Science.gov

Sample records for 492-6629 environmental studies

  1. Environmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Discussion, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Reports on a study of a pre-cooperative (the Sidi Saad pre-cooperative, Province of Tunis) as an environment in which a functional literacy program, integrated with socioeconomic development, was to be developed. (EB)

  2. Developing Environmental Study Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing environmental study areas. Numerous examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of environmental study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…

  3. Nevada Environmental Studies Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-01

    The Nevada Environmental Studies Plan (NESP) presents the ESA team`s overall program of investigations of environmental conditions and activities related to potential impacts of studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its program for developing Yucca Mt., Nevada, as the national high level nuclear waste (HLW) repository. The environmental studies specifically entail investigations of terrestrial ecology, soils and geomorphology, hydrology and water quality, archaeology and cultural resources, meteorology and air quality, noise, visual resources and reclamation planning. The NESP is a program of nine primary projects, described in this Plan. The nine projects of the program are distributed over three years. NESP`88-`89 is the first phase, covering the fiscal year (FY) July 1, 1988--June 30, 1989. The first phase is focused on program planning; preparation of various documents related to identifying impacts of past DOE activities and associated reclamation costs; review of DOE documents on environmental issues; and initiation of field investigations to establish the environmental issues; and initiation of field investigations to establish the environmental baseline conditions of the site. NESP`89-`90 is the second phase of the program, covering activities during FY`89-`90. The primary activities include continuing environmental baseline investigations; oversight of DOE activities including regulatory compliance assessments, field monitoring of DOE activities; development of disturbance, impact and reclamation models; and reclamation planning. NESP`90-`91 is the third phase of the program. The primary foci include continuing environmental monitoring of DOE activities and reclamation planning. Each of the phases is described in this Executive Summary. NESP`88-`89 is described in detail in the second part of the Study Plan. 86 refs., 20 tabs.

  4. Music and Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kate; Freedman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The use of music in environmental education (EE) can help to inform students through ideas incorporated in musical lyrics, while also enhancing interest in environmental topics. Music can also enhance perceptions of the value of the natural world, especially when nature itself is recognized as being musical. This article discusses historical and…

  5. AENV: Studying Environmental Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Larry W.

    1975-01-01

    The Division of Advanced Environmental Research and Technology (AENV) examines those environmental problems outside the responsibilities of other federal agencies. Present areas of concern include: organic threats to the environment, energy, land-use decisions, weather modification, earthquakes, and the development of a data base for understanding…

  6. University Reorganization Through Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, John C.

    1972-01-01

    A sound program in Environmental Studies may show the way to attack other multidisciplinary problems. Some of these are population problems, urban renewal, black studies, resource utilization, and in-depth regional studies. (Author)

  7. Activities in Environmental Education. Environmental Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Michael

    This guide describes 38 activities appropriate for grades K-12. Each activity contains a brief description of the activity and a list of materials needed. The second section of the guide contains environmental learning games to be played in the classroom. These games include: crossword puzzles, cryptograms, logic problems, card games, and…

  8. Metropolitan Environmental Education Resources Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, John Dean, Ed.

    Two major objectives of the Metropolitan Environmental Education Resources Study were: (1) to produce a directory of sites around Columbus, Ohio, having fieldtrip potential; and (2) to test the validity of the concept that field trips are a useful method in aiding student educational growth. The first section of this document relates the history…

  9. Bulletin Boards for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford; Seim, Stuart S.

    The bulletin board and activity ideas presented in this handbook offer some attractive ways of exploring and studying various environmental issues. They stress the concept that man is but one element in the whole chain of being. Each chapter, devoted to one element apiece, begins with an overview of the natural resource situation and/or problem…

  10. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Arthur B., Ed.

    The first section of this document contains definitional papers prepared by three sections of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE). They are: (1) "The Challenges of K-12 Environmental Education" (Harold Hungerford and Trudi Volk); (2) "'Environmental Studies': Towards a Definition" (Royal Harde); and (3) "Nonformal…

  11. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  12. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  13. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental studies. 256.82 Section 256.82... Environmental studies. (a) The Director shall conduct a study of any area or region included in any lease sale... region. Any study shall, to the extent practicable, be designed to predict environmental impacts...

  14. Transect Studies, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within an existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and requires minimal teacher preparation. The philosophy of the units is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages self-paced independent student work. In this unit, students make a line transect and then…

  15. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environmental Studies, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the earth and environmental studies. Specific categories are geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)

  16. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  17. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  18. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  19. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  20. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  1. The Environmental Action and Philosophy Matrix: An Exploratory Study of the Environmental Attitudes of Recreation Management and Environmental Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jeremy R.; Simpson, Steven; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the environmental philosophies of college undergraduates enrolled in a Midwestern university. Two courses were used for the research, one from a recreation management curriculum and the other from environmental studies. The study utilized a survey instrument called the Environmental Action and Philosophy…

  2. Indigenous Studies Speaks to Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors’ hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices.

  3. Indigenous studies speaks to environmental management.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors' hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices.

  4. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  5. Environmental Studies and Environmental Careers. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    Increased concern with the environment has increased opportunities for employment in the environmental job market. This digest helps clarify the meaning of environmental employment and discusses aspects of its present state. An examination of trends in environmental employment indicates a growing demand for new jobs in environmental fields created…

  6. Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

  7. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Studies § 556.82 Environmental studies. (a) The... which may be affected by OCS oil and gas activities in such area or region. Any study shall, to the... the extent possible, shall not duplicate studies done under other laws. Where appropriate,...

  8. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Studies § 556.82 Environmental studies. (a) The... which may be affected by OCS oil and gas activities in such area or region. Any study shall, to the... the extent possible, shall not duplicate studies done under other laws. Where appropriate,...

  9. Space systems environmental interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. A.; Huber, Alan C.; McGarity, John O.; Sperry, David J.; Moran, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    Under Task 1, the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) experiment, encompassing most of Amptek's effort in the report period, Amptek has done the following: (1) designed and built the experiment controller; (2) provided an electrostatic analyzer (ESA), two QCM's, and three calorimeters (CAL's); (3) worked with PL/GPSP on testing and integrating PASP Plus into the APEX satellite; and (4) provided ground support equipment for spacecraft integration and mission operation. The controller is comprised of a central processing unit, an array biasing and electrometer unit, an array 1-5 curve measurement unit, a power conversion unit, and interfaces to the 16 array modules, ten PASP Plus instruments (not including the Dosimeter), and the APEX spacecraft. The PASP Plus Controller and the ten other instruments it controls (Sun Sensor, Langmuir Probe, ESA, Transient Pulse Monitor, Electron Emitter, 2 QCM's, 3 CAL's) are described in detail, giving size (dimensions), weight, data rates and outputs, and input power requirements. On Tasks 2 and 3, at a much lower level of effort, Amptek supported PL/GPSP's work on the Charge Hazards and Wake Studies (CHAWS) experiment (O to -5000 V sweep power supply and engineering assistance) and on the Space Wave Interactions with Plasmas Experiment (SWIPE).

  10. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environments and of the impacts of offshore activities on the seabed and affected coastal areas. (b) Studies... quality and productivity of such environments, to establish trends in the areas studies, and to design... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental studies. 556.82 Section...

  11. Environmental Connections: A Teacher's Guide to Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deBettencourt, Kathleen B.; Feeney, Matthew; Barone, A. Nicole; White, Keith

    This guide assists teachers who teach an environmental science course or include environmental topics in their curriculum. The guide is intended to help educators and students find resources that enable them to examine issues in greater depth. A brief summary of a number of environmental issues that are often mentioned in textbooks, in the media,…

  12. Gene-environment studies: any advantage over environmental studies?

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Hemminki, Kari

    2007-07-01

    Gene-environment studies have been motivated by the likely existence of prevalent low-risk genes that interact with common environmental exposures. The present study assessed the statistical advantage of the simultaneous consideration of genes and environment to investigate the effect of environmental risk factors on disease. In particular, we contemplated the possibility that several genes modulate the environmental effect. Environmental exposures, genotypes and phenotypes were simulated according to a wide range of parameter settings. Different models of gene-gene-environment interaction were considered. For each parameter combination, we estimated the probability of detecting the main environmental effect, the power to identify the gene-environment interaction and the frequency of environmentally affected individuals at which environmental and gene-environment studies show the same statistical power. The proportion of cases in the population attributable to the modeled risk factors was also calculated. Our data indicate that environmental exposures with weak effects may account for a significant proportion of the population prevalence of the disease. A general result was that, if the environmental effect was restricted to rare genotypes, the power to detect the gene-environment interaction was higher than the power to identify the main environmental effect. In other words, when few individuals contribute to the overall environmental effect, individual contributions are large and result in easily identifiable gene-environment interactions. Moreover, when multiple genes interacted with the environment, the statistical benefit of gene-environment studies was limited to those studies that included major contributors to the gene-environment interaction. The advantage of gene-environment over plain environmental studies also depends on the inheritance mode of the involved genes, on the study design and, to some extend, on the disease prevalence.

  13. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health.

  14. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health. PMID:26535754

  15. Habitat Study. Transect Study. [Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    These three documents outline teaching activities intended to involve children with their environment. Suggested preliminary studies to motivate and familiarize elementary school students with some characteristics of organisms and their physical environment are followed by descriptions of class activities that may be undertaken in the field.…

  16. A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

  17. Tayamentasachta: A Center for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greencastle-Antrim School District, PA.

    This curriculum guide lists concepts and objectives for water study units in grades 1-6 and for secondary classes. Geared especially for this particular environmental center is a collection of teacher guidelines with possible trips and activities. A listing of the center's materials is also included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  18. National Environmental Study Area, A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Included is comprehensive information on how to establish an Environmental Study Area (ESA) similar to those organized by the National Park System. Following the introductory sections on educational philosophy and objectives are suggestions relating to these aspects of an ESA project: how to select an ESA site; contacting the key people;…

  19. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  20. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  1. Introduction to Environmental Studies, Human Ecological Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, J. Y.

    This introductory text of general readings for environmental studies is specifically prepared for undergraduate college students although useful also as a reference book for graduate students and instructors and as an information resource for the general public. The book is problem oriented emphasizing the interaction and interdependence of man…

  2. Nuclear analytical techniques in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Jervis, R E

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques are particularly suitable for measuring trace components in a wide variety of environmental samples, and for that reason, the techniques have made a significant contribution to environmental research. Presently, at a time when biosphere contamination and threats of global change in the atmosphere are of widespread concern, there exist an impressive array of specialized instrumental methods available to life scientists engaged in environmental studies; however, the nuclear techniques will probably continue to play a useful role in the future, notwithstanding the decreasing availability of necessary facilities, such as research reactors and accelerators. Reasons for the particular suitability of radionanalytical techniques are reviewed and illustrated by examples of recent applications to solid wastes, biomonitoring, and urban aerosol source identification in this laboratory.

  3. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Frumkin, Howard

    2007-10-01

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated.

  4. Environmental Studies on Titanium Aluminide Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Smialek, James L.; Brady, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Titanium aluminides are attractive alternatives to superalloys in moderate temperature applications (600 to 850 C) by virtue of their high strength-to-density ratio (high specific strength). These alloys are also more ductile than competing intermetallic systems. However, most Ti-based alloys tend to degrade through interstitial embrittlement and rapid oxidation during exposure to elevated temperatures. Therefore, their environmental behavior must be thoroughly investigated before they can be developed further. The goals of titanium aluminide environmental studies at the NASA Lewis Research Center are twofold: characterize the degradation mechanisms for advanced structural alloys and determine what means are available to minimize degradation. The studies to date have covered the alpha 2 (Ti3Al), orthorhombic (Ti2AlNb), and gamma (TiAl) classes of alloys.

  5. Environmental and health risk studies at HHWCFs

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, C.

    1995-09-01

    Sanitary Fill Company is proposing to expand San Francisco`s household hazardous waste facility. This paper describes our proposal and discusses the environmental review and public involvement processes that are now required. Planning this expansion has been long and expensive. To my knowledge we are among the first programs to conduct a detailed study of the potential health risks associated with household facilities. I will present a summary of our planning process and compare the process to the outcome.

  6. Studies on the Environmental Improvement in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaki, Mitsuharu; Yoshizumi, Koji; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki; Nakamoto, Yumi; Stanescu, Rodica; Plesca, Marinela

    In Romania, the communist planned economy system was in place for 42 years but ended due to a revolution in 1989. An environmental administration was started 1990. In order to assist with environment related activities, one of the authors worked in Bucharest for two years from March 2002 to March 2004 as a JICA (Japan International Cooperation Activity) member. One of the most important problems regarding environmental protection in Romania is waste management. In Japan, the regulations and penalties system of waste management have been used for a long time. However, there are many serious problems with the system, such as a decrease in waste disposal facilities and illegally disposed waste. The authors studied a new plan that uses a certification system in order to promote recycling industries. This system is both efficient and inexpensive so it is possible that this method of waste management could be transmitted to Romania.

  7. Amphibians as models for studying environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William A

    2007-01-01

    The use of amphibians as models in ecological research has a rich history. From an early foundation in studies of amphibian natural history sprang generations of scientists who used amphibians as models to address fundamental questions in population and community ecology. More recently, in the wake of an environment that human disturbances rapidly altered, ecologists have adopted amphibians as models for studying applied ecological issues such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, and global climate change. Some of the characteristics of amphibians that make them useful models for studying these environmental problems are highlighted, including their trophic importance, environmental sensitivity, research tractability, and impending extinction. The article provides specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate how studies on amphibians have been instrumental in guiding scientific thought on a broad scale. Included are examples of how amphibian research has transformed scientific disciplines, generated new theories about global health, called into question widely accepted scientific paradigms, and raised awareness in the general public that our daily actions may have widespread repercussions. In addition, studies on amphibian declines have provided insight into the complexity in which multiple independent factors may interact with one another to produce catastrophic and sometimes unpredictable effects. Because of the complexity of these problems, amphibian ecologists have been among the strongest advocates for interdisciplinary research. Future studies of amphibians will be important not only for their conservation but also for the conservation of other species, critical habitats, and entire ecosystems.

  8. Summary of Research in Environmental Education, 1971-1982. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A., Ed.

    Summaries of environmental education (EE) research studies conducted during the 12-year period 1971-1982 are presented in this seven-chapter publication. These chapters are: (1) "Environmental Education Research, 1971-1982--Overview" (by Louis Iozzi); (2) "Environmental Education Research Related to Ecological Foundations" (by Thomas…

  9. The relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure: an empirical study in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, X H; Zeng, S X; Shi, Jonathan J; Qi, G Y; Zhang, Z B

    2014-12-01

    Based on a content analysis of 533 Chinese listed companies, this study examines how corporate environmental performance affects not only the level of detail of a company's environmental disclosures, but also what information is disclosed. The results show that (1) both poor and good performers have more disclosure than the median (i.e., "mixed") performers, which provides empirical evidence to support a nonlinear relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure; (2) poor performers disclose more soft information on environmental performance than good performers, and good performers disclose more solid information; and (3) although poor performers increase disclosure after being exposed as environmental violators, they avoid disclosing negative environmental information, such as the violation and the associated penalties. This study provides additional evidence for a nonlinear relationship between environmental performance and disclosure in emerging markets, and suggests environmental disclosure may not be a valid signal to differentiate good performers from poor performers in contemporary China.

  10. International Aspects of Environmental Education. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, John H., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains four sections which deal with various aspects of international environmental education. Section 1 includes papers that describe environmental education projects and programs in South America, Europe, India, Scotland, the Arab states, and the Sudan. An additional article in this chapter compares the environmental education…

  11. Love Canal: environmental and toxicological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Department of Health has been involved at the Love Canal since 1978. The State has carried out numerous environmental and toxicological studies. The major purposes for these studies were to define how Love Canal contaminants might be escaping into the environment at large, what paths contaminant migration might take, and what toxicological effects Love Canal chemicals might have individually and together. Although underground contaminant migration was hypothesized along swales and underground utility bedding, these mechanisms have been proven not to be operative except for some migration along the utility bedding under Frontier Avenue. In general no underground migration has occurred outside the confines of the three city blocks that contain the Love Canal referred to as the ''first ring''. Studies have been confused by apparent burial of waste materials in areas proximate but not directly connected to the Love Canal. Migration of Love Canal leachate has occurred through storm sewers. Love Canal contaminants have reached creeks to the north and the Niagara River to the south through storm sewer transport. In spite of finding 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin (TCDD), toxicological studies in situ and through exposure to volatile components in Love Canal soils do not indicate unusual toxicity. Animal studies continue in an attempt to determine the teratogenic and fetotoxic potential of Love Canal chemicals under different routes of exposure.

  12. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    SciTech Connect

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  13. Environmental Studies Group progress report for 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.C.; Hurley, J.D.

    1981-01-21

    The 1979 progress report gives descriptions, results, and/or status on programs involving (1) physical transport of radionuclides in blowing dust, (2) radionuclide distributions in the sediment of area water bodies, (3) management of open space lands (including a remote sensing program) at Rocky Flats, (4) the ecology and radioecology of terrestrial open space areas in Plant site lands, (5) biological pathways for radionuclide transport, (6) evaluations of environmental monitoring data on radionuclides in air and water, (7) results of a special soil sampling program on lands adjacent to the Plant site, and (8) two special programs - one concerning evaluations of epidemiological studies of health effects purported to be related to the Plant, and a second that specifies information on accumulations of material in process building filter plenums required for evaluation of potential accidents.

  14. Environmental Education in Action - III: Case Studies of Public Involvement in Environmental Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Clay, Comp.; Desinger, John F., Comp.

    Presented here are 27 case studies of public involvement in environmental policy. These are examples of environmental education or communications programs developed by local, state, regional or national environmental action groups. The reports tell how the groups have successfully, or unsuccessfully, mobilized public opinion in favor of beneficent…

  15. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  16. Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 2. Environmental studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS) investigated conditions in the Jubba Valley of southern Somalia. Projections from that baseline information were intended to elucidate changes likely to occur as a result of construction of a high dam near Baardheere and related developments. In particular, JESS was required to suggest ways of mitigating adverse impacts, enhancing potentially good impacts, and to draw up a program for future environmental and socio-economic monitoring. The report contains an analysis of the Terrestrial Ecology Baseline Studies (TEBS) section of the JESS project. Human use of biological resources is examined from the perspectives of land use, forestry, rangelands, and biological conservation. TEBS activities are used as the basis for a future monitoring program of terrestrial ecology.

  17. Podcasts as tools in introductory environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Vatovec, Christine; Balser, Teri

    2009-01-01

    Technological tools have increasingly become a part of the college classroom, often appealing to teachers because of their potential to increase student engagement with course materials. Podcasts in particular have gained popularity as tools to better inform students by providing access to lectures outside of the classroom. In this paper, we argue that educators should expand course materials to include prepublished podcasts to engage students with both course topics and a broader skill set for evaluating readily available media. We present a pre- and postassignment survey evaluation assessing student preferences for using podcasts and the ability of a podcast assignment to support learning objectives in an introductory environmental studies course. Overall, students reported that the podcasts were useful tools for learning, easy to use, and increased their understanding of course topics. However, students also provided insightful comments on visual versus aural learning styles, leading us to recommend assigning video podcasts or providing text-based transcripts along with audio podcasts. A qualitative analysis of survey data provides evidence that the podcast assignment supported the course learning objective for students to demonstrate critical evaluation of media messages. Finally, we provide recommendations for selecting published podcasts and designing podcast assignments.

  18. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  19. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: ENVIRONMENTAL CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook discusses a variety of data visualization and data interpretation tools that municipal, state and federal government agencies and others hve successfully used in environmental risk communication programs. The handbook presents a variety of tools used by several diff...

  20. Two Superfund environmental justice case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    One of the environmental contributions of the Clinton Administration was Executive Order No. 12898 on Environmental Justice issued in 1994. Environmental justice has received considerable attention in EPA`s Superfund program. Many Superfund sites are located in or close by residential areas composed populated by ethnic minorities and people of the lowest economic status. Over the years, minority communities have often asserted that they have been treated more unfairly than predominantly white, middle class communities, with respect to the quality of environmental cleanups and the relocation of residents. The environmental justice claim is also that these communities have been intentionally placed in harm`s way because of historical racial prejudice and injustice, meaning that either polluting industrial facilities were intentionally placed in minority neighborhoods or that residential areas for minority workers were built close to industrial facilities. This paper presents discussions of two Superfund sites where environmental justice issues have been very important, and it analyzes how specific parts of the Executive Order have been complied with in EPA`s Superfund program.

  1. Identifying environmental sounds: a multimodal mapping study

    PubMed Central

    Tomasino, Barbara; Canderan, Cinzia; Marin, Dario; Maieron, Marta; Gremese, Michele; D'Agostini, Serena; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Our environment is full of auditory events such as warnings or hazards, and their correct recognition is essential. We explored environmental sounds (ES) recognition in a series of studies. In study 1 we performed an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of neuroimaging experiments addressing ES processing to delineate the network of areas consistently involved in ES processing. Areas consistently activated in the ALE meta-analysis were the STG/MTG, insula/rolandic operculum, parahippocampal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally. Some of these areas truly reflect ES processing, whereas others are related to design choices, e.g., type of task, type of control condition, type of stimulus. In study 2 we report on 7 neurosurgical patients with lesions involving the areas which were found to be activated by the ALE meta-analysis. We tested their ES recognition abilities and found an impairment of ES recognition. These results indicate that deficits of ES recognition do not exclusively reflect lesions to the right or to the left hemisphere but both hemispheres are involved. The most frequently lesioned area is the hippocampus/insula/STG. We made sure that any impairment in ES recognition would not be related to language problems, but reflect impaired ES processing. In study 3 we carried out an fMRI study on patients (vs. healthy controls) to investigate how the areas involved in ES might be functionally deregulated because of a lesion. The fMRI evidenced that controls activated the right IFG, the STG bilaterally and the left insula. We applied a multimodal mapping approach and found that, although the meta-analysis showed that part of the left and right STG/MTG activation during ES processing might in part be related to design choices, this area was one of the most frequently lesioned areas in our patients, thus highlighting its causal role in ES processing. We found that the ROIs we drew on the two clusters of activation found in the left and in

  2. Case Studies in Environmental Adult and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E., Ed.; Follen, Shirley, Ed.

    Following an introduction by Darlene E. Clover and Rene Karottki, this booklet provides 16 case studies about nonformal environmental adult education: "Environment and Development in Argentina: Innovative Experiences in Adult Learning" (Raul A. Montenegro); "Learning for Environmental Action: Environmental Adult and Popular Education in Canada"…

  3. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 800 and with the requirements of the Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 469 et seq.), the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.), The... regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), found in 40 CFR parts 1500 through...

  4. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accordance with 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 800 and with the requirements of the Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 469 et seq.), the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.), The... regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), found in 40 CFR parts 1500 through...

  5. The Salaried, Credited Internship in Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Judith M.

    1981-01-01

    If carefully designed and arranged, the credited, salaried internship can serve as a transition to the real world of environmental problem-solving, performance evaluation, and ability to work with peers and supervisors. Presented are guidelines for operating such programs and samples of the internship agreement, responsibilities, and evaluation…

  6. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Enhancement of the Cultural Environment (3 CFR, 1971 through 1975 Comp., p. 559). If these surveys indicate... regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), found in 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. (b) The Secretary shall ensure that all necessary surveys are performed and clearances obtained...

  7. An Environmental Unit for the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Claudia J.

    Based on the inquiry method of learning, this instructional unit attempts to encourage students to discover for themselves the facts, problems, values, conflicts, and potential solutions of an environmental issue. Specifically, it deals with surface mining in the United States, with special focus on surface mining in Illinois. Materials and…

  8. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  9. Gold Creek: Preserving an Environmental Studies Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Suzanne

    In response to a Board of Trustees request for information and recommendations concerning the future use of the Gold Creek property owned by the Los Angeles Community College District, this report emphasizes that the use of this site for instructional field experiences enhances the quality of environmental education for the district's diverse…

  10. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), found in 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508... accordance with 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 800 and with the requirements of the Archaeological and...

  11. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), found in 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508... accordance with 36 CFR parts 60, 63, and 800 and with the requirements of the Archaeological and...

  12. A Study on Environmental Education Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerba, Diana

    The degree of communication between the film industry and educators and its effect on the future directions of environmental education films are the focus of this report. Separate surveys were mailed to 100 film industry producers and distributors and 150 elementary and secondary educators in Maine, Kansas, Pennsylvania, California, and Alabama.…

  13. A Manual for Conducting Environmental Impact Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, L. Ellis, Jr.; And Others

    This report presents methodologies for measuring the anticipated environmental impact of proposed highways at the conceptual, location, and design planning stages. An interdisciplinary team approach is recommended. The research emphasizes the systematic collection and evaluation of data on various types of impacts, including those related to…

  14. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’) and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’) or applied by the management (‘From’). Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may

  15. California Education in Environmental Design and Urban Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lawrence B.

    The purpose of the study was to examine California's needs in the broad field of environmental design and urban studies. Chapter 1 discusses the purposes, methods, and sources of the study. Chapter 2 deals with the Environmental Design Professions which include: architecture, landscape architecture, city planning, and their educational systems.…

  16. Graduate Students, Study of Environmental Literacy and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özgurler, Safa; Cansaran, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of environmental literacy of the graduate students in Amasya University; their approach to environment and environmental issues; and to investigate their beliefs about the sustainable development. The sample of the study is 5 graduate students studying at Amasya University, 3 female and 2 male, in…

  17. Simplified environmental study on innovative bridge structure.

    PubMed

    Bouhaya, Lina; Le Roy, Robert; Feraille-Fresnet, Adélaïde

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a simplified life cycle assessment on an innovative bridge structure, made of wood and ultra high performance concrete, which combines mechanical performance with minimum environmental impact. The environmental analysis was conducted from cradle to grave using the Life Cycle Assessment method. It was restricted to energy release and greenhouse gas emissions. Assumptions are detailed for each step of the analysis. For the wood end-of-life, three scenarios were proposed: dumping, burning, and recycling. Results show that the most energy needed is in the production phase, which represents 73.4% of the total amount. Analysis shows that the renewable energy is about 70% of the production energy. Wood, through its biomass CO2, contributes positively to the environmental impact. It was concluded that no scenario can be the winner on both impacts. Indeed, the end-of-life wood recycling gives the best impact on CO2 release, whereas burning wood, despite its remarkable energy impact is the worst. According to the emphasis given to each impact, designers will be able to choose one or the other. PMID:19368215

  18. Turn Your Schoolgrounds into an Environmental Study Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buetler, Larry, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities that utilize the school grounds as a context to study environmental problems. Activities include surveying the grounds, map making, tree identification, study of plant and animal life, soil studies, and conservation and beautification projects. (MDH)

  19. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides technical guidance that the NRC staff... nuclear power reactors. DATES: Submit comments by October 11, 2011. Comments received after this date...

  20. Undergraduate Education in Environmental Studies, A Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiners, William A.; Smallwood, Frank

    The nine papers included in this volume were presented during the "Working Conference on Undergraduate Education in Environmental Studies" at Dartmouth College. The rationale and strategy for environmental studies at Dartmouth College are considered in part one. Details of the proposed programs at both Dartmouth College and Williams College are…

  1. Environmental Education Study Projects for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This paper has been designed as a general guide to the teacher, student, group, or club interested in identifying environmental or resource problems at the community level and helping to find solutions to them. The paper discusses the independent studies program as a method of studying environmental problems as well as a source of academic credit.…

  2. Environmental control system transducer development study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    A failure evaluation of the transducers used in the environmental control systems of the Apollo command service module, lunar module, and portable life support system is presented in matrix form for several generic categories of transducers to enable identification of chronic failure modes. Transducer vendors were contacted and asked to supply detailed information. The evaluation data generated for each category of transducer were compiled and published in failure design evaluation reports. The evaluation reports also present a review of the failure and design data for the transducers and suggest both design criteria to improve reliability of the transducers and, where necessary, design concepts for required redesign of the transducers. Remedial designs were implemented on a family of pressure transducers and on the oxygen flow transducer. The design concepts were subjected to analysis, breadboard fabrication, and verification testing.

  3. Three decades of environmental specimen banking at the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan.

    PubMed

    Karube, Zin-Ichi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Akinori; Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takagi, Mai; Kinoshita, Ayako; Seyama, Haruhiko; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2015-02-01

    After two decades operation of the initial environmental specimen banking, a new program, Environmental Time Capsule Program, started in 2002 as a government-supported long-term program to construct a firm scientific basis for various environmental research studies. The program consists of long-term environmental specimen banking activity and specimen collection of endangered wildlife and is based on cryogenic sample preservation facility called Environmental Time Capsule building, which completed construction in 2004. After 9 years of extensive research, research focuses have been selected and the program was reorganized to the environmental sample collection part and endangered wildlife collection part in 2011. Due to huge environmental disaster caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and the tsunami as well as subsequent nuclear power plant accident at Fukushima, a new sampling and monitoring program started at affected areas in collaboration with the reorganized environmental sample collection and archiving program. Outlines of the quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities in the program and future perspective under related international activities, particularly Stockholm Convention, are reported.

  4. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Disordered Eating: An Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies indicate significant genetic, but little shared environmental, influences on eating disorders. However, critics argue that study limitations constrain the conclusions that can be drawn. Adoption studies avoid many of these limitations, but to date, no adoption studies of eating pathology have been conducted. The current study was the first adoption study to examine genetic/environmental effects for disordered eating. Participants included 123 adopted and 56 biological female sibling pairs. Disordered eating (i.e., overall eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, weight preoccupation, binge eating) was assessed using the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey. Biometric model-fitting indicated significant genetic influences (59–82%) on all forms of disordered eating, with nonshared environmental factors accounting for the remaining variance. Shared environmental factors did not contribute significantly to any disordered eating symptom. Our findings bolster those from twin studies and provide critical evidence of significant genetic effects on disordered eating symptoms. PMID:19899849

  5. Acquisition of Operational Environmental Literacy in Social Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidan, Nuray Kurtdede; Ay, Tugba Selanik

    2016-01-01

    Environmental literacy can be defined as having necessary perceptions and competency of health and environmental systems and as being active in developing necessary acts about them. Individuals are expected to use their knowledge and concepts in daily life. The aim of this study is to determine students' views about operational environmental…

  6. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  7. Environmental and Planning Studies at the University of Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findley, Roger W.

    1979-01-01

    The University of Illinois College of Law has developed a program in environmental and planning studies that includes interdisciplinary instruction, student internships, interdisciplinary and international research by faculty and graduate fellows, and a strong public service element with close ties to state environmental agencies. (JMD)

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  9. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  10. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 1st Grade - Habitats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade one prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. This…

  11. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 6th Grade - River Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade six prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  12. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 4th Grade - Mangrove Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade four prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  13. Children's environmental knowing: A case study of children's experiences during an environmental education programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Sandra Anne

    This study explores children's experiences during WaterWorlds (pseudonym) a field-based environmental education programme at a marine science centre. The study objectives were to investigate how children understand and interpret their experiences, and how these experiences foster their environmental knowing. To address these objectives, I carried out a case study at a marine science centre in British Columbia. I examined children's WaterWorlds experiences and explored their environmental understandings and commitment to environmental action. I analysed the experiences of children in four separate classes and carried out an in-depth examination of four individual children. Data were collected using informal semi-structured interviews, observations, conversations, researcher journal logs, and student documents including their writing and illustrations. My findings indicate that the WaterWorlds programme experience fosters children's environmental knowing. Participation in WaterWorlds activities led to connection, caring, and concern for other species and in some cases, for the marine environment as a whole. During the programme, children chose the ways they interpreted and expressed their environmental knowledge, ethic of care, advocacy, and commitment to action. This development of each child's self-expression resulted in motivational and powerful learning experiences that inspired and nurtured their connections to the earth. This research provides evidence and examples of how educators can foster children's environmental knowing through multi-disciplinary environmental education experiences. It illustrates that activities such as observing and documenting the lives of other animal species, collecting data and conducting research on those species, and working and learning alongside experts in the field of environmental education are powerful experiences that motivate concern and care for the earth among children.

  14. Environmental confounding in gene-environment interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2013-07-01

    We show that, in the presence of uncontrolled environmental confounding, joint tests for the presence of a main genetic effect and gene-environment interaction will be biased if the genetic and environmental factors are correlated, even if there is no effect of either the genetic factor or the environmental factor on the disease. When environmental confounding is ignored, such tests will in fact reject the joint null of no genetic effect with a probability that tends to 1 as the sample size increases. This problem with the joint test vanishes under gene-environment independence, but it still persists if estimating the gene-environment interaction parameter itself is of interest. Uncontrolled environmental confounding will bias estimates of gene-environment interaction parameters even under gene-environment independence, but it will not do so if the unmeasured confounding variable itself does not interact with the genetic factor. Under gene-environment independence, if the interaction parameter without controlling for the environmental confounder is nonzero, then there is gene-environment interaction either between the genetic factor and the environmental factor of interest or between the genetic factor and the unmeasured environmental confounder. We evaluate several recently proposed joint tests in a simulation study and discuss the implications of these results for the conduct of gene-environment interaction studies.

  15. Environmental ethics and professional practice: A case study of an environmental challenge for century 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, C.

    1995-12-01

    Objective resolution of environmental issues involves questions of facts and values, and, for environmental issues to be resolved ethically, a proper synthesis of environmental facts with questions of ethics must occur. In this case study, the proposal by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to use the Yucca Mountain site in southwest Nevada as a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of the nation`s high-level nuclear waste is examined in part in the context of the {open_quotes}Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals{close_quotes} adopted by the National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP). Current plans are that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site would begin functioning in 2010 and would be sealed after about 150 years. The requirement that a geologic repository must isolate nuclear waste from the environment for at least 10,000 years poses unique challenges to environmental professionals. This case study also analyzes the challenges in terms of the implications of a new federal Executive Order on Ecosystem Management and corresponding internal orders within all federal agencies to conform to the Executive Order. The imposition of the principles and practices of ecosystem-based resource management on federal agencies provides an opportunity to also address, in the context of the DOE Yucca Mountain Project, (1) the ecosystem approach to environmental management, (2) concepts of holistic resource management planning, and (3) the concepts of sustainability and biodiversity. Within this framework there are important implications for environmental ethics and professional practice that must remain at the forefront of concerns of the NAEP over the next two decades.

  16. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments which may... and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal environments of such area or region in a manner... productivity of such environments, to establish trends in the areas studies, and to design...

  17. Marine and Environmental Studies Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    This laboratory manual was developed for a field-oriented high school oceanology program. The organization of the units includes a selection of supplementary activities to allow students to explore ocean studies in more depth. Included are 19 units. The units include biological oceanography, physical oceanography, and some social science topics. A…

  18. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  19. Hypotension and Environmental Noise: A Replication Study

    PubMed Central

    Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich; Thudium, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, traffic noise effect studies focused on hypertension as health outcome. Hypotension has not been considered as a potential health outcome although in experiments some people also responded to noise with decreases of blood pressure. Currently, the characteristics of these persons are not known and whether this down regulation of blood pressure is an experimental artifact, selection, or can also be observed in population studies is unanswered. In a cross-sectional replication study, we randomly sampled participants (age 20–75, N = 807) from circular areas (radius = 500 m) around 31 noise measurement sites from four noise exposure strata (35–44, 45–54, 55–64, >64 Leq, dBA). Repeated blood pressure measurements were available for a smaller sample (N = 570). Standardized information on socio-demographics, housing, life style and health was obtained by door to door visits including anthropometric measurements. Noise and air pollution exposure was assigned by GIS based on both calculation and measurements. Reported hypotension or hypotension medication past year was the main outcome studied. Exposure-effect relationships were modeled with multiple non-linear logistic regression techniques using separate noise estimations for total, highway and rail exposure. Reported hypotension was significantly associated with rail and total noise exposure and strongly modified by weather sensitivity. Reported hypotension medication showed associations of similar size with rail and total noise exposure without effect modification by weather sensitivity. The size of the associations in the smaller sample with BMI as additional covariate was similar. Other important cofactors (sex, age, BMI, health) and moderators (weather sensitivity, adjacent main roads and associated annoyance) need to be considered as indispensible part of the observed relationship. This study confirms a potential new noise effect pathway and discusses potential patho-physiological routes of actions

  20. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  1. Studying the Future Through Environmental Education. Environmental Education Digest No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.

    This digest reviews briefly several futures-oriented efforts of pertinence to educational endeavors, focusing primarily on their environmental aspects. These efforts are considered under headings in the form of six questions. They are: (1) Are future studies scientific? (2) How are projections developed? (3) What do recent futuristic projections…

  2. A Study on the Management Systematize of Environmental Restoration Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoike, Toshiki; Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    In recent years, it has been wrestled an investigation and the soil, groundwater contamination measures business (as follows: the environmental restoration project) that purify it and take measures against about pollution of the soil and groundwater led by a private enterprise. Japan has accumulated rich in restoration projects on the environment. The measures requires a hefty cost, it is clear that variety risks, management techniques are required to establish an efficient environmental restoration projects. In this paper, comparative study of the generation construction and environmentalrestoration projects, said the basic features of environmental restoration projects and trouble cases residents have been there. The types of features of the project for environmental restoration CM and demonstrated the business. To organize a variety of business risks and illustrates the concept of risk management. In addition, the figure of a management system based on its severity and the relationship between each elements and the business.

  3. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Summer undergraduate research program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns.

  4. Student-Made Environmental Studies Equipment, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    Twenty-two projects are described in this booklet. Materials necessary for construction can be obtained for little cost or as salvaged parts. Equipment produced by these projects can be used in the collection and study of plants and animals and in the study of environmental quality parameters such as air quality and soil conditions. Construction…

  5. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  6. Manpower for Environmental Pollution Control: A Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency from the Committee for Study of Environmental Manpower. Analytical Studies for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    The Committee for Study of Environmental Manpower (CSEM), responsible for this report, was appointed by the Commission on Human Resources to review the literature in the field of environmental manpower and to make recommendations. The Committee involved experts from government, industry, environmental organizations, and the general public. In this…

  7. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Dunagan, Sarah C; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Patton, Sharyle; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-05-26

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual's results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret getting

  8. An Environmental Studies Enrichment Program an UNC Pembroke

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, Andrew N.

    2001-12-19

    This document represents a final report of four years of activities at UNC Pembroke concerning DOE grant number DE-FG02-96EW13510, entitled An Environmental Studies Enrichment Program at UNC Pembroke. The four-year cycle has been extremely successful. An overview of the training program is presented and success of program graduates is estimated.

  9. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology.

  10. A Collaborative Problem-Solving Process through Environmental Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mijung; Tan, Hoe Teck

    2013-01-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students ("n" =?16; age 14) and high-school students…

  11. A Curriculum Activities Guide to In-Depth Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This guide is the fourth in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It utilizes a three-level activity approach: awareness, transitional, and operational. The intent is to provide investigations that will motivate students to pursue in-depth studies, thus encouraging them to generate…

  12. Environmental Studies, Conference Report, Secondary Schools Science Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    In addition to complete texts or summaries of a number of papers considering the scope and relevance of "environmental studies" to the secondary and elementary school programs in Victoria (Australia), many teaching techniques are described. Techniques for measuring carrying capacity of roadways, examining published air pollution data, estimation…

  13. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 6--Social Studies Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Based on the environment and directed at elementary and intermediate level students, 5 field trips are a significant part of the 12 social studies activities in the sixth booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center outlining environmental and outdoor education activities. Most of the activities include objectives, activity description,…

  14. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environment Studies, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books, articles, films, and organizations dealing with the earth and environmental studies. In addition to the above topics of a general nature, specific categories include food, natural resources, origin of life, recycling, and wastes. Items are indexed only by title but information…

  15. Programs in Environmental Studies Part Three: Special Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions of special programs in environmental studies. They include: historical geography (University of Illinois); internship program (Miami University); public service projects (Miami University); philosophy of ecology program (University of Montana); and a research program at the Center for Conservation Biology (Stanford…

  16. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... decommissioning. II. Further Information DG-4016, was published in the Federal Register on August 12, 2011 (76 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  17. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  18. Greenwich Township Environmental Analysis: A Field Study 1972-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahorik, J. Wesley, Ed.

    This project attempted to develop a baseline on which the community could assess its own local environment. The objectives of the study include developing a list of references and resources, developing an assessment model for community use, composing an environmental quality index, determining areas to be protected and persuading decision-making…

  19. Environmental Study Area Prototype, Idea Sketch No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueblo Regional Planning Commission, CO.

    Development of an environmental study area in conjunction with a school landscaping project is outlined in this model. The Pueblo (Colorado) Regional Planning Commission and the Pueblo Beautiful Association determined the need for landscaping school grounds. Together with a school district committee of teachers and community leaders interested in…

  20. Environmental Concern and Sociodemographic Variables: A Study of Statistical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chenyang; McCright, Aaron M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the social bases of environmental concern over the past 30 years have produced somewhat inconsistent results regarding the effects of sociodemographic variables, such as gender, income, and place of residence. The authors argue that model specification errors resulting from violation of two statistical assumptions (interval-level…

  1. Spacelab Phase B study environmental control system component handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. A.; Ignatonis, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Descriptions are given of candidate components for the Phase B Study of the Spacelab environmental control system. Most of the hardware was defined for the baseline ECS design concept. A low cost design approach was followed, with most of the components being selected from the Apollo and Skylab Programs.

  2. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the United States. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more…

  4. Environmental process improvement feasibility study and demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodger L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final product of an environmental study conducted by Western Commercial Space Center, Inc. under contract to Tennessee-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. The purpose of this investigation is to accurately document the current environmental and permitting processes associated with commercial space launch activity at Vandenberg AFB, and make recommendations to streamline those processes. The particular areas of interest focus on: identifying applicable Federal, state, and local laws, Department of Defense directives, and Air force regulations; defining the environmental process on Vandenberg AFB and how it relates with other agencies, including Federal and state regulatory agencies; and defining the air quality permit process. Study investigation results are applied to an example Pilot Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV) planning to launch from Vandenberg AFB. The PSLV space hardware is analyzed with respect to environmental and permitting issues associated with vehicle processing, facilities required (existing or new), and launch. The PSLV verified the earlier findings of the study and gave insight into streamlining recommendations.

  5. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  6. National Children's Study: environmental exposures in Waukesha County.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Jane A; Anderson, Henry A; Durkin, Maureen S; Cronk, Christine E

    2006-03-01

    The National Children's Study (NCS), launched in September of 2005, will investigate the effects of environmental exposures and children's health and development. Waukesha County, Wis was selected as 1 of 7 sites to spearhead this ambitious undertaking. Residents of Waukesha County may experience different kinds of environmental exposures from water, land, and air based on where they live, work, and play. A selected number of Waukesha County's environmental exposures described briefly in this report will serve the NCS well with their heterogeneity of potential exposures: from private well water and community water supplies that obtain water from both surface and groundwater; from the variable exposures to ambient air pollution from mobile sources, local industrial sources, and distant sources (ozone); and the different levels of exposures from soil and dust depending on the prevalence of pesticide use and lead-based paints. By combining data gathered from Waukesha County's participants with other study sites, a holistic picture of environmental exposures in the United States can be evaluated as it influences the health of our nation's children.

  7. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The issue of the effects of the space environment on spacecraft needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 KeV - 2.5 MeV can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 KeV to 2.5 MeV. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly less than 400 nm wavelength, is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study in order to perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. That system has continued to function as planned and has been used in carrying out portions of the proposed study.

  8. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  9. Environmentally adjusted productivity measurement: an Australian case study.

    PubMed

    Nanere, Marthin; Fraser, Iain; Quazi, Ali; D'Souza, Clare

    2007-10-01

    This paper critically examines various methods for estimating productivity incorporating environmental effects for the Australian agricultural sector. The agricultural sector has been selected because of its strategic position in the economy of Australia. The findings of this study indicate that the application of environmentally adjusted productivity methods is a credible approach to measure productivity, in the context of sustainable development. Although the empirical findings of this research are case study specific, the results provide evidence supporting the adoption of these techniques to other sectors of the economy when measuring productivity and needing to be cognisant of sustainable development. The findings suggest that adjusting for the environmental impacts of soil erosion can result in higher or lower agricultural productivity depending on the assumptions we make regarding damage costs of erosion. It is argued in this paper that, for soil erosion in Australia, assumptions yielding higher productivity (i.e., upwardly adjusted) are justified. Finally, the findings of this study and the use of the methods presented point to important gaps in data availability. This gap needs to be addressed by policy makers if sustainable development objectives are to be credibly assessed using these techniques.

  10. Environmental fate and aquatic toxicology studies on phthalate esters.

    PubMed Central

    Group, E F

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive environmental fate and effects testing program, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) Phthalate Esters Program Panel, has been completed. Based on the results, a preliminary safety assessment has shown that all of the 14 commercially important phthalates tested have sufficiently high safety factors to demonstrate low potential for adverse environmental effects. This program comprised acute toxicity studies on nine representative species of aquatic life, chronic reproduction studies on Daphnia magna, biodegradation (fate) testing, and physicochemical property (mobility) determinations on 14 phthalate esters. The objectives of this program were to determine for each test compound: The concentration at which effects on aquatic life might occur, the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic life, and the relative persistence in the environment. These data would provide the basis for an environmental safety assessment and would identify potential effects that might require further investigation. A total of 195 individual studies were carried out. Tests on a wide variety of aquatic organisms representing different food chain levels in both fresh and salt water environments showed that no single test species was unusually sensitive to the test materials. The higher molecular weight (longer side-chain) phthalates exhibited no toxic effects up to their limits of water solubility in the test systems. Even though the lower molecular weight, more water-soluble phthalates produced toxic effects below their limits of water solubility, no product exhibited unusually severe effects of concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3709460

  11. Environmental fate and aquatic toxicology studies on phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Group, E.F. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    A comprehensive environmental fate and effects testing program, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) Phthalate Esters Program Panel, has been completed. Based on the results, a preliminary safety assessment has shown that all of the 14 commercially important phthalates tested have sufficiently high safety factors to demonstrate low potential for adverse environmental effects. This program comprised acute toxicity studies on nine representative species of aquatic life, chronic reproduction studies on Daphnia magna, biodegradation (fate) testing, and physicochemical property (mobility) determinations on 14 phthalate esters. The objectives of this program were to determine for each test compound: The concentration at which effects on aquatic life might occur, the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic life, and the relative persistence in the environment. These data would provide the basis for an environmental safety assessment and would identify potential effects that might require further investigation. A total of 195 individual studies were carried out. Tests on a wide variety of aquatic organisms representing different food chain levels in both fresh and salt water environments showed that no single test species was unusually sensitive to the test materials. The higher molecular weight (longer side-chain) phthalates exhibited no toxic effects up to their limits of water solubility in the test systems. Even though the lower molecular weight, more water-soluble phthalates produced toxic effects below their limits of water solubility, no product exhibited unusually severe effects of concern.

  12. Recent Developments in College Level Environmental Studies Courses and Programs. ERIC/SMEAC Environmental Education Digest No. 2, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.; And Others

    This digest identifies characteristics of successful higher education programs in environmental studies and trends in environmental studies programs and courses. Characteristics of programs that have continued for the past two decades are listed. Some of the variables associated with programs that have not continued are identified. Recent trends…

  13. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  14. Acid rain draft study released: No environmental emergency found

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.

    1990-10-11

    This article discusses the findings released in the draft study of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Some areas where acidic deposition and related air pollution is evident include 10 percent of eastern lakes and streams, visibility reduction throughout the eastern US and large metropolitan areas of the West, erosion and corrosion damage to stone and metal structures and cultural resources, and a reduction in cold tolerance of red spruce trees at high elevations. Human health effects have not been clearly demonstrated. The report tied sulfur dioxide emissions to regions of high acidic deposition. The problem is characterized as not an environmental emergency but a long term problem that should be addressed with minimum impact on other environmental goals and with efficient use of the nations economic and energy resources.

  15. Application of ERTS imagery to environmental studies of Lake Champlain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS Imagery has provided data relating to a number of environmental and limnological concerns such as water quality, lake flooding and lake ice formation. Pollution plume data provided by ERTS was recently used in the Supreme Court case involving the States of Vermont and New York and a paper company. Flooding of lowland tracts has been a major concern due to a repetitive pattern of high lake levels over the past three years, and ERTS imagery is being used to construct the first series of flood maps of the affected areas. Lake ice development and turbidity patterns have also been studied from ERTS, since these have significance for shore erosion studies.

  16. Our School at Blair Grocery: A Case Study in Promoting Environmental Action through Critical Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2012-01-01

    Despite wide agreement on the goals of environmental education (EE), the promotion of action is still considered contentious. Critical environmental education (critical EE) teaches students to combine critical reflection with the ability to engage in local action to address social/environmental problems. This article examines a critical urban…

  17. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: a Czech case study.

    PubMed

    Havlikova, Martina; Kroeze, Carolien

    2010-07-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the 2 most important problems caused by dairy cattle. These problems are largely caused by nitrate leaching and emissions from animal housing. The DAIRY model indicates that the costs of reducing the OEI in 2020 by 20% are 12 MEuro. It is most cost effective to achieve this reduction by improving the efficiency of animal manure used as fertilizer. We tested the sensitivity of the model to assumptions about the following: 1) the relative importance of environmental problems as expressed in weighting factors, and 2) future cattle numbers and milk yield per milking cow. The first case indicates that disagreement on which problem is most urgent need not lead to disagreement about policies to be undertaken. Regardless of the weighting factors used, aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the most important problems. However, the overall costs of reducing the OEI differ with alternative sets of weighting factors, because the costs of emission reduction differ among pollutants. The second case shows that the DAIRY model results are more sensitive to changes in cattle numbers than to changes in milk yield. This study is the first integrated assessment of dairy cattle production for a Central European country and illustrates how systematic analyses may help to find optimal solutions.

  18. Environmental regulatory compliance on army lands: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Robert B.; Laven, Richard D.

    1993-05-01

    A “finding of no significant impact” (FONSI) resulting from an environmental assessment (EA) was reported by the US Army in June 1986 for the construction and utilization of a multipurpose range complex (MPRC) at the Pohakuloa Training Area, Hawaii. There was little public response, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service and state agencies were consulted and had few comments concerning the results of the botanical surveys used in the assessment. Construction of the 24 million project was begun in 1988. Near the end of construction in 1989 a lawsuit was filed to halt construction because an environmental impact statement (EIS) had not been done for the project, and the plaintiff thought that significant damage had occurred to several unusual ecosystems. Judgment was against the plaintiff and construction continued. An appeal was filed with the 9th Circuit Court. As MPRC construction was nearly complete, and on advice of Department of Justice lawyers, the Department of Army agreed to settle out of court. The settlement in part called for: (1) the plaintiff to drop the appeal and allow construction to be completed as scheduled, and (2) the Department of Army to prepare an EIS for the operation of the MPRC. A subsequent botanical survey for the EIS discovered one endangered plant species, four category 1 candidate plant species (taxa with sufficient data to support listing as endangered or threatened), three category 2 candidate plant species (taxa with some evidence of vulnerability but insufficient data to support listing at this time), one category 3a species (presumably extinct taxa), and possibly three undescribed species growing within the MPRC boundary. The MPRC case study is an excellent example of why the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) must be modified to require in-depth and thorough environmental surveys.

  19. An Experimental Study of a WSN System for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Davis, T. W.; Hare, T. P.; Navarro, M.; Liang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are being increasingly utilized to monitor environmental, biological and hydrological processes. This is an investigation of WSN applications using MEMSIC's (previously Crossbow's) XMesh routing protocol on MICAz wireless motes. The factors that are examined include the use of XMesh's high power and low power operation modes and the data transmission intervals. The focus of this study is to understand the battery savings, route utilization and success rate of data transmissions using XMesh. Preliminary results showed little variation in mote battery life tested over various transmission intervals under both power modes. Further examination uncovered additional messages (health statistics and routing updates) that were being transmitted in addition to forwarded messages through the multi-hop style network. Route utilization was identified and for certain motes was shown to attribute up to 50% of the mote's battery life in the low power mode. A field study of a small testbed of motes was conducted for comparative purposes. The results from the field study were analogous with the laboratory tests with regards to the battery life and route utilization, however, the network reliability was found to be considerably lower in the field. The information ascertained in this study are for the purposes of better understanding the power use and networking abilities of wireless motes using the XMesh routing protocol for environmental monitoring.

  20. A Collaborative Problem-solving Process Through Environmental Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijung; Teck Tan, Hoe

    2013-02-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students (n = 16; age 14) and high-school students (n = 16; age 17) from two Singapore public institutions participated in an environmental science field study to experience knowledge integration and a decision-making process. Students worked on six research topics to understand the characteristics of an organic farm and plan for building an ecological village. Students collected and analysed data from the field and shared their findings. Their field work and discussions were video-recorded, and their reflective notes and final reports were collected for data coding and interpretation. The results revealed that throughout the study, students experienced the needs and development of integrated knowledge, encountered the challenges of knowledge sharing and communication during their collaboration, and learned how to cope with the difficulties. Based on research findings, this study further discusses students' learning through a collaborative problem-solving process, including the interdependence of knowledge and the development of mutual relationships such as respect and care for others' knowledge and learning.

  1. An environmental radionuclide baseline study near three Canadian naval ports

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, E.J.; Cole, D. )

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes an environmental radionuclide baseline study undertaken for the Department of National Defence in Canada. The purpose of the project was to establish levels of radionuclides present in the environment around areas where nuclear propelled vessels may be berthed. Specifically, this report describes environmental baselines near Halifax (Nova Scotia), Esquimalt (British Columbia), and Nanoose Bay (British Columbia). Valued ecosystem component samples were taken from dairy farms, beef producers, market gardens, vegetables, tree fruits and berries within the study areas, as well as marine bivalves (mussels and clams), salmon, seaweed, and food from native fisheries. Numerous naturally occurring isotopes were detected and quantified. The only non-naturally occurring isotope positively identified was in the form of trace quantities of [sup 131]I, measured in the Halifax study zone (attributed to local hospital cancer therapy). [sup 137]Cs is the only other anthropogenic radionuclide detected. Its origin may be the combination of fallout from the Chernobyl accident and fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. The results indicate that nuclear-powered vessels have not resulted in activity levels that would contribute a significant radiation exposure to the public, the biota, and the environment within the three study zones.

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  3. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of Environmental Values and Their Effect on the Environmental Behavior of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Environmental values (EV) are regarded as significant precursors for environmental behavior (EB) by many scholars. The present study addresses the issue of the invariance of EV (tapped by the two-dimensional model of ecological values), and their effect on EB, across cultural contexts. In all, a total of 1,833 ten- to thirteen-year-old children…

  5. Environmental Education Curriculum Guide - K-Grade 5. [Ah-Nei, The Special Classroom Environmental Education Study Area].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of Interior), Billings, MT.

    This is a curriculum guide for environmental education designed for use in grades K-5. While the guide is designed to be used in a Montana environmental education study area, most activities can be used directly in other locations; others can be adapted. Included are: (1) a discussion of ecological terms, (2) a list of vocabulary words, (3)…

  6. Pre-operational radio-environmental studies of Plant Vogtle

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.; Sigg, R.A.

    1989-05-01

    This baseline study evaluates radioactivity in the environment near Plant Vogtle before initial reactor startup in 1987. These data will distinguish between any future radio-environmental effects from SRS and Plant Vogtle. Alpha, beta, and gamma-spectrometric methods analyzed river, stream, sediment, and soil samples. The study detected manmade radionuclides {sup 3}H, {sup 60}Co, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu. However, all concentration levels are extremely low and are consistent with levels expected from fallout and from SRS operations in its early years. The measurements begun in this study continue to be used to monitor Vogtle post-startup effluents. 12 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Use of time to pregnancy to study environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, D.D.; Wilcox, A.J.; Weinberg, C.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is need in reproductive epidemiology for sensitive and convenient screening tools that can be used to study environmental and occupational exposures. The measurement of fecundability (the probability of pregnancy in each cycle) by ascertaining how long it takes couples to conceive, may be useful for this purpose. Theoretically, exposures that interfere with any of the biologic processes involved in achieving pregnancy could lower fecundability among exposed men or women. To evaluate problems with collecting data on time to pregnancy, telephone interviews were conducted with nearly 700 pregnant women who reported having planned their pregnancies. Power curves were developed based on the distribution of time to pregnancy in the interviewed population. These curves indicate that relatively small sample sizes are sufficient for investigating an exposure. For example, the authors estimate that to detect a given 50% drop in mean fecundability with 80% power would require data from 55 exposed and 55 unexposed women who are pregnant. Disadvantages of using time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint include susceptibility to selection bias and need for data on several potential confounding variables. The next step in evaluating time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint is to apply it in studies of environmental or occupational exposures.

  8. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  9. Environmental justice and health: a study of multiple environmental deprivation and geographical inequalities in health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Jamie R; Richardson, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Richard J; Shortt, Niamh K

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing interest in the unequal socio-spatial distribution of environmental 'goods' and 'bads' and the associated implications for geographical inequalities in health. Until recently, research in this area has focused on solitary environmental characteristics and has been hindered by the absence of geographically-specific measures that recognise the multifactorial nature of the physical environment. However, recent work in the United Kingdom has developed an area-level multivariate index of health-related physical environmental deprivation that captures both pathogenic and salutogenic environmental characteristics. Applications of this index have demonstrated that, at the national level, multiple environmental deprivation increased as the degree of income deprivation rose. Further, after adjusting for key confounders, there was a significant association between multiple environmental deprivation and the health outcomes of local residents. In the current study we tested the methods developed in the UK to create the New Zealand Multiple Environmental Deprivation Index (NZ-MEDIx) for small areas across the country (n = 1860). We considered whether socially disadvantaged places in New Zealand had higher levels of multiple environmental deprivation, and if environmental disadvantage exerted an influence on health after adjustment for key confounders such as socioeconomic status. We found that although neighbourhoods with higher levels of multiple environmental deprivation tended to have greater social disadvantage, this association was not linear. Further, multiple environmental deprivation tended to exert a modest effect on health that was independent of the age, sex and socioeconomic structure of the population. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to develop an index of multiple environmental deprivation in an alternative national context which has utility in epidemiological investigations.

  10. [The contribution of cancer registries in environmental health studies].

    PubMed

    Comba, P; Fazzo, L; Fusco, M; Benedetti, M; Pirastu, R; Ricci, P

    2011-01-01

    Cancer incidence is an outcome of interest in studies assessing the health impact of polluted sites, for which an example is represented by SENTIERI Project. Incidence data are characterized by better diagnostic quality and are not influenced by survival factors, furthermore they allow the investigation of high-survival neoplasms (i.e. childhood cancer) and rare malignancies. Furthermore, the study of incidence is more informative than mortality for non-lethal tumours, therefore it represents an advancement in respect to the study of mortality completed in SENTIERI Project. In the last decade in Italy some environmental epidemiology studies used cancer register data, for example the Biancavilla (Sicily) investigation on fluoro-edenite related mesothelioma and the study in an area of Naples Province where hazardous waste was extensively dumped. In this frame, ISS planned some collaborative studies with Siracusa, Mantua and Ferrara cancer Registries, where three major polluted sites are located. Following these pilot studies an ISS-AIRTUM (Italian Association of Cancer Registries) collaborative study has been planned. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention, devoted to the Project.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM CASE STUDIES: DEMONSTRATING PROGRAM OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This bookle...

  12. Environmental Technology Verification Program - ETV - Case Studies: Demonstrating Program Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This cd con...

  13. A Study of the Environmental Risk Perceptions and Environmental Awareness Levels of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anilan, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive research was conducted to determine the levels of environmental risk perceptions and environmental awareness of high school students in Eskisehir. High school students in the towns Tepebasi and Odunpazari in the 2010-2011 school years constitute the universe of the research. The sample of the research is composed of 413 high…

  14. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) and the IPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, J.; Schlosser, P.

    2003-12-01

    Recent studies of the arctic environment have revealed unexpected changes including lower sea-level atmospheric pressure, increased air temperature over most of the Arctic, but lower temperatures over eastern North America and Greenland, changed ocean circulation and rising coastal sea level, warmer Atlantic waters penetrating farther in the Arctic Ocean, reduced sea ice cover, and thawing permafrost. These changes are affecting every part of the arctic environment and are having repercussions on society. To understand the recent observations and put them into the context of natural variability and anthropogenic forcing, a multi-disciplinary, multi-agency program, has recently been developed. This program, SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change), has the potential to significantly contribute to the IPY by creating a framework for extensive new observations and placing the results into the context of a changing physical, biological, and social environment. Our contribution will outline SEARCH and explore its possible connectivity with the IPY.

  15. Satellite Imaging in the Study of Pennsylvania's Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nous, Albert P.

    This document focuses on using satellite images from space in the classroom. There are two types of environmental satellites routinely broadcasting: (1) Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), and (2) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). Imaging and visualization techniques provide students with a better…

  16. Handbook of Environmental Education with International Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saveland, Robert N., Ed.

    This handbook of environmental education was sponsored by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It provides information on the methods of environmental education and promotes the exchange of details of new methods and materials. The book describes the present world position in environmental education and points the way for…

  17. The Role of Field Study in Humanistic and Interdisciplinary Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alagona, Peter S.; Simon, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that field courses can improve college students' interest and engagement not only in the environmental sciences, but also in the environmental humanities--including environmental history, philosophy, and literature. We base this argument on five years of experience teaching an environmental studies field course through the…

  18. A Study of Predictors of Environmental Behaviour using U.S. Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, Archibald P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a study done with the intentions of determining the relative contribution of eight variables in predicting environmental behavior. Concluded that the major predictors were skill in using environmental action strategies, level of environmental sensitivity, and percieved knowledge of environmental action strategies. (TW)

  19. Environmental Literacy among Preservice Social Studies Teachers: A Review of the Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Biodun; Ifegbesan, Ayodeji

    2011-01-01

    This mini-survey assessed the environmental literacy level of preservice teachers in a Nigerian university through 199 social studies teacher-trainees. It found a high level of awareness/knowledge on local environmental problems but low level on global environmental issues. Although a positive disposition toward environmental issues was…

  20. Environmental contaminant studies by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of environmental contaminants on wildlife is geared to interpreting events in the field, especially population effects, and both field and laboratory studies are planned for this purpose; procedures are adapted to specific problems and therefore do not include strict protocols or routine testing. Field evaluations include measurements of cholinesterase inhibition in brain or blood, search for dead or disabled animals, study of nesting success of birds, and general ecological observations. Residue analyses are used in evaluating organochlorine chemicals; samples may include whole bodies for determining level of exposure, brains for mortality diagnosis, whole blood for certain special studies, and eggs to help in evaluation of possible reproductive effects. Bird counts, singing-male census counts, small mamrnal trapping, and cage-in-field tests have proven to be ineffective or misleading and are not considered suitable for field evaluations under most circumstances. Usefulness of simulated field trials is limited to very special situations. Experimental studies that help predict and interpret field effects include determinations of lethal diagnostic levels, comparative lethal dietary toxicity tests, tests of secondary poisoning measurement of residue loss rates, measurement of blood enzymes, tests of behavioral effects, and studies of reproductive effects.

  1. A large scale flume for hydro-environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Casalí, Javier; Hermosín, Maria del Carmen; Mateos, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of key hydrologic processes such as, water erosion, rill network development or agrochemical transport, requires controlled experiments at the appropriate scale. This is the reason for experimentation at flume scale in hydro-environmental research, used for many decades in this field. This communication presents a research infrastructure, recently completed in its first stage, consisting of a large flume for studying soil water erosion, sediment transport, and environmental processes such as the transport of different substances (salts, fertilizers, herbicides, carbon, …) rather dissolved or absorbed with the sediment. It is located at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) in Córdoba, Spain. The flume is 0.6 m deep, 12 m long, and 6 m wide. It may be divided longitudinally into three channels (6 m long, 1 m wide). The slope of the flume can be regulated from 0 % to 20 %. The device allows studying free surface flows over movable beds with different conditions of sediment transport by supplying clear or sediment-laden water from its head system. The head system consists of three triangular weirs for accurate measurement of water flow, three stilling tanks at the entrance of the flume, and three vibratory hoppers for applying sediments at pre-set rates. The water can be re-circulated, the maximum inflow is then about 30 l s-1, or evacuated, then the inflow is limited to about 20 l s-1. The infrastructure is within a shelter with an area of 400 m2 and height 8.7 m. The area of the shelter allows in-door mechanical preparation of soil and sediments. The height of the shelter will allow the installation of the rainfall simulator and a light rail crane in a second stage, not started yet. Several experiments have been planned at IAS-CSIC already, particularly investigation of the water erosion and sediment transport processes in concentrated flows under different soil conditions, as well as hydrodynamics aspects of suspended and bed

  2. Environmentally Responsible Aviation N plus 2 Advanced Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Harris, Christopher A.; Komadina, Steven C.; Wang, Donny P.; Bender, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the Northrop Grumman final report for the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) N+2 Advanced Vehicle Study performed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Northrop Grumman developed advanced vehicle concepts and associated enabling technologies with a high potential for simultaneously achieving significant reductions in emissions, airport area noise, and fuel consumption for transport aircraft entering service in 2025. A Preferred System Concept (PSC) conceptual design has been completed showing a 42% reduction in fuel burn compared to 1998 technology, and noise 75dB below Stage 4 for a 224- passenger, 8,000 nm cruise transport aircraft. Roadmaps have been developed for the necessary technology maturation to support the PSC. A conceptual design for a 55%-scale demonstrator aircraft to reduce development risk for the PSC has been completed.

  3. Study on Circular Complex viewed from Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeguchi, Tomoo; Adachi, Katsushige; Yoshikawa, Akira; Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsujino, Ryoji; Iguchi, Manabu

    In machining processes, cutting fluids are generally used for cooling and lubricating workpieces at the point cutting. However, these fluids frequently include chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus, or other additives. The chemicals not only become a mist affecting the health of workers engaged in the processing but also make the workshop environment worse. In particular, the chlorine becomes one of the causes of global warming by treating waste oil under high temperature conditions. It is furthermore said that huge cost beyond the purchase cost of oil occurs and dioxins (carcinogen) usually exist in the waste oil. Therefore, an environmentally-friendly cooling-air cutting system is required from the standpoint of green manufacturing. This system has been noted as a technique to solve the issues against the environment mentioned above. In the cooling-air cutting processing, the amount of CO2 emission shows a low value compared with the dry cutting one which uses oil. It is therefore thought that the cooling-air cutting system is a very important processing technique as an environmental countermeasure. At present, in strictly economic and environmental situations, the compatibility of the betterment of production efficiency with the improvement of environment is a subject in the actual spot of a cut processing. This study deals with the test results of cooling-air drilling performance from the viewpoint of taking green manufacturing into account. The workpiece made of die steel SKDll was manufactured by the cooling-air drilling performance at a revolution of 840 rpm and a temperature of -20°C with a high-speed steel drill (SKH56). The results were compared with those for the dry cutting performance. The main results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) The tool life for cooling-air drilling performance was about 6 times as long as that for the dry cutting performance. 2) The chip temperature for cooling-air drilling was 220°C lower than that for the dry cutting

  4. Review of Chinese Environmental Risk Assessment Regulations and Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Yuchao; Lou, In Chio; Gao, Jixi

    2012-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment is an essential step in the development of solutions for pollution problems and new environmental regulations. An assessment system for environmental risks has been developed in China in recent decades. However, many of the Chinese technical guidelines, standards, and regulations were directly adapted from those of developed countries, and were not based on the Chinese environmental and socioeconomic context. Although existing environmental regulations for pollutants are usually obtained by extrapolations from high-dose toxicological data to low-dose scenarios using linear-non-threshold (LNT) models, toxicologists have argued that J-shaped or inverse J-shaped curves may dominate the dose–response relationships for environmental pollutants at low doses because low exposures stimulate biological protective mechanisms that are ineffective at higher doses. The costs of regulations based on LNT and J-shaped models could therefore be dramatically different. Since economic factors strongly affect the decision-making process, particularly for developing countries, it is time to strengthen basic research to provide more scientific support for Chinese environmental regulations. In this paper, we summarize current Chinese environmental policies and standards and the application of environmental risk assessment in China, and recommend a more scientific approach to the development of Chinese regulations. PMID:22740787

  5. Hedonic Studies: Valuing Environmental Amenities in Northern New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Carrie M.

    This dissertation explores three environmental policy issues affecting Northern New York. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the specific topics discussed in this dissertation. In Chapter 2, the impact of commercial wind power facilities on property values in Clinton, Franklin and Lewis counties are addressed using 11,331 transactions over nine years. A fixed effects framework controls for omitted variables and endogeneity biases. This research shows that nearby wind facilities reduce property values in two of the three counties studied, indicating that existing compensation schemes may not be sufficient to prevent a loss. Chapter 3 uses 14,929 transactions to explore how property owners value lake water quality using fixed effects hedonic analysis. This issue is concerning for the region since surface water quality is threatened by acid and mercury deposition. Results show that multiple measures of water quality have significant effects on property values including lake acidity, clarity, and impairment classification. Furthermore, the presence of loons and fish on the nearest lake positively impacts property values by 9% and 6%, respectively. This research helps quantify pollution impacts and could be used to justify additional Clean Air Act regulations that would benefit the Park. The last chapter explores the effects of the Adirondack Park Agency's land use plan that was developed in 1973 to protect sensitive environmental areas. Results of hedonic modeling and propensity score matching, applied to 88,610 transactions, show that lands in the Park classified for moderate intensity use sell at a premium while lands in more restrictive classes are discounted. There is also evidence that land use restrictions provide additional protection from human impacts, and that decreasing human impacts, proximity to forests and lakes all increase property values.

  6. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Applied to Hydrocarbon Resource Development Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Ball, L. B.; Finn, C.; Kass, A.; Thamke, J.

    2014-12-01

    Application of airborne geophysical surveys ranges in scale from detailed site scale such as locating abandoned well casing and saline water plumes to landscape scale for mapping hydrogeologic frameworks pertinent to ground water and tectonic settings relevant to studies of induced seismicity. These topics are important in understanding possible effects of hydrocarbon development on the environment. In addition airborne geophysical surveys can be used in establishing baseline "snapshots", to provide information in beneficial uses of produced waters, and in mapping ground water resources for use in well development. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted airborne geophysical surveys over more than 20 years for applications in energy resource environmental studies. A majority of these surveys are airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys to map subsurface electrical conductivity related to plumes of saline waters and more recently to map hydrogeologic frameworks for ground water and plume migration. AEM surveys have been used in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to characterize the near surface geologic framework for siting produced water disposal ponds and for beneficial utilization in subsurface drip irrigation. A recent AEM survey at the Fort Peck Reservation, Montana, was used to map both shallow plumes from brine pits and surface infrastructure sources and a deeper concealed saline water plume from a failed injection well. Other reported applications have been to map areas geologically favorable for shallow gas that could influence drilling location and design. Airborne magnetic methods have been used to image the location of undocumented abandoned well casings which can serve as conduits to the near surface for coproduced waters. They have also been used in conjunction with geologic framework studies to understand the possible relationships between tectonic features and induced earthquakes in the Raton Basin. Airborne gravity as well as developing deeper

  7. Environmental concepts in rural Honduras: A case study of their range and application within environmental education design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Robert Sanders

    1998-12-01

    The rate of environmental degradation in the Third World continues to present residents of countries like Honduras with conditions that threaten the quality of life and ecological systems. How people conceptualize their environment could be a point of entry into a greater understanding of environmental problems. Through individual interviews and focus group discussions, this study comprises a qualitative examination of the environmental concepts of a sample of 75 rural Hondurans. Analysis of their concepts was used to construct a tentative interpretation of the rural Honduran worldview characteristics of Self, Other, Relationship, Classification, Causality, Time, and Space. The findings of this investigation indicated that rural Hondurans conceptualize their environment through the worldview lenses of survival and poverty, leading to a sense of fatalism when confronting the complex and multifaceted problems associated with quality of life and environmental quality. Analysis of concepts and worldview also indicated that rural Hondurans generally do not believe their environmental problems are solvable, nor do they appear to understand that these problems are also cultural problems whose solutions will most likely require some revision of their current worldview. An educational approach that fosters the integration of compatible environmental concepts into the rural Honduran worldview is recommended through the application of design strategies for a prospective environmental education process.

  8. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  9. Spectroscopic studies of uranium species for environmental decontamination applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, Charlotte

    After the Cold War, Department of Energy began to concentrate its efforts on cleanup of former nuclear material processing facilities, especially uranium-contaminated groundwater and soil. This research aims to study uranium association to both organic and inorganic compounds found in the contaminated environment in the hopes that the information gathered can be applied to the development and optimization of cost-effective remediation techniques. Spectroscopic and electrochemical methods will be employed to examine the behavior of uranium in given conditions to further our understanding of its impact on the environment. Uranium found in groundwater and soil bind with various ligands, especially organic ligands present in the environment due to natural sources (e.g. metabolic by-products or degradation of plants and animals) or man-made sources (e.g. chelating agents used in operating or cleanup of uranium processing facilities). We selected reasonable analogs of naturally occurring matter and studied their structure, chemical and electrochemical behavior and found that the structure of uranyl complexes depends heavily on the nature of the ligand and environmental factors such as pH. Association of uranium-organic complexes with anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium sp. was studied to establish if the bacteria can effectively bioreduce uranium while going through normal bacterial activity. It was found that the nature of the organic ligand affected the bioavailability and toxicity of the uranium on the bacteria. In addition, we have found that the type of iron corrosion products and uranyl species present on the surface of corroded steel depended on various environmental factors, which subsequently affected the removal rate of uranium by a citric acid/hydrogen peroxide/deionized water cleaning process. The method was found to remove uranium from only the topmost corrosion layers and residual uranium could be found (a) deeper in the corrosion layers where it is occluded by

  10. Teaching Urban Ecology: Environmental Studies and the Pedagogy of Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Chiro, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recognition by early champions of the environmental movement in the United States that humans and the diverse ecosystems in which they live are indivisible, many environmental education policies and programs have tended to uphold the categorical distinction between "nature" and "culture" (e.g., Sessions; Soule and Press). In the late…

  11. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Solid Waste and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This book is the first in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It is divided into three activity levels: awareness, transitional, and operational. The activity sequence is designed to motivate students toward a concern for environmental quality, take action related to particular…

  12. Southern California Area Environmental Manpower and Training Needs Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, James A.

    A survey was conducted to identify environmentally related jobs, the current employment need in these areas, the 5-year projection, and the current status of educational training programs to meet the employment needs for technicians or paraprofessionals within a five-county area of Southern California. The environmentally related occupations…

  13. An Integrated Approach to Environmental Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Preez, Nicolaas P.; Mohr-Swart, Maryna

    2004-01-01

    In 1994, the Executive Management Committee (EMC) of Technikon Pretoria took a strategic decision to develop educational programmes in environmental management and sustainable development. The EMC also decided to integrate these programmes with the development and implementation of an environmental management policy for Technikon Pretoria. This…

  14. Environmental Education through Watershed Studies: Budd/Deschutes Project GREEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lisa Bryce

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development and current status of the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network, cited as an exemplary Environmental Education program in the Pacific northwest. It is an international educational effort that provides a means for improving local and global water quality through hands-on monitoring and local problem solving for…

  15. Career Development and Opportunities for Students Who Study Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1993-01-01

    This article is designed to help environmental educators guide their students to a more realistic approach to developing their career options. The materials presented include both periodicals and telephone job-banks that list career vacancies and books that describe environmental education career options and explain how to prepare for them.…

  16. Tad Poles and Tough Questions: Integrating Social Studies and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Carole; White, Cameron

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on integrating social studies and environmental education. Offers three scenarios that provide opportunities for teaching environmental literacy in the classroom. Provides a set of guiding principles that can assist social studies teachers in making the most of environmental issues. (CMK)

  17. Communication Behaviors and Attitudes of Environmental Publics: Two Studies. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty-One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, James E.

    Two studies were conducted to test the situational theory of communication while at the same time using the theory to determine the nature of different environmental publics, the cognitive strategies they use to resolve environmental issues, and their demographic characteristics. One study identified and examined urban environmental publics, while…

  18. Introduction to the eastern Arctic Marine Environmental Studies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sutterlin, N.; Snow, N.

    1982-01-01

    Main problems are formulated and a study technique is characterized for the environmental protection program (EPP) of the eastern marine area of the Canadian Arctic in the area of physical-geographical (oceanography, meteorology, geomorphology) and biological sciences (microbiology, phytoand zooplankton, benthos, fish, birds and mammals, including white bear) which will be implemented in relation to realization of the extensive plans examined by the Canadian government back in 1977 for development of the large oil and gas resources of this part of the country. With regard for the severity of the ice and climate situation, it is planned to conduct studies of the EPP in the Canadian Arctic with the use of the entire modern scientific and technical potential, from ships and radar units to Earth satellites. Financing and supervision of the research on the EPP come from the government of the country, academic organizations and private firms. The research results will be published by the company Petro-Canada under the title ''Arctic.''

  19. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  20. Empirical studies on environmental education in Germany: Contributions by the institute for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, Rachael; Gresele, Christiane; Bögeholz, Susanne; Martens, Thomas; Mayer, Jürgen; Rode, Horst; Rost, Jürgen

    1998-06-01

    The Institute for Science Education (IPN) in Kiel, Germany, has a long tradition in environmental education research, material and instruction development, and teacher education. This paper presents its research program on “Factors of Environmental Activity” consisting, at present, of three empirical research studies. These projects share a common theoretical model, the Integrated Action Model, describing the environmental action generating process. Study 1 evaluates the validity of this model; Study 2 applies it to evaluate the effects of school environmental instruction; Study 3 applies it to evaluate the effects of nature experience. As this research pertains to Germany, a description of the school system and institutionalisation of environmental instruction is included.

  1. WCSC environmental process improvement study and demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlick, Joseph F., Jr.; Severo, Orlando C.

    1993-01-01

    CSTAR's objective to develop commercial infrastructure is multi-faceted and includes diverse elements of the orbital and suborbital missions. Goals to this eight-month project with the WCSC are aimed at simplifying the environmental assessment, approval, and licensing process for commercial users. Included in this overarching set of goals are two specific processes: (1) air pollution control, and (2) the environmental assessment mechanism. Resolution of the potentially user unfriendly aspects of these environmentally sensitive criteria are readily transferable to other ranges where commercial space activity will be supported.

  2. Food for Thought: An Analysis of Pro-Environmental Behaviours and Food Choices in Ontario Environmental Studies Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Mary

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, there exists a noteworthy educational initiative referred to as Environmental Studies Programs (ESPs). These secondary school programs are interdisciplinary, helping to link subject matter and encouraging student responsibility. This paper will present student reports from five case studies where I investigated how ESP participation…

  3. Chemical approaches to the study of environmental diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cause-and-effect relationships are difficult to establish in chronic diseases which take years to develop. Awareness of the health hazards posed by long-term, low-level exposure to toxins has focused attention on causative environmental agents. Studies discussed here identified chemical factors potentially involved in the induction of chronic diseases. The novel spiroketal mycotoxins talaromycins A and B (C/sub 12/H/sub 22/O/sub 4/) were isolated from Talaromyces stipitatus, a fungus associated with fermenting silage. /sup 1/H NMR 2D COSY spectroscopy was used to distinguish isolated spin systems in the diastereomeric mixture and to facilitate the complete proton assignments of the pure isomers. Dipolar couplings between protons on different rings of the bicyclic system, observed by NOE difference and 2D Exchange spectroscopy, established the relative configuration of the ketal center. Extracts of the fungus Fusarium equiseti isolated from the home of genetically unrelated leukemia patients showed toxicity to mammals and immunosuppressive activity. Chronic byssinosis may result from accumulation of toxins in the lungs of long-term cotton mill workers.

  4. Hearing characteristics of cephalopods: modeling and environmental impact study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Shi, Feng; Song, Jiakun; Zhang, Xugang; Yu, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are some of the most intriguing molluscs, and they represent economically important commercial marine species for fisheries. Previous studies have shown that cephalopods are sensitive to underwater particle motion, especially at low frequencies in the order of 10 Hz. The present paper deals with quantitative modeling of the statocyst system in three cephalopod species: Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis and Loligo vulgaris. The octopus's macula/statolith organ was modeled as a 2nd-order dynamic oscillator using parameter values estimated from scanning electron micrograph images. The modeling results agree reasonably well with experimental data (acceleration threshold) in the three cephalopod species. Insights made from quantitative modeling and simulating the particle motion sensing mechanism of cephalopods elucidated their underwater particle motion detection capabilities. Sensitivity to emerging environmental issues, such as low frequency noise caused by near-shore wind farms and increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the ocean, and sensitivity to sounds produced by impending landslides were investigated in octopus using the model. PMID:24920389

  5. Hearing characteristics of cephalopods: modeling and environmental impact study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Shi, Feng; Song, Jiakun; Zhang, Xugang; Yu, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are some of the most intriguing molluscs, and they represent economically important commercial marine species for fisheries. Previous studies have shown that cephalopods are sensitive to underwater particle motion, especially at low frequencies in the order of 10 Hz. The present paper deals with quantitative modeling of the statocyst system in three cephalopod species: Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis and Loligo vulgaris. The octopus's macula/statolith organ was modeled as a 2nd-order dynamic oscillator using parameter values estimated from scanning electron micrograph images. The modeling results agree reasonably well with experimental data (acceleration threshold) in the three cephalopod species. Insights made from quantitative modeling and simulating the particle motion sensing mechanism of cephalopods elucidated their underwater particle motion detection capabilities. Sensitivity to emerging environmental issues, such as low frequency noise caused by near-shore wind farms and increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the ocean, and sensitivity to sounds produced by impending landslides were investigated in octopus using the model.

  6. E-Alerts: Energy (environmental studies). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The paper discussed air, noise, water, and solid waste pollution and pollution control from energy resource development, fuel production, energy production, and energy use; and environmental impacts of energy production and use.

  7. A Study of New York's Environmental Education Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzewich, Marsha Scott

    1978-01-01

    Based upon questionnaire responses from 96 of the 134 New York State environmental education centers, this article describes these centers in terms of location, employment opportunities (internships and volunteer positions), program offerings, and funding sources. (JC)

  8. Environmental Measurement in Schools: Electronics in Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of environmental meters designed to measure conductivity, light level, oxygen, pH, sound, and temperature are discussed. Criteria for choosing suitable equipment are suggested and, where possible, cheaper alternatives are mentioned. (Author/BB)

  9. Study of space shuttle environmental control and life support problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibble, K. P.; Riley, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Four problem areas were treated: (1) cargo module environmental control and life support systems; (2) space shuttle/space station interfaces; (3) thermal control considerations for payloads; and (4) feasibility of improving system reusability.

  10. Using environmental radionuclides as fingerprints to study streambank erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of sediment source areas in the watershed is a key component for designing management strategies to reduce sediment and chemical loads from watersheds. Potential sediment sources in watersheds can be characterized (fingerprinted) using diagnostic environmental radionuclides, chem...

  11. A Study towards Views of Teacher Candidates about National and Global Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alagoz, Bulent; Akman, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    In this research, determination of primary school, social studies and mathematics candidate teachers' awareness and susceptibility levels about environmental problems, solution suggestions about these problems, activities used in environmental education and views about environmental education were targeted. Sample of this research comprised of 449…

  12. Putting History at the Core: History and Literature in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    When environmental studies programs broaden their curricular offerings into the humanities, their first stop is often environmental literature, particularly classics such as Henry David Thoreau's "Walden," Aldo Leopold's "A Sand County Almanac," and Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring." Environmental literature courses consider many of the works of…

  13. A Generalizability Study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment Scores by Social Climate Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Daniel W.

    2003-01-01

    The Salter Environmental Type Assessment- Experimental Form B (SETA-Form B) was designed to be a commensurate environmental assessment for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. This study addressed the generalizability of the SETA-Form B scores provided by 800 college students across 4 environmental domains. Although the results were mostly positive,…

  14. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.9 Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these procedures, the Administrator...

  15. 22 CFR 216.9 - Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reviews of environmental issues. 216.9 Section 216.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.9 Bilateral and multilateral studies and concise reviews of environmental issues. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in these procedures, the Administrator...

  16. Environmental radioactivity laboratory intercomparison studies program: fiscal year 1980-1981. Interim report 1980-81

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, A.B.; Siu, L.

    1981-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's intercomparison studies program for laboratories involved in environmental radiation measurements is described. The types of environmental samples distributed, the analyses required for each sample, the distribution schedule, and the statistical analysis and reporting of results are discussed. Instructions and application forms are included for laboratories desiring to participate in the program.

  17. A Comparative Study of Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among University Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John

    2011-01-01

    Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…

  18. Identification of the critical elements of environmental literacy: A Delphi study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Johannes Oswald

    The overall purpose of this study was to obtain the opinions of environmental experts regarding the three identified levels of environmental literacy: nominal, functional, and operational. Specifically, this study was performed to identify and rank for importance the critical elements of environmental literacy as perceived by practicing environmental professionals. The Delphi technique was utilized to identify and refine the critical elements of environmental literacy by eliciting the opinions of experts in the environmental field. The research was conducted as a two-phase project. Phase I employed environmental experts who were Certified Environmental Professionals (CEPs) of the National Association of Environmental Professionals. In Phase II, the elements identified by Panel I were compared with the opinions elicited from Panel II, a group of managers and educators from Texas. Median scores were used to rank the elements. Elements meeting the criteria for inclusion became the final list of critical elements. The results of this study revealed that of the 79 critical elements of environmental literacy suggested by research sources and Panel I, 59 were rated for inclusion in the final list of elements. A significant difference (p < .05) was found for only 10 of the 79 elements by Panel II. Research involving environmental problems and issues indicated that in order for environmental-education programs to be successful, environmental literacy must be clearly identified and defined. As a statement of group opinion among a national panel of practicing environmental professionals, the Delphi technique produced a list of 59 critical elements of environmental literacy, and the importance of each element was determined by the use of the median. A comparison of results between Rounds 2 and 3 and the follow-up study revealed limited significant differences in median ratings. It was concluded that the final list of elements and their rankings represent the opinions of

  19. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unknown, but a growing body of evidence points to infectious agents and/or components of early childhood diet. The National Institutes of Health has established the TEDDY Study consortium of six clinical centers in the United States and Europe and a data coordinating center to identify environmental factors predisposing to, or protective against, islet autoimmunity and T1D. From 2004–2009, TEDDY will screen more than 360,000 newborns from both the general population and families already affected by T1D to identify an estimated 17,804 children with high-risk HLA-DR, DQ genotypes. Of those, 7,801 (788 first-degree relatives and 7,013 newborns with no family history of T1D) will be enrolled in prospective follow-up beginning before the age of 4.5 months. As of May 2008, TEDDY has screened more than 250,000 newborns and enrolled nearly 5,000 infants—approximately 70% of the final cohort. Participants are seen every 3 months up to 4 years of age, with subsequent visits every 6 months until the subject is 15 years of age. Blood samples are collected at each visit for detection of candidate infectious agents and nutritional biomarkers; monthly stool samples are collected for infectious agents. These samples are saved in a central repository. Primary endpoints include (1) appearance of one or more islet autoantibodies (to insulin, GAD65 or IA-2) confirmed at two consecutive visits; (2) development of T1D. By age 15, an estimated 800 children will develop islet autoimmunity and 400 will progress to T1D; 67 and 27 children have already reached these endpoints. PMID:19120261

  20. Study of Urban environmental quality through Isotopes δ13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Sosa, E.; Mastachi-Loza, C.; Becerril-Piña, R.; Ramos-Salinas, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    Usually, trees with similar pH values on their bark develop epiphytes of similar species, the acidity to be a factor for growth. The aim of the study was evaluate the air quality through isotope δ13C in order to define the levels of environmental quality in the city of Queretaro, Mexico. In this work were collected at least 4 epiphytes positioned in trees of the species Prosopis Laevigata at 25 sites of Queretaro City. The samples were analyzed for trace elements with an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP). The collecting took place during dry period, in May and early rain June 2011 period, and on four sectors to identify the spatial distribution of pollution, using isotopic analysis of concentration of δ 13C. According with the results there are significant differences among the species in each of the sampled areas. The 5 February Avenue presented greater diversity and richness of δ13C, followed by those who were surveyed in the proximity of the UAQ and finally in the middle-east area. An average value of δ13C-17.92%, followed by those surveyed in the vicinity of the UAQ that correspond to sector I and II with an concentration of δ13C-17.55% and δ13C-17.22%, and finally the samples collected in trees scattered in the East-Sector II and IV with a value of δ13C-17.02% and δ13C-15.62%, respectively. Also were observed differences between the dry and wet period. It is likely that these results of δ 13C in moist period reflect the drag of the isotopes due to rain events that could mark a trend in the dilution of this element, however there is a trend in terms of abundance and composition of finding more impact in those species sampled in dry period, in May and early June 2011.

  1. The Contribution of Palaeoenvironmental Studies to Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundill, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Assesses the value of a practical course in pollen analysis in the education of geography undergraduates. Discusses the difficulties and potentialities of the technique. Concludes that the course provides students with a better appreciation of past environments and environmental processes. (Author/CW)

  2. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented environmental guide is the result of cooperative efforts of high school teachers, students, scientists, and technicians. The activities are divided into four chapters: Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: an introduction; questions…

  3. Soil Studies: Applying Acid-Base Chemistry to Environmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Donna M.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory activities for chemistry students focus attention on the use of acid-base chemistry to examine environmental conditions. After using standard laboratory procedures to analyze soil and rainwater samples, students use web-based resources to interpret their findings. Uses CBL probes and graphing calculators to gather and analyze data and…

  4. Activities To Teach Mathematics in the Context of Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Barbara S.; Hartog, Martin D.

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards" recommends that mathematical connections be made between mathematics and other disciplines. This book presents 35 activities for middle school students that integrate the teaching of mathematical concepts with environmental concepts. An introduction…

  5. Literature and Science: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Kathleen S.

    1979-01-01

    Using wilderness themes from such diverse authors as Henry Thoreau, Joseph Wood Krutch, and Kurt Vonnegut, and the train-as-technology metaphor from Ray Bradbury and Robert Frost, the author describes a unique team-teaching curriculum that interweaves the literary and laboratory aspects of environmental concerns. (Editor)

  6. A Validity Study of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    Correlational analyses of data from 202 students on the Work Environment Scale and Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) supported concurrent validity. Factor analysis identified three factors accounting for 70% of variance: positive work settings, structure, and work pressure/task orientation. SETA appears useful as a commensurate Myers…

  7. Environmental Education in China's College English Context: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the questions of what the current state of environmental education (EE) is in China's College English context and how it can be improved. It does this by examining the perceptions of the College English teachers concerning the practice of linking language and environment learning. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 45…

  8. Teaching for Epistemological Difference: Decentring Norms in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Many environmental educators and philosophers have identified anthropocentrism and the socially constructed separation between humans and "the more-than-human world" (Abram, 1996) as primary root causes of current ecological devastation. This separation is embedded in Western schooling content and structures and is often unintentionally…

  9. Studying Environmental Influence on Motor Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; Krebs, Ruy

    2012-01-01

    There is a good argument that in order to truly understand the influences that shape child motor development, one must consider environmental influences that reflect the multilevel ecological contexts that interact with the changing biological characteristics of the child. Although there are theories typically associated with motor development…

  10. Recent studies of airblast from buried charges, for environmental charges, for environmental protection from HEST events

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristics of blast waves from explosions in simple geometries and containment media have been well defined by hydrodynamic models and verified by experiment. A large class of useful explosions, those only partially contained by the close surrounding medium, are less-adequately understood. This report addresses the problem of airblast emitted into the atmosphere from explosions buried in the ground at less than containment depth. Examples of such explosions have arisen in cratering excavation, mining and quarrying, ordnance disposal, and military High Explosives Simulation Tests (HEST). Some recent HEST data have been assembled here to help define an empirical approach to airblast predictions, for operational safety as well as for controlling environmental impact on neighboring communities.

  11. A Study on the Evaluation of the Applicability of an Environmental Education Modular Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artun, Hüseyin; Özsevgeç, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was, in line with the views of the students & teacher, to examine Environmental Education Modular Curriculum (EEMC) developed to give environmental education with a specific content. In the study, the case study method was used. The research sample was determined with the purposeful sampling method & made up of 23…

  12. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Environmental education curriculum evaluation questionnaire: A reliability and validity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minner, Daphne Diane

    The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating

  14. Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dedushaj, Isuf; Gjini, Ardiana; Jorgensen, Tine Rikke; Cotter, Benvon; Lieftucht, Alfons; D’Ancona, Fortunato; Dennis, David T.; Kosoy, Michael A.; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Grunow, Roland; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Gashi, Luljeta; Humolli, Isme

    2002-01-01

    A large outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in the early postwar period, 1999-2000. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to identify sources of infection, modes of transmission, and household risk factors. Case and control status was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and microagglutination assay. A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities. Matched analysis of 46 case households and 76 control households suggested that infection was transmitted through contaminated food or water and that the source of infection was rodents. Environmental circumstances in war-torn Kosovo led to epizootic rodent tularemia and its spread to resettled rural populations living under circumstances of substandard housing, hygiene, and sanitation. PMID:11749751

  15. A Case Study of Environmental Injustice: The Failure in Flint

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Carla; Greenberg, Rachael; Mankikar, Deepa; Ross, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    The failure by the city of Flint, Michigan to properly treat its municipal water system after a change in the source of water, has resulted in elevated lead levels in the city’s water and an increase in city children’s blood lead levels. Lead exposure in young children can lead to decrements in intelligence, development, behavior, attention and other neurological functions. This lack of ability to provide safe drinking water represents a failure to protect the public’s health at various governmental levels. This article describes how the tragedy happened, how low-income and minority populations are at particularly high risk for lead exposure and environmental injustice, and ways that we can move forward to prevent childhood lead exposure and lead poisoning, as well as prevent future Flint-like exposure events from occurring. Control of the manufacture and use of toxic chemicals to prevent adverse exposure to these substances is also discussed. Environmental injustice occurred throughout the Flint water contamination incident and there are lessons we can all learn from this debacle to move forward in promoting environmental justice. PMID:27690065

  16. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program Case Studies: Demonstrating Program Outcomes, Volume III

    EPA Science Inventory

    This booklet, ETV Program Case Studies: Demonstrating Program Outcomes, Volume III contains two case studies, addressing verified environmental technologies for decentalized wastewater treatment and converting animal waste to energy. Each case study contains a brief description ...

  17. A Study on Environmental Knowledge Level of Primary Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökdere, Murat

    2005-01-01

    The education system in Turkey has responded promptly to the need for environmental education (EE). However, the existing lack of relevant research may limit the functionality of EE programs in Turkey. In this study, the goal was to develop an environmental conscious database that would allow effective planning of EE. Specifically, the study was…

  18. The National Environmental Literacy Project: A Baseline Study of Middle Grade Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeth, William; Volk, Trudi L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss environmental literacy in the United States and present a brief summary of the results of a major national study designed to attain a baseline measure of environmental literacy among middle school students in the United States. The authors include events that led up to the study and describe future directions for environmental…

  19. Significant Life Experiences Affect Environmental Action: A Confirmation Study in Eastern Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shih-Jang

    2009-01-01

    Two field studies form the basis of this article. The major purposes of Study 1 were to examine significant life experiences affecting the cultivation of environmental activists in eastern Taiwan, and to reconstruct the life paths followed by those active people who engaged in effective environmental action. 40 usable autobiographical memories…

  20. Changing Green Subjectivities in Outdoor and Environmental Education: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lou

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal qualitative study of Australian tertiary students studying Outdoor and Environmental Education. It draws on the work of Foucault and Darier to consider how "environmental governmentality" shapes the conduct, desires and attitudes of these students over time. Attention is drawn to normalising and disciplinary…

  1. A Case Study on Primary, Secondary and University Students' Environmentally Responsible Behaviors in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahyaoglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to prove the environmentally responsible behaviors of primary, secondary and university students in Turkey. The students', who attended the study as participants, environmentally political behaviors, consumer/economical behaviors, direct behaviors toward protecting the environment and individual and public…

  2. Areas Nacionales de Estudio Ambiental: Una Guia. (National Environmental Study Area: A Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet, the Spanish version of SE 014 817, is a guide for teachers and resource managers who are interested in establishing National Environmental Study Areas (NESA) or interested in receiving NESA recognition for their on-going environmental study area programs. It outlines the characteristics and procedures of the program; the nature,…

  3. Influence of an Environmental Studies Course on Attitudes of Undergraduates at an Engineering University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Shih-Yun; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that at engineering universities, where the percentage of males and engineering majors is high, pro-environmental attitudes are likely to be weak and may not change. The 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale was used to measure differences in student attitudes before and after an environmental studies course. Results revealed…

  4. Process Evaluation Results from an Environmentally Focused Worksite Weight Management Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Padilla, Heather M.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Parker, Kristin B.; Della, Lindsay J.; Roemer, Enid C.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently much interest in exploring environmental approaches to combat weight gain and obesity. This study presents process evaluation results from a workplace-based study that tested two levels of environmentally focused weight management interventions in a manufacturing setting. The moderate treatment featured a set of relatively…

  5. COPEing With Environmental Education Program Development and Infusion into the Global Studies Curricula of Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    An environmental education-oriented global studies program to promote attitudes of environmental stewardship can be implemented in K-12 rural school systems, as an integrated part of social studies instruction, without overburdening the curriculum, by using the Curriculum Organization and Program Evaluation (COPE) model. The model provides…

  6. [Environmental pollution studies of fluorine coming from industry].

    PubMed

    Năstasă, V; Cuciureanu, R; Chirimbu, F; Guţă, P

    1992-01-01

    Fluorine in optimal concentration prevents dental caries, while an excess or deficiency in it may lead to pathologic alterations which make fluorine be one of the environmental pollutants the concentration of which is limited by health standards. This investigation, carried out in the area of an aluminium plant, showed the presence in excess of fluorine and fluorine-containing dusts in the atmospheric air, determining an increased fluorine content in the ground and vegetal cultures of the respective area. Negative effects of these noxae upon vegetation and animals were noticed.

  7. Advantages of environmental scanning electron microscopy in studies of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Collins, S P; Pope, R K; Scheetz, R W; Ray, R I; Wagner, P A; Little, B J

    1993-08-01

    Microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and microalgae, are composed predominantly of water which prohibits direct observation in a traditional scanning electron microscope (SEM). Preparation for SEM requires that microorganisms be fixed, frozen or dehydrated, and coated with a conductive film before observation in a high vacuum environment. Sample preparation may mechanically disturb delicate samples, compromise morphological information, and introduce other artifacts. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) provides a technology for imaging hydrated or dehydrated biological samples with minimal manipulation and without the need for conductive coatings. Sporulating cultures of three fungi, Aspergillus sp., Cunninghamella sp., and Mucor sp., were imaged in the ESEM to assess usefulness of the instrument in the direct observation of delicate, uncoated, biological specimens. Asexual sporophores showed no evidence of conidial displacement or disruption of sporangia. Uncoated algal cells of Euglena gracilis and Spirogyra sp. were examined using the backscatter electron detector (BSE) and the environmental secondary electron detector (ESD) of the ESEM. BSE images had more clearly defined intracellular structures, whereas ESD gave a clearer view of the surface E. gracilis cells fixed with potassium permanganate, Spirogyra sp. stained with Lugol's solution, and Saprolegnia sp. fixed with osmium tetroxide were compared using BSE and ESD to demonstrate that cellular details could be enhanced by the introduction of heavy metals. The effect of cellular water on signal quality was evaluated by comparing hydrated to critical point dried specimens.

  8. Advantages of environmental scanning electron microscopy in studies of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Collins, S P; Pope, R K; Scheetz, R W; Ray, R I; Wagner, P A; Little, B J

    1993-08-01

    Microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and microalgae, are composed predominantly of water which prohibits direct observation in a traditional scanning electron microscope (SEM). Preparation for SEM requires that microorganisms be fixed, frozen or dehydrated, and coated with a conductive film before observation in a high vacuum environment. Sample preparation may mechanically disturb delicate samples, compromise morphological information, and introduce other artifacts. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) provides a technology for imaging hydrated or dehydrated biological samples with minimal manipulation and without the need for conductive coatings. Sporulating cultures of three fungi, Aspergillus sp., Cunninghamella sp., and Mucor sp., were imaged in the ESEM to assess usefulness of the instrument in the direct observation of delicate, uncoated, biological specimens. Asexual sporophores showed no evidence of conidial displacement or disruption of sporangia. Uncoated algal cells of Euglena gracilis and Spirogyra sp. were examined using the backscatter electron detector (BSE) and the environmental secondary electron detector (ESD) of the ESEM. BSE images had more clearly defined intracellular structures, whereas ESD gave a clearer view of the surface E. gracilis cells fixed with potassium permanganate, Spirogyra sp. stained with Lugol's solution, and Saprolegnia sp. fixed with osmium tetroxide were compared using BSE and ESD to demonstrate that cellular details could be enhanced by the introduction of heavy metals. The effect of cellular water on signal quality was evaluated by comparing hydrated to critical point dried specimens. PMID:8400431

  9. Changing environmental strategies over time: an empirical study of the steel industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Clemens, B

    2001-06-01

    This study investigates how environmental strategies change over time. We submit evidence from the US steel industry that firms have modified their strategies over time. We offer that US industry passed through three stages--cost minimization, cost-effective compliance, and beneficial environmental controls. We compare typologies of environmental strategies and choose that of C. Oliver as the most appropriate. We investigate how environmental strategies in the steel industry changed over time a 4-year period. We offer that a further understanding of Oliver's strategies may increase understanding of the relationship between business and government on environmental issues. One over-arching problem in our field is the need to adequately operationalize how firms change strategies and pass through different stages. We hope that our study will help future researchers and practitioners better articulate the concepts of environmental strategies over time. Our study focused on the steel industry in the United States. We chose the US steel industry as one of the major environmental actors in the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency ranks the iron and steel industry as the largest industrial source of toxic environmental contamination. We encourage researchers to evaluate and test our methodology and findings in other contexts--both in other nations and different industries.

  10. A comparative study of selected Georgia elementary principals' perceptions of environmental knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Joyce League

    This study sought to establish baseline data on environmental knowledge, opinions, and perceptions of elementary principals and to make comparisons based on academic success rankings of schools and to national results. The self-reported study looked at 200 elementary principals in the state of Georgia. The population selected for the study included principals from the 100 top and 100 bottom academically ranked elementary schools as reported in the Georgia Public Policy Foundation Report Card for Parents. Their scores on the NEETF/Roper Environmental Knowledge Survey were compared between these two Georgia groups and to a national sample. Georgia elementary principals' scores were compared to environmental programs evident in their schools. The two Georgia groups were also compared on environmental opinion and perception responses on mandates, programs in schools and time devoted to these, environmental education as a priority, and the impact of various factors on the strength of environmental studies in schools. Georgia elementary principals leading schools at the bottom of the academic performance scale achieved environmental knowledge scores comparable to the national sample. However, principals of academically successful schools scored significantly higher on environmental knowledge than their colleagues from low performing schools (p < .05) and higher than the national sample (p < .001). Both Georgia principal groups strongly support a mandated environmental education curriculum for Georgia. The two groups were comparable on distributions of time devoted to environmental education across grade levels; however, principals from the more successful schools reported significantly (p < .01) greater amounts of time allotted to environmental studies. Both groups reported the same variety of environmental programs and practices evident in their schools and similar participation in these activities at various grade levels. Most significant (p < .01) was the comparison

  11. Environmental study of ERTS-1 imagery: Lake Champlain and Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O.; Henson, E. B.; Pelton, J. O.

    1973-01-01

    Environmental concerns of the State of Vermont currently being stressed include water quality in Lake Champlain and a state-wide land use and capability plan. Significant results obtained from ERTS-1 relate directly to the above concerns. Industrial water pollution and turbidity in Lake Champlain have been identified and mapped and the ERTS pollution data will be used in the developing court suit which Vermont has initiated against the polluters. ERTS imagery has also provided a foundation for updating and revising land use inventories. Major classes of land use have been identified and mapped, and substantial progress has been made toward the mapping of such land use divisions as crop and forest type, and wetlands.

  12. Application of Proteomics and Lipid Studies in Environmental Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2008-08-12

    The overview of changes in protein levels or states in response to a growth condition, stress, mutation or metabolic engineering is invaluable in understanding the physiology of a microbial system. The lipid profile of the cell is similarly a valuable diagnostic of the cellular response and health, especially in context of survival in a fluctuating environment. To obtain comprehensive cellular models, post-transcriptional cell wide surveys at the levels of proteins and lipids are required. Both these fields have been greatly bolstered by the development of high throughput methods using mass spectrometry. Multiple strategies now exist for the identification of proteins, and numerous workflows to quantify protein abundance have also been developed. Cellular profiling such as these allows us to assess the potential of a microbial system for environmental applications such as bioremediation and bio-energy.

  13. Environmental Curiosity Sampler 2: For Use with Environmental Study Areas in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stehney, Virginia A.

    The Sampler provides ideas and lists resources for an interdisciplinary study of environment in terms of a person's immediate surroundings, distant sites, and facilities. Although it was developed for use by parents, teachers, youth group leaders, students, and interested individuals in the state of Illinois, many of the activities would be…

  14. Soviet and post-Soviet environmental management: lessons from a case study on lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, V M; Orlova, A O

    2001-03-01

    Through a case study on lead pollution in the former Soviet Union, the linkage of policy, environmental science, and environmental management is explored, and compared with the US experience. Soviet bans on leaded gasoline and lead-based paint appear to have been effective. Regional governments, in cooperation with the petroleum industry, are taking the initiative in phasing out leaded gasoline, to some extent in defiance of federal policy. Problems with management of lead-acid batteries have been worsened by the collapse of the political system. Lack of reliable environmental data impedes reliable environmental assessment. The types of environmental measurements reflect an emphasis on multipollutant environmental contamination, rather than on human exposure to single pollutants.

  15. Characterization and environmental studies of Pompano Beach anaerobic digestion facility. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S; Gerrish, H P; Wong, K F; Nemerow, N; Daly, Jr, E L; Farooq, S; Chriswell, C

    1980-08-01

    Municipal solid wastes contain numerous substances of potential environmental concern. While some understanding of the composition of raw municipal waste and its leachate products is available, no information regarding characteristics of solid, liquid and gaseous outputs from anaerobic digestion exists. If centralized anaerobic digestion plants are to be environmentally viable, the characteristics and environmental effects of effluents from these plants must be acceptable. The environmental concerns are particularly acute where ground water supplies are precariously low and the water table is high, South Florida is such a location. A characterization and environmental study was initiated by the Resource Recovery Group on August 1978. The specific objectives are: (1) systematic characterization of solid, liquid and gaseous inputs and outputs; (2) investigations of leaching characteristic of output solid and liquid effluents, and the transport of pollutants to and through ground water systems; and (3) analysis of environmental and process parameters to obtain causal relationships.

  16. Environmental Studies: Five Miscellaneous Reports. Project Reports, Volume 7, The Rachel Carson Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, R. Thomas

    This document is the last of seven volumes included in the Rachel Carson Project. The project attempts to introduce environmental education lessons and units into existing courses of study within a high school curriculum rather than to implement environmental education through the introduction of new courses. Included in this volume is a report…

  17. Environmental Studies in Several Science Courses. Project Reports, Volume 4, The Rachel Carson Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, R. Thomas

    This document is the fourth of seven accompanying volumes included in the Rachel Carson Project. The project attempts to introduce environmental education lessons and units into existing courses of study within a high school curriculum rather than to implement environmental education through the introduction of new courses. This volume reports the…

  18. Integrating Marketing and Environmental Studies through an Interdisciplinary, Experiential, Service-Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Nila M.; Sherman, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates an interdisciplinary, experiential service-learning project that combined environmental studies and marketing courses at a liberal arts college over a 2-year period. The inherent tensions between these two disciplines regarding issues of environmental protection and conservation make this project's contribution…

  19. Environmental Studies in the Physical Sciences. Project Reports, Volume 3, The Rachel Carson Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, R. Thomas

    This document is the third of seven accompanying volumes included in the Rachel Carson Project. The project attempts to introduce environmental education lessons and units into existing courses of study within a high school rather than to implement environmental education through the introduction of new courses. This volume reports the…

  20. Studying the Water Cycle in an Environmental Context: The "Blue Planet" Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-zvi-assaraf, Orit; Orion, Nir

    The Blue Planet program aims to develop an understanding of and insight into the environment among students by introducing environmental problems such as pollution. This paper presents a study investigating junior high school students' previous knowledge and understanding of environmental issues and perceptions on the nature of the water cycle.…

  1. Sustaining Environmental Pedagogy in Times of Educational Conservatism: A Case Study of Integrated Curriculum Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Erin; Breunig, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Although the global call for environmental education is persistent, on a local or regional level, this call can be confronted by educational policies that drive environmental education out of the curriculum. This paper reports on a qualitative case study of the factors contributing to the sustainability of three teacher-driven integrated…

  2. The Effect of Nature Documentaries on Students' Environmental Sensitivity: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbas, Tasos A.; Paraskevopoulos, Stefanos; Stamou, Anastasia G.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the potential educational value of nature documentaries, the contribution of such films to environmental education is largely unknown. In the present study, we attempt to delineate the role of nature documentaries to the environmental sensitivity of students when the films are simply introduced to the class. More specifically, the present…

  3. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Language Arts and Social Studies, Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The guide is one in a series for teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts, responsibility, and problem solving. This particular guide focuses on social studies and language arts aspects of environmental education for sixth graders. Background information…

  4. Development of an Instrument to Measure Technology Studies Teachers' Attitudes to Environmental and Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Rue, Peter; Gardner, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores the extent to which environmental and social issues related to technology are being addressed in the teaching of technology studies. Describes the development of an instrument designed to measure teachers' attitudes towards environmental and societal issues and investigate the extent to which such issues are actually taught in practice.…

  5. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 7th Grade - Spoil Island Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with secondary students in grade seven prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  6. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

  7. Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onianwa, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

  8. Data-driven Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D. R.; Montgomery, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Place-based field work has been recognized as an important component of geoscience education programs for engaging students. Field work helps students appreciate the spatial extent of data and the systems operating in a locale. Data collected in a place has a temporal aspect that can be explored through representations such as photographs and maps and also though numerical data sets that capture characteristics of place. Yet, experiencing authentic geoscience research in an educational setting requires going beyond fieldwork: students must develop data literacy skills that will enable them to connect abstract representations of spatio-temporal data with place. Educational researchers at SRI International led by Dr. Daniel Zalles, developer of inquiry-based geoscience curricula, and geoscientists at the University of Washington (UW) led by Dr. David Montgomery, Professor of Earth and Space Sciences, are building educational curriculum modules that help students make these connections. The modules concern the environmental history of the Puget Sound area in Washington State and its relevance for the American Indians living there. This collaborative project relies on environmental data collected in the Puget Sound Regional Synthesis Model (PRISM) and Puget Sound River History Project. The data sets are being applied to inquiry-based geoscience investigations at the undergraduate and high school level. The modules consist of problem-based units centered on the data sets, plus geographic and other data representations. The modules will rely on educational "design patterns" that characterize geoscientific inquiry tasks. Use of design patterns will enable other modules to be built that align to the modes of student thinking and practice articulated in the design patterns. The modules will be accompanied by performance assessments that measure student learning from their data investigations. The design principles that drive this project have already been used effectively

  9. Ion Beam Analyses Of Bark And Wood In Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2011-06-01

    A large number of wood and bark samples have been analysed utilizing particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. Samples of common tree species like Scots Pine, Norway Spruce and birch were collected from a large number of sites in Southern and Southwestern Finland. Some of the samples were from a heavily polluted area in the vicinity of a copper-nickel smelter. The samples were dry ashed at 550 °C for the removal of the organic matrix in order to increase the analytical sensitivity of the method. The sensitivity was enhanced by a factor of 50 for wood and slightly less for bark. The ashed samples were pressed into pellets and irradiated as thick targets with a millimetre-sized proton beam. By including the ashing procedure in the method, the statistical dispersion due to elemental heterogeneities in wood material could be reduced. As a by-product, information about the elemental composition of ashes was obtained. By comparing the concentration of an element in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash of the same tree useful information from environmental point of view was obtained. The obtained ratio of the ashes was used to distinguish between elemental contributions from anthropogenic atmospheric sources and natural geochemical sources, like soil and bedrock.

  10. Using a Web Browser for Environmental and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Stackhouse, Paul; Mangosing, Daniel; Smith, G. Louis

    2002-01-01

    A new web browser for viewing and manipulating meteorological data sets is located on a web server at NASA, Langley Research Center. The browser uses a live access server (LAS) developed by the Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. LAS allows researchers to interact directly with the data to view, select, and subset the data in terms of location (latitude, longitude) and time such as day, month, or year. In addition, LAS can compare two data sets and can perform averages and variances, LAS is used here to show how it functions as an internet/web browser for use by the scientific and educational community. In particular its versatility in displaying and manipulating data sets of atmospheric measurements in the earth s radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, which includes measurements of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation is demonstrated. These measurements are from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment and the surface radiation budget (SRB) experiment.

  11. Using a Web Browser for Environmental and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Stackhouse, Paul; Mangosing, Daniel; Smith, G. Louis

    2005-01-01

    A new web browser for viewing and manipulating meteorological data sets is located on a web server at NASA, Langley Research Center. The browser uses a live access server (LAS) developed by the Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. LAS allows researchers to interact directly with the data to view, select, and subset the data in terms of location (latitude, longitude) and time such as day, month, or year. In addition, LAS can compare two data sets and can perform averages and variances, LAS is used here to show how it functions as an internet/web browser for use by the scientific and educational community. In particular its versatility in displaying and manipulating data sets of atmospheric measurements in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, which includes measurements of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation is demonstrated. These measurements are from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment and the surface radiation budget (SRB) experiment.

  12. Perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes associated with adults׳ recreational walking: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Van Dyck, Delfien; Schipperijn, Jasper; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S; Mitáš, Josef; Sarmiento, Olga L; Davey, Rachel; Schofield, Grant; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Sallis, James F

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults' recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from crime, and proximity to parks were linearly associated with recreational walking, while curvilinear associations were found for residential density, land use mix, and aesthetics. The observed associations were consistent across countries, except for aesthetics. Using data collected from environmentally diverse countries, this study confirmed findings from prior single-country studies. Present findings suggest that similar environmental attributes are associated with recreational walking internationally.

  13. Perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes associated with adults׳ recreational walking: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Van Dyck, Delfien; Schipperijn, Jasper; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S; Mitáš, Josef; Sarmiento, Olga L; Davey, Rachel; Schofield, Grant; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Sallis, James F

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults' recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from crime, and proximity to parks were linearly associated with recreational walking, while curvilinear associations were found for residential density, land use mix, and aesthetics. The observed associations were consistent across countries, except for aesthetics. Using data collected from environmentally diverse countries, this study confirmed findings from prior single-country studies. Present findings suggest that similar environmental attributes are associated with recreational walking internationally. PMID:24721737

  14. Perceived neighbourhood environmental attributes associated with adults’ recreational walking: IPEN Adult study in 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Cerin, Ester; Owen, Neville; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Conway, Terry L; Van Dyck, Delfien; Schipperijn, Jasper; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Salvo, Deborah; Reis, Rodrigo S; Mitáš, Josef; Sarmiento, Olga L; Davey, Rachel; Schofield, Grant; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the strength and shape of associations between perceived environmental attributes and adults’ recreational walking, using data collected from 13,745 adult participants in 12 countries. Perceived residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, safety from crime, and proximity to parks were linearly associated with recreational walking, while curvilinear associations were found for residential density, land use mix, and aesthetics. The observed associations were consistent across countries, except for aesthetics. Using data collected from environmentally diverse countries, this study confirmed findings from prior single-country studies. Present findings suggest that similar environmental attributes are associated with recreational walking internationally. PMID:24721737

  15. An empirical study on the driving mechanism of proactive corporate environmental management in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbing; Liu, Beibei; Shishime, Tomohiro; Yu, Qinqin; Bi, Jun; Fujitsuka, Tetsuro

    2010-08-01

    Environmentalism in China is under transformation from the traditional command and control model to emphasize the advantages of economic tools and encourage the participation of the public. Firms are much more aware of the importance of environmental issues, and some of them have practiced environmental activities beyond compliance. In order to help understand the driving mechanism of proactive corporate environmental behaviors from the firm's perspective, this paper identifies the drivers affecting the proactive environmental management level (EML(p)) based on the institutional theory, and gives an empirical study on the firms based in Changshu city of Jiangsu Province, China. The usable data, collected from the 117 valid respondents in a questionnaire survey, indicates that EML(p) is still moderately low currently. Less than 10% of the samples are practicing all the six categorized types of voluntary environmental activities. The econometric exercise confirms a significantly positive effect of the externally mimetic pressure on EML(p), which may attribute to a higher sensitivity of Chinese companies to the market factors. However, the roles of the general public and industrial associations are not significant, showing the marginal power of selected normative pressures. Regarding internal factors, firms, which view environmental issues as opportunities and often arrange internal environmental training, are more likely to adopt proactive environmental activities. More concerns from the general public like neighborhood communities and mass media shall be addressed to enhance the normative power to improve EML(p) in China from the future perspective.

  16. An empirical study on the driving mechanism of proactive corporate environmental management in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbing; Liu, Beibei; Shishime, Tomohiro; Yu, Qinqin; Bi, Jun; Fujitsuka, Tetsuro

    2010-08-01

    Environmentalism in China is under transformation from the traditional command and control model to emphasize the advantages of economic tools and encourage the participation of the public. Firms are much more aware of the importance of environmental issues, and some of them have practiced environmental activities beyond compliance. In order to help understand the driving mechanism of proactive corporate environmental behaviors from the firm's perspective, this paper identifies the drivers affecting the proactive environmental management level (EML(p)) based on the institutional theory, and gives an empirical study on the firms based in Changshu city of Jiangsu Province, China. The usable data, collected from the 117 valid respondents in a questionnaire survey, indicates that EML(p) is still moderately low currently. Less than 10% of the samples are practicing all the six categorized types of voluntary environmental activities. The econometric exercise confirms a significantly positive effect of the externally mimetic pressure on EML(p), which may attribute to a higher sensitivity of Chinese companies to the market factors. However, the roles of the general public and industrial associations are not significant, showing the marginal power of selected normative pressures. Regarding internal factors, firms, which view environmental issues as opportunities and often arrange internal environmental training, are more likely to adopt proactive environmental activities. More concerns from the general public like neighborhood communities and mass media shall be addressed to enhance the normative power to improve EML(p) in China from the future perspective. PMID:20399552

  17. Accelerated aging studies and environmental stability of prototype tamper tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.W.; Wright, C.W.; Bunk, A.R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the results of accelerated aging experiments (weathering) conducted on prototype tamper tapes bonded to a variety of surface materials. The prototype tamper tapes were based on the patented Confirm{reg_sign} tamper-indicating technology developed and produced by 3M Company. Tamper tapes bonded to surfaces using pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) and four rapid-set adhesives were evaluated. The configurations of the PSA-bonded tamper tapes were 1.27-cm-wide Confirm{reg_sign} 1700 windows with vinyl underlay and 2.54-cm-wide Confirm{reg_sign} 1700 windows with vinyl and polyester underlays. The configurations of the rapid-set adhesive-bonded tamper tapes were 2.54-cm-wide Confirm{reg_sign} (1700, 1500 with and without primer, and 1300) windows with vinyl underlay. Surfaces used for bonding included aluminum, steel, stainless steel, Kevlar{reg_sign}, brass, copper, fiberglass/resin with and without gel coat, polyurethane-painted steel, acrylonitrile:butadiene:styrene plastic, polyester fiberglass board, Lexan polycarbonate, and cedar wood. Weathering conditions included a QUV cabinet (ultraviolet light at 60{degrees}C, condensing humidity at 40{degrees}C), a thermal cycling cabinet (-18{degrees}C to 46{degrees}C), a Weather-O-Meter (Xenon lamp), and exposure outdoors in Daytona Beach, Florida. Environmental aging exposures lasted from 7 weeks to 5 months. After exposure, the tamper tapes were visually examined and tested for transfer resistance. Tamper tapes were also exposed to a variety of chemical liquids (including organic solvents, acids, bases, and oxidizing liquids) to determine chemical resistance and to sand to determine abrasion resistance.

  18. Environmental fate of phenolic endocrine disruptors: field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Giger, Walter; Gabriel, Frédéric L P; Jonkers, Niels; Wettstein, Felix E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E

    2009-10-13

    Alkylphenolic compounds derived from microbial degradation of non-ionic surfactants became a major focus of environmental research in the early 1980s. More toxic than the parent compounds and weakly oestrogenic, certain metabolites of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPnEO) surfactants, especially nonylphenol (NP), raised sustained concern over the risk they pose to the environment and triggered legal measures as well as partly voluntary actions by the manufacturing industry. Continuous progress in the development of analytical techniques is crucial to understand how these alkylphenolic compounds behave in wastewater treatment, the aquatic environment and in laboratory experiments. Measured concentrations and mass flows of phenolic endocrine disruptors, particularly nonylphenolic compounds, bisphenol A and parabens in municipal wastewater effluents and in the Glatt River, Switzerland, show that rain events leading to discharges of untreated wastewater into rivers have a great impact on the riverine mass flows of contaminants. Biotransformation experiments in our laboratory with nonylphenoxyacetic acid and individual NP isomers enabled the elucidation of degradation pathways of these compounds. The finding that nonylphenoxyacetic acid is metabolized via NP further underscores the role of NP as the most relevant metabolite in the degradation of NPnEO. Several Sphingomonadaceae bacterial strains were found to degrade alpha-quaternary 4-NP isomers by an ipso-substitution mechanism, and to use only the aromatic part of the molecule. These reactions turned out to be isomer specific, meaning that rate and extent of transformation depend on constitution, and possibly also on the absolute configuration of the alkyl side chain of a specific isomer. The observation that NP isomers with distinct oestrogenic activities are differentially degraded has significant implications for risk assessment.

  19. Environmental fate of phenolic endocrine disruptors: field and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Giger, Walter; Gabriel, Frédéric L P; Jonkers, Niels; Wettstein, Felix E; Kohler, Hans-Peter E

    2009-10-13

    Alkylphenolic compounds derived from microbial degradation of non-ionic surfactants became a major focus of environmental research in the early 1980s. More toxic than the parent compounds and weakly oestrogenic, certain metabolites of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPnEO) surfactants, especially nonylphenol (NP), raised sustained concern over the risk they pose to the environment and triggered legal measures as well as partly voluntary actions by the manufacturing industry. Continuous progress in the development of analytical techniques is crucial to understand how these alkylphenolic compounds behave in wastewater treatment, the aquatic environment and in laboratory experiments. Measured concentrations and mass flows of phenolic endocrine disruptors, particularly nonylphenolic compounds, bisphenol A and parabens in municipal wastewater effluents and in the Glatt River, Switzerland, show that rain events leading to discharges of untreated wastewater into rivers have a great impact on the riverine mass flows of contaminants. Biotransformation experiments in our laboratory with nonylphenoxyacetic acid and individual NP isomers enabled the elucidation of degradation pathways of these compounds. The finding that nonylphenoxyacetic acid is metabolized via NP further underscores the role of NP as the most relevant metabolite in the degradation of NPnEO. Several Sphingomonadaceae bacterial strains were found to degrade alpha-quaternary 4-NP isomers by an ipso-substitution mechanism, and to use only the aromatic part of the molecule. These reactions turned out to be isomer specific, meaning that rate and extent of transformation depend on constitution, and possibly also on the absolute configuration of the alkyl side chain of a specific isomer. The observation that NP isomers with distinct oestrogenic activities are differentially degraded has significant implications for risk assessment. PMID:19736229

  20. Miniaturized Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope for In Situ Planetary Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Abbott, Terry; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Thaisen, Kevin; Taylor , Lawrence; Ramsey, Brian; Jerman, Gregory; Sampson, Allen; Harvey, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of remote planetary surfaces calls for the advancement of low power, highly-miniaturized instrumentation. Instruments of this nature that are capable of multiple types of analyses will prove to be particularly useful as we prepare for human return to the moon, and as we continue to explore increasingly remote locations in our Solar System. To this end, our group has been developing a miniaturized Environmental-Scanning Electron Microscope (mESEM) capable of remote investigations of mineralogical samples through in-situ topographical and chemical analysis on a fine scale. The functioning of an SEM is well known: an electron beam is focused to nanometer-scale onto a given sample where resulting emissions such as backscattered and secondary electrons, X-rays, and visible light are registered. Raster scanning the primary electron beam across the sample then gives a fine-scale image of the surface topography (texture), crystalline structure and orientation, with accompanying elemental composition. The flexibility in the types of measurements the mESEM is capable of, makes it ideally suited for a variety of applications. The mESEM is appropriate for use on multiple planetary surfaces, and for a variety of mission goals (from science to non-destructive analysis to ISRU). We will identify potential applications and range of potential uses related to planetary exploration. Over the past few of years we have initiated fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept assembly, consisting of a cold-field-emission electron gun and custom high-voltage power supply, electrostatic electron-beam focusing column, and scanning-imaging electronics plus backscatter detector. Current project status will be discussed. This effort is funded through the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences - Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program.

  1. The influence of the environmental management system on the environmental impact of seaport companies during an economic crisis: Lithuanian case study.

    PubMed

    Anne, Olga; Burskyte, Vilma; Stasiskiene, Zaneta; Balciunas, Arunas

    2015-01-01

    Freight handling in EU ports fell by more than 12 % during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009 after almost a decade of continuous growth. The decrease of freight handling in the Klaipeda seaport, the only port in Lithuania, was 6.7 % and happened due to the dominant outward movement of goods (mainly oil products). The Klaipeda seaport, due to its peculiarity, is the only ice-free port in the northern part of Baltic Sea. The present study explores the environmental impact of Klaipeda seaport activities from 2001 to 2011. Moreover, it compares the environmental effectiveness of environmental protection strategies used in the four biggest companies that, in fact, cover about 88 % of total activities (except general cargo) of the seaport. The first group of targeted companies used an environmental protection strategy to implement an ISO 14001-based environmental management system, and the second group selected to follow environmental management practices without certification. The paper analyses the development of the companies' activities in regard to the change of environmental effectiveness. The paper evaluates the pressure of the economic crisis on the companies' activities and its influence on environmental decisions, with particular interest in the ability of different environmental protection systems to resist and handle the expected performance. The study identified a significant decrease in companies' activities during the crisis period. However, the economic activities and environmental effectiveness demonstrated similar short-term tendencies in regard to the environmental strategy selection but differed in long-term perspective. PMID:25109472

  2. The influence of the environmental management system on the environmental impact of seaport companies during an economic crisis: Lithuanian case study.

    PubMed

    Anne, Olga; Burskyte, Vilma; Stasiskiene, Zaneta; Balciunas, Arunas

    2015-01-01

    Freight handling in EU ports fell by more than 12 % during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009 after almost a decade of continuous growth. The decrease of freight handling in the Klaipeda seaport, the only port in Lithuania, was 6.7 % and happened due to the dominant outward movement of goods (mainly oil products). The Klaipeda seaport, due to its peculiarity, is the only ice-free port in the northern part of Baltic Sea. The present study explores the environmental impact of Klaipeda seaport activities from 2001 to 2011. Moreover, it compares the environmental effectiveness of environmental protection strategies used in the four biggest companies that, in fact, cover about 88 % of total activities (except general cargo) of the seaport. The first group of targeted companies used an environmental protection strategy to implement an ISO 14001-based environmental management system, and the second group selected to follow environmental management practices without certification. The paper analyses the development of the companies' activities in regard to the change of environmental effectiveness. The paper evaluates the pressure of the economic crisis on the companies' activities and its influence on environmental decisions, with particular interest in the ability of different environmental protection systems to resist and handle the expected performance. The study identified a significant decrease in companies' activities during the crisis period. However, the economic activities and environmental effectiveness demonstrated similar short-term tendencies in regard to the environmental strategy selection but differed in long-term perspective.

  3. A review of studies applying environmental impact assessment methods on fruit production systems.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Alessandro K; Bruun, Sander; Beccaro, Gabriele L; Bounous, Giancarlo

    2011-10-01

    Although many aspects of environmental accounting methodologies in food production have already been investigated, the application of environmental indicators in the fruit sector is still rare and no consensus can be found on the preferred method. On the contrary, widely diverging approaches have been taken to several aspects of the analyses, such as data collection, handling of scaling issues, and goal and scope definition. This paper reviews studies assessing the sustainability or environmental impacts of fruit production under different conditions and identifies aspects of fruit production that are of environmental importance. Four environmental assessment methods which may be applied to assess fruit production systems are evaluated, namely Life Cycle Assessment, Ecological Footprint Analysis, Emergy Analysis and Energy Balance. In the 22 peer-reviewed journal articles and two conference articles applying one of these methods in the fruit sector that were included in this review, a total of 26 applications of environmental impact assessment methods are described. These applications differ concerning e.g. overall objective, set of environmental issues considered, definition of system boundaries and calculation algorithms. Due to the relatively high variability in study cases and approaches, it was not possible to identify any one method as being better than the others. However, remarks on methodologies and suggestions for standardisation are given and the environmental burdens of fruit systems are highlighted.

  4. Student-Made Environmental Studies Equipment, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James W., Ed.; Hall, James A., Ed.

    This document contains 20 devices which can be made by junior high and high school students. The products of these student projects can be employed in the study of the environment and range in topic from the study of biochemical oxygen demand in water to the construction of a back pack. Materials used in each project are generally readily…

  5. Fluxomics of the Eastern Oyster for Environmental Stress Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tikunov, Andrey P.; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of 2-13C/15N-glycine and U-13C-glucose was determined in four tissue blocks (adductor muscle, stomach and digestive gland, mantle, and gills) of the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) using proton (1H) and carbon-13 (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The oysters were treated in aerated seawater with three treatments (5.5 mM U-13C-glucose, 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine, and 5.5 mM U-13C-glucose plus 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine) and the relative mass balance and 13C fractional enrichments were determined in the four tissue blocks. In all tissues, glycine was metabolized by the glycine cycle forming serine exclusively in the mitochondria by the glycine cleavage system forming 2,3-13C-serine. In muscle, a minor amount of serine-derived pyruvate entered the Krebs cycle as substantiated by detection of a trace of 2,3-13C-aspartate. In all tissues, U-13C-glucose formed glycogen by glycogen synthesis, alanine by glycolysis, and glutamate and aspartate through the Krebs cycle. Alanine was formed exclusively from glucose via alanine transaminase and not glycine via alanine-glyoxylate transaminase. Based on isotopomer analysis, pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase appeared to be equal points for pyruvate entry into the Krebs cycle. In the 5.5 mM U-13C-glucose plus 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine emergence treatment used to simulate 12 h of “low tide”, oysters accumulated more 13C-labeled metabolites, including both anaerobic glycolytic and aerobic Krebs cycle intermediates. The aerobic metabolites could be the biochemical result of the gaping behavior of mollusks during emergence. The change in tissue distribution and mass balance of 13C-labeled nutrients (U-13C-glucose and 2-13C/15N-glycine) provides the basis for a new quantitative fluxomic method for elucidating sub-lethal environmental effects in marine organisms called whole body mass balance phenotyping (WoMBaP). PMID:24958387

  6. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and childhood fat mass in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Jessie P; Herring, Amy H; Wolff, Mary S; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several studies have evaluated the association of prenatal bisphenol A exposure with childhood body size but only one study of male infants has examined other environmental phenols. Therefore, we assessed associations between prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and fat mass in a prospective birth cohort. We quantified four phenol biomarkers in third trimester maternal spot urine samples in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 and evaluated fat mass in their children using a Tanita scale between ages 4 and 9years (173 children with 351 total observations). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences in natural log creatinine-standardized phenol biomarker concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed effects regression models. We did not observe associations of bisphenol A or triclosan with childhood percent fat mass. In unadjusted models, maternal urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol were associated with greater percent fat mass and benzophenone-3 was associated with lower percent fat mass among children. After adjustment, phenol biomarkers were not associated with percent fat mass. However, the association between benzophenone-3 and percent fat mass was modified by child's sex: benzophenone-3 concentrations were inversely associated with percent fat mass in girls (beta=-1.51, 95% CI=-3.06, 0.01) but not boys (beta=-0.20, 95% CI=-1.69, 1.26). Although we did not observe strong evidence that prenatal environmental phenols exposures influence the development of childhood adiposity, the potential antiadipogenic effect of benzophenone-3 in girls may warrant further investigation. PMID:27037776

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity: A meta-analysis of twin, family and adoption studies

    PubMed Central

    Bezdjian, Serena; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of twin, family and adoption studies was conducted to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. The best fitting model for 41 key studies (58 independent samples from 14 month old infants to adults; N = 27,147) included equal proportions of variance due to genetic (0.50) and non-shared environmental (0.50) influences, with genetic effects being both additive (0.38) and non-additive (0.12). Shared environmental effects were unimportant in explaining individual differences in impulsivity. Age, sex, and study design (twin vs. adoption) were all significant moderators of the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. The relative contribution of genetic effects (broad sense heritability) and unique environmental effects were also found to be important throughout development from childhood to adulthood. Total genetic effects were found to be important for all ages, but appeared to be strongest in children. Analyses also demonstrated that genetic effects appeared to be stronger in males than in females. Method of assessment (laboratory tasks vs. questionnaires), however, was not a significant moderator of the genetic and environmental influences on impulsivity. These results provide a structured synthesis of existing behavior genetic studies on impulsivity by providing a clearer understanding of the relative genetic and environmental contributions in impulsive traits through various stages of development. PMID:21889436

  8. Applications of C and N stable isotopes to ecological and environmental studies in seagrass ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lepoint, Gilles; Dauby, Patrick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen are increasingly used in marine ecosystems, for ecological and environmental studies. Here, we examine some applications of stable isotopes as ecological integrators or tracers in seagrass ecosystem studies. We focus on both the use of natural isotope abundance as food web integrators or environmental tracers and on the use of stable isotopes as experimental tools. As ecosystem integrators, stable isotopes have helped to elucidate the general structure of trophic webs in temperate, Mediterranean and tropical seagrass ecosystems. As environmental tracers, stable isotopes have proven their utility in sewage impact measuring and mapping. However, to make such environmental studies more comprehensible, future works on understanding of basic reasons for variations of N and C stable isotopes in seagrasses should be encouraged. At least, as experimental tracers, stable isotopes allow the study of many aspects of N and C cycles at the scale of a plant or at the scale of the seagrass ecosystem. PMID:15556172

  9. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  10. Highlighting High Performance: Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    2002-11-01

    Oberlin College’s Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies is a high-performance building featuring an expansive photovoltaic system and a closed-loop groundwater heat pump system. Designers incorporated energy-efficient components and materials

  11. Hazard identification of environmental pollutants by combining results from ecological and biomarker studies: an example

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Linking exposures from environmental pollutants with adverse health effects is difficult because these exposures are usually low-dose and ill-defined. According to several investigators, a series of multidisciplinary, multilevel studies is needed to address this prob...

  12. Space shuttle environmental and thermal control/life support system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.

    1973-01-01

    The study of the space shuttle environmental and thermal control/life support system is summarized. Design approaches, system descriptions, maintenance requirements, testing requirements, instrumentation, and ground support equipment requirements are discussed.

  13. Environmental readiness pilot study at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.; Bhinge, D.; Patel, J.; Jones-Bateman, L.; Resnick, E.

    1994-12-31

    The Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) has been on standby status since the mid-1970s, prior to the enactment of the majority of Federal environmental regulations. As a result, BAAP is unprepared to begin production without the implementation of pollution prevention and treatment measures. The Army contracted SAIC to conduct a pilot study to develop an environmental readiness plan for BAAP in the event that the plant is reactivated to produce explosives and propellants for ammunition requirements during mobilization. This paper describes the process developed by SAIC to conduct this pilot study at BAAP and the relationship between this effort and the Army`s overall environmental mission.

  14. Intentional Exposure Studies of Environmental Agents on Human Subjects: Assessing Benefits and Risks

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I assess the benefits and risks of studies that intentionally expose research subjects to environmental agents. I describe these types of studies, identify their benefits and risks, compare these studies to other research methods that can be used to investigate the relationship between environmental exposures and disease, and discuss some issues related to research design and risk minimization. I argue that the benefits of intentional environmental exposure studies outweigh the risks when 1) the knowledge gained is likely to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental exposure and disease; 2) this knowledge cannot be obtained by other methods; 3) the experiments are well-designed; 4) the subjects will receive some benefits, such as medical evaluations; 5) risks are minimized; and 6) the risks to human subjects are less than the those encountered in a typical Phase I drug study. Only in rare circumstances, i.e. when an intentional environmental exposure study is needed to implement an important environmental or public health intervention or regulation, may such studies expose research subjects to risks as high as those encountered in a typical Phase I drug trail. PMID:17847606

  15. Environmental and occupational health research and training needs in Colombia: A Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; González, Beatriz Elena; Vera, Lina María; Patz, Jonathan; Bautista, Leonelo E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environmental factors contribute with 16% of the burden of disease in Colombia. A main obstacle in implementing national and regional environmental and occupational health policies is the limited knowledge on the local ability to study and control the impact of harmful exposures on health. Objective To identify needs for research and training in environmental and occupational health in Colombia. Materials and methods We conducted a three-round hybrid Delphi study. A group of environmental and occupational health Colombian experts (n=16) from government agencies, universities, and research centers was recruited to participate in the study. Expert’s opinions on research and training needs were gathered through online questionnaires, followed by an in-person meeting. The percentage of agreement and the coefficient of variation were used to measure consensus. Results Air pollution and chemical products were considered the most important environmental and occupational exposures, due to their significant impact on chronic non-communicable diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Research on the effects of outdoor air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was considered of the greatest importance. Priority training areas included environmental and occupational health risk assessment, exposure modeling, advanced statistical methods, urban planning, occupational safety and hygiene, and epidemiology and toxicology. Conclusions These findings provide a valuable input for the definition and implementation of national environmental and occupational health policies and for the development of a regional hub aimed at strengthening the capacity for research and training in Colombia. PMID:26535742

  16. Are Healthcare Providers Asking about Environmental Exposures? A Community-Based Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Zierold, Kristina M.; Sears, Clara G.

    2015-01-01

    People living near environmental hazards may develop symptoms and health conditions that require specialized monitoring and treatment by healthcare providers. One emerging environmental hazard is coal ash. Coal ash is comprised of small particles containing heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive elements. The overall purpose of this study was to explore whether healthcare providers ask patients if they live near an environmental hazard like coal ash storage sites and to assess what health conditions prompt a provider inquiry. Focus groups were conducted in 2012 and a cross-sectional survey was administered in 2013. Overall, 61% of survey respondents reported that their healthcare providers never asked if they lived near an environmental hazard. One focus group member stated “No, they don't ask that. They just always blame stuff on you….” Respondents with asthma and other lung conditions were significantly more likely to be asked by a healthcare provider if they lived near an environmental hazard. Due to the unique exposures from environmental hazards and the low prevalence of patients being asked about environmental hazards, we recommend that healthcare providers take environmental health histories in order to understand patients' exposures, to monitor symptoms of exposure, and to assist with education about reducing exposure. PMID:26557853

  17. Are healthcare providers asking about environmental exposures? A community-based mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Zierold, Kristina M; Sears, Clara G

    2015-01-01

    People living near environmental hazards may develop symptoms and health conditions that require specialized monitoring and treatment by healthcare providers. One emerging environmental hazard is coal ash. Coal ash is comprised of small particles containing heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive elements. The overall purpose of this study was to explore whether healthcare providers ask patients if they live near an environmental hazard like coal ash storage sites and to assess what health conditions prompt a provider inquiry. Focus groups were conducted in 2012 and a cross-sectional survey was administered in 2013. Overall, 61% of survey respondents reported that their healthcare providers never asked if they lived near an environmental hazard. One focus group member stated "No, they don't ask that. They just always blame stuff on you…." Respondents with asthma and other lung conditions were significantly more likely to be asked by a healthcare provider if they lived near an environmental hazard. Due to the unique exposures from environmental hazards and the low prevalence of patients being asked about environmental hazards, we recommend that healthcare providers take environmental health histories in order to understand patients' exposures, to monitor symptoms of exposure, and to assist with education about reducing exposure. PMID:26557853

  18. Reporting Hantavirus: A Study of Intercultural Environmental Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, JoAnn M.

    A study examined media coverage of hantavirus in three Southwestern regional newspapers, including interviews with journalists and sources involved in the coverage, and implications of the media's portrayal of Navajo culture. Content review of regional coverage--67 articles in three regional newspapers were reviewed in the first year of a new…

  19. Impact of Environmental Enrichment Devices on NTP In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Sheba R; Morgan, Daniel L; Kissling, Grace E; Travlos, Gregory S; King-Herbert, Angela P

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the use of nesting material or polycarbonate shelters as enrichment devices would have an impact on end points commonly measured during the conduct of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) 13-week studies. The study design was consistent with the NTP 13-week toxicity studies. Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rats and their offspring and B6C3F1/N mice were assigned to control (unenriched) and enriched experimental groups. Body weight, food and water consumption, behavioral observations, fecal content, clinical pathology, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology were evaluated. Enriched male mice and male and female rats exhibited decreased feed intake without a subsequent decrease in body weight; this may have been the result of the nesting material reducing the effect of cold stress, thereby allowing for more efficient use of feed. There were statistical differences in some hematological parameters; however, these were not considered physiologically relevant since all values were within the normal range. Gross pathology and histopathological findings were background changes and were not considered enrichment-related. Nesting material and shelters were used frequently and consistently and allowed animals to display species-typical behavior. There was no significant impact on commonly measured end points in HSD rats and B6C3F1/N mice given enrichment devices. PMID:26873679

  20. NORTHEAST LOON STUDY WORKING GROUP PARTNERSHIP TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northeast Loon Study Working Group (NELSWG) was formed in 1994 to proactively identify threats to one of the Northeast's most popular waterbirds, the common loon, Gavia immer. Seventeen institutions have come together to identify strategy, coordinate the work load, and share ...

  1. Impact of Environmental Enrichment Devices on NTP In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Sheba R; Morgan, Daniel L; Kissling, Grace E; Travlos, Gregory S; King-Herbert, Angela P

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the use of nesting material or polycarbonate shelters as enrichment devices would have an impact on end points commonly measured during the conduct of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) 13-week studies. The study design was consistent with the NTP 13-week toxicity studies. Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rats and their offspring and B6C3F1/N mice were assigned to control (unenriched) and enriched experimental groups. Body weight, food and water consumption, behavioral observations, fecal content, clinical pathology, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology were evaluated. Enriched male mice and male and female rats exhibited decreased feed intake without a subsequent decrease in body weight; this may have been the result of the nesting material reducing the effect of cold stress, thereby allowing for more efficient use of feed. There were statistical differences in some hematological parameters; however, these were not considered physiologically relevant since all values were within the normal range. Gross pathology and histopathological findings were background changes and were not considered enrichment-related. Nesting material and shelters were used frequently and consistently and allowed animals to display species-typical behavior. There was no significant impact on commonly measured end points in HSD rats and B6C3F1/N mice given enrichment devices.

  2. Environmental Study: Science and Engineering Buildings. ABS Publication No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley.

    This report is the first of a series which present the results of a systems analysis of the problem of providing science and engineering buildings at the university level conducted by the Academic Building Systems (ABS) program. The document includes (1) a user survey (data and conclusions from a series of studies involving a spectrum of…

  3. Nature Study for Conservation. A Handbook for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, John W.

    This book is written for the person who wishes to study nature with a goal toward involving himself in conservation action. It does not explain what one must do in this regard, rather, it suggests first hand experiences and provides knowledge on which to base his decisions. Part One, Concepts, deals briefly with ecological thought basic to…

  4. Tangible evidence, trust and power: public perceptions of community environmental health studies.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Senier, Laura; Darrah-Okike, Jennifer; Brown, Phil; Santos, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Communities with environmental health concerns in the USA frequently request studies from their local or state departments of public health. This paper presents findings from three focus groups conducted in communities north of Boston that have been the subject of two different environmental health studies. The focus groups were designed to elicit residents' perceptions of environmental health, and of the particular studies conducted in their communities. In all focus groups, participants had difficulty accepting the findings of health studies that contradicted their own experiences of environmental exposures and illness. Our results suggest that lay knowledge, informed in varying degrees by the experience of what we term "tangible evidence," creates a lens through which communities interpret a health study's findings. The differences in reliance on tangible evidence were related to participants' sense of trust in public officials, and the institutions responsible for conducting health studies. Participants from the wealthier, predominantly white communities discussed trust in study design and methodologies used. In contrast, participants from the lower-income, higher-minority communities assessed health studies with reference to their trust (or lack thereof) in study sponsors and public health institutions. Participants' experience of tangible evidence, trust or distrust in health agencies and research institutions, and a sense of relative community power, influence how they assess the findings of environmental health studies and may have implications for pubic health.

  5. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Jayne; Prady, Stephanie L; Smith, Michaela A; White, Piran C L; Graham, Hilary M

    2015-05-01

    Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling) and physical activity (92 studies) or sedentary behaviors (19 studies). Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14), including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste) and other health behaviors ((n = 20) smoking, dietary intake, alcohol). These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain. PMID:25950651

  6. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Jayne; Prady, Stephanie L.; Smith, Michaela A.; White, Piran C. L.; Graham, Hilary M.

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling) and physical activity (92 studies) or sedentary behaviors (19 studies). Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14), including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste) and other health behaviors ((n = 20) smoking, dietary intake, alcohol). These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain. PMID:25950651

  7. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  8. Directory of country environmental studies, 1993. An annotated bibliography of environmental and natural resource profiles and assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Tunstall, D.B.; van der Wansem, M.

    1992-11-01

    The 1993 edition of the Directory provides detailed citations and abstracts for 357 major natural resource and environmental studies (257 of which were added since the 1990 edition) covering 129 developing countries and 12 regional groupings. Most of the studies (93%) were prepared between 1987 and 1992. Included are 66 national reports prepared for the U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Thirty-three countries, including Algeria, Bhutan, Cuba, Republic of Korea, Laos, Namibia, South Africa, Suriname, Taiwan, and Venezuela, are new to this edition of the directory, which focuses on reports that link quantitative assessment of a country's natural resources to economic development and the maintenance of ecosystems, with particular emphasis on natural resource management strategies and action plans.

  9. Exploring environmental literacy in low-literate communities of Pakistan: A descriptive study to recommend strategies for planning environmental education programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudi, Sabiha Shafique

    2000-10-01

    The widely accepted definition of environmental education as stated by The Tbilisi Declaration of 1978 focuses on developing an environmentally literate citizenry which is capable of working "...individually and collectively toward solutions of current [environmental] problems and the prevention of new ones". The two basic tenets of environmental literacy are further defined in this study as the ability to understand environmental problems and the ability to address those environmental problems in a responsible manner. Acquisition of knowledge has also been considered an important element when developing environmental literacy programs. However, a large sector of the world population is non- or low-literate and communication is through channels other than the written word. The challenge for environmental educators is to reach the low-literate learners who have not had many opportunities to participate in formal education activities through established institutions. The purpose of this study was to describe levels of environmental literacy in communities with varying levels of formal literacy in two cities, Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan to determine the role formal literacy plays in enhancing environmental literacy and decision making in relation to age, sex, location, number of years spent in formal education, and the socio-economic status (SES) of adult learners. Based on the outcomes, recommendations were made for designing effective programs to ensure involvement of low-literate communities in established decision-making processes through relevant program planning. This study suggested strategies to program planners and environmental educators for designing programs that reach low-literate communities, highlight local environmental concerns, and empower these communities in addressing local environmental issues. A purposive sample was identified from the constituencies of five non-governmental organizations in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Two instruments

  10. A Survey of Environmental Microbial Flora During Closed Chamber Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Groves, Theron O.; Bell-Robinson, Denetia; Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Services, Inc. and NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX As NASA prepares for long-term missions aboard the International Space Station and the eventual exploration of Mars, closed-environment chambers on Earth have become important test beds for systems evaluations. During 2 separate studies of a selfcontained ecosystem containing 4 crewmembers, microbial surveys of samples from 13 surface and 3 air sites were performed. Microbial concentration of samples from surface sites with frequent water contact (e.g., urinal, sink) did not indicate significantly higher levels of contamination than drier areas, though surface cleaning by the crew may have influenced this conclusion. Changes in bacterial diversity on surface sites implied that the number of transient species was high, suggesting movement by crew activities, aerosols, or both. A non-linear relationship between bacterial diversity and enumeration from surface samples indicated that a rapid increase occurred in the number of species as cell concentration increased to 5 CFU/sq cm. Above this concentration, the number of different bacterial species varied between 11 and 16. Airborne bacteria and fungi averaged only 160 and 1 CFU/m3, respectively. Microbial contamination of the potable water system primarily consisted of 3 species of Gram negative bacteria; however, after 60 days during one study, several species of Bacillus became the dominant flora. This study suggests that under these conditions, microbial contamination in the air and water was suppressed by the life-support systems, though contamination was possible. Conversely, the crew and their activities controlled microbial levels on surfaces. Understanding the factors that affect microbial control will improve the design of microbial testing both during space flight and in analogous Earth-based environments.

  11. Strategies for quantifying C60 fullerenes in environmental and biological samples and implications for studies in environmental health and ecotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Pycke, Benny F.G.; Benn, Troy M.; Herckes, Pierre; Westerhoff, Paul; Halden, Rolf U.

    2010-01-01

    Fullerenes are sphere-like molecules with unique physico-chemical properties, which render them of particular interest in biomedical research, consumer products and industrial applications. Human and environmental exposure to fullerenes is not a new phenomenon, due to a long history of hydrocarbon-combustion sources, and will only increase in the future, as incorporation of fullerenes into consumer products becomes more widespread for use as anti-aging, anti-bacterial or anti-apoptotic agents. An essential step in the determination of biological effects of fullerenes (and their surface-functionalized derivatives) is establishment of exposure-assessment techniques. However, in ecotoxicological studies, quantification of fullerenes is performed infrequently because robust, uniformly applicable analytical approaches have yet to be identified, due to the wide variety of sample types. Moreover, the unique physico-chemistry of fullerenes in aqueous matrices requires reassessment of conventional analytical approaches, especially in more complex biological matrices (e.g., urine, blood, plasma, milk, and tissue). Here, we present a review of current analytical approaches for the quantification of fullerenes and propose a consensus approach for determination of these nanomaterials in a variety of environmental and biological matrices. PMID:21359100

  12. Environmental studies of Iceland with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Saemundsson, K.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite can be used to study geological and geophysical phenomena which are important in relation to Iceland's natural resources. Multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to map areas of altered ground, intense thermal emission, fallout from volcanic eruptions, lava flows, volcanic geomorphology, erosion or build-up of land, snow cover, the areal extent of glaciers and ice caps, etc. At least five distinct vegetation types and barren areas can be mapped using MSS false-color composites. Stereoscopic coverage of iceland by side-lapping ERTS imagery permits precise analysis of various natural phenomena.

  13. Uranium mining and milling environmental studies. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental and social aspects of uranium mining, milling, and ore treatment. Environmental and social aspects include air and water pollution, public health, occupational safety, land reclamation, and waste disposal. The citations refer to monitoring and control of contaminants, and environmental surveys and impact statements for specific areas in the vicinity of mining and ore treatment facilities. There are also references to health studies performed on miners and millworkers. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. A study of environmental radioactivity measurements for Cankiri, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kapdan, Enis; Taskin, Halim; Kam, Erol; Osmanlioglu, A Erdal; Karahan, Gursel; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2012-07-01

    This study is the first to assess the level of background radiation for the Cankiri province of Turkey. Indoor air radon concentrations were determined using Columbia Resin-39 nuclear track detectors and the average (222)Rn activity was found to be 44 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 1.1 mSv). Measurements of gamma doses in outdoor air were performed using a portable plastic scintillation detector and the average gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be 8 μR h(-1) (corresponding to an annual effective dose of 87.7 μSv). Radionuclide activity concentrations in soil samples were measured through gamma-ray spectrometry and the average activities were determined as 17.7, 22.3, 357 and 4.1 Bq kg(-1) for the radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The average annual effective dose from the natural radioactivity sources ((238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K) was calculated to be 44.4 μSv. Radioactivity levels of drinking water samples were carried out using a low-background proportional counter and the average gross alpha and beta activities were obtained as 0.25 and 0.26 Bq l(-1), respectively (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 184 μSv). The average radon concentrations in indoor air and the average radionuclide activities in soil were found to be lower than most Turkish cities while higher levels of outdoor gamma dose rate and water radioactivity were observed. The results of this study showed that the region's background radioactivity level differs considerably from the reported data for Turkish cities.

  15. Preliminary Study on Willingness to Pay for Environmentally Certified Wood Products Among Consumers in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Shukri; Lukhman Ibrahim, Muhamad

    Consumers are expected to demand and would be willing to pay a price premium for environment-friendly products stemming from the growing global environmental consumerism. While consumers in the developed countries are reported to be willing to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products, there is hardly any study on consumers` willingness in other markets. This preliminary study examines consumer willingness to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products in Malaysia. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 100 systematically-sampled, mall-intercepted respondents. Results indicated that some 38% of the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 14.4% more for environmentally certified wood products.

  16. Biosphere 2 Center as a unique tool for environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Walter, Achim; Lambrecht, Susanne Carmen

    2004-04-01

    The Biosphere 2 Laboratory of Biosphere 2 Center, Arizona, is a unique, self-contained glasshouse fostering several mesocosms of tropical and subtropical regions on an area of 12,700 m2. It was constructed around 1990 to test whether human life is possible in this completely sealed, self-sustaining artificial ecosystem. Mainly due to overly rich organic soils, the initial mission failed in a spectacular manner that raised enormous disbelief in the scientific seriousness of the project. From 1995 to 2003, the facility had been operated by Columbia University under a completely new scientific management. The aim of the project had then been to conduct research in the field of 'experimental climate change science'. Climatic conditions within the mesocosms can be precisely controlled. In studies with elevated CO2, altered temperature and irrigation regimes performed in the rainforest, coral reef and agriforestry mesocosm, the facility had proven to be a valuable tool for global climate change research. Upon submission of this manuscript, Columbia University is relinquishing the management of this facility now although there was a contract to operate the facility until 2010, leaving it with an unclear destiny that might bring about anything from complete abandonment to a new flowering phase with a new destination.

  17. Drinking water toxicity study of the environmental contaminant--Bromate.

    PubMed

    Dongmei, Liu; Zhiwei, Wang; Qi, Zhu; Fuyi, Cui; Yujuan, Shan; Xiaodong, Liu

    2015-12-01

    Bromate is a byproduct of water disinfection that is produced when waters contain bromide treated with ozone. To investigate the level of the toxicity of bromate and find the most sensitive indicators in a short time, a series of toxicological assessments were conducted including the acute toxicity, cumulative toxicity, genetic toxicity and subacute toxicity of bromate (using Potassium Bromate to represent bromate). The LD50 of orally administered Potassium Bromate was 215 mg/kg in Wistar rats and 464 mg/kg in ICR mice. The cumulative toxicity of Potassium Bromate was not obvious. The Ames test, mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and mouse sperm abnormality test did not indicate mutagenicity. The results of the subacute study did not exhibit significant differences in most of the parameters, except the white blood cell count, which was significantly decreased in male rats. In addition, Potassium Bromate influenced the albumin, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in male rats to various extents. A thorough analysis of the above tests clearly demonstrates that bromate has toxicity, not obvious cumulative toxicity and the white blood cell count can be used as an indicator to reflect the toxicity of bromate and investigate bromate's toxic mechanism.

  18. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  19. A study of the effects of end-cap molecular species on environmental characteristics of polimidesulfones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.; Walker, S.

    1984-01-01

    To improve the environmental stability and mechanical properties of polyimidesulfone (PISO2), it was decided to investigate the effects of various types of end caps on its thermo-mechanical and related properties. It was noted that end caps are effective in reducing the environmental damage susceptibility of PISO2 samples, apparently due to their ability to react with free end groups which are believed to be moisture pickup sites. Phthalic anydride, aniline and aminobenzophenone were the end caps used in this study.

  20. *THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON CHILD HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Children's Study is a population-based cohort study that will examine the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of more than 100,000 children across the United States, following them from birth until age 21. The goal of the study is to im...

  1. Environmental management with knowledge of uncertainty: a methylmercury case study.

    PubMed

    Hope, Bruce K; Lut, Agnes; Aldrich, Greg; Rubin, Jared

    2007-01-01

    In Oregon's Willamette River Basin, health advisories currently limit consumption of fish that have accumulated methylmercury to levels posing a potential health risk for humans. Under the Clean Water Act, these advisories represent an impairment of the beneficial use of fish consumption and create the requirement for a mercury total maximum daily load. A percent load reduction for total mercury was determined by comparing mercury levels in surface water to a water column guidance value linked to the protection of specified beneficial uses. In this case study, we discuss how probabilistic (Monte Carlo) methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the water column guidance value, how they provided decision makers with knowledge as to the probability of any given water column guidance value affording human health protection for methylmercury, and how this knowledge affected decisions as to a mercury load reduction for the Willamette River Basin. Through consultations with stakeholders, a water column guidance value of 0.92 ng/L (a median for higher trophic level fish) was chosen from among a suite of values of differing probabilities. The selected water column guidance value, when compared with ambient total mercury levels, indicated that a 50% probability of achieving the tissue criterion would require a load reduction of about 26%. Having and working with an explicit knowledge of uncertainty was not easy for many decision makers or stakeholders. However, such knowledge gave them more informed choices, a better understanding of what a specific choice of water column guidance value could mean in terms of achieving protectiveness, and led to a lower load reduction than suggested by a purely deterministic analysis. Nonetheless, more attention must be given to developing management, communication, and regulatory frameworks that can effectively use the greater knowledge of uncertainty afforded by probabilistic methods. PMID:17283603

  2. Environmental geochemistry and pollution studies of Aliaga metal industry district.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delya; Karaoglu, Nevin

    2002-02-01

    The Aliaga metal industry district located 50 km northwest of Izmir City, in Turkey, includes many metal factories. The geology of the area is represented by Mesozoic flysch deposits and Cenozoic volcano sedimentary rocks. Tectonic elements are NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults and a W-NW trending fault direction that is important for water supply. Rock, soil, stream sediment, and water samples taken at various distances from the industrial area were analyzed for Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo. According to the results, the elements in rocks are reasonable for the range of "Clarke" values, but in the soils and stream sediment, they comprise higher values than are acceptable for agricultural activities. Toxicity analyses were carried out in the drinking artesian water of Cakmakli village and wastewater samples of the factories and river water both of which are used for irrigation of the agricultural areas in and around the investigated area. The people should, however be made aware that this waste and river water is unacceptable for agriculture. Additionally, the contamination of seawater in Nemrut Bay is probably caused by contaminated river and underground water running to the sea. The chemical and toxicity analysis of drinking water samples show that they are above accepted standards and harmful. Previous air pollution studies (funnel gas emission analyses) also show that gas emission contains high amount of dust particles with high Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cu concentrations. As a result, all elements analyzed are of great importance relative to problems concerning contamination of the soil, stream sediment, ground surface water, and air by individual metals from uncontrolled processing of some metal factories.

  3. Environmental Controls on Hopanoid Distributions: Field and Culture Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H. L.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Hopanoid biomarkers play an important role in reconstructions of the earth's past biogeochemistry and evolution. Despite their excellent preservation potential and utility for microbial paleontology, relatively little of the earth's modern microbial biosphere has been explored with respect to hopanoid production. Due to the fact that hopanoids are used by bacteria to tune the physical properties of their cell membranes, geochemical gradients in nature may be associated with systematic changes in hopanoid diversity and abundances. Bacteriohopanpolyols (BHPs) are produced by both sulfur-oxidizing and sulfur-reducing bacteria. We hypothesize that BHPs are important for microbial adaptation to pH and sulfide concentrations in sulfur-oxidizing microbial communities. We investigated this hypothesis using both pure laboratory cultures and with samples of natural biofilms collected across oxygen and sulfide concentration gradients in the field. Samples were collected from the sulfidic Frasassi cave system, Italy, where the geomicrobiology of abundant sulfur cycling biofilms has previously been studied in detail (Macalady et al. 2007, Macalady et al. 2008). Culturing experiments were performed with two sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, an Acidithiobacillus sp. isolated from extremely acidic (pH 0-1) snotittes, and Beggiatoa alba, a neutrophilic sulfur oxidizer with close relatives in the Frasassi biofilms. Cultures were grown at range of pH and sulfide concentrations, harvested, freeze-dried and analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (APCI- LC/MS). We observed six different BHPs for the Acidithiobacillus sp. including one novel structure. Acidithiobacillus BHPs change in response to changes in the pH of the growth medium, becoming more polar and more abundant at lower pH. These observations are consistent with the production of less fluid, more polar membranes to counteract proton leakage into cells as pH decreases. Macalady, J

  4. Individual, social, environmental, and physical environmental correlates with physical activity among Canadians: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sai Yi; Cameron, Christine; DesMeules, Marie; Morrison, Howard; Craig, Cora Lynn; Jiang, XiaoHong

    2009-01-01

    Background The identification of various individual, social and physical environmental factors affecting physical activity (PA) behavior in Canada can help in the development of more tailored intervention strategies for promoting higher PA levels in Canada. This study examined the influences of various individual, social and physical environmental factors on PA participation by gender, age and socioeconomic status, using data from the 2002 nationwide survey of the Physical Activity Monitor. Methods In 2002, 5,167 Canadians aged 15–79 years, selected by random-digit dialling from household-based telephone exchanges, completed a telephone survey. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to collect information on total physical activity. The effects of socio-economical status, self-rated health, self-efficacy, intention, perceived barriers to PA, health benefits of PA, social support, and facility availability on PA level were examined by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Self-efficacy and intention were the strongest correlates and had the greatest effect on PA. Family income, self-rated health and perceived barriers were also consistently associated with PA. The effects of the perceived health benefits, education and family income were more salient to older people, whereas the influence of education was more important to women and the influence of perceived barriers was more salient to women and younger people. Facility availability was more strongly associated with PA among people with a university degree than among people with a lower education level. However, social support was not significantly related to PA in any subgroup. Conclusion This study suggests that PA promotion strategies should be tailored to enhance people's confidence to engage in PA, motivate people to be more active, educate people on PA's health benefits and reduce barriers, as well as target different factors for men and women and for

  5. Industrial development versus environmental conservation at local scale: a case study from southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Maestre Gil, F T

    2001-08-01

    Local scale has an important role in environmental management. In Spain, rapid industrialization has occurred in the last three decades, leading to substantial changes in socioeconomic relations and resulting in significant environmental degradation. This paper describes the environmental status of the township of Sax (Alicante, in southeast Spain), which has passed from agriculture to industrial manufacturing in 50 years. The human population has grown exponentially during the second half of the 20th century, with a 91% increase from 1955 to 1995, coinciding with strong growth in manufacturing (factories increased fivefold in the period 1955-1976) and important changes in the working population and land use. Illegal rubbish dumps, water pollution, forest fires, erosion, and degradation of wildlife habitats are the main outcomes of these dramatic socioeconomic and demographic changes. The administration has focused on the control of water pollution and waste management, while nongovernmental organizations have concentrated on the prevention of forest fires and the development of environmental education programs. These measures are insufficient to manage current environmental degradation, and an environmental management plan for the study area is discussed. Increasing effort in waste management and industrial wastewater control, changes in land-use policy, and the creation of an advisory committee to increase public participation in decision-making have been identified as environmental target objectives for the coming years.

  6. Environmental Impacts of the Use of Ecosystem Services: Case Study of Birdwatching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Jakub

    2014-09-01

    The main reason for promoting the concept of ecosystem services lies in its potential to contribute to environmental conservation. Highlighting the benefits derived from ecosystems fosters an understanding of humans' dependence on nature, as users of ecosystem services. However, the act of using ecosystem services may not be environmentally neutral. As with the use of products and services generated within an economy, the use of ecosystem services may lead to unintended environmental consequences throughout the `ecosystem services supply chain.' This article puts forward a framework for analyzing environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services, indicating five categories of impact: (1) direct impacts (directly limiting the service's future availability); and four categories of indirect impacts, i.e., on broader ecosystem structures and processes, which can ultimately also affect the initial service: (2) impacts related to managing ecosystems to maximize the delivery of selected services (affecting ecosystems' capacity to provide other services); (3) impacts associated with accessing ecosystems to use their services (affecting other ecosystem components); (4) additional consumption of products, infrastructure or services required to use a selected ecosystem service, and their life-cycle environmental impacts; and (5) broader impacts on the society as a whole (environmental awareness of ecosystem service users and other stakeholders). To test the usefulness of this framework, the article uses the case study of birdwatching, which demonstrates all of the above categories of impacts. The article justifies the need for a broader consideration of environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services.

  7. Environmental impacts of the use of ecosystem services: case study of birdwatching.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Jakub

    2014-09-01

    The main reason for promoting the concept of ecosystem services lies in its potential to contribute to environmental conservation. Highlighting the benefits derived from ecosystems fosters an understanding of humans' dependence on nature, as users of ecosystem services. However, the act of using ecosystem services may not be environmentally neutral. As with the use of products and services generated within an economy, the use of ecosystem services may lead to unintended environmental consequences throughout the 'ecosystem services supply chain.' This article puts forward a framework for analyzing environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services, indicating five categories of impact: (1) direct impacts (directly limiting the service's future availability); and four categories of indirect impacts, i.e., on broader ecosystem structures and processes, which can ultimately also affect the initial service: (2) impacts related to managing ecosystems to maximize the delivery of selected services (affecting ecosystems' capacity to provide other services); (3) impacts associated with accessing ecosystems to use their services (affecting other ecosystem components); (4) additional consumption of products, infrastructure or services required to use a selected ecosystem service, and their life-cycle environmental impacts; and (5) broader impacts on the society as a whole (environmental awareness of ecosystem service users and other stakeholders). To test the usefulness of this framework, the article uses the case study of birdwatching, which demonstrates all of the above categories of impacts. The article justifies the need for a broader consideration of environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services. PMID:24993794

  8. The Influence of Active Participation and Organisation in Environmental Protection Activities on the Environmental Behaviour of Pupils: Study of a Teaching Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baur, Armin; Haase, Hans-Martin

    2015-01-01

    Until now, many efforts in the area of environmental education, intended to instill consciously responsible behaviour into the general public in Germany, have failed. Several of the available intervention studies aimed at improving environmental behaviour of pupils with classroom tuition were able to show positive results, but there were often…

  9. Community Leaders' Training in Environmental Studies: A Cooperative Community Project Funded under Title I of the Higher Education Act of 1965. Warp to Environmental Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F.; LaHart, David

    This document is the final report of the Community Leaders' Training in Environmental Studies Project conducted at Florida State University. The project sought to increase community environmental awareness and to expand the educational uses of the Tallahassee Junior Museum through the cooperation of museum staff, a variety of community groups, and…

  10. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Environmental Exposure Studies: Lessons from the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was a complex 3-year personal exposure study. The six geographically defined areas in the Detroit (Wayne County), Michigan, area used as study locations are ethnically diverse; the majority ...

  11. Environmental Risk Assessment of antimicrobials applied in veterinary medicine-A field study and laboratory approach.

    PubMed

    Slana, Marko; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2013-01-01

    The fate and environmental risk of antimicrobial compounds of different groups of veterinary medicine pharmaceuticals (VMP's) have been compared. The aim was to demonstrate a correlation between the physical and chemical properties of active compounds and their metabolism in target animals, as well as their fate in the environment. In addition, the importance of techniques for manure management and agricultural practice and their influence on the fate of active compounds is discussed. The selected active compounds are shown to be susceptible to at least one environmental factor (sun, water, bacterial or fungal degradation) to which they are exposed during their life cycle, which contributes to its degradation. Degradation under a number of environmental factors has also to be considered as authentic information additional to that observed in the limited conditions in laboratory studies and in Environmental Risk Assessment calculations. PMID:23274419

  12. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon.

    PubMed

    Milan, M; Pauletto, M; Boffo, L; Carrer, C; Sorrentino, F; Ferrari, G; Pavan, L; Patarnello, T; Bargelloni, L

    2015-02-01

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment.

  13. Education about environmental issues, conservation, and management: a study of form four secondary school pupils' concerns about environmental issues in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Maghenda, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to develop and administer a questionnaire designed to determine Kenyan students' concerns about environmental issues; second to investigate the primary environmental factors facing the country; and finally, to utilize the findings of the study to develop a conceptual framework for environmental education in Kenya. To develop an environmental education framework for Kenya, baseline data was obtained from a survey of Form IV secondary school students' concerns about environmental issues. A split-half technique was used to establish the reliability of the questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to test the construct validity of the questionnaire and as a data reduction method. This technique resulted in reducing the 81 items developed for the study to eight Factor as follows: (F1) Land use and health stresses; (F2) Community environmental risks; (F3) National environmental problems; (F4) Careless land use practices at community level; (F5) Socioeconomic elements; (F6) Sources of environmental information; (F7) Careless land use at national level; and (F8) Primary population pressures. Results are presented briefly.

  14. The effectiveness of experiential environmental education: O'Neill Sea Odyssey program case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanneman, Lauren E.

    Environmental education programs aim to develop participant awareness, sensitivity, and understanding of their affective relationship to the natural environment through conceptual knowledge and personal experiences. Previous findings have suggested that participation in environmental education programs leads to short-term positive increases in environmental knowledge, pro-environmental attitudes, and intentions to act in environmentally responsible behaviors; however, few studies have included long-term, follow-up assessment. This research provided an analysis of the effectiveness of the O'Neill Sea Odyssey (OSO) education program in fostering a long-term awareness of personal responsibility about ocean pollution among student participants. A survey administered to 261 students from the greater San Francisco Bay Area in California was used to explore 7th through 10 th grade students' conceptions about the connection between ocean pollution and stewardship behaviors. The study revealed that 75% of 86 former OSO participants retained a high level of awareness of the connection between non-point source pollution and personal behaviors two to five years after the program, regardless of differences in sex, language, grade level, and community setting. These results indicate that OSO participants retained a long-term conceptual awareness about environmental stewardship behaviors taught during the OSO program.

  15. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF AGGREGATED ENVIRONMENTAL INDICES WITH A CASE-STUDY OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental indicators are often aggregated into a single index for various purposes in environmental studies. Aggregated indices derived from the same data set can differ, usually because the aggregated indices' sensitivities are not thoroughly analyzed. Furthermore, if a sens...

  16. Environmental studies results: 1973-1992. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Environmental Studies Program was initiated in 1973 under the Bureau of Land Management by the Secretary of the Interior. The Purpose of the program was to conduct studies needed to predict, assess and manage impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments of the OCS and nearshore areas that may be affected by oil and gas activities. The narrative summary updates the version printed in 1986, which covered studies managed by the MMS in the Atlantic OCS region between 1973 and 1985. Descriptions of the study results are divided into the following categories: baseline studies and environmental inventories, biology/ecology, drill site monitoring, endangered species, geology/chemistry, oil spill studies, physical oceanography/meteorology, and social and economic studies. Results of each major type of study are subdivided into North Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, South Atlantic, and multiregional studies in chronological sequence.

  17. Critical Environmental Factors for Transportation Cycling in Children: A Qualitative Study Using Bike-Along Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10–12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used ‘bike-along interviews’ with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. Methods Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi-) urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library) within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. Results The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (in)directly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. Conclusion Road safety is of major concern in this 10–12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport. PMID:25250738

  18. Moving toward Socially and Environmentally Responsible Management Education--A Case Study of Mumbai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Ela; Gupta, Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    Educational institutions have a vital role to play shaping the future of our environment. Education provides opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens besides being educated. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the perception of management students and teachers in the city of Mumbai, India, to determine…

  19. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Teacher's Edition: Environmental Science. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the teacher's edition of one of the eight units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). This unit and its activities focuses on environmental pollution and hazards. Optional excursions are suggested for students who wish to study an area in greater depth. An introduction describes the problem…

  20. Environmental Comfort in School Buildings: A Case Study of Awareness and Participation of Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Nubia; Kowaltowski, Doris C. C. K.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study on user behavior in relation to environmental comfort conditions. A case study was conducted in school buildings in the region of the city of Campinas, So Paulo, Brazil. The methodology adopted was based on field observations of technical aspects of the school environment and of types of user behavior…

  1. Freddie Fish. A Primary Environmental Study of Basic Numerals, Sets, Ordinals and Shapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraynak, Ola

    This teacher's guide and study guide are an environmental approach to mathematics education in the primary grades. The mathematical studies of the numerals 0-10, ordinals, number sets, and basic shapes - diamond, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle - are developed through the story of Freddie Fish and his search for clean water. The…

  2. Tensions and Opportunities: A Baseline Study of Teachers' Views of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedretti, Erminia; Nazir, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports on a study designed to produce a portrait of teachers' self-reported views of environmental education in Ontario. The mixed method study consisted of an on-line survey (N = 377), supplemented by a series of in depth interviews with a volunteer sample (N = 24) of the survey respondents. In addition to providing a reasonable…

  3. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress Marathon Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  5. Science Education for Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study of the Palouse Watershed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Samson E.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses case study and qualitative content analysis methodologies to answer the question: What is the relationship between Washington State's k-12 science education standards and the environmental sustainability needs of the Palouse River Watershed? After defining the Palouse Watershed's attributes, the author presents a land use history…

  6. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  7. Expertise, Argumentation and Scientific Practice: A Case Study about Environmental Education in the 11th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez Alexandre, Maria Pilar; Pereiro Munoz, Cristina; Aznar Cuadrado, Virginia

    This paper reports a case study about argumentation and scientific practice in the 11th grade. The objectives of the study are to identify argument patterns and dimensions of the scientific practice in students' conversations and actions while engaged in an environmental management project in a wetland. The focus are the warrants that students…

  8. A Qualitative Study on Turkish Preschool Children's Environmental Attitudes through Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahriman-Ozturk, Deniz; Olgan, Refika; Tuncer, Gaye

    2012-01-01

    This study explores preschool children's attitudes towards environmental issues with a focus on the issue of gender as a factor affecting their attitudes. The study sample comprised 40 preschool age children living in Ankara, Turkey. The research adopted a qualitative approach, and the data were collected through interviews in which a…

  9. Evaluating the Impact of an Environmental Education Programme: An Empirical Study in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura; Bodenhorn, Barbara; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on information from 11 in-depth interviews, two focus groups and 72 written questionnaires to evaluate an extra-curricular environmental education programme on forestry designed for preparatory school students from a small rural community in Mexico. Specifically, the study assessed the impact of the programme on the ecological…

  10. Students' Experiences With/in Integrated Environmental Studies Programs in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breunig, Mary; Murtell, Jocelyn; Russell, Constance

    2015-01-01

    In Canada there exists a noteworthy educational initiative referred to as Environmental Studies Programs (ESPs). These secondary school programs are interdisciplinary, helping to link subject matter and encouraging student responsibility. The results of three case studies of Ontario ESPs indicate that program participation has "real…

  11. Examining Technology's Impact on Society: Using Case Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's impact on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world case studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. Case study design, implementation, and assessment are presented.…

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pubertal Timing: Results from Two National Sibling Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental effects on individual variation in pubertal timing using two national samples of siblings from the Nonshared Environment of Adolescent Development (NEAD) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). In each sample, female and male siblings with different degrees of genetic…

  13. Nature's Classroom: An Ethnographic Case Study of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Dorothea Jody

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines the dynamic relationship between culture and environmental education within the context of a specific Florida-based public education program. The School District of Hillsborough County (SDHC) offers the program through a three-day field trip to the study site, Nature's Classroom, and accompanying…

  14. Teachers' Cooperative Design of Instruction with Media for Social and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saga, Hiroo

    This study examines how a group of Japanese teachers cooperatively designed lessons using a television program and other materials for social and environmental studies. Teachers started the design by identifying their aims of instruction through examining the contents of an educational television program. This program described how a group of…

  15. Environmental Activism Revisited: The Changing Nature of Communication through Organizational Public Relations, Special Interest Groups and the Mass Media. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, Larissa A., Ed.

    The environmental movement of the 1960's and early 1970's resulted in unprecedented attention to environmental issues both in the mass media and in the scholarly literature. Interest has waned in recent years, with a concomitant erosion of coverage of what many consider enduring problems--particularly in water and air pollution and nuclear power.…

  16. Experiential environmental learning: A case study of innovative pedagogy in Baja Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneller, Andrew Jon

    This mixed methods case study describes an innovative two-semester middle school environmental learning course that departs from traditional Mexican expository pedagogy through the incorporation of experiential and service learning. This research takes place in a small middle school in Pescadero, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The research approach utilized in the study adds to the handful of studies in this cross-disciplinary field by employing quantitative methodologies to measure course outcomes on student environmental knowledge, perceptions, and actions, while simultaneously qualitatively describing the behavioral, educational, environmental, and social experiences of students. This research employs Dewey's theories of experience---as well as those of more contemporary authenticity theorists---in order to identify the philosophies that advocate incorporating experiential pedagogy within the curriculum. Implications for Mexican educational policy, practical pedagogical applications, and theory are discussed.

  17. Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: The GENEVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Silke; Allen, Kelli D.; Loiacono, Valerie T.; Norman, Barbara; Stanwyck, Catherine L.; Nord, Kristina M.; Williams, Christina D.; Kasarskis, Edward J.; Kamel, Freya; McGuire, Valerie; Nelson, Lorene M.; Oddone, Eugene Z.

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports of a potentially increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) for veterans deployed to the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War prompted the Department of Veterans Affairs to establish a National Registry of Veterans with ALS, charged with the goal of enrolling all US veterans with a neurologist-confirmed diagnosis of ALS. The Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans with ALS study (GENEVA) is a case-control study presently enrolling cases from the Department of Veterans Affairs registry and a representative sample of veteran controls to evaluate the joint contributions of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures to the risk of sporadic ALS. The GENEVA study design, recruitment strategies, methods of collecting DNA samples and environmental risk factor information are described here, along with a summary of demographic characteristics of the participants (537 cases, 292 controls) enrolled to date. PMID:18421219

  18. An environmental assessment of food supply chains: a case study on dessert apples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andy

    2002-10-01

    The contemporary food system provides consumers with convenience, extensive choice, and the year-round availability of fresh produce. In this paper these achievements are recognized within the context of the associated environmental impacts. While many analyses have considered the energy and material efficiency of various options for food production and packaging, very few studies have investigated the environmental impacts of the transport components of food supply chains. This is surprising, given that the global sourcing of food produce, centralized distribution systems, and shopping by car have become prevalent in recent decades and have contributed to an increase in the distance between producer and consumer or "food miles." In a case study the transport energy consumption is calculated for all possible ways in which dessert apples can be supplied to the UK consumer. The aim is to assess the environmental performance of the predominant fresh produce supply chains and to investigate claims that localized systems are more environmentally efficient. The main criteria used to compare the environmental efficiency in alternative food supply chains are the transport-related fossil-fuel energy consumption and associated carbon dioxide emissions. Analysis of the empirical data shows that transportation is now responsible for a considerable fraction of the total energy consumption in the life cycle of fresh apples, and in most cases exceeds the energy consumed in commercial apple cultivation. By developing local production and marketing systems for fresh products, transport demand can be reduced and many of the environmental impacts associated with existing supply chains can be avoided. The results of the study are then discussed in relation to the wider issues of transport policy, international trade, food security, and product-related environmental information for consumers. PMID:12481922

  19. The Watershed as A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Environmental and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Kolok, Alan S.; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Chen, Xun-Hong; Shea, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. Epidemiological limitations include difficulties associated with the organization of risk factor data and uncertainty about which measurable endpoints are most appropriate for an agricultural setting. Nevertheless, it is our contention that an adoption of the watershed concept can alleviate some of these difficulties. From an environmental perspective, the watershed concept helps identify differences in land use and application of agrichemicals at a level of resolution relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiological perspective, the watershed concept places data into a construct with environmental relevance. In this perspectives paper, we discuss how the watershed can provide a conceptual framework for studies in environmental and human health. PMID:20508751

  20. Skewed Riskscapes and Environmental Injustice: A Case Study of Metropolitan St. Louis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Troy D.

    2008-08-01

    This article presents a case study of Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) air pollution exposure risks across metropolitan St. Louis. The first section critically reviews environmental justice research and related barriers to environmental risk management. Second, the paper offers a conventional analysis of the spatial patterns of TRI facilities and their surrounding census block group demographics for metropolitan St. Louis. Third, the article describes the use of an exposure risk characterization for 319 manufacturers and their air releases of more than 126 toxic pollutants. This information could lead to more practical resolutions of urban environmental injustices. The analysis of TRIs across metropolitan St. Louis shows that minority and low-income residents were disproportionately closer to industrial pollution sources at nonrandom significance levels. Spatial concentrations of minority residents averaged nearly 40% within one kilometer of St. Louis TRI sites compared to 25% elsewhere. However, one-fifth of the region’s air pollution exposure risk over a decade was spatially concentrated among only six facilities on the southwestern border of East St. Louis. This disproportionate concentration of some of the greatest pollution risk would never be considered in most conventional environmental justice analyses. Not all pollution exposure risk is average, and the worst risks deserve more attention from environmental managers assessing and mitigating environmental injustices.

  1. Skewed riskscapes and environmental injustice: a case study of metropolitan St. Louis.

    PubMed

    Abel, Troy D

    2008-08-01

    This article presents a case study of Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) air pollution exposure risks across metropolitan St. Louis. The first section critically reviews environmental justice research and related barriers to environmental risk management. Second, the paper offers a conventional analysis of the spatial patterns of TRI facilities and their surrounding census block group demographics for metropolitan St. Louis. Third, the article describes the use of an exposure risk characterization for 319 manufacturers and their air releases of more than 126 toxic pollutants. This information could lead to more practical resolutions of urban environmental injustices. The analysis of TRIs across metropolitan St. Louis shows that minority and low-income residents were disproportionately closer to industrial pollution sources at nonrandom significance levels. Spatial concentrations of minority residents averaged nearly 40% within one kilometer of St. Louis TRI sites compared to 25% elsewhere. However, one-fifth of the region's air pollution exposure risk over a decade was spatially concentrated among only six facilities on the southwestern border of East St. Louis. This disproportionate concentration of some of the greatest pollution risk would never be considered in most conventional environmental justice analyses. Not all pollution exposure risk is average, and the worst risks deserve more attention from environmental managers assessing and mitigating environmental injustices.

  2. Exploring trends, sources, and causes of environmental funding: a study of Florida counties.

    PubMed

    Wang, XiaoHu

    2011-11-01

    Florida is one of the largest spenders on the environment in the U.S. Employing a database from Florida counties, this study examines two distinct environmental funding areas in government: funding to protect the environment, and funding to develop the environment. These two types of funding serve different purposes, support different activities and operations, and draw from different revenue sources. The results show that environmental funding in government is a response to the environmental pressure generated by economic activities and population growth. Counties with a higher level of manufacturing and farming activity spend more to protect the environment, while counties with higher population densities spend more to develop the environment. Moreover, counties with more funding for public safety and economic development activities spend less on the environment, indicating that environmental funding is influenced by the political processes in public budgeting in which diversified interests compete for resources. These results show that environmental spending in government is the result of combined forces arising from environmental pressure and budgetary politics.

  3. Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, E. J.; Brown, C.; Baxter, J.; Lemyre, L.; Masuda, J.R.; Ursitti, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours. PMID:23805055

  4. Contribution of shared environmental factors to familial aggregation of common cancers: an adoption study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Ji, Jianguang

    2015-03-01

    Cancer runs in families, suggesting a heritable component, but the contribution of environmental factors cannot be neglected. Studies on spousal risk can partly disentangle the environmental contribution but miss shared environmental factors during childhood and adolescence. Here, we examined the familial aggregation of common cancers among 80,281 Swedish-born adoptees, identified from the national Swedish Multigeneration Register, and linked them to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for common cancers (colorectal, lung, breast, prostate, and skin cancers) in the adoptees whose adoptive parents were diagnosed with concordant cancers, compared with the general population. SIRs in adoptees with an affected adoptive parent ranged from 1.00 (breast cancer) to 1.28 (skin cancer), whereas the SIRs in nonadoptees with an affected parent ranged from 1.63 (colorectal cancer) to 2.12 (skin cancer). Environmental factors account for around 0-28% of the familial aggregation. Cancer sites with high environmental contributions were observed for skin and colorectal cancers, which are known to have strong environmental causes.

  5. Pattern formation--A missing link in the study of ecosystem response to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Meron, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Environmental changes can affect the functioning of an ecosystem directly, through the response of individual life forms, or indirectly, through interspecific interactions and community dynamics. The feasibility of a community-level response has motivated numerous studies aimed at understanding the mutual relationships between three elements of ecosystem dynamics: the abiotic environment, biodiversity and ecosystem function. Since ecosystems are inherently nonlinear and spatially extended, environmental changes can also induce pattern-forming instabilities that result in spatial self-organization of life forms and resources. This, in turn, can affect the relationships between these three elements, and make the response of ecosystems to environmental changes far more complex. Responses of this kind can be expected in dryland ecosystems, which show a variety of self-organizing vegetation patterns along the rainfall gradient. This paper describes the progress that has been made in understanding vegetation patterning in dryland ecosystems, and the roles it plays in ecosystem response to environmental variability. The progress has been achieved by modeling pattern-forming feedbacks at small spatial scales and up-scaling their effects to large scales through model studies. This approach sets the basis for integrating pattern formation theory into the study of ecosystem dynamics and addressing ecologically significant questions such as the dynamics of desertification, restoration of degraded landscapes, biodiversity changes along environmental gradients, and shrubland-grassland transitions.

  6. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: a study of rural versus urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, M.C.; Evans, M.B.; Kent, S.T.; Johnson, E.; Threadgill, S.L.; Tyson, S.; Becker, S.M.; Gohlke, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members’ concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities defined the term environment, their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health, specific priorities in their communities, and differences in urban versus rural populations. Study design A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. Methods A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included defining the term environment, how the environment may affect health, and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. Results There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. Conclusions This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study

  7. Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 1. Executive report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS) was carried out as a three-phase project to collect environmental and socio-economic data in Somalia's Jubba Valley, the site of proposed development of a large hydroelectric dam. Complementary to construction of the dam, various plans are being prepared for subsequent development of irrigated agriculture in the middle and lower Jubba Valley. Numerous environmental and socio-economic changes will occur with dam construction, filling of the reservoir, infrastructural enhancement, and intensification of agriculture. Volume I, the Executive Report, and reports based on JESS longer-term studies (TEBS and SEBS) represent the most comprehensive assessment of the overall JESS effort: these reports consider and, in most cases, summarize the findings of other investigations.

  8. Genetic impact dominates over environmental effects in development of carotid artery stiffness: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Tamás; Osztovits, János; Pintér, Alexandra; Littvay, Levente; Cseh, Domonkos; Tárnoki, Adám D; Tárnoki, Dávid L; Jermendy, Adám L; Steinbach, Rita; Métneki, Júlia; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Kollai, Márk; Jermendy, György

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and all-cause mortality. Quantifying the genetic influence on the stiff arterial phenotype allows us to better predict the development of arterial stiffness. In this study, we aimed to determine the heritability of carotid artery stiffness in healthy twins. We studied 98 twin pairs of both sexes. We determined carotid artery stiffness locally using echo tracking and applanation tonometry. We estimated the heritability of stiffness parameters using structural equation modeling. The carotid distensibility coefficient showed the highest heritability (64%, 95% confidence interval 45-77%). The incremental elastic modulus, compliance and stiffness index β also showed substantial heritability (62%, 61% and 58%, respectively). The remaining 36-42% phenotypic variance was attributed to unshared environmental effects. Genetic influence appears to dominate over environmental factors in the development of carotid artery stiffness. Environmental factors may have an important role in favorably influencing the genetic predisposition for accelerated arterial stiffening.

  9. Invasive aspergillosis: epidemiology and environmental study in haematology patients (Sfax, Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Hadrich, I; Makni, F; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Sellami, A; Bouaziz, H; Hdiji, S; Elloumi, M; Ayadi, A

    2010-09-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major opportunistic infection in haematology patients. Preventive measures are important to control IA because diagnosis is difficult and the outcome of treatment is poor. We prospectively examined the environmental contamination by Aspergillus and other fungal species and evaluated the prevalence of invasive aspergillosis in the protect unit of haematology. A three-year prospective study (December 2004-September 2007) was carried out in the department of haematology of Hedi Chaker Hospital. Suspected invasive aspergillosis cases were reviewed and classified as proven, probable and possible invasive aspergillosis using the EORTC criteria. During the study period, we collected weekly environmental samples (patient's rooms, tables and acclimatisers) and clinical samples from each patient (nasal, expectoration and auricular). Among 105 neutropenic patients, 16 had probable and 13 had possible IA. A total of 1680 clinical samples were collected and A. flavus was most frequently isolated (79.2%). Analysis of 690 environmental samples revealed that Penicillium (44%) was the most frequent followed by Cladosporium (20%), Aspergillus spp. (18%) and Alternaria (13%). The PCR-sequencing of 30 A. flavus isolates detected from clinical and environmental samples confirmed the mycological identification. Our findings underline the importance of environmental surveillance and strict application of preventive measures.

  10. GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BODY MASS INDEX DURING ADOLESCENCE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY AMONG FINNISH TWINS

    PubMed Central

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rissanen, Aila; Silventoinen, Karri

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study genetic and environmental factors affecting body mass index (BMI) and BMI phenotypic correlations across adolescence. Design Prospective, population-based, twin cohort study. Subjects and methods We used twin modeling in 2413 monozygotic and same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic Finnish twin pairs born in 1983–1987 and assessed by self-report questionnaires at 11–12, 14, and 17 years. Results Heritability of BMI was estimated to be 0.58–0.69 among 11–12- and 14-year-old boys and girls, 0.83 among 17-year-old boys and 0.74 among girls. Common environmental effects shared by siblings were 0.15–0.24 among 11–12- and 14-year-old boys and girls but no longer discernible at 17 y. Unique environmental effects were 0.15–0.23. Additive genetic factors explained 90–96% of the BMI phenotypic correlations across adolescence, whereas unique environmental factors explained the rest. Common environment had no effect on BMI phenotypic correlations. Conclusions The genetic contribution to BMI is strong during adolescence, and it mainly explains BMI phenotypic correlations across adolescence. Common environmental factors have an effect on BMI during early adolescence, but that effect disappears by late adolescence. PMID:19337205

  11. Development of an in Situ NMR Photoreactor To Study Environmental Photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bliumkin, Liora; Dutta Majumdar, Rudraksha; Soong, Ronald; Adamo, Antonio; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Zhao, Ran; Reiner, Eric; Simpson, André J

    2016-06-01

    Photochemistry is a key environmental process directly linked to the fate, source, and toxicity of pollutants in the environment. This study explores two approaches for integrating light sources with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy: sample irradiation using a "sunlight simulator" outside the magnet versus direct irradiation of the sample inside the magnet. To assess their applicability, the in situ NMR photoreactors were applied to a series of environmental systems: an atmospheric pollutant (p-nitrophenol), crude oil extracts, and groundwater. The study successfully illustrates that environmentally relevant aqueous photochemical processes can be monitored in situ and in real time using NMR spectroscopy. A range of intermediates and degradation products were identified and matched to the literature. Preliminary measurements of half-lives were also obtained from kinetic curves. The sunlight simulator was shown to be the most suitable model to explore environmental photolytic processes in situ. Other light sources with more intense UV output hold potential for evaluating UV as a remediation alternative in areas such as wastewater treatment plants or oil spills. Finally, the ability to analyze the photolytic fate of trace chemicals at natural abundance in groundwater, using a cryogenic probe, demonstrates the viability of NMR spectroscopy as a powerful and complementary technique for environmental applications in general.

  12. Development of an in Situ NMR Photoreactor To Study Environmental Photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bliumkin, Liora; Dutta Majumdar, Rudraksha; Soong, Ronald; Adamo, Antonio; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Zhao, Ran; Reiner, Eric; Simpson, André J

    2016-06-01

    Photochemistry is a key environmental process directly linked to the fate, source, and toxicity of pollutants in the environment. This study explores two approaches for integrating light sources with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy: sample irradiation using a "sunlight simulator" outside the magnet versus direct irradiation of the sample inside the magnet. To assess their applicability, the in situ NMR photoreactors were applied to a series of environmental systems: an atmospheric pollutant (p-nitrophenol), crude oil extracts, and groundwater. The study successfully illustrates that environmentally relevant aqueous photochemical processes can be monitored in situ and in real time using NMR spectroscopy. A range of intermediates and degradation products were identified and matched to the literature. Preliminary measurements of half-lives were also obtained from kinetic curves. The sunlight simulator was shown to be the most suitable model to explore environmental photolytic processes in situ. Other light sources with more intense UV output hold potential for evaluating UV as a remediation alternative in areas such as wastewater treatment plants or oil spills. Finally, the ability to analyze the photolytic fate of trace chemicals at natural abundance in groundwater, using a cryogenic probe, demonstrates the viability of NMR spectroscopy as a powerful and complementary technique for environmental applications in general. PMID:27172272

  13. Sea truth and environmental characterization studies of Mobile Bay, Alabama, utilizing ERTS-1, data collection platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports on the scientific results obtained during a feasibility study that evaluated the potential of using ERTS data collection platforms (DCPs) in the coastal environment of Mobile Bay, Alabama. The utility of instrumented buoys operated in a coastal marine environment as ERTS DCPs is demonstrated. It is shown that these platforms are capable of providing both sea-truth data for ERTS imagery studies and time-series data for event monitoring and/or environmental characterization studies.

  14. Integrating environmental equity, energy and sustainability: A spatial-temporal study of electric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touche, George Earl

    The theoretical scope of this dissertation encompasses the ecological factors of equity and energy. Literature important to environmental justice and sustainability are reviewed, and a general integration of global concepts is delineated. The conceptual framework includes ecological integrity, quality human development, intra- and inter-generational equity and risk originating from human economic activity and modern energy production. The empirical focus of this study concentrates on environmental equity and electric power generation within the United States. Several designs are employed while using paired t-tests, independent t-tests, zero-order correlation coefficients and regression coefficients to test seven sets of hypotheses. Examinations are conducted at the census tract level within Texas and at the state level across the United States. At the community level within Texas, communities that host coal or natural gas utility power plants and corresponding comparison communities that do not host such power plants are tested for compositional differences. Comparisons are made both before and after the power plants began operating for purposes of assessing outcomes of the siting process and impacts of the power plants. Relationships between the compositions of the hosting communities and the risks and benefits originating from the observed power plants are also examined. At the statewide level across the United States, relationships between statewide composition variables and risks and benefits originating from statewide electric power generation are examined. Findings indicate the existence of some limited environmental inequities, but they do not indicate disparities that confirm the general thesis of environmental racism put forth by environmental justice advocates. Although environmental justice strategies that would utilize Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the disparate impact standard do not appear to be applicable, some findings suggest potential

  15. Water, Air, Fire, and Earth--A Developmental Study in Portugal of Environmental Conceptions and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Lourenco, Orlando

    This study contributes to an emerging body of research on the development of the human relationship with nature. One hundred and twenty participants from four grade levels (fifth, eighth, eleventh, and college) were interviewed about their environmental conceptions and values. Results showed that participants valued many aspects of nature and…

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Global Youth Environmental Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on research on environmental knowledge, attitude and action. A lot of research has occurred on the primary and secondary school populations and the general population. However, much less emphasis has been placed on studies that concern post-compulsory education students in the range from 16 to 18 years…

  17. Crossing Subject Boundaries: Collection Management of Environmental Studies in a Multi-Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFelice, Barbara; Rinaldo, Constance

    1994-01-01

    Describes a process for creating a collection development policy for managing an environmental studies collection in a multilibrary system. The policy rationale, the process of developing subject terms, and the creation of a format for the information are covered. Ideas for handling a physically and intellectually dispersed collection are…

  18. A Supplementary Program for Environmental Education, Social Studies, Grades 1 Through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warpinski, Robert

    Presented in these 12 teacher's guides for grades 1-12 are lesson plans and ideas for integrating social studies and environmental education. Each lesson originates with a fundamental concept pertaining to the environment and states, in addition, its discipline area, subject area, and problem orientation. Following this, behavioral objectives and…

  19. Description of Environmental Factors in Schools: Lessons from a Study in North-West Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comesana, Julia Crespo; Juste, Margarita Pino

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to offer a view on the different environmental factors that affect health (sound, light, colour, temperature) in the design, planning and organization of school premises. To achieve this, the authors first outline the problems leading to unhealthy situations. They subsequently analyse all the building and planning…

  20. Connection of Environmental Education with Application of Experiential Teaching Methods: A Case Study from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoukos, Marios; Fragoulis, Iosif; Valkanos, Euthimios

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this case study is to examine secondary education teachers' opinions concerning the connection of environmental education with the use of experiential teaching methods. Exploring whether the application of experiential methods can upgrade the learning procedure, leading to a more holistic approach, the research focuses on…

  1. The Study on Integrating WebQuest with Mobile Learning for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Tzung-Shi; Hsu, Wei-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study is to demonstrate the impact of different teaching strategies on the learning performance of environmental education using quantitative methods. Students learned about resource recycling and classification through an instructional website based on the teaching tool of WebQuest. There were 103 sixth-grade students participating in this…

  2. Indian River County Environmental Education Instructional Guide. Social Studies, Grade Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    The teaching guide presents social studies activities to help ninth graders learn about environmental concepts, problems, and responsibilities. Based on the Indian River County environment in Florida, it is part of a series for teachers, students, and community members. The introduction describes the county's geography, natural resources,…

  3. The Role of Scientific Studies in Building Consensus in Environmental Decision Making: a Coral Reef Example

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a new approach for characterizing the potential of scientific studies to reduce conflict among stakeholders in an analytic-deliberative environmental decision-making process. The approach computes a normalized metric, the Expected Consensus Index of New Research (ECINR...

  4. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  5. Super Saver Investigators: An Elementary, Interdisciplinary, Environmental Studies Activity Guidebook about Solid Waste and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, David; And Others

    This is an elementary, interdisciplinary, environmental studies activity guidebook about solid waste and natural resources. "Super Saver Investigators" what solid waste is, where it is generated, how we manage it and could manage it better, and the consequence of mismanagement. It contains many hands-on, skill enhancing activities for elementary…

  6. THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON CHILD HEALTH AND CDEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Children's Health Act of 2000 authorized a consortium of Federal agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), to develop and implement a prospective cohort study, evaluate the effects of both chronic and intermittent exposures on child health and h...

  7. Environmental Education and Field Studies Programs in Three Selected N. W. European Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandenHazel, B. J.

    Describing information gathered from a three-week (1976) tour of environmental education field studies programs in faculties of education and teachers' colleges located in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Western Germany, this report presents comparative program and text summaries and recommends procedures for the Ontario Ministry of…

  8. Forest Schools and Environmental Attitudes: A Case Study of Children Aged 8-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtle, Christina; Convery, Ian; Convery, Katie

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children in the UK are suffering from a lack of engagement with nature and the outdoor environment. This paper investigates the attitudes of children towards the natural environment and focuses on Forest School programmes as a mechanism to promote a "pro-environmental" attitude. The study identified that…

  9. INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A SAMPLING STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Overview

    The goal of the National Children's Study (NCS) is to collect information on environmental and

    social factors in the lives of children, starting before birth and continuing until age 21, to inform

    researchers about their effects on the health and dev...

  10. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  11. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  12. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Stuttering: A Twin Study from Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautakoski, Pirkko; Hannus, Therese; Simberg, Susanna; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the prevalence of self-reported stuttering in a Finnish twin population and examined the extent to which the variance in liability to stuttering was attributable to genetic and environmental effects. We analyzed data of 1728 Finnish twins, born between 1961 and 1989. The participants were asked to complete a…

  13. A Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies. Periodic Report: 1968-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center for Environmental Communications and Education Studies.

    This report summarizes the role of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies (CECES) in helping to foster teaching, research, and public service programs. Included in the first section are program highlights (1968-1982), Center organization, and lists of Center personnel (executive…

  14. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Student Guide: Environmental Science. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the student's edition of one of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) units for level III students (grade 9). The chapters contain basic information about environmental pollution and hazards, activities related to the subject, and optional excursions. A section on introductory notes to the student discusses how to use the book…

  15. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, Davide; Dawa, Dorje

    2009-07-15

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  16. Highlighting High Performance Buildings: Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies

    SciTech Connect

    2002-11-01

    Oberlin College's Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies is a high-performance building featuring an expansive photovoltaic system and a closed-loop groundwater heat pump system. Designers incorporated energy-efficient components and materials that are local, non-toxic, and durable.

  17. 78 FR 76189 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study, Prince George...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Study Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and a Department of the Army Individual Permit (IP... minimize aquatic resource impacts. The USACE is preparing the document as part of its evaluation of the IP... stated in the draft SEIS. Actions available to the USACE for the proposed project are to issue the...

  18. Student Project Work and Abstracts. Beaufort, North Carolina Environmental Studies Project, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carteret County Board of Education, Beaufort, NC.

    This collection contains reports of 22 environmental study projects conducted by junior and senior students in a North Carolina high school. The scope of the projects covered total community service and sought to emphasize the students' roles as useful participants in the community. Fire, postal, health, and school services were surveyed, in…

  19. Characterization and environmental studies of Pompano Beach anaerobic digestion facility. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Wong, K.F.V.; Gerrish, H.P.; Nemerow, N.; Voorhees, S.A.; Daly, E.L. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    The findings of the characterization and environmental studies of an anaerobic digestion plant at Pompano Beach are presented. This 100 ton/day proof of concept plant which produces methane from municipal waste was built on an existing shredding and landfill site. The following aspects of the plant are covered: gas quality, airborne particulates, solid/liquid phases, microbiology, and leaching. (MHR)

  20. 75 FR 29583 - Special Resource Study and Environmental Impact Statement, Coltsville, Hartford, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... National Park Service Special Resource Study and Environmental Impact Statement, Coltsville, Hartford, CT AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice of Termination of the... directed by the US Congress in Public Law 108-94, the National Park Service (NPS) undertook a...

  1. Will environmental interventions affect the level of mastery motivation among children with disabilities? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim

    2015-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities tend to demonstrate lower levels of mastery motivation in comparison with typically developing children. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of physical and social environmental interventions on the mastery motivation of children with disabilities. Participants included 19 children (from two classes) with disabilities between the ages of 2-4 years from an educational rehabilitation centre. The Individualized Assessment of Mastery Motivation was used to assess the level of mastery motivation; the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised and the Teacher-Child Interaction Observation were used to assess the physical and social environments. A counterbalance study design was used such that the children from the two classes received two phases of intervention, social and physical environmental interventions. The study's results point to the advantage of the social intervention, over the physical one, in improving the child's mastery motivation. However, the results lend support for the efficacy of using both aspects of environmental changes to the overall persistent score. The study findings, although preliminary, demonstrate the efficacy of providing both social and physical environmental interventions to improve mastery motivation.

  2. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Perceived Efficacy in Teaching Environmental Education: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, Archibald P.

    This study was designed to develop an instrument that would measure preservice teachers' belief efficacy in teaching environmental education (EE). This belief efficacy includes a person's perception of ability to perform the behavior (self-efficacy) and a person's expectation that a specific behavior will result in desirable outcomes (outcome…

  3. THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON CHILD HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing recognition that children may be more susceptible than adults to environmental exposures and that they experience potentially life-long consequences of such exposures has led to widespread support for a large new cohort study in the United States. In this article, we p...

  4. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment and U.S. EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    These case studies are not completed risk assessments but are structured around an approach known as comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA), which combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm (Davis, J.M., J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7:402-9, 2007). ...

  5. Supporting nanomaterial risk assessment by case studies of nano-titanium dioxide using comprehensive environmental assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we describe a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach for two case studies of nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) in real world applications: water treatment and sunscreen. CEA combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm.

  6. Introduction: Why Link Indigenous Ways of Knowing with the Teaching of Environmental Studies and Sciences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a mini-symposium on bringing Indigenous ways of knowing together with the teaching of environmental studies and sciences (ESS). Both knowledges share a fundamental interest in the relationship of humans with the Earth, yet until recently, Indigenous ways of knowing have rarely been visible in the teaching of ESS. Teaching…

  7. The Genetic and Environmental Etiology of Decision-Making: A Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Gao, Yu; Wang, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Botwick, Theodore; Baker, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the genetic and environmental etiology of decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994), in a sample of twins at ages 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years. The variance across five 20-trial blocks could be explained by a latent "decision-making" factor within each of the three times of IGT…

  8. Effects of Student Participation in an Online Learning Community on Environmental Education: A Greek Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastergiou, Marina; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Apostolou, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was: (a) the creation of an Online Learning Community (OLC) for the implementation of an environmental education (EE) project in secondary education, and (b) the investigation of the potential impact of student participation in the OLC on students' knowledge and attitudes regarding the natural environment, on students'…

  9. Effectiveness in the Environmental Impact Statement: A Study in Public Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie; Steffens, Dean

    1989-01-01

    Presents a case study of several environmental impact statements (EISs) produced by the Bureau of Land Management. Reveals that to determine a document's effectiveness, its social and cultural context must be considered, along with characteristics of the text's organization and style. Recommends a genre theory approach. (MM)

  10. The Carbon Cycle and the Earth Systems--Studying the Carbon Cycle in Multidisciplinary Environmental Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudovitch, Yossi; Orion, Nir

    This paper describes a method that attempts to confront the challenges of developing an environmentally-based earth sciences program. The research scheme includes five stages: (1) predevelopment study; (2) curriculum development; (3) implementation; (4) formative evaluation; and (5) curriculum modification. The research results indicate that the…

  11. Understandings of Current Environmental Issues: Turkish Case Study in Six Teacher Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakir, Mustafa; Irez, Serhat; Dogan, Ozgur Kivilcan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to profile future science teachers' understandings of current environmental issues in the context of an education reform in Turkey. Knowledge base and understandings of elementary and secondary prospective science teachers about biodiversity, carbon cycle, global warming and ozone layer depletion were targeted in the…

  12. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 5--Science & Social Studies (Interdisciplinary) Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Forestry is the main focus of this fifth booklet in the series "101 Environmental Education Activities" by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center. Designed for students in the intermediate grades and junior high school, the booklet contains 9 science and social studies activities and 5 interdisciplinary activities. Most activity descriptions…

  13. The Impact of Interdisciplinary Research in the Environmental Sciences: A Forestry Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Thomas W.; Stier, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    This study used citation analysis and ordinary least squares regression to investigate the relationship between an article's citation rate and its degree of interdisciplinarity in one area of environmental science, namely forestry. Findings provide empirical evidence that interdisciplinary methods have made a measurable and positive impact on the…

  14. Examining Genetic and Environmental Effects on Social Aggression: A Study of 6-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Prusse, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 234 six-year-old twins, this study examined (a) the contribution of genes and environment to social versus physical aggression, and (b) whether the correlation between social and physical aggression can be explained by similar genetic or environmental factors or by a directional link between the phenotypes. For social…

  15. Man and Environment for Secondary Schools: A Curriculum in Environmental Studies for High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Robert H.

    This curriculum guide contains 20 modules for an integrated environmental study in the secondary schools. Each module, two to four pages in length, includes an overview, a list of concepts and a list of student objectives. In addition, an appendix has suggestions for initiating and implementing the program in the regular school curriculum.…

  16. Applying an Environmental Model to Address High-Risk Drinking: A Town/Gown Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John B.; Downs, Tracy T.; Cohen, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a case study of a project by the University of Delaware and the City of Newark to apply an environmental model to address the excessive use of alcohol by college students. Data about changes in the behavior and experiences of students over a 10-year period are compared. The authors discuss some of the practical implications…

  17. Should the Dead Sea Be Sustainable?: Investigating Environmental Issues Using a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Cheston Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Many students leave the environmental science classroom with misconceptions centered on the availability of natural resources such as water. This article presents a case study where students assume the roles of various stakeholders and articulate their position on whether or not to pipe water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea. Additionally,…

  18. Student Project Work and Abstracts. Beaufort, North Carolina Environmental Studies Project, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carteret County Board of Education, Beaufort, NC.

    This document contains reports of 11 environmental study projects conducted by junior and senior students in a North Carolina high school. Topics range from the construction of an artificial reef and a survey of seashore changes to surveys of past and present development of various facets of the county ecology. The emphasis is on student…

  19. 78 FR 44592 - Final General Management Plan, Final Wilderness Study, and Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan and Wilderness Study (Final EIS/GMP/WS) for Fort... policies and the purpose of the national monument, the Final EIS/GMP/WS will guide the management of the... the Final EIS/GMP/WS in the Federal Register. ADDRESSES: Electronic copies of the Final...

  20. Use of National Parks for Outdoor Environmental Education: An Australian Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Alison; Slattery, Deirdre

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the objectives of outdoor education teachers and park staff involved in secondary school visits to Victoria (Australia) national parks. Interviews with teachers and park staff, observations, and document analysis indicate that outdoor education teachers needed training in socially critical environmental education, ecology, and…

  1. Using the School and Community, An Environmental Study Area, Teachers' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Lib

    Designed to give the elementary teacher some ideas for using the school site and the community as an environmental study area, this guide offers activities and suggestions to explore all aspects of the environment. Gaining an understanding of the environment and man's relationship to the environment are emphasized. The ultimate goal is to develop…

  2. The Environmental Studies Program of the Virgin Islands Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jadan, Doris; Galiber, Rosemary

    A variety of lesson notes and materials prepared for use in the Environmental Studies Program of the Virgin Islands Department of Education are assembled in this handbook. The overall objective of the program is direct exposure of young Virgin Islanders to a unique cultural and natural heritage in order to increase awareness of and sensitivity to…

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING METHANOGENESIS IN A SHALLOW ANOXIC AQUIFER: A FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental factors influencing methanogenesis in a shallow anoxic aquifer were probed in a combined field and laboratory study. Field data collected over a year revealed that in situ rates of methane production were depressed in winter and elevated in summer. Over the same...

  4. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  5. A Methodology for the Study of Children's Environmental Knowledge in Other Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Cindi

    An eclectic, ethnographic methodology is presented for studying the content and acquisition of children's environmental learning, knowledge, and interaction in a transitional economy in rural Sudan. Drawing on methods of geography, linguistics, and anthropology, the paper attempts to provide a valid alternative to most of the methods used in…

  6. Evaluation of an Introductory College Course in Environmental Studies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Ian J.; And Others

    This paper reports on an evaluation conducted at Oregon State University in 1971 and 1972 for an introductory college course in environmental studies, "Man and the Environment." The course used integrated content and was team-taught by an inter-disciplinary team using several innovative approaches. Subjects were administered an Environmental…

  7. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems. Workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  8. Bibliography of environmental studies in natural characteristics and anthropogenic influences on the Ganga River.

    PubMed

    Singh, Munendra; Singh, Amit K

    2007-06-01

    During the second half of the 20th century, the Ganga River ecosystem has been continuously altered by several ongoing anthropogenic processes, accommodating multi-dimensional pressure due to increase of nearly four-fold human population. For solution of any environmental issues of the river, the Earth System Science approach is required to have maximum socio-economic benefits to millions of people living in Indian and Bangladesh. A bibliography containing more than 250 references on environmental studies of the Ganga River was prepared to preserve its ecosystem by providing the baseline support in this regard.

  9. Bibliography of environmental studies in natural characteristics and anthropogenic influences on the Ganga River.

    PubMed

    Singh, Munendra; Singh, Amit K

    2007-06-01

    During the second half of the 20th century, the Ganga River ecosystem has been continuously altered by several ongoing anthropogenic processes, accommodating multi-dimensional pressure due to increase of nearly four-fold human population. For solution of any environmental issues of the river, the Earth System Science approach is required to have maximum socio-economic benefits to millions of people living in Indian and Bangladesh. A bibliography containing more than 250 references on environmental studies of the Ganga River was prepared to preserve its ecosystem by providing the baseline support in this regard. PMID:17072555

  10. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) laser studies. Volume 1: Laser environmental impact study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The environmental impact of space to Earth power transmission using space borne laser subsystems is emphasized. A laser system is defined, estimates of relevant efficiencies for laser power generation and atmospheric transmission are developed, and a comparison is made to a microwave system. Ancillary issues, such as laser beam spreading, safety and security, mass and volume estimates and technology growth are considered.

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality: an Australian twin study.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Karin J H; Shekar, Sri N; Zietsch, Brendan P; Eaves, Lindon J; Bailey, J Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes, including attitudes toward homosexuality. Results show that, in accordance with literature, males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. In contrast with some earlier findings, age had no significant effect on the homophobia scores in this study. Genetic modelling showed that variation in homophobia scores could be explained by additive genetic (36%), shared environmental (18%) and unique environmental factors (46%). However, corrections based on previous findings show that the shared environmental estimate may be almost entirely accounted for as extra additive genetic variance arising from assortative mating for homophobic attitudes. The results suggest that variation in attitudes toward homosexuality is substantially inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor.

  12. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community

    PubMed Central

    Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Oroian, Ioan Gheorghe; Safirescu, Ovidiu Călin; Bican-Brișan, Nicoleta

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: “Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?”, “How can it be attained?”, and “To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?” It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps—a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities—that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and “Do nothing”. The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests. PMID:27314371

  13. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community.

    PubMed

    Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Oroian, Ioan Gheorghe; Safirescu, Ovidiu Călin; Bican-Brișan, Nicoleta

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: "Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?", "How can it be attained?", and "To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?" It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps-a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities-that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and "Do nothing". The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests. PMID:27314371

  14. Interdisciplinary Project-Based Learning through an Environmental Water Quality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhl, Lorie; Yearsley, Kaye; Silva, Andrew J.

    1997-12-01

    An interdisciplinary environmental water quality study was designed and conducted to enhance training and employability of chemical and environmental technician students in associate degree programs. Four project objectives were identified as a means to enhance the educational experience and employability of our students: provide experience on analytical instrumentation for organic compounds (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, GC/MS), require interdisciplinary group interactions and problem solving, provide experience with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures, and require cooperation with state agencies/private organizations. Students worked in groups that included representatives from both programs to develop project objectives and a Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) following EPA standards. Input from personnel at Idaho's Department of Environmental Quality and Bureau of Laboratories and from volunteers in an environmental "watch dog" organization called the Henry's Fork Foundation aided students in the development and implementation of their SAP. Subsequently, groups sampled sections of the Henry's Fork River and analyzed for organic, inorganic, and fecal contaminants. Analysis included EPA method 525.2 for pesticides using GC/MS. Data from all river segments was shared and each group submitted a final report analyzing results. Surveys completed by students and instructors indicate that the project is a successful teaching method allowing introduction of new skills as well as review of important technical and employability skills.

  15. Environmental Equity through Negotiation: A Case Study on Urban Landfills and the Roma Community.

    PubMed

    Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Oroian, Ioan Gheorghe; Safirescu, Ovidiu Călin; Bican-Brișan, Nicoleta

    2016-06-14

    The paper discusses the necessity to bring environmental equity within the Pata Rât Roma community in Northwest Romania, relying on the answers to three questions: "Does environmental equity exist in Pata Rât?", "How can it be attained?", and "To what extent can it be brought to the targeted people?" It was shown how a trio of factors tailors the destiny of Roma inhabitants: being a minority, their ethnicity, and the fact they are living on and off what society rejects and dumps-a landfill. The framing of the environmental equity concerns within a vision considering negotiation as the most adequate means to attain it is a novel approach. Further on, the results of the study can fuel win-win solutions in environmental equity. The information abstracted from a set of indicators, assessed through an evaluation matrix, represents a beneficial platform for future bottom-up decisions concerning landfill residents. Three action options were analyzed: on-site living opportunities-that resulted to be preferred, off-site living opportunities, and "Do nothing". The analysis provides qualitative evidence that the evaluation of environmental equity is largely subjective, because of its complexity and specificity related to geographical, historical, cultural characteristics, and political interests.

  16. A monozygotic twin differences study of nonshared environmental influence on adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Liang, Holan; Eley, Thalia C

    2005-01-01

    The monozygotic (MZ) twin differences method was used to examine nonshared environmental aspects of the association of parenting (punitive and constructive discipline), negative life events (independent and dependent), and peers (antisocial and prosocial) with adolescent depressive symptoms in terms of sequelae, risk, and maintaining factors. Two self-report booklets were completed by 328 MZ twin pairs aged 12-19 years, 6 months apart. Increased punitive discipline and negative life events were found to be relevant nonshared environmental factors that followed depression. Negative life events were the only factor that had a direct nonshared environmental association with concurrent depressive symptoms in adolescents independent of previous depressive symptoms, and all other study variables. PMID:16274438

  17. Communicating their individual results to participants in an environmental exposure study: Insights from clinical ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Deck, W.; Kosatsky, T. |

    1999-02-01

    A study measuring the uptake of chemical contaminants among sport fishers who consume fish caught in the St. Lawrence river is currently being conducted in Montreal, Canada. In this study, blood, hair, and urine collected from local sport fishers is being tested for heavy metals and persistent organochlorine chemicals. The objective of this study was to formulate a framework for determining what information to communicate to individual subjects of a study measuring biomarkers of exposure, consistent with the principles of ethical clinical and research practice. Methods consisted of review of the scope of environmental exposure studies, including the use of biomarker measurement in clinical medicine and environmental research and the relevant principles of clinical ethics and research practice. An exposure biomarker study is designed to elucidate constitutional, behavioral, and environmental determinants of tissue concentrations of exogenous substances. Ethical clinical and research practice, aiming to maximize autonomy and beneficence and to minimize harm, requires that study findings concerning the determinants of exposure be communicated to study participants. In addition, investigators should reference clinical action levels beyond which individual biomarker results are routinely communicated to participants. When biomarkers have no known relation to risk, or when levels fall below action levels, it may be preferable not co communicate individual results, if this arrangement has been formalized at the time of informed consent.

  18. The environmental impact of mastitis: a case study of dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hospido, Almudena; Sonesson, Ulf

    2005-05-01

    Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector.

  19. Environmental baseline study of the Huron River Watershed, Baraga and Marquette Counties, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Weaver, Thomas L.; Cannon, William F.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes results of a study to establish water-quality and geochemical baseline conditions within a small watershed in the Lake Superior region. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a survey of water-quality parameters and soil and streambed sediment geochemistry of the 83 mi2 Huron River Watershed in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Streamflow was measured and water-quality samples collected at a range of flow conditions from six sites on the major tributaries of the Huron River. All water samples were analyzed for a suite of common ions, nutrients, and trace metals. In addition, water samples from each site were analyzed for unfiltered total and methylmercury once during summer low-flow conditions. Soil samples were collected from 31 sites, with up to 4 separate samples collected at each site, delineated by soil horizon. Streambed sediments were collected from 11 sites selected to cover most of the area drained by the Huron River system. USGS data were supplemented with ecological assessments completed in 2006 by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality using a modified version of their Great Lakes Environmental Assessment Section procedure 51, and again during 2008 using volunteers under supervision of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Results from this study define a hydrological, geological, and environmental baseline for the Huron River Watershed prior to any significant mineral exploration or development. Results from the project also serve to refine the design of future regional environmental baseline studies in the Lake Superior Basin.

  20. Environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals and telomere length in human studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Shao; Funk, William E; Hou, Lifang

    2013-12-01

    Telomeres are complexes of tandem repeats of DNA (5'-TTAGGG-3') and protein that cap eukaryotic chromosomes and play a critical role in chromosome stability. Telomeres shorten with aging and this process can be accelerated by increased oxidative stress and episodes of inflammation. Evidence is rapidly growing that telomere length (TL) may be affected by environmental chemicals that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases. In this article, we review the published data on TL in relation to environmental and occupational exposure to several chemicals based on our own and others' studies. The environmental and occupational exposures associated with shorter TL include traffic-related air pollution (ie, particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and benzene and toluene), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-nitrosamines, pesticides, lead, exposure in car mechanical workshops, and hazardous waste exposure. Arsenic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and short-term exposure to PM are associated with longer TL. We discuss the possible reasons for the differences in results, including time- and dose-related issues, study design, and possible mechanisms involved in telomere regulation. We also discuss the future directions and challenges for TL-related environmental and occupational health research, such as investigation of TL in subpopulations of blood leukocytes, and the study of genetic and epigenetic factors that may regulate telomere integrity using longitudinal designs.

  1. Environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals and telomere length in human studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Shao; Funk, William E; Hou, Lifang

    2013-10-01

    Telomeres are complexes of tandem repeats of DNA (5'-TTAGGG-3') and protein that cap eukaryotic chromosomes and play a critical role in chromosome stability. Telomeres shorten with aging and this process can be accelerated by increased oxidative stress and episodes of inflammation. Evidence is rapidly growing that telomere length (TL) may be affected by environmental chemicals that have frequently been associated with chronic diseases. In this article, we review the published data on TL in relation to environmental and occupational exposure to several chemicals based on our own and others' studies. The environmental and occupational exposures associated with shorter TL include traffic-related air pollution (ie, particulate matter (PM), black carbon (BC), and benzene and toluene), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N-nitrosamines, pesticides, lead, exposure in car mechanical workshops, and hazardous waste exposure. Arsenic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and short-term exposure to PM are associated with longer TL. We discuss the possible reasons for the differences in results, including time- and dose-related issues, study design, and possible mechanisms involved in telomere regulation. We also discuss the future directions and challenges for TL-related environmental and occupational health research, such as investigation of TL in subpopulations of blood leukocytes, and the study of genetic and epigenetic factors that may regulate telomere integrity using longitudinal designs.

  2. Environmental Studies, Section IV: Natural Resources. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.13: Water. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on water, specifically water quality and…

  3. Environmental Studies, Section IV: Natural Resources. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.10: Minerals. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individualized learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on minerals. A public hearing is…

  4. Environmental Studies, Section IV: Natural Resources. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.11: Conflicts of Interest. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on conflicts of interest. The student…

  5. Environmental Studies, Section V: Oceanography. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.15: Pollution of the Oceans. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on pollution of the oceans. The slides,…

  6. Environmental Studies, Section II: Energy. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.6: Future Projections. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individualized learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guides and script for a learning carrel lesson on energy, energy policies, and…

  7. Environmental Studies, Section I: Man's Effect on Nature. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.3: Urban Crisis. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individualized learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide, script, and instructions for a field trip that relates land use strategies…

  8. Environmental Studies, Section I: Man's Effect on Nature. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.2: Land Use. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individualized learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on land use. The slides,…

  9. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1ppm vs. 14.5ppm, respectively; p=0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation.

  10. Iodine environmental availability and human intake in oceanic islands: Azores as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Almada, Alexandra; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Gabriela; Cruz, José Virgílio; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-12-15

    Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment. Although several studies have established an association between ocean proximity and iodine environmental availability, recent studies revealed an inadequate iodine intake in the Azorean islands. In this study, we aim to understand the underlying causes of iodine environmental availability in oceanic islands and its association with iodine intake in schoolchildren, using the Azores as case-study. Iodine concentration in soil and grass pasture was measured by INAA and in drinking water by spectrophotometry. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren was assessed by ICP-MS in a randomized cross-sectional survey with 315 participants from S. Miguel (study group) and Sta. Maria islands (reference group). A validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine was recorded. The iodine concentration in soils of the reference group was significantly higher than in the study group (58.1ppm vs. 14.5ppm, respectively; p=0.001). The prevalence of schoolchildren with inadequate UIC was significantly higher in the study group than in the reference one (63.0% vs. 37.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Chronic exposure to low iodine environmental availability was significantly associated with the exacerbation in iodine deficiency, with a risk 4.94 times higher in the study group. The differences observed in the studied islands are related with each island geomorphology (soil properties and orography) and climate, which can promote or inhibit iodine environmental availability, contributing distinctively to iodine bioavailability and human intake. These findings draw attention to an urgent need for a full investigation of Azores iodine status to apply evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation. PMID:26318689

  11. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town

    SciTech Connect

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-15

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO{sub 2} emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

  12. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: case study of a medium-sized Italian town.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer's point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people's habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

  13. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: case study of a medium-sized Italian town.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer's point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people's habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water. PMID:23465314

  14. Application of regional geochemical surveys to environmental studies; a case study from the Namaqualand copper district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulfse, A. D.; Holdsworth, R.

    1994-04-01

    Data from the Geological Survey of South Africa's regional geochemical programme is discussed with particular reference to environmental and agricultural aspects. Stream sediments from the Okiep copper district, Namaqualand in South Africa show highly elevated copper values as the result of a history of mining activity in the area. The potential for contamination of forage and drinking water was investigated and no obvious clinical evidence of copper excesses was observed in the ecosystem.

  15. The Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Internet Use and Associations With Psychopathology: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Long, Elizabeth C; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C; Lind, Penelope A; Hickie, Ian B; Martin, Nicholas G; Gillespie, Nathan A

    2016-02-01

    Excessive internet use has been linked to psychopathology. Therefore, understanding the genetic and environmental risks underpinning internet use and their relation to psychopathology is important. This study aims to explore the genetic and environmental etiology of internet use measures and their associations with internalizing disorders and substance use disorders. The sample included 2,059 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) young adult twins from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS). Younger participants reported more frequent internet use, while women were more likely to use the internet for interpersonal communication. Familial aggregation in 'frequency of internet use' was entirely explained by additive genetic factors accounting for 41% of the variance. Familial aggregation in 'frequency of use after 11 pm', 'using the internet to contact peers', and 'using the internet primarily to access social networking sites' was attributable to varying combinations of additive genetic and shared environmental factors. In terms of psychopathology, there were no significant associations between internet use measures and major depression (MD), but there were positive significant associations between 'frequency of internet use' and 'frequency of use after 11 pm' with social phobia (SP). 'Using the internet to contact peers' was positively associated with alcohol abuse, whereas 'using the internet to contact peers' and 'using the internet primarily to access social networking sites' were negatively associated with cannabis use disorders and nicotine symptoms. Individual differences in internet use can be attributable to varying degrees of genetic and environmental risks. Despite some significant associations of small effect, variation in internet use appears mostly unrelated to psychopathology.

  16. A sustainable building promotes pro-environmental behavior: an observational study on food disposal.

    PubMed

    Wu, David W-L; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis--whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling) in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior.

  17. A Sustainable Building Promotes Pro-Environmental Behavior: An Observational Study on Food Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Wu, David W.–L.; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis – whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling) in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior. PMID:23326521

  18. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  19. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  20. Fish as bioindicators in aquatic environmental pollution assessment: A case study in Lake Victoria wetlands, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naigaga, I.; Kaiser, H.; Muller, W. J.; Ojok, L.; Mbabazi, D.; Magezi, G.; Muhumuza, E.

    Growing human population and industrialization have led to the pollution of most aquatic ecosystems and consequent deterioration in environmental water quality. Indicator organisms are needed to improve assessment programmes on the ecological impacts of anthropogenic activities on the aquatic environment. Fish have been widely documented as useful indicators of environmental water quality because of their differential sensitivity to pollution. This study investigated the environmental water quality of selected wetland ecosystems using fish as biological indicators. Fish community structure in relation to water quality was assessed in five wetlands along the shoreline of Lake Victoria from August 2006 to June 2008. Four urban wetlands were variedly impacted by anthropogenic activities while one rural wetland was less impacted, and served as a reference site. Fish species diversity, abundance and richness were assessed, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the fish communities and environmental variables. Results revealed that urban effluent impacted negatively on water quality and consequently the fish community structure. A total of 29 fish species were recorded throughout the study with the lowest number of 15 species recorded in the most impacted site. Shannon diversity and Margalef species richness indices were highest at the references site and lowest at the most impacted site. Wetland haplochromis species dominated the reference site, while oreochromis species dominated the most impacted site. The inshore locations registered higher species diversity and low species richness than the offshore locations. Low dissolved oxygen, pH, secchi depth and high electrical conductivity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen were strongly associated with the effluent-impacted sites and greatly influenced the fish community structure. This study recommends the use of fish as valuable biological indicators in aquatic

  1. A comparative study on the environmental impact of supermarket refrigeration systems using low GWP refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Beshr, M.; Aute, V.; Sharma, V.; Abdelaziz, O.; Fricke, B.; Radermacher, R.

    2015-04-09

    Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their large refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Consequently, the interest in using low GWP refrigerants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and new refrigerant blends is increasing. In this study, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of four supermarket refrigeration systems: a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascade CO2/N-40 system, a combined secondary circuit with central DX N-40/L-40 system, and a baseline multiplex direct expansion system utilizing R-404A and N-40. The study is performed for different climates within the USA using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourly performance. Finally, further analyses are presented such as parametric, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses to study the impact of different system parameters on the LCCP.

  2. Influence of urban shapes on environmental noise: a case study in Aracaju-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Italo C Montalvão; Bertoli, Stelamaris R; Zannin, Paulo H T

    2011-12-15

    This paper discusses the results of a study about the influence of urban shapes on environmental noise in the city of Aracaju (Brazil). The study, which involved in situ measurements and acoustic simulations using SoundPLAN software, began with an analysis of the current acoustic scenario, followed by the creation and simulation of hypothetical scenarios in as yet unoccupied sectors of the region under study. The acoustic modeling and simulations were based on measurements of equivalent-continuous sound pressure level, LAeq, and vehicle flow data, and on the region's geometrics. The results reveal that the physical characteristics of the urban shape, such as construction density, the existence of open spaces, and the shape and physical position of buildings exert a significant influence on environmental noise.

  3. A comparative study on the environmental impact of supermarket refrigeration systems using low GWP refrigerants

    DOE PAGES

    Beshr, M.; Aute, V.; Sharma, V.; Abdelaziz, O.; Fricke, B.; Radermacher, R.

    2015-04-09

    Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their large refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Consequently, the interest in using low GWP refrigerants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and new refrigerant blends is increasing. In this study, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of four supermarket refrigeration systems: a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascade CO2/N-40 system, a combined secondary circuit with central DX N-40/L-40 system, and a baseline multiplex direct expansion system utilizing R-404A and N-40. The study is performed for different climates within the USAmore » using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourly performance. Finally, further analyses are presented such as parametric, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses to study the impact of different system parameters on the LCCP.« less

  4. Current Issues VI: The Yearbook of Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the National Association for Environmental Education (9th).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Arthur B., Ed.; And Others

    Two major sections, one dealing with the practitioner's perspective and the other addressing research and evaluation, comprise these proceedings of the 1980 Conference of the National Association for Environmental Education (NAEE). Section I contains 10 essays which describe programs, approaches, and issues of interest to the environmental…

  5. Integrating Sustainable Consumption into Environmental Education: A Case Study on Environmental Representations, Decision Making and Intention to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch.; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Ioannou, Hara; Georgiou, Yiannis; Manoli, Constantinos C.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, current consumption patterns have been recurrently blamed for rendering both the environment and our lifestyles unsustainable. Young children are considered a critical group in the effort to make a shift towards sustainable consumption (environmentally friendly consumption). However, young people should be able to consider…

  6. Environmental Sustainability as a Generative Concern: An Exploratory Study of the Narrative Identities of Leaders in the Environmental Sustainability Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tiffany Simons

    2009-01-01

    Environmental sustainability is one of the most pressing concerns of the twenty-first century, and working toward sustainability will require broad lifestyle and cultural shifts, particularly in industrialized societies. Yet despite a growing recognition of the importance of issues such as climate change, food security, transportation, and…

  7. SURVEY OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES AT BEACHES FOR THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL A ND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL (NEEAR) WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Objective
    In the of summer 2004, the US EPA and the CDC conducted the National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study at Silver Beach and Washington Park Beach. This full-scale study is collecting the data necessary fo...

  8. Evaluating cumulative risk assessment for environmental justice: a community case study.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary A

    2002-04-01

    A key feature of cumulative risk assessment (CRA) is the ability to estimate differential health risks from environmental exposures within populations. Identifying populations at increased risk from environmental exposures is the first step toward mitigating such risks as required by the fair treatment mandate of environmental justice. CRA methods remain under development except for a limited application in pesticide regulations. The goals of this research were to advance CRA methods and to test their application in a community case study. We compared cumulative risk and health assessments for South and Southwest Philadelphia communities. The analysis found positive correlations between cumulative risk and mortality measurements for total mortality in Whites and non-Whites when we conducted the risk assessment using a multi-end point toxicological database developed for this project. Cumulative risk scores correlated positively with cause-specific mortality in non-Whites. Statistically significant increases in total and respiratory mortality rates were associated with incremental increases in the hazard ratio cumulative risk scores, with ranges of 2-6% for total and 8-23% for respiratory. Regression analyses controlled for percent non-White population and per capita income, indicating that risk scores represent an environmental effect on health independent of race and income. This case study demonstrated the successful application of CRA at the community level. CRA adds a health dimension to pollutant concentrations to produce a more comprehensive understanding of environmental inequities that can inform decision making. CRA is a viable tool to identify high-risk areas and to guide surveillance, research, or interventions.

  9. A preliminary study of environmental parameters associated with the feasibility of a polygeneration plant at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, G. D.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of a polygeneration plant at Kennedy Space Center was studied. Liquid hydrogen and gaseous nitrogen are the two principal products in consideration. Environmental parameters (air quality, water quality, biological diversity and hazardous waste disposal) necessary for the feasibility study were investigated. A National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) project flow sheet was to be formulated for the environmental impact statement. Water quality criteria for Florida waters were to be established.

  10. Environmental change in the Limfjord, Denmark (ca 7500-1500 cal yrs BP): a multiproxy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jonathan P.; Ryves, David B.; Rasmussen, Peter; Knudsen, Karen L.; Petersen, Kaj S.; Olsen, Jesper; Leng, Melanie J.; Kristensen, Peter; McGowan, Suzanne; Philippsen, Bente

    2013-10-01

    The Limfjord region of northern Jutland, Denmark, supports a rich archaeological record dating back to the Mesolithic, which documents long-term change in human practices and utilisation of marine resources since approximately 7500 BP. The presence and availability of marine resources in the Limfjord is sensitively regulated by environmental parameters such as salinity, sedimentary regime, nutrient status and primary productivity, but long-term changes in these parameters are currently poorly understood. In this study a multiproxy approach (including sedimentary parameters, diatoms, molluscs, foraminifera, sedimentary pigments, C and O stable isotopes and plant macrofossils) has been adopted to assess environmental change over the period ca 7500-1500 cal yrs BP at Kilen, a coastal fjord (before AD 1856) situated in the Western Limfjord. A diatom-based salinity transfer function based on a pan-Baltic training set has been applied to the fossil diatom dataset for quantitative assessment of salinity change over the study period. This study demonstrates that large-scale shifts in salinity are a common feature of the Limfjord's long-term history and are driven by the level of connection with the North Sea and the Skagerrak respectively, which in turn is likely driven by the complex interplay between climate, sea-level change, current velocity and rates of erosion/sedimentary accretion. Three shifts in state at Kilen are identified over the study period: a deep, periodically stratified fjord with medium-high salinity (and high productivity) between ca 7500-5000 BP, followed by a gradual transition to a shallow benthic system with more oceanic conditions (i.e. higher salinity, lower productivity, slower sedimentary accumulation rate and poorer fossil preservation) after ca 5000 BP and no stratification after ca 4400 BP, and lastly, within this shallow phase, an abrupt shift to brackish conditions around 2000 BP. Environmental-societal interactions are discussed on the

  11. Integration of environmental simulation models with satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies: case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Reed, Bradley C.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental modelers are testing and evaluating a prototype land cover characteristics database for the conterminous United States developed by the EROS Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies. This database was developed from multi temporal, 1-kilometer advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for 1990 and various ancillary data sets such as elevation, ecological regions, and selected climatic normals. Several case studies using this database were analyzed to illustrate the integration of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies with land-atmosphere interactions models at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The case studies are representative of contemporary environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management, and environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management and environmental risk assessment. The case studies feature land surface parameterizations for atmospheric mesoscale and global climate models; biogenic-hydrocarbons emissions models; distributed parameter watershed and other hydrological models; and various ecological models such as ecosystem, dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, ecotone variability, and equilibrium vegetation models. The case studies demonstrate the important of multi temporal AVHRR data to develop to develop and maintain a flexible, near-realtime land cover characteristics database. Moreover, such a flexible database is needed to derive various vegetation classification schemes, to aggregate data for nested models, to develop remote sensing algorithms, and to provide data on dynamic landscape characteristics. The case studies illustrate how such a database supports research on spatial heterogeneity, land use, sensitivity analysis, and scaling issues

  12. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  13. Soil-on-a-Chip: microfluidic platforms for environmental organismal studies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Claire E; Grossmann, Guido; i Solvas, Xavier Casadevall; deMello, Andrew J

    2016-01-21

    Soil is the habitat of countless organisms and encompasses an enormous variety of dynamic environmental conditions. While it is evident that a thorough understanding of how organisms interact with the soil environment may have substantial ecological and economical impact, current laboratory-based methods depend on reductionist approaches that are incapable of simulating natural diversity. The application of Lab-on-a-Chip or microfluidic technologies to organismal studies is an emerging field, where the unique benefits afforded by system miniaturisation offer new opportunities for the experimentalist. Indeed, precise spatiotemporal control over the microenvironments of soil organisms in combination with high-resolution imaging has the potential to provide an unprecedented view of biological events at the single-organism or single-cell level, which in turn opens up new avenues for environmental and organismal studies. Herein we review some of the most recent and interesting developments in microfluidic technologies for the study of soil organisms and their interactions with the environment. We discuss how so-called "Soil-on-a-Chip" technology has already contributed significantly to the study of bacteria, nematodes, fungi and plants, as well as inter-organismal interactions, by advancing experimental access and environmental control. Most crucially, we highlight where distinct advantages over traditional approaches exist and where novel biological insights will ensue.

  14. Functional genomic study of the environmentally important Desulfovibrio /Methanococcus syntrophic co-culture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.

    2008-12-01

    The use of microbe-oriented bioremediation for ameliorating extensive environmental pollution has fostered fundamental and applied studies of environmentally relevant microorganisms such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter metallireducens.. Concurrently, there has been an increasing appreciation that the physiology of these organisms in pure culture is not necessarily representative of its activities in the environment. To enable a better understanding of microbial physiology under more environmentally relevant conditions, the syntrophic growth between the sulfate reducing bacterium, D. vulgaris and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanococcus maripaludis serves as an ideal system for laboratory studies. Cell wide analyses using transcript, proteomics and metabolite analysis have been widely used to understand cellular activity at a molecular level. Using D. vulgaris and M. maripaludis arrays, and the iTRAQ proteomics method, we studied the physiology of the D. vulgaris / M. maripaludis syntrophic co- cultures. The results from this study allowed us to identify differences in cellular response in mono-culture vs. co-culture growth for both D. vulgaris and M. maripaludis.

  15. Pilot study of environmental monitoring of Konya region near abandoned mercury mine in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karahalil, Bensu; Ulukaya, Mevlut; Alp, Orkun

    2012-02-01

    Abandoned mines are an important global concern and continue to pose potential threats to human health including environmental damage/s. There is not any specific regulation for mining wastes in Turkey and this situation puts the mining wastes into the dangerous category. Therefore, this study focuses on the environmental effects of the abandoned mercury mines. To demonstrate environmental mercury contamination, fish samples were collected from two different regions which were contaminated and uncontaminated region. As a biomarker of environmental exposure the levels of Hg in fish samples were measured by Cold Vapor-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). In fish samples, the levels of Hg were 0.504 ± 0.475 (mg/kg) (Mean ± SD) in Group 1 and 0.04 ± 0.054 (mg/kg) (Mean ± SD) in Group 2. Our data suggested that although mercury mine was closed long time ago, mining waste is still a problem and continues to contaminate the environment. PMID:22020921

  16. A follow-up study of Eco Education's environmental service-learning program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobert, Thomas Milton

    The purpose of the study is to determine student views of the influence of the Eco Education Urban Stewards program's impact on their involvement in community environmental initiatives. Eco Education is a non-profit organization in St. Paul that facilitates an urban, environmental, year-long science curriculum delivered in middle schools in Minnesota. The year-long program ends with an urban, environmental service-learning project. Ten high school students from the Inter District Downtown School who had completed Urban Stewards in middle school took a survey and were interviewed and compared with ten high school students who had a more traditional middle school science experience. Semi-structured oral interviews were conducted with each student. Transcriptions of the interviews were analyzed and compared to the survey results. The survey results were tabulated and given numerical values to compare the Eco Education and non-Eco Education students. Common themes and differences were discovered when comparing the survey results and interview transcriptions of the two groups. Urban Stewards students demonstrated more awareness of environmental issues, concerns and community projects but not by a significant amount.

  17. Environmental representation and the role of clouds in studies and analysis models

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.; Campbell, A.P.

    1997-10-01

    The Joint Analysis community is currently making significant improvements and enhancements to its suite of modeling tools used to support studies and analyses for Joint applications. This effort is being performed under the Joint Analytic Model Improvement Program (JAMIP) that began in 1995. One part of the JAMIP effort is the development of the Joint Warfare System (JWARS). JWARS will be a state of the art closed-form, constructive simulation of multisided, joint warefare for analysis. The environment will be a significant factor in future warefare analysis and so JWARS will include an authoritative environmental representation that can be represented at variable spatial and temporal scales. Argonne`s Dynamic Environmental Effects Model (DEEM) was used to provide the environmental representation for the JWARS prototype effort. In this paper we will present an overview of JWARS and describe how the environment and environmental effects are being represented in JWARS. Specific emphasis will be given on how clouds are included in the JWARS environment and the impacts they have on the warfighting functionality included in JWARS.

  18. Environmental studies data base: development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L S; Hesssler, R R; Jackson, D W; Marietta, M G; Smith, Jr, K L; Yayanos, A A

    1980-01-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions: what are the environmental effects of radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

  19. Environmental and mental conditions predicting the experience of involuntary musical imagery: An experience sampling method study.

    PubMed

    Floridou, Georgia A; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    An experience sampling method (ESM) study on 40 volunteers was conducted to explore the environmental factors and psychological conditions related to involuntary musical imagery (INMI) in everyday life. Participants reported 6 times per day for one week on their INMI experiences, relevant contextual information and associated environmental conditions. The resulting data was modeled with Bayesian networks and led to insights into the interplay of factors related to INMI experiences. The activity that a person is engaged was found to play an important role in the experience of mind wandering, which in turn enables the experience of INMI. INMI occurrence is independent of the time of the day while the INMI trigger affects the subjective evaluation of the INMI experience. The results are compared to findings from earlier studies based on retrospective surveys and questionnaires and highlight the advantage of ESM techniques in research on spontaneous experiences like INMI. PMID:25800098

  20. A Comparative Study on the Environmental Impact of CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their large refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Accordingly, the interest in using natural refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and new refrigerant blends with low GWP in such systems is increasing. In this paper, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of three supermarket refrigeration systems. These systems include a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascade CO2/N-40 system, and a baseline R-404A multiplex direct expansion system. The study is performed for cities representing different climates within the USA using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourly performance. Finally, a parametric analysis is performed to study the impact of annual leak rate on the systems' LCCP.

  1. Considering the influence of artificial environmental noise to study cough time-frequency features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hirtum, A.; Berckmans, D.

    2003-09-01

    In general the study of the cough mechanism and sound in both animal and human is performed by eliciting coughing in a reproducible way by nebulization of an irritating substance. Due to ventilation the controlled evaporation-protocol causes artificial noises from a mechanical origin. The resulting environmental low-frequency noises complicate cough time-frequency features. In order to optimize the study of the cough-sound the research described in this paper attempts on the one hand to characterize and model the environmental noises and on the other hand to evaluate the influence of the noise on the time-frequency representation for the intended cough sounds by comparing different de-noising approaches. Free field acoustic sound is continuously registered during 30 min citric acid cough-challenges on individual Belgian Landrace piglets and during respiratory infection experiments, with a duration of about 10 days, where room-ventilation was present.

  2. Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 4. Bibliography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography is a revised version of the Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Study (JESS) bibliography that was published in 1986, relating specifically to social and environmental systems in Somalia as well as river-basin assessment and planning, in general. Many new references have been added and the bibliography has been organized into 22 different sections, corresponding to the subject codes (BIBCODE) being used by the JESS team in Somalia. The bibliography includes selected monographs, conference papers, journal articles, book chapters, reports, JESS studies and dissertations. Users should recognize that the bibliography is neither definitive nor comprehensive, and that an inclusion of a particular reference does not imply that its scientific merit has been substantiated.

  3. Environmental studies data base development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L S; Marietta, M G; Hessler, R R; Smith, Jr, K L; Yayanos, A A; Jackson, D W

    1981-05-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form, and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions - what are the environmental effects of radionuclides that may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

  4. Application of digital analysis of MSS data to agro-environmental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. A.; Goward, S. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the application of digital analysis of multispectral scanner data to agro-environmental studies is described. Simulation of LANDSAT D thematic mapper (TM) observations from aircraft multispectral scanner data and field spectrometer data collected over a corn-soybean agricultural region in Webster County, Iowa during the 1979 growing season in support of the NASA/AgRISTARS program is described. The simulations were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the TM (1.55-1.75 micron) mid-infrared observations in corn-soybean discrimination. Current LANDSAT data was analyzed to study snow cover in northern New England and wetlands in Nebraska and Vermont. The application of satellite remote sensor data in additional environmental research areas is described.

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on applied creativity: A reared-apart twin study

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Jaime A.; Segal, Nancy L.; Horwitz, Briana N.

    2015-01-01

    Applied creativity involves bringing innovation to real-life activities. The first reared-apart twin study assessing genetic and environmental origins of applied creativity, via Draw-a-House (DAH) and Draw-a-Person (DAP) tasks, is presented. Participants included 69 MZA and 53 DZA twin pairs from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Drawings were evaluated by four artists and four non-artists. Genetic effects were demonstrated for the DAP (.38–.47), but not for the DAH. Creative personality showed genetic effects (.50), and modest, but significant correlations with scores on the two drawings (rs = .17–.26). Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences underlie variance in applied creativity. Individuals concerned with enhancing creativity among students and others may better understand individual differences in performance and training. PMID:26366030

  6. Environmental projects. Volume 5, part 1: Study of subsurface contamination. Part 2: Guide to implement environmental compliance programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengelsdorf, I.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the national goal for the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex have adopted the position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance in regard to regulations concerning environmental hazards. An investigation carried out by Engineering Science, Inc. focused on possible underground contamination that may have resulted from leaks and/or spills from storage facilities at the Goldstone Communications Complex. It also involved the cleanup of a non-hazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base Site at the Goldstone complex. The report also includes details of the management duties and responsibilities needed to maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

  7. A critique of biomarkers in environmental toxicology: A case study in birds

    SciTech Connect

    Bellward, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have been testing the hypothesis that exposure to elevated levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and similarly-acting compounds derived from pulp mill effluent adversely affects the reproductive capacity of colonies of great blue herons and double crested cormorants in the local area. Their objectives included developing quantitative TCDD dose-response curves for various toxicologically relevant endpoints in birds, with the goal of finding an appropriate environmental biomarker of dioxin exposure and toxicity. Potential biomarkers studied included ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) as a measure of cytochrome P-450 1-A activity, and various hormonally-relevant end-points as measures of dioxin toxicity. The animal model used was the newly hatched chick, after in ovo exposure either in the laboratory or from the environment. Because the TEQ approach is based to a large extent on the use of in vitro and in vivo biomarkers, this study provides a useful example of one of the simplest in vivo models. The authors were able to construct hepatic EROD dose-response curves from the environmentally exposed heron and cormorant chicks, and from TCDD egg injections both early and late in the incubation period. Domestic chicken and pigeons were used as control species. The EROD induction data from the late injection pigeon study was very helpful for predicting appropriate doses for use in the early injection experiments, and for the wild avian species. However, the data was too limited to use for accurately predicting such endpoints as mortality, or effects at the lower end of the dose-response curves. Using various toxic equivalency factors, TEQs for the environmental data were calculated, and compared to the laboratory derived dose-response curves for TCDD. Using specific examples from this environmental case study, the strengths and weaknesses of the use of biomarkers and the TEQ approach will be discussed.

  8. The healthy men study: design and recruitment considerations for environmental epidemiologic studies in male reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Study Objective: To describe study conduct and response and participant characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Participants were male partners of women enrolled in a community-based study of drinking water disinfection by-products and pregnancy healt...

  9. Ground Truth Studies - A hands-on environmental science program for students, grades K-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzenberger, John; Chappell, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the background and the objectives of the Ground Truth Studies (GTSs), an activity-based teaching program which integrates local environmental studies with global change topics, utilizing remotely sensed earth imagery. Special attention is given to the five key concepts around which the GTS programs are organized, the pilot program, the initial pilot study evaluation, and the GTS Handbook. The GTS Handbook contains a primer on global change and remote sensing, aerial and satellite images, student activities, glossary, and an appendix of reference material. Also described is a K-12 teacher training model. International participation in the program is to be initiated during the 1992-1993 school year.

  10. Benthic foraminifera for environmental monitoring: a case study in the central Adriatic continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Capotondi, L; Bergami, C; Orsini, G; Ravaioli, M; Colantoni, P; Galeotti, S

    2015-04-01

    A study of benthic foraminifera was carried out in sediment samples collected from the central Adriatic coast of Italy, near the Ancona harbour and the Falconara Marittima oil refinery, in order to validate and support their use as bioindicators of ecosystem quality. On the basis of a principal component analysis (PCA), three biotopes (following the bathymetric gradient) have been documented, showing that the distribution pattern of benthic foraminifera is principally related to riverine inputs, organic matter contents at the seafloor, and sediment grain size. We observed higher abundances of opportunistic, low-oxygen tolerant taxa along the coastline, thus being representative of polluted environmental conditions. Near the Falconara Marittima oil refinery, the microfaunal assemblages is characterized by the absence of living specimens and by a low diversity associated with the dominance of opportunistic species. At this site, aberrant tests were also found. The data point out that Ammonia parkinsoniana and Quinqueloculina seem to be the most sensitive taxa and can be considered as good bioindicators of environmental stress in this area. This study confirms that faunal composition and morphology of benthic foraminifera respond to human-induced environmental perturbations, making their study potentially useful for biomonitoring in coastal-marine areas.

  11. Organizational and environmental determinants of hospital EMR adoption: a national study.

    PubMed

    Kazley, Abby Swanson; Ozcan, Yasar A

    2007-10-01

    The recent focus on health care quality improvement and cost containment has led some policymakers and practitioners to advocate the adoption of health information technology. One such technology is the Electronic Medical Record (EMR), which is predicted to change and improve health care in the USA. Little is known about factors that influence hospital adoption of this relatively new technology. The purpose of this paper is to determine the national prevalence of EMR adoption in acute care hospitals while examining the organizational and environmental correlates using a Resource Dependence Theoretical Perspective. Significant predictors of hospital EMR use may indicate barriers to use for some hospitals and can be used to guide policy. This study uses a non-experimental cross sectional design to examine hospital EMR use in 2004. A logistic regression approach is used to determine the correlations between hospital EMR use and organizational and environmental characteristics. Hospital EMR use was identified using the HIMSS Analytics data. Organizational and environmental variables were measured using data from the AHA, CMS (financial and case mix) and ARF. Hospital EMR adoption is significantly associated with environmental uncertainty, type of system affiliation, size, and urbanness. The effects of competition, munificence, ownership, teaching status, public payer mix, and operating margin were not statistically significant. Significant predictors of hospital EMR adoption represent barriers that may prevent certain hospitals from obtaining and using EMRs. These hospitals include those that are smaller, more rural, non-system affiliated, and in areas of low environmental uncertainty. Since EMR adoption may be an organizational survival strategy for hospitals to improve quality and efficiency, hospitals that are at risk of missing the wave of implementation should be offered services and incentives to enable them to implement and maintain EMR systems.

  12. Environmental assessment on electrokinetic remediation of multimetal-contaminated site: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Hwang, Bo-Ram; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2014-05-01

    In this study, an environmental assessment on an electrokinetic (EK) system for the remediation of a multimetal-contaminated real site was conducted using a green and sustainable remediation (GSR) tool. The entire EK process was classified into major four phases consisting of remedial investigations (RIs), remedial action construction (RAC), remedial action operation (RAO), and long-term monitoring (LTM) for environmental assessment. The environmental footprints, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, total energy used, air emissions of criteria pollutants, such as NOx, SOx, and PM10, and water consumption, were calculated, and the relative contribution in each phase was analyzed in the environmental assessment. In the RAC phase, the relative contribution of the GHG emissions, total energy used, and PM10 emissions were 77.3, 67.6, and 70.4%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases because the material consumption and equipment used for system construction were high. In the RAO phase, the relative contributions of water consumption and NOx and SOx emissions were 94.7, 85.2, and 91.0%, respectively, which were higher than those of the other phases, because the water and electricity consumption required for system operation was high. In the RIs and LTM phases, the environmental footprints were negligible because the material and energy consumption was less. In conclusion, the consumable materials and electrical energy consumption might be very important for GSR in the EK remediation process, because the production of consumable materials and electrical energy consumption highly affects the GHG emissions, total energy used, and air emissions such as NOx and SOx. PMID:24515871

  13. Ethics and data protection in human biomarker studies in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, Ludwine; Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Anwar, Wagida A

    2013-08-01

    Human biomarker studies in environmental health are essential tools to study the relationship between health and environment. They should ultimately contribute to a better understanding of environmentally induced adverse health effects and to appropriate preventive actions. To ensure the protection of the rights and dignity of study participants a complex legal and ethical framework is applied, consisting of several international directives, conventions, and guidelines, whether or not translated in domestic laws. Main characteristics of ethics and data protection in studies using biomarkers in the field of environmental health are summarized and current discussions on related questions and bottlenecks highlighted. In the current regulatory context, dominated by the protection of the individual study participant, difficulties are reported due to the different interpretation and implementation of the regulations of concern within and across borders. Advancement of consistency and compatibility is recommended and efforts are ongoing. An increasing demand for secondary use of data and samples poses additional challenges in finding a right balance between the individual rights of the study participants on the one hand and the common interest of, and potential benefit for the public or community at large on the other. Ethics committees could play a key role in assessing problems originating from the sometimes competing needs at individual and societal level. Building trust in science amongst (potential) study participants and within the community allows the inclusion of arguments from the societal perspective. This requires increased attention for respectful communication efforts. Striving for public participation in decision making processes may promote policy relevant research and the related translation of study results into action.

  14. [East Syracuse-Minoa Schools Environmental Education Materials, Middle School Package, Grade 6--Science and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Syracuse - Minoa Central Schools, East Syracuse, NY.

    These two environmental education units were designed for use at the sixth-grade level. The first unit focuses on science and is a five-week study which emphasizes ecology along a creek. The unit is designed around the idea that a creek and its surrounding area serve as a suitable focus for environmental study because they illustrate many…

  15. Environmental Studies: A High School Course for Each Citizen, of Each Town, in South Carolina, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsbrooks, Ann; And Others

    This is a complete environmental studies course for high schools. It may be used as a year-long elective, a semester course, or infused by individual units into science, social studies, health, or other courses. The course is composed of thirteen separate units entitled: (1) Investigating Environmental Problems and Issues; (2) Energy; (3) Water;…

  16. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    PubMed

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  17. How to Build a Standardized Country-Specific Environmental Food Database for Nutritional Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bertoluci, Gwenola; Masset, Gabriel; Gomy, Catherine; Mottet, Julien; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of standardized country-specific environmental data to combine with nutritional and dietary data for assessing the environmental impact of individual diets in epidemiology surveys, which are consequently reliant on environmental food datasets based on values retrieved from a heterogeneous literature. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the relative strengths and limits of a database of food greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) values estimated with a hybrid method combining input/output and LCA approaches, with a dataset of GHGE values retrieved from the literature. France is the geographical perimeter considered in this study, but the methodology could be applied to other countries. The GHGE of 402 foodstuffs, representative of French diet, were estimated using the hybrid method. In parallel, the GHGE of individual foods were collected from existing literature. Median per-food-category GHGE values from the hybrid method and the reviewed literature were found to correlate strongly (Spearman correlation was 0.83), showing similar rankings of food categories. Median values were significantly different for only 5 (out of 29) food categories, including the ruminant meats category for which the hybrid method gave lower estimates than those from existing literature. Analysis also revealed that literature values came from heterogeneous studies that were not always sourced and that were conducted under different LCA modeling hypotheses. In contrast, the hybrid method helps build reliably-sourced, representative national standards for product-based datasets. We anticipate this hybrid method to be a starting point for better environmental impact assessments of diets. PMID:27054565

  18. How to Build a Standardized Country-Specific Environmental Food Database for Nutritional Epidemiology Studies.

    PubMed

    Bertoluci, Gwenola; Masset, Gabriel; Gomy, Catherine; Mottet, Julien; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of standardized country-specific environmental data to combine with nutritional and dietary data for assessing the environmental impact of individual diets in epidemiology surveys, which are consequently reliant on environmental food datasets based on values retrieved from a heterogeneous literature. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the relative strengths and limits of a database of food greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) values estimated with a hybrid method combining input/output and LCA approaches, with a dataset of GHGE values retrieved from the literature. France is the geographical perimeter considered in this study, but the methodology could be applied to other countries. The GHGE of 402 foodstuffs, representative of French diet, were estimated using the hybrid method. In parallel, the GHGE of individual foods were collected from existing literature. Median per-food-category GHGE values from the hybrid method and the reviewed literature were found to correlate strongly (Spearman correlation was 0.83), showing similar rankings of food categories. Median values were significantly different for only 5 (out of 29) food categories, including the ruminant meats category for which the hybrid method gave lower estimates than those from existing literature. Analysis also revealed that literature values came from heterogeneous studies that were not always sourced and that were conducted under different LCA modeling hypotheses. In contrast, the hybrid method helps build reliably-sourced, representative national standards for product-based datasets. We anticipate this hybrid method to be a starting point for better environmental impact assessments of diets.

  19. Environmental performance of construction waste: Comparing three scenarios from a case study in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, O; Pasqualino, J C; Castells, F

    2010-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate environmental impacts of construction wastes in terms of the LIFE 98 ENV/E/351 project. Construction wastes are classified in accordance with the Life Program Environment Directive of the European Commission. Three different scenarios to current waste management from a case study in Catalonia (Spain) have been compared: landfilling, recycling and incineration, and these scenarios were evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. The recommendations of the Catalan Waste Catalogue and the European Waste Catalogue have been taken into account. Also, the influence of transport has been evaluated. Results show that in terms of the Global Warming Potential, the most environmentally friendly treatment was recycling, followed by incineration and lastly landfilling. According to the influence of treatment plants location on the GWP indicator, we observe that incineration and recycling of construction wastes are better than landfilling, even for long distances from the building site to the plants. This is true for most wastes except for the stony types, than should be recycled close to the building site. In summary, data from construction waste of a Catalan case study was evaluated using the well established method of LCA to determine the environmental impacts. PMID:20005694

  20. Environmental degradation and migration: the U.S.-Mexico case study.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a detailed account of the conclusions and policy recommendations of a study of environmental degradation and migration between the US and Mexico. Key recommendations and findings were included in the official US Congressional Commission on Immigration Reform report (September 1997). The Congressional report urges Congress to consider environment and development root causes of migration in establishing foreign policies with Mexico and other countries. It appears that the root cause of Mexican migration is rural land degradation or desertification. The study suggests feasible solutions, and not additional border security and employment-related sanctions. The US has the technology and expertise to facilitate programs that address environmental and development issues in targeted and integrated ways. The recommendations serve as a framework for policy reform and debate on rural development and agricultural productivity. Mexican states should be targeted that are new migration-sending states with extensive poverty and soil erosion problems and well-established migration states. Environment, population, and migration are all housed in the Global Affairs Office in the US Department of State, but there is little program integration. The USAID bureaucracy separates agricultural and environmental programs. Solutions include, for example, reducing the costs of remittances from the US to Mexico, conducting research on integrated solutions, and contributing to improved land and water management practices, forest management and land tenure, and the competitiveness of smallholders.

  1. Environmental performance of construction waste: Comparing three scenarios from a case study in Catalonia, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, O.; Pasqualino, J.C.; Castells, F.

    2010-04-15

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate environmental impacts of construction wastes in terms of the LIFE 98 ENV/E/351 project. Construction wastes are classified in accordance with the Life Program Environment Directive of the European Commission. Three different scenarios to current waste management from a case study in Catalonia (Spain) have been compared: landfilling, recycling and incineration, and these scenarios were evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. The recommendations of the Catalan Waste Catalogue and the European Waste Catalogue have been taken into account. Also, the influence of transport has been evaluated. Results show that in terms of the Global Warming Potential, the most environmentally friendly treatment was recycling, followed by incineration and lastly landfilling. According to the influence of treatment plants location on the GWP indicator, we observe that incineration and recycling of construction wastes are better than landfilling, even for long distances from the building site to the plants. This is true for most wastes except for the stony types, than should be recycled close to the building site. In summary, data from construction waste of a Catalan case study was evaluated using the well established method of LCA to determine the environmental impacts.

  2. The German Environmental Survey 1990/1992 (GerES II): a representative population study.

    PubMed

    Seifert, B; Becker, K; Hoffmann, K; Krause, C; Schulz, C

    2000-01-01

    The German Environmental Survey (GerES) is a large-scale population study which has repeatedly been carried out in Germany. GerES I was conducted in 1985/1986 followed by GerES IIa in 1990/1991 (West Germany) and GerES IIb in 1991/1992 (East Germany). GerES III is currently run in both parts of Germany. The main goal of the surveys is to analyse and document the extent, distribution and determinants of the exposure to environmental pollutants of the German general population. Field work is conducted using a combination of several tools, including questionnaires, interviews, human biomonitoring, and indoor and outdoor environmental samplings. This paper describes the design of GerES II, and gives a general outline of the field work and the analytical procedures used. In GerES II, about 4000 adults were representatively selected from the German population with regard to age, gender and community size. Approximately 700 children were also included. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and mercury were determined in blood, morning urine and/or scalp hair. In addition, samples were taken and analysed to characterise exposure in the domestic environment (indoor air, house dust, drinking water). The contribution to exposure of food was also studied. Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was determined by personal sampling.

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on intimate partner aggression: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2004-12-01

    Social learning theory posits that, because aggression against intimates runs in families, children learn how to behave aggressively through watching their parents and being reinforced for their own aggression. This theory considers only environmental influences on familial resemblance; however, familial resemblance could also be due to genetic factors. The current study uses a twin design (134 monozygotic, 41 dizygotic) to examine the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in intimate aggression. Model-fitting analyses consistently showed that shared genes explained the familial resemblance in psychological and physical intimate partner aggression; the remaining variance was explained by unique environments. Multivariate model-fitting analyses showed that most of the genetic influences responsible for the receipt of aggression were also responsible for its use, suggesting that there is a genetic predisposition to get involved in aggressive relationships. These results challenge the prevailing theory to explain familial resemblance in intimate aggression.

  4. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation. PMID:12715062

  5. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation.

  6. Environmental Pollution Effects on Reproductive Health – Clinical-Epidemiological Study in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Marra, M.L.; Zullo, F.; De Felice, B.; Nappi, L.; Guida, M.; Trifuoggi, M.; Nappi, C.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Zizolfi, B.; Capece, G.; Visconti, F.; Troisi, J.; Ciccone, C.; Guida, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to address the clinical, statistical and Epidemiological Relationship Between Birth Defects and Environmental Pollution, in the Campania Region and in Salerno. Objectives: We examined four groups of subjects as follows: a sample of pregnant women living in Salerno, a sample of pregnant women living in highly polluted areas, a sample of controls, pregnant women and residents out of the Campania Region, considered in unpolluted areas (Foggia) and in the Salerno area. Methodologies: a toxicological and genetic analysis was conducted on patients examined. Conclusions: there is an epidemiological link between environmental pollution and reproductive health in the Salerno area. Experimentally there are the first evidences of endocrine disruptors by the PCB. It has been inferred an overexpression of the mir-191 as a marker of pollution by dioxin-like compounds. Socially, correct information of populations at risk is necessary and a possible preventive and ongoing medical care must be ensured. PMID:23905062

  7. Self-Organizing Maps method in recent Adriatic Sea environmental studies: applications and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihanovic, H.; Vilibic, I.

    2014-12-01

    Herein we present three recent oceanographic studies performed in the Adriatic Sea (the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea), where Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method, an unsupervised neural network method capable of recognizing patterns in various types of datasets, was applied to environmental data. The first study applied the SOM method to a long (50 years) series of thermohaline, dissolved oxygen and nutrient data measured over a deep (1200 m) Southern Adriatic Pit, in order to extract characteristic deep water mass patterns and their temporal variability. Low-dimensional SOM solutions revealed that the patterns were not sensitive to nutrients but were determined mostly by temperature, salinity and DO content; therefore, the water masses in the region can be traced by using no nutrient data. The second study encompassed the classification of surface current patterns measured by HF radars over the northernmost part of the Adriatic, by applying the SOM method to the HF radar data and operational mesoscale meteorological model surface wind fields. The major output from this study was a high correlation found between characteristic ocean current distribution patterns with and without wind data introduced to the SOM, implying the dominant wind driven dynamics over a local scale. That nominates the SOM method as a basis for generating very fast real-time forecast models over limited domains, based on the existing atmospheric forecasts and basin-oriented ocean experiments. The last study classified the sea ambient noise distributions in a habitat area of bottlenose dolphin, connecting it to the man-made noise generated by different types of vessels. Altogether, the usefulness of the SOM method has been recognized in different aspects of basin-scale ocean environmental studies, and may be a useful tool in future investigations of understanding of the multi-disciplinary dynamics over a basin, including the creation of operational environmental forecasting systems.

  8. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results. PMID:19272634

  9. The Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Internet Use and Associations With Psychopathology: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth C.; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C.; Lind, Penelope A.; Hickie, Ian B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Gillespie, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive internet use has been linked to psychopathology. Therefore, understanding the genetic and environmental risks underpinning internet use and their relation to psychopathology is important. This study aims to explore the genetic and environmental etiology of internet use measures and their associations with internalizing disorders and substance use disorders. The sample included 2,059 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) young adult twins from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS). Younger participants reported more frequent internet use, while women were more likely to use the internet for interpersonal communication. Familial aggregation in ‘frequency of internet use’ was entirely explained by additive genetic factors accounting for 41% of the variance. Familial aggregation in ‘frequency of use after 11 pm’, ‘using the internet to contact peers’, and ‘using the internet primarily to access social networking sites’ was attributable to varying combinations of additive genetic and shared environmental factors. In terms of psychopathology, there were no significant associations between internet use measures and major depression (MD), but there were positive significant associations between ‘frequency of internet use’ and ‘frequency of use after 11 pm’ with social phobia (SP). ‘Using the internet to contact peers’ was positively associated with alcohol abuse, whereas ‘using the internet to contact peers’ and ‘using the internet primarily to access social networking sites’ were negatively associated with cannabis use disorders and nicotine symptoms. Individual differences in internet use can be attributable to varying degrees of genetic and environmental risks. Despite some significant associations of small effect, variation in internet use appears mostly unrelated to psychopathology. PMID:26693596

  10. The Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Internet Use and Associations With Psychopathology: A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Long, Elizabeth C; Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C; Lind, Penelope A; Hickie, Ian B; Martin, Nicholas G; Gillespie, Nathan A

    2016-02-01

    Excessive internet use has been linked to psychopathology. Therefore, understanding the genetic and environmental risks underpinning internet use and their relation to psychopathology is important. This study aims to explore the genetic and environmental etiology of internet use measures and their associations with internalizing disorders and substance use disorders. The sample included 2,059 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) young adult twins from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS). Younger participants reported more frequent internet use, while women were more likely to use the internet for interpersonal communication. Familial aggregation in 'frequency of internet use' was entirely explained by additive genetic factors accounting for 41% of the variance. Familial aggregation in 'frequency of use after 11 pm', 'using the internet to contact peers', and 'using the internet primarily to access social networking sites' was attributable to varying combinations of additive genetic and shared environmental factors. In terms of psychopathology, there were no significant associations between internet use measures and major depression (MD), but there were positive significant associations between 'frequency of internet use' and 'frequency of use after 11 pm' with social phobia (SP). 'Using the internet to contact peers' was positively associated with alcohol abuse, whereas 'using the internet to contact peers' and 'using the internet primarily to access social networking sites' were negatively associated with cannabis use disorders and nicotine symptoms. Individual differences in internet use can be attributable to varying degrees of genetic and environmental risks. Despite some significant associations of small effect, variation in internet use appears mostly unrelated to psychopathology. PMID:26693596

  11. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    PubMed

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model.

  12. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  13. Environmental factors as determinants of malaria risk. A descriptive study on the northern coast of Peru.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, J P; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Palacios, A; Hall, A J

    2002-06-01

    We conducted a series of studies on the northern Pacific coast of Peru to determine environmental risk factors for malaria. We report in this paper the results of both a descriptive study of incidence and a prevalence survey of malaria. Both studies showed that the area was at low risk for malaria. The malaria incidence rate was 40/1000 p.a. during the study period, and the prevalence of infection was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-1.7) before and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.8-2.2) after the high incidence period. However, the risk of malaria varied according to season, village and even house within a single village. Incidence rates increased from February (2.6/1000 p.a.) to May (12.9/1000 p.a.) and decreased during the second part of the year. Most of the cases were clustered in four villages that constituted only 21% of the total population of the area. Houses where multiple cases were recorded were often located near a source of water. Our observations suggested that environmental factors, and particularly the presence of water for irrigation around villages and houses, played a major role in determining the risk of malaria. These observations were extended through an entomological study and a case-control study, to be published elsewhere.

  14. MSFC Sortie Laboratory Environmental Control System (ECS) phase B design study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatonis, A. J.; Mitchell, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    Phase B effort of the Sortie Lab program has concluded. Results of that effort are presented which pertain to the definitions of the environmental control system (ECS). Numerous design studies were performed in Phase B to investigate system feasibility, complexity, weight, and cost. The results and methods employed for these design studies are included. An autonomous Sortie Lab ECS was developed which utilizes a deployed space radiator. Total system weight was projected to be 1814.4 kg including the radiator and fluids. ECS power requirements were estimated at 950 watts.

  15. Hydrology of Malaria: A New Class of Models for Environmental Management and Studies of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltahir, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    A mechanistic and spatially-explicit model of hydrological and entomological processes that lead to malaria transmission is developed and tested against field observations. HYDREMATS (HYDRology, Entomology, and MAlaria Transmission Simulator) is described in (Bomblies and Eltahir, WRR, 44,2008). HYDREMATS is suitable for low cost screening of environmental management interventions, and for studying the impact of climate change on malaria transmission. Examples of specific applications will be presented from Niger in Africa. The potential for using HYDREMATS to study the impact of water reservoirs on malaria transmission will be discussed.

  16. Lessons learned for the National Children's Study from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Carole A; Collman, Gwen W; Fields, Nigel; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2005-10-01

    This mini-monograph was developed to highlight the experiences of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research, focusing particularly on several areas of interest for the National Children's Study. These include general methodologic issues for conducting longitudinal birth cohort studies and community-based participatory research and for measuring air pollution exposures, pesticide exposures, asthma, and neurobehavioral toxicity. Rather than a detailed description of the studies in each of the centers, this series of articles is intended to provide information on the practicalities of conducting such intensive studies and the lessons learned. This explication of lessons learned provides an outstanding opportunity for the planners of the National Children's Study to draw on past experiences that provide information on what has and has not worked when studying diverse multiracial and multiethnic groups of children with unique urban and rural exposures. The Children's Centers have addressed and overcome many hurdles in their efforts to understand the link between environmental exposures and health outcomes as well as interactions between exposures and a variety of social and cultural factors. Some of the major lessons learned include the critical importance of long-term studies for assessing the full range of developmental consequences of environmental exposures, recognition of the unique challenges presented at different life stages for both outcome and exposure measurement, and the importance of ethical issues that must be dealt with in a changing medical and legal environment. It is hoped that these articles will be of value to others who are embarking on studies of children's environmental health.

  17. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES AMONG NON-WHITE PARTICIPANTS FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, childrens environmental health studies such as the National Childrens Study (NCS) is needed. In early 2003, eighteen focus groups were conducted across the ...

  18. Environmental study of two significant solid samples: gravitation dust sediment and soil.

    PubMed

    Remeteiová, Dagmar; Rusnák, Radoslav; Kucanová, Eva; Fióová, Beáta; Ružičková, Silvia; Fekete, Ilona; Horváth, Márk; Dirner, Vojtech

    2012-01-01

    In this work are presented results of the complex study of two significant solid environmental samples: gravitation dust sediments (industrial pollutants, potential source of risk elements input to soils) and soils (component of the environment, potential source of risk elements input to food web). The first phase of this study was focused on the study of the significant chemical properties (phase composition, content of organic and inorganic carbon) of the dust and soil samples. In the second phase, the fractionation analysis was used on the evaluation of the mobility of chosen risk elements (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the studied samples. The single-step extractions were applied in the order of the isolation of the element forms (fractions), with different mobilities during defined ecological conditions by utilization of the following reagents: 1 mol dm(-3) NH(4)NO(3) for isolation of the "mobile" fraction, 0.05 mol dm(-3) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 0.43 mol dm(-3) CH(3)COOH for isolation of the "mobilizable" fraction, and 2 mol dm(-3) HNO(3) for isolation of all releasable forms. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it is possible to state that different origins and positions of solid environmental samples in the environment reflect in different chemical properties of their matrix. The different properties of the sample matrix result in different mobilities of risk elements in these kinds of samples. The fractionation analysis with single-step extraction for isolation element fractions is the method most suitable for easy checking of environmental pollution and for evaluation of risk elements cycle in the environment.

  19. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate wave energy converters based on their environmental impact: an Italian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego

    2010-05-01

    harbour protection, and installed at -10m depth (length=300 m) may produce about 2.7 GWh/y with a total costs of about 12,000,000 €, where only the 50% of the amount are the costs of the SSG device. Obviously the environmental impact of the two solutions is quite different. Aim of this study is to provide a multicriteria decision support framework to evaluate the best WEC typology and location in the perspective of the environmental cost-benefit analysis. The general environmental aspects generated by wave power projects will be described. Colonisation patterns and biofouling will be discussed with particular reference to changes of the seabed and alterations due to new substrates. In addition, impacts for fish, fishery and marine mammals will be also considered. We suggest that wave power projects should be evaluated also on the basis of their environmental impacts in the perspective of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) analysis, as implemented by the European Commission (SEA Directive 2001/42/EC). The early incorporation of the environmental aspects involved in the evaluation of wave power projects will give the opportunity for early mitigations or design modifications, most likely making wave projects more acceptable in the long run and more suitable for the marine environment.

  20. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search