antiproliferative activities. These results showed the triterpenoids isolated from apple peels have potent antiproliferative activity and may be partially responsible for the anticancer activities of whole apples.

  18. Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.

  19. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    PubMed Central

    Diamante, Lemuel M.; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield. PMID:28239127

  20. Chiral ligand-exchange separation and determination of malic acid enantiomers in apple juice by open-tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Cemil; Karakoç, Veyis; Denizli, Adil

    2015-11-15

    This study describes the application of an open tubular capillary column for chiral ligand-exchange separation and determination of malic acid enantiomers in apple juice by open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). The open tubular column was prepared by in-situ grafting polymerization of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA-Cl) and followed by L-Histidine (L-His) modification. L-His was used as a chiral ligand-exchange selector and copper (II) as a central ion. The electrochromatographic characterization of the open tubular column was performed with the use of thiourea as an electroosmotic flow (EOF) marker. Factors affecting electrochromatographic enantioseparation of malic acid were also studied. The running buffer conditions for optimum enantioseparation of malic acid were found to be ACN/5.0mM CuSO4, 20.0mM (NH4)2SO4 (60/40%, v/v) adjusted to pH 3.0. The separation and determination of the enantiomers of malic acid in the apple juice solution diluted 10- to 40-folds were successfully achieved.

  1. Apple polyphenol phloretin potentiates the anticancer actions of paclitaxel through induction of apoptosis in human hep G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuo-Ching; Tsai, Chia-Yi; Wang, Ying-Jan; Wei, Po-Li; Lee, Chia-Hwa; Chen, Jui-Hao; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Ho, Yuan-Soon

    2009-05-01

    Phloretin (Ph), which can be obtained from apples, apple juice, and cider, is a known inhibitor of the type II glucose transporter (GLUT2). In this study, real-time PCR analysis of laser-capture microdissected (LCM) human hepatoma cells showed elevated expression (>5-fold) of GLUT2 mRNA in comparison with nonmalignant hepatocytes. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to assess Ph antitumor activity when combined with paclitaxel (PTX) for treatment of human liver cancer cells. Inhibition of GLUT2 by Ph potentiated the anticancer effects of PTX, resensitizing human liver cancer cells to drugs. These results demonstrate that 50-150 microM Ph significantly potentiates DNA laddering induced in Hep G2 cells by 10 nM PTX. Activity assays showed that caspases 3, 8, and 9 are involved in this apoptosis. The antitumor therapeutic efficacy of Ph (10 mg/kg body weight) was determined in cells of the SCID mouse model that were treated in parallel with PTX (1 mg/kg body weight). The Hep G2-xenografted tumor volume was reduced more than fivefold in the Ph + PTX-treated mice compared to the PTX-treated group. These results suggest that Ph may be useful for cancer chemotherapy and chemoprevention.

  2. Ultrasound processing to enhance drying of cashew apple bagasse puree: Influence on antioxidant properties and in vitro bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Fonteles, Thatyane Vidal; Leite, Ana Karoline Ferreira; Silva, Ana Raquel Araújo; Carneiro, Alessandra Pinheiro Góes; Miguel, Emilio de Castro; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2016-07-01

    The present study has evaluated the effects of power ultrasound pre-treatment on air-drying and bioactive compounds of cashew apple bagasse. The sonication induced the disruption of cashew bagasse parenchyma, which resulted in lower resistance to water diffusion, less hysteresis, and increased rehydration rate. The processing did not affect the lignocellulose fibers or the sclerenchyma cells. For sonicated samples, water activity reached values below 0.4, after 2h of drying, which is appropriate to prevent bacterial and fungi growth. The sorption isotherms of cashew apple bagasse presented sigmoid-shape for all samples and followed the type II according to BET classification. Sonicated cashew apple bagasse showed higher antioxidant activity, higher total phenolic compounds (TPC) and higher vitamin C content when compared to the non-sonicated sample. The increase in TPC and vitamin C contributed to the product antioxidant activity. A slight reduction on Vitamin C bioaccessibility was observed, but the TPC bioaccessibility has increased. Sonication reduced the quality loss of conventional drying treatments improving the quality of the dried product.

  3. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    PubMed

    Basannagari, Basavaraj; Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (<2500 m), mid-hills (2500-3000 m), and upper hills (>3000 m). At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills), reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  4. PR genes of apple: identification and expression in response to elicitors and inoculation with Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Bonasera, Jean M; Kim, Jihyun F; Beer, Steven V

    2006-01-01

    Background In the past decade, much work has been done to dissect the molecular basis of the defence signalling pathway in plants known as Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR). Most of the work has been carried out in model species such as Arabidopsis, with little attention paid to woody plants. However within the range of species examined, components of the pathway seem to be highly conserved. In this study, we attempted to identify downstream components of the SAR pathway in apple to serve as markers for its activation. Results We identified three pathogenesis related (PR) genes from apple, PR-2, PR-5 and PR-8, which are induced in response to inoculation with the apple pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, but they are not induced in young apple shoots by treatment with known elicitors of SAR in herbaceous plants. We also identified three PR-1-like genes from apple, PR-1a, PR-1b and PR-1c, based solely on sequence similarity to known PR-1 genes of model (intensively researched) herbaceous plants. The PR-1-like genes were not induced in response to inoculation with E. amylovora or by treatment with elicitors; however, each showed a distinct pattern of expression. Conclusion Four PR genes from apple were partially characterized. PR-1a, PR-2, PR-5 and PR-8 from apple are not markers for SAR in young apple shoots. Two additional PR-1-like genes were identified through in-silico analysis of apple ESTs deposited in GenBank. PR-1a, PR-1b and PR-1c are not involved in defence response or SAR in young apple shoots; this conclusion differs from that reported previously for young apple seedlings. PMID:17029637

  5. 'Scarlett Spur Red Delicious' apple volatile production accompanying physiological disorder development during low pO2 controlled atmosphere storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit volatile production is regulated by a variety of factors including storage conditions. Although controlled atmosphere (CA) technology extends apple fruit storage life, improper storage conditions can adversely affect volatile production and increase the risk of ...

  6. Same ammo, different weapons: enzymatic extracts from two apple genotypes with contrasted susceptibilities to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) differentially convert phloridzin and phloretin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Matthieu; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Guyot, Sylvain; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-01

    The necrogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora responsible for the fire blight disease causes cell death in apple tissues to enrich intercellular spaces with nutrients. Apple leaves contain large amounts of dihydrochalcones (DHCs), including phloridzin and its aglycone phloretin. Previous work showed an important decrease in the constitutive DHCs stock in infected leaves, probably caused by transformation reactions during the infection process. At least two flavonoid transformation pathways have been described so far: deglucosylation and oxidation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether DHCs are differentially converted in two apple genotypes displaying contrasted susceptibilities to the disease. Different analyses were performed: i) enzymatic activity assays in infected leaves, ii) identification/quantification of end-products obtained after in vitro enzymatic reactions with DHCs, iii) evaluation of the bactericidal activity of end-products. The results of the enzymatic assays showed that deglucosylation was dominant over oxidation in the susceptible genotype MM106 while the opposite was observed in the resistant genotype Evereste. These data were confirmed by LC-UV/Vis-MS analysis of in vitro reaction mixtures, especially because higher levels of o-quinoid oxidation products of phloretin were measured by using the enzymatic extracts of Evereste infected leaves. Their presence correlated well with a strong bactericidal activity of the reaction mixtures. Thus, our results suggest that a differential transformation of DHCs occur in apple genotypes with a potential involvement in the establishment of the susceptibility or the resistance to fire blight, through the release of glucose or of highly bactericidal compounds respectively.

  7. Evaluating bruise susceptibility of ’Golden Delicious’ apples using hyperspectral scattering technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research evaluated the potential of hyperspectral scattering technique for predicting the bruise susceptibility of apples. Spectral scattering images between 500 and 1,000 nm were acquired for 300 ‘Golden Delicious’ apples over a time period of three weeks after harvest, using a hyperspectral i...

  8. 76 FR 11454 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... AGENCY Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan... kasugamycin (CAS No. 6980-18-3) to treat up to 10,000 acres of apples to control fire blight. The applicant... Agriculture has requested the Administrator to issue a specific exemption for the use of kasugamycin on...

  9. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  10. A simple multispectral imaging algorithm for detection of defects on red delicious apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: A multispectral algorithm for detection and differentiation of defect and normal Red Delicious apples was developed from analysis of a series of hyperspectral line-scan images. Methods: A fast line-scan hyperspectral imaging system mounted on a conventional apple sorting machine was used t...

  11. Scaling up: Taking the Academic Pathways of People Learning Engineering Survey (APPLES) National. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Krista M.; Chen, Helen L.; Toye, George; Clark, Mia; Sheppard, Sheri D.

    2008-01-01

    The Academic Pathways of People Learning Engineering Survey (APPLES) was deployed for a second time in spring 2008 to undergraduate engineering students at 21 US universities. The goal of the second deployment of APPLES was to corroborate and extend findings from the Academic Pathways Study (APS; 2003-2007) and the first deployment of APPLES…

  12. First report of Gymnosporangium yamadae, Japanese apple rust, on Malus from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants in the genus Malus Mill. are used in temperate regions for fruit crops such as apple and as ornamental landscape plants. Gymnosporangium yamadae Miyabe ex G. Yamada, cause of Japanese apple rust, is known to attack several economically important species of Malus in Asia. In August 2004 and Ju...

  13. Newton's Apple Teachers Guides. Seasons 9-10-11-12: A Collection of Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

    Newton's Apple is a PBS family science program that explores basic science through high-energy, hands-on demonstrations. This volume is a collection of the teacher's guides from four seasons of Newton's Apple which were originally broadcast from 1991 through 1994. Each of the four seasons in the volume contains 26 lessons and a combination of…

  14. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in apple.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi; Dong, Qinglong; Ji, Zhirui; Chi, Fumei; Cong, Peihua; Zhou, Zongshan

    2015-01-25

    The MADS-box gene family is one of the most widely studied families in plants and has diverse developmental roles in flower pattern formation, gametophyte cell division and fruit differentiation. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known regarding MADS-box genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, 146 MADS-box genes were identified in the apple genome and were phylogenetically clustered into six subgroups (MIKC(c), MIKC*, Mα, Mβ, Mγ and Mδ) with the MADS-box genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The predicted apple MADS-box genes were distributed across all 17 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the MADS-box domain, exon length, gene structure and motif compositions of the apple MADS-box genes were analysed. Moreover, the expression of all of the apple MADS-box genes was analysed in the root, stem, leaf, flower tissues and five stages of fruit development. All of the apple MADS-box genes, with the exception of some genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, which indicates that the MADS-box genes are involved in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the apple. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the apple MADS-box gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family.

  15. A College That Relied on NeXT Computers Plans To Switch to Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Allegheny College (Pennsylvania), which uses NeXT computers, was dismayed when the technically superior operating system was orphaned but are now delighted that the company has been bought by Apple Computer and will make the operating system standard on Apple computers. The object-oriented operating system allows relatively unsophisticated users…

  16. Implementation of molecular marker technologies in the apple rootstock breeding program in Geneva - challenges and successes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® Apple Rootstock Breeding program was initiated in the early 1970’s with the overarching goal of developing disease resistant, productive and precocious apple rootstocks. Near the turn of the century the program was joined with USDA ARS resources and in addition to focusing on releasing ...

  17. Carbon Sequestration by Fruit Trees - Chinese Apple Orchards as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits. PMID:22719974

  18. Epiphytic bacteria and yeasts on apple blossoms and their potential as antagonists of Erwinia amylovora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple blossoms were sampled for indigenous epiphytic populations of culturable microorganisms during different stages of bloom at two orchards in or near Wenatchee, WA, and one in Corvallis, OR. Frequencies and population sizes of bacteria on stigmas of apple were lower at Wenatchee than Corvallis, ...

  19. Identifying apple surface defects using principal components analysis and artifical neural networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial neural networks and principal components were used to detect surface defects on apples in near-infrared images. Neural networks were trained and tested on sets of principal components derived from columns of pixels from images of apples acquired at two wavelengths (740 nm and 950 nm). I...

  20. Suppression of Specific Apple Root Pathogens by Brassica napus Seed Meal Amendment Regardless of Glucosinolate Content.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, M; Granatstein, D M; Elfving, D C; Mullinix, K

    2001-07-01

    ABSTRACT The impact of Brassica napus seed meal on the microbial complex that incites apple replant disease was evaluated in greenhouse trials. Regardless of glucosinolate content, seed meal amendment at a rate of 0.1% (vol/vol) significantly enhanced growth of apple and suppressed apple root infection by Rhizoctonia spp. and Pratylenchus penetrans. High glucosinolate B. napus cv. Dwarf Essex seed meal amendments did not consistently suppress soil populations of Pythium spp. or apple root infection by this pathogen. Application of a low glucosinolate containing B. napus seed meal at a rate of 1.0% (vol/vol) resulted in a significant increase in recovery of Pythium spp. from apple roots, and a corresponding reduction in apple seedling root biomass. When applied at lower rates, B. napus seed meal amendments enhanced populations of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., but these bacteria were not recovered from soils amended with seed meal at a rate of 2% (vol/vol). Seed meal amendments resulted in increased soil populations of total bacteria and actinomycetes. B. napus cv. Dwarf Essex seed meal amendments were phytotoxic to apple when applied at a rate of 2% (vol/vol), and phytotoxicity was not diminished when planting was delayed for as long as 12 weeks after application. These findings suggest that B. napus seed meal amendments can be a useful tool in the management of apple replant disease and, in the case of Rhizoctonia spp., that disease control operates through mechanisms other than production of glucosinolate hydrolysis products.

  1. Letter from Hong Kong: A Report on Chinese Food, Fake Apples, and IBM's Asian Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immel, A. Richard

    1984-01-01

    Notes that microcomputer use in Hong Kong's small business community does not reflect the growth of its high-tech electronics industry and discusses IBM's influence in Hong Kong and Asia, the counterfeiting of Apple microcomputers and software, and why Apple currently has no recourse. (MBR)

  2. Copper uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa).

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Rogevich, Emily C; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2008-10-01

    The present study characterized copper (Cu) uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) from water, soil, and diet. During a 28-day uptake period, juvenile apple snails were exposed to aqueous Cu and adult apple snails were exposed to Cu-contaminated soil, water, and food. In the follow-up 14-day depuration period, both juvenile and adult apple snails were held in laboratory freshwater with background Cu concentrations<4 microg/l. For juvenile apple snails, whole body Cu concentrations increased with time and reached a plateau after 14 days. The data followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics rather than a one compartment first order kinetics model. The mean Cu bioconcentration factor (BCF) for juvenile apple snails was 1493 and the depuration half-life was 10.5-13.8 days. For adult snails, dietary uptake of Cu resulted in higher bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) compared to uptake from soil. Most of the accumulated Cu was located in soft tissue (about 60% in the viscera and 40% in the foot). The shell contained <1% of the total accumulated copper. Soft tissue is usually consumed by predators of the apple snail. Therefore, the results of the present study show that Cu transfer through the food chain to the apple snail may lead to potential risk to its predators.

  3. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic characterization of tropical soda apple mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV) was first identified in tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), a noxious weed, in Florida in 2002. This report provides the first full genome sequence of TSAMV. The full genome sequence of this virus will enable research scientists to develop additional spec...

  4. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K

    2014-07-24

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  5. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  6. A metabolic profile for ‘Honeycrisp’ apple soggy breakdown, a chilling induced physiological disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Honeycrisp’ is an economically important apple cultivar increasing rapidly in planted acreage in many apple growing regions. Long-term cold storage can enhance value by enabling a longer window of availability, but the cultivar is highly susceptible to chilling induced disorders. Soggy breakdown ...

  7. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  8. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

  9. Wound responses of wild apples suggest multiple resistance mechanism against blue mold decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold caused primarily by Penicillium expansum and to a lesser extent other Penicillium spp. is the most destructive disease of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apple germplasms, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central...

  10. First report of pyrimethanil resistance in Botrytis cinerea from stored apples in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana [de Bary] Whetzel) causes gray mold on apple fruit which is an economically significant disease. A survey of commercial packinghouses in Washington State revealed that gray mold accounted for 28% of the decayed apples in storage. Fungici...

  11. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates resistant to pyrimethanil from stored apple fruit in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples in the United States are stored in low temperature controlled atmosphere for 9–12 months and are susceptible to decay by blue mold. Penicillium spp. cause significant economic losses worldwide and produce mycotoxins that contaminate processed apple products. Blue mold is managed by a combinat...

  12. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  13. Investigation of "Apple Jelly" Contaminant in Military Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    the acid number and base number analyses, the precipitate formed when exposed to the titration solvent (as described earlier in this report). To...86 9.3.3 Acid Number and Base Number.............................................................................. 88...Total Acid Number for Apple Jelly Samples....................................... 88 27. Viscosity vs. Total Base Number for Apple Jelly Samples

  14. Genotype-specific responses of apple roots to pathogenic infection by Pythium ultimum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance mechanisms employed to defend against soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are poorly understood, particularly with respect to perennial tree fruit crops such as apple. Pythium ultimum is a component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease (ARD). Different levels of tolera...

  15. Economic impact of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) on Florida cattle production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A written survey administered to 3,500 Florida cattle producers in 2006 documented tropical soda apple, as the most common pasture weed across the state of Florida. Over 80% of the survey respondents reported tropical soda apple on their ranches, and over 65% declared the plant to be a major proble...

  16. Using Apple Peel Sections To Study Plant Cells and Water Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvius, John E.; Eckart, Christopher P.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests the cells of an apple peel as a plant species that can further enhance the plant cell laboratory. Describes the structure of apple peel cells and the benefits of including them in studies of plant cells. Suggests questions to stimulate further investigations for open-ended laboratories or independent studies. (PVD)

  17. Influence of storage temperature and apple variety on patulin production by Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Beatriz C M; Aragão, Gláucia M F; Churey, John J; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the potential for patulin production in six different varieties of apples (Red Delicious, Golden Supreme, Gala, Fuji, Empire, and McIntosh) inoculated with Penicillium expansum spores and stored at two different temperatures (11 and 20.5 degrees C). Samples for patulin analysis were randomly taken from apples stored at different times, ranging from 21 to 93 days. While patulin was produced at both storage temperatures, apples incubated at 20.5 degrees C yielded significantly higher patulin concentrations than did those incubated at 11 degrees C. All apple varieties showed mold spoilage at both temperatures, except Red Delicious and Empire. A total of 44% of the samples analyzed showed patulin concentrations above the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory limit (50 ppb). The highest patulin productions occurred in Golden Supreme (54,221 ppb) and McIntosh (52,131 and 48,457 ppb) varieties. Our results showed that careful culling of apples is essential for high juice quality, since high patulin levels in some apples varieties could result in a level greater than 50 ppb of this mycotoxin in the finished juice or cider, even when only one contaminated apple occurs in 1,000 apples.

  18. Effects of Fermentation Temperature on Key Aroma Compounds and Sensory Properties of Apple Wine.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bangzhu; Li, Fuling; Cui, Lu; Guo, Yaodong

    2015-12-01

    Fermentation temperature strongly affects yeast metabolism during apple wine making and thus aromatic and quality profiles. In this study, the temperature effect during apple wine making on both the key aroma compounds and sensory properties of apple wine were investigated. The concentration of nine key aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopentylacetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, isobutylalcohol, isopentylalcohol, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, and benzeneethanol) in apple wine significantly increased with the increase of fermentation temperature from 17 to 20 °C, and then eight out of the nine key aroma compounds with an exception of ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, decreased when the temperature goes up 20 to 26 °C. Sensory analysis showed that the apple wine fermented at 20 °C had the highest acceptance for consumers. Fermentation at the temperature of 20 °C was therefore considered to be the most suitable condition using the selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP05) for apple wine making. Changes in the fermentation temperature can considerably affect the production of key aroma compounds and sensory profiles of apple wine. These results could help apple wine producers make better quality production for consumers at the optimal fermentation temperature.

  19. 75 FR 65213 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... are cold treated and then fumigated under the supervision of an Animal and Plant Health Inspection... part 305. The regulations also provide that the apples must be inspected upon completion of the cold... economic impact on U.S. entities, large or small. Although the Fuji apple is the most common variety...

  20. Sources and availability of inoculum and seasonal survival of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieb...

  1. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  2. First report of apple (Malus sylvestris) as a host of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of Pennsylvania fruit tree orchards in 2013-2015, some apple trees were found to exhibit abnormally small fruits, clumps of small leaves, blind wood, or premature reddening and curling of leaves. DNA was extracted from symptomatic leaves collected from three apple trees, and the DN...

  3. First report of Sphaeropsis rot of apple caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in New York.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March 2012, decayed ‘Empire’ apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were sampled from apples stored in bins for 6 months under controlled atmosphere at a commercial packinghouse in Orleans County in New York State. The fruit were completely rotten, spongy to firm, and light brown. The incidence o...

  4. Managing quarantine-significant post harvest diseases in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported quarantined pathogens that cause speck rot and sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Due to quarantine regulation, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned from 2012 through 2014. Previous st...

  5. Genetic Relationships within Heritage Apple and Pear Cultivars in the Azores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Açores cooperative initiative program (ACIP) scientists from the US Department of Agriculture and Serviço de Desenvolvimento Agario da Terceira are collaborating to identify heritage apples and pears collected from locations throughout Terceira, Açores, Portugal. Nine apple microsatel...

  6. Comparative Gene Expression Of Architectural And Nutritional ESTs In Apple Root, Leaf And Stem Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are number of phenotypic traits conferred by apple rootstock upon the scion and desirable rootstock traits. In an attempt to identify genes which may be responsible for these traits, we have used the public expressed sequences (ESTs and cDNA) to identify genes expressed uniquely in apple roots...

  7. Using Appleworks To Format Data Disks for Use with the Apple IIGS Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to using AppleWorks V2.0 to format data disks for use with the Apple IIGS computer, includes program loading, selecting other activities, selecting a different disk or drive, selecting Disk 1, disk formatting, volume naming, using Disk 1 (Slot 6), formatting, using screen directions, exiting the format option, escaping the…

  8. Printing Appleworks V1.3 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIe Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Schlenker, Deborah S.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing spreadsheet files using AppleWorks on the Apple IIe computer with a Duodisk or two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the file. For each step, a…

  9. Printing Appleworks V1.3 Word Processor Files Using the Apple IIe Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Schlenker, Deborah S.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing word processor files using AppleWorks on the Apple IIe computer with a Duodisk or two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for file loading, selecting the print option, and printing files. For each procedure, a diagram of the screen display is included.…

  10. Diphenylamine Metabolism in 'Braeburn' Apples Stored under Conditions Conducive to Development of Internal Browning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative metabolism and ethylene action were evaluated as factors influencing development of ‘Braeburn’ apple internal browning and cavitation during cold storage. Apples treated with the antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) and/or the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene were held at 1 oC fo...

  11. Immunoglobulin E-reactive proteins in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Robotham, Jason M; Tawde, Pallavi; Kshirsagar, Harshal; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2008-07-23

    Cashew apple juice has the potential to be a natural source of vitamin C and sugar in processed foods. The juice of the cashew apple is obtained by pressing the fleshy peduncle or receptacle, which forms a rounded apple that sits above the true fruit, the cashew nut. Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the United States. To determine if cashew apple juice contains cashew nut allergens, immunoblotting was performed using a cashew apple juice 6X concentrate that was extracted and further concentrated through dialysis, lyophilization, and resuspension. Serum IgE of individuals allergic to cashew nut bound proteins in the cashew apple juice concentrate extract. For some serum samples, IgE reactivity could be inhibited by preincubation of the serum with cashew nut extract, suggesting the presence of cashew nut-related allergens. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for cashew nut allergens, the concentrate was found to contain Ana o 1 (vicilin) and Ana o 2 (legumin). Neither IgE from cashew nut allergic sera nor the monoclonal antibodies bound any peptides in 5 kDa filtered cashew apple juice concentrate. The cashew apple juice concentrate used in these studies contains proteins with IgE-reactive epitopes, including cashew nut legumin and vicilin. No IgE-binding peptides remained after 5 kDa filtration of the concentrate.

  12. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  13. Geneva apple rootstock performance in New York state and progress in commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva NY which are resistant to the bacterial disease fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are rapidly becoming available. Some named rootstock genotypes from this program have previously been tested in s...

  14. Getting a Piece of the Pie: R&D at the Apple Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, Monica

    1990-01-01

    The Apple Library (the library at Apple Computer, Inc.) currently reports to the research and development arm of the company, a relationship that has been mutually advantageous. The library has been involved in research through a library users group, a grant program, and a laboratory within the library. (MES)

  15. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow: Philosophy and Structure [and] What's Happening Where.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, CA.

    Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) is a long-term research project sponsored by Apple Computer, Inc., to explore how learning and teaching change when teachers and students have access to interactive computer technologies. ACOT adheres to a philosophy that instruction should be learner controlled; i.e., students take responsibility for their own…

  16. Transcriptional regulation of auxin metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis activation during apple (Malus × domestica) fruit maturation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at13 harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale 14 transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crossta...

  17. Structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of fresh bruises in apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A structured-illumination reflectance imaging technique was developed for the detection of fresh bruises in apples. Experiments were first conducted on a strongly scattering nylon sample embedded with foreign objects of different sizes at different depths, and then on apples of two different cultiva...

  18. Differences in ethylene and fruit quality attributes during storage in new apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological characteristics of five new apple cultivars from the Korean apple breeding program were evaluated as a function of harvest date and storage after harvest. Internal ethylene concentration (IEC), fruit weight, the ratio of fruit length to fruit diameter, flesh firmness, soluble solids c...

  19. A Diagnostic Toolbox for Integrated Management of Apple Postharvest Necrotic Disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses. Unfortunately, current chemical and cultural control systems are lacking or provide little assurance that apples will not develop disorders in storage or elsewhere in th...

  20. Efficacy of supercritical carbon dioxide for nonthermal inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) system with a gas-liquid porous metal contactor for eliminating Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider. Pasteurized, preservative-free apple cider was inoculated with E. coli K12 and processed using the SCCO2 system at CO2 conc...

  1. APPL1-Mediating Leptin Signaling Contributes to Proliferation and Migration of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Youming; Cao, Yingkang; Wang, Bin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yemin; Zhang, Deling; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingxin; Wang, Changhua

    2016-01-01

    Leptin has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, particularly in obese patients. As a multifunctional adaptor protein, APPL1 (containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain, and a leucine zipper motif 1) plays a critical role in regulating adiponectin and insulin signaling pathways. Currently, high APPL1 level has been suggested to be related to metastases and progression of some types of cancer. However, the intercourse between leptin signaling pathway and APPL1 remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the protein levels and phosphorylation statues of APPL1were highly expressed in tissues from human hepatocellular carcinoma and triple-positive breast cancer. Leptin stimulated APPL1 phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner in both human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell and breast cancer MCF-7 cell. Overexpression or suppression of APPL1 promoted or attenuated, respectively, leptin-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, ERK1/2, and Akt in the cancer cells, accompanied with enhanced or mitigated cell proliferation and migration. In addition, we identified that APPL1 directly bound to both leptin receptor and STAT3. This interaction was significantly enhanced by leptin stimulation. Our results suggested that APPL1 positively mediated leptin signaling and promoted leptin-induced proliferation and migration of cancer cells. This finding reveals a novel mechanism by which leptin promotes the motility and growth of cancer cells. PMID:27820851

  2. Management and Performance of APPLE Battery in High Temperature Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suresh, M. S.; Subrahmanyam, A.; Agrawal, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    India's first experimental communication satellite, APPLE, carried a 12 AH Ni-Cd battery for supplying power during eclipse. Failure to deploy one of the two solar panels resulted in the battery operating in a high temperature environment, around 40 C. This also resulted in the battery being used in diurnal cycles rather than just half yearly eclipse seasons. The management and performance of the battery during its life of two years are described. An attempt to identify the probable degradation mechanisms is also made.

  3. Detection of Golden apples' climacteric peak by laser biospeckle measurements.

    PubMed

    Nassif, Rana; Nader, Christelle Abou; Afif, Charbel; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Brun, Guy; Le Jeune, Bernard; Abboud, Marie

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, we report a study in which a laser biospeckle technique is used to detect the climacteric peak indicating the optimal ripeness of fruits. We monitor two batches of harvested Golden apples going through the ripening phase in low- and room-temperature environments, determine speckle parameters, and measure the emitted ethylene concentration using gas chromatography as reference method. Speckle results are then correlated to the emitted ethylene concentration by a principal component analysis. From a practical point of view, this approach allows us to validate biospeckle as a noninvasive and alternative method to respiration rate and ethylene production for climacteric peak detection as a ripening index.

  4. 76 FR 61740 - Geneon Entertainment (USA) Including On-Site Leased Workers From Interplace, Inc., Apple One and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Interplace, Inc., Apple One and Robert Half Legal Santa Monica, CA; Amended Certification Regarding...., and Apple One, Santa Monica, California. The workers are engaged in activities related to the...., Apple One and Robert Half Legal, Santa Monica, California, who became totally or partially...

  5. 75 FR 81564 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of... shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order covering certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate... Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the...

  6. 75 FR 81969 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the Peoples' Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...] Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the Peoples' Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping... (``Department'') is rescinding the administrative review of non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the [[Page... an administrative review on the antidumping order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the...

  7. 75 FR 61127 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's... Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results of the...

  8. Identification of wild apple germplasm (Malus spp.) with resistance to the postharvest decay pathogens Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum cause blue mold and bitter rot of apples during storage which results in significant economic losses. Resistance to these pathogens in commercial apple cultivars has not been documented in the literature. An apple germplasm collection, from the center...

  9. 78 FR 56719 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  10. 78 FR 42086 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  11. Transcriptome changes in apple peel tissues during CO2 injury symptom development under controlled atmosphere storage regimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is one of the most widely cultivated tree crops, and fruit storability is vital to the profitability of the apple fruit industry. Fruit of many apple cultivars can be stored for an extended period due to the introduction of advanced storage technologies such as cont...

  12. Preliminary evaluation of apple germplasm from Kazakhstan for resistance to blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold of apples, incited by Penicillium expansum, causes extensive loss on stored apples worldwide. Despite the severity of this problem, apple breeders do not evaluate their crosses for resistance to this disease, because there has been little resistance to blue mold in the gene pool of the ge...

  13. Phenolic Compounds in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): Compounds Characterization and Stability during Postharvest and after Processing

    PubMed Central

    Francini, Alessandra; Sebastiani, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the information on the occurrence of phenolic compounds in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) fruit and juice, with special reference to their health related properties. As phytochemical molecules belonging to polyphenols are numerous, we will focus on the main apples phenolic compounds with special reference to changes induced by apple cultivar, breeding approaches, fruit postharvest and transformation into juice. PMID:26784345

  14. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene and jasmonate mediated defense response in apple (Malus domestica) root during Pythium ultimum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) causes a serious economic loss for the apple industry. Although it has been known that a complex of necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are the primary causal agent of ARD, the genetic response in apple to infection by these pathogens has not previously been examined. In t...

  15. Isolation and characterization of apple Pythium ultimum response genes and their ethylene and jasmonate mediated transcriptional regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) causes a serious economic loss for the apple industry. Although it has been known that a complex of necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are the primary causal agents of ARD, the molecular response in apple to infection by these pathogens has not previously been examined. I...

  16. Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Extend the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents provide a novel way to improve the safety and shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin, incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated appl...

  17. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  18. Using AppleWorks V1.3 To Format Data Disks for Use with the Apple IIe Computer. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to using AppleWorks V1.3 to format data disks for use with the Apple IIe computer covers (1) program loading; (2) selecting the add files menu; (3) selecting a different disk; (4) selecting disk 2; (5) returning to the main menu; (6) selecting other activities; (7) disk formatting; (8) volume naming; (9) entering the disk…

  19. Pectin modifications and the role of pectin-degrading enzymes during postharvest softening of Jonagold apples.

    PubMed

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Verlinden, Bert E; Christiaens, Stefanie; Shpigelman, Avi; Vicent, Victor; Kermani, Zahra Jamsazzadeh; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding softening in Jonagold apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) fruits, by investigating pectin modifications and the evolution of pectin-modifying enzymes during postharvest storage and ripening. Jonagold apples were harvested at commercial maturity and stored at different temperatures and controlled atmosphere conditions for 6 months, followed by exposure to ambient shelf life conditions (20 °C under air) for 2 weeks. The composition of the pectic material was analysed. Furthermore, the firmness and the ethylene production of the apples were assessed. Generally, the main changes in pectin composition associated with the loss of firmness during ripening in Jonagold apples were a loss of side chains neutral sugars, increased water solubility and decreased molar mass. Also, the activities of four important enzymes possibly involved in apple softening, β-galactosidase, α-arabinofuranosidase, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, were measured. Pectin-related enzyme activities highly correlated with ethylene production, but not always with pectin modifications.

  20. Reduction of azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, esfenvalerate, and methomyl residues in processed apples.

    PubMed

    Zabik, M J; El-Hadidi, M F; Cash, J N; Zabik, M E; Jones, A L

    2000-09-01

    McIntosh, Red Delicious, and Golden Delicious from two years of experimental spray programs using azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, esfenvalerate, and methomyl were processed into frozen apple slices, applesauce, single-strength juice, and juice concentrate. Residue levels were expressed as micrograms per 150 g of apple or the equivalent amount of apple product to calculate the percentage change in these pesticides brought about by processing. Producing single-strength apple juice reduced azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, esfenvalerate, and methomyl residues by 97.6, 100, 97.8, and 78.1%, respectively. Production of applesauce reduced all four compounds by >/=95%. Azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, esfenvalerate, and methomyl residues were reduced in apple slices by 94.1, 85.7, 98.6, and 94.7%, respectively. Processing is shown to be very effective in reducing the levels of these pesticides.

  1. Major phytochemicals in apple cultivars: contribution to peroxyl radical trapping efficiency.

    PubMed

    Vanzani, Paola; Rossetto, Monica; Rigo, Adelio; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio; D'Amato, Elvira; Scarpa, Marina

    2005-05-04

    Forty-one samples of apples (peel plus pulp), obtained from eight cultivars, were examined for concentration of some important phytochemicals and for antioxidant activity expressed as peroxyl radical trapping efficiency. Five major polyphenolic groups plus ascorbate were identified and quantified by HPLC in the apple varieties. Oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins were found to be about two-thirds of total polyphenols. The antioxidant efficiency of the apple extracts and of representative pure compounds for each group of phytochemicals was measured in a micellar system mimicking lipid peroxidation in human plasma. Although the amount of polyphenols measured by HPLC is similar to that measured by standard methods, the antioxidant efficiency calculated on the basis of the contribution of the pure compounds was lower than the antioxidant efficiency of the apple extracts. The higher efficiency of apples appears to be strictly related to the overwhelming presence of oligomeric proanthocyanidins.

  2. Grape and apple wines volatile fermentation products and possible relation to spoilage.

    PubMed

    Polychroniadou, E; Kanellaki, M; Iconomopoulou, M; Koutinas, A A; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2003-05-01

    The main volatile by-products of the alcoholic fermentation of grape wine, cider and apple pulp wine were investigated to determine if any correlated with spoilage resistance in the latter two. Spoilage was visually detected after seven days in low-alcohol grape wine in comparison to 11 and 16 days in cider and apple pulp wine, respectively. Acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were the main fermentation by-products detected in all three wines. There were highest concentrations of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol and propanol in grape wine and, therefore, these by-products could not be implicated in spoilage resistance in apple wines. Increased concentrations of isobutanol and amyl alcohols, however, in cider and apple pulp wine in comparison to grape wine might have been the reason for spoilage resistance in the apple wines.

  3. Effect of gas environment and sorbate addition on flavor characteristics of irradiated apple cider during storage.

    PubMed

    Crook, Loretta R; Boylston, Terri D; Glatz, Bonita A

    2004-11-17

    Apple cider, with (0.1%) and without potassium sorbate, was packaged in polystyrene containers and exposed to three different gas environments: oxygen flush, nitrogen flush, and atmospheric air. To evaluate the effects of irradiation (2 kGy) and storage on flavor and microbial quality, these irradiated apple cider samples were compared to a control, unirradiated sample exposed to atmospheric air. Volatile compounds, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and microbiological counts were determined weekly throughout 7 weeks of refrigerated (4 degrees C) storage. Cider irradiated and stored in atmospheric air or nitrogen-flush environments had lower rates of loss for characteristic flavor volatiles compared to unirradiated apple cider and cider irradiated and stored in an oxygen-flush environment. The addition of potassium sorbate to the apple cider resulted in lower counts of yeasts and aerobic microorganisms, reduced fermentation of sugars to organic acids, and improved retention of volatile compounds characteristic of apple cider.

  4. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  5. Promotion of flowering and reduction of a generation time in apple seedlings by ectopical expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene using the Apple latent spherical virus vector.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Sasaki, Shintaro; Yamagata, Kousuke; Komori, Sadao; Nagase, Momoyo; Wada, Masato; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Tree crops have a long juvenile period which is a serious constraint for genetic improvement and experimental research. For example, apple remains in a juvenile phase for more than five years after seed germination. Here, we report about induction of rapid flowering in apple seedlings using the Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector expressing a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. Apple seedlings could be flowered at 1.5-2 months after inoculation to cotyledons of seeds just after germination with ALSV expressing the FT gene. A half of precocious flowers was normal in appearance with sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils. Pollen from a precocious flower successfully pollinated flowers of 'Fuji' apple from which fruits developed normally and next-generation seeds were produced. Our system using the ALSV vector promoted flowering time of apple seedlings within two months after germination and shortened the generation time from seed germination to next-generation seed maturation to within 7 months when pollen from precocious flowers was used for pollination.

  6. Metabolic variation and antioxidant potential of Malus prunifolia (wild apple) compared with high flavon-3-ol containing fruits (apple, grapes) and beverage (black tea).

    PubMed

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Ju Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-11-15

    Secondary metabolic variation of wild apple (Malus prunifolia) was compared with fruits that contained high flavan-3-ol like grapes (GR), apple (App) and the beverage, black tea (BT). The polyphenol contents in wild apple was higher than in GR and App but less than BT. The identified phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin) indicate that wild apple was higher than that of App. Among all the samples, BT had highest antioxidant potential in terms of 2,2'-Azinobis (3-thylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (95.36%), metal chelating (45.36%) and phosphomolybdenum activity (95.8 mg/g) because of the high flavan-3-ol content. The gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate were highly correlated with antioxidant potential and these metabolites levels are higher in wild apple than that of App. Wild apples being a non-commercial natural source, a detailed study of this plant will be helpful for the food additive and preservative industry.

  7. Temporal patterns in appearance of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apples.

    PubMed

    Batzer, J C; Sisson, A J; Harrington, T C; Mayfield, D A; Gleason, M L

    2012-11-01

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) is a complex of about 80 fungal species that blemish the surface of apple fruit in humid regions worldwide. The dark colonies become visible in mid- to late summer, reducing the value of fresh fruit. Although many SBFS species can co-occur in the same orchard and even on the same apple, little is known about temporal patterns of these species, including the timing of colony appearance. To test the hypothesis that colonies of SBFS species appear on apples at characteristic times during the growing season, 50 apples were monitored weekly at three Iowa orchards in 2006 and six orchards in 2007 and 2008. However, a mean of 24.3 apples per orchard was assessed at harvest because of apple drop throughout the season. Colonies were marked with colored pens as they appeared. After harvest and after storage of apples at 2 °C for 3 months, SBFS colonies on each fruit were counted and classified by morphology, and a representative subset of colonies was excised from the fruit and preserved on dried peels for species identification using rDNA. Seventeen species were identified. Stomiopeltis spp. RS1 and RS2 appeared on apples 10 to 14 days before other SBFS taxa. Dissoconium aciculare was generally the last species to appear on apple fruit, and it continued to appear during postharvest storage. The most prevalent taxa in Iowa orchards were also the most abundant. Diversity of SBFS fungi in an orchard was positively correlated with cumulative hours of surface wetness hours due to rainfall or dew, which is believed to favor growth of SBFS fungi. Species-specific information about temporal patterns of appearance on apple fruit may lead to improved SBFS management strategies.

  8. The growth forecasting model for apple tree based on ground-based remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ronghua; Zheng, Lihua; Deng, Xiaolei; Zhang, Yao; Sun, Hong; Li, Minzan

    2012-11-01

    In order to monitor the growth statues of apple tree non-destructively and effectively, the field experiments were conducted at five different stages of apple tree annual growth season. The spectral reflectance of apple leaves was collected and the nutrient parameters of leaf (chlorophyll content (LCC) and moisture content (LMC)) were measured in the lab. The relationship between the apple tree leaf spectral reflectance and the apple growth parameters was analyzed. In order to select optimal spectral bands, the transformation forms of spectra were calculated including first derivative, second derivative, reciprocal, logarithm, the logarithm of reciprocal and the first derivative of logarithm. The sensitive detecting wavelengths were selected based on the correlation between the apple tree leaf spectra (original spectra and its transformation forms) and the apple tree growing parameters (LCC and LMC). The result showed that the original spectrum was most correlated with LCC from 511nm to 590nm and 688nm to 718nm; the correlation coefficients of September were the highest and the maximum value was 0.6. Three apple tree growth models were built using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) respectively. The result showed that the forecasting model based on PCA was the optimal model to predict the apple leaves chlorophyll, and its calibration R2 was 0.851 and validation R2 was 0.8289. The apple leaves moisture content forecasting model based on ANN was optimal, and its calibration R2 was 0.8561 and validation R2 was 0.8375.

  9. Structure, physicochemical properties and in vitro fermentation of enzymatically degraded cell wall materials from apples.

    PubMed

    Förster, S; Dongowski, G; Kunzek, H

    2002-06-01

    Cell wall materials (CWM) prepared from apple parenchyma tissue by treatment with commercial enzymes for maceration, mash fermentation and liquefaction were characterised with regard to their composition and structure as well as their physicochemical and physiological properties. Increasing enzymatic degradation of the CWM resulted in growing loss of the pectin matrix, decreasing porosity as well as increasing particle aggregation. Due to these structural alterations the water binding, the viscoelastic properties of the CWM-water-suspensions and the in vitro fermentation, forming short chain fatty acids, were reduced. The investigations showed that interrelations exist between enzymatic treatment and changes of (i) structure and state of matrices (evaluated by means of thermal analysis), (ii) physicochemical properties and (iii) physiological properties. So the application of liquefying enzymes can lead to a complete removal of the pectin matrix, causing an essentially improved thermal stability of the CWM preparation, but strongly reduced water binding and reduced structure-forming properties into the CWM-water-suspensions. The formation of short-chain fatty acids during in vitro fermentation of the CWM preparations by fresh human faeces flora depended on the portion and the state of the pectin matrix and the cellulose network, respectively.

  10. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C; Crous, Pedro W; Lavrov, Dennis V; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we attempted to infer their origins by means of ancestral state reconstruction on a phylogenetic tree built utilizing genes for the nuc 28S rDNA (approx. 830 bp from near the 59 end) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The analyzed taxa included the well-known genera of SBFS as well as non-SBFS fungi from seven families within the Capnodiales. The non-SBFS taxa were selected based on their distinct ecological niches, including plant-parasitic and saprophytic species. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that most SBFS species in the Capnodiales are closely related to plant-parasitic fungi. Ancestral state reconstruction provided strong evidence that plant-parasitic fungi were the ancestors of the major SBFS lineages. Knowledge gained from this study may help to better understand the ecology and evolution of epiphytic fungi.

  11. Effects of double encapsulation and coating on synthetic seed conversion in M.26 apple rootstock.

    PubMed

    Micheli, M; Pellegrino, S; Piccioni, E; Standardi, A

    2002-01-01

    Encapsulated vitro-derived apical buds of M.26 apple rootstock (Malus pumila Mill) can be employed for the formation of the synthetic seed. Satisfactory levels of conversion (plantlets from synthetic seed) can be achieved if there are adequate (i) rooting induction treatment, (ii) protocol of encapsulation, and (iii) nutritive and environmental conditions. For capsule manufacturing, sodium alginate is largely used; however, this is excessively permeable with loss of the nutritive substances (artificial endosperm) and/or dehydration risks during conservation and transport causing detrimental effects on the synthetic seed conversion and on the plantlet's growth. In order to overcome these problems, two experiments were carried out comparing simple encapsulation in alginate with double encapsulation, and with encapsulation-coating procedures. The presence of a second layer of alginate (double encapsulation) and of a thin external coating layer over the alginate (encapsulation-coating) did not show any detrimental effects on viability, sprouting and regrowth of the encapsulated microcuttings. Satisfactory conversion (70%) was reached with the encapsulation-coating procedure, whereas the double and simple encapsulation converted less than 40% of the synthetic seed. The effect of the addition to the capsule of an anti-microbial substance (Plant Preservative Mixture - PPM) was examined: it did not compromise the conversion of the encapsulated microcuttings sown in ex-vitro non-aseptic conditions.

  12. Evidence for Apoplasmic Phloem Unloading in Developing Apple Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling-Yun; Peng, Yi-Ben; Pelleschi-Travier, Sandrine; Fan, Ying; Lu, Yan-Fen; Lu, Ying-Min; Gao, Xiu-Ping; Shen, Yuan-Yue; Delrot, Serge; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2004-01-01

    The phloem unloading pathway remains unclear in fleshy fruits accumulating a high level of soluble sugars. A structural investigation in apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Golden Delicious) showed that the sieve element-companion cell complex of the sepal bundles feeding the fruit flesh is symplasmically isolated over fruit development. 14C-autoradiography indicated that the phloem of the sepal bundles was functional for unloading. Confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging of carboxyfluorescein unloading showed that the dye remained confined to the phloem strands of the sepal bundles from the basal to the apical region of the fruit. A 52-kD putative monosaccharide transporter was immunolocalized predominantly in the plasma membrane of both the sieve elements and parenchyma cells and its amount increased during fruit development. A 90-kD plasma membrane H+-ATPase was also localized in the plasma membrane of the sieve element-companion cell complex. Studies of [14C]sorbitol unloading suggested that an energy-driven monosaccharide transporter may be functional in phloem unloading. These data provide clear evidence for an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway in apple fruit and give information on the structural and molecular features involved in this process. PMID:15122035

  13. Cyclic voltammetry of apple fruits: Memristors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Blockmon, Avery L; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I

    2016-12-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory that exhibits a pinched hysteretic relationship in cyclic voltammetry. Recently, we have found memristors in the electrical circuitry of plants and seeds. There are no publications in literature about the possible existence of memristors and electrical differentiators in fruits. Here we found that the electrostimulation of Golden Delicious or Arkansas Black apple fruits by bipolar periodic waves induces hysteresis loops with pinched points in cyclic voltammograms at low frequencies between 0.1MHz and 1MHz. At high frequencies of 1kHz, the pinched hysteresis loop transforms to a non-pinched hysteresis loop instead of a single line I=V/R for ideal memristors because the amplitude of electrical current depends on capacitance of a fruit's tissue and electrodes, frequency and direction of scanning. Electrostimulation of electrical circuits in apple fruits by periodic voltage waves also induces electrotonic potential propagation due to cell-to-cell electrical coupling with electrical differentiators. A differentiator is an electrical circuit in which the output of the circuit is approximately directly proportional to the rate of change of the input. The information gained from electrostimulation can be used to elucidate and to observe electrochemical and electrophysiological properties of electrical circuits in fruits.

  14. Imposex in the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Huang, Da-Ji; Liu, Ming-Yie; Lee, Ching-Chang; Liu, Li-Lian

    2006-12-01

    The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) was introduced into Taiwan intentionally in the early 1980s and has become a recurring pest that seriously threatens aquatic crops. In this study, a field description of imposex with a developed penis sheath and penis in female golden apple snails from crop/domestic wastewater drainage sites and a six-order river is presented for the first time. Based on the five field collections and the aquarium group, the vas deferens sequence (VDS) of P. canaliculata in imposex development was categorized into four stages, i.e., stage 0: without male genital system; stage 1: with rudimentary penis; stage 2: with rudimentary penis and penis sheath; and stage 3: the rudimentary penis developing into penis pouch and penis. The VDS indices varied between 1.07 and 2.82 and were lowest in the aquarium group and Yuanlin2. Regarding the severity of imposex, the aquarium group was less pronounced, as illustrated by the length of penis sheath and penis length, than the field collections (p<0.05). In respect of the penis length, males of the most imposex-affected site were up to 15% shorter than that of the aquarium group. Negative correlations between male penis length and female imposex characters (i.e., penis length and penis sheath length) were also observed.

  15. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W

    2003-11-01

    Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed.

  16. Apple phenolics as nutraceuticals: assessment, analysis and application.

    PubMed

    Rana, Shalika; Bhushan, Shashi

    2016-04-01

    Humankind is presently engulfed by convenience quench, modern life style and urbanized diet system leading to progression in array of health disorders. The past decade confronted cardiometabolic disorder (21.8 %), lower respiratory and chronic obstructive lung disease (12.5 %) as the major causes of death world over. In anticipation, scientific communities' have demonstrated the role of healthy diets, especially those rich in fruits and vegetables, for management of such health related issues. These horticultural  crops are considered as a good source of polyphenols such as dihydrochalcones, flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The present article reviews the efforts made to assess the potential of apple phenolic compounds present in fresh fruits, leaves, bark and pomace as dietary polyphenols. Considering the positive impact of such phytochemicals on human health, various nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and phenolic-rich food products are presently available on market shelves. On analytical front, improved instrumentation based on liquid chromatography (HPLC, UPLC, LC/MS/MS) have made the assessment of phenolics more rapid and reliable. Thus, owing to the emergent interest in natural compounds, it is pertinent to discuss the latest significant research findings on therapeutic aspects along with probable metabolic mechanisms of dietary polyphenols found in apples and their implications on human health.

  17. Using computer vision for detecting watercore in apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, James A.; Rehkugler, Gerald E.; Upchurch, Bruce L.

    1991-02-01

    Methods for quantifying watercore damage in Red Delicious apples are described that measures visible and/or near-infrared (NIR) radiation transmitted through the core of individual apples. A linear regression of the data for NIR light alone and on the data for the combination of NIR and visible light produced R squared values from . 90 to . 96 indicating little difference between the different data sets. The combination of visible and NIR works equally as well as NIR alone. Images captured by a low-light level and an image-intensifier equipped black and white camera are compared to study the effect of sensor intensity sensitivity in the classification process. The intensified image results show the mean probability of an error as 1 3. 2 percent for under classifying the five different classes of watercore damage compared to 24. 9 and 27. 5 (NIR NIR and visible) for the low - light level camera. The mean probability of an error of over classifying from the intensified images is 17. 1 percent compared to 24. 0 and 27. 2 (NIR NIR and visible) for the low -light level camera. Increases in intensity sensitivity can improve the classification of watercore damage. Two computational methods to numerically quantify watercore damage are examined and compared. The first method finds the mean grey level within a 130 pixel (rows) by 100 pixel (columns) window centered about the stem end of

  18. Reduction of patulin in apple cider by UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qingfang; Manns, David C; Feng, Guoping; Yue, Tianli; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2010-01-01

    The presence of the mycotoxin patulin in processed apple juice and cider presents a continual challenge to the food industry as both consumer health and product quality issues. Although several methods for control and/or elimination of patulin have been proposed, no unifying method has been commercially successful for reducing patulin burdens while maintaining product quality. In the present study, exposure to germicidal UV radiation was evaluated as a possible commercially viable alternative for the reduction and possible elimination of the patulin mycotoxin in fresh apple cider. UV exposure of 14.2 to 99.4 mJ/cm(2) resulted in a significant and nearly linear decrease in patulin levels while producing no quantifiable changes in the chemical composition (i.e., pH, Brix, and total acids) or organoleptic properties of the cider. For the range of UV doses tested, patulin levels decreased by 9.4 to 43.4%; the greatest reduction was achieved after less than 15 s of UV exposure. The method of UV radiation (the CiderSure 3500 system) is an easily implemented, high-throughput, and cost-effective method that offers simultaneous UV pasteurization of cider and juice products and reduction and/or elimination of patulin without unwanted alterations in the final product.

  19. Characterization of apple 18 and 31 kd allergens by microsequencing and evaluation of their content during storage and ripening.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, L S; Moos, M; Lin, Y

    1995-12-01

    Patients with tree pollinosis frequently report allergic reactions after ingestion of apples. The severity of apple allergy has been related to the variety of apples and their degree of maturity. To generate a serum pool that is representative of various IgE-binding patterns of apple-allergic sera, serum samples from 34 patients allergic to tree pollens were screened. Only 24 serum samples reacted to the apple extract. Pooled serum was used to identify allergens in apples. An efficient and consistent extraction method for apple fruits was used to compare the immunoreactivities of extracts of different varieties (McIntosh, Red Delicious, Granny Smith, and Golden Delicious) of freshly picked and store-purchased apples. We found that Golden Delicious apples had the greatest amount of the 18 kd allergen, which has been reported to be a potent IgE-binding apple allergen. Store-purchased apples contained higher concentrations of the 18 kd allergen than freshly picked apples. In our study only 37.5% of sera reacted to the 18 kd protein, whereas 75% of the sera reacted to a 31 kd allergen. Other immunoreactive bands in apple extracts included proteins of 50, 38, 16, 14, and 13 kd. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the two major allergens, 18 kd and 31 kd, were determined. These sequences shared approximately 50% identity with disease resistance proteins of various plants or Bet v 1 in birch tree pollens. The appearance of various allergens was also investigated in mature apples during storage. The amount of 18 kd allergen increased significantly when apples were stored at 4 degrees C. However, under controlled atmospheric conditions in which oxygen- and carbon dioxide-induced ripening were regulated, the amount of 18 kd allergen remained unaffected. Because ripening and maturation were not associated with increases in 18 kd allergen content, the observed changes might be induced by factors related to disease resistance.

  20. Techniques for digital enhancement of Landsat MSS data using an Apple II+ microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, J. A., Jr.; Cartin, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    The information provided by remotely sensed data collected from orbiting platforms has been useful in many research fields. Particularly convenient for evaluation are generally digital data stored on computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The major advantages of CCT's are the quality of the data and the accessibility to computer manipulation. Minicomputer systems are widely used for the required computer processing operations. However, microprocessor-related technological advances make it now possible to process CCT data with computing systems which can be obtained at a much lower price than minicomputer systems. A detailed description is provided of the design considerations of a microcomputer-based Digital Image Analysis System (DIAS). Particular attention is given to the algorithms which are incorporated for eighter edge enhancement or smoothing Landsat multispectral scanner data.

  1. How to Build a Better Mousetrap and 13 Other Science Projects Using the Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernier, David L.

    Science projects which can be used by high school students who have minimal experience with computers or electronics are presented in this book on laboratory interfacing. These laboratory interfacing projects include either the connecting of measuring instruments directly to a computer or using a computer to control external devices. All of the 14…

  2. Using the Apple II Microcomputer to Facilitate the Development of the Individualized Education Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Doug

    This paper describes a prototype system developed for the Green Valley Area Educational Agency 14 in Iowa, which uses the Programming for Individualized Education (PIE) program and a Cluster/One Model A Nestar Micronetworking System to plan and store student records for developmentally disabled and other weighted special education students. The…

  3. Techniques for digital enhancement of Landsat MSS data using an Apple II+ microcomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, J. A., Jr.; Cartin, K. F.

    The information provided by remotely sensed data collected from orbiting platforms has been useful in many research fields. Particularly convenient for evaluation are generally digital data stored on computer compatible tapes (CCT's). The major advantages of CCT's are the quality of the data and the accessibility to computer manipulation. Minicomputer systems are widely used for the required computer processing operations. However, microprocessor-related technological advances make it now possible to process CCT data with computing systems which can be obtained at a much lower price than minicomputer systems. A detailed description is provided of the design considerations of a microcomputer-based Digital Image Analysis System (DIAS). Particular attention is given to the algorithms which are incorporated for eighter edge enhancement or smoothing Landsat multispectral scanner data.

  4. On Cu(II) Cu(II) distance measurements using pulsed electron electron double resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhongyu; Becker, James; Saxena, Sunil

    2007-10-01

    The effects of orientational selectivity on the 4-pulse electron electron double resonance (PELDOR) ESR spectra of coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) spins are presented. The data were collected at four magnetic fields on a poly-proline peptide containing two Cu(II) centers. The Cu(II)-PELDOR spectra of this peptide do not change appreciably with magnetic field at X-band. The data were analyzed by adapting the theory of Maryasov, Tsvetkov, and Raap [A.G. Maryasov, Y.D. Tsvetkov, J. Raap, Weakly coupled radical pairs in solids:ELDOR in ESE structure studies, Appl. Magn. Reson. 14 (1998) 101-113]. Simulations indicate that orientational effects are important for Cu(II)-PELDOR. Based on simulations, the field-independence of the PELDOR data for this peptide is likely due to two effects. First, for this peptide, the Cu(II) g-tensor(s) are in a very specific orientation with respect to the interspin vector. Second, the flexibility of the peptide washes out the orientation effects. These effects reduce the suitability of the poly-proline based peptide as a good model system to experimentally probe orientational effects in such experiments. An average Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.1-2.2 nm was determined, which is consistent with earlier double quantum coherence ESR results.

  5. A multiple reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of latent viruses and apscarviroids in apple trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) are three latent viruses frequently occurring in apple trees worldwide. In field orchards, these viruses are frequently found in a mixed infection with viroids in the genus Apscarviroid, in...

  6. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  7. Variation in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in apple seeds of seven cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Fan, Mingtao; Ran, Junjian; Zhang, Tingjing; Sun, Huiye; Dong, Mei; Zhang, Zhe; Zheng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple seeds. However, few data are available on the phenolic profile or antioxidant activity in apple seeds in previous researches. In this study, low-molecular-weight phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in seeds, peels, and flesh of seven apple cultivars grown in northwest China were measured and analyzed using HPLC and FRAP, DPPH, ABTS assays, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed phloridzin as the dominant phenolic compound in the seeds with its contents being 240.45–864.42 mg/100 gDW. Total phenolic content (TPC) measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay in apple seed extracts of seven cultivars ranged from 5.74 (Golden Delicious) to 17.44 (Honeycrisp) mgGAE/gDW. Apple seeds showed higher antioxidant activity than peels or flesh; antioxidant activity in seeds varied from 57.59 to 397.70 μM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW for FRAP, from 37.56 to 64.31 μM TE/g FW for DPPH, and from 220.52 to 708.02 μM TE/g FW for ABTS. TPC in apple seeds was significantly correlated with all three assays. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that Honeycrisp was characterized with high contents of total polyphenols and phloridzin. Our findings suggest that phenolic extracts from apple seeds have good commercial potential as a promising antioxidant for use in food or cosmetics. PMID:27081364

  8. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 108 colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period. PMID:27298600

  9. Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple.

  10. Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sever, Zdravka; Ivić, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Miličević, Tihomir

    2012-12-01

    Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite.

  11. Virulence characteristics accounting for fire blight disease severity in apple trees and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven A; Ngugi, Henry K; Halbrendt, Noemi O; O'Keefe, Grace; Lehman, Brian; Travis, James W; Sinn, Judith P; McNellis, Timothy W

    2010-06-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, the most destructive bacterial disease of rosaceous plants, including apple and pear. Here, we compared the virulence levels of six E. amylovora strains (Ea273, CFBP1367, Ea581a, E2002a, E4001a, and HKN06P1) on apple trees and seedlings. The strains produced a range of disease severity, with HKN06P1 producing the greatest disease severity in every assay. We then compared virulence characteristic expression among the six strains, including growth rates in immature apple fruit, amylovoran production, levansucrase activity, biofilm formation, carbohydrate utilization, hypersensitive cell death elicitation in tobacco leaves, and protein secretion profiles. Multiple regression analysis indicated that three of the virulence characteristics (amylovoran production, biofilm formation, and growth in immature apple fruit) accounted for >70% of the variation in disease severity on apple seedlings. Furthermore, in greenhouse-grown 'Gala' trees, >75% of the variation in disease severity was accounted for by five of the virulence characteristics: amylovoran production, biofilm formation, growth in immature apple fruit, hypersensitive cell death elicitation, and sorbitol utilization. This study demonstrates that virulence factor expression levels account for differences in disease severity caused by wild isolates of E. amylovora on apple trees.

  12. Near-infrared multispectral scattering for assessing internal quality of apple fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu

    2004-03-01

    Firmness and sweetness are key quality attributes that determine the acceptability of apple fruit to the consumer. The objective of this research was to investigate a multispectral imaging system for simultaneous acquisition of multispectral scattering images from apple fruit to predict firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A circular broadband light beam was used to generate light backscattering at the surface of apple fruit and scattering images were acquired, using a common aperture multispectral imaging system, from Red Delicious and Golden Delicious apple fruit for wavelengths at 680, 880, 905, and 940 nm. Scattering images were radially averaged to produce one-dimensional spectral scattering profiles, which were then input into a backpropagation neural network for predicting apple fruit firmness and SSC. It was found that the neural network performed best when 10 neurons and 20 epochs were used. With inputing three ratios of spectral profiles involving all four wavelengths, the neural network gave firmness predictions with the correlation (r) of 0.76 and the standard error for validation (SEV) of 6.2 N for Red Delicious apples and r=0.73 and SEV=8.9 N for Golden Delicious apples. Relatively good SSC predictions were obtained for both varieties with SEV=0.9° Brix.

  13. [Estimation of chlorophyll content in apple tree canopy based on hyperspectral parameters].

    PubMed

    Pan, Bei; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Zhu, Xi-Cun; Liu, Hai-Teng; Liang, Shuang; Tian, Da-De

    2013-08-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance of apple tree canopy during spring shoots stopping growth period was measured using ASD FieldSpec3 field spectrometer. Original spectral data were processed in deviation forms, and significant spectrum parameters correlated with chlorophyll content were found out with correlation analysis. The best vegetation indices were chosen and the apple canopy chlorophyll content estimation model was established by analyzing vegetation index of two-band combination in the sensitive region 400-1 350 nm. The result showed that (1) The sensitive band region of apple canopy chlorophyll content is 400-1 350 nm. (2) The vegetation index CCI(D(794)/D(763)) can commendably estimate the apple canopy chlorophyll content. (3) The model with CCI(D(794)/D(763)) as the independent variables was determined to be the best for chlorophyll content prediction of apple tree canopy. Therefore, using hyperspectral technology can estimate apple canopy chlorophyll content more rapidly and accurately, and provides a theoretical basis for rapid apple tree canopy nutrition diagnosis and growth monitoring.

  14. Major phenolics in apple and their contribution to the total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Chang Yong

    2003-10-22

    The contribution of each phytochemical to the total antioxidant capacity of apples was determined. Major phenolic phytochemicals of six apple cultivars were identified and quantified, and their contributions to total antioxidant activity of apples were determined using a 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). Average concentrations of major phenolics and vitamin C in six apple cultivars were as follows (mg/100 g of fresh weight of apples): quercetin glycosides, 13.20; procyanidin B(2), 9.35; chlorogenic acid, 9.02; epicatechin, 8.65; phloretin glycosides, 5.59; vitamin C, 12.80. A highly linear relationship (r (2) > 0.97) was attained between concentrations and total antioxidant capacity of phenolics and vitamin C. Relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the order quercetin (3.06) > epicatechin (2.67) > procyanidin B(2) (2.36) > phloretin (1.63) > vitamin C (1.00) > chlorogenic acid (0.97). Therefore, the estimated contribution of major phenolics and vitamin C to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh apples is as follows: quercetin (40.39 VCEAC) > epicatechin (23.10) > procyanidin B(2) (22.07) > vitamin C (12.80) > phloretin (9.11) > chlorogenic acid (8.75). These results indicate that flavonoids such as quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B(2) rather than vitamin C contribute significantly to the total antioxidant activity of apples.

  15. Detection of apple juice adulteration using near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    León, Lorenzo; Kelly, J Daniel; Downey, Gerard

    2005-05-01

    Near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy was used to detect adulteration of apple juice samples. A total of 150 apple samples from 19 different varieties were collected in two consecutive years from orchards throughout the main cultivation areas in Ireland. Adulterant samples at 10, 20, 30, and 40% w/w were prepared using two types of adulterants: a high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with 45% fructose and 55% glucose, and a sugars solution (SUGARS) made with 60% fructose, 25% glucose, and 15% sucrose (the average content of these sugars in apple juice). The results show that NIR analysis can be used to predict adulteration of apple juices by added sugars with a detection limit of 9.5% for samples adulterated with HFCS, 18.5% for samples adulterated with SUGARS, and 17% for the combined (HFCS + SUGARS) adulterants. Discriminant partial least squares (PLS) regression can detect authentic apple juice with an accuracy of 86-100% and adulterant apple juice with an accuracy of 91-100% depending on the adulterant type and level of adulteration considered. This method could provide a rapid screening technique for the detection of this type of apple juice adulteration, although further work is required to demonstrate model robustness.

  16. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples. PMID:27918417

  17. Polyphenolic profiles of Basque cider apple cultivars and their technological properties.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Barranco, Alejandro; Abad, Beatriz; Berrueta, Luis A; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca

    2004-05-19

    The polyphenolic compositions of 31 Basque cider apple cultivars were determined in pulp, peel, and juice by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection analysis of crude extracts and after thiolysis. Total polyphenols are distributed in a wide concentration range depending on the cultivar. Procyanidins are the class of polyphenols that present major concentrations in apple. Their average degrees of polymerization range from 4 to 8 depending on the cultivar. Apple cultivars were technologically classified into bitter and nonbitter categories using different classification systems obtained by applying several pattern recognition techniques, such as principal component analysis, K-nearest neighbors, soft independent modeling of class analogy, partial least-squares, and multilayer feed-forward-artificial neural networks, to apple pulp, peel, or juice data (individual polyphenol concentrations, total procyanidin content, and the average degree of polymerization of procyanidins). Bitter apple cultivars present higher contents of flavan-3-ols and/or dihydrochalcones than nonbitter cultivars. Detailed knowledge of the polyphenolic profile of each apple cultivar affords information about their susceptibility to oxidation, their sensory properties (bitterness, astringency), and their possible influence on the characteristics and quality of the final product (juice, cider) when apples are processed.

  18. Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Budak, Nilgun H; Kumbul Doguc, Duygu; Savas, Cagri M; Seydim, Atif C; Kok Tas, Tugba; Ciris, Metin I; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2011-06-22

    Red delicious apples were used to produce natural apple cider with and without inclusion of maceration. Traditional surface and industrial submersion methods were then applied to make vinegar from apple ciders. Apple cider vinegar samples produced with inclusion of maceration in the surface method had the highest total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, ORAC, and TEAC levels. Cholesterol and apple vinegar samples were administered using oral gavage to all groups of rats except the control group. Apple cider vinegars, regardless of the production method, decreased triglyceride and VLDL levels in all groups when compared to animals on high-cholesterol diets without vinegar supplementation. Apple cider vinegars increased total cholesterol and HDL and LDL cholesterol levels and decreased liver function tests when compared to animals on a high-cholesterol diet without vinegar supplementation. A high-cholesterol diet resulted in hepatic steatosis. VSBM and VSB groups significantly decreased steatosis.

  19. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties.

    PubMed

    Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I; Giraud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.

  20. New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Giraud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species. PMID:22589740