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Sample records for 4a figure 4b

  1. Characterization of Dengue Virus NS4A and NS4B Protein Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jing; Xie, Xuping; Wang, Qing-Yin; Dong, Hongping; Lee, Michelle Yueqi; Kang, Congbao

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flavivirus replication is mediated by a membrane-associated replication complex where viral membrane proteins NS2A, NS2B, NS4A, and NS4B serve as the scaffold for the replication complex formation. Here, we used dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) as a model to characterize viral NS4A-NS4B interaction. NS4A interacts with NS4B in virus-infected cells and in cells transiently expressing NS4A and NS4B in the absence of other viral proteins. Recombinant NS4A and NS4B proteins directly bind to each other with an estimated Kd (dissociation constant) of 50 nM. Amino acids 40 to 76 (spanning the first transmembrane domain, consisting of amino acids 50 to 73) of NS4A and amino acids 84 to 146 (also spanning the first transmembrane domain, consisting of amino acids 101 to 129) of NS4B are the determinants for NS4A-NS4B interaction. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis suggests that NS4A residues 17 to 80 form two amphipathic helices (helix α1, comprised of residues 17 to 32, and helix α2, comprised of residues 40 to 47) that associate with the cytosolic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and helix α3 (residues 52 to 75) that transverses the ER membrane. In addition, NMR analysis identified NS4A residues that may participate in the NS4A-NS4B interaction. Amino acid substitution of these NS4A residues exhibited distinct effects on viral replication. Three of the four NS4A mutations (L48A, T54A, and L60A) that affected the NS4A-NS4B interaction abolished or severely reduced viral replication; in contrast, two NS4A mutations (F71A and G75A) that did not affect NS4A-NS4B interaction had marginal effects on viral replication, demonstrating the biological relevance of the NS4A-NS4B interaction to DENV-2 replication. Taken together, the study has provided experimental evidence to argue that blocking the NS4A-NS4B interaction could be a potential antiviral approach. IMPORTANCE Flavivirus NS4A and NS4B proteins are essential components of the ER membrane

  2. Identification of Chromatin Remodeling Genes Arid4a and Arid4b as Leukemia Suppressor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mei-Yi; Eldin, Karen W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Leukemia evolves through a multistep process from premalignancy to malignancy. Epigenetic alterations, including histone modifications, have been proposed to play an important role in tumorigenesis. The involvement of two chromatin remodeling genes, retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (Rbbp1/Arid4a) and Rbbp1-like 1 (Rbbp1l1/Arid4b), in leukemogenesis was not characterized. Methods The leukemic phenotype of mice deficient for Arid4a with or without haploinsufficiency for Arid4b was investigated by serially monitoring complete blood counts together with microscopic histologic analysis and flow cytometric analysis of bone marrow and spleen from the Arid4a−/− mice or Arid4a−/−Arid4b+/− mice. Regulation in bone marrow cells of downstream genes important for normal hematopoiesis was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Genotypic effects on histone modifications were examined by western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Young (2–5 months old) Arid4a-deficient mice had ineffective blood cell production in all hematopoietic lineages. Beyond 5 months of age, the Arid4a−/− mice manifested monocytosis, accompanied by severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. These sick Arid4a−/− mice showed bone marrow failure with myelofibrosis associated with splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Five of 42 Arid4a−/− mice and 10 of 12 Arid4a−/−Arid4b+/− mice progressed to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and had rapid further increases of leukocyte counts. Expression of Hox genes (Hoxb3, Hoxb5, Hoxb6, and Hoxb8) was decreased in Arid4a-deficient bone marrow cells with or without Arid4b haploinsufficiency, and FoxP3 expression was reduced in Arid4a−/−Arid4b+/− bone marrow. Increases of histone trimethylation of H3K4, H3K9, and H4K20 (fold increases in trimethylation = 32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 27 to 32; 45, 95% CI = 41 to 49; and 2.2, 95% CI = 1.7 to 2.7, respectively) were

  3. Long noncoding RNA, polycomb, and the ghosts haunting INK4b-ARF-INK4a expression.

    PubMed

    Aguilo, Francesca; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Walsh, Martin J

    2011-08-15

    Polycomb group proteins (PcG) function as transcriptional repressors of gene expression. The important role of PcG in mediating repression of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus, by directly binding to the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcript antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), was recently shown. INK4b-ARF-INK4a encodes 3 tumor-suppressor proteins, p15(INK4b), p14(ARF), and p16(INK4a), and its transcription is a key requirement for replicative or oncogene-induced senescence and constitutes an important barrier for tumor growth. ANRIL gene is transcribed in the antisense orientation of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster, and different single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to several diseases. Although lncRNA-mediated regulation of INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene is not restricted to ANRIL, both polycomb repressive complex-1 (PRC1) and -2 (PRC2) interact with ANRIL to form heterochromatin surrounding the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus, leading to its repression. This mechanism would provide an increased advantage for bypassing senescence, sustaining the requirements for the proliferation of stem and/or progenitor cell populations or inappropriately leading to oncogenesis through the aberrant saturation of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus by PcG complexes. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the underlying epigenetic mechanisms that link PcG function with ANRIL, which impose gene silencing to control cellular homeostasis as well as cancer development. PMID:21828241

  4. Long Noncoding RNA, Polycomb, and the Ghosts Haunting INK4b-ARF-INK4a Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aguilo, Francesca; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Walsh, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group proteins (PcG) function as transcriptional repressors of gene expression. The important role of PcG in mediating repression of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus, by directly binding to the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcript antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), was recently shown. INK4b-ARF-INK4a encodes 3 tumor-suppressor proteins, p15INK4b, p14ARF, and p16INK4a, and its transcription is a key requirement for replicative or oncogene-induced senescence and constitutes an important barrier for tumor growth. ANRIL gene is transcribed in the antisense orientation of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster, and different single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to several diseases. Although lncRNA-mediated regulation of INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene is not restricted to ANRIL, both polycomb repressive complex-1 (PRC1) and -2 (PRC2) interact with ANRIL to form heterochromatin surrounding the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus, leading to its repression. This mechanism would provide an increased advantage for bypassing senescence, sustaining the requirements for the proliferation of stem and/or progenitor cell populations or inappropriately leading to oncogenesis through the aberrant saturation of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus by PcG complexes. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the underlying epigenetic mechanisms that link PcG function with ANRIL, which impose gene silencing to control cellular homeostasis as well as cancer development. PMID:21828241

  5. KDM4A, KDM4B and KDM4C in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Pirinen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    KDM4A, KDM4B and KDM4D are lysine demethylases which demethylate H3 at lysine K9 and K36 sites, additionally KDM4D also the H1.4 linker histone at K26 lysine. Lysine methylation changes can repress or induce gene expression at specific sites thus influencing cellular functions. We analysed the immunohistochemical expression of KDM4A, KDM4B and KDM4D in a clinical material of 188 patients with lung carcinomas. There were 132 (70%) squamous cell carcinomas, 53 (28%) adenocarcinomas and 3 (2%) large cell carcinomas in the study. Additionally, the trimethylated state of chromatin was detected with an antibody to trimethylated H3K9 residue. Nuclear KDM4A and KDM4D were associated with the presence of lymph node metastases in tumors. Cytoplasmic KDM4A was associated with poor survival of the patients (P = 0.015) and with a shorter recurrence free interval (P = 0.028). KDM4A and KDM4D appear to have a significant role in the metastatic spread of lung carcinomas. The findings are also in line with their proposed involvement in mechanisms associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair. PMID:26722485

  6. KDM4A, KDM4B and KDM4C in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Pirinen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    KDM4A, KDM4B and KDM4D are lysine demethylases which demethylate H3 at lysine K9 and K36 sites, additionally KDM4D also the H1.4 linker histone at K26 lysine. Lysine methylation changes can repress or induce gene expression at specific sites thus influencing cellular functions. We analysed the immunohistochemical expression of KDM4A, KDM4B and KDM4D in a clinical material of 188 patients with lung carcinomas. There were 132 (70%) squamous cell carcinomas, 53 (28%) adenocarcinomas and 3 (2%) large cell carcinomas in the study. Additionally, the trimethylated state of chromatin was detected with an antibody to trimethylated H3K9 residue. Nuclear KDM4A and KDM4D were associated with the presence of lymph node metastases in tumors. Cytoplasmic KDM4A was associated with poor survival of the patients (P = 0.015) and with a shorter recurrence free interval (P = 0.028). KDM4A and KDM4D appear to have a significant role in the metastatic spread of lung carcinomas. The findings are also in line with their proposed involvement in mechanisms associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair. PMID:26722485

  7. Distinct and overlapping functions of the cullin E3 ligase scaffolding proteins CUL4A and CUL4B.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Jeffrey; Zhou, Pengbo

    2015-11-15

    The cullin 4 subfamily of genes includes CUL4A and CUL4B, which share a mostly identical amino acid sequence aside from the elongated N-terminal region in CUL4B. Both act as scaffolding proteins for modular cullin RING ligase 4 (CRL4) complexes which promote the ubiquitination of a variety of substrates. CRL4 function is vital to cells as loss of both genes or their shared substrate adaptor protein DDB1 halts proliferation and eventually leads to cell death. Due to their high structural similarity, CUL4A and CUL4B share a substantial overlap in function. However, in some cases, differences in subcellular localization, spatiotemporal expression patterns and stress-inducibility preclude functional compensation. In this review, we highlight the most essential functions of the CUL4 genes in: DNA repair and replication, chromatin-remodeling, cell cycle regulation, embryogenesis, hematopoiesis and spermatogenesis. CUL4 genes are also clinically relevant as dysregulation can contribute to the onset of cancer and CRL4 complexes are often hijacked by certain viruses to promote viral replication and survival. Also, mutations in CUL4B have been implicated in a subset of patients suffering from syndromic X-linked intellectual disability (AKA mental retardation). Interestingly, the antitumor effects of immunomodulatory drugs are caused by their binding to the CRL4CRBN complex and re-directing the E3 ligase towards the Ikaros transcription factors IKZF1 and IKZF3. Because of their influence over key cellular functions and relevance to human disease, CRL4s are considered promising targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26344709

  8. SWI/SNF mediates polycomb eviction and epigenetic reprogramming of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus.

    PubMed

    Kia, Sima Kheradmand; Gorski, Marcin M; Giannakopoulos, Stavros; Verrijzer, C Peter

    2008-05-01

    Stable silencing of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a tumor suppressor locus occurs in a variety of human cancers, including malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs). MRTs are extremely aggressive cancers caused by the loss of the hSNF5 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. We found previously that, in MRT cells, hSNF5 is required for p16(INK4a) induction, mitotic checkpoint activation, and cellular senescence. Here, we investigated how the balance between Polycomb group (PcG) silencing and SWI/SNF activation affects epigenetic control of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus in MRT cells. hSNF5 reexpression in MRT cells caused SWI/SNF recruitment and activation of p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a), but not of p14(ARF). Gene activation by hSNF5 is strictly dependent on the SWI/SNF motor subunit BRG1. SWI/SNF mediates eviction of the PRC1 and PRC2 PcG silencers and extensive chromatin reprogramming. Concomitant with PcG complex removal, the mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) protein is recruited and active histone marks supplant repressive ones. Strikingly, loss of PcG complexes is accompanied by DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B dissociation and reduced DNA methylation. Thus, various chromatin states can be modulated by SWI/SNF action. Collectively, these findings emphasize the close interconnectivity and dynamics of diverse chromatin modifications in cancer and gene control. PMID:18332116

  9. Cleavage of the dengue virus polyprotein at the NS3/NS4A and NS4B/NS5 junctions is mediated by viral protease NS2B-NS3, whereas NS4A/NS4B may be processed by a cellular protease.

    PubMed Central

    Cahour, A; Falgout, B; Lai, C J

    1992-01-01

    The cleavage mechanism utilized for processing of the NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5 domain of the dengue virus polyprotein was studied by using the vaccinia virus expression system. Recombinant vaccinia viruses vNS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5, vNS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5, vNS4A-NS4B-NS5, and vNS4B-NS5 were constructed. These recombinants were used to infect cells, and the labeled lysates were analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Recombinant vNS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5 expressed the authentic NS3 and NS5 proteins, but the other recombinants produced uncleaved polyproteins. These findings indicate that NS2B is required for processing of the downstream nonstructural proteins, including the NS3/NS4A and NS4B/NS5 junctions, both of which contain a dibasic amino acid sequence preceding the cleavage site. The flavivirus NS4A/NS4B cleavage site follows a long hydrophobic sequence. The polyprotein NS4A-NS4B-NS5 was cleaved at the NS4A/NS4B junction in the absence of other dengue virus functions. One interpretation for this finding is that NS4A/NS4B cleavage is mediated by a host protease, presumably a signal peptidase. Although vNS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5 expressed only the polyprotein, earlier results demonstrated that cleavage at the NS4A/NS4B junction occurred when an analogous recombinant, vNS3-NS4A-84%NS4B, was expressed. Thus, it appears that uncleaved NS3 plus NS5 inhibit NS4A/NS4B cleavage presumably because the putative signal sequence is not accessible for recognition by the responsible protease. Finally, recombinants that expressed an uncleaved NS4B-NS5 polyprotein, such as vNS4A-NS4B-NS5 or vNS4B-NS5, produced NS5 when complemented with vNS2B-30%NS3 or with vNS2B plus v30%NS3. These results indicate that cleavage at the NS4B/NS5 junction can be mediated by NS2B and NS3 in trans. Images PMID:1531368

  10. Association between endothelial nitric oxide gene intron 4a4b VNTR polymorphism and plasma homocysteine concentrations in Tunisian male patients with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jemaa, Riadh; Kallel, Amani; Sediri, Yousra; Abdessalem, Salem; Mourali, Mohamed Sami; Feki, Moncef; Mechmeche, Rachid; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have shown that hyperhomocysteinemia may be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. However, not all prospective studies support an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels and coronary artery disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a relevant role in various events during atherogenesis, and in vitro data suggest that NO may modulate total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, whereas polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide (NOS3) gene have been reported to be related to an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and hyperhomocysteinemia, but the results have been controversial. We hypothesized that the NOS3 synthase 4a4b VNTR polymorphism is a determinant of tHcy concentrations and tested this in 310 patients with MI and 250 controls. The NOS3 gene intron 4a4b VNTR polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. There was no significant difference in the homocysteine levels between patients with MI and controls. The frequencies of the NOS34b4b, 4b4a, and 4a4a genotypes in the MI group were significantly different from those in the control group. In patients with MI, plasma tHcy concentrations were significantly different among the NOS3 genotypes (13.5±4.5, 18.5±3.9, and 20.4±2.1 μmol/L for 4b4b, 4a4b, and 4a4a genotypes, respectively; P<.001). However, no significant difference was observed for tHcy concentrations in the control group. In conclusion, the NOS34a4b gene polymorphism (presence of 4a allele) is associated with MI and influences plasma tHcy concentrations in patients with MI in the Tunisian male population. PMID:22652373

  11. KDM4B and KDM4A promote endometrial cancer progression by regulating androgen receptor, c-myc, and p27kip1

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Suet-Ying; Chen, Limo; Chen, Jin-Hong; Ying, Zuo-Lin; Zhou, Ye; Gu, Wei; Wang, Li-Hua; Cheng, Wei-Wei; Zeng, Jianfang; Wan, Xiao-Ping; Mok, Samuel C.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Bao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated androgen levels and genetic variation related to the androgen receptor (AR) increase the risk of endometrial cancer (EC). However, the role of AR in EC is poorly understood. We report that two members of the histone demethylase KDM4 family act as major regulators of AR transcriptional activityin EC. In the MFE-296 cell line, KDM4B and AR upregulate c-myc expression, while in AN3CA cells KDM4A and AR downregulate p27kip1. Additionally, KDM4B expression is positively correlated with AR expression in EC cell lines with high baseline AR expression, while KDM4A and AR expression are positively correlated in low-AR cell lines. In clinical specimens, both KDM4B and KDM4A expression are significantly higher in EC tissues than that in normal endometrium. Finally, patients with alterations in AR, KDM4B, KDM4A, and c-myc have poor overall and disease-free survival rates. Together, these findings demonstrate that KDM4B and KDM4A promote EC progression by regulating AR activity. PMID:26397136

  12. KDM4B and KDM4A promote endometrial cancer progression by regulating androgen receptor, c-myc, and p27kip1.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mei-Ting; Fan, Qiong; Zhu, Zhu; Kwan, Suet-Ying; Chen, Limo; Chen, Jin-Hong; Ying, Zuo-Lin; Zhou, Ye; Gu, Wei; Wang, Li-Hua; Cheng, Wei-Wei; Zeng, Jianfang; Wan, Xiao-Ping; Mok, Samuel C; Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Bao, Wei

    2015-10-13

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated androgen levels and genetic variation related to the androgen receptor (AR) increase the risk of endometrial cancer (EC). However, the role of AR in EC is poorly understood. We report that two members of the histone demethylase KDM4 family act as major regulators of AR transcriptional activityin EC. In the MFE-296 cell line, KDM4B and AR upregulate c-myc expression, while in AN3CA cells KDM4A and AR downregulate p27kip1. Additionally, KDM4B expression is positively correlated with AR expression in EC cell lines with high baseline AR expression, while KDM4A and AR expression are positively correlated in low-AR cell lines. In clinical specimens, both KDM4B and KDM4A expression are significantly higher in EC tissues than that in normal endometrium. Finally, patients with alterations in AR, KDM4B, KDM4A, and c-myc have poor overall and disease-free survival rates. Together, these findings demonstrate that KDM4B and KDM4A promote EC progression by regulating AR activity. PMID:26397136

  13. Deuterated water in the solar-type protostars NGC 1333 IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutens, A.; Vastel, C.; Cabrit, S.; Codella, C.; Kristensen, L. E.; Ceccarelli, C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Bottinelli, S.; Castets, A.; Caux, E.; Comito, C.; Demyk, K.; Herpin, F.; Lefloch, B.; McCoey, C.; Mottram, J. C.; Parise, B.; Taquet, V.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Visser, R.; Yıldız, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The measure of the water deuterium fractionation is a relevant tool for understanding mechanisms of water formation and evolution from the prestellar phase to the formation of planets and comets. Aims: The aim of this paper is to study deuterated water in the solar-type protostars NGC 1333 IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B, to compare their HDO abundance distributions with other star-forming regions, and to constrain their HDO/H2O abundance ratios. Methods: Using the Herschel/HIFI instrument as well as ground-based telescopes, we observed several HDO lines covering a large excitation range (Eup/k = 22-168 K) towards these protostars and an outflow position. Non-local thermal equilibrium radiative transfer codes were then used to determine the HDO abundance profiles in these sources. Results: The HDO fundamental line profiles show a very broad component, tracing the molecular outflows, in addition to a narrower emission component and a narrow absorbing component. In the protostellar envelope of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A, the HDO inner (T ≥ 100 K) and outer (T < 100 K) abundances with respect to H2 are estimated with a 3σ uncertainty at 7.5-3.0+3.5 × 10-9 and 1.2-0.4+0.4 × 10-11, respectively, whereas in NGC 1333 IRAS 4B they are 1-0.9+1.8 × 10-8 and 1.2-0.4+0.6 × 10-10, respectively. Similarly to the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422, an absorbing outer layer with an enhanced abundance of deuterated water is required to reproduce the absorbing components seen in the fundamental lines at 465 and 894 GHz in both sources. This water-rich layer is probably extended enough to encompass the two sources, as well as parts of the outflows. In the outflows emanating from NGC 1333 IRAS 4A, the HDO column density is estimated at about (2-4) × 1013 cm-2, leading to an abundance of about (0.7-1.9) × 10-9. An HDO/H2O ratio between 7 × 10-4 and 9 × 10-2 is also derived in the outflows. In the warm inner regions of these two sources, we estimate the HDO/H2O ratios at about 1 × 10

  14. eIF4B and eIF4G jointly stimulate eIF4A ATPase and unwinding activities by modulation of the eIF4A conformational cycle.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Alexandra Zoi; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) is a DEAD-box protein that participates in translation initiation. As an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, it is thought to resolve secondary structure elements from the 5'-untranslated region of mRNAs to enable ribosome scanning. The RNA-stimulated ATPase and ATP-dependent helicase activities of eIF4A are enhanced by auxiliary proteins, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we have dissected the effect of eIF4B and eIF4G on eIF4A RNA-dependent ATPase- and RNA helicase activities and on eIF4A conformation. We show for the first time that yeast eIF4B, like its mammalian counterpart, can stimulate RNA unwinding by eIF4A, although it does not affect the eIF4A conformation. The eIF4G middle domain enhances this stimulatory effect and promotes the formation of a closed eIF4A conformation in the presence of ATP and RNA. The closed state of eIF4A has been inferred but has not been observed experimentally before. eIF4B and eIF4G jointly stimulate ATP hydrolysis and RNA unwinding by eIF4A and favor the formation of the closed eIF4A conformer. Our results reveal distinct functions of eIF4B and eIF4G in synergistically stimulating the eIF4A helicase activity in the mRNA scanning process. PMID:24080224

  15. Gene Expression Status and Methylation Pattern in Promoter of P15INK4b and P16INK4a in Cord Blood CD34+ Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Mehdi; Kaviani, Saeid; Noruzinia, Mehrdad; Mortazavi, Yousef; Mobarra, Naser; Alizadeh, Shaban; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Skandari, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Mohammad Hosein; Atashi, Amir; Abroun, Saeid; Zonoubi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Stem cell differentiation into different cell lineages depends upon several factors, cell cycle control elements and intracellular signaling elements, including P15INK4b and P16INK4a genes. Epigenetics may be regarded as a control mechanism which is affected by these factors with respect to their promoter structure. Materials and Methods : The CD34 + cord blood stem cells were purified, isolated and then expanded. The undifferentiated day genome was isolated from part of the cultured cells, and the seventh day differentiated genome was isolated from the other part after differentiation to erythroid lineage. The procedure was followed by a separate Real-Time PCR for the two genes using the obtained cDNA. The processed DNA of the former stages was used for MSP (Methylation Specific PCR) reaction. Finally, pre- and post differentiation results were compared.  Results : After performing MSP for each gene, it became clear that P15INK4b gene has undergone methylation and expression in predifferentiation stage. In addition, its status has not been changed after differentiation. P15INK4b gene expression was reduced after the differentiation. The other gene, P16INK4a, showed no predifferentiation methylation. Itwas completely expressed methylated and underwent reduced expression after differentiation. Conclusion : Specific predifferentiation expression of P15INK4b and P16INK4a genes along with reduction in their expression after erythroid differentiation indicated animportant role for these two genes in biology of CD34+ cells in primary stages and before differentiation. In addition, both genes are capable of epigenetic modifications due to the structure of their promoters. PMID:23997911

  16. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1513 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1513 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS Pt. 1513, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1513 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1513.4 (a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1513 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS Pt. 1513, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part...

  18. Methylation of CpG island of p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) genes in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Li, X; Ge, L; Yang, J; Sun, J; Niu, Q

    2015-02-01

    To detect the blood genomic DNA methylation in coke oven workers and find a possible early screening index for occupational lung cancer, 74 coke oven workers as the exposed group and 47 water pump workers as the controls were surveyed, and urine samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected. Airborne benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) levels in workplace and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-Py) levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. DNA damage of PBMCs and the p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene CpG island methylation in the promoter region were detected by comet assay and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction techniques, respectively. Results show that compared with the controls, concentration of airborne B[a]Ps was elevated in the coke plant, and urinary 1-OH-Py's level and DNA olive tail moment in comet assay were significantly increased in the coke oven workers, and p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation rates were also significantly increased. With the working years and urinary 1-OH-Py's level, the rates of p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation were significantly increased while that of p15(INK4b) gene methylation displayed no statistical change. We conclude that PBMCs' p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation may be used for screening and warning lung cancer in coke oven workers. PMID:24837742

  19. Diazepam and rolipram differentially inhibit cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterases PDE4A1 and PDE4B3 in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Cherry, J A; Thompson, B E; Pho, V

    2001-03-19

    Cyclic AMP is hydrolyzed by members of at least eight classes of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Although it has been reported that cyclic AMP PDE activity in mammalian tissues can be inhibited by benzodiazepines, it has not been conclusively demonstrated that members of the class of cyclic AMP-specific, rolipram-inhibitable PDEs (PDE4s) are targets for these drugs. Moreover, no PDE4s expressed in mice have been characterized. To address these issues, we isolated two cDNAs representing homologues of PDE4A1 and PDE4B3 from a mouse brain library. After transient transfection in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, the mouse PDEs hydrolyzed cyclic AMP with a low K(m) and were inhibited by rolipram; both are properties typical of other mammalian PDE4 enzymes. In addition, we found that diazepam inhibited cyclic AMP hydrolysis by the mouse PDE4 subtypes. Interestingly, PDE4B was significantly more sensitive to inhibition by both rolipram and diazepam than the PDE4A subtype. This is the first demonstration that recombinantly expressed PDE4s are inhibited by diazepam, and should facilitate future studies with mouse models of depression and anxiety. PMID:11267656

  20. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS Pt. 1213, Fig. 1...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS Pt. 1213, Fig. 1...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b) and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS Pt. 1213, Fig. 1...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1213 - Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b), and (c)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wedge Block for Tests in § 1213.4(a), (b), and (c) 1 Figure 1 to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS Pt. 1213, Fig. 1...

  4. APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects. III. NGC 1333 IRAS 4A/4B envelope, outflow, and ultraviolet heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Umut A.; Kristensen, Lars E.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Belloche, Arnaud; van Kempen, Tim A.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Güsten, Rolf; van der Marel, Nienke

    2012-06-01

    Context. The NGC 1333 IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B sources are among the most well-studied Stage 0 low-mass protostars, which drive prominent bipolar outflows. Spectrally resolved molecular emission lines provide crucial information about the physical and chemical structure of the circumstellar material as well as the dynamics of the different components. Most studies have so far concentrated on the colder parts (T ≤ 30 K) of these regions. Aims: The aim is to characterize the warmer parts of the protostellar envelope using the new generation of submillimeter instruments. This will allow us to quantify the feedback of the protostars on their surroundings in terms of shocks, ultraviolet (UV) heating, photodissociation, and outflow dispersal. Methods: The dual frequency 2 × 7 pixel 650/850 GHz array receiver CHAMP+ mounted on APEX was used to obtain a fully sampled, large-scale ~4' × 4' map at 9″ resolution of the IRAS 4A/4B region in the 12CO J = 6-5 line. Smaller maps were observed in the 13CO 6-5 and [C i] J = 2-1 lines. In addition, a fully sampled 12CO J = 3-2 map made with HARP-B on the JCMT is presented and deep isotopolog observations are obtained at selected outflow positions to constrain the optical depth. Complementary Herschel-HIFI and ground-based lines of CO and its isotopologs, from J = 1-0 up to 10-9 (Eu/k ≈ 300 K), are collected at the source positions and used to construct velocity-resolved CO ladders and rotational diagrams. Radiative-transfer models of the dust and lines are used to determine the temperatures and masses of the outflowing and photon-heated gas and infer the CO abundance structure. Results: Broad CO emission-line profiles trace entrained shocked gas along the outflow walls, which have an average temperature of ~100 K. At other positions surrounding the outflow and the protostar, the 6-5 line profiles are narrow indicating UV excitation. The narrow 13CO 6-5 data directly reveal the UV heated gas distribution for the first time. The

  5. Determining the one, two, three, or four long and short loci of human complement C4 in a major histocompatibility complex haplotype encoding C4A or C4B proteins.

    PubMed

    Chung, Erwin K; Yang, Yan; Rupert, Kristi L; Jones, Karla N; Rennebohm, Robert M; Blanchong, Carol A; Yu, C Yung

    2002-10-01

    The complex genetics of human complement C4 with unusually frequent variations in the size and number of C4A and C4B, as well as their neighboring genes, in the major histocompatibility complex has been a hurdle for accurate epidemiological studies of diseases associated with C4. A comprehensive series of novel or improved techniques has been developed to determine the total gene number of C4 and the relative dosages of C4A and C4B in a diploid genome. These techniques include (1) definitive genomic restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms (RFLPs) based on the discrete duplication patterns of the RCCX (RP-C4-CYP21-TNX) modules and on the specific nucleotide changes for C4A and C4B isotypes; (2) module-specific PCR to give information on the total number of C4 genes by comparing the relative quantities of RP1- or TNXB-specific fragments with TNXA-RP2 fragments; (3) labeled-primer single-cycle DNA polymerization procedure of amplified C4d genomic DNA for diagnostic RFLP analysis of C4A and C4B; and (4) a highly reproducible long-range-mapping method that employs PmeI-digested genomic DNA for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to yield precise information on the number of long and short C4 genes in a haplotype. Applications of these vigorously tested techniques may clarify the roles that human C4A and C4B gene-dosage variations play in infectious and autoimmune diseases. PMID:12224044

  6. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T polymorphisms and male infertility: study for idiopathic asthenozoospermia and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Pingping; Zou, Shasha; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Yanan; Yang, Juanjuan; Song, Zhijian; Jiang, Huayu; Shi, Huijuan; Huang, Yiran; Li, Zheng; Shi, Yongyong; Hu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies on the eNOS gene and male infertility show that expression of eNOS regulates normal spermatogenesis in the testis, and the eNOS gene variants (T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T) are potentially involved in impairment of spermatogenesis and sperm function. Thus, we conducted this association and meta-analysis study to further validate whether variants of those three loci affected the risk of idiopathic asthenozoospermia (AZS) and male infertility. Approximately 340 Chinese idiopathic AZS patients and 342 healthy men were included for this case-control study, genotyped by gel electrophoresis analysis or direct sequencing of PCR products. The eNOS mRNA isolated from the semen of patients was further examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Also, a meta-analysis of association between eNOS gene polymorphisms and male infertility was performed. A significant association was identified on allelic level between 4a4b variant and AZS in our study (chi-squared = 7.53, corrected P = 0.018, odds ratio (OR) = 1.808), while there were no significant difference of T-786C and G894T for asthenozoospermia in both genotype and allele distributions. In addition, expression of eNOS was up-regulated in patients compared with controls (about 2.4-fold, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results of the meta-analysis support the conclusion that the T-786C and 4a4b loci were associated with male infertility in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Our study provides genetic evidence for the eNOS gene being a risk factor for idiopathic AZS and male infertility. Considering genetic differences among populations and complex pathogenesis of male infertility, more validating studies using independent samples are suggested in the future. PMID:25505202

  7. Results of hydrologic tests and water-chemistry analyses, wells H-4A, H-4B, and H-4C, at the proposed waste isolation pilot plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Jerry W.; Davis, Paul; Dennehy, K.F.; Goetz, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Data were collected during hydrologic testing at wells H-4A, H-4B, and H-4C in the southern part of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico. The three water-bearing zones tested, the Magenta and Culebra Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation and the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact, yield water to wells at rates less than 0.9 gallon per minute. Throughout the testing, water-pressure response in the tested zone was monitored by a pressure transducer system. Shut-in and slug tests were conducted to acquire the data from which the following values were derived. Calculated transmissivities for the Magenta, Culebra and the Rustler-Salado contact at wells H-4A, H-4B, and H-4C were 0.06, 0.9, and 0.0006 foot squared per day respectively. Water samples from the Magenta and Culebra had dissolved-solids concentrations of 22,300 and 18,100 milligrams per liter, respectively. The major chemical constituents of ground-water samples from these two zones were sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Water samples from the Rustler-Salado contact had a dissolved-solids concentration of 322,000 milligrams per liter and magnesium, sodium, and chloride were the major constituents. Radium-226, a naturally occurring radioactive element, was present in samples from all three zones. (USGS)

  8. Amino acid substitutions in the non-structural proteins 4A or 4B modulate the induction of autophagy in West Nile virus infected cells independently of the activation of the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis. Whereas the activation of autophagy in cells infected with other flaviviruses is well known, the interaction of WNV with the autophagic pathway still remains unclear and there are reports describing opposite findings obtained even analyzing the same viral strain. To clarify this controversy, we first analyzed the induction of autophagic features in cells infected with a panel of WNV strains. WNV was determined to induce autophagy in a strain dependent manner. We observed that all WNV strains or isolates analyzed, except for the WNV NY99 used, upregulated the autophagic pathway in infected cells. Interestingly, a variant derived from this WNV NY99 isolated from a persistently infected mouse increased LC3 modification and aggregation. Genome sequencing of this variant revealed only two non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions when compared to parental NY99 strain. These nucleotide substitutions introduced one amino acid replacement in NS4A and other in NS4B. Using genetically engineered viruses we showed that introduction of only one of these replacements was sufficient to upregulate the autophagic pathway. Thus, in this work we have shown that naturally occurring point mutations in the viral non-structural proteins NS4A and NS4B confer WNV with the ability to induce the hallmarks of autophagy such as LC3 modification and aggregation. Even more, the differences on the induction of an autophagic response observed among WNV variants in infected cells did not correlate with alterations on the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting an uncoupling of UPR and autophagy during flavivirus infection. The findings here reported could help to improve the knowledge of the cellular processes involved on flavivirus–host cell interactions and contribute to the design of effective strategies to combat these pathogens. PMID:25642225

  9. Strong HCV NS3/4a, NS4b, NS5a, NS5b-specific cellular immune responses induced in Rhesus macaques by a novel HCV genotype 1a/1b consensus DNA vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, Brian; Toporovski, Roberta; Yan, Jian; Pankhong, Panyupa; Morrow, Matthew P; Khan, Amir S; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Welles, Seth L; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Weiner, David B; Kutzler, Michele A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic HCV is a surreptitious disease currently affecting approximately 3% of the world's population that can lead to liver failure and cancer decades following initial infection. However, there are currently no vaccines available for the prevention of chronic HCV. From patients who acutely resolve HCV infection, it is apparent that a strong and broad cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is important in HCV clearance. DNA vaccines are naked plasmid DNA molecules that encode pathogen antigens to induce a pathogen-specific immune response. They are inexpensive to produce and have an excellent safety profile in animals and humans. Additionally, DNA vaccines are able to induce strong CTL responses, making them well-suited for an HCV vaccine. We aimed to maximize vaccine recipients' opportunity to induce a broad T cell response with a novel antigenic sequence, multi-antigen vaccine strategy. We have generated DNA plasmids encoding consensus sequences of HCV genotypes 1a and 1b non-structural proteins NS3/4a, NS4b, NS5a, and NS5b. Rhesus macaques were used to study the immunogenicity of these constructs. Four animals were immunized 3 times, 6 weeks apart, at a dose of 1.0mg per antigen construct, as an intramuscular injection followed by in vivo electroporation, which greatly increases DNA uptake by local cells. Immune responses were measured 2 weeks post-immunization regimen (PIR) in immunized rhesus macaques and showed a broad response to multiple HCV nonstructural antigens, with up to 4680 spot-forming units per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as measured by Interferon-γ ELISpot. In addition, multiparametric flow cytometry detected HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses by intracellular cytokine staining and detected HCV-specific CD107a+/GrzB+ CD8+ T cells indicating an antigen specific cytolytic response 2 weeks PIR compared with baseline measurements. At the final study time point, 6 weeks PIR, HCV-specific CD45RA- memory-like T cells

  10. De Havilland DH-4B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    De Havilland DH-4B: In one of the earliest engine studies conducted by the NACA at Langley, this De Havilland DH-4B had a Roots-type supercharger installed and tested. Direct measurements of engine power in flight were also performed with this DH-4B.

  11. Alterations of the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A (p16(INK4a)), p14(ARF), CDKN2B (p15(INK4b)), and CDKN2C (p18(INK4c)) in atypical and anaplastic meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Boström, J; Meyer-Puttlitz, B; Wolter, M; Blaschke, B; Weber, R G; Lichter, P; Ichimura, K; Collins, V P; Reifenberger, G

    2001-08-01

    We investigated 67 meningothelial tumors (20 benign meningiomas, 34 atypical meningiomas, and 13 anaplastic meningiomas) for losses of genetic information from chromosome arms 1p and 9p, as well as for deletion, mutation, and expression of the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A (p16(INKa)/MTS1), p14(ARF), CDKN2B (p15(INK4b)/MTS2) (all located at 9p21) and CDKN2C (1p32). Comparative genomic hybridization and microsatellite analysis showed losses on 1p in 11 anaplastic meningiomas (85%), 23 atypical meningiomas (68%), and 5 benign meningiomas (25%). One atypical meningioma with loss of heterozygosity on 1p carried a somatic CDKN2C mutation (c.202C>T: R68X). Losses on 9p were found in five anaplastic meningiomas (38%), six atypical meningiomas (18%), and one benign meningioma (5%). Six anaplastic meningiomas (46%) and one atypical meningioma (3%) showed homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A, p14(ARF), and CDKN2B genes. Two anaplastic meningiomas carried somatic point mutations in CDKN2A (c.262G>T: E88X and c.262G>A: E88K) and p14(ARF) (c.305G>T: G102V and c.305G>A: G102E). One anaplastic meningioma, three atypical meningiomas, and one benign meningioma without a demonstrated homozygous deletion or mutation of CDKN2A, p14(ARF), or CDKN2B lacked detectable transcripts from at least one of these genes. Hypermethylation of CDKN2A, p14(ARF), and CDKN2B could be demonstrated in one of these cases. Taken together, our results indicate that CDKN2C is rarely altered in meningiomas. However, the majority of anaplastic meningiomas either show homozygous deletions of CDKN2A, p14(ARF), and CDKN2B, mutations in CDKN2A and p14(ARF), or lack of expression of one or more of these genes. Thus, inactivation of the G(1)/S-phase cell-cycle checkpoint is an important aberration in anaplastic meningiomas. PMID:11485924

  12. Figure Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The figure has "figured" prominently in the choice of subject matter for many artists throughout history. Whether they may choose to depict it in an abstract or expressive form, most artists are quite capable of realistic portrayals of the human form. And all people know that one of the very first drawings made by young children is a symbol for…

  13. An unequal crossover between the RCCX modules of the human MHC leading to the presence of a CYP21B gene and a tenascin TNXB/TNXA-RP2 recombinant between C4A and C4B genes in a patient with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rupert, K L; Rennebohm, R M; Yu, C Y

    1999-01-01

    The RCCX module of the human MHC class III region is comprised of four genes arranged in tandem: RP, complement C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21), and tenascin X (TNX). Variations in the number and genes of the RCCX modules may lead to genetic and/or autoimmune diseases. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was utilized to determine the RCCX modular variation in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). In JRA patient L1, RFLP analysis suggested the presence of a bimodular RCCX structure containing both C4A long and C4B short genes, yet missing the markers for the CYP21A and TNXA genes usually located between the C4A and C4B genes. The 7.5-kb genomic fragment spanning the CYP21-TNX-RP2 genes was cloned and sequenced, revealing that a genetic recombination occurred between TNXA of a bimodular RCCX chromosome and TNXB of a monomodular RCCX chromosome. This recombination results in a new MHC haplotype with a CYP21B gene and a TNXB/TNXA-RP2 recombinant between the two C4 genes. Elucidation of the breakpoint region provides further evidence for the instability of the MHC class III gene region as a result of the RCCX modular variation. PMID:10343159

  14. Boeing F4B-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The Boeing F4B-4 was seen to differ from earlier F4Bs in having a vertical fin with slightly more area. The Boeing model 235 was not fitted with a NACA cowling, but rather the less efficient 'Townend' ring around the Pratt & Whitney Wasp radials cylinders. This aircraft was much used by both the Navy and the Army Air Corps in the late 1920's and early 1930's. The Army variation was known as the P-12E. The engine cowling was a British development known as the 'Townend' ring. It differed from the NACA cowling and was less effective in reducing the drag.

  15. Go Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Describes the first assignment for an intermediate oil painting class in which the students painted the human figure. Explains that the assignment involved three techniques: (1) abstract application of acrylic paint; (2) oil "Paintstiks" from Shiva; and (3) a final layer of actual oil paint. (CMK)

  16. Selective Phosphodiesterase 4B Inhibitors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Mohammed Afzal; Tripuraneni, Naga Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) is a member of the phosphodiesterase family of proteins that plays a critical role in regulating intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by controlling its rate of degradation. It has been demonstrated that this isoform is involved in the orchestra of events which includes inflammation, schizophrenia, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, contractility of the myocardium, and psoriatic arthritis. Phosphodiesterase 4B has constituted an interesting target for drug development. In recent years, a number of PDE4B inhibitors have been developed for their use as therapeutic agents. In this review, an up-to-date status of the inhibitors investigated for the inhibition of PDE4B has been given so that this rich source of structural information of presently known PDE4B inhibitors could be helpful in generating a selective and potent inhibitor of PDE4B. PMID:25853062

  17. Familial C4B Deficiency and Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, K; Wu, YL; Ortiz, A; Aparício, SR; Yu, CY

    2010-01-01

    Homozygous complement C4B deficiency is described in a Southern European young female patient with Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type III characterized by renal biopsies with strong complement C4 and IgG deposits. Low C4 levels were independent of clinical evolution or type of immunosuppression and were found in three other family members without renal disease or infections. HLA typing revealed that the patient has homozygous A*02, Cw*06, B*50 at the class I region, and DRB1*08 and DQB1*03 at the class II region. Genotypic and phenotypic studies demonstrated that the patient has homozygous monomodular RCCX in the HLA class III region, with single long C4A genes coding for C4A3 and complete C4B deficiency. Her father, mother, son and niece have heterozygous C4B deficiency. The patient’s deceased brother had a history of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP), an immune complex-mediated proliferative glomerulonephritis. These findings challenge the putative pathophysiological roles of C4A and C4B and underscore the need to perform functional assays, C4 allotyping and genotyping on patients with persistently low serum levels of a classical pathway complement component and glomerulopathy associated with immune deposits. PMID:20580617

  18. RDR-4B doppler weather radar with forward looking wind shear detection capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasley, Steven S.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Bendix/King atmospheric transport and dispersion (ATAD) position; RDR-4A technical baseline; RTA-4A characteristics; RDR-4 antenna characteristics; modification of RDR-4A to RDR-4B; RDR-4A functional block diagram; RDR-4B characteristics; development/test plan; CV-580 testing capability; CV-580 test results; Continental A300 test configuration; Continental Data Recording Program operational considerations; Continental A300 test results; and display considerations.

  19. All about Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1993-01-01

    Uses diagrams and text to illustrate the use of Lissajous figures (the figures that are traced out when two simple harmonic motions are combined at right angles to each other) in teaching basic physics concepts. Covers the mathematics of the Lissajous Figure; demonstrating Lissajous Figures; and a typical class. (ZWH)

  20. K-Ras4B proteins are expressed in the nucleolus: Interaction with nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Birchenall-Roberts, Maria C; Fu, Tao; Kim, Soo-Gyung; Huang, Ying K; Dambach, Michael; Resau, James H; Ruscetti, Francis W

    2006-09-22

    Kirsten Ras4B (K-Ras4B) is a potent onco-protein that is expressed in the majority of human cell types and is frequently mutated in carcinomas. K-Ras4B, like other members of the Ras family of proteins, is considered to be a cytoplasmic protein that must be localized to the plasma membrane for activation. Here, using confocal microscopy and biochemical analysis, we show that K-Ras4B, but not H-Ras or the closely related K-Ras4A, is also present in the nucleoli of normal and transformed cells. Subcellular fractionation and immunostaining show that K-Ras4B is located not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleolar compartment. Modification of a C-terminal hexa-lysine motif unique to K-Ras4B results in exclusively cytoplasmic forms of the protein. Nucleolin, a pleiotropic regulator of cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, is also characterized by a nucleolar-like nuclear appearance. We show that K-Ras4B and nucleolin co-localize within the nucleus and that nucleolin physically associates with K-Ras4B. Inhibition of K-Ras4B/nucleolin association blocked nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B. Using siRNA to knockdown the expression of nucleolin eliminated the nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B and significantly repressed the activation of the well-characterized K-Ras4B transcriptional target Ap-1, but stimulated Elk1. These data provide evidence of a nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B and describe a functional association between K-Ras4B and nucleolin. PMID:16889753

  1. K-Ras4B proteins are expressed in the nucleolus: Interaction with nucleolin

    SciTech Connect

    Birchenall-Roberts, Maria C. . E-mail: birchena@mail.ncifcrf.gov; Fu, Tao; Kim, Soo-Gyung; Huang, Ying K.; Dambach, Michael; Resau, James H.; Ruscetti, Francis W.

    2006-09-22

    Kirsten Ras4B (K-Ras4B) is a potent onco-protein that is expressed in the majority of human cell types and is frequently mutated in carcinomas. K-Ras4B, like other members of the Ras family of proteins, is considered to be a cytoplasmic protein that must be localized to the plasma membrane for activation. Here, using confocal microscopy and biochemical analysis, we show that K-Ras4B, but not H-Ras or the closely related K-Ras4A, is also present in the nucleoli of normal and transformed cells. Subcellular fractionation and immunostaining show that K-Ras4B is located not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleolar compartment. Modification of a C-terminal hexa-lysine motif unique to K-Ras4B results in exclusively cytoplasmic forms of the protein. Nucleolin, a pleiotropic regulator of cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, is also characterized by a nucleolar-like nuclear appearance. We show that K-Ras4B and nucleolin co-localize within the nucleus and that nucleolin physically associates with K-Ras4B. Inhibition of K-Ras4B/nucleolin association blocked nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B. Using siRNA to knockdown the expression of nucleolin eliminated the nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B and significantly repressed the activation of the well-characterized K-Ras4B transcriptional target Ap-1, but stimulated Elk1. These data provide evidence of a nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B and describe a functional association between K-Ras4B and nucleolin.

  2. Performance of scientific computing platforms running MCNP4B

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, H.E.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    A performance study has been made for the MCNP4B Monte Carlo radiation transport code on a wide variety of scientific computing platforms ranging from personal computers to Cray mainframes. We present the timing study results using MCNP4B and its new test set and libraries. This timing study is unlike other timing studies because of its widespread reproducibility, its direct comparability to the predecessor study in 1993, and its focus upon a nuclear engineering code. Our results, derived from using the new 29-problem test set for MCNP4B, (1) use a highly versatile and readily available physics code; (2) show that timing studies are very problem dependent; (3) present the results as raw data allowing comparisons of performance to other computing platforms not included in this study to those platforms that were included; (4) are reproducible; and (5) provide a measure of improvement in performance with the MCNP code due to advancements in software and hardware over the past 4 years. In the 1993 predecessor study using MCNP4A, the performances were based on a 25 problem test set. We present our data based on MCNP4B`s new 29 problem test set which cover 97% of all the FORTRAN physics code lines in MCNP4B. Like the previous study the new test problems and the test data library are available from the Radiation Shielding and Information Computational Center (RSICC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Our results are reproducible because anyone with the same workstation, compiler, and operating system can duplicate the results presented here. The computing platforms included in this study are the Sun Sparc2, Sun Sparc5, Cray YMP 8/128, HP C180,SGI origin 2000, DBC 3000/600, DBC AiphaStation 500(300 MHz), IBM RS/6000-590, HP /9000-735, Micron Milienia Pro 200 MHz PC, and the Cray T94/128.

  3. Structural basis for the design of selective phosphodiesterase 4B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fox, David; Burgin, Alex B; Gurney, Mark E

    2014-03-01

    Phosphodiesterase-4B (PDE4B) regulates the pro-inflammatory Toll Receptor -Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) pathway in monocytes, macrophages and microglial cells. As such, it is an important, although under-exploited molecular target for anti-inflammatory drugs. This is due in part to the difficulty of developing selective PDE4B inhibitors as the amino acid sequence of the PDE4 active site is identical in all PDE4 subtypes (PDE4A-D). We show that highly selective PDE4B inhibitors can be designed by exploiting sequence differences outside the active site. Specifically, PDE4B selectivity can be achieved by capture of a C-terminal regulatory helix, now termed CR3 (Control Region 3), across the active site in a conformation that closes access by cAMP. PDE4B selectivity is driven by a single amino acid polymorphism in CR3 (Leu674 in PDE4B1 versus Gln594 in PDE4D). The reciprocal mutations in PDE4B and PDE4D cause a 70-80 fold shift in selectivity. Our structural studies show that CR3 is flexible and can adopt multiple orientations and multiple registries in the closed conformation. The new co-crystal structure with bound ligand provides a guide map for the design of PDE4B selective anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:24361374

  4. Loftin Collection: Vought F4U-4B 'Corsair' Navy fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    The Vought F4U-4B 'Corsair' Navy fighter. See also figures 3 and 17 of volume 4. This photograph is dated 7/18/51. The Vought F4U-4B was usually seen in a combat role, but as the NACA tail band suggests, this Corsair was used for research. The test work undertaken by this F4U included control rate investigation. Langley was the second research facility to use this Corsair. It came to Langley in 1950, from the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Maryland.

  5. 49 CFR 173.4b - De minimis exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies.” (6) Documentation. (i) For transportation by highway... “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies” and the number of packages indicated. (iii) For... the statement “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies” and the number of...

  6. 49 CFR 173.4b - De minimis exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies.” (6) Documentation. (i) For transportation by highway... “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies” and the number of packages indicated. (iii) For... the statement “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies” and the number of...

  7. 49 CFR 173.4b - De minimis exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies.” (6) Documentation. (i) For transportation by highway... “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies” and the number of packages indicated. (iii) For... the statement “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies” and the number of...

  8. 49 CFR 173.4b - De minimis exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies.” (6) Documentation. (i) For transportation by highway... “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies” and the number of packages indicated. (iii) For... the statement “Scientific research specimens, 49 CFR 173.4b applies” and the number of...

  9. 49 CFR 173.4b - De minimis exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false De minimis exceptions. 173.4b Section 173.4b Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.4b De minimis exceptions. (a) Packing Group II and III materials...

  10. Molecular cloning and subcellular distribution of the novel PDE4B4 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase isoform.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Malcolm; McSorley, Theresa; Olsen, Aileen E; Johnston, Lee Ann; Thomson, Neil C; Baillie, George S; Houslay, Miles D; Bolger, Graeme B

    2003-01-01

    We have isolated cDNAs encoding PDE4B4, a new cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE4) isoform with novel properties. The amino acid sequence of PDE4B4 demonstrates that it is encoded by the PDE4B gene, but that it differs from the previously isolated PDE4B1, PDE4B2 and PDE4B3 isoforms by the presence of a novel N-terminal region of 17 amino acids. PDE4B4 contains both of the upstream conserved region 1 (UCR1) and UCR2 regulatory units that are characteristic of 'long' PDE4 isoforms. RNase protection demonstrated that PDE4B4 mRNA is expressed preferentially in liver, skeletal muscle and various regions of the brain, which differs from the pattern of tissue distribution of the other known PDE4B long forms, PDE4B1 and PDE4B3. Expression of PDE4B4 cDNA in COS7 cells produced a protein of 85 kDa under denaturing conditions. Subcellular fractionation of recombinant, COS7-cell expressed PDE4B4 showed that the protein was localized within the cytosol, which was confirmed by confocal microscopic analysis of living COS7 cells transfected with a green fluorescent protein-PDE4B4 chimaera. PDE4B4 exhibited a K(m) for cAMP of 5.4 microM and a V(max), relative to that of the long PDE4B1 isoform, of 2.1. PDE4B4 was inhibited by the prototypical PDE4 inhibitor rolipram [4-[3-(cyclopentoxyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-pyrrolidinone] with an IC(50) of 83 nM. Treatment of COS7 cells with forskolin, to elevate cAMP levels, produced activation of PDE4B4, which was associated with the phosphorylation of PDE4B4 on Ser-56 within UCR1. The unique tissue distribution and intracellular targeting of PDE4B4 suggests that this isoform may have a distinct functional role in regulating cAMP levels in specific cell types. PMID:12441002

  11. Cell Autonomous and Nonautonomous Function of CUL4B in Mouse Spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yan; Liu, Liren; Yang, Chenyi; Lin, Congxing; Veith, George Michael; Wang, Caihong; Sutovsky, Peter; Zhou, Pengbo; Ma, Liang

    2016-03-25

    CUL4B ubiquitin ligase belongs to the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase family. Although sharing many sequence and structural similarities, CUL4B plays distinct roles in spermatogenesis from its homologous protein CUL4A. We previously reported that genetic ablation ofCul4ain mice led to male infertility because of aberrant meiotic progression. In the present study, we generated Cul4bgerm cell-specific conditional knock-out (Cul4b(Vasa)),as well asCul4bglobal knock-out (Cul4b(Sox2)) mouse, to investigate its roles in spermatogenesis. Germ cell-specific deletion of Cul4bled to male infertility, despite normal testicular morphology and comparable numbers of spermatozoa. Notably, significantly impaired sperm mobility caused by reduced mitochondrial activity and glycolysis level were observed in the majority of the mutant spermatozoa, manifested by low, if any, sperm ATP production. Furthermore,Cul4b(Vasa)spermatozoa exhibited defective arrangement of axonemal microtubules and flagella outer dense fibers. Our mass spectrometry analysis identified INSL6 as a novel CUL4B substrate in male germ cells, evidenced by its direct polyubiquination and degradation by CUL4B E3 ligase. Nevertheless,Cul4bglobal knock-out males lost their germ cells in an age-dependent manner, implying failure of maintaining the spermatogonial stem cell niche in somatic cells. Taken together, our results show that CUL4B is indispensable to spermatogenesis, and it functions cell autonomously in male germ cells to ensure spermatozoa motility, whereas it functions non-cell-autonomously in somatic cells to maintain spermatogonial stemness. Thus, CUL4B links two distinct spermatogenetic processes to a single E3 ligase, highlighting the significance of ubiquitin modification during spermatogenesis. PMID:26846852

  12. Advanced figure sensor operations and maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manual contains procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining the optical figure sensor and its associated electronic controls. The optical figure sensor, a system of integrated components, comprises: (1) a phase measuring modified interferometer employing a single frequency 6328 A laser, and a Vidissector; (2) a two-axis automatic thermal compensation control mount; (3) a five degree of freedom manual adjustment stand; and (4) a control console. This instrument provides real time output data of optical figure errors for spherical mirrors, and is also capable of measuring aspherical mirrors if a null corrector is added.

  13. Homozygous deletion of the CYP21A-TNXA-RP2-C4B gene region conferring C4B deficiency associated with recurrent respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, T; Ruuskanen, O; Truedsson, L; Lokki, M L

    1999-08-01

    The central class III region of the human major histocompatibility complex contains highly polymorphic genes that are associated with immune disorders and may serve as susceptibility factors for viral infections. Many HLA haplotype specific rearrangements, duplications, conversions and deletions, occur frequently in the C4 gene region. Genetic deficiencies of complement components are associated with recurrent occurrence of bacterial infections. We have studied the complement profile and the class III genes 5'-RP1-C4A-CYP21A-TNXA-RP2-C4B-CYP21B-TNXB -3' in a 4-year-old Caucasian patient. He has suffered from several pneumonias caused by respiratory viruses, eight acute otitis media, prolonged respiratory infections and urinary tract infection. Complement C4 was constantly low, but the other complement components, from C1 to C9, C1INH, factor B and properdin, were within normal limits. Immunological evaluation gave normal lymphocyte numbers and functions with the exception of subnormal T cell response to pokeweed mitogen. Molecular studies of the C4 gene region in the patient revealed homozygous deletion of CYP21A-TNXA-RP2-C4B generating total deficiency of C4B and the flanking 5' region up to C4A, and in the father a missing CYP21A gene. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the relationship between C4B deficiency and susceptibility to infections. PMID:10439316

  14. Stellar figure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W. N.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of analytical and experimental data is presented concerning the stellar figure sensor. The sensor is an interferometric device which is located in the focal plane of an orbiting large space telescope (LST). The device was designed to perform interferometry on the optical wavefront of a single star after it has propagated through the LST. An analytical model of the device was developed and its accuracy was verified by an operating laboratory breadboard. A series of linear independent control equations were derived which define the operations required for utilizing a focal plane figure sensor in the control loop for the secondary mirror position and for active control of the primary mirror.

  15. Variants in CUL4B are Associated with Cerebral Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Haas, Stefan A.; Hu, Hao; Bienek, Melanie; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; Gilissen, Christian; Tzschach, Andreas; Busche, Andreas; Müsebeck, Jörg; Rump, Patrick; Mathijssen, Inge B.; Avela, Kristiina; Somer, Mirja; Doagu, Fatma; Philips, Anju K.; Rauch, Anita; Baumer, Alessandra; Voesenek, Krysta; Poirier, Karine; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Amram, Daniel; Odent, Sylvie; Nawara, Magdalena; Obersztyn, Ewa; Lenart, Jacek; Charzewska, Agnieszka; Lebrun, Nicolas; Fischer, Ute; Nillesen, Willy M.; Yntema, Helger G.; Järvelä, Irma; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; de Vries, Bert B.A.; Brunner, Han G.; van Bokhoven, Hans; Raymond, F. Lucy; Willemsen, Michèl A.A.P.; Chelly, Jamel; Xiong, Yue; Barkovich, A. James; Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Kleefstra, Tjitske; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants in cullin 4B (CUL4B) are a known cause of syndromic X-linked intellectual disability. Here, we describe an additional 25 patients from 11 families with variants in CUL4B. We identified nine different novel variants in these families and confirmed the pathogenicity of all nontruncating variants. Neuroimaging data, available for 15 patients, showed the presence of cerebral malformations in ten patients. The cerebral anomalies comprised malformations of cortical development (MCD), ventriculomegaly, and diminished white matter volume. The phenotypic heterogeneity of the cerebral malformations might result from the involvement of CUL-4B in various cellular pathways essential for normal brain development. Accordingly, we show that CUL-4B interacts with WDR62, a protein in which variants were previously identified in patients with microcephaly and a wide range of MCD. This interaction might contribute to the development of cerebral malformations in patients with variants in CUL4B. PMID:25385192

  16. Figurative Language Awards Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Lisa

    Figurative language enlivens a text, providing visuals in the minds of readers. This lesson will have students listening to and reading selected texts as they seek out their favorite literary devices. During the five to seven 50-minute sessions, grade three through five students will: acquire a clear understanding of the concept of figurative…

  17. OECD in Figures, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8) Public…

  18. High-resolution crystal structure of human Dim2/TXNL4B

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tengchuan; Guo, Feng; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yuzhu

    2013-01-01

    TXNL4A (thioredoxin-like 4A) is an essential protein conserved from yeast to humans and is a component of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. TXNL4B was identified as a TXNL4-family protein that also interacts with Prp6, an integral component of the U4/U6·U5 tri-snRNP complex, and has been shown to function in pre-mRNA splicing. A crystal structure of TXNL4B was determined at 1.33 Å resolution and refined to an R work of 0.13 and an R free of 0.18 with one native dimer in the asymmetric unit. Residues 1–33 of TXNL4B have previously been reported to be responsible for its interaction with Prp6. However, this region extends to the β-sheet core of the thioredoxin-fold structure of TXNL4B. This suggests that the interpretation of the previously reported GST pull-down results without considering the structure and stability of TXNL4B is debatable. PMID:23519793

  19. High resolution crystal structure of human Dim2/TXNL4B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TXNL4A (thioredoxin like 4A) is an essential protein conserved from yeast to human and is a component of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. TXNL4B was identified as a TXNL4 family protein that also interacts with prp6, an integral component of the U4/U6•U5 tri-snRNP complex, and was shown to function...

  20. PROCEEDINGS: 1993 SO2 CONTROL SYMPOSIUM - VOLUME 2. SESSIONS 4A, 4B, AND 5A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents more than 100 presentations at the 1993 SO2 Control Symposium in Boston, MA, August 24-27, 1993. The presentations covered a wide range of topics: industry's strategies for dealing with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, including Phase I strategies, the emiss...

  1. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  2. Lunar Regolith Figures of Merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Scjrader. Cjrostoam; Jpe (zer. Jams); Fourroux, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lunar regolith figures of merit. The contents include: 1) A quick review of Figures-of-Merit (FoM); 2) Software Implementation of FoM Algorithms; and 3) Demonstration of the Software.

  3. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  4. MCNP4B{sup {trademark}} verification and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J.S.; Court, J.D.

    1996-08-01

    Several new features and bug fixes have been incorporated into the new release of MCNP. As required by the MCNP Software Quality Assurance Plan, these changes to the code and the test set are documented here for user reference. This document summarizes the new MCNP4B features and corrections, separated into major and minor groupings. Also included are a code cleanup section and a section delineating problems identified in LA-12839 which have not been corrected. Finally, we document the MCNP4B test set modifications and explain how test set coverage has been improved.

  5. Pyrazolopyridines as potent PDE4B inhibitors: 5-Heterocycle SAR

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Charlotte J.; Ballantine, Stuart P.; Coe, Diane M.; Cook, Caroline M.; Delves, Christopher J.; Dowle, Mike D.; Edlin, Chris D.; Hamblin, J. Nicole; Holman, Stuart; Johnson, Martin R.; Jones, Paul S.; Keeling, Sue E.; Kranz, Michael; Lindvall, Mika; Lucas, Fiona S.; Neu, Margarete; Solanke, Yemisi E.; Somers, Don O.; Trivedi, Naimisha A.; Wiseman, Joanne O.

    2012-05-03

    Following the discovery of 4-(substituted amino)-1-alkyl-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxamides as potent and selective phosphodiesterase 4B inhibitors, [Hamblin, J. N.; Angell, T.; Ballentine, S., et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2008, 18, 4237] the SAR of the 5-position was investigated further. A range of substituted heterocycles showed good potencies against PDE4. Optimisation using X-ray crystallography and computational modelling led to the discovery of 16, with sub-nM inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} production from isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Functionally Critical, Conserved Motifs in the Internal Repeats and N-terminal Domain of Yeast Translation Initiation Factor 4B (yeIF4B)*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fujun; Walker, Sarah E.; Mitchell, Sarah F.; Lorsch, Jon R.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    eIF4B has been implicated in attachment of the 43 S preinitiation complex (PIC) to mRNAs and scanning to the start codon. We recently determined that the internal seven repeats (of ∼26 amino acids each) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF4B (yeIF4B) compose the region most critically required to enhance mRNA recruitment by 43 S PICs in vitro and stimulate general translation initiation in yeast. Moreover, although the N-terminal domain (NTD) of yeIF4B contributes to these activities, the RNA recognition motif is dispensable. We have now determined that only two of the seven internal repeats are sufficient for wild-type (WT) yeIF4B function in vivo when all other domains are intact. However, three or more repeats are needed in the absence of the NTD or when the functions of eIF4F components are compromised. We corroborated these observations in the reconstituted system by demonstrating that yeIF4B variants with only one or two repeats display substantial activity in promoting mRNA recruitment by the PIC, whereas additional repeats are required at lower levels of eIF4A or when the NTD is missing. These findings indicate functional overlap among the 7-repeats and NTD domains of yeIF4B and eIF4A in mRNA recruitment. Interestingly, only three highly conserved positions in the 26-amino acid repeat are essential for function in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we identified conserved motifs in the NTD and demonstrate functional overlap of two such motifs. These results provide a comprehensive description of the critical sequence elements in yeIF4B that support eIF4F function in mRNA recruitment by the PIC. PMID:24285537

  7. Figure Analysis: An Implementation Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver…

  8. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  9. The hypervariable region of K-Ras4B is responsible for its specific interactions with Calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sherwin J.; Nolet, Ryan P.; Calvert, Richard J.; Anderson, Lucy M.; Gaponenko, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    K-Ras4B belongs to the family of p21 Ras GTPases, which play an important role in cell proliferation, survival and motility. The p21 Ras proteins such as K-Ras4B, K-Ras4A, H-Ras, and N-Ras, share 85% sequence homology and activate very similar signaling pathways. Only the C-terminal hypervariable regions differ significantly. A growing body of literature demonstrates that each Ras isoform possesses unique functions in normal physiological processes as well as in pathogenesis. One of the central questions in the field of Ras biology is how these very similar proteins achieve such remarkable specificity in protein-protein interactions that regulate signal transduction pathways. Here we explore specific binding of K-Ras4B to calmodulin. Using NMR techniques and isothermal titration calorimetry we demonstrate that the hypervariable region of K-Ras contributes in a major way to the interaction with calmodulin while the catalytic domain of K-Ras4B provides a way to control the interaction by nucleotide binding. The hypervariable region of K-Ras4B binds specifically to the C-terminal domain of Ca2+-loaded calmodulin with micromolar affinity, while the GTP-γ-S loaded catalytic domain of K-Ras4B may interact with the N-terminal domain of calmodulin. PMID:19583261

  10. Discovery of Dengue Virus NS4B Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing-Yin; Dong, Hongping; Zou, Bin; Karuna, Ratna; Wan, Kah Fei; Zou, Jing; Susila, Agatha; Yip, Andy; Shan, Chao; Yeo, Kim Long; Xu, Haoying; Ding, Mei; Chan, Wai Ling; Gu, Feng; Seah, Peck Gee; Liu, Wei; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; Kang, CongBao; Lescar, Julien; Blasco, Francesca; Smith, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to -4) represent the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral pathogens in humans. No clinically approved vaccine or antiviral is currently available for DENV. Here we report a spiropyrazolopyridone compound that potently inhibits DENV both in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitor was identified through screening of a 1.8-million-compound library by using a DENV-2 replicon assay. The compound selectively inhibits DENV-2 and -3 (50% effective concentration [EC50], 10 to 80 nM) but not DENV-1 and -4 (EC50, >20 μM). Resistance analysis showed that a mutation at amino acid 63 of DENV-2 NS4B (a nonenzymatic transmembrane protein and a component of the viral replication complex) could confer resistance to compound inhibition. Genetic studies demonstrate that variations at amino acid 63 of viral NS4B are responsible for the selective inhibition of DENV-2 and -3. Medicinal chemistry improved the physicochemical properties of the initial “hit” (compound 1), leading to compound 14a, which has good in vivo pharmacokinetics. Treatment of DENV-2-infected AG129 mice with compound 14a suppressed viremia, even when the treatment started after viral infection. The results have proven the concept that inhibitors of NS4B could potentially be developed for clinical treatment of DENV infection. Compound 14a represents a potential preclinical candidate for treatment of DENV-2- and -3-infected patients. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV) threatens up to 2.5 billion people and is now spreading in many regions in the world where it was not previously endemic. While there are several promising vaccine candidates in clinical trials, approved vaccines or antivirals are not yet available. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a spiropyrazolopyridone as a novel inhibitor of DENV by targeting the viral NS4B protein. The compound potently inhibits two of the four serotypes of DENV (DENV-2 and -3) both in vitro and in vivo. Our

  11. Cancer Facts and Figures 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts & Figures 2014 This annual report provides the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in ... and treatment. In 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and ...

  12. Highly potent HCV NS4B inhibitors with activity against multiple genotypes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Barton; Cai, Ruby; Delaney, William; Du, Zhimin; Ji, Mingzhe; Jin, Haolun; Lee, Johnny; Li, Jiayao; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Mish, Michael; Pyun, Hyung-Jung; Saugier, Joe; Tirunagari, Neeraj; Wang, Jianhong; Yang, Huiling; Wu, Qiaoyin; Sheng, Chris; Zonte, Catalin

    2014-03-13

    The exploration of novel inhibitors of the HCV NS4B protein that are based on a 2-oxadiazoloquinoline scaffold is described. Optimization to incorporate activity across genotypes led to a potent new series with broad activity, of which inhibitor 1 displayed the following EC50 values: 1a, 0.08 nM; 1b, 0.10 nM; 2a, 3 nM; 2b, 0.6 nM, 3a, 3.7 nM; 4a, 0.9 nM; 6a, 3.1 nM. PMID:24512292

  13. PDE4B as a microglia target to reduce neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Damien D; Hughes, Zoë A

    2016-10-01

    The importance of microglia in immune homeostasis within the brain is undisputed. Their role in a diversity of neurological and psychiatric diseases as well as CNS injury is the subject of much investigation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a critical regulator of microglia homeostasis; as the predominant negative modulator of cyclic AMP signaling within microglia, phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) represents a promising target for modulating immune function. PDE4 expression is regulated by inflammation, and in turn, PDE4 inhibition can alter microglia reactivity. As the prototypic PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram, was tested clinically in the 1980s, drug discovery and clinical development of PDE4 inhibitors have been severely hampered by tolerability issues involving nausea and emesis. The two PDE4 inhibitors approved for peripheral inflammatory disorders (roflumilast and apremilast) lack brain penetration and are dose-limited by side effects making them unsuitable for modulating microglial function. Subtype selective inhibitors targeting PDE4B are of high interest given the critical role PDE4B plays in immune function versus the association of PDE4D with nausea and emesis. The challenges and requirements for successful development of a novel brain-penetrant PDE4B inhibitor are discussed in the context of early clinical development strategies. Furthermore, the challenges of monitoring the state of microglia in vivo are highlighted, including a description of the currently available tools and their limitations. Continued drug discovery efforts to identify safe and well-tolerated, brain-penetrant PDE4 inhibitors are a reflection of the confidence in the rationale for modulation of this target to produce meaningful therapeutic benefit in a wide range of neurological conditions and injury. GLIA 2016;64:1698-1709. PMID:27038323

  14. The contributions of figure and ground textures to segmentation.

    PubMed

    Bravo, M J; Blake, R

    1992-09-01

    Several models of texture segmentation use spatial gradients in the activity of early filters to locate texture boundaries. The models assume that these filters are identical to those involved in the detection and discrimination of near threshold patterns. The models differ in how activity gradients from different types of filters are combined. We examined this question by measuring the respective contributions of a figure and a ground texture to segmentation. Vertical and horizontal line segments were used to construct two perfectly discriminable textures and these textures were used to construct four types of displays. Each display contained an obliquely oriented figure, but the displays differed in the way this figure was defined. Displays consisted of either (1) a horizontally textured figure on a blank background, (2) a blank figure on a vertically textured background, (3) a horizontally textured figure on a vertically textured background or (4) a figure with a mixed texture (50% vertical lines, 50% horizontal lines) on a blank background. In a two-alternative forced-choice experiment, observers were asked to judge the figure's orientation (right or left oblique), and the contrast of the textures was varied across trials. The resulting psychometric functions for segmentation were very similar for the four types of displays, suggesting ways in which a simple model of segmentation should be modified. PMID:1455752

  15. Naturally Occurring Deletion Mutants of the Pig-Specific, Intestinal Crypt Epithelial Cell Protein CLCA4b without Apparent Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Stephanie; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Binder, Stefanie; Van Hook, Matthew J.; Thoreson, Wallace B.; Gruber, Achim D.; Mundhenk, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The human CLCA4 (chloride channel regulator, calcium-activated) modulates the intestinal phenotype of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients via an as yet unknown pathway. With the generation of new porcine CF models, species-specific differences between human modifiers of CF and their porcine orthologs are considered critical for the translation of experimental data. Specifically, the porcine ortholog to the human CF modulator gene CLCA4 has recently been shown to be duplicated into two separate genes, CLCA4a and CLCA4b. Here, we characterize the duplication product, CLCA4b, in terms of its genomic structure, tissue and cellular expression patterns as well as its in vitro electrophysiological properties. The CLCA4b gene is a pig-specific duplication product of the CLCA4 ancestor and its protein is exclusively expressed in small and large intestinal crypt epithelial cells, a niche specifically occupied by no other porcine CLCA family member. Surprisingly, a unique deleterious mutation of the CLCA4b gene is spread among modern and ancient breeds in the pig population, but this mutation did not result in an apparent phenotype in homozygously affected animals. Electrophysiologically, neither the products of the wild type nor of the mutated CLCA4b genes were able to evoke a calcium-activated anion conductance, a consensus feature of other CLCA proteins. The apparently pig-specific duplication of the CLCA4 gene with unique expression of the CLCA4b protein variant in intestinal crypt epithelial cells where the porcine CFTR is also present raises the question of whether it may modulate the porcine CF phenotype. Moreover, the naturally occurring null variant of CLCA4b will be valuable for the understanding of CLCA protein function and their relevance in modulating the CF phenotype. PMID:26474299

  16. Figure analysis: An implementation dialogue.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver information to students. Here, a "how to" guide is presented in the form of an in-class dialogue, displaying the difficulties in visual interpretation that some students may experience while figure analysis is being implemented in an upper-level, cell biology course. Additionally, the dialogue serves as a guide for instructors who may implement the active learning technique as they consider how to respond to students' concerns in class. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):345-348, 2016. PMID:26892173

  17. A role for eukaryotic initiation factor 4B overexpression in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Horvilleur, E; Sbarrato, T; Hill, K; Spriggs, R V; Screen, M; Goodrem, P J; Sawicka, K; Chaplin, L C; Touriol, C; Packham, G; Potter, K N; Dirnhofer, S; Tzankov, A; Dyer, M J S; Bushell, M; MacFarlane, M; Willis, A E

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated expression of factors that control protein synthesis is associated with poor prognosis of many cancers, but the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. Analysis of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) translatome revealed selective upregulation of mRNAs encoding anti-apoptotic and DNA repair proteins. We show that enhanced synthesis of these proteins in DLBCL is mediated by the relief of repression that is normally imposed by structure in the 5′-untranslated regions of their corresponding mRNAs. This process is driven by signaling through mammalian target of rapamycin, resulting in increased synthesis of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4B complex (eIF4B), a known activator of the RNA helicase eIF4A. Reducing eIF4B expression alone is sufficient to decrease synthesis of proteins associated with enhanced tumor cell survival, namely DAXX, BCL2 and ERCC5. Importantly, eIF4B-driven expression of these key survival proteins is directly correlated with patient outcome, and eIF4B, DAXX and ERCC5 are identified as novel prognostic markers for poor survival in DLBCL. Our work provides new insights into the mechanisms by which the cancer-promoting translational machinery drives lymphomagenesis. PMID:24135829

  18. Generation and Characterization of a Cyp4b1 Null Mouse and the Role of CYP4B1 in the Activation and Toxicity of Ipomeanol

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    4-Ipomeanol (IPO) is a prototypical pulmonary toxin that requires P450-mediated metabolic activation to reactive intermediates in order to elicit its toxic effects. CYP4B1 is a pulmonary enzyme that has been shown, in vitro, to have a high capacity for bioactivating IPO. In order to determine, unambiguously, the role of CYP4B1 in IPO bioactivation in vivo, we generated Cyp4b1 null mice following targeted disruption of the gene downstream of exon 1. Cyp4b1 −/− mice are viable and healthy, with no overt phenotype, and no evidence of compensatory upregulation of other P450 isoforms in any of the tissues examined. Pulmonary and renal microsomes prepared from male Cyp4b1 −/− mice exhibited no detectable expression of the protein and catalyzed the in vitro bioactivation of IPO at < 10% of the rates observed in tissue microsomes from Cyp4b1 +/+ animals. Administration of IPO (20mg/kg) to Cyp4b1 +/+ mice resulted in characteristic lesions in the lung, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, which were completely absent in Cyp4b1 −/− mice. We conclude that CYP4B1 is a critical enzyme for the bioactivation of IPO in vivo and that the Cyp4b1 −/− mouse is a useful model for studying CYP4B1-dependent metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23748241

  19. SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF WASP-4b WITH WARM SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Beerer, Ingrid M.; Knutson, Heather A.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Deming, Drake; Langton, Jonathan; Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.

    2011-01-20

    We present photometry of the giant extrasolar planet WASP-4b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m taken with the Infrared Array Camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of Spitzer's extended warm mission. We find secondary eclipse depths of 0.319% {+-} 0.031% and 0.343% {+-} 0.027% for the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands, respectively, and show model emission spectra and pressure-temperature profiles for the planetary atmosphere. These eclipse depths are well fit by model emission spectra with water and other molecules in absorption, similar to those used for TrES-3 and HD 189733b. Depending on our choice of model, these results indicate that this planet has either a weak dayside temperature inversion or no inversion at all. The absence of a strong thermal inversion on this highly irradiated planet is contrary to the idea that highly irradiated planets are expected to have inversions, perhaps due the presence of an unknown absorber in the upper atmosphere. This result might be explained by the modestly enhanced activity level of WASP-4b's G7V host star, which could increase the amount of UV flux received by the planet, therefore reducing the abundance of the unknown stratospheric absorber in the planetary atmosphere as suggested in Knutson et al. We also find no evidence for an offset in the timing of the secondary eclipse and place a 2{sigma} upper limit on |ecos {omega}| of 0.0024, which constrains the range of tidal heating models that could explain this planet's inflated radius.

  20. RAMONA-4B development for SBWR safety studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Aronson, A.L.; Cheng, H.S.; Khan, H.J.; Mallen, A.N.

    1993-12-31

    The Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) is a revolutionary design of a boiling-water reactor. The reactor is based on passive safety systems such as natural circulation, gravity flow, pressurized gas, and condensation. SBWR has no active systems, and the flow in the vessel is by natural circulation. There is a large chimney section above the core to provide a buoyancy head for natural circulation. The reactor can be shut down by either of four systems; namely, scram, Fine Motion Control Rod Drive (FMCRD), Alternate Rod Insertion (ARI), and Standby Liquid Control System (SLCS). The safety injection is by gravity drain from the Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS) and Suppression Pool (SP). The heat sink is through two types of heat exchangers submerged in the tank of water. These heat exchangers are the Isolation Condenser (IC) and the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). The RAMONA-4B code has been developed to simulate the normal operation, reactivity transients, and to address the instability issues for SBWR. The code has a three-dimensional neutron kinetics coupled to multiple parallel-channel thermal-hydraulics. The two-phase thermal hydraulics is based on a nonhomogeneous nonequilibrium drift-flux formulation. It employs an explicit integration to solve all state equations (except for neutron kinetics) in order to predict the instability without numerical damping. The objective of this project is to develop a Sun SPARC and IBM RISC 6000 based RAMONA-4B code for applications to SBWR safety analyses, in particular for stability and ATWS studies.

  1. The Structural Basis of Oncogenic Mutations G12, G13 and Q61 in Small GTPase K-Ras4B.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ras mediates cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Mutations in K-Ras4B are predominant at residues G12, G13 and Q61. Even though all impair GAP-assisted GTP → GDP hydrolysis, the mutation frequencies of K-Ras4B in human cancers vary. Here we aim to figure out their mechanisms and differential oncogenicity. In total, we performed 6.4 μs molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type K-Ras4B (K-Ras4B(WT)-GTP/GDP) catalytic domain, the K-Ras4B(WT)-GTP-GAP complex, and the mutants (K-Ras4B(G12C/G12D/G12V)-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4B(G13D)-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4B(Q61H)-GTP/GDP) and their complexes with GAP. In addition, we simulated 'exchanged' nucleotide states. These comprehensive simulations reveal that in solution K-Ras4B(WT)-GTP exists in two, active and inactive, conformations. Oncogenic mutations differentially elicit an inactive-to-active conformational transition in K-Ras4B-GTP; in K-Ras4B(G12C/G12D)-GDP they expose the bound nucleotide which facilitates the GDP-to-GTP exchange. These mechanisms may help elucidate the differential mutational statistics in K-Ras4B-driven cancers. Exchanged nucleotide simulations reveal that the conformational transition is more accessible in the GTP-to-GDP than in the GDP-to-GTP exchange. Importantly, GAP not only donates its R789 arginine finger, but stabilizes the catalytically-competent conformation and pre-organizes catalytic residue Q61; mutations disturb the R789/Q61 organization, impairing GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Together, our simulations help provide a mechanistic explanation of key mutational events in one of the most oncogenic proteins in cancer. PMID:26902995

  2. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  3. A Figural Education with Lyotard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    While there was a flurry of articles throughout the 1990s in philosophy of education on Lyotard, there are still several key concepts in his "oeuvre" that have import for but remain largely underdeveloped or absent in the field. One of the most interesting of these absent concepts is Lyotard's notion of the figural. In this paper, I…

  4. Figuring out a scientific understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Clive

    1993-12-01

    This article attempts to place analogy and metaphor within the wider context of all figurative language, and to trace the relationship between that kind of expression and the supposedly literal and direct accounts of nature that scientists have built up.I explore the functions of figures of speech in the development of new scientific ideas, and trace how they fade or die as each area of scientific knowledge matures. What we then take to be the literal words of scientific description are in effect the remnants of old figures of speech that have grown so familiar that their earlier metaphorical quality is easily overlooked. The conventional separation of figurative and literal cannot be sustained, and a new understanding of their relationship is needed.The practical implications of this analysis are to do with how we can reactivate the dormant metaphors in ordinary scientific language, so that learners may hear again the human voice of scientists who developed the ways of talking we now take for granted. To reactivate the system of thought behind any established way of talking, we must be able to get the learners to understand that language works as a medium of interpretation and persuasion, and not simply a system of descriptive labeling. These two views of language are compared and contrasted.

  5. Storytelling Figures: A Pueblo Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    In a collaborative unit on pueblo storytelling figures involving art, music, language arts, and physical education, a teacher describes how she helped second graders understand the Pueblo pottery tradition by reading aloud literature covering the past and present. Lists folklore, fiction, poetry, nonfiction, professional resources, videos, CDs,…

  6. The estimate on lunar figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, B. X.

    2008-10-01

    In 1799 Laplace had discovered that the lunar three principal momentum are not in equilibrium with the Moon's current orbital and rotational state.Some authors suggested that the Moon may carry a fossil figure. Before more 3 billion years the liquid Moon was closer to the Earth and revolved faster.Then the Moon migrated outwards and revolved slow down. During the early part of this migration, the Moon was continually subjected to tidal and rotational stretching and formed into an ellipsoid. Then the Moon cooled and solidified quickly. Eventually, the solid Moon's lithosphere was stable, so that we may see the very early lunar figure. In this paper, by using the lunar libration parameters and the spherical-harmonic gravity coefficient, the length of three radii a, b, c of the ellipsoid and the Moon's figure as an equilibrium tidal have been calculated. Then three conclusions can be obtained; (1) In the beginning the Moon may be very close to the Earth, before about 3 billion years the moon may cooled and solidified, and the present Moon are in the fossil figure. (2) In the third section of this paper, we demonstrate that the tidal deformation of liquid Moon was 1.934 times then the equilibrium tide. So that if to calculating the true lunar figure by using the lunar spherical-harmonic gravity coefficients, the effects of Liquid Love number hf = 1.934must be considered. (3) According to the difference between a, b, and c, the lunar distance (1.7455×108m) and spin period 3.652day can be calculated. So that the lunar orbits period was 8.34day. Hence the Moon was locked closely into a resonance orbit in the ratio 2:1 when the Moon froze.

  7. High expression of vacuolar protein sorting 4B (VPS4B) is associated with accelerated cell proliferation and poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dawei; Hu, Baoying; Wei, Lixian; Xiong, Yicheng; Wang, Gang; Ni, Tingting; Zong, Chunyan; Ni, Runzhou; Lu, Cuihua

    2015-03-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 4B (VPS4B) is a member of ATPase family proteins that have been shown to play important roles in the formation of MVBs, virus budding and abscission of cytokinesis. In this study, we investigated the prognostic role of VPS4B in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its effect on the growth of HCC cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses revealed that VPS4B was significantly upregulated in 98 HCC tissues, compared with adjacent nontumorous samples. Meanwhile, clinicopathological variables and univariate and multivariate survival analyses showed that high VPS4B expression was correlated with multiple clinicopathological factors, including AJCC stage, microvascular invasion, Ki-67 and a poor prognosis. More importantly, univariate and multivariate survival analyses demonstrated that VPS4B served as an independent prognostic factor for survival in HCC patients. Furthermore, we found that VPS4B was lowly expressed in serum-starved Huh7 and HepG2 HCC cells, and was progressively increased after serum-refeeding. To study whether VPS4B could regulate the proliferation of HCC cells, VPS4B was knocked down in both Huh7 and HepG2 cells through the transfection of VPS4B-siRNA oligos. Flow cytometry and CCK-8 assay results indicated that interference of VPS4B led to cell cycle arrest and reduced cell proliferation of HCC cells. Taken together, our results implied that VPS4B could be a candidate prognostic biomarker as well as a potential therapeutical target of HCC. PMID:25547899

  8. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  9. Electron photon verification calculations using MCNP4B

    SciTech Connect

    Gierga, D.P.; Adams, K.J.

    1998-07-01

    MCNP4B was released in February 1997 with significant enhancements to electron/photon transport methods. These enhancements have been verified against a wide range of published electron/photon experiments, spanning high energy bremsstrahlung production to electron transmission and reflection. Three sets of bremsstrahlung experiments were simulated. The first verification calculations for bremsstrahlung production used the experimental results in Faddegon for 15 MeV electrons incident on lead, aluminum, and beryllium targets. The calculated integrated bremsstrahlung yields, the bremsstrahlung energy spectra, and the mean energy of the bremsstrahlung beam were compared with experiment. The impact of several MCNP tally options and physics parameters was explored in detail. The second was the experiment of O`Dell which measured the bremsstrahlung spectra from 10 and 20.9 MeV electrons incident on a gold/tungsten target. The final set was a comparison of relative experimental spectra with calculated results for 9.66 MeV electrons incident on tungsten based on the experiment of Starfelt and Koch. The transmission experiments of Ebert were also studied, including comparisons of transmission coefficients for 10.2 MeV electrons incident on carbon, silver, and uranium foils. The agreement between experiment and simulation was usually within two standard deviations of the experimental and calculational errors.

  10. 26 CFR 11.402(e)(4)(B)-1 - Election to treat an amount as a lump sum distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to treat an amount as a lump sum... EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 11.402(e)(4)(B)-1 Election to treat an amount as a lump... is described in section 402(e)(4)(A) and which is not an annuity contract may be treated as a...

  11. Molecular cloning and transient expression in COS7 cells of a novel human PDE4B cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, HSPDE4B3.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, E; Lumb, S; Russell, A; Catterall, C; Ross, A H; Steele, M R; Bolger, G B; Perry, M J; Owens, R J; Houslay, M D

    1997-01-01

    5'-Rapid amplification of cDNA ends, done on poly(A)+ RNA from human U87 cells, was used to identify 420 bp of novel 5' sequence of a PDE4B cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE). This identified an open reading frame encoding a putative 721-residue 'long-form' PDE4B splice variant, which we term HSPDE4B3. HSPDE4B3 differs from the two known PDE4B forms by virtue of its unique 79-residue N-terminal region, compared with the unique N-terminal regions of 94 and 39 residues found in HSPDE4B1 and HSPDE4B2 respectively. In transfected COS7 cells the two long forms, HSPDE4B1 and HSPDE4B3, had molecular masses of approx. 104 and approx. 103 kDa respectively. Expressed in COS-7 cells, the three HSPDE4B isoforms were found in the high-speed supernatant (cytosol) fraction as well as both the high-speed pellet (P2) and low-speed pellet (P1) fractions. All isoforms showed similar Km values for cAMP hydrolysis (1.5-2.6 microM). The maximal activities of the soluble cytosolic activity of the two long forms were very similar, whereas that of the short form, HSPDE4B2, was approx. 4-fold higher. Particulate-associated HSPDE4B1 and HSPDE4B2 were less active (approx. 40%) than their cytosol forms, whereas particulate HSPDE4B3 was similar in activity to its cytosolic form. Particulate and cytosolic forms of HSPDE4B1 and HSPDE4B3 were similarly inhibited by rolipram ¿4-[3-(cyclopentoxyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-pyrrolidone¿, the selective inhibitor of PDE4 (IC50 0.05-0.1 microM), whereas particulate-associated HSPDE4B2 was profoundly (approx. 10-fold) more sensitive (IC50 0.02 microM) to rolipram inhibition than its cytosolic form (IC50 0.2 microM). The various particulate-associated HSPDE4B isoforms showed very different susceptibilities to solubilization with the detergent Triton X-100 and high NaCl concentration. A novel cDNA, called pRPDE74, was obtained by screening a rat olfactory lobe cDNA library. This contained an open reading frame encoding a 721-residue protein that showed

  12. 49 CFR 178.50 - Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.50 Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4B is a welded or brazed steel cylinder with...

  13. 49 CFR 178.50 - Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.50 Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4B is a welded or brazed steel cylinder with...

  14. 49 CFR 178.50 - Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.50 Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4B is a welded or brazed steel cylinder with...

  15. Structural control of nonadiabatic bond formation: the photochemical formation and stability of substituted 4a,4b-dihydrotriphenylenes.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Joshua A; Bragg, Arthur E

    2015-04-30

    Nonadiabatic photocyclization makes bonds and is the first step in the photoinduced cyclodehydrogenation of ortho-arenes to yield polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. How molecular structure alters potential-energy landscapes, excited-state dynamics, and stabilities of reactants and intermediates underlies the feasibility of desirable photochemistry. In order to gain insight into these structure-dynamics relationships, we have used femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) to examine photoinduced dynamics of 1,2,3-triphenylbenzene (TPB) and ortho-quaterphenyl (OQTP), phenyl-subsituted analogues of ortho-terphenyl (OTP). Dynamics of TPB and OTP are quite similar: TPB exhibits fast (7.4 ps) excited-state decay with concomitant formation and vibrational relaxation of 9-phenyl-dihydrotriphenylene (9-phenyl DHT). In contrast, photoexcited OQTP exhibits multistate kinetics leading to formation of 1-phenyl DHT. Excited-state calculations reveal the existence of two distinct minima on the OQTP S1 surface and, together with photophysical data, support a mechanism involving both direct cyclization by way of an asymmetric structure and indirect cyclization by way of a symmetric quinoid-like minimum. Temperature-dependent nanosecond TAS was utilized to assess the relative stabilities of intermediates, substantiating the observed trend in photochemical reactivity OTP > OQTP > TPB. In total, this work demonstrates how specific structural variations alter the course of the excited-state dynamics and photoproduct stability that underlies desired photochemistry. PMID:25849258

  16. PROCEEDINGS: 1990 SO2 CONTROL SYMPOSIUM - VOLUME 2: SESSIONS 4A, 4B, 4C, AND 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document 110 papers presented at the Symposium held in New Orleans, LA, May 8-11, 1990. opics included SO2 control economics, furnace sorbent injection, byproduct utilization, spray dryer technology, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and combined SOx/NOx control ...

  17. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Lauren N; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared on either figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region's color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments showed that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as ground are perceptually suppressed. PMID:27048441

  18. Magnitude and range of the RKKy interaction in SmRh4B4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terris, B. D.; Gray, K. E.; Dunlap, B. D.

    1985-04-01

    The superconductive and magnetic transition temperatures taken together are shown to provide a unique probe which separately determines both the magnitude and range of the RKKY interaction in the RERh4B4 magnetic-superconductors (RE = Er, Sm). Experimentally, an unexpected peak is found in the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature of SmRh4B4 vs. electron mean free path, while for ErRh4B4 the ferromagnetic ordering temperature decreases monotonically. These qualitative features, as well as the quanitative differences between SmRh4B4 and ErRh4B4, are in excellent agreement with calculations using a mean free path dependent RKKY interaction.

  19. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment. PMID:20973449

  20. Phosphodiesterase 4B is essential for TH2-cell function and development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Catherine Jin, S.-L.; Goya, Sho; Nakae, Susumu; Wang, Dan; Bruss, Matthew; Hou, Chiaoyin; Umetsu, Dale; Conti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Background Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling modulates functions of inflammatory cells involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, and type 4 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) are essential components of this pathway. Induction of the PDE4 isoform PDE4B is necessary for Toll-like receptor signaling in monocytes and macrophages and is associated with T cell receptor/CD3 in T cells; however, its exact physiological function in the development of allergic asthma remains undefined. Objectives We investigated the role of PDE4B in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and TH2-driven inflammatory responses. Methods Wild-type and PDE4B−/− mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and AHR measured in response to inhaled methacholine. Airway inflammation was characterized by analyzing leukocyte infiltration and cytokine accumulation in the airways. Ovalbumin-stimulated cell proliferation and TH2 cytokine production were determined in cultured bronchial lymph node cells. Results Mice deficient in PDE4B do not develop AHR. This protective effect was associated with a significant decrease in eosinophils recruitment to the lungs and decreased TH2 cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Defects in T-cell replication, TH2 cytokine production, and dendritic cell migration were evident in cells from the airway-draining lymph nodes. Conversely, accumulation of the TH1 cytokine IFN-γ was not affected in PDE4B−/− mice. Ablation of the orthologous PDE4 gene PDE4A has no impact on airway inflammation. Conclusion By relieving a cAMP-negative constraint, PDE4B plays an essential role in TH2-cell activation and dendritic cell recruitment during airway inflammation. These findings provide proof of concept that PDE4 inhibitors with PDE4B selectivity may have efficacy in asthma treatment. PMID:21047676

  1. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  3. Preadolescent male perceptions of action figure physiques.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, Timothy; Carlston, David; Wood, Julie; Wyatt, Frank B

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the preference and reasoning of 176 preadolescent and adolescent males when presented with original and current action figures that had statistically different physiques. Current action figures were perceived as significantly more muscular and healthier. Participants also preferred to resemble current action figures citing muscularity and size for their preference. PMID:18023792

  4. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  6. PHOBOS Experiment: Figures and Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The PHOBOS Collaboration

    PHOBOS consists of many silicon detectors surrounding the interaction region. With these detectors physicists can count the total number of produced particles and study the angular distributions of all the products. Physicists know from other branches of physics that a characteristic of phase transitions are fluctuations in physical observables. With the PHOBOS array they look for unusual events or fluctuations in the number of particles and angular distribution. The articles that have appeared in refereed science journals are listed here with separate links to the supporting data plots, figures, and tables of numeric data.  See also supporting data for articles in technical journals at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Technical/phobos_technical_publications.htm and from conference proceedings at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Proceedings/phobos_proceedings_publications.htm

  7. An Independent Analysis of Kepler-4b Through Kepler-8b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David; Bakos, Gáspár

    2011-03-01

    We present two independent, homogeneous, global analyses of the transit light curves, radial velocities, and spectroscopy of Kepler-4b, Kepler-5b, Kepler-6b, Kepler-7b, and Kepler-8b with numerous differences compared to the previous methods. These include: (1) improved decorrelated parameter fitting set used, (2) new limb-darkening coefficients, (3) time stamps modified to barycentric Julian date for consistency with radial velocity data, (4) two different methods for compensating for the long integration time of Kepler long-cadence data, (5) best-fit secondary eclipse depths and excluded upper limits, and (6) fitted mid-transit times, durations, depths, and baseline fluxes for individual transits. We make several determinations not found in the discovery papers. (1) We detect a secondary eclipse for Kepler-7b of depth (47 ± 14) ppm and statistical significance 3.5σ. We conclude that reflected light is a much more plausible origin than thermal emission and determine a geometric albedo of Ag = (0.38 ± 0.12). (2) We find that an eccentric orbit model for the Neptune-mass planet Kepler-4b is detected at the 2σ level with e = (0.25 ± 0.12). If confirmed, this would place Kepler-4b in a similar category as GJ 436b and HAT-P-11b, as an eccentric, Neptune-mass planet. (3) We find weak evidence for a secondary eclipse in Kepler-5b of 2σ significance and depth (26 ± 17) ppm. The most plausible explanation is reflected light caused by a planet of geometric albedo Ag = (0.15 ± 0.10). (4) A 2.6σ peak in Kepler-6b TTV periodogram is detected and is not easily explained as an aliased frequency. We find that mean-motion resonant (MMR) perturbers, non-resonant perturbers, and a companion extrasolar moon all provide inadequate explanations for this signal and the most likely source is stellar rotation. (5) We find different impact parameters relative to the discovery papers in most cases, but generally self-consistent when compared to the two methods employed here. (6) We

  8. Endothelial reticulon-4B (Nogo-B) regulates ICAM-1-mediated leukocyte transmigration and acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Annarita; Manes, Thomas D; Davalos, Alberto; Wright, Paulette L; Sessa, William C

    2011-02-17

    The reticulon (Rtn) family of proteins are localized primarily to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of most cells. The Rtn-4 family, (aka Nogo) consists of 3 splice variants of a common gene called Rtn-4A, Rtn-4B, and Rtn-4C. Recently, we identified the Rtn-4B (Nogo-B) protein in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of the vessel wall, and showed that Nogo-B is a regulator of cell migration in vitro and vascular remodeling and angiogenesis in vivo. However, the role of Nogo-B in inflammation is still largely unknown. In the present study, we use 2 models of inflammation to show that endothelial Nogo-B regulates leukocyte transmigration and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-dependent signaling. Mice lacking Nogo-A/B have a marked reduction in neutrophil and monocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation, while Nogo-A/B(-/-) mice engrafted with wild-type (WT) bone marrow still exhibit impaired inflammation compared with WT mice engrafted with Nogo-A/B(-/-) bone marrow, arguing for a critical role of host Nogo in this response. Using human leukocytes and endothelial cells, we show mechanistically that the silencing of Nogo-B with small interfering RNA (siRNA) impairs the transmigration of neutrophils and reduces ICAM-1-stimulated phosphorylation of vascular endothelial-cell cadherin (VE-cadherin). Our results reveal a novel role of endothelial Nogo-B in basic immune functions and provide a key link in the molecular network governing endothelial-cell regulation of diapedesis. PMID:21183689

  9. Androgen Receptor Coactivator ARID4B Is Required for the Function of Sertoli Cells in Spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ray-Chang; Zeng, Yang; Pan, I-Wen; Wu, Mei-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Defects in spermatogenesis, a process that produces spermatozoa inside seminiferous tubules of the testis, result in male infertility. Spermatogenic progression is highly dependent on a microenvironment provided by Sertoli cells, the only somatic cells and epithelium of seminiferous tubules. However, genes that regulate such an important activity of Sertoli cells are poorly understood. Here, we found that AT-rich interactive domain 4B (ARID4B), is essential for the function of Sertoli cells to regulate spermatogenesis. Specifically, we generated Sertoli cell-specific Arid4b knockout (Arid4bSCKO) mice, and showed that the Arid4bSCKO male mice were completely infertile with impaired testis development and significantly reduced testis size. Importantly, severe structural defects accompanied by loss of germ cells and Sertoli cell-only phenotype were found in many seminiferous tubules of the Arid4bSCKO testes. In addition, maturation of Sertoli cells was significantly delayed in the Arid4bSCKO mice, associated with delayed onset of spermatogenesis. Spermatogenic progression was also defective, showing an arrest at the round spermatid stage in the Arid4bSCKO testes. Interestingly, we showed that ARID4B functions as a "coactivator" of androgen receptor and is required for optimal transcriptional activation of reproductive homeobox 5, an androgen receptor target gene specifically expressed in Sertoli cells and critical for spermatogenesis. Together, our study identified ARID4B to be a key regulator of Sertoli cell function important for male germ cell development. PMID:26258622

  10. BPO4@B2O3 and (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+: The novel single-emitting-component phosphors for near UV-white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiyu; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Yu; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays much effort has been devoted to exploring novel luminescent materials with low-cost, high stability and excellent luminescent properties. In this paper, a new kind of luminescent material BPO4@B2O3 was prepared by using a facile method. The as-obtained samples contain numerous BPO4 nanoparticles enclosed by amorphous and crystalline B2O3 homogeneously, which exhibits a broad emission band ranging from 380 to 700 nm under near-UV irradiation. More importantly, it is worth noting that the BPO4@B2O3 phosphor exhibits the excellent thermal quenching property, which endows it with a promising prospect as phosphors for high power white LEDs. To further promote its application as white light phosphors, Eu3+ ions were doped into the BPO4@B2O3 samples and prepared the (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+ phosphors with chromaticity coordinates (0.3022, 0.3122). The corresponding packaging of LEDs indicates that both BPO4@B2O3 and (BPO4@B2O3):Eu3+ can be considered as the promising phosphors for WLEDs.

  11. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4B and the poly(A)-binding protein bind eIF4G competitively.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shijun; Gallie, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G functions as a scaffold protein that assembles components of the translation initiation complex required to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit to an mRNA. Although many eukaryotes express two highly similar eIF4G isoforms, those in plants are highly divergent in size and sequence from one another and are referred to as eIF4G and eIFiso4G. Although the domain organization of eIFiso4G differs substantially from eIF4G orthologs in other species, the domain organization of plant eIF4G is largely unknown despite the fact that it is more similar in size and sequence to eIF4G of other eukaryotes. In this study, we show that eIF4G differs from eIFiso4G in that it contains two distinct interaction domains for the poly(A) binding protein (PABP) and eIF4B but is similar to eIFiso4G in having two eIF4A interaction domains. PABP and eIF4B bind the same N-terminal region of eIF4G as they do to a region C-proximal to the HEAT-1 domain in the middle domain of eIF4G, resulting in competitive binding between eIF4B and PABP to each site. eIF4G also differs from eIFiso4G in that no competitive binding was observed between PABP and eIF4A or between eIF4B and eIF4A to its HEAT-1-containing region. These results demonstrate that despite substantial differences in size, sequence, and domain organization, PABP and eIF4B bind to eIF4G and eIFiso4G competitively. PMID:26824014

  12. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  16. Discovery of Fluoromethylketone-Based Peptidomimetics as Covalent ATG4B (Autophagin-1) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zongxing; Kuhn, Bernd; Aebi, Johannes; Lin, Xianfeng; Ding, Haiyuan; Zhou, Zheng; Xu, Zhiheng; Xu, Danqing; Han, Li; Liu, Cheng; Qiu, Hongxia; Zhang, Yuxia; Haap, Wolfgang; Riemer, Claus; Stahl, Martin; Qin, Ning; Shen, Hong C; Tang, Guozhi

    2016-08-11

    ATG4B or autophagin-1 is a cysteine protease that cleaves ATG8 family proteins. ATG4B plays essential roles in the autophagosome formation and the autophagy pathway. Herein we disclose the design and structural modifications of a series of fluoromethylketone (FMK)-based peptidomimetics as highly potent ATG4B inhibitors. Their structure-activity relationship (SAR) and protease selectivity are also discussed. PMID:27563406

  17. Tumor suppressor ASXL1 is essential for the activation of INK4B expression in response to oncogene activity and anti-proliferative signals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xudong; Bekker-Jensen, Ida Holst; Christensen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Kasper Dindler; Sidoli, Simone; Qi, Yan; Kong, Yu; Wang, Xi; Cui, Yajuan; Xiao, Zhijian; Xu, Guogang; Williams, Kristine; Rappsilber, Juri; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Winther, Ole; Jensen, Ole N; Helin, Kristian

    2015-11-01

    ASXL1 mutations are frequently found in hematological tumors, and loss of Asxl1 promotes myeloid transformation in mice. Here we present data supporting a role for an ASXL1-BAP1 complex in the deubiquitylation of mono-ubiquitylated lysine 119 on Histone H2A (H2AK119ub1) in vivo. The Polycomb group proteins control the expression of the INK4B-ARF-INK4A locus during normal development, in part through catalyzing mono-ubiquitylation of H2AK119. Since the activation of the locus INK4B-ARF-INK4A plays a fail-safe mechanism protecting against tumorigenesis, we investigated whether ASXL1-dependent H2A deubiquitylation plays a role in its activation. Interestingly, we found that ASXL1 is specifically required for the increased expression of p15(INK4B) in response to both oncogenic signaling and extrinsic anti-proliferative signals. Since we found that ASXL1 and BAP1 both are enriched at the INK4B locus, our results suggest that activation of the INK4B locus requires ASXL1/BAP1-mediated deubiquitylation of H2AK119ub1. Consistently, our results show that ASXL1 mutations are associated with lower expression levels of p15(INK4B) and a proliferative advantage of hematopoietic progenitors in primary bone marrow cells, and that depletion of ASXL1 in multiple cell lines results in resistance to growth inhibitory signals. Taken together, this study links ASXL1-mediated H2A deubiquitylation and transcriptional activation of INK4B expression to its tumor suppressor functions. PMID:26470845

  18. Identification of RNA-Binding Protein LARP4B as a Tumor Suppressor in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Koso, Hideto; Yi, Hungtsung; Sheridan, Paul; Miyano, Satoru; Ino, Yasushi; Todo, Tomoki; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2016-04-15

    Transposon-based insertional mutagenesis is a valuable method for conducting unbiased forward genetic screens to identify cancer genes in mice. We used this system to elucidate factors involved in the malignant transformation of neural stem cells into glioma-initiating cells. We identified an RNA-binding protein, La-related protein 4b (LARP4B), as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in glioma. LARP4B expression was consistently decreased in human glioma stem cells and cell lines compared with normal neural stem cells. Moreover, heterozygous deletion of LARP4B was detected in nearly 80% of glioblastomas in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. LARP4B loss was also associated with low expression and poor patient survival. Overexpression of LARP4B in glioma cell lines strongly inhibited proliferation by inducing mitotic arrest and apoptosis in four of six lines as well as in two patient-derived glioma stem cell populations. The expression levels of CDKN1A and BAX were also upregulated upon LARP4B overexpression, and the growth-inhibitory effects were partially dependent on p53 (TP53) activity in cells expressing wild-type, but not mutant, p53. We further found that the La module, which is responsible for the RNA chaperone activity of LARP4B, was important for the growth-suppressive effect and was associated with BAX mRNA. Finally, LARP4B depletion in p53 and Nf1-deficient mouse primary astrocytes promoted cell proliferation and led to increased tumor size and invasiveness in xenograft and orthotopic models. These data provide strong evidence that LARP4B serves as a tumor-suppressor gene in glioma, encouraging further exploration of the RNA targets potentially involved in LARP4B-mediatd growth inhibition. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2254-64. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26933087

  19. Specific Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase-4B Results in Anxiolysis and Facilitates Memory Acquisition.

    PubMed

    McGirr, Alexander; Lipina, Tatiana V; Mun, Ho-Suk; Georgiou, John; Al-Amri, Ahmed H; Ng, Enoch; Zhai, Dongxu; Elliott, Christina; Cameron, Ryan T; Mullins, Jonathan G L; Liu, Fang; Baillie, George S; Clapcote, Steven J; Roder, John C

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of dementia and a prominent feature in psychiatric disease. As non-redundant regulators of intracellular cAMP gradients, phosphodiesterases (PDE) mediate fundamental aspects of brain function relevant to learning, memory, and higher cognitive functions. Phosphodiesterase-4B (PDE4B) is an important phosphodiesterase in the hippocampal formation, is a major Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) binding partner and is itself a risk gene for psychiatric illness. To define the effects of specific inhibition of the PDE4B subtype, we generated mice with a catalytic domain mutant form of PDE4B (Y358C) that has decreased ability to hydrolyze cAMP. Structural modeling predictions of decreased function and impaired binding with DISC1 were confirmed in cell assays. Phenotypic characterization of the PDE4B(Y358C) mice revealed facilitated phosphorylation of CREB, decreased binding to DISC1, and upregulation of DISC1 and β-Arrestin in hippocampus and amygdala. In behavioral assays, PDE4B(Y358C) mice displayed decreased anxiety and increased exploration, as well as cognitive enhancement across several tests of learning and memory, consistent with synaptic changes including enhanced long-term potentiation and impaired depotentiation ex vivo. PDE4B(Y358C) mice also demonstrated enhanced neurogenesis. Contextual fear memory, though intact at 24 h, was decreased at 7 days in PDE4B(Y358C) mice, an effect replicated pharmacologically with a non-selective PDE4 inhibitor, implicating cAMP signaling by PDE4B in a very late phase of consolidation. No effect of the PDE4B(Y358C) mutation was observed in the prepulse inhibition and forced swim tests. Our data establish specific inhibition of PDE4B as a promising therapeutic approach for disorders of cognition and anxiety, and a putative target for pathological fear memory. PMID:26272049

  20. Regulation of K-Ras4B Membrane Binding by Calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Benjamin; Kapoor, Shobhna; Waldmann, Herbert; Winter, Roland; Weise, Katrin

    2016-07-12

    K-Ras4B is a membrane-bound small GTPase with a prominent role in cancer development. It contains a polybasic farnesylated C-terminus that is required for the correct localization and clustering of K-Ras4B in distinct membrane domains. PDEδ and the Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) are known to function as potential binding partners for farnesylated Ras proteins. However, they differ in the number of interaction sites with K-Ras4B, leading to different modes of interaction, and thus affect the subcellular distribution of K-Ras4B in different ways. Although it is clear that Ca(2+)-bound CaM can play a role in the dynamic spatial cycle of K-Ras4B in the cell, the exact molecular mechanism is only partially understood. In this biophysical study, we investigated the effect of Ca(2+)/CaM on the interaction of GDP- and GTP-loaded K-Ras4B with heterogeneous model biomembranes by using a combination of different spectroscopic and imaging techniques. The results show that Ca(2+)/CaM is able to extract K-Ras4B from negatively charged membranes in a nucleotide-independent manner. Moreover, the data demonstrate that the complex of Ca(2+)/CaM and K-Ras4B is stable in the presence of anionic membranes and shows no membrane binding. Finally, the influence of Ca(2+)/CaM on the interaction of K-Ras4B with membranes is compared with that of PDEδ, which was investigated in a previous study. Although both CaM and PDEδ exhibit a hydrophobic binding pocket for farnesyl, they have different effects on membrane binding of K-Ras4B and hence should be capable of regulating K-Ras4B plasma membrane localization in the cell. PMID:27410739

  1. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  2. Effect of superconductivity on spin dynamics in (Y/sub 1-x/Re/sub x/)Rh/sub 4/B/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, K.; Fradin, F.Y.

    1982-01-01

    An adiabatic field-cycle method has been used to study spin dynamics of RE ions in (Y/sub 1-x/RE/sub x/)Rh/sub 4/B/sub 4/. Longitudinal dipolar fluctuations of RE moments are found to be the main source of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time of /sup 11/B. The variation of T/sub 1/ in the superconducting state is attributed to the reduction of the electronic spin-relaxation time, tau/sub m/, which is mainly determined by the RKKY type interaction mediated by the conduction electrons. 3 figures.

  3. Standard Neutron, Photon, and Electron Data Libraries for MCNP4B.

    1997-04-01

    Version 00 US DOE 10CFR810 Jurisdiction. DLC-189/MCNPXS is for use with Version 4B and later of the MCNP transport code. This data library provides a comprehensive set of cross sections for a wide range of radiation transport applications using the Monte Carlo code package CCC-660/MCNP4B.

  4. Histone demethylase KDM4B regulates otic vesicle invagination via epigenetic control of Dlx3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Rosa A.; Buzzi, Ailín L.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates, the inner ear arises from the otic placode, a thickened swathe of ectoderm that invaginates to form the otic vesicle. We report that histone demethylase KDM4B is dynamically expressed during early stages of chick inner ear formation. A loss of KDM4B results in defective invagination and striking morphological changes in the otic epithelium, characterized by abnormal localization of adhesion and cytoskeletal molecules and reduced expression of several inner ear markers, including Dlx3. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals direct and dynamic occupancy of KDM4B and its target, H3K9me3, at regulatory regions of the Dlx3 locus. Accordingly, coelectroporations of DLX3 or KDM4B encoding constructs, but not a catalytically dead mutant of KDM4B, rescue the ear invagination phenotype caused by KDM4B knockdown. Moreover, a loss of DLX3 phenocopies a loss of KDM4B. Collectively, our findings suggest that KDM4B play a critical role during inner ear invagination via modulating histone methylation of the direct target Dlx3. PMID:26598618

  5. Histone demethylase KDM4B regulates otic vesicle invagination via epigenetic control of Dlx3 expression.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Rosa A; Buzzi, Ailín L; Bronner, Marianne E; Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H

    2015-11-23

    In vertebrates, the inner ear arises from the otic placode, a thickened swathe of ectoderm that invaginates to form the otic vesicle. We report that histone demethylase KDM4B is dynamically expressed during early stages of chick inner ear formation. A loss of KDM4B results in defective invagination and striking morphological changes in the otic epithelium, characterized by abnormal localization of adhesion and cytoskeletal molecules and reduced expression of several inner ear markers, including Dlx3. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals direct and dynamic occupancy of KDM4B and its target, H3K9me3, at regulatory regions of the Dlx3 locus. Accordingly, coelectroporations of DLX3 or KDM4B encoding constructs, but not a catalytically dead mutant of KDM4B, rescue the ear invagination phenotype caused by KDM4B knockdown. Moreover, a loss of DLX3 phenocopies a loss of KDM4B. Collectively, our findings suggest that KDM4B play a critical role during inner ear invagination via modulating histone methylation of the direct target Dlx3. PMID:26598618

  6. TAF4b Regulates Oocyte-Specific Genes Essential for Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Grive, Kathryn J.; Gustafson, Eric A.; Seymour, Kimberly A.; Baddoo, Melody; Schorl, Christoph; Golnoski, Kayla; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Brodsky, Alexander S.; Freiman, Richard N.

    2016-01-01

    TAF4b is a gonadal-enriched subunit of the general transcription factor TFIID that is implicated in promoting healthy ovarian aging and female fertility in mice and humans. To further explore the potential mechanism of TAF4b in promoting ovarian follicle development, we analyzed global gene expression at multiple time points in the human fetal ovary. This computational analysis revealed coordinate expression of human TAF4B and critical regulators and effectors of meiosis I including SYCP3, YBX2, STAG3, and DAZL. To address the functional relevance of this analysis, we turned to the embryonic Taf4b-deficient mouse ovary where, for the first time, we demonstrate, severe deficits in prophase I progression as well as asynapsis in Taf4b-deficient oocytes. Accordingly, TAF4b occupies the proximal promoters of many essential meiosis and oogenesis regulators, including Stra8, Dazl, Figla, and Nobox, and is required for their proper expression. These data reveal a novel TAF4b function in regulating a meiotic gene expression program in early mouse oogenesis, and support the existence of a highly conserved TAF4b-dependent gene regulatory network promoting early oocyte development in both mice and women. PMID:27341508

  7. 75 FR 18509 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled ``Q4B Evaluation and.... In the Federal Register of August 14, 2009 (74 FR 41143), FDA published a notice announcing the... Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference...

  8. Mutations in classical swine fever virus NS4B affect virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a virus causing a severe disease in swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of NS4B in highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor like domain (TIR...

  9. Mutations in the classical swine fever virus NS4B protein affects virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Inte...

  10. Association of CHMP4B and Autophagy with Micronuclei: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sagona, Antonia P.; Nezis, Ioannis P.; Stenmark, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a mechanism of cellular self-degradation that is very important for cellular homeostasis and differentiation. Components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery are required for endosomal sorting and also for autophagy and the completion of cytokinesis. Here we show that the ESCRT-III subunit CHMP4B not only localizes to normal cytokinetic bridges but also to chromosome bridges and micronuclei, the latter surrounded by lysosomes and autophagosomes. Moreover, CHMP4B can be co-immunoprecipitated with chromatin. Interestingly, a CHMP4B mutation associated with autosomal dominant posterior polar cataract abolishes the ability of CHMP4B to localize to micronuclei. We propose that CHMP4B, through its association with chromatin, may participate in the autophagolysosomal degradation of micronuclei and other extranuclear chromatin. This may have implications for DNA degradation during lens cell differentiation, thus potentially protecting lens cells from cataract development. PMID:24741567

  11. Interferon regulatory factor 4b (IRF4b) in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus: Sequencing, ubiquitous tissue distribution and inducible expression by poly(I:C) and DNA virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dahai; Chen, Jinjing; Zhang, Haiyan; Hu, Mengzhu; Lou, Huimin; Liu, Qiuming; Zhang, Shicui; Hu, Guobin

    2016-09-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in mammals is known to be critical in regulation of development and functions of lymphomyeloid cell lineages. Recent studies have demonstrated its involvement in immune responses to bacterial and viral challenges in teleosts. In this study, an IRF4 gene was cloned from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its expression in response to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) stimulations was studied in vivo. The cloned gene spans over 5.9 kb, comprises eight exons and seven introns and encodes a putative protein of 456 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence possesses a conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD), an IRF-association domain (IAD) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Phylogenetic analysis clustered it into the teleost IRF4b clade and, thus, it was named Paralichthys olivaceus (Po)IRF4b. The constitutive expression of PoIRF4b transcripts was detectable in all examined organs, with highest levels found in lymphomyeloid-rich tissues. They were induced by both poly(I:C) and LCDV with a similar inducibility in immune or non-immune organs. Two waves of induced expression of PoIRF4b were observed with the two stimuli during a 7-day time course in the immune organs, with the early-phase induction being stronger. The maximum increases of PoIRF4b transcript levels ranged from 1.3 to 4.0-fold and appeared at day 1-5 post-injection depending on different organs and stimuli. In both stimulation cases, the strongest induction was detected in spleen and the weakest in muscle. These results indicate that PoIRF4b may participate in regulation of immune responses of flounders to both RNA and DNA virus infections. PMID:27084058

  12. Smaller tumor size is associated with poor survival in T4b colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ben; Feng, Yang; Mo, Shao-Bo; Cai, San-Jun; Huang, Li-Yong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To hypothesize that in patients with colon cancer showing heavy intestinal wall invasion without distant metastasis (T4bN0-2M0), small tumor size would correlate with more aggressive tumor behaviors and therefore poorer cancer-specific survival (CSS). METHODS: We analyzed T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. A preliminary analysis of T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center is also presented. RESULTS: A total of 1734 T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients from the SEER database were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed decreasing CSS with decreasing tumor size (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a significant association between poorer CSS with smaller tumor size in T4bN0 patients (P = 0.024), and a trend of association in T4bN1 (P = 0.182) and T4bN2 patients (P = 0.191). Multivariate analysis identified tumor size as an independent prognostic factor for CSS in T4bN0-2M0 patients (P = 0.024). Preliminary analysis of Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center samples suggested the 5-year CSS was 50.0%, 72.9% and 77.1% in patients with tumors ≤ 4.0 cm, 4.0-7.0 cm and ≥ 7.0 cm. CONCLUSION: Smaller tumor size is associated with poorer CSS in the T4bN0-2M0 subset of colon cancer, particularly in the T4bN0M0 subgroup. PMID:27547015

  13. The Structural Basis of Oncogenic Mutations G12, G13 and Q61 in Small GTPase K-Ras4B

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ras mediates cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Mutations in K-Ras4B are predominant at residues G12, G13 and Q61. Even though all impair GAP-assisted GTP → GDP hydrolysis, the mutation frequencies of K-Ras4B in human cancers vary. Here we aim to figure out their mechanisms and differential oncogenicity. In total, we performed 6.4 μs molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type K-Ras4B (K-Ras4BWT-GTP/GDP) catalytic domain, the K-Ras4BWT-GTP–GAP complex, and the mutants (K-Ras4BG12C/G12D/G12V-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4BG13D-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4BQ61H-GTP/GDP) and their complexes with GAP. In addition, we simulated ‘exchanged’ nucleotide states. These comprehensive simulations reveal that in solution K-Ras4BWT-GTP exists in two, active and inactive, conformations. Oncogenic mutations differentially elicit an inactive-to-active conformational transition in K-Ras4B-GTP; in K-Ras4BG12C/G12D-GDP they expose the bound nucleotide which facilitates the GDP-to-GTP exchange. These mechanisms may help elucidate the differential mutational statistics in K-Ras4B-driven cancers. Exchanged nucleotide simulations reveal that the conformational transition is more accessible in the GTP-to-GDP than in the GDP-to-GTP exchange. Importantly, GAP not only donates its R789 arginine finger, but stabilizes the catalytically-competent conformation and pre-organizes catalytic residue Q61; mutations disturb the R789/Q61 organization, impairing GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Together, our simulations help provide a mechanistic explanation of key mutational events in one of the most oncogenic proteins in cancer. PMID:26902995

  14. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  15. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  16. Plasma surface figuring of large optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, R.; Castelli, M.; Morantz, P.; Shore, P.

    2012-04-01

    Fast figuring of large optical components is well known as a highly challenging manufacturing issue. Different manufacturing technologies including: magnetorheological finishing, loose abrasive polishing, ion beam figuring are presently employed. Yet, these technologies are slow and lead to expensive optics. This explains why plasma-based processes operating at atmospheric pressure have been researched as a cost effective means for figure correction of metre scale optical surfaces. In this paper, fast figure correction of a large optical surface is reported using the Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) process. Achievements are shown following the scaling-up of the RAP figuring process to a 400 mm diameter area of a substrate made of Corning ULE®. The pre-processing spherical surface is characterized by a 3 metres radius of curvature, 2.3 μm PVr (373nm RMS), and 1.2 nm Sq nanometre roughness. The nanometre scale correction figuring system used for this research work is named the HELIOS 1200, and it is equipped with a unique plasma torch which is driven by a dedicated tool path algorithm. Topography map measurements were carried out using a vertical work station instrumented by a Zygo DynaFiz interferometer. Figuring results, together with the processing times, convergence levels and number of iterations, are reported. The results illustrate the significant potential and advantage of plasma processing for figuring correction of large silicon based optical components.

  17. Figure-Associated Text Summarization and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J.; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

  18. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  19. Figuring "Success" in a Bilingual High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Ali; Andrade, Norma; Bartlett, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Using the concept of figured worlds, this article demonstrates how the faculty, staff, and students of Gregorio Luperon High School in New York City figured "success" by prioritizing the students' linguistic and cultural resources. "Success" was constructed specifically through granting Spanish high status, developing positive teacher-student…

  20. Automatic figure classification in bioscience literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehyun; Ramesh, Balaji Polepalli; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    Millions of figures appear in biomedical articles, and it is important to develop an intelligent figure search engine to return relevant figures based on user entries. In this study we report a figure classifier that automatically classifies biomedical figures into five predefined figure types: Gel-image, Image-of-thing, Graph, Model, and Mix. The classifier explored rich image features and integrated them with text features. We performed feature selection and explored different classification models, including a rule-based figure classifier, a supervised machine-learning classifier, and a multi-model classifier, the latter of which integrated the first two classifiers. Our results show that feature selection improved figure classification and the novel image features we explored were the best among image features that we have examined. Our results also show that integrating text and image features achieved better performance than using either of them individually. The best system is a multi-model classifier which combines the rule-based hierarchical classifier and a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, achieving a 76.7% F1-score for five-type classification. We demonstrated our system at http://figureclassification.askhermes.org/. PMID:21645638

  1. The Development of Ambiguous Figure Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The…

  2. Human Figure Drawings: Abusing the Abused.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardos, Achilles N.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to previous article (Motta, Little, and Tobin, this issue) which reviewed data-based studies on figure drawings and found little support for their validity or use in assessing personality, behavior, emotion, or intellectual functioning. Notes recent approaches to interpretation of human figure drawings and cites flaws in argument against…

  3. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

  4. Detector array evaluation and figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.

    1990-01-01

    The commonly used methods to evaluate the performance of a two-dimensional focal-plane array using charge transfer devices are reviewed. Two figures of merit that attempt to combine quantum efficiency, read noise and dark-current generation into a single parameter are discussed. The figures of merit are suggested as possible alternatives to the D asterisk.

  5. Aspects of Reference in Figurative Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1995-01-01

    This study considers some problems of reference found in figurative language, particularly in metaphor and metonymy. Analysis is based on the notion that the effects communicated by figurative language depend to a large extent on reference to more than one concept, experience, or entity, and that the presence of multiple potential referents…

  6. Equilibrium figures in geodesy and geophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, H.

    There is an enormous literature on geodetic equilibrium figures, but the various works have not always been interrelated, also for linguistic reasons (English, French, German, Italian, Russian). The author attempts to systematize the various approaches and to use the standard second-order theory for a study of the deviation of the actual earth and of the equipotential reference ellipsoid from an equilibrium figure.

  7. 46 CFR 69.123 - Figures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures. 69.123 Section 69.123 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.123 Figures. EC01FE91.042 EC01FE91.043 EC01FE91.044...

  8. LAPTM4B facilitates late endosomal ceramide export to control cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Blom, Tomas; Li, Shiqian; Dichlberger, Andrea; Bäck, Nils; Kim, Young Ah; Loizides-Mangold, Ursula; Riezman, Howard; Bittman, Robert; Ikonen, Elina

    2015-10-01

    Lysosome-associated protein transmembrane-4b (LAPTM4B) associates with poor prognosis in several cancers, but its physiological function is not well understood. Here we use novel ceramide probes to provide evidence that LAPTM4B interacts with ceramide and facilitates its removal from late endosomal organelles (LEs). This lowers LE ceramide in parallel with and independent of acid ceramidase-dependent catabolism. In LAPTM4B-silenced cells, LE sphingolipid accumulation is accompanied by lysosomal membrane destabilization. However, these cells resist ceramide-driven caspase-3 activation and apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents or gene silencing. Conversely, LAPTM4B overexpression reduces LE ceramide and stabilizes lysosomes but sensitizes to drug-induced caspase-3 activation. Together, these data uncover a cellular ceramide export route from LEs and identify LAPTM4B as its regulator. By compartmentalizing ceramide, LAPTM4B controls key sphingolipid-mediated cell death mechanisms and emerges as a candidate for sphingolipid-targeting cancer therapies. PMID:26280656

  9. INPP4B is an oncogenic regulator in human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S T; Chi, M N; Yang, R H; Guo, X Y; Zan, L K; Wang, C Y; Xi, Y F; Jin, L; Croft, A; Tseng, H-Y; Yan, X G; Farrelly, M; Wang, F H; Lai, F; Wang, J F; Li, Y P; Ackland, S; Scott, R; Agoulnik, I U; Hondermarck, H; Thorne, R F; Liu, T; Zhang, X D; Jiang, C C

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and is a tumor suppressor in some types of cancers. However, we have found that it is frequently upregulated in human colon cancer cells. Here we show that silencing of INPP4B blocks activation of Akt and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 3 (SGK3), inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and retards colon cancer xenograft growth. Conversely, overexpression of INPP4B increases proliferation and triggers anchorage-independent growth of normal colon epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effect of INPP4B on Akt and SGK3 is associated with inactivation of phosphate and tensin homolog through its protein phosphatase activity and that the increase in INPP4B is due to Ets-1-mediated transcriptional upregulation in colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that INPP4B may function as an oncogenic driver in colon cancer, with potential implications for targeting INPP4B as a novel approach to treat this disease. PMID:26411369

  10. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  19. Modeling of two-phase flow instabilities during startup transients utilizing RAMONA-4B methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Paniagua, J.; Rohatgi, U.S.; Prasad, V.

    1996-10-01

    RAMONA-4B code is currently under development for simulating thermal hydraulic instabilities that can occur in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). As one of the missions of RAMONA-4B is to simulate SBWR startup transients, where geysering or condensation-induced instability may be encountered, the code needs to be assessed for this application. This paper outlines the results of the assessments of the current version of RAMONA-4B and the modifications necessary for simulating the geysering or condensation-induced instability. The test selected for assessment are the geysering tests performed by Prof Aritomi (1993).

  20. Four-Component Bicyclization Approaches to Skeletally Diverse Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel four-component bicyclization strategy has been established, allowing a flexible and practical approach to 37 examples of multicyclic pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines from low-cost and readily accessible arylglyoxals, pyrazol-5-amines, aromatic amines, 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one, and cyclohexane-1,3-diones. The polysubstituted cyclopenta[d]pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines were stereoselectively synthesized through a microwave-assisted special [3+2+1]/[3+2] bicyclization with good control of the spatial configuration of exocyclic double bonds. The novel [3+2+1]/[2+2+1] bicyclization resulted in 17 examples of unreported pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolones. Reasonable mechanisms for forming two new types of multicyclic pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines are also proposed. PMID:25338160

  1. 16 CFR 1508.5 - Component spacing test method for § 1508.4(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Component spacing test method for § 1508.4(b). 1508.5 Section 1508.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.5 Component spacing test method for § 1508.4(b). (a) Construct a...

  2. TAF4b is required for mouse spermatogonial stem cell development

    PubMed Central

    Lovasco, Lindsay A.; Gustafson, Eric A.; Seymour, Kimberly A.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Freiman, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term mammalian spermatogenesis requires proper development of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that replenish the testis with germ cell progenitors during adult life. TAF4b is a gonadal-enriched component of the general transcription factor complex, TFIID, which is required for the maintenance of spermatogenesis in the mouse. Successful germ cell transplantation assays into adult TAF4b-deficient host testes suggested that TAF4b performs an essential germ cell autonomous function in SSC establishment and/or maintenance. To elucidate the SSC function of TAF4b, we characterized the initial gonocyte pool and rounds of spermatogenic differentiation in the context of the Taf4b-deficient mouse testis. Here we demonstrate a significant reduction in the late embryonic gonocyte pool and a deficient expansion of this pool soon after birth. Resulting from this reduction of germ cell progenitors is a developmental delay in meiosis initiation, as compared to age-matched controls. While GFRα1+ spermatogonia are appropriately present as Asingle and Apaired in wild type testes, TAF4b-deficient testes display an increased proportion of long and clustered chains of GFRα1+ cells. In the absence of TAF4b, seminiferous tubules in the adult testis either lack germ cells altogether or are found to have missing generations of spermatogenic progenitor cells. Together these data indicate that TAF4b-deficient spermatogenic progenitor cells display a tendency for differentiation at the expense of self-renewal and a renewing pool of SSCs fail to establish during the critical window of SSC development. PMID:25727968

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XO-4b 3yr observations with DEMONEX (Villanueva+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, S. Jr; Eastman, J. D.; Gaudi, B. S.

    2016-06-01

    New observations of XO-4b were made using DEdicated MONitor of EXotransits (DEMONEX). DEMONEX monitored bright stars hosting known transiting planets over a 3yr period from 2008 to 2011 in order to provide a homogeneous data set of precise relative photometry for over 40 transiting systems. There are 20 nights of data from 2008 November to 2010 May taken during primary transits of XO-4b. All observations were made in the Sloan z band. (1 data file).

  4. UBE4B targets phosphorylated p53 at serines 15 and 392 for degradation.

    PubMed

    Du, Cheng; Wu, Hong; Leng, Roger P

    2016-01-19

    Phosphorylation of p53 is a key mechanism responsible for the activation of its tumor suppressor functions in response to various stresses. In unstressed cells, p53 is rapidly turned over and is maintained at a low basal level. After DNA damage or other forms of cellular stress, the p53 level increases, and the protein becomes metabolically stable. However, the mechanism of phosphorylated p53 regulation is unclear. In this study, we studied the kinetics of UBE4B, Hdm2, Pirh2, Cop1 and CHIP induction in response to p53 activation. We show that UBE4B coimmunoprecipitates with phosphorylated p53 at serines 15 and 392. Notably, the affinity between UBE4B and Hdm2 is greatly decreased after DNA damage. Furthermore, we observe that UBE4B promotes endogenous phospho-p53(S15) and phospho-p53(S392) degradation in response to IR. We demonstrate that UBE4B and Hdm2 repress p53S15A, p53S392A, and p53-2A(S15A, S392A) functions, including p53-dependent transactivation and growth inhibition. Overall, our results reveal that UBE4B plays an important role in regulating phosphorylated p53 following DNA damage. PMID:26673821

  5. Biodegradation of Green HE4B: Co-substrate effect, biotransformation enzymes and metabolite toxicity analysis.

    PubMed

    Kalme, S D; Jadhav, S U; Parshetti, G K; Govindwar, S P

    2010-06-01

    A high exhaust reactive dye, Green HE4B (GHE4B) was 98% degraded in nutrient medium by Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112 (pd2112) within 72 h at static condition. Decolorization time in synthetic 10 g/l molasses. Addition of 5 g/l peptone to NaCl medium had reduced decolorization time from 108 to 72 h. Beef extract do not contribute more to the inducing effect of peptone, however it is a good co-substrate in sucrose or urea containing NaCl medium. Intracellular lignin peroxidase (Lip), laccase and tyrosinase activities were induced by 150, 355 and 212%, respectively till maximum dye removal took place. Aminopyrine N-demethylase (AND) and dichlorophenol indophenol reductase (DCIP-reductase) activities in pd2112 were induced by 130 and 20%, respectively at 72 h of incubation during GHE4B decolorization. By high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, 4-hydroxybenzene sulfonic acid and 4-amino, 6-hydroxynaphthalene 2-sulfonic acids were identified as metabolites formed during 24-72 h incubation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis supports the formation of these aromatic amines. pd2112, aerobically degraded GHE4B metabolites (formed at static condition) showing stationary phase of 6 days. There was no germination inhibition of Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum by GHE4B metabolites at 3,000 ppm concentration however untreated dye showed germination inhibition at the same concentration. GHE4B metabolites did not show any microbial toxicity at 10,000 ppm concentration. PMID:23100822

  6. Comprehension of Figurative Language in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    1985-01-01

    A review of developmental studies concerning metaphor, idiom, and proverb comprehension suggest a variety of assessment tasks for language impaired children. Also suggested are such intervention considerations as the comprehension of literal meaning of figurative expressions before nonliteral meanings. (CL)

  7. Significant Figure Rules for General Arithmetic Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Provides some significant figure rules used in chemistry including the general theoretical basis; logarithms and antilogarithms; exponentiation (with exactly known exponents); sines and cosines; and the extreme value rule. (YP)

  8. Neuroblastoma patient outcomes, tumor differentiation, and ERK activation are correlated with expression levels of the ubiquitin ligase UBE4B

    PubMed Central

    Woodfield, Sarah E.; Guo, Rong Jun; Liu, Yin; Major, Angela M.; Hollingsworth, Emporia Faith; Indiviglio, Sandra; Whittle, Sarah B.; Mo, Qianxing; Bean, Andrew J.; Ittmann, Michael; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Zage, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Background UBE4B is an E3/E4 ubiquitin ligase whose gene is located in chromosome 1p36.22. We analyzed the associations of UBE4B gene and protein expression with neuroblastoma patient outcomes and with tumor prognostic features and histology. Methods We evaluated the association of UBE4B gene expression with neuroblastoma patient outcomes using the R2 Platform. We screened neuroblastoma tumor samples for UBE4B protein expression using immunohistochemistry. FISH for UBE4B and 1p36 deletion was performed on tumor samples. We then evaluated UBE4B expression for associations with prognostic factors and with levels of phosphorylated ERK in neuroblastoma tumors and cell lines. Results Low UBE4B gene expression is associated with poor outcomes in patients with neuroblastoma and with worse outcomes in all patient subgroups. UBE4B protein expression was associated with neuroblastoma tumor differentiation, and decreased UBE4B protein levels were associated with high-risk features. UBE4B protein levels were also associated with levels of phosphorylated ERK. Conclusions We have demonstrated associations between UBE4B gene expression and neuroblastoma patient outcomes and prognostic features. Reduced UBE4B protein expression in neuroblastoma tumors was associated with high-risk features, a lack of differentiation, and with ERK activation. These results suggest UBE4B may contribute to the poor prognosis of neuroblastoma tumors with 1p36 deletions and that UBE4B expression may mediate neuroblastoma differentiation. PMID:27014418

  9. Ion beam figuring system in NUDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Xie, Xuhui; Dai, Yifan; Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi

    2007-12-01

    Ion beam figuring (IBF) is an optical fabrication technique that provides highly deterministic process to correct surface figure error of previously polished surfaces by using a directed, inert and neutralized ion beam to physically sputter material from the optic surface. Recently, an ion beam figuring system KDIFS-500 has been designed and built in National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) of the P.R. China. KDIFS-500 is capable of processing workpiece up to Φ500mm. Line scanning process was discussed in detail for estimating the parameters of the beam removal function (BRF) in process. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the BRF increases gradually in process and by employing a stability control, the BRF can be kept stable in process. Finally, a Φ95 mm plano optical sample of CVD coated SiC substrate has been figured in two process iterations for demonstrating the correction capability of the KDIFS-500. Their figure convergence ratios reached 5.8 and 2.1 respectively. The actual figure residual errors were basically consistent with the predicted error. These consistencies indicated that the IBF processes on KDIFS-500 are predictable deterministic processes.

  10. Ion beam figuring of small optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drueding, Thomas W.; Fawcett, Steven C.; Wilson, Scott R.; Bifano, Thomas G.

    1995-12-01

    Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The process involves bombarding a component with a stable beam of accelerated particles that selectively removes material from the surface. Figure corrections are achieved by rastering the fixed-current beam across the workplace at appropriate, time-varying velocities. Unlike conventional methods, ion figuring is a noncontact technique and thus avoids such problems as edge rolloff effects, tool wear, and force loading of the workpiece. This work is directed toward the development of the precision ion machining system at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This system is designed for processing small (approximately equals 10-cm diam) optical components. Initial experiments were successful in figuring 8-cm-diam fused silica and chemical-vapor-deposited SiC samples. The experiments, procedures, and results of figuring the sample workpieces to shallow spherical, parabolic (concave and convex), and non-axially-symmetric shapes are discussed. Several difficulties and limitations encountered with the current system are discussed. The use of a 1-cm aperture for making finer corrections on optical components is also reported.

  11. Identification of JTP-70902, a p15(INK4b)-inductive compound, as a novel MEK1/2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Yoshida, Takayuki; Kurachi, Reina; Kakegawa, Junya; Hori, Yoshikazu; Nanayama, Toyomichi; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Abe, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Koichi; Matsuzaki, Youichirou; Koyama, Makoto; Yogosawa, Shingo; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Yamori, Takao; Tajima, Nobuyuki; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2007-11-01

    The INK4 family members p16(INK4a) and p15(INK4b) negatively regulate cell cycle progression by inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6. Loss of p16(INK4a) functional activity is frequently observed in tumor cells, and is thought to be one of the primary causes of carcinogenesis. In contrast, despite the biochemical similarity to p16(INK4a), the frequency of defects in p15(INK4b) was found to be lower than in p16(INK4a), suggesting that p15(INK4b)-inductive agents may be useful for tumor suppression. Here we report the discovery of a novel pyrido-pyrimidine derivative, JTP-70902, which exhibits p15(INK4b)-inducing activity in p16(INK4a)-inactivated human colon cancer HT-29 cells. JTP-70902 also induced another CDK-inhibitor, p27(KIP1), and downregulated the expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1, resulting in G(1) cell cycle arrest. MEK1/2 was identified by compound-immobilized affinity chromatography as the molecular target of JTP-70902, and this was further confirmed by the inhibitory activity of JTP-70902 against MEK1/2 in kinase assays. JTP-70902 suppressed the growth of most colorectal and some other cancer cell lines in vitro, and showed antitumor activity in an HT-29 xenograft model. However, JTP-70902 did not inhibit the growth of COLO320 DM cells; in these, constitutive extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation was not detected, and neither p15(INK4b) nor p27(KIP1) induction was observed. Moreover, p15(INK4b)-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts were found to be more resistant to the growth-inhibitory effect of JTP-70902 than wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These findings suggest that JTP-70902 restores CDK inhibitor-mediated cell cycle control by inhibiting MEK1/2 and exerts a potent antitumor effect. PMID:17784872

  12. Promoter activity and regulation of the corneal CYP4B1 gene by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mastyugin, Vladimir; Mezentsev, Alexandre; Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Ashkar, Silvia; Dunn, Michael W; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal

    2004-04-15

    Hypoxic injury to the ocular surface provokes an inflammatory response that is mediated, in part, by corneal epithelial-derived 12-hydroxyeicosanoids. Recent studies indicate that a cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase, identified as CYP4B1, is involved in the production of these eicosanoids which exhibit potent inflammatory and angiogenic properties. We have isolated and cloned a corneal epithelial CYP4B1 full-length cDNA and demonstrated that the CYP4B1 mRNA is induced by hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. To further understand the molecular regulation that underlies the synthesis of these potent inflammatory eicosanoids in response to hypoxic injury, we isolated and cloned the CYP4B1 promoter region. GenomeWalker libraries constructed from rabbit corneal epithelial genomic DNA were used as templates for primary and nested PCR amplifications with gene- and adaptor-specific primers. A 3.41-kb DNA fragment of the 5'-flanking region of the CYP4B1 promoter was isolated, cloned, sequenced, and analyzed by computer software for the presence of known cis-acting elements. Analysis of the promoter sequence revealed the presence of consensus DNA binding sequences for factors known to activate gene transcription in response to hypoxia including HIF-1, NFkappaB, and AP-1. Transient transfection of luciferase reporter (pGL3-Basic) vectors containing different lengths of the CYP4B1 promoter fragment demonstrated hypoxia-induced transcription in rabbit corneal epithelial (RCE) cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed a marked induction of nuclear binding activity for the labeled HIF-1 probe from the CYP4B1 promoter in nuclear extracts of cells exposed to hypoxia. This binding activity was due to sequence-specific binding to the HIF-1 oligonucleotide probe as shown by competition with excess unlabeled probe for the HIF-1 but not with unlabeled NFkappaB probe. The nuclear binding activity of AP-1 and NFkappaB probes from the CYP4B1 promoter was also enhanced in

  13. Wet-Etch Figuring Optical Figuring by Controlled Application of Liquid Etchant

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J

    2001-02-13

    WET-ETCH FIGURING (WEF) is an automated method of precisely figuring optical materials by the controlled application of aqueous etchant solution. This technology uses surface-tension-gradient-driven flow to confine and stabilize a wetted zone of an etchant solution or other aqueous processing fluid on the surface of an object. This wetted zone can be translated on the surface in a computer-controlled fashion for precise spatial control of the surface reactions occurring (e.g. chemical etching). WEF is particularly suitable for figuring very thin optical materials because it applies no thermal or mechanical stress to the material. Also, because the process is stress-free the workpiece can be monitored during figuring using interferometric metrology, and the measurements obtained can be used to control the figuring process in real-time--something that cannot be done with traditional figuring methods.

  14. (4B-3H) NADH-H2O exchange reaction of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Guillory, R.J.

    1985-06-14

    The purified mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase enzyme has been shown to catalyze a rapid (4B-/sup 3/H) NADH-H/sub 2/O exchange reaction. When the enzyme is subjected to a single freeze-thaw cycle there is a complete loss of NADH dehydrogenation without a measurable decrease in the (4B-/sup 3/H) NADH-H/sub 2/O exchange. Complete loss of the (4B-/sup 3/H) NADH-H/sub 2/O exchange follows brief exposure to ultraviolet photoirradiation. The differential sensitivity of the water exchange reaction and the dehydrogenase activity suggests a direct involvement of the enzymes flavin cofactor in the catalysis of the (4B-/sup 3/H) NADH-H/sub 2/O exchange. Arylazido-beta-alanyl NAD+ (A3'-0-(3-(N-4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino) propionyl)NAD+) is shown to be a potent photodependent inhibitor of the (4B-3H) NADH-H/sub 2/O exchange activity following photoirradiation with visible light. This is consistent with the observed photodependent inhibition of the dehydrogenase activity by this photoprobe.

  15. High-Pressure Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Ce4B14O27

    PubMed Central

    Hinteregger, Ernst; Perfler, Lukas; Huppertz, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Ce4B14O27 was synthesized under conditions of 2.6 GPa and 750 °C in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The crystal structure was determined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, collected at room temperature, revealing that Ce4B14O27 is isotypic to La4B14O27. Ce4B14O27 crystallizes monoclinically with four formula units in the space group C2/c (No. 15) and the lattice parameters a = 1117.8(2), b = 640.9(2), c = 2531.7(5) pm, and β = 100.2(1)°. The three-dimensional boron-oxygen framework consists of [BO4]5– tetrahedra and trigonal-planar [BO3]3– groups. The structure contains two crystallographically different cerium ions. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy was performed on single crystals of Ce4B14O27. PMID:25995523

  16. Essential role for the ATG4B protease and autophagy in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Sandra; Maciel, Mariana; Herrera, Iliana; Nava, Teresa; Vergara, Fabián; Gaxiola, Miguel; López-Otín, Carlos; Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie

    2015-04-01

    Autophagy is a critical cellular homeostatic process that controls the turnover of damaged organelles and proteins. Impaired autophagic activity is involved in a number of diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis suggesting that altered autophagy may contribute to fibrogenesis. However, the specific role of autophagy in lung fibrosis is still undefined. In this study, we show for the first time, how autophagy disruption contributes to bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in vivo using an Atg4b-deficient mouse as a model. Atg4b-deficient mice displayed a significantly higher inflammatory response at 7 d after bleomycin treatment associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration and significant alterations in proinflammatory cytokines. Likewise, we found that Atg4b disruption resulted in augmented apoptosis affecting predominantly alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells. At 28 d post-bleomycin instillation Atg4b-deficient mice exhibited more extensive and severe fibrosis with increased collagen accumulation and deregulated extracellular matrix-related gene expression. Together, our findings indicate that the ATG4B protease and autophagy play a crucial role protecting epithelial cells against bleomycin-induced stress and apoptosis, and in the regulation of the inflammatory and fibrotic responses. PMID:25906080

  17. Discover natural compounds as potential phosphodiesterase-4B inhibitors via computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Nan; Liu, Wen; Li, Jianzong; Feng, Yu; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Chuanfang; Bao, Jinku

    2016-05-01

    cAMP, intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate, is a ubiquitous second messenger that plays a key role in many physiological processes. PDE4B which can reduce the cAMP level by hydrolyzing cAMP to 5'-AMP has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of human diseases such as respiratory disorders, inflammation diseases, neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the use of currently available PDE4B inhibitors is restricted due to serious side effects caused by targeting PDE4D. Hence, we are attempting to find out subfamily-selective PDE4B inhibitors from natural products, using computer-aided approaches such as virtual screening, docking, and molecular dynamics simulation. Finally, four potential PDE4B-selective inhibitors (ZINC67912770, ZINC67912780, ZINC72320169, and ZINC28882432) were found. Compared to the reference drug (roflumilast), they scored better during the virtual screening process. Binding free energy for them was -317.51, -239.44, -215.52, and -165.77 kJ/mol, better than -129.05 kJ/mol of roflumilast. The pharmacophore model of the four candidate inhibitors comprised six features, including one hydrogen bond donor, four hydrogen bond acceptors, and one aromatic ring feature. It is expected that our study will pave the way for the design of potent PDE4B-selective inhibitors of new drugs to treat a wide variety of diseases such as asthma, COPD, psoriasis, depression, etc. PMID:26159554

  18. Oct4B, CD90, and CD73 are upregulated in bladder tissue following electro-resection of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Takumi; Tonooka, Akiko; Okuno, Yumiko; Hattori-Kato, Mami; Mikami, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We tested the hypothesis that stimulation by electro-resection of bladder tissue induces stem cells in the tissue repair process. Materials & Methods: After primary transurethral resection of a bladder tumor and surrounding tissue (TUR-Bt), second TUR-Bt was performed. Tissues excised by second TUR-Bt were immunohistochemically stained for Oct4, a marker of pluripotency, and for CD90 and CD73, markers of mesenchymal stromal cells, when no bladder tumor cells remained. Results and Conclusions: Oct4B protein was sporadically stained in the cytoplasm of interstitial cells in four out of eight cases. CD90 and CD73 are upregulated in interstitial and vascular endothelial cells without CD45 expression. Mesenchymal stromal cells, but not pluripotent stem cells, may be mainly involved in bladder tissue repair. PMID:27397997

  19. Yeast eIF4B binds to the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit and promotes mRNA recruitment through its N-terminal and internal repeat domains.

    PubMed

    Walker, Sarah E; Zhou, Fujun; Mitchell, Sarah F; Larson, Victoria S; Valasek, Leos; Hinnebusch, Alan G; Lorsch, Jon R

    2013-02-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)4B stimulates recruitment of mRNA to the 43S ribosomal pre-initiation complex (PIC). Yeast eIF4B (yeIF4B), shown previously to bind single-stranded (ss) RNA, consists of an N-terminal domain (NTD), predicted to be unstructured in solution; an RNA-recognition motif (RRM); an unusual domain comprised of seven imperfect repeats of 26 amino acids; and a C-terminal domain. Although the mechanism of yeIF4B action has remained obscure, most models have suggested central roles for its RRM and ssRNA-binding activity. We have dissected the functions of yeIF4B's domains and show that the RRM and its ssRNA-binding activity are dispensable in vitro and in vivo. Instead, our data indicate that the 7-repeats and NTD are the most critical domains, which mediate binding of yeIF4B to the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit via interaction with Rps20. This interaction induces structural changes in the ribosome's mRNA entry channel that could facilitate mRNA loading. We also show that yeIF4B strongly promotes productive interaction of eIF4A with the 43S•mRNA PIC in a manner required for efficient mRNA recruitment. PMID:23236192

  20. Software systems for modeling articulated figures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Cary B.

    1989-01-01

    Research in computer animation and simulation of human task performance requires sophisticated geometric modeling and user interface tools. The software for a research environment should present the programmer with a powerful but flexible substrate of facilities for displaying and manipulating geometric objects, yet insure that future tools have a consistent and friendly user interface. Jack is a system which provides a flexible and extensible programmer and user interface for displaying and manipulating complex geometric figures, particularly human figures in a 3D working environment. It is a basic software framework for high-performance Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations for modeling and manipulating geometric objects in a general but powerful way. It provides a consistent and user-friendly interface across various applications in computer animation and simulation of human task performance. Currently, Jack provides input and control for applications including lighting specification and image rendering, anthropometric modeling, figure positioning, inverse kinematics, dynamic simulation, and keyframe animation.

  1. Figure control concepts for segmented reflector telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, D.; Chu, C. C.; Ih, C.-H. C.; Wang, S. J.; Ryaciotaki-Boussalis, H. A.

    1989-01-01

    Control analysis activities related to the development of figure control technologies for large space telescopes with precision segmented actively controlled primary reflectors are reviewed. The Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) configuration is described along with the development and use of the PSR models. Geometric and dynamic models, characterization of figure estimation errors and optimal sensor placement, and the development of quasi-static and dynamic control concepts are outlined. The structure of a quasi-static controller is presented, that utilizes edge sensor measurements to estimate displacement errors at the actuator level and generates figure correction commands. The second approach considers decentralization of the reflector system at the panel level, while the third considers decentralization at the actuator level.

  2. Wetting of microstructured alumina fabricated by epitaxial growth of Al4B2O9 whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifeng; Feng, Jicai; Chen, Zhe; Song, Xiaoguo; Cao, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Topographical microstructures were fabricated on alumina by epitaxial growth of Al4B2O9 whiskers in air. The products were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The whiskers were found to grow along the [0 0 1] crystallographic direction, and the lattice mismatch between Al2O3 and Al4B2O9 was determined to be 0.03%. The wetting of the Al4B2O9-whisker-coated surfaces by Ag-36.7Cu-8.0Ti at.% alloy was studied. The time needed to reach the equilibrium stage reduced as the temperature increased, and the final contact angle for liquid alloy on the rough surface was 27° at 880 °C. The wetting dynamics of the whiskers coated surfaces was investigated. After wetting, a whisker-interconnected region was formed between alumina and the alloy.

  3. Lack of Cul4b, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Component, Leads to Embryonic Lethality and Abnormal Placental Development

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jupeng; Qian, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjie; Zou, Yongxin; Guo, Chenhong; Chen, Bingxi; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin

    2012-01-01

    Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) complexes participate in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, transcription, signal transduction and development. Serving as the scaffold protein, cullins are crucial for the assembly of ligase complexes, which recognize and target various substrates for proteosomal degradation. Mutations in human CUL4B, one of the eight members in cullin family, are one of the major causes of X-linked mental retardation. We here report the generation and characterization of Cul4b knockout mice, in which exons 3 to 5 were deleted. In contrast to the survival to adulthood of human hemizygous males with CUL4B null mutation, Cul4b null mouse embryos show severe developmental arrest and usually die before embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5). Accumulation of cyclin E, a CRL (CUL4B) substrate, was observed in Cul4b null embryos. Cul4b heterozygotes were recovered at a reduced ratio and exhibited a severe developmental delay. The placentas in Cul4b heterozygotes were disorganized and were impaired in vascularization, which may contribute to the developmental delay. As in human CUL4B heterozygotes, Cul4b null cells were selected against in Cul4b heterozygotes, leading to various degrees of skewed X-inactivation in different tissues. Together, our results showed that CUL4B is indispensable for embryonic development in the mouse. PMID:22606329

  4. [Figures of anima in the Odyssey].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Feminine characters in the Odyssey show different aspects of the archetype: Mother and Anima (C.G. Jung). From an Analytical Psychology perspective the encounters of Odysseus with goddesses: Circe, Calypso, Ino are looked at as different and successive stages of the hero's way into the inconscious, who shows himself in feminine figures, being masculine the consciousness of the hero. Nausicaa is a new, nearly-human figure of Anima who appears after the symbolic death of Odysseus and leads him to the royal couple Alcinous-Arete: in front of them all he finds his new, reborn, personality by creating and narrating his own myth. PMID:25807734

  5. Preliminary results of 3D dose calculations with MCNP-4B code from a SPECT image.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Gual, M; Lima, F F; Sospedra Alfonso, R; González González, J; Calderón Marín, C

    2004-01-01

    Interface software was developed to generate the input file to run Monte Carlo MCNP-4B code from medical image in Interfile format version 3.3. The software was tested using a spherical phantom of tomography slides with known cumulated activity distribution in Interfile format generated with IMAGAMMA medical image processing system. The 3D dose calculation obtained with Monte Carlo MCNP-4B code was compared with the voxel S factor method. The results show a relative error between both methods less than 1 %. PMID:15625058

  6. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  7. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  8. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  9. Secondary Structure and Membrane Topology of the Full-Length Dengue Virus NS4B in Micelles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wong, Ying Lei; Lee, Michelle Yueqi; Li, Qingxin; Wang, Qing-Yin; Lescar, Julien; Shi, Pei-Yong; Kang, CongBao

    2016-09-19

    Dengue virus nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a membrane protein consisting of 248 residues with a crucial role in virus replication and interference with the host innate immunity. The dengue virus serotype 3 NS4B was reconstituted into lyso-myristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (LMPG) micelles. Backbone resonance assignment of NS4B was obtained using conventional solution NMR experiments. Further studies suggested that NS4B contained eleven helices and six of them form five potential transmembrane regions. This study provides atomic level information for an important drug target to control flavivirus infections. PMID:27554985

  10. Adolescent Girls' Parasocial Interactions with Media Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied…

  11. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  12. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  13. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  14. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  15. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  16. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  17. Fading-Figure Tracing in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Chiyoko; Inui, Toshio; Iwata, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe impairment of visuospatial abilities. Figure-drawing abilities, which are thought to reflect visuospatial abilities, have yet to be fully investigated in WS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether drawing abilities differ between WS individuals and…

  18. Participation in the Figured World of Graffiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Imuris; Weiss, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on ethnographic work with two "crews" of young graffiti artists in southern Mexico City. The crews share certain characteristics with gangs or urban tribes, but more with "communities of practice": they live in the "figured world" of graffiti, a community of practice at the local and global level. Through participation,…

  19. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  20. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  1. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  2. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  3. Cylindrical optic figuring dwell time optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluschka, Eugene

    2000-11-01

    The Constellation-X, grazing incidence, x-ray telescope may be fabricated from replicated segments. A series of mandrels will serve as the 'masters' in the replication processes. Diamond turning (milling) followed by abrasive figuring followed by a super polishing are the steps currently envisioned in making just one (of many) mandrel. The abrasive figuring of a mandrel is accomplished by moving a grinding tool along a helical path on this almost cylindrical surface. The measurement of the surface is, however, performed along 'axial' scan lines which intercept this helical path. This approach to figuring and measuring permits a relatively simple scheme to be implemented for the determination of the optimal dwell times of the figuring tool. These optimal dwell times are determined by a deconvolution which approaches the problem in a linear programming context and uses the Simplex Method. The approach maximizes the amount of material removed at any point subject to inequality constraints. The effects of using these 'optimum' dwell times is to significantly improve the tools effectiveness at removing the higher spatial frequencies while staying (strictly) within the bounds and constraints imposed by the hardware. In addition, the ringing at the edges of the optic, frequently present in deconvolution problems, is completely eliminated.

  4. Go Figure. HEADJAM. Teaching Guide [and Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATHCOUNTS Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    The HeadJam series is comprised of six programs exploring mathematics, science, and critical thinking skills. It is an award-winning, educational videotape series for middle school students that explores multi-disciplinary skills in a highly entertaining way. The teacher's guide and 22-minute video, "Go Figure," demonstrate how math is used in the…

  5. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  6. Identification of an NTPase motif in classical swine fever virus NS4B protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease of swine caused by CSF virus (CSFV), a positive sense single-stranded RNA virus in the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family. Here, we have identified, within CSFV non-structural (NS) protein NS4B, conserved sequence el...

  7. Tricritical behavior in the ferromagnetic superconductor ErRh/sub 4/B/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G.W.; Kalia, R.K.; Hinks, D.G.; Behroozi, F.; Tachiki, M.

    1985-08-01

    A new tricritical point on the phase boundary between the superconducting vortex phase and the normal paramagnetic phase of ErRh/sub 4/B/sub 4/ is presented. The microscopic origin of the tricritical point and the expected tricritical behavior are briefly discussed.

  8. 20. FOUR 4B17Gs BEING CONVERTED TO F9Cs. Photographic copy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. FOUR 4B-17Gs BEING CONVERTED TO F-9Cs. Photographic copy of historic photograph. Jan.-June 1947 OAMA (original print located at Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah). Photographer unknown. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  9. 16 CFR 1508.5 - Component spacing test method for § 1508.4(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Component spacing test method for § 1508.4(b). 1508.5 Section 1508.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.5 Component spacing test method...

  10. DISC1, PDE4B, and NDE1 at the centrosome and synapse

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Nicholas J.; Ogawa, Fumiaki; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Chubb, Jennifer E.; Carlyle, Becky C.; Christie, Sheila; Claessens, Antoine; Porteous, David J.; Millar, J. Kirsty

    2008-12-26

    Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk factor for schizophrenia and other major mental illnesses. Its protein binding partners include the Nuclear Distribution Factor E Homologs (NDE1 and NDEL1), LIS1, and phosphodiesterases 4B and 4D (PDE4B and PDE4D). We demonstrate that NDE1, NDEL1 and LIS1, together with their binding partner dynein, associate with DISC1, PDE4B and PDE4D within the cell, and provide evidence that this complex is present at the centrosome. LIS1 and NDEL1 have been previously suggested to be synaptic, and we now demonstrate localisation of DISC1, NDE1, and PDE4B at synapses in cultured neurons. NDE1 is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependant Protein Kinase A (PKA), whose activity is, in turn, regulated by the cAMP hydrolysis activity of phosphodiesterases, including PDE4. We propose that DISC1 acts as an assembly scaffold for all of these proteins and that the NDE1/NDEL1/LIS1/dynein complex is modulated by cAMP levels via PKA and PDE4.

  11. 49 CFR 178.55 - Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders. 178.55 Section 178.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for...

  12. miR-937 contributes to the lung cancer cell proliferation by targeting INPP4B.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zeng, Daxiong; Chen, Ying; Li, Ning; Lv, Yantian; Li, Yong; Xu, Xiao; Xu, Guopeng

    2016-06-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, microRNAs play critical role in the initiation and development of lung cancer. Here, we used MTT assay, colony formation assay, soft agar growth assay and BrdU incorporation assay to investigate miR-937's role in lung cancer. We found that miR-937 was upregulated in lung cancer tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR-937 in A549 promoted anchorage -dependent and -independent growth, whereas knockdown of miR-937 reduced this effect. Meanwhile, we also found miR-937 overexpression increased CCND1 and c-Myc levels in both mRNA and protein levels, knockdown of miR-937 reduced this effect, confirming miR-937 promoted cell proliferation. Mechanism analyses found polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) was the target of miR-937, miR-937 directly bound to the 3'UTR of INPP4B, knockdown of INPP4B in A549 with miR-937 inhibitor promoted anchorage -dependent and -independent growth, suggesting miR-937 contributed to cell proliferation of lung cancer by inhibiting INPP4B, it might be a valuable target for lung cancer therapy. PMID:27179609

  13. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  14. A new role for reticulon-4B/NOGO-B in the intestinal epithelial barrier function and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Feo, Juan Antonio; Puerto, Marta; Fernández-Mena, Carolina; Verdejo, Cristina; Lara, José Manuel; Díaz-Sánchez, María; Álvarez, Emilio; Vaquero, Javier; Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; Bañares, Rafael; Menchén, Luis

    2015-06-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by an impaired intestinal barrier function. We aimed to investigate the role of reticulon-4B (RTN-4B/NOGO-B), a structural protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, in intestinal barrier function and IBD. We used immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, real-time PCR, and Western blotting to study tissue distribution and expression levels of RTN-4B/NOGO-B in control and IBD samples from mouse and humans. We also targeted RTN-4B/NOGO-B using siRNAs in cultured human intestinal epithelial cell (IECs). Epithelial barrier permeability was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement. RTN-4B/NOGO-B is expressed in the intestine mainly by IECs. Confocal microscopy revealed a colocalization of RTN-4B, E-cadherin, and polymerized actin fibers in tissue and cultured IECs. RTN-4B mRNA and protein expression were lower in the colon of IL-10(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. Colocalization of RTN-4B/E-cadherin/actin was reduced in the colon of IL-10(-/-) mice. Analysis of endoscopic biopsies from IBD patients showed a significant reduction of RTN-4B/NOGO-B expression in inflamed mucosa compared with control. Treatment of IECs with H2O2 reduced TEER values and triggered phosphorylation of RTN-4B in serine 107 residues as well as downregulation of RTN-4B expression. Acute RTN-4B/NOGO-B knockdown by siRNAs resulted in a decreased TEER values and reduction of E-cadherin and α-catenin expression and in the amount of F-actin-rich filaments in IECs. Epithelial RTN-4B/NOGO-B was downregulated in human and experimental IBD. RTN-4B participates in the intestinal epithelial barrier function, most likely via its involvement in E-cadherin, α-catenin expression, and actin cytoskeleton organization at sites of cell-to-cell contacts. PMID:25907690

  15. CHMP4B, a Novel Gene for Autosomal Dominant Cataracts Linked to Chromosome 20q

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, Alan ; Bennett, Thomas M. ; Knopf, Harry L. S. ; Yamada, Koki ; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro ; Niikawa, Norio ; Shim, Soomin ; Hanson, Phyllis I. 

    2007-01-01

    Cataracts are a clinically diverse and genetically heterogeneous disorder of the crystalline lens and a leading cause of visual impairment. Here we report linkage of autosomal dominant “progressive childhood posterior subcapsular” cataracts segregating in a white family to short tandem repeat (STR) markers D20S847 (LOD score [Z] 5.50 at recombination fraction [θ] 0.0) and D20S195 (Z=3.65 at θ=0.0) on 20q, and identify a refined disease interval (rs2057262–(3.8 Mb)–rs1291139) by use of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Mutation profiling of positional-candidate genes detected a heterozygous transversion (c.386A→T) in exon 3 of the gene for chromatin modifying protein-4B (CHMP4B) that was predicted to result in the nonconservative substitution of a valine residue for a phylogenetically conserved aspartic acid residue at codon 129 (p.D129V). In addition, we have detected a heterozygous transition (c.481G→A) in exon 3 of CHMP4B cosegregating with autosomal dominant posterior polar cataracts in a Japanese family that was predicted to result in the missense substitution of lysine for a conserved glutamic acid residue at codon 161 (p.E161K). Transfection studies of cultured cells revealed that a truncated form of recombinant D129V-CHMP4B had a different subcellular distribution than wild type and an increased capacity to inhibit release of virus-like particles from the cell surface, consistent with deleterious gain-of-function effects. These data provide the first evidence that CHMP4B, which encodes a key component of the endosome sorting complex required for the transport-III (ESCRT-III) system of mammalian cells, plays a vital role in the maintenance of lens transparency. PMID:17701905

  16. Secondary structure and membrane topology of dengue virus NS4B N-terminal 125 amino acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Kim, Young Mee; Zou, Jing; Wang, Qing-Yin; Gayen, Shovanlal; Wong, Ying Lei; Lee, Le Tian; Xie, Xuping; Huang, Qiwei; Lescar, Julien; Shi, Pei-Yong; Kang, CongBao

    2015-12-01

    The transmembrane NS4B protein of dengue virus (DENV) is a validated antiviral target that plays important roles in viral replication and invasion of innate immune response. The first 125 amino acids of DENV NS4B are sufficient for inhibition of alpha/beta interferon signaling. Resistance mutations to NS4B inhibitors are all mapped to the first 125 amino acids. In this study, we expressed and purified a protein representing the first 125 amino acids of NS4B (NS4B(1-125)). This recombinant NS4B(1-125) protein was reconstituted into detergent micelles. Solution NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that there are five helices (α1 to α5) present in NS4B(1-125). Dynamic studies, together with a paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiment demonstrated that four helices, α2, α3, α4, and α5 are embedded in the detergent micelles. Comparison of wild type and V63I mutant (a mutation that confers resistance to NS4B inhibitor) NS4B(1-125) proteins demonstrated that V63I mutation did not cause significant conformational changes, however, V63 may have a molecular interaction with residues in the α5 transmembrane domain under certain conditions. The structural and dynamic information obtained in study is helpful to understand the structure and function of NS4B. PMID:26403837

  17. High CHMP4B expression is associated with accelerated cell proliferation and resistance to doxorubicin in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Baoying; Jiang, Dawei; Chen, Yuyan; Wei, Lixian; Zhang, Shusen; Zhao, Fengbo; Ni, Runzhou; Lu, Cuihua; Wan, Chunhua

    2015-04-01

    Charged multivesicular body protein 4B (CHMP4B), a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III complex, plays an important part in cytokinetic membrane abscission and the late stage of mitotic cell division. In this study, we explored the prognostic significance of CHMP4B in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its impact on the physiology of HCC cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses showed that CHMP4B was significantly upregulated in HCC tissues, compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Meanwhile, clinicopathological analysis revealed that high CHMP4B expression was correlated with multiple clinicopathological variables, including AFP, cirrhosis, AJCC stage, Ki-67 expression, and poor prognosis. More importantly, univariate and multivariate survival analyses demonstrated that CHMP4B served as an independent prognostic factor for survival of HCC patients. Using HCC cell cultures, we found that the expression of CHMP4B was progressively upregulated after the release from serum starvation. To verify whether CHMP4B could regulate the proliferation of HCC cells, CHMP4B was knocked down through the transfection of CHMP4B-siRNA oligos. Flow cytometry and CCK-8 assays indicated that interference of CHMP4B led to cell cycle arrest and proliferative impairment of HCC cells. Additionally, depletion of CHMP4B expression could increase the sensitivity to doxorubicin in HepG2 and Huh7 cells. Taken together, our results implied that CHMP4B could be a promising prognostic biomarker as well as a potential therapeutic target of HCC. PMID:25874485

  18. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  19. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  20. Recommended Figures of Merit for Green Monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrazine propellant has historically been used as a rocket thruster monopropellant since the mid-1960s. Mission managers are well aware of its characteristics and performance. However, it is a known toxic chemical and a wide effort is underway to reduce and/or eliminate its use worldwide. Several new propellant combinations have been developed in the last few years which tout or promise to provide same or better performance as hydrazine while being "non-toxic" or "green". Yet, there is no consistent definition for what constitutes "non-toxic" or "green", and thus no good figure of merit for which to compare. This paper seeks to review the three major categories of figures of merit, and discusses how they might be used to assess the viability of a propellant.

  1. Expression of human inducible nitric oxide synthase in a tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B)-deficient cell line: H4B promotes assembly of enzyme subunits into an active dimer.

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, E; Billiar, T R; Robbins, P D; Loftus, M; Stuehr, D J

    1995-01-01

    Murine inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) is catalytically active only in dimeric form. Assembly of its purified subunits into a dimer requires H4B. To understand the structure-activity relationships of human iNOS, we constitutively expressed recombinant human iNOS in NIH 3T3 cells by using a retroviral vector. These cells are deficient in de novo H4B biosynthesis and the role of H4B in the expression and assembly of active iNOS in an intact cell system could be studied. In the absence of added H4B, NO synthesis by the cells was minimal, whereas cells grown with supplemental H4B or the H4B precursor sepiapterin generated NO (74.1 and 63.3 nmol of nitrite per 10(6) cells per 24 h, respectively). NO synthesis correlated with an increase in intracellular H4B but no increase in iNOS protein. Instead, an increased percentage of dimeric iNOS was observed, rising from 20% in cytosols from unsupplemented cells to 66% in H4B-supplemented cell cytosols. In all cases, only dimeric iNOS displayed catalytic activity. Cytosols prepared from H4B-deficient cells exhibited little iNOS activity but acquired activity during a 60- to 120-min incubation with H4B, reaching final activities of 60-72 pmol of citrulline per mg of protein per min. Reconstitution of cytosolic NO synthesis activity was associated with conversion of monomers into dimeric iNOS during the incubation. Thus, human iNOS subunits dimerize to form an active enzyme, and H4B plays a critical role in promoting dimerization in intact cells. This reveals a post-translational mechanism by which intracellular H4B can regulate iNOS expression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8524846

  2. Androgen regulation of CYP4B1 responsible for mutagenic activation of bladder carcinogens in the rat bladder: detection of CYP4B1 mRNA by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, S; Yoneda, Y; Sugimoto, T; Ikemoto, S; Hiroi, T; Yamamoto, K; Nakatani, T; Funae, Y

    2001-05-26

    Significant sex differences exist among cases of bladder cancer in humans as well as in experimental animals such as rats. Aromatic amines such as benzidine and 2-naphthylamine are known to induce bladder cancer. These carcinogenic amines are activated to genotoxic substances by cytochrome P 450 CYP4B1, which is present in bladder mucosa. In this study, regulation of CYP4B1 was investigated to elucidate sex difference in bladder carcinogenesis. Competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the expression of rat CYP4B1 mRNA occurring in small amounts of tissue such as bladder tissue. Expression of CYP4B1 in the bladder of male rats increased with development but not in that of female rats. Moreover, mature male rats exhibited higher expression of CYP4B1 in the bladder than did mature female rats. Castration of male rats decreased CYP4B1 levels and treatment with testosterone led to a partial recovery of CYP4B1 levels. These results indicate that CYP4B1 levels in the rat bladder are partly regulated by androgens. Furthermore, the present findings suggest that the sex difference observed in bladder carcinogenesis was due to sex-different expression of CYP4B1 in bladder tissue. PMID:11311483

  3. Figures of Equilibrium among Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, D.; Tanga, P.

    2005-12-01

    The original idea of Farinella et al. [1] that rubble pile asteroids can have figures of equilibrium, is rehabilitated. Albeit asteroids generally have a broad distribution of shapes and do not follow sequences of (hydrostatic) equilibrium, we show that some asteroids are indeed Jacobi or Darwin ellipsoids. Such statement is obtained from an analysis of their ellipsoidal shape (a:b:c) together with recent measures of their mass and bulk density [2,3]. This means that both their shape and adimensional rotation frequency sbond Ω =Ω /(π ρ G) follow sequences of equilibrium [4,5]. Jacobi and Darwin figures are obtained for uniformly rotating mass of (inviscid as well as compressible) fluids and relatively large angular momentum. Interestingly these objects appear to preferably be binaries. We moreover show that the porosity of such objects is relatively large (approx. 40%) indicating that they are loose rubble piles, yet with dense packing. Last we show that, given the observed bulk-densities, these bodies must be homogeneous bodies of uniform density distribution. Thus, though solid-solid friction must occur in such aggregates, the surface of these bodies is a surface of level similar to that of inviscid fluids. Comparison to other asteroids of similar mass either possessing a moonlet or with no known satellites should shed light on their formation history and/or constrains on collisional evolution. Binaries with low eccentricities and inclination (hence prograde orbit) should preferably be the outcome of catastrophic disruption as is supposed for members of dynamical family [6,7]. Future work and analysis of the typical reaccumulation time scales, typical angular momentum, possible post-reaccumulation cosmic shaking, etc. shall help to know how the fate of collisions or catastrophic breakup of a parent body can differ yielding to binaries with equilibrium figures. In any case the existence of a figure of equilibrium appears to be highly correlated to the presence

  4. Optical and Near-UV Observations of the Transiting Extrasolar Planet TrES-4b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Carter-Thaxton; Turner, J.; Carleton, T.; Crawford, B.; Guvenen, B.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Small, L.; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Henz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Using the Steward Observatory 61” Kuiper Telescope, The University of Arizona Astronomy Club conducted photometric observations of the transiting extrasolar planet TrES-4b as part of the Exoplanet Observation Project. Observations were made in the Bessell U, Harris B, and Harris R filters. Initial observations were made in 2009, with follow up observations in 2011. Basic data reduction and photometry was done using IRAF and determination of transit parameters was done using Transit Analysis Package (TAP) and JKTEBOP transit modeling code. We present an updated planetary mass, radius, density, surface gravity, Safronov number, equilibrium temperature, orbital distance, and orbital inclination for TrES-4b. In addition, we also searched for asymmetries between the near-UV and optical light curves. This project, started in spring 2009, has introduced many undergraduate students to research and given them valuable experience with data reduction and observation techniques.

  5. A Nucleotide Binding Motif in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS4B Mediates HCV RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Shirit; Elazar, Menashe; Danieli, Tsafi; Glenn, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis. There is no effective therapy for most patients. We have identified a nucleotide binding motif (NBM) in one of the virus's nonstructural proteins, NS4B. This structural motif binds and hydrolyzes GTP and is conserved across HCV isolates. Genetically disrupting the NBM impairs GTP binding and hydrolysis and dramatically inhibits HCV RNA replication. These results have exciting implications for the HCV life cycle and novel antiviral strategies. PMID:15452248

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus NS4b Protein Inhibits Host RNase L Activation

    PubMed Central

    Thornbrough, Joshua M.; Jha, Babal K.; Yount, Boyd; Goldstein, Stephen A.; Li, Yize; Elliott, Ruth; Sims, Amy C.; Baric, Ralph S.; Silverman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the first highly pathogenic human coronavirus to emerge since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002. Like many coronaviruses, MERS-CoV carries genes that encode multiple accessory proteins that are not required for replication of the genome but are likely involved in pathogenesis. Evasion of host innate immunity through interferon (IFN) antagonism is a critical component of viral pathogenesis. The IFN-inducible oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-RNase L pathway activates upon sensing of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Activated RNase L cleaves viral and host single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), which leads to translational arrest and subsequent cell death, preventing viral replication and spread. Here we report that MERS-CoV, a lineage C Betacoronavirus, and related bat CoV NS4b accessory proteins have phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and antagonize OAS-RNase L by enzymatically degrading 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2-5A), activators of RNase L. This is a novel function for NS4b, which has previously been reported to antagonize IFN signaling. NS4b proteins are distinct from lineage A Betacoronavirus PDEs and rotavirus gene-encoded PDEs, in having an amino-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) and are localized mostly to the nucleus. However, the expression level of cytoplasmic MERS-CoV NS4b protein is sufficient to prevent activation of RNase L. Finally, this is the first report of an RNase L antagonist expressed by a human or bat coronavirus and provides a specific mechanism by which this occurs. Our findings provide a potential mechanism for evasion of innate immunity by MERS-CoV while also identifying a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27025250

  7. Serovar 4b complex predominates among Listeria monocytogenes isolates from imported aquatic products in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianshun; Chen, Qiaomiao; Jiang, Jianjun; Hu, Hongxia; Ye, Jiangbo; Fang, Weihuan

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative organism of listeriosis, is primarily transmitted to humans through contaminated food. In this study, we examined 1275 batches of aquatic products imported from 29 countries and found that 36 batches from 8 countries were contaminated by Listeria (2.8%), with L. monocytogenes accounting for 2.6% (33/1275) and L. innocua for 0.2% (3/1275). Of the 23 selected L. monocytogenes isolates (from the 33 identified), 15 (65.2%) were of serovar 4b complex (4b, 4d, or 4e), three (13.0%) of 1/2a or 3a, four (17.4%) of 1/2b or 3b, and one (4.4%) of 1/2c or 3c. Notably, four of the 23 isolates belonged to epidemic clone I (ECI) and another four were associated with epidemic clone II (ECII), two highly clonal 4b clusters responsible for most of the documented listeriosis outbreaks. In the multilocus sequence typing scheme based on the concatenated genes gyrB-dapE-hisJ-sigB-ribC-purM-betL-gap-tuf, serovar 4b complex isolates from imported aquatic products exhibited significant genetic diversity. While the four ECI isolates were genetically related to those from Chinese diseased animals, both lacking one proline-rich repeat of ActA, the four ECII isolates were located between 1/2b or 3b strains. As the L. monocytogenes isolates from imported aquatic products possessed a nearly complete set of major infection-related genes, they demonstrated virulence potential in mouse model. PMID:19735205

  8. Inhibition of HCV replication by humanized-single domain transbodies to NS4B.

    PubMed

    Glab-Ampai, Kittirat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Chulanetra, Monrat; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Thueng-In, Kanyarat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2016-08-01

    NS4B of hepatitis C virus (HCV) initiates membrane web formation, binds RNA and other HCV proteins for viral replication complex (RC) formation, hydrolyses NTP, and inhibits innate anti-viral immunity. Thus, NS4B is an attractive target of a novel anti-HCV agent. In this study, humanized-nanobodies (VHs/VHHs) that bound to recombinant NS4B were produced by means of phage display technology. The nanobodies were linked molecularly to a cell penetrating peptide, penetratin (PEN), for making them cell penetrable (become transbodies). Human hepatic (Huh7) cells transfected with HCV JFH1-RNA that were treated with transbodies from four Escherichia coli clones (PEN-VHH7, PEN-VHH9, PEN-VH33, and PEN-VH43) had significant reduction of HCV RNA amounts in their culture fluids and intracellularly when compared to the transfected cells treated with control transbody and medium alone. The results were supported by the HCV foci assay. The transbody treated-transfected cells also had upregulation of the studied innate cytokine genes, IRF3, IFNβ and IL-28b. The transbodies have high potential for testing further as a novel anti-HCV agent, either alone, adjunct of existing anti-HCV agents/remedies, or in combination with their cognates specific to other HCV enzymes/proteins. PMID:27240954

  9. Ga4B2O9: an efficient borate photocatalyst for overall water splitting without cocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangjia; Jing, Yan; Ju, Jing; Yang, Dingfeng; Yang, Jia; Gao, Wenliang; Cong, Rihong; Yang, Tao

    2015-03-16

    Borates are well-known candidates for optical materials, but their potentials in photocatalysis are rarely studied. Ga(3+)-containing oxides or sulfides are good candidates for photocatalysis applications because the unoccupied 4s orbitals of Ga usually contribute to the bottom of the conducting band. It is therefore anticipated that Ga4B2O9 might be a promising photocatalyst because of its high Ga/B ratio and three-dimensional network. Various synthetic methods, including hydrothermal (HY), sol-gel (SG), and high-temperature solid-state reaction (HTSSR), were employed to prepare crystalline Ga4B2O9. The so-obtained HY-Ga4B2O9 are micrometer single crystals but do not show any UV-light activity unless modified by Pt loading. The problem is the fast recombination of photoexcitons. Interestingly, the samples obtained by SG and HTSSR methods both possess a fine micromorphology composed of well-crystalline nanometer strips. Therefore, the excited e(-) and h(+) can move to the surface easily. Both samples exhibit excellent intrinsic UV-light activities for pure water splitting without the assistance of any cocatalyst (47 and 118 μmol/h/g for H2 evolution and 22 and 58 μmol/h/g for O2 evolution, respectively), while there is no detectable activity for P25 (nanoparticles of TiO2 with a specific surface area of 69 m(2)/g) under the same conditions. PMID:25714488

  10. HATS-4b: A dense hot Jupiter transiting a super metal-rich G star

    SciTech Connect

    Jordán, Andrés; Brahm, Rafael; Rabus, M.; Suc, V.; Espinoza, N.; Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Hartman, J. D.; Csubry, Z.; Bhatti, W.; De Val Borro, M.; Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.; Mancini, L.; Mohler-Fischer, M.; Ciceri, S.; Csák, B.; Henning, T.; Sato, B.; Buchhave, L.; and others

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth survey of HATS-4b, an extrasolar planet transiting a V = 13.46 mag G star. HATS-4b has a period of P ≈ 2.5167 days, mass of M{sub p} ≈ 1.32 M {sub Jup}, radius of R{sub p} ≈ 1.02 R {sub Jup}, and density of ρ {sub p} = 1.55 ± 0.16 g cm{sup –3} ≈1.24 ρ{sub Jup}. The host star has a mass of 1.00 M {sub ☉}, a radius of 0.92 R {sub ☉}, and a very high metallicity [Fe/H]=0.43 ± 0.08. HATS-4b is among the densest known planets with masses between 1 and 2 M {sub J} and is thus likely to have a significant content of heavy elements of the order of 75 M {sub ⊕}. In this paper we present the data reduction, radial velocity measurements, and stellar classification techniques adopted by the HATSouth survey for the CORALIE spectrograph. We also detail a technique for simultaneously estimating vsin i and macroturbulence using high resolution spectra.

  11. DISTRIBUTION OF CH{sub 3}OH IN NGC 1333 IRAS4B

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Sakai, Takeshi

    2012-07-20

    Distribution of the CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub K} = 2{sub K}-1{sub K}, 96.7 GHz) emission has been investigated toward NGC 1333 IRAS4B, a low-mass Class 0 protostar which harbors a hot corino, with Nobeyama Millimeter Array. The CH{sub 3}OH emission is found to be prominent in the shocked region caused by an impact of the molecular outflow from the protostars. The direction of the outflow which is responsible for the shock seems to be opposite to that of a compact outflow known previously in the CO (J = 2-1), HCN (J = 1-0), H{sub 2}CO (3{sub 12}-2{sub 11}), and CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub K} = 7{sub K}-6{sub K}) emissions, whereas it is the same as that of the faint second outflow found in the H{sub 2}CO emission. This double outflow structure can be interpreted most naturally by the existence of more than two protostars in IRAS4B. On the other hand, a centrally condensed component associated apparently with IRAS4B cannot be recognized in our CH{sub 3}OH observation. Our observation suggests that, in this source, the CH{sub 3}OH (J{sub K} 2{sub K}-1{sub K}) emission preferentially traces the shocked regions rather than the hot corino around the protostar.

  12. INPP4B overexpression is associated with poor clinical outcome and therapy resistance in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dzneladze, I; He, R; Woolley, J F; Son, M H; Sharobim, M H; Greenberg, S A; Gabra, M; Langlois, C; Rashid, A; Hakem, A; Ibrahimova, N; Arruda, A; Löwenberg, B; Valk, P J M; Minden, M D; Salmena, L

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type-II (INPP4B) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We observed that AML patients with high levels of INPP4B (INPP4B(high)) had poor response to induction therapy, shorter event-free survival and shorter overall survival. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that INPP4B(high) was an independent predictor of poor prognosis, significantly improving current predictive models, where it outperformed conventional biomarkers including FLT3-ITD and NPM1. Furthermore, INPP4B(high) effectively segregated relative risk in AML patients with normal cytogenetics. The role of INPP4B on the biology of leukemic cells was assessed in vitro. Overexpression of INPP4B in AML cell lines enhanced colony formation potential, recapitulated the chemotherapy resistance observed in AML patients and promoted proliferation in a phosphatase-dependent, and Akt-independent manner. These findings reveal that INPP4B(high) has an unexpected role consistent with oncogenesis in AML, in contrast to its previously reported tumor-suppressive role in epithelial cancers. Overall, we propose that INPP4B is a novel prognostic biomarker in AML that has potential to be translated into clinical practice both as a disease marker and therapeutic target. PMID:25736236

  13. Mg{sub 8}Rh{sub 4}B - A new type of boron stabilized Ti{sub 2}Ni structure

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseeva, A.M. . E-mail: alekseev@cpfs.mpg.de; Abakumov, A.M.; Leithe-Jasper, A.; Schnelle, W.; Prots, Yu.; Chizhov, P.S.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Antipov, E.V.; Grin, Yu.

    2006-09-15

    The new magnesium rhodium boron compound Mg{sub 8}Rh{sub 4}B has been synthesized by reaction of the metal powders with crystalline or amorphous boron or the RhB precursor. The crystal structure of Mg{sub 8}Rh{sub 4}B was solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (space group Fd3-bar m, a=12.1711(4)A, Z=8, 174 reflections, R{sub F}=0.016). The crystal structure can be described as a filled Ti{sub 2}Ni type where the interstitial sites 8b (12,12,12), located at the center of two nested Mg{sub 4}Rh{sub 4} tetrahedra, are occupied by boron atoms. Taking into account the absence of the Ti{sub 2}Ni-type phase in the binary Mg-Rh system, the boron atoms can be considered as stabilizing this structural motif. From the bonding analysis with the electron localization function the crystal structure is described as covalently bonded [Rh{sub 4}B]{sup 3-} anions, embedded in a cationic magnesium matrix.

  14. Figures of merit for laser beam quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Walker, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown how full-width at half maximum (FWHM), full-width at 1/e(sup 2) (FW1/e(sup 2)), Strehl ratio, and encircled energy figures of merit vary with different types of aberration and measurement methods. The array sampling method and the slit-scan method are examined in detail. Our irradiance in the exit pupil of the optical system is a simple gaussian. It was found that in general the slit-scan method and the array method do not yield the same result. The width measurements for the central lobe of the diffraction pattern are very insensitive to aberration.

  15. Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-09-15

    Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.

  16. Infrared thermal imaging figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available types of infrared thermal imaging instruments, both viewers (qualitative) and imagers (quantitative) are discussed. The various scanning methods by which thermal images (thermograms) are generated will be reviewed. The performance parameters (figures of merit) that define the quality of performance of infrared radiation thermometers will be introduced. A discussion of how these parameters are extended and adapted to define the performance of thermal imaging instruments will be provided. Finally, the significance of each of the key performance parameters of thermal imaging instruments will be reviewed and procedures currently used for testing to verify performance will be outlined.

  17. INPP4B is upregulated and functions as an oncogenic driver through SGK3 in a subset of melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Wilmott, James S.; Guo, Xiang Yun; Yan, Xu Guang; Wang, Chun Yan; Liu, Xiao Ying; Jin, Lei; Tseng, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Tao; Croft, Amanda; Hondermarck, Hubert; Scolyer, Richard A.; Jiang, Chen Chen; Zhang, Xu Dong

    2015-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) negatively regulates PI3K/Akt signalling and has a tumour suppressive role in some types of cancers. However, we have found that it is upregulated in a subset of melanomas. Here we report that INPP4B can function as an oncogenic driver through activation of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 3 (SGK3) in melanoma. While INPP4B knockdown inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and retarded melanoma xenograft growth, overexpression of INPP4B enhanced melanoma cell and melanocyte proliferation and triggered anchorage-independent growth of melanocytes. Noticeably, INPP4B-mediated melanoma cell proliferation was not related to activation of Akt, but was mediated by SGK3. Upregulation of INPP4B in melanoma cells was associated with loss of miRNA (miR)-494 and/or miR-599 due to gene copy number reduction. Indeed, overexpression of miR-494 or miR-599 downregulated INPP4B, reduced SGK3 activation, and inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, whereas introduction of anti-miR-494 or anti-miR-599 upregulated INPP4B, enhanced SGK3 activation, and promoted melanoma cell proliferation. Collectively, these results identify upregulation of INPP4B as an oncogenic mechanism through activation of SGK3 in a subset of melanomas, with implications for targeting INPP4B and restoring miR-494 and miR-599 as novel approaches in the treatment of melanomas with high INPP4B expression. PMID:26573229

  18. The Cry4B toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis kills Permethrin-resistant Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of malaria.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya B; Bulla, Lee A

    2013-04-01

    Resurgence of malaria has been attributed, in part, to the development of resistance by Anopheles gambiae, a principal vector of the disease, to various insecticidal compounds such as Permethrin. Permethrin, a neurotoxicant, is widely used to impregnate mosquito nets. An alternative strategy to control mosquitoes is the use of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) because there is no observable resistance in the field to the bacterium. Bti kills mosquitoes by targeting cadherin molecules residing in the midgut epithelium of larvae of the insect. Cry proteins (Cry4A, Cry4B, Cry10A and Cry11A) produced by the bacterium during the sporulation phase of its life cycle bind to the cadherin molecules, which serve as receptors for the proteins. These Cry proteins have variable specificity to a variety of mosquitoes, including Culex and Aedes as well as Anopheles. Importantly, selective mosquitocidal action is occasioned by binding of the respective Cry toxins to cadherins distinctive to individual mosquito species. Differential fractionation of the four Cry proteins from a novel Bti isolate (M1) and cloning and expression of their genes in Escherichia coli revealed that Cry4B is the only Cry protein that exerts insecticidal action against An. gambiae. Indeed, it does so against a Permethrin-resistant strain of the mosquito. The other three Cry proteins are ineffective. Multiple sequence alignments of the four Cry proteins revealed a divergent sequence motif in the Cry4B toxin, which most likely determines binding of the toxin to its cognate receptor, BT-R3, in An. gambiae and to its specific toxicity. A model showing Cry4B toxin binding to BT-R3 is presented. PMID:23760000

  19. Overexpression of Crocus carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, CsCCD4b, in Arabidopsis imparts tolerance to dehydration, salt and oxidative stresses by modulating ROS machinery.

    PubMed

    Baba, Shoib Ahmad; Jain, Deepti; Abbas, Nazia; Ashraf, Nasheeman

    2015-09-15

    Apocarotenoids modulate vital physiological and developmental processes in plants. These molecules are formed by the cleavage of carotenoids, a reaction catalyzed by a family of enzymes called carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). Apocarotenoids like β-ionone and β-cyclocitral have been reported to act as stress signal molecules during high light stress in many plant species. In Crocus sativus, these two apocarotenoids are formed by enzymatic cleavage of β-carotene at 9, 10 and 7, 8 bonds by CsCCD4 enzymes. In the present study three isoforms of CsCCD4 were subjected to molecular modeling and docking analysis to determine their substrate specificity and all the three isoforms displayed high substrate specificity for β-carotene. Further, expression of these three CsCCD4 isoforms investigated in response to various stresses revealed that CsCCD4a and CsCCD4b exhibit enhanced expression in response to dehydration, salt and methylviologen, providing a clue towards their role in mediating plant defense response. This was confirmed by overexpressing CsCCD4b in Arabidopsis. The transgenic plants developed longer roots and possessed higher number of lateral roots. Further, overexpression of CsCCD4b imparted enhanced tolerance to salt, dehydration and oxidative stresses as was evidenced by higher survival rate, increased relative root length and biomass in transgenic plants as compared to wild type. Transgenic plants also displayed higher activity and expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolizing enzymes. This indicates that β-ionone and β-cyclocitral which are enzymatic products of CsCCD4b may act as stress signals and mediate reprogramming of stress responsive genes which ultimately leads to plant defense. PMID:26595090

  20. [The endemic goitre in figurative arts].

    PubMed

    Giampalmo, A

    1996-01-01

    For the past fifteen years the author has been collecting photografic documentation of works of figurative arts (graffiti, mosiac, engravings, paintings and sculptures) made at different times and places, in which he found mostly unintentional display of diseases or deformities that would be clearly identified in nosography in the light of today's knowledge. In this study the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases on endemic goitre - whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts - in chronological order, beginning with the most ancient ones and focussing on Italian portraying of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, where the most striking infirmities and disabilities were mirrored and commonly accepted. This study whose interest lies between a scientific and a humanistic one has also importance in the field of art, and especially in relevant philological research which is of particular importance to us pathologists. At last it contribute to establish the epidemiology of some diseases and the knowledge of historical and geographical pathology. PMID:11623474

  1. Interferometer for optical waviness and figure testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freischlad, Klaus R.

    1997-09-01

    A novel instrument is described for the optical, non-contact measurement of the waviness and figure component of the surface texture of flat surface. Here the spatial frequency range for waviness is typically chosen from 1.25/mm to 0.05/mm, whereas the global figure error contains the lower spatial frequencies. The special requirements on the dynamic range, the spatial resolution, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement are discussed. The presented instrument consists of a white-light, extended-source, phase-shifting Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The special design employing low temporal and spatial coherence avoids coherent speckle noise on the measured surface maps while providing good spatial resolution. Thus in the waviness frequency band the modulation transfer function exceeds 0.75, an the RMS- precision is 0.1nm over the measurement area of 100mm in diameter. Measurement examples of typical applications, e.g. substrates for hard disks and flat panel displays, are shown.

  2. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Spence, Paul A.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  3. 75 FR 41871 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Draft Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575). Once finalized, the annex will provide guidance to assist... Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for...

  4. Population Structure of Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 4b Isolates from Sporadic Human Listeriosis in the United States, 2003-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause severe foodborne disease (listeriosis). Serotype 4b strains have resulted in numerous outbreaks, repeatedly involving three epidemic clones (ECI, ECII, and ECIa). Little is known about population structure of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis, ev...

  5. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 Presidential... for Fiscal Year 2012 Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of the Treasury the Secretary... 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Public Law...

  6. New AP4B1 mutation in an African-American child associated with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Dronacharya

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) varies from 1–3%. Genetic causes of ID are being increasingly recognized. Although multiple mutations have been identified as a cause of syndromic ID, the genetic etiology of non-syndromic ID is poorly understood. However, more than 100 loci have been mapped that are associated with non-syndromic ID. There have been a couple of reports of AP4B1 gene mutation causing severe intellectual disability, absent speech, shy character, stereotypic laughter, muscular hypotonia that progressed to spastic paraplegia, microcephaly, foot deformity, decreased muscle mass of the lower limbs, inability to walk, and growth retardation. They had structural brain abnormalities and seizures. The reported cases were from Arab families where consanguineous marriage is common. We encountered an African-American child who presented first at the age of 24 mo with language difficulties and was subsequently found to have moderate to severe intellectual disability by standardized tests. Shortly, he started to have seizures and problems with ambulation. Although he was hypotonic at the time of presentation, legs slowly became spastic at the age of 4 yr. After a thorough work up, he was found to have heterozygous mutation in the AP4B1 gene along with another missense mutation in the same gene. There has been no report of mutation in this gene in the North American population. Although AP4B1 typically is said to be an autosomal recessive disease-causing gene, our case is different in the sense that there are two mutations in the same gene one of which has never been reported before and co-exists with a known disease causing mutation. Yet, the phenotype of the case closely resembles those published previously.

  7. SCN4B-Encoded Sodium Channel β4 Subunit in Congenital Long-QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Kaku, Toshihiko; Tester, David J.; Iturralde-Torres, Pedro; Itty, Ajit; Ye, Bin; Valdivia, Carmen; Ueda, Kazuo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Maria Teresa; Makielski, Jonathan C.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is potentially lethal secondary to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and is caused predominantly by mutations in genes that encode cardiac ion channels. Nearly 25% of patients remain without a genetic diagnosis, and genes that encode cardiac channel regulatory proteins represent attractive candidates. Voltage-gated sodium channels have a pore-forming α-subunit associated with 1 or more auxiliary β-subunits. Four different β-subunits have been described. All are detectable in cardiac tissue, but none have yet been linked to any heritable arrhythmia syndrome. Methods and Results We present a case of a 21-month-old Mexican-mestizo female with intermittent 2:1 atrioventricular block and a corrected QT interval of 712 ms. Comprehensive open reading frame/splice mutational analysis of the 9 established LQTS-susceptibility genes proved negative, and complete mutational analysis of the 4 Navβ-subunits revealed a L179F (C535T) missense mutation in SCN4B that cosegregated properly throughout a 3-generation pedigree and was absent in 800 reference alleles. After this discovery, SCN4B was analyzed in 262 genotype-negative LQTS patients (96% white), but no further mutations were found. L179F was engineered by site-directed mutagenesis and heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells that contained the stably expressed SCN5A-encoded sodium channel α-subunit (hNaV1.5). Compared with the wild-type, L179F-β4 caused an 8-fold (compared with SCN5A alone) and 3-fold (compared with SCN5A + WT-β4) increase in late sodium current consistent with the molecular/electrophysiological phenotype previously shown for LQTS-associated mutations. Conclusions We provide the seminal report of SCN4B-encoded Navβ4 as a novel LQT3-susceptibility gene. PMID:17592081

  8. Management and Reconstruction in the Breast Cancer Patient With a Fungating T4b Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Daniali, Lily N.; Rezzadeh, Kameron S.; Lee, Edward S.; Keith, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A subset of women with locally advanced breast cancer presented with fungating tumor mass eroding and infiltrating the surrounding breast skin (T4b breast cancers). These patients often have chronic pain, large open wounds, frequent infections, malodorous drainage, social isolation, and general debilitation that present enormous therapeutic challenges. Because of the advanced nature of the disease, palliation, while minimizing recovery time and maximizing quality of life, is essential. Methods: From 2009 to 2014, a total of 12 consecutive patients underwent resection of fungating T4b breast tumors and subsequent chest wall reconstruction. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical data were collected retrospectively. Results: Fifty percent of women had distant metastases at the time of reconstruction, and 17% of women presented to the emergency department in a hemodynamically unstable condition in either hemorrhagic shock or septic shock, necessitating delay of reconstruction for up to 1 week. Mean wound size for reconstruction was 473 cm2. Reconstructive procedures included split-thickness skin grafting and thoracoepigastric advancement, latissimus dorsi, trapezius, and extended transverse and vertical rectus abdominis flaps. Postoperative survival ranged from 98 to 172 days (mean = 127 days), with 9 patients currently living. Seventy-five percent of patients had improved pain and reduced wound care needs after reconstruction. Postoperative reconstruction-specific complications occurred in 33% of cases, with 1 patient requiring a second operating room visit. Conclusions: Women with fungating T4b breast cancer tumors often present with metastatic disease and have significant need for pain and wound palliation. The reconstructive techniques performed are reliable, efficacious in palliating pain, and reducing wound care needs and have low complication rates. PMID:26417396

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Larvicidal Bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus Strain OT4b.25

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Andrés; Silva-Quintero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.25 is a native Colombian strain isolated from coleopteran larvae in an oak forest near Bogotá D.C.; this strain has shown high levels of pathogenic activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in laboratory assays compared to that of other members of the same species. Using Pacific Biosciences sequencing technology, we propose a chromosomal contig of 4,665,775 bp that, according to comparative analysis, is highly similar to that of reference strain L. sphaericus C3-41. PMID:27151786

  10. Input files with ORNL—mathematical phantoms of the human body for MCNP-4B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstić, D.; Nikezić, D.

    2007-01-01

    Protection against ionizing radiation requires information on the absorbed doses in organs of the human body. Implantation of many dosimeters in the human body is undesirable (or impossible), so the doses in organs are not measurable and some kind of dose calculation has to be applied. Calculation of doses in organs requests: (a) an exact description of the geometry of organs, (b) the chemical constitution of tissues, and (c) appropriate computer programs. The first two items, (a) and (b), make a so-called "phantom". In another words, the "phantom of a human body" is a mathematical representation of the human body including all other relevant information. All organs are represented with geometrical bodies (like cylinders, ellipsoids, tori, cones etc.), which are described with suitable mathematical equations. A corresponding chemical constitution for various types of organ tissues is also defined. MCNP-4B ( Monte Carlo N- Particle) is often used as transport code. Users of this software prepare an "input file" providing all necessary information for program execution. This information includes: (a) source definition—type of ionizing radiation, energy spectrum, and geometry of the source; (b) target definition—material constitution, geometry, location in respect to the source etc.; (c) characterization of absorbing media between the source and target; (d) output tally, etc. This paper presents input files with "human phantoms" for the MCNP-4B code. The input files with "phantoms" were prepared based on publications issued by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Seven input files relating to different age groups (newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 years, as well as, male and female adults) are presented here. A test example and comparison with other data found in literature are also given. Program summaryTitle of program: INPUT FILES, AMALE, AFEMALE, AGE15, AGE10, AGE5, AGE01, NEWB Catalogue identifier:ADYF_v1_0 Program summary URL

  11. Crystal structure features in a new compound C4B25Mg1.42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalikhin, S. V.; Ponomarev, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    The composition of C4B25Mg1.42 crystal obtained by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis was determined using X-ray diffraction. This is the first crystalline structure where all boron atoms in the В12 icosahedron occupy crystallographically independent positions; this circumstance allowed us to analyze the effect of substituents on bond lengths in the icosahedron. The crystal structure features, including the channels filled with disordered Mg atoms and the spread of В—В endo- and exo-bond lengths in the icosahedra, are described. A crystallochemical analysis of pair bonds has been performed for the first time.

  12. LARP4B is an AU-rich sequence associated factor that promotes mRNA accumulation and translation.

    PubMed

    Küspert, Maritta; Murakawa, Yasuhiro; Schäffler, Katrin; Vanselow, Jens T; Wolf, Elmar; Juranek, Stefan; Schlosser, Andreas; Landthaler, Markus; Fischer, Utz

    2015-07-01

    mRNAs are key molecules in gene expression and subject to diverse regulatory events. Regulation is accomplished by distinct sets of trans-acting factors that interact with mRNAs and form defined mRNA-protein complexes (mRNPs). The resulting "mRNP code" determines the fate of any given mRNA and thus controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The La-related protein 4B (LARP4B) belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of RNA-binding proteins characterized by the presence of a La-module implicated in direct RNA binding. Biochemical experiments have shown previously direct interactions of LARP4B with factors of the translation machinery. This finding along with the observation of an association with actively translating ribosomes suggested that LARP4B is a factor contributing to the mRNP code. To gain insight into the function of LARP4B in vivo we tested its mRNA association at the transcriptome level and its impact on the proteome. PAR-CLIP analyses allowed us to identify the in vivo RNA targets of LARP4B. We show that LARP4B binds to a distinct set of cellular mRNAs by contacting their 3' UTRs. Biocomputational analysis combined with in vitro binding assays identified the LARP4B-binding motif on mRNA targets. The reduction of cellular LARP4B levels leads to a marked destabilization of its mRNA targets and consequently their reduced translation. Our data identify LARP4B as a component of the mRNP code that influences the expression of its mRNA targets by affecting their stability. PMID:26001795

  13. Poetry and the Teaching of Figurative Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Harold K., Jr.

    Many teachers note the importance of student ability to analyze and understand intricate uses of figurative language in reading. Research in recent years has focused on the prevalence of figures of speech in textbooks and other reading, suggesting that the fostering of figurative language skills should become a more common feature of language…

  14. Evidence for variation in the optimal translation initiation complex: plant eIF4B, eIF4F, and eIF(iso)4F differentially promote translation of mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Laura K; Allen, M Leah; Dennis, Michael D; Browning, Karen S

    2009-08-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4B is known to interact with multiple initiation factors, mRNA, rRNA, and poly(A) binding protein (PABP). To gain a better understanding of the function of eIF4B, the two isoforms from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were expressed and analyzed using biophysical and biochemical methods. Plant eIF4B was found by ultracentrifugation and light scattering analysis to most likely be a monomer with an extended structure. An extended structure would facilitate the multiple interactions of eIF4B with mRNA as well as other initiation factors (eIF4A, eIF4G, PABP, and eIF3). Eight mRNAs, barley (Hordeum vulgare) alpha-amylase mRNA, rabbit beta-hemoglobin mRNA, Arabidopsis heat shock protein 21 (HSP21) mRNA, oat (Avena sativa) globulin, wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin, maize (Zea mays) alcohol dehydrogenase, satellite tobacco necrosis virus RNA, and alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) 4, were used in wheat germ in vitro translation assays to measure their dependence on eIF4B and eIF4F isoforms. The two Arabidopsis eIF4B isoforms, as well as native and recombinant wheat eIF4B, showed similar responses in the translation assay. AMV RNA 4 and Arabidopsis HSP21 showed only a slight dependence on the presence of eIF4B isoforms, whereas rabbit beta-hemoglobin mRNA and wheat germin mRNA showed modest dependence. Barley alpha-amylase, oat globulin, and satellite tobacco necrosis virus RNA displayed the strongest dependence on eIF4B. These results suggest that eIF4B has some effects on mRNA discrimination during initiation of translation. Barley alpha-amylase, oat globulin, and rabbit beta-hemoglobin mRNA showed the highest activity with eIF4F, whereas Arabidopsis HSP21 and AMV RNA 4 used both eIF4F and eIF(iso)4F equally well. These results suggest that differential or optimal translation of mRNAs may require initiation complexes composed of specific isoforms of initiation factor gene products. Thus, individual mRNAs or classes of mRNAs may respond to the

  15. Enactivism, Figural Apprehension and Knowledge Objectification: An Exploration of Figural Pattern Generalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Duncan; Schafer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the inter-relationship between the embodied processes of pattern generalisation and the visualisation of pictorial cues. A research framework is established for analysing pupils' multiple visualisations of figural cues in the context of pattern generalisation. The research framework centres on a novel combination of three…

  16. Figure Control of Lightweight Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Song, Haiping

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of fuzzy logic controllers in modifying the figure of a piezoceramic bimorph mirror. Non-contact electron actuation technology is used to actively control a bimorph mirror comprised two PZT-5H wafers by varying the electron flux and electron voltages. Due to electron blooming generated by the electron flux, it is difficult to develop an accurate control model for the bimorph mirror through theoretical analysis alone. The non-contact shape control system with electron flux blooming can be approximately described with a heuristic model based on experimental data. Two fuzzy logic feedback controllers are developed to control the shape of the bimorph mirror according to heuristic fuzzy inference rules generated from previous experimental results. Validation of the proposed fuzzy logic controllers is also discussed.

  17. Precision Segmented Reflector figure control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, E.; Eldred, D.; Briggs, C.; Kiceniuk, T.; Agronin, M.

    1989-01-01

    A control system architecture for an actively controlled segmented reflector is described along with a design realization for achieving precision alignment of reflector panels. Performance requirements are derived in part from the Large Deployable Reflector, which is a representative mission, and error allocations are made which consider mirror panel surface errors, position measurement and figure estimation, and position control of both quasi-static and dynamic disturbances. The design uses multiple wavelength interferometric edge sensors and voice coil actuators in conjunction with a hybrid control strategy to correct panel position errors. A unit cell shown to be central to the concept is analyzed. The cell integrates the sensing, actuation, and mechanical functions of a control module together with a reflector panel to form a unitized assembly.

  18. Interdependent figure-of-merit software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.; Kirsch, T.

    1989-01-01

    This program was undertaken in order to understand the complex nature of interdependent performance in space missions. At the first step in a planned sequence of progress, a spread sheet program was developed to evaluate different fuel/oxidizer combinations for a specific Martian mission. This program is to be linked with output attained using sophisticated software produced by Gordon and McBride. The programming to date makes use of 11 independent parameters. Optimization is essential when faced with the incredible magnitude of costs, risks, and benefits involved with space exploration. A system of weights needs to be devised on which to measure the options. It was the goal to devise a Figure of Merit (FoM) on which different choices can be presented and made. The plan was to model typical missions to Mars, identify the parameters, and vary them until the best one is found. Initially, most of the focus was placed on propellant selection.

  19. Structure analysis for plane geometry figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

    2013-12-01

    As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

  20. Genome wide profiling of Azospirillum lipoferum 4B gene expression during interaction with rice roots.

    PubMed

    Drogue, Benoît; Sanguin, Hervé; Borland, Stéphanie; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence

    2014-02-01

    Azospirillum-plant cooperation has been mainly studied from an agronomic point of view leading to a wide description of mechanisms implicated in plant growth-promoting effects. However, little is known about genetic determinants implicated in bacterial adaptation to the host plant during the transition from free-living to root-associated lifestyles. This study aims at characterizing global gene expression of Azospirillum lipoferum 4B following a 7-day-old interaction with two cultivars of Oryza sativa L. japonica (cv. Cigalon from which it was originally isolated, and cv. Nipponbare). The analysis was done on a whole genome expression array with RNA samples obtained from planktonic cells, sessile cells, and root-adhering cells. Root-associated Azospirillum cells grow in an active sessile-like state and gene expression is tightly adjusted to the host plant. Adaptation to rice seems to involve genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification and multidrug efflux, as well as complex regulatory networks. As revealed by the induction of genes encoding transposases, interaction with root may drive bacterial genome rearrangements. Several genes related to ABC transporters and ROS detoxification display cultivar-specific expression profiles, suggesting host specific adaptation and raising the question of A. lipoferum 4B/rice cv. Cigalon co-adaptation. PMID:24283406

  1. Geopotential Model Improvement Using POCM_4B Dynamic Ocean Topography Information: PGM2000A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlis, N. K.; Chinn, D. S.; Cox, C. M.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The two-year mean (1993-1994) Dynamic Ocean Topography (DOT) field implied by the POCM_4B circulation model was used to develop normal equations for DOT, in a surface spherical harmonic representation. These normal equations were combined with normal equations from satellite tracking data, surface gravity data, and altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1. Several least-squares combination solutions were developed in this fashion, by varying parameters such as the maximum degree of the estimated DOT and the relative weights of the different data. The solutions were evaluated in terms of orbit fit residuals, GPS/Leveling-derived undulations, and independent DOT information from in situ WOCE hydrographic data. An optimal solution was developed in this fashion which was originally presented at the 1998 EGS meeting in Nice, France. This model, designated here PGM2000A, maintains the orbit and land geoid modeling performance of EGM96, while improving its marine geoid modeling capability. In addition, PGM2000A's error spectrum is considerably more realistic than those of other contemporary gravitational models and agrees well with the error spectrum of EGM96. We will present the development and evaluation of PGM2000A, with particular emphasis on the weighting of the DOT information implied by POCM_4B. We will also present an inter-comparison of PGM2000A with the GRIM5-C1 and TEG-4 models. Directions for future work and problematic areas will be identified.

  2. Systems biology-based discovery of a potential Atg4B agonist (Flubendazole) that induces autophagy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Guo, Mingrui; Li, Jing; Zheng, Yaxin; Zhang, Shouyue; Xie, Tao; Liu, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the autophagy-related protein 4B(ATG4B) and its targeted candidate agonist in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) therapy. In this study, the identification of Atg4B as a novel breast cancer target for screening candidate small molecular agonists was performed by phylogenetic analysis, network construction, molecular modelling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In vitro, MTT assay, electron microscopy, western blot and ROS measurement were used for validating the efficacy of the candidate compounds. We used the phylogenetic analysis of Atg4B and constructed their protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Also, we screened target compounds of Atg4 proteins from Drugbank and ZINC. Flubendazole was validated for its anti-proliferative efficacy in MDA-MB-231 cells. Further MD simulation results supported the stable interaction between Flubendazole and Atg4B. Moreover, Flubendazole induced autophagy and increased ROS production. In conclusion, in silico analysis and experimental validation together demonstrate that Flubendazole can target Atg4B in MDA-MB-231 cells and induce autophagy, which may shed light on the exploration of this compound as a potential new Atg4B targeted drug for future TNBC therapy. PMID:26299935

  3. Sulfotransferase 4A1.

    PubMed

    Minchin, Rodney F; Lewis, Aaron; Mitchell, Deanne; Kadlubar, Fred F; McManus, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the physical and enzymatic properties of the novel human sulfotransferase, SULT4A1. The gene is most highly expressed in selective regions of the brain, although work to date has failed to identify any specific endogenous substrate for the enzyme. SULT4A1 shares low homology with other human sulfotransferases. Nevertheless, it is highly conserved between species. Despite the low homology, it is structurally very similar to other cytosolic sulfotransferases with a conserved substrate binding domain, dimerization site and partial cofactor binding sites. However, the catalytic cavity is much smaller, and it has been suggested that the cofactor may not be accommodated within it. A recent link between variability in the 5'UTR of the SULT4A1 gene and schizophrenia has heightened interest in the endogenous function of the enzyme and its possible role in human disease. PMID:18248844

  4. Altered expression of apoptotic genes in response to OCT4B1 suppression in human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Ali; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Asadi, Malek Hosein; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2014-10-01

    OCT4B1 is a newly discovered spliced variant of OCT4 which is primarily expressed in pluripotent and tumor cells. Based on our previous studies, OCT4B1 is significantly overexpressed in tumors, where it endows an anti-apoptotic property to tumor cells. However, the mechanism by which OCT4B1 regulates the apoptotic pathway is not yet elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of OCT4B1 suppression on the expression alteration of 84 genes involved in apoptotic pathway. The AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma), 5637 (bladder tumor), and U-87MG (brain tumor) cell lines were transfected with OCT4B1 or irrelevant siRNAs. The expression level of apoptotic genes was then quantified using a human apoptosis panel-PCR kit. Our data revealed an almost similar pattern of alteration in the expression profile of apoptotic genes in all three studied cell lines, following OCT4B1 suppression. In general, the expression of more than 54 apoptotic genes (64 % of arrayed genes) showed significant changes. Among these, some up-regulated (CIDEA, CIDEB, TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF21, TNFRSF11B, TNFRSF10B, and CASP7) and down-regulated (BCL2, BCL2L11, TP73, TP53, BAD, TRAF3, TRAF2, BRAF, BNIP3L, BFAR, and BAX) genes had on average more than tenfold gene expression alteration in all three examined cell lines. With some minor exceptions, suppression of OCT4B1 caused upregulation of pro-apoptotic and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes in transfected tumor cells. Uncovering OCT4B1 down-stream targets could further elucidate its part in tumorigenesis, and could lead to finding a new approach to combat cancer, based on targeting OCT4B1. PMID:25008565

  5. Characterization of an Additional Splice Acceptor Site Introduced into CYP4B1 in Hominoidae during Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Oliver T.; Roellecke, Katharina; Freund, Marcel; Gombert, Michael; Lottmann, Nadine; Steward, Charles A.; Kramm, Christof M.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Rettie, Allan E.; Hanenberg, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    CYP4B1 belongs to the cytochrome P450 family 4, one of the oldest P450 families whose members have been highly conserved throughout evolution. The CYP4 monooxygenases typically oxidize fatty acids to both inactive and active lipid mediators, although the endogenous ligand(s) is largely unknown. During evolution, at the transition of great apes to humanoids, the CYP4B1 protein acquired a serine instead of a proline at the canonical position 427 in the meander region. Although this alteration impairs P450 function related to the processing of naturally occurring lung toxins, a study in transgenic mice suggested that an additional serine insertion at position 207 in human CYP4B1 can rescue the enzyme stability and activity. Here, we report that the genomic insertion of a CAG triplet at the intron 5–exon 6 boundary in human CYP4B1 introduced an additional splice acceptor site in frame. During evolution, this change occurred presumably at the stage of Hominoidae and leads to two major isoforms of the CYP4B1 enzymes of humans and great apes, either with or without a serine 207 insertion (insSer207). We further demonstrated that the CYP4B1 enzyme with insSer207 is the dominant isoform (76%) in humans. Importantly, this amino acid insertion did not affect the 4-ipomeanol metabolizing activities or stabilities of the native rabbit or human CYP4B1 enzymes, when introduced as transgenes in human primary cells and cell lines. In our 3D modeling, this functional neutrality of insSer207 is compatible with its predicted location on the exterior surface of CYP4B1 in a flexible side chain. Therefore, the Ser207 insertion does not rescue the P450 functional activity of human CYP4B1 that has been lost during evolution. PMID:26355749

  6. Retraction: "Activated K-Ras and INK4a/Arf Deficiency Promote Aggressiveness of Pancreatic Cancer by Induction of EMT Consistent With Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype" by Wang et al.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The above article, published online on November 23, 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figure 4B and C to be inappropriately manipulated and re-labeled. Literature Cited Wang Z, Ali S, Banerjee S, Bao B, Li Y, Azmi AS, Korc M, Sarkar FH. 2013. Activated K-Ras and INK4a/Arf deficiency promote aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer by induction of EMT consistent with cancer stem cell phenotype. J Cell Physiol 228:556-562; doi: 10.1002/jcp.24162. PMID:27315162

  7. A Computer Graphics Human Figure Application Of Biostereometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetter, William A.

    1980-07-01

    A study of improved computer graphic representation of the human figure is being conducted under a National Science Foundation grant. Special emphasis is given biostereometrics as a primary data base from which applications requiring a variety of levels of detail may be prepared. For example, a human figure represented by a single point can be very useful in overview plots of a population. A crude ten point figure can be adequate for queuing theory studies and simulated movement of groups. A one hundred point figure can usefully be animated to achieve different overall body activities including male and female figures. A one thousand point figure si-milarly animated, begins to be useful in anthropometrics and kinesiology gross body movements. Extrapolations of this order-of-magnitude approach ultimately should achieve very complex data bases and a program which automatically selects the correct level of detail for the task at hand. See Summary Figure 1.

  8. A figure control sensor for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, R.; Dubovitsky, S.

    1988-01-01

    A sensing and control system is required to maintain high optical figure quality in a segmented reflector. Upon detecting a deviation of the segmented surface from its ideal form, the system drives segment mounted actuators to realign the individual segments and thereby return the surface to its intended figure. When the reflector is in use, a set of figure sensors will determine positions of a number of points on the back surface of each of the reflector's segments, each sensor being assigned to a single point. By measuring the positional deviations of these points from previously established nominal values, the figure sensors provide the control system with the information required to maintain the reflector's optical figure. The optical lever, multiple wavelength interferometer, and electronic capacitive sensor, the most promising technologies for the development of the figure sensor, are illustrated. It is concluded that to select a particular implementation of the figure sensors, performance requirement will be refined and relevant technologies investigated further.

  9. SLC4A Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Inyeong

    2016-01-01

    SLC4A gene family proteins include bicarbonate transporters that move HCO3− across the plasma membrane and regulate intracellular pH and transepithelial movement of acid–base equivalents. These transporters are Cl/HCO3 exchangers, electrogenic Na/HCO3 cotransporters, electroneutral Na/HCO3 cotransporters, and Na+-driven Cl/HCO3 exchanger. Studies of the bicarbonate transporters in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated their physiological importance for acid–base homeostasis at the cellular and systemic levels. Recent advances in structure/function analysis have also provided valuable information on domains or motifs critical for regulation, ion translocation, and protein topology. This chapter focuses on the molecular mechanisms of ion transport along with associated structural aspects from mutagenesis of particular residues and from chimeric constructs. Structure/function studies have helped to understand the mechanism by which ion substrates are moved via the transporters. This chapter also describes some insights into the structure of SLC4A1 (AE1) and SLC4A4 (NBCe1) transporters. Finally, as some SLC4A transporters exist in concert with other proteins in the cells, the structural features associated with protein–protein interactions are briefly discussed. PMID:23177984

  10. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Maurizio; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Romano, Francesca; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Schiavo, Ada Lo

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases) induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept). Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient's clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV infection could

  11. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Maurizio; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Romano, Francesca; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Schiavo, Ada Lo

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases) induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept). Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient's clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV infection could

  12. BOREAS Level-4b AVHRR-LAC Ten-Day Composite Images: At-sensor Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, Josef; Chen, Jing; Nickerson, Jaime; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Huang, Feng-Ting; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. Manitoba Remote Sensing Center (MRSC) and BOREAS Information System (BORIS) personnel acquired, processed, and archived data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-11) and -14 satellites. The AVHRR data were acquired by CCRS and were provided to BORIS for use by BOREAS researchers. These AVHRR level-4b data are gridded, 10-day composites of at-sensor radiance values produced from sets of single-day images. Temporally, the 10- day compositing periods begin 11-Apr-1994 and end 10-Sep-1994. Spatially, the data cover the entire BOREAS region. The data are stored in binary image format files.

  13. Yersiniosis due to infection by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 4b in captive meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shin-Ichi; Hayashidani, Hideki; Yonezawa, Aya; Suzuki, Isao; Une, Yumi

    2015-09-01

    Two meerkats (Suricata suricatta) housed in the same zoological garden in Japan died due to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype 4b infection. Gross and microscopic lesions included necrotizing enteritis and enlargement of the spleen and liver with multifocal necrosis. Inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils, and nuclear debris were associated with clusters of Gram-negative bacilli. Additionally, there were aberrant organism forms that were larger than bacilli and appeared as basophilic globular bodies. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the bacilli and globular bodies were strongly positive for Y. pseudotuberculosis O4 antigen. The globular bodies were considered a shape-changed form of Y. pseudotuberculosis, and these morphologically abnormal bacteria could present a diagnostic challenge. PMID:26179097

  14. Mathematical Phantom Modelled with MCNP-4B code for Individual Patient Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gual, Maritza Rodríguez; Valle, Saúl Hernández

    2002-08-01

    In this work was modeled the ORNL mathematical phantom designed by Cristy and Eckerman in 1987 using the MCNP-4B code with the objective of validating the systems of patient specific dosimetry used in the hospitals. The mathematical phantoms modeling with Monte Carlo guarantee estimates doses more exact in the therapy of the cancer with radionuclides because of difference of the anthropomorphic phantoms, are free of engines that are one of the reason of present errors in the experimental mesurements. As a result of this work will be provided mathematical phantom that reproduces the anatomy of the human organism for a standard "reference man". This paper show the specific absorbed fraction of photon energy in the different organ source for energy of 1 MeV and the results are compared with the published values by Cristy and Eckerman in 1987[1].

  15. Nitric Oxide Mediates Biofilm Formation and Symbiosis in Silicibacter sp. Strain TrichCH4B

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Minxi; Smith, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important signaling role in all domains of life. Many bacteria contain a heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) protein that selectively binds NO. These H-NOX proteins often act as sensors that regulate histidine kinase (HK) activity, forming part of a bacterial two-component signaling system that also involves one or more response regulators. In several organisms, NO binding to the H-NOX protein governs bacterial biofilm formation; however, the source of NO exposure for these bacteria is unknown. In mammals, NO is generated by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and signals through binding the H-NOX domain of soluble guanylate cyclase. Recently, several bacterial NOS proteins have also been reported, but the corresponding bacteria do not also encode an H-NOX protein. Here, we report the first characterization of a bacterium that encodes both a NOS and H-NOX, thus resembling the mammalian system capable of both synthesizing and sensing NO. We characterized the NO signaling pathway of the marine alphaproteobacterium Silicibacter sp. strain TrichCH4B, determining that the NOS is activated by an algal symbiont, Trichodesmium erythraeum. NO signaling through a histidine kinase-response regulator two-component signaling pathway results in increased concentrations of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, a key bacterial second messenger molecule that controls cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. Silicibacter sp. TrichCH4B biofilm formation, activated by T. erythraeum, may be an important mechanism for symbiosis between the two organisms, revealing that NO plays a previously unknown key role in bacterial communication and symbiosis. PMID:25944856

  16. Preparation of factor VII concentrate using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B immunoaffinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi Hosseini, Kamran; Nasiri, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Factor VII concentrates are used in patients with congenital or acquired factor VII deficiency or treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors. In this research, immunoaffinity chromatography was used to purify factor VII from prothrombin complex (Prothrombin- Proconvertin-Stuart Factor-Antihemophilic Factor B or PPSB) which contains coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. The aim of this study was to improve purity, safety and tolerability as a highly purified factor VII concentrate. Methods: PPSB was prepared using DEAE-Sephadex and was used as the starting material for purification of coagulation factor VII. Prothrombin complex was treated by solvent/detergent at 24°C for 6 h with constant stirring. The mixture of PPSB in the PBS buffer was filtered and then chromatographed using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled with specific antibody. Factors II, IX, VII, X and VIIa were assayed on the fractions. Fractions of 48-50 were pooled and lyophilized as a factor VII concentrate. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed and Tween 80 was measured in the factor VII concentrate. Results: Specific activity of factor VII concentrate increased from 0.16 to 55.6 with a purificationfold of 347.5 and the amount of activated factor VII (FVIIa) was found higher than PPSB (4.4-fold). Results of electrophoresis on agarose gel indicated higher purity of Factor VII compared to PPSB; these finding revealed that factor VII migrated as alpha-2 proteins. In order to improve viral safety, solvent-detergent treatment was applied prior to further purification and nearly complete elimination of tween 80 (2 μg/ml). Conclusion: It was concluded that immuonoaffinity chromatography using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B can be a suitable choice for large-scale production of factor VII concentrate with higher purity, safety and activated factor VII. PMID:26034723

  17. Genomic associations for drought tolerance on the short arm of wheat chromosome 4B.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Suhas; Singh, Kalpana; Shukla, Sanyukta; Goel, Sonia; Vikram, Prashant; Pawar, Vasantrao; Gaikwad, Kishor; Khanna-Chopra, Renu; Singh, Nagendra

    2012-08-01

    Drought is a major constraint to maintaining yield stability of wheat in rain fed and limited irrigation agro-ecosystems. Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in wheat has been difficult due to quantitative nature of the trait involving multiple genes with variable effects and lack of effective selection strategies employing molecular markers. Here, a framework molecular linkage map was constructed using 173 DNA markers randomly distributed over the 21 wheat chromosomes. Grain yield and other drought-responsive shoot and root traits were phenotyped for 2 years under drought stress and well-watered conditions on a mapping population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between drought-sensitive semidwarf variety "WL711" and drought-tolerant traditional variety "C306". Thirty-seven genomics region were identified for 10 drought-related traits at 18 different chromosomal locations but most of these showed small inconsistent effects. A consistent genomic region associated with drought susceptibility index (qDSI.4B.1) was mapped on the short arm of chromosome 4B, which also controlled grain yield per plant, harvest index, and root biomass under drought. Transcriptome profiling of the parents and two RIL bulks with extreme phenotypes revealed five genes underlying this genomic region that were differentially expressed between the parents as well as the two RIL bulks, suggesting that they are likely candidates for drought tolerance. Syntenic genomic regions of barley, rice, sorghum, and maize genomes were identified that also harbor genes for drought tolerance. Markers tightly linked to this genomic region in combination with other important regions on group 7 chromosomes may be used in marker-assisted breeding for drought tolerance in wheat. PMID:22476619

  18. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    SciTech Connect

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-07-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori.

  19. Figure skater level moderates balance training.

    PubMed

    Saunders, N W; Hanson, N J; Koutakis, P; Chaudhari, A M; Devor, S T

    2013-04-01

    It was suggested that baseline levels of postural control in figure skaters might influence the effectiveness of neuromuscular training. The aims of the present study were to investigate the baseline association of skater skill level with standard center of pressure metrics and time to stabilization, and to determine if skill level influenced the effectiveness of a 6-week neuromuscular training program. There was no main effect of skill level for any baseline center of pressure metric for either test. There was no main effect of skill level on the percent change in any metric for the single leg stance following training. However, skill level did influence landing test outcome measures. The difference in percent change of root mean squared was evident for the mediolateral (low: 24.5±16.50% vs. high: 2.42±14.99%) and anterior-posterior (low: 6.66±9.21% vs. high: - 4.03±5.91%) axes. Percent change in anterior-posterior time to stabilization also differed by skill level (low: - 0.73%±4.74 vs. high: - 5.61%±2.76). Note that this study was underpowered with 26 subjects and 14 subjects contributing to baseline and post-training assessments, respectively. Though no baseline differences in postural control were observed, compared with low skill levels, high skill levels benefitted more from training. PMID:23184479

  20. Resolving the formation of modern Chladni figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, P. H.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Chiang, P. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-09-01

    The resonant spectrum of a thin plate driven with a mechanical oscillator is precisely measured to distinguish modern Chladni figures (CFs) observed at the resonant frequencies from classical CFs observed at the non-resonant frequencies. Experimental results reveal that modern CFs generally display an important characteristic of avoided crossings of nodal lines, whereas the nodal lines of classical CFs form a regular grid. The formation of modern CFs and the resonant frequency spectrum are resolved with a theoretical model that characterizes the interaction between the plate and the driving source into the inhomogeneous Kirchhoff-Love equation. The derived formula for determining resonant frequencies is shown to be exactly identical to the meromorphic function given in singular billiards that deals with the coupling strength on the transition between integrable and chaotic features. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions verifies the significant role of the strong-coupling effect in the formation of modern CFs. More importantly, it is confirmed that the apparatus for generating modern CFs can be developed to serve as an expedient system for exploring the nodal domains of chaotic wave functions as well as the physics of the strong coupling with a point scatterer.

  1. Figuring the Acceleration of the Simple Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The centripetal acceleration has been known since Huygens' (1659) and Newton's (1684) time.1,2 The physics to calculate the acceleration of a simple pendulum has been around for more than 300 years, and a fairly complete treatise has been given by C. Schwarz in this journal.3 But sentences like "the acceleration is always directed towards the equilibrium position" beside the picture of a swing on a circular arc can still be found in textbooks, as e.g. in Ref. 4. Vectors have been invented by Grassmann (1844)5 and are conveniently used to describe the acceleration in curved orbits, but acceleration is more often treated as a scalar with or without sign, as the words acceleration/deceleration suggest. The component tangential to the orbit is enough to deduce the period of the simple pendulum, but it is not enough to discuss the forces on the pendulum, as has been pointed out by Santos-Benito and A. Gras-Marti.6 A suitable way to address this problem is a nice figure with a catch for classroom discussions or homework. When I plotted the acceleration vectors of the simple pendulum in their proper positions, pictures as in Fig. 1 appeared on the screen. The endpoints of the acceleration vectors, if properly scaled, seemed to lie on a curve with a familiar shape: a cardioid. Is this true or just an illusion?

  2. Advances in precision mirror figure metrology (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K. ); Church, E.L. )

    1992-01-01

    New developments in optical measurement techniques have made it possible to test the surface quality on grazing incidence optics with extreme precision and accuracy. An instrument developed at Brookhaven, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), measures the figure of large (up to 1 m long) cylindrical aspheres with nanometer accuracy. The LTP optical system is based around a common-path interferometer design belonging to the class of slope measuring interferometers and, as such, it is very robust, stable, and vibration insensitive. A unique error correction technique removes the effect of tilt errors in the optical head as it traverses the air bearing, thus allowing one to accurately measure the absolute surface profile and radius of curvature. This is of critical importance to the manufacture of long-radius spherical optics used in high-resolution soft x-ray monochromators and in the testing of mirror bending systems. This talk will review the principle of operation of the LTP, probe the factors limiting the performance of the system, and will examine the current state of the art in synchrotron radiation mirror manufacturing quality (as viewed by our metrology techniques). This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH00016.

  3. 2008 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the seventh leading cause of all deaths in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans older than the age of 65 years. More than 5 million Americans are estimated to have Alzheimer's disease. Every 71 seconds someone in America develops Alzheimer's disease; by 2050 it is expected to occur every 33 seconds. During the coming decades, baby boomers are projected to add 10 million people to these numbers. By 2050, the incidence of Alzheimer's disease is expected to approach nearly a million people per year, with a total estimated prevalence of 11 to 16 million persons. Significant cost implications related to Alzheimer's disease and other dementias include an estimated $148 billion annually in direct (Medicare/Medicaid) and indirect (eg, caregiver lost wages and out-of-pocket expenses, decreased business productivity) costs. Not included in these figures are the estimated 10 million caregivers who annually provide $89 billion in unpaid services to individuals with Alzheimer's disease. This report provides information to increase understanding of the public health impact of Alzheimer's disease, including incidence and prevalence, mortality, lifetime risks, costs, and impact on family caregivers. PMID:18631956

  4. Magnetic anisotropy and crystalline electric field effects in RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} single crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Lambert, S. E.; Maple, M. B.; Dunlap, B. D.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at San Diego

    2009-08-01

    Research on polycrystalline RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} samples has shown that crystalline electric field (CEF) effects play an important role in these compounds. The successful synthesis of single crystal samples of RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} with R = Y, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu has provided an opportunity to further investigate CEF effects in these materials. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements on the RRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} single crystals revealed strong magnetic anisotropy, and the experimental results could be described well by CEF calculations based on the parameters derived from an analysis of experimental data for ErRh{sub 4}B{sub 4} single crystals. The easy directions of magnetization of these compounds are consistent with the signs of the Stevens factor {alpha}J of the CEF Hamiltonian. A strong influence of magnetic anisotropy on superconductivity was also observed.

  5. Relationship between LAPTM4B Gene Polymorphism and Prognosis of Patients following Tumor Resection for Colorectal and Esophageal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaofang; Du, Hong; Zhou, Chunlian; Zhang, Qingyun; Hao, Chunyi; Wen, Xianzi; Ji, Jiafu

    2016-01-01

    Background Lysosome-associated transmembrane-4 beta (LAPTM4B) is an oncogene that participates tumorgenesis in a variety of human solid tumors, and it has two alleles named as LAPTM4B*1 and *2. The present study aimed to identify the association of LAPTM4B genotype with clinicopathological features and prognosis in colorectal and esophageal cancer patients. Method Genotypes of LAPTM4B were determined by PCR in 167 colon cancer cases (72 patients in a discovery cohort and 95 patients in a testing cohort), 160 rectal cancer cases and 164 esophageal cancer cases. Association between the LAPTM4B gene polymorphism and clinicopathological variables was calculated by Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. Patient survival differences were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were determined with Log-rank test and Cox regression model. Results LAPTM4B *1/1 was more frequently detected in colon cancer patients with lymph node metastasis and TNM III+IV stages in total colon cancer (discovery + testing cohorts). LAPTM4B *2/2 decreased in recurrent patients in total colon cancer patients (P = 0.045). Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Log-rank test showed that LAPTM4B*1 was correlated with shorter overall survival (OS) in discovery and testing cohorts of colon cancer (P = 0.0254 and 0.0292, respectively), but not in rectal and esophageal cancer cases (P = 0.7669 and 0.9356, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that LAPTM4B genotype was an independent prognostic factor for OS in total colon cancer [P = 0.004, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.432; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.243–0.768], but not in rectal and esophageal cancers (P = 0.791, HR = 1.073, 95% CI = 0.638–1.804 and 0.998, HR = 1.000, 95% CI = 0.663–1.530, respectively). Conclusion These findings suggested that LAPTM4B allele *1 was a risk factor associated with poor prognosis in patients with colon cancer, but not in patients with rectal or esophageal cancers. LAPTM4B genotype status might

  6. Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L.: a potential halophyte for the degradation of toxic textile dye, Green HE4B.

    PubMed

    Patil, Asmita V; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Suprasanna, Penna; Bapat, Vishwas A; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2012-05-01

    Sesuvium portulacastrum is a common halophyte growing well in adverse surroundings and is exploited mainly for the environmental protection including phytoremediation, desalination and stabilization of contaminated soil. In the present investigation, attempts have been made on the decolorization of a toxic textile dye Green HE4B (GHE4B) using in vitro grown Sesuvium plantlets. The plantlets exhibited significant (70%) decolorization of GHE4B (50 mg l(-1)) that sustain 200 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) within 5 days of incubation. The enzymatic analysis performed on the root and shoot tissues of the in vitro plantlets subjected to GHE4B decolorization in the presence of 200 mM NaCl showed a noteworthy induction of tyrosinase, lignin peroxidase and NADH-DCIP reductase activities, indicating the involvement of these enzymes in the metabolism of the dye GHE4B. The UV-visible spectrophotometer, HPLC and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses of the samples before and after decolorization of the dye confirmed the efficient phytotransformation of GHE4B in the presence of 200 mM NaCl. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the products revealed the formation of three metabolites such as p -amino benzene, p -amino toluene and 1, 2, 7-amino naphthalene after phytotransformation of GHE4B. Based on the FTIR and GC-MS results, the possible pathway for the biodegradation of GHE4B in the presence of 200 mM NaCl has been proposed. The phytotoxicity experiments confirmed the non-toxicity of the degraded products. The present study demonstrates for the first time the potential of Sesuvium for the efficient degradation of textile dyes and its efficacy on saline soils contaminated with toxic compounds. PMID:22160500

  7. 76 FR 17334 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-2G4B Airplane; Certification of Cooktops

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Boeing Model 747- 2G4B series airplane. This airplane, as modified by Greenpoint Technologies, Inc., will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with the replacement and re-certification of existing cooktops with advanced technology induction coil cooktops in the main deck galleys on two Boeing Model 747-2G4B airplanes. The proposed......

  8. Multicomponent Dipolar Cycloaddition Strategy: Combinatorial Synthesis of Novel Spiro-Tethered Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline Hybrid Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Sumesh, Remani Vasudevan; Muthu, Muthumani; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Suresh Kumar, Raju; Arumugam, Natarajan; Athimoolam, S; Jeya Yasmi Prabha, E Arockia; Kumar, Raju Ranjith

    2016-05-01

    The stereoselective syntheses of a library of novel spiro-tethered pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole/indolizine-oxindole/acenaphthene hybrid heterocycles have been achieved through the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides generated in situ from α-amino acids and 1,2-diketones to dipolarophiles derived from pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivatives. PMID:27027478

  9. Development of fluorescent substrates and assays for the key autophagy-related cysteine protease enzyme, ATG4B.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh G; Honson, Nicolette S; Arns, Steven; Davis, Tara L; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Kovacic, Suzana; Kumar, Nag S; Pfeifer, Tom A; Young, Robert N

    2014-04-01

    The cysteine protease ATG4B plays a role in key steps of the autophagy process and is of interest as a potential therapeutic target. At an early step, ATG4B cleaves proLC3 isoforms to form LC3-I for subsequent lipidation to form LC3-II and autophagosome membrane insertion. ATG4B also cleaves phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) from LC3-II to regenerate LC3-I, enabling its recycling for further membrane biogenesis. Here, we report several novel assays for monitoring the enzymatic activity of ATG4B. An assay based on mass spectrometric analysis and quantification of cleavage of the substrate protein LC3-B was developed and, while useful for mechanistic studies, was not suitable for high throughput screening (HTS). A doubly fluorescent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) ligand YFP-LC3B-EmGFP (FRET-LC3) was constructed and shown to be an excellent substrate for ATG4B with rates of cleavage similar to that for LC3B itself. A HTS assay to identify candidate inhibitors of ATG4B utilizing FRET-LC3 as a substrate was developed and validated with a satisfactory Z' factor and high signal-to-noise ratio suitable for screening small molecule libraries. Pilot screens of the 1,280-member library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC(™)) and a 3,481-member library of known drugs (KD2) gave hit rates of 0.6% and 0.5% respectively, and subsequent titrations confirmed ATG4B inhibitory activity for three compounds, both in the FRET and mass spectrometry assays. The FRET- and mass spectrometry-based assays we have developed will allow for both HTS for inhibitors of ATG4B and mechanistic approaches to study inhibition of a major component of the autophagy pathway. PMID:24735444

  10. The role of tumor suppressor p15Ink4b in the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Humeniuk, R; Rosu-Myles, M; Fares, J; Koller, R; Bies, J; Wolff, L

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor gene p15Ink4b (CDKN2B) is a frequent event in blood disorders like acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. The molecular function of p15Ink4b in hematopoietic differentiation still remains to be elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that loss of p15Ink4b in mice results in skewing of the differentiation pattern of the common myeloid progenitor towards the myeloid lineage. Here, we investigated a function of p15Ink4b tumor suppressor gene in driving erythroid lineage commitment in hematopoietic progenitors. It was found that p15Ink4b is expressed more highly in committed megakaryocyte–erythroid progenitors than granulocyte–macrophage progenitors. More importantly, mice lacking p15Ink4b have lower numbers of primitive red cell progenitors and a severely impaired response to 5-fluorouracil- and phenylhydrazine-induced hematopoietic stress. Introduction of p15Ink4b into multipotential progenitors produced changes at the molecular level, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase\\extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling, increase GATA-1, erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and decrease Pu1, GATA-2 expression. These changes rendered cells more permissive to erythroid commitment and less permissive to myeloid commitment, as demonstrated by an increase in early burst-forming unit-erythroid formation with concomitant decrease in myeloid colonies. Our results indicate that p15Ink4b functions in hematopoiesis, by maintaining proper lineage commitment of progenitors and assisting in rapid red blood cells replenishment following stress. PMID:23359317

  11. Expression of Phosphodiesterase 4B cAMP-Specific Gene in Subjects With Cryptorchidism and Down's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Michele; Condorelli, Rosita A; La Vignera, Sandro; Castiglione, Roberto; Salluzzo, Maria Grazia; Bonaccorso, Carmela M; Vinci, Mirella; Bosco, Paolo; Romano, Carmelo; Campagna, Cristina; Romano, Corrado; Calogero, Aldo E

    2016-05-01

    Cryptorchidism represents a risk factor for infertility and germ cell testicular neoplasia. An increased rate of cryptorchidism has been reported in subjects with Down's syndrome. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important messengers that regulate and mediate a number of cellular responses to extracellular signals, such as neurotransmitters and hormones. PDE4B, cAMP-specific (PDE4B) gene which maps to chromosome 1p31.3 appears to be involved in schizophrenia, chronic psychiatric illness, learning, memory, and mood disturbances. Expression of PDE4 enzymes have been studied in testes of cryptorchid rats. Expression of PDE4B protein examination showed marked degenerative changes in the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules. These findings led us to evaluate PDE4 mRNA expression in leukocytes of peripheral blood of five men with DS and cryptorchidism and eleven subjects with DS without cryptorchidism compared with healthy men (controls) by quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study showed that the PDE4B gene was downexpressed in men with DS and cryptorchidism compared to normal controls and DS without cryptorchidism. A lower expression of the PDE4B gene may be involved in the neurological abnormalities in subjects with Down's syndrome. Moreover, PDE4B gene may be involved in the testicular abnormalities of men with DS and cryptorchidism. PMID:25546171

  12. Neuronal BC RNAs cooperate with eIF4B to mediate activity-dependent translational control

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Taesun; Muslimov, Ilham A.; Tsokas, Panayiotis; Berardi, Valerio; Zhong, Jun; Sacktor, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    In neurons, translational regulation of gene expression has been implicated in the activity-dependent management of synapto-dendritic protein repertoires. However, the fundamentals of stimulus-modulated translational control in neurons remain poorly understood. Here we describe a mechanism in which regulatory brain cytoplasmic (BC) RNAs cooperate with eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) to control translation in a manner that is responsive to neuronal activity. eIF4B is required for the translation of mRNAs with structured 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs), exemplified here by neuronal protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) mRNA. Upon neuronal stimulation, synapto-dendritic eIF4B is dephosphorylated at serine 406 in a rapid process that is mediated by protein phosphatase 2A. Such dephosphorylation causes a significant decrease in the binding affinity between eIF4B and BC RNA translational repressors, enabling the factor to engage the 40S small ribosomal subunit for translation initiation. BC RNA translational control, mediated via eIF4B phosphorylation status, couples neuronal activity to translational output, and thus provides a mechanistic basis for long-term plastic changes in nerve cells. PMID:25332164

  13. A phosphodiesterase 4B-dependent interplay between tumor cells and the microenvironment regulates angiogenesis in B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Suhasini, Avvaru N.; Lin, An-Ping; Bhatnagar, Harshita; Kim, Sang-Woo; Moritz, August W.; Aguiar, Ricardo C. T.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis associates with poor outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the contribution of the lymphoma cells to this process remains unclear. Addressing this knowledge gap may uncover unsuspecting proangiogenic signaling nodes and highlight alternative antiangiogenic therapies. Here we identify the second messenger cyclic-AMP (cAMP) and the enzyme that terminates its activity, phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), as regulators of B-cell lymphoma angiogenesis. We first show that cAMP, in a PDE4B-dependent manner, suppresses PI3K/AKT signals to down-modulate VEGF secretion and vessel formation in vitro. Next, we create a novel mouse model that combines the lymphomagenic Myc transgene with germline deletion of Pde4b. We show that lymphomas developing in a Pde4b-null background display significantly lower microvessel density in association with lower VEGF levels and PI3K/AKT activity. We recapitulate these observations by treating lymphoma-bearing mice with the FDA-approved PDE4 inhibitor Roflumilast. Lastly, we show that primary human DLBCLs with high PDE4B expression display significantly higher microvessel density. Here, we defined an unsuspected signaling circuitry in which the cAMP generated in lymphoma cells downmodulates PI3K/AKT and VEGF secretion to negatively influence vessel development in the microenvironment. These data identify PDE4 as an actionable antiangiogenic target in DLBCL. PMID:26503641

  14. Lighting, backlighting and watercolor illusions and the laws of figurality.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

    2006-01-01

    We report some novel 'lighting' and 'backlighting' effects in plane figures similar to those which induce the 'watercolor illusion', that is, figures made with outlines composed of juxtaposed parallel lines varying in brightness and chromatic color. These new effects show 'illumination' as an emergent percept, and show how arrangements of 'dark and light' along the boundaries of various plane figures model the volume and strengthen the illusion of depth. To account for these various effects we propose several phenomenological 'laws of figurality' to add to the Gestalt laws of organization and figure-ground segregation. We offer a set of meta-laws which are speculative but which serve to integrate and organize the phenomenological laws. These laws indicate how luminance gradient profiles across boundary contours define both the 3D appearance of figures and the properties of the light reflected from their volumetric shapes. PMID:16862844

  15. 2009 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of all deaths in the United States, and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans aged 65 and older. Whereas other major causes of death have been on the decrease, deaths attributable to AD have been rising dramatically. Between 2000 and 2006, heart-disease deaths decreased nearly 12%, stroke deaths decreased 18%, and prostate cancer-related deaths decreased 14%, whereas deaths attributable to AD increased 47%. An estimated 5.3 million Americans have AD; the approximately 200,000 persons under age 65 years with AD comprise the younger-onset AD population. Every 70 seconds, someone in America develops AD; by 2050, this time is expected to decrease to every 33 seconds. Over the coming decades, the "baby-boom" population is projected to add 10 million people to these numbers. In 2050, the incidence of AD is expected to approach nearly a million people per year, with a total estimated prevalence of 11 to 16 million people. Significant cost implications related to AD and other dementias include an estimated $148 billion annually in direct (Medicare/Medicaid) and indirect (e.g., decreased business productivity) costs. Not included in these figures is the $94 billion in unpaid services to individuals with AD provided annually by an estimated 10 million caregivers. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an important component in the continuum from healthy cognition to dementia. Understanding which individuals with MCI are at highest risk for eventually developing AD is key to our ultimate goal of preventing AD. This report provides information meant to increase an understanding of the public-health impact of AD, including incidence and prevalence, mortality, lifetime risks, costs, and impact on family caregivers. This report also sets the stage for a better understanding of the relationship between MCI and AD. PMID:19426951

  16. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org. PMID:22815711

  17. Figures and First Years: Examining first-year Calculus I student ability to incorporate figures into technical reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Nathan; Rogers, Michael; Pfaff, Thomas

    This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures into technical reports. Students were handed guidelines as part of their Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education Module meant to aid them in crafting effective figures. Figure-specific questionnaires were added in the class to gain insight into the quantitative literacy skills students possessed both before starting their course and after its completion. Reviews of the figures in 78 technical reports written by 106 students showed repeated failure to refer to figures in discussion sections and use them in evidence-based arguments. Analysis of quantitative literacy skills revealed that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with literacy were not the main contributor to the sub-par graphs.

  18. CD4(+)B220(+)TCRγδ(+) T cells produce IL-17 in lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Kui; Wan, Jun; Qi, Xiaokun

    2016-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with comprehensive immune cell disorders. Recent studies suggested that pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 plays important role in lupus, leaving the cellular sources and their pathogenic and physiologic characters largely unknown. In the current study, by using lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice, we demonstrated that Th17 response prevails in lupus disease regarding significantly accumulated serum IL-17, increased IL-17-producing splenocytes, and elevated phospho-STAT3 in CD4(+) T cells. Intracellular staining revealed that unusual CD4(+)B220(+) T cells are major IL-17-producing cells, whereas conventional CD4(+)B220(-) T cells are major IFN-γ-producing cells. Subsequent studies showed that CD4(+)B220(+) cells contains both αβ and γδ T cells in the spleen and thymus of MRL/lpr mice. Further study showed that around 60% of γδ T cells in MRL/lpr mice co-express both B220 and CD4 on their surface, and are the major RORγt(+) cells in MRL/lpr mice. Finally, CD4(+)B220(+) T cells alone do not proliferate, but could enhance the proliferation and IFN-γ-production of conventional CD4(+)B220(-) T cells. Our findings suggest the pathogenic role of unusual CD4(+)B220(+) T cells in lupus disease in MRL/lpr mice according to their IL-17-producing ability and stimulatory function for conventional CD4(+)B220(-) T cells. PMID:27235595

  19. Altered Expression of High Molecular Weight Heat Shock Proteins after OCT4B1 Suppression in Human Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Mohammad Reza; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Asadi, Malek Hossein; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objective OCT4B1, a novel variant of OCT4, is expressed in cancer cell lines and tis- sues. Based on our previous reports, OCT4B1 appears to have a crucial role in regulating apoptosis as well as stress response [heat shock proteins (HSPs)] pathways. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of OCT4B1 silencing on the expression of high molecular weight HSPs in three different human tumor cell lines. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, OCT4B1 expression was suppressed in AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma), 5637 (bladder tumor) and U-87MG (brain tumor) cell lines using RNAi strategy. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array was em- ployed for expression level analysis and the fold changes were calculated using RT2 Pro- filer PCR array data analysis software version 3.5. Results Our data revealed up-regulation of HSPD1 (from HSP60 family) as well as HSPA14, HSPA1L, HSPA4, HSPA5 and HSPA8 (from HSP70 family) following OCT4B1 knock-down in all three cell lines. In contrast, the expression of HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1 (from HSP90 family) as well as HSPA1B and HSPA6 (from HSP70 family) was down-regulated under similar conditions. Other stress-related genes showed varying ex- pression pattern in the examined tumor cell lines. Conclusion Our data suggest a direct or indirect correlation between the expression of OCT4B1 and HSP90 gene family. However, OCT4B1 expression was not strongly corre- lated with the expression of HSP70 and HSP60 gene families. PMID:26862520

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  1. Identification of an AAA ATPase VPS4B-Dependent Pathway That Modulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Abundance and Signaling during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, H. Helen; Li, Xu; Chen, Jo-Lin; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cooper, Fariba Norouziyan; Chen, Yun-Ru; Zhang, Wenyu; Chung, Yiyin; Li, Angela; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Yang, Lixin; Deng, XuTao; Liu, Xiyong; Yen, Yun; Johnson, Deborah L.; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Yang, Austin

    2012-01-01

    VPS4B, an AAA ATPase (ATPase associated with various cellular activities), participates in vesicular trafficking and autophagosome maturation in mammalian cells. In solid tumors, hypoxia is a common feature and an indicator of poor treatment outcome. Our studies demonstrate that exogenous or endogenous (assessed with anchorage-independent three-dimensional multicellular spheroid culture) hypoxia induces VPS4B downregulation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Inhibition of VPS4B function by short hairpin VPS4B (sh-VPS4B) or expression of dominant negative VPS4B(E235Q) promotes anchorage-independent breast cancer cell growth and resistance to gefitinib, U0126, and genotoxicity. Biochemically, hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase essential for cell proliferation and survival, accompanied by increased EGFR accumulation and altered intracellular compartmentalization, is observed in cells with compromised VPS4B. Furthermore, enhanced FOS/JUN induction and AP-1 promoter activation are noted in EGF-treated cells with VPS4B knockdown. However, VPS4B depletion does not affect EGFRvIII stability or its associated signaling. An inverse correlation between VPS4B expression and EGFR abundance is observed in breast tumors, and high-grade or recurrent breast carcinomas exhibit lower VPS4B expression. Together, our findings highlight a potentially critical role of VPS4B downregulation or chronic-hypoxia-induced VPS4B degradation in promoting tumor progression, unveiling a nongenomic mechanism for EGFR overproduction in human breast cancer. PMID:22252323

  2. High-temperature mass spectrometry - Vaporization of group 4-B metal carbides. [using Knudsen effusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The high temperature vaporization of the metal-carbon systems TiC, ZrC, HfC, and ThC was studied by the Knudsen effusion - mass spectrometric method. For each system the metal dicarbide and tetracarbide molecular species were identified in the gas phase. Relative ion currents of the carbides and metals were measured as a function of temperature. Second- and third-law methods were used to determine enthalpies. Maximum values were established for the dissociation energies of the metal monocarbide molecules TiC, ZrC, HfC, and ThC. Thermodynamic functions used in the calculations are discussed in terms of assumed molecular structures and electronic contributions to the partition functions. The trends shown by the dissociation energies of the carbides of Group 4B are compared with those of neighboring groups and discussed in relation to the corresponding oxides and chemical bonding. The high temperature molecular beam inlet system and double focusing mass spectrometer are described.

  3. Study of Historical 4B/X17 Mega Flare on 28 October 2003 (P58)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, W.; Chandra, R.; Ali, S. S.

    2006-11-01

    wuddin_99@yahoo.com We analysed multi-wavelength data of 28 October 2003 4B/X17.2 class extremely energetic parallel ribbon solar flare, which occurred in NOAA 10486. The flare was well observed in H-alpha at ARIES, Nainital and various space (SOHO, TRACE, RHESSI, WIND etc.) and ground based Observatories. The H-alpha observations show the stretching/detwisting and eruption of helically twisted S shaped (sigmoid) filament in the South-West direction of the active region with bright shock front followed by rapid increase in intensity and area of the gigantic flare. The flare is associated with a bright/fast full halo earth directed CME, strong type II, III and IV radio bursts, an intense proton event and GLE. It seems that the filament eruption triggered the halo CME because the helical structure is clearly visible in the SOHO/LASCO C2, C3 images. This indicates helicity transfer from chromosphere to corona and interplanetary medium. The magnetic field of the flaring region was most complex with high magnetic shear. From the above analysis we feel that the energy buildup/release process of this unique flare support helically twisted magnetic flux rope model.

  4. Adsorption and thermal decomposition of 2-octylthieno[3,4-b]thiophene on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Park, Joon B; Zong, Kyukwan; Jeon, Il Chul; Hahn, Jae Ryang; Stacchiola, Dario; Starr, David; Müller, Kathrin; Noh, Jaegeun

    2012-10-15

    The adsorption and thermal stability of 2-octylthieno[3,4-b]thiophene (OTTP) on the Au(111) surfaces have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). UHV-STM studies revealed that the vapor-deposited OTTP on Au(111) generated disordered adlayers with monolayer thickness even at saturation coverage. XPS and TPD studies indicated that OTTP molecules on Au(111) are stable up to 450 K and further heating of the sample resulted in thermal decomposition to produce H(2) and H(2)S via C-S bond scission in the thieno-thiophene rings. Dehydrogenation continues to occur above 600 K and the molecules were ultimately transformed to carbon clusters at 900 K. Highly resolved air-STM images showed that OTTP adlayers on Au(111) prepared from solution are composed of a well-ordered and low-coverage phase where the molecules lie flat on the surface, which can be assigned as a (9×2√33)R5° structure. Finally, based on analysis of STM, TPD, and XPS results, we propose a thermal decomposition mechanism of OTTP on Au(111) as a function of annealing temperature. PMID:22818203

  5. Interaction of glucose oxidase with alkyl-substituted Sepharose 4B.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Saman; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Nemat-Gorgani, Mohsen

    2003-09-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) is often used in immobilized forms for determination of glucose. To examine the possibility of its adsorption by hydrophobic interactions, palmityl-substituted Sepharose 4B (Sepharoselipid) was employed as an adsorptive matrix. Various conditions were used in tests to improve the limited immobilization of the enzyme observed under normal (native) conditions, including use of high concentrations of denaturing agents. Of the denaturants used, only the cationic detergent dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide was effective in denaturing the protein and exposing its hydrophobic sites for interaction with alkyl residues on the support. This, followed by the process of renaturation, provided catalytically active immobilized preparations. The apoenzyme, prepared by treatment of the holoenzyme with acidified (NH4)2SO4 or thermal denaturation, was totally immobilized on the support. Furthermore, it was shown that either flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or the alkyl residues, not both, may interact with the nucleotide site at any given time. Results are discussed in terms of high rigidity of GOD molecule and limited exposure of hydrophobic sites in its native structure. The observations are in accord with suggestions in the literature that the FAD pocket is a very narrow channel of hydrophobic properties, adapted to accept its natural coenzyme. PMID:14512636

  6. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus ORF4b protein inhibits type I interferon production through both cytoplasmic and nuclear targets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Fei; Zhu, Na; Wang, Wenling; Deng, Yao; Zhao, Zhengdong; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel and highly pathogenic human coronavirus and has quickly spread to other countries in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa and Asia since 2012. Previous studies have shown that MERS-CoV ORF4b antagonizes the early antiviral alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) response, which may significantly contribute to MERS-CoV pathogenesis; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we found that ORF4b in the cytoplasm could specifically bind to TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε), suppress the molecular interaction between mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and IKKε, and inhibit IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation and subsequent IFN-β production. Further analysis showed that ORF4b could also inhibit IRF3 and IRF7-induced production of IFN-β, whereas deletion of the nuclear localization signal of ORF4b abrogated its ability to inhibit IRF3 and IRF7-induced production of IFN-β, but not IFN-β production induced by RIG-I, MDA5, MAVS, IKKε, and TBK-1, suggesting that ORF4b could inhibit the induction of IFN-β in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Collectively, these results indicate that MERS-CoV ORF4b inhibits the induction of type I IFN through a direct interaction with IKKε/TBK1 in the cytoplasm, and also in the nucleus with unknown mechanism. Viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade or thwart a host’s antiviral responses. A novel human coronavirus (HCoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), is distinguished from other coronaviruses by its high pathogenicity and mortality. However, virulence determinants that distinguish MERS-CoV from other HCoVs have yet to be identified. MERS-CoV ORF4b antagonizes the early antiviral response, which may contribute to MERS-CoV pathogenesis. Here, we report the identification of the interferon (IFN) antagonism mechanism of MERS-CoV ORF4b. MERS-CoV ORF4b inhibits the production

  7. AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B

    PubMed Central

    Johanns, M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Hsu, M.-F.; Jacobs, R.; Vertommen, D.; Van Sande, J.; Dumont, J. E.; Woods, A.; Carling, D.; Hue, L.; Viollet, B.; Foretz, M; Rider, M H

    2016-01-01

    Biguanides such as metformin have previously been shown to antagonize hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase by AMP. Here we show that incubation of hepatocytes with the small-molecule AMPK activator 991 decreases glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity and downstream PKA target phosphorylation. Moreover, incubation of hepatocytes with 991 increases the Vmax of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) without affecting intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations. The effects of 991 to decrease glucagon-stimulated cAMP concentrations and activate PDE4B are lost in hepatocytes deleted for both catalytic subunits of AMPK. PDE4B is phosphorylated by AMPK at three sites, and by site-directed mutagenesis, Ser304 phosphorylation is important for activation. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism by which AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon signalling via phosphorylation-induced PDE4B activation. PMID:26952277

  8. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 89, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89—Figures EC01MR92.000 EC01MR92.001...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 89, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89—Figures EC01MR92.000 EC01MR92.001...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 90, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.085 EC01MR92.086...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures Pt. 90, Subpt. E, App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.087...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 90, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.085 EC01MR92.086...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures Pt. 90, Subpt. E, App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.087...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED.... D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.013 ER04OC96.014...

  3. Interpreting Children's Human Figure Drawings: Basic Guidelines for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Yuehong Chen; Mullis, Fran

    2008-01-01

    The literature was reviewed and summarized to provide common interpretations of human figure drawings. Basic guidelines for interpreting human figure drawings (i.e., face and head, body, arms and hands, and legs and feet) are presented. Expectations for students at different developmental levels (ages 1 1/2 through adolescence) are identified, and…

  4. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  6. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  9. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  8. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  20. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  12. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  15. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  16. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  17. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  18. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 22 to Part 679 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 22 Figure 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Figure 22 to Part 679...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figure 11 to Part 223...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 22 to Part 679 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 22 Figure 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Figure 22 to Part 679...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figure 11 to Part 223...

  3. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  8. Transformation of the Incomplete Figure in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the developmental changes in young children's perception. A matching completion task consisting of three geometric figures and one bird-like figure were completed by children 3-5 years of age ("N" = 99). The rotation effect, in which the correct response decreased with orientation (45°, 90° 135°, and…

  9. Enactivism and Figural Apprehension in the Context of Pattern Generalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish a research framework for an investigation into the extent to which pupils are able to visualise figural cues in multiple ways within the context of pattern generalisation. Enactivism, along with the constructs of knowledge objectification and figural apprehension, are identified as forming an ideal theoretical…

  10. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  12. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different…

  13. Estimating the Volumes of Solid Figures with Curved Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald

    1991-01-01

    Several examples of solid figures that calculus students can use to exercise their skills at estimating volume are presented. Although these figures are bounded by surfaces that are portions of regular cylinders, it is interesting to note that their volumes can be expressed as rational numbers. (JJK)

  14. High Focus Drawing: A Revolutionary Approach to Drawing the Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, James

    This book encourages art students to draw the entire human figure at once, rather than isolated portions of the body. The approach focuses on the energy that suffuses every part of the body and produces liverly, seamless figure drawings without construction lines. Examples from Master works and student works are used to demonstrate the approach…

  15. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Specimens EC03OC91.006...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  2. Crystal structure of 7-isopropyl-1,4a,N-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,10,10a-dodeca-hydro-phenanthrene-1-carb-ox-amide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yan, Xin-Yan; Rao, Xiao-Ping

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, C26H37NO, a new derivative of di-hydro-abietic acid, the two cyclo-hexene rings adopt half chair conformations, whereas the cyclo-hexane ring has a chair conformation. Each of the methyl groups is in an axial position with respect to the tricyclic hydro-phenanthrene residue. In the crystal packing, methyl-ene-C-H⋯π(phen-yl) inter-actions lead to supra-molecular helical chains along [010]; the amide-H atom does not form a significant inter-molecular inter-action owing to steric pressure. PMID:26594487

  3. UBE4B Levels Are Correlated with Clinical Outcomes in Neuroblastoma Patients and with Altered Neuroblastoma Cell Proliferation and Sensitivity to EGFR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zage, Peter E.; Sirisaengtaksin, Natalie; Liu, Yin; Gireud, Monica; Brown, Brandon S.; Palla, Shana; Richards, Kristen N.; Hughes, Dennis P.M.; Bean, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The UBE4B gene, located on chromosome 1p36, encodes a ubiquitin ligase that interacts with Hrs, a protein involved in EGFR trafficking, suggesting a link between EGFR trafficking and neuroblastoma pathogenesis. We have analyzed the roles of UBE4B in the outcomes of neuroblastoma patients and in neuroblastoma tumor cell proliferation, EGFR trafficking, and response to EGFR inhibition. Methods We examined the association of UBE4B expression with neuroblastoma patient survival using available microarray datasets. We measured UBE4B and EGFR protein levels in patient tumor samples and EGFR degradation rates in neuroblastoma cell lines and analyzed the effects of UBE4B on neuroblastoma tumor cell growth. The effects of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab were examined in neuroblastoma cells expressing wild-type and mutant UBE4B. Results Low UBE4B gene expression is associated with poor outcomes in patients with neuroblastoma. UBE4B overexpression reduced neuroblastoma tumor cell proliferation, and UBE4B expression was inversely related to EGFR expression in patient tumor samples. EGFR degradation rates correlated with cellular UBE4B levels. Enhanced expression of catalytically active UBE4B resulted in reduced sensitivity to EGFR inhibition. Conclusions We have demonstrated associations between UBE4B expression and neuroblastoma patient outcomes and between UBE4B and EGFR expression in neuroblastoma tumor samples. Moreover, levels of UBE4B influenced neuroblastoma tumor cell proliferation, EGFR degradation, and response to EGFR inhibition. These results suggest UBE4B-mediated GFR trafficking may contribute to the poor prognosis of neuroblastoma tumors with 1p36 deletions, and that UBE4B expression may be a marker that can predict responses of neuroblastoma tumors to treatment. PMID:22990745

  4. Common injuries and medical problems in singles figure skaters.

    PubMed

    Porter, Emily B

    2013-01-01

    Figure skating continues to increase in popularity as both a recreational and competitive sport. Skaters continue to "push the envelope" in perfecting more technically difficult skills. With their strenuous training programs, skaters are at risk from chronic overuse injuries, which tend to plague singles skaters more often than acute injuries. The majority of injuries occur in the lower extremities or low back. Figure skaters also are at risk for particular medical problems, such as exercise-induced bronchospasm and disordered eating. Sports Medicine physicians are sure to encounter figure skaters and their "Sports-specific problems" in their practice and should be knowledgeable about the common maladies that can plague figure skaters. This article reviews the most common injuries and medical problems in singles figure skaters. PMID:24030306

  5. CGH Figure Testing of Aspherical Mirrors in Cold Vacuums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Victor John; Ohl, Raymond G.; Mink, Ronald G.; Arnold, Steven

    2009-01-01

    An established method of room-temperature interferometric null testing of mirrors having simple shapes (e.g., flat, spherical, or spheroidal) has been augmented to enable measurement of errors in the surface figures of off-axis, non-axisymmetric, aspherical mirrors when the mirrors are located inside cryogenic vacuum chambers. The established method involves the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH), functionally equivalent to a traditional null lens, to modify the laser beam of an imaging interferometer to obtain a reference wavefront that matches the ideal surface figure of a mirror under test. The CGH is inserted at the appropriate position and orientation in the optical path of the imaging interferometer, which, in turn, is appropriately positioned and oriented with respect to the mirror under test. Deviations of the surface figure of the mirror from the ideal surface figure manifest themselves as interference fringes. Interferograms are recorded and analyzed to deduce figure errors.

  6. Novel Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Profile.

    PubMed

    Salem, Marwa Sayed; Ali, Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Three novel series of pyridine derivatives, namely Schiff's bases, 4-thiazolidinones and azetidin-2-ones bearing pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine moiety, have been synthesized. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized. The compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion and broth macrodilution methods. The compounds were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activity using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The majority of the tested compounds exhibited slight to high antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.12-62.5 µg/mL when compared to that of 3 standard antimicrobial agents (Ampicillin, 0.007-0.03 µg/mL; Gentamicin; 0.015-0.24 µg/mL; and Amphotericin B, 0.03-0.98 µg/mL). Compound (7b) was found to be nearly as active as the standard antimicrobial drug Amphotericin B against Fusarium oxysporum fungal strain with MIC of 0.98 µg/mL. Some of the test compounds showed remarkable cytotoxic activities against Hep G2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) cells (IC50=0.0158-71.3 µM) in comparison to the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin (IC50=0.008 µM). Among the compounds tested, (5), (6a), (6b), (7b), and (10) exhibited antiproliferative potency (IC50=0.0001-0.0211 µM) that was found to be better than that of doxorubicin (IC50=0.099 µM) against MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma) cells. In particular, (7b) displayed the highest significant antiproliferative efficacy against both Hep G2 and MCF7 cell lines showing IC50 values of 0.0158 µM and 0.0001 µM, respectively. Our findings suggest that the synthesized compounds may be promising candidates as novel antimicrobial and antiproliferative agents. PMID:27040621

  7. The Dedicated Monitor of Exotransits (DEMONEX): Seven Transits of XO-4b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, S., Jr.; Eastman, J. D.; Gaudi, B. S.

    2016-04-01

    The DEdicated MONitor of EXotransits (DEMONEX) was a 20-inch robotic and automated telescope to monitor bright stars hosting transiting exoplanets to discover new planets and improve constraints on the properties of known transiting planetary systems. We present results for the misaligned hot Jupiter XO-4b containing seven new transits from the DEMONEX telescope, including three full and four partial transits. We combine these data with archival light curves and archival radial velocity measurements to derive the host star mass {M}*={1.293}-0.029+0.030 {M}⊙ and radius {R}*={1.554}-0.030+0.042 {R}⊙ , the planet mass {M}P={1.615}-0.099+0.10 {M}{{J}} and radius {R}P={1.317}-0.029+0.040\\\\{R}{{J}}, and a refined ephemeris of P=4.1250687+/- 0.0000024 days and {T}0=2,4547,58.18978+/- 0.00024 {{BJD}}{TDB}. We include archival Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements of XO-4 to infer the stellar spin-planetary orbit alignment of λ =-{40.0}-7.5+8.8 degrees. We test the effects of including various detrend parameters, theoretical and empirical mass-radius relations, and Rossiter-McLaughlin models. We infer that detrending against CCD position and time or airmass can improve data quality but can have significant effects on the inferred values of many parameters—most significantly {R}P/{R}* and the observed central transit times TC. In the case of {R}P/{R}* we find that the systematic uncertainty due to detrending can be three times that of the quoted statistical uncertainties. The choice of mass-radius relation has little effect on our inferred values of the system parameters. The choice of Rossiter-McLaughlin models can have significant effects on the inferred values of v{sin}{I}* and the stellar spin-planet orbit angle λ.

  8. Genome sequence and description of the heavy metal tolerant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain OT4b.31

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Montenegro, Tito David; Dussán, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus strain OT4b.31 is a native Colombian strain having no larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus and is widely applied in the bioremediation of heavy-metal polluted environments. Strain OT4b.31 was placed between DNA homology groups III and IV. By gap-filling and alignment steps, we propose a 4,096,672 bp chromosomal scaffold. The whole genome (consisting of 4,856,302 bp long, 94 contigs and 4,846 predicted protein-coding sequences) revealed differences in comparison to the L. sphaericus C3-41 genome, such as syntenial relationships, prophages and putative mosquitocidal toxins. Sphaericolysin B354, the coleopteran toxin Sip1A and heavy metal resistance clusters from nik, ars, czc, cop, chr, czr and cad operons were identified. Lysinibacillus sphaericus OT4b.31 has applications not only in bioremediation efforts, but also in the biological control of agricultural pests. PMID:24501644

  9. Comparison of COSMED'S FitMate™ and K4b2 metabolic systems reliability during graded cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Tartaruga, Marcus P

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the reliability of the Cosmed FitMate™ and K4b2 metabolic systems during light to heavy steady state exercise. Expired gas, ventilation were recorded in 50 subjects, using in a random order among four sessions, either the FitMate™ or the Cosmed K4b2. No differences in oxygen consumption were observed between the two systems whatever the intensity. Intraclass correlation were high for both analyzers (respectively for the FitMate™ system and the Cosmed K4b2; ICC: 0.76-0.88 vs. 0.88-0.95). The FitMate™ metabolic system could be a useful reliable and easy-to-use metabolic system in energy expenditure measurement. PMID:25375032

  10. INPP4B-mediated tumor resistance is associated with modulation of glucose metabolism via hexokinase 2 regulation in laryngeal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Joong Won; Kim, Kwang Il; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Noh, Woo Chul; Jeon, Hong Bae; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Oh, Jeong Su; Park, In-Chul; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •HIF-1α-regulated INPP4B enhances glycolysis. •INPP4B regulates aerobic glycolysis by inducing HK2 via Akt-mTOR pathway. •Blockage of INPP4B and HK2 sensitizes radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to radiation and anticancer drug. •INPP4B is associated with HK2 in human laryngeal cancer tissues. -- Abstract: Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) was recently identified as a tumor resistance factor in laryngeal cancer cells. Herein, we show that INPP4B-mediated resistance is associated with increased glycolytic phenotype. INPP4B expression was induced by hypoxia and irradiation. Intriguingly, overexpression of INPP4B enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Of the glycolysis-regulatory genes, hexokinase 2 (HK2) was mainly regulated by INPP4B and this regulation was mediated through the Akt-mTOR pathway. Notably, codepletion of INPP4B and HK2 markedly sensitized radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells to irradiation or anticancer drug. Moreover, INPP4B was significantly associated with HK2 in human laryngeal cancer tissues. Therefore, these results suggest that INPP4B modulates aerobic glycolysis via HK2 regulation in radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells.

  11. Bioactivation of 4-ipomeanol by CYP4B1: adduct characterization and evidence for an enedial intermediate.

    PubMed

    Baer, Brian R; Rettie, Allan E; Henne, Kirk R

    2005-05-01

    4-Ipomeanol (IPO) is a pneumotoxin that is bioactivated to a reactive intermediate that binds to DNA and other cellular macromolecules. Despite over 30 years of research in this area, detailed structural information on the nature of the IPO reactive intermediate is still lacking. In the present study, we reacted IPO with rabbit CYP4B1 in the presence of exogenous nucleophiles and analyzed the products by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Coincubation of IPO and rabbit CYP4B1 with glutathione gave rise to multiple products due likely to the presence of both sulfur and nitrogen nucleophiles in the same trapping molecule. Reaction mixtures containing equimolar N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and N-acetyl lysine (NAL) provided a major NADPH- and CYP4B1-dependent product. A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and two-dimensional NMR analysis following large-scale isolation of the biologically derived material provided evidence for an N-substituted cysteinyl pyrrole derivative of IPO, analogous to that characterized previously in model chemical studies conducted with cis-2-butene-1,4-dial. Purified native rabbit lung CYP4B1 and purified recombinant rabbit CYP4B1 produced the trapped NAC/NAL-IPO pyrrole adduct at rates of 600-700 nmol/nmol P450/30 min. A panel of 14 commercially available recombinant human CYPs was also studied, and substantial rates of IPO bioactivation (>100 nmol/nmol/30 min) were observed with CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. These studies provide evidence for the formation of an enedial reactive intermediate during CYP-mediated IPO bioactivation, identify multiple human liver P450s capable of IPO bioactivation, and demonstrate that the same reactive intermediate is formed by both rabbit CYP4B1 and human P450s. PMID:15892579

  12. The Prediction of Success in Engineering Graphics Using the Group Embedded Figures Test and the Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Russell C.; Davis, Paul D.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to continue the assessment of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), to assess the value of the Hidden Figures Test (HFT), and to assess the usefulness of the two instruments used in combination as tools for predicting student success and early identification of students who may need special assistance in engineering…

  13. The Bisphenol A analogue Bisphenol S binds to K-Ras4B--implications for 'BPA-free' plastics.

    PubMed

    Schöpel, Miriam; Herrmann, Christian; Scherkenbeck, Jürgen; Stoll, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    K-Ras4B is a small GTPase that belongs to the Ras superfamily of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. GTPases function as molecular switches in cells and are key players in intracellular signalling. Ras has been identified as an oncogene and is mutated in more than 20% of human cancers. Here, we report that Bisphenol S binds into a binding pocket of K-Ras4B previously identified for various low molecular weight compounds. Our results advocate for more comprehensive safety studies on the toxicity of Bisphenol S, as it is frequently used for Bisphenol A-free food containers. PMID:26867649

  14. Synthesis of Substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Mahmoud; Auping, Judith V.; Meador, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A series of substituted 2,3,5,6-tetraarylbenzo(l,2-b:5,4-b')difurans 1 was synthesized. This synthesis is based upon the photocyclization of 2,5-dibenzoylresorcinol dibenzyl ethers to the corresponding tetrahydrobenzo(1,2-b:5,4-b')difurans. Treatment of the photoproducts with methanesulfonyl chloride in pyridine afforded 1 in overall yields ranging from 30-72%. A number of these compounds have high fluorescence quantum yields (of phi(sub f) = 0.76-0.90), and their fluorescence spectra exhibit large solvatochromic shifts. These compounds may be suitable for use as fluorescent probes.

  15. Escape Mutations in NS4B Render Dengue Virus Insensitive to the Antiviral Activity of the Paracetamol Metabolite AM404.

    PubMed

    van Cleef, Koen W R; Overheul, Gijs J; Thomassen, Michael C; Marjakangas, Jenni M; van Rij, Ronald P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the enormous disease burden associated with dengue virus infections, a licensed antiviral drug is lacking. Here, we show that the paracetamol (acetaminophen) metabolite AM404 inhibits dengue virus replication. Moreover, we find that mutations in NS4B that were previously found to confer resistance to the antiviral compounds NITD-618 and SDM25N also render dengue virus insensitive to AM404. Our work provides further support for NS4B as a direct or indirect target for antiviral drug development. PMID:26856827

  16. 3,4,6-Trimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Hamri, Salha; Hafid, Abderrafia; Zouihri, Hafid; Lazar, Saïd; Khouili, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H15N3, the 1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine system and the phenyl ring are each individually planar, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.017 (2) and 0.011 (2) Å, respectively; the dihedral angle between the two aromatic systems is 9.33 (10)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by offset π–π stacking between parallel pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine ring systems [face-to-face distance = 3.449 (6) Å]. PMID:21588287

  17. The Development of a Degree 360 Expansion of the Dynamic Ocean Topography of the POCM_4B Global Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents the development of a degree 360 expansion of the dynamic ocean topography (DOT) of the POCM_4B ocean circulation model. The principles and software used that led to the final model are described. A key principle was the development of interpolated DOT values into land areas to avoid discontinuities at or near the land/ocean interface. The power spectrum of the POCM_4B is also presented with comparisons made between orthonormal (ON) and spherical harmonic magnitudes to degree 24. A merged file of ON and SH computed degree variances is proposed for applications where the DOT power spectrum from low to high (360) degrees is needed.

  18. Ion Figuring of Replicated X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Gregory, Don A.

    1997-01-01

    This investigation included experiments to demonstrate ion beam figuring effects on electroless nickel with the expressed desire to figure X-ray optic mandrels. It was important to establish that ion beam figuring did not induce any adverse effects to the nickel surface. The ion beam has consistently been shown to be an excellent indicator of the quality of the subsurface. Polishing is not the only cause for failure in the ion beam final figuring process, the material composition is equally important. Only by careful consideration of both these factors can the ion beam final figuring process achieve its greatest potential. The secondary goal was to construct a model for representing the ion beam material removal rate. Representing the ion beam removal rate is only an approximation and has a number of limiting factors. The resolution of the metrology apparatus limits the modeling of the beam function as well. As the surface error corrections demand more precision in the final figuring, the model representing beam function must be equally precise. The precision to which the beam function can be represented is not only determined by the model but also by the measurements producing that model. The method developed for determining the beam function has broad application to any material destined to be ion beam figured.

  19. Fast figuring of large optics by reactive atom plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Marco; Jourdain, Renaud; Morantz, Paul; Shore, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of ground-based astronomical observatories will require fabrication and maintenance of extremely large segmented mirrors tens of meters in diameter. At present, the large production of segments required by projects like E-ELT and TMT poses time frames and costs feasibility questions. This is principally due to a bottleneck stage in the optical fabrication chain: the final figuring step. State-of-the-art figure correction techniques, so far, have failed to meet the needs of the astronomical community for mass production of large, ultra-precise optical surfaces. In this context, Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is proposed as a candidate figuring process that combines nanometer level accuracy with high material removal rates. RAP is a form of plasma enhanced chemical etching at atmospheric pressure based on Inductively Coupled Plasma technology. The rapid figuring capability of the RAP process has already been proven on medium sized optical surfaces made of silicon based materials. In this paper, the figure correction of a 3 meters radius of curvature, 400 mm diameter spherical ULE mirror is presented. This work demonstrates the large scale figuring capability of the Reactive Atom Plasma process. The figuring is carried out by applying an in-house developed procedure that promotes rapid convergence. A 2.3 μm p-v initial figure error is removed within three iterations, for a total processing time of 2.5 hours. The same surface is then re-polished and the residual error corrected again down to λ/20 nm rms. These results highlight the possibility of figuring a metre-class mirror in about ten hours.

  20. Probing the water and CO snow lines in the young protostar NGC 1333-IRAS4B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderl, Sibylle; Maret, Sébastien; André, Philippe; Maury, Anaëlle; Belloche, Arnaud; Cabrit, Sylvie; Codella, Claudio; Lefloch, Bertrand

    2015-08-01

    Today, we believe that the onset of life requires free energy, water, and complex, probably carbon-based chemistry. In the interstellar medium, complex organic molecules seem to mostly form in reactions happening on the icy surface of dust grains, such that they are released into the gas phase when the dust is heated. The resulting “snow lines”, marking regions where ices start to sublimate, play an important role for planet growth and bulk composition in protoplanetary disks. However, they can already be observed in the envelopes of the much younger, low-mass Class 0 protostars that are still in their early phase of heavy accretion. The information on the sublimation regions of different kinds of ices can be used to understand the chemistry of the envelope, its temperature and density structure, and may even hint at the history of the accretion process. Accordingly, it is a crucial piece of information in order to get the full picture of how organic chemistry evolves already at the earliest stages of the formation of sun-like stars. As part of the CALYPSO Large Program (http://irfu.cea.fr/Projets/Calypso/), we have obtained observations of C18O, N2H+ and CH3OH towards the Class 0 protostar NGC 1333-IRAS4B with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer at sub-arcsecond resolution. Of these we use the methanol observations as a proxy for the water snow line, assuming methanol is trapped in water ice. The observed anti-correlation of C18O and N2H+, with N2H+ forming a ring around the centrally peaked C18O emission, reveals for the first time the CO snow line in this protostellar envelope, with a radius of ~300 AU. The methanol emission is much more compact than that of C18O, and traces the water snow line with a radius of ~40 AU. We have modeled the emission using a chemical model coupled with a radiative transfer module. We find that the CO snow line appears further inwards than expected from the binding energy of pure CO ices. This may hint at CO being frozen out

  1. Tracking the elusive effect of the Mueller-Lyer figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Anthony Wayne

    The perceptual scaling of extent for an arrows-only Muller-Lyer figure is examined from the theoretical framework of Intentional Dynamics. This framework defines effects that goal constraints have on a perceiving-acting cycle within an event perception explanation of this century-old problem. The classic strain effect and a novel rotational effect are proposed as arising from an ecology of a pair of dual constraints: the light and figure plus the perceptual system and muscle-control system. This ecology is assumed to function successfully under the soft constraint of an intention. This approach unifies and extends past research through modeling with finite element methods the light field for which the figure serves as boundary conditions. Participant data significantly matched the strain and rotational effects as predicted by the light field model. The experimental apparatus permitted participants to see a black figure on a computer screen's white background and to track and report perceptions with mouse movements. Experiments included static (presented in ordered and random sequences) and dynamically moving figure layouts. In the first sub-set of Experiment Set I, participants controlled the length of a report bar to "fit the gap" between the figure's vertices. For the second sub-set, independent and dependent variables were swapped; participants controlled the figure's angle magnitude so that the gap between vertices matched the length of a presented report bar. The intention remained to "fit the gap." In Experiment Set II, participants adjusted a Muller-Lyer figure about its midpoint to report whether a rotational effect occurred. The figure contained asymmetrical phase relations among its fins. The experimental intention was to "keep the figure horizontal." Experiments elicited expected Muller-Lyer effects (strain or rotation) with no significant difference among presentation methods such that the light field's event trace generatively specified the effect

  2. Figuring technology of nonaxisymmetric errors with a spiral path.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi; Xie, Xuhui

    2009-08-01

    Figuring technology of nonaxisymmetric errors using a spiral path is presented. Based on an approximation of a removal function, a finite-field nonlinear model is deduced from the computer-controlled optics shaping principle. We then present a modified Richardson-Lucy iterative algorithm to deconvolute the dwell time. With a velocity realization method for dwell time on a spiral path, the figuring technology comes into being. Simulations are made to validate these algorithms. Theoretical and simulation studies demonstrate that the figuring technology is a novel method for inexpensive fabrication of precision mirrors. PMID:19649028

  3. Breath Figure Method for Construction of Honeycomb Films

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yingying; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Honeycomb films with various building units, showing potential applications in biological, medical, physicochemical, photoelectric, and many other areas, could be prepared by the breath figure method. The ordered hexagonal structures formed by the breath figure process are related to the building units, solvents, substrates, temperature, humidity, air flow, and other factors. Therefore, by adjusting these factors, the honeycomb structures could be tuned properly. In this review, we summarized the development of the breath figure method of fabricating honeycomb films and the factors of adjusting honeycomb structures. The organic-inorganic hybrid was taken as the example building unit to discuss the preparation, mechanism, properties, and applications of the honeycomb films. PMID:26343734

  4. Thermoelectric figure of merit of strongly correlated superlattice semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, W.; Bedell, K.S.

    1999-06-01

    The Anderson lattice Hamiltonian was solved using the slave-boson mean-field approximation to get the energy bands of a strongly correlated semiconductor. The transport properties were calculated in the relaxation-time approximation, and the thermoelectric figure of merit was obtained for the strongly correlated semiconductor and a variety of superlattice structures. We found that at room temperature the dimensionless quantity ZT, thermoelectric figure of merit multiplied by temperature, can reach nearly 1.4 for a quantum wire lattice structure. We believe that it may be possible to find high values of the figure of merit for strongly correlated superlattice semiconductors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Establishment of a cell line panel for the detection of antibodies against human platelet antigen 4b.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tomoya; Amakishi, Etsuko; Inoue, Masayasu; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2011-02-01

    Antibodies against human platelet antigens (HPAs) play important roles in thrombocytopenia. In Japan, HPA-4b antibody is frequently responsible for HPA-related neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. A highly sensitive assay using platelets has been developed for the detection of antibodies against HPAs. However, it is difficult to obtain the platelets expressing specific HPAs required for the assay. Therefore, an alternative method not requiring platelets would be helpful to detect antibodies against HPAs. Glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) cDNA encoding HPA-4b was individually co-transduced with that of wild-type GPIIb in K562 cells, which is a non-adherent cell line, using a retroviral vector. The expression of transgene products in cultured cells were observed for over 6 months. Next, to evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of this cell line panel, we performed monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) assay with a serum previously identified by another method. All HPA-4b antibodies in serum samples were positive, and all serum samples, including normal serum and serum containing HLA antibodies were negative. No difference was observed in the specificity and sensitivity between our method and conventional MAIPA using platelets. The present results indicate that this established cell line panel permits highly sensitive detection of specific antibodies against HPA-4b. PMID:21286877

  6. Role of the inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type II Inpp4b in the generation of ovarian teratomas

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Ashwini; Chaillet, J. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Teratomas are a unique class of tumors composed of ecto- meso- and endodermal tissues, all foreign to the site of origin. In humans, the most common teratoma is the ovarian teratoma. Not much is known about the molecular and genetic etiologies of these tumors. Female carriers of the Tgkd transgene are highly susceptible to developing teratomas. Ovaries of Tgkd/+ hemizygous female mice exhibit defects in luteinization, with numerous corpora lutea, some of which contain central trapped, fully-grown oocytes. Genetically, Tgkd teratomas originate from mature oocytes that have completed meiosis I, suggesting that Tgkd teratomas originate from these trapped oocytes. The insertion of Tgkd 3′ of the Inpp4b gene is associated with decreased expression of Inpp4b and changes in intracellular PI3 Kinase/AKT signaling in follicular granulosa cells. Because Inpp4b is not expressed in fully-grown wild-type or Tgkd oocytes, these findings suggest that hyperactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway caused by the decrease in INPP4B in granulosa cells promotes an ovarian environment defective in folliculogenesis and conducive to teratoma formation. PMID:23078915

  7. Competition of Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 1/2a and 4b strains in mixed culture biofilms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of Listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from foods and the environment are strains of serogroup 1/2. However, serotype 4b strains cause the majority of human listeriosis outbreaks. Our investigation of L. monocytogenes biofilms used a simulated food processing system that consist...

  8. The interaction between the Hepatitis C proteins NS4B and NS5A is involved in viral replication

    PubMed Central

    David, Naama; Yaffe, Yakey; Hagoel, Lior; Elazar, Menashe; Glenn, Jeffrey S.; Hirschberg, Koret; Sklan, Ella H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in membrane associated, highly ordered replication complexes (RCs). These complexes include viral and host proteins necessary for viral RNA genome replication. The interaction network among viral and host proteins underlying the formation of these RCs is yet to be thoroughly characterized. Here, we investigated the association between NS4B and NS5A, two critical RC components. We characterized the interaction between these proteins using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and a mammalian two-hybrid system. Specific tryptophan residues within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of NS4B were shown to mediate this interaction. Domain I of NS5A, was sufficient to mediate its interaction with NS4B. Mutations in the NS4B CTD tryptophan residues abolished viral replication. Moreover, one of these mutations also affected NS5A hyperphosphorylation. These findings provide new insights into the importance of the NS4B–NS5A interaction and serve as a starting point for studying the complex interactions between the replicase subunits. PMID:25462354

  9. Genetic determinants for cadmium and arsenic resistance among Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates from sporadic human listeriosis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis, heavy metal resistance was primarily encountered in certain clonal groups (ECI, ECII, ECIa). All arsenic-resistant isolates harbored the arsenic resistance cassette previously identified in pLI100; ECIa harbored additional arsenic resi...

  10. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 Presidential... Year 2012 Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of the Treasury the Secretary of Energy...)(B) and (C) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Public Law 112-81,...

  11. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential Determination No. 2012-9 of June 11, 2012...

  12. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential Determination No. 2012-5 of March 30, 2012...

  13. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential Determination No. 2013-3 of December 7,...

  14. 78 FR 76715 - Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 243 December 18, 2013 Part II The President Presidential Determination No. 2014-03 of November 29, 2013-- Presidential Determination Pursuant to Section 1245(d)(4)(B) and (C) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: TrES-4b RV and Ic curves (Sozzetti+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.; Bonomo, A. S.; Biazzo, K.; Mancini, L.; Damasso, M.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Lanza, A. F.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Malavolta, L.; Affer, L.; Barbieri, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Boccato, C.; Bonavita, M.; Borsa, F.; Ciceri, S.; Claudi, R. U.; Gandolfi, D.; Giacobbe, P.; Henning, T.; Knapic, C.; Latham, D. W.; Lodato, G.; Maggio, A.; Maldonado, J.; Marzari, F.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Mordasini, C.; Nascimbeni, V.; Pagano, I.; Pedani, M.; Pepe, F.; Piotto, G.; Santos, N.; Scandariato, G.; Shkolnik, E.; Southworth, J.

    2015-06-01

    The TrES-4 system was observed with HARPS-N on 17 individual epochs between March 2013 and July 2014. We carried out Ic-band precision photometric observations of two complete transit events of TrES-4 b with the CAHA 1.23-m on UT 2013 July 6 and UT 2014 June 30. (2 data files).

  16. Down-regulation of HSP40 gene family following OCT4B1 suppression in human tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, MalekHosein; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossin; Ahmadi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The OCT4B1, as one of OCT4 variants, is expressed in cancer cell lines and tissues more than other variants and plays an important role in apoptosis and stress (heat shock protein) pathways. The present study was designed to determine the effects of OCT4B1 silencing on expressional profile of HSP40 gene family expression in three different human tumor cell lines. Materials and Methods: The OCT4B1 expression was suppressed by specific siRNA transfection in AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma), 5637 (bladder tumor) and U-87MG (brain tumor) cell lines employing Lipofectamine reagent. Real-time PCR array technique was employed for RNA qualification. The fold changes were calculated using RT2 Profiler PCR array data analysis software version 3.5. Results: Our results indicated that fifteen genes (from 36 studied genes) were down-regulated and two genes (DNAJC11 and DNAJC5B) were up-regulated in all three studied tumor cell lines by approximately more than two folds. The result of other studied genes (19 genes) showed different expressional pattern (up or down-expression) based on tumor cell lines. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, we may suggest that there is a direct correlation between OCT4B1 expression in tumor cell lines (and tissues) and HSP40 family gene expressions to escape from apoptosis and cancer expansion. PMID:27081464

  17. Occurrence of Optic Neuritis and Cervical Cord Schwannoma with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 4B1 Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Patrick; Bruwer, Zandre; Al-Kharusi, Khalsa; Meftah, Douja; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 4B1 (CMT4B1) disease is a rare subtype of CMT4 with reported association of facial weakness, vocal cord paresis, chest deformities, and claw hands. We report the unusual occurrence of optic neuritis and cervical cord schwannoma in a male individual with confirmed CMT4B1 disease. Sequencing of the MTMR2 gene revealed a novel nonsense homozygous mutation c.1768C>T (p.Gln590*). The mutation was identified in affected relatives of the proband and a second, apparently unrelated, family. The rare association of optic neuritis or schwannoma with genetically confirmed CMT1A has been individually observed, but never with recessive CMT. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of optic neuritis and cervical cord schwannoma in the same patient has never been reported with any form of CMT including CMT4B1. In similar cases, we recommend immediate medical attention to rule out the possibility of schwannomas in patients with all demyelinating CMT subtypes in case of the development of focal neurological signs or acute worsening of clinical status. PMID:27162595

  18. 75 FR 71145 - San Joaquin River Restoration Program: Reach 4B, Eastside Bypass, and Mariposa Bypass Channel and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation San Joaquin River Restoration Program: Reach 4B, Eastside Bypass, and Mariposa... the San Joaquin River Restoration Program. The original notice of intent was published in the Federal Register on September 9, 2009 (74 FR 46453). This revised proposal would include measures for...

  19. 13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph no. 1646, no date, held at Media Arts and Services Department, Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, CA. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  20. Surface Figure Measurement of Silicon Carbide Mirrors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter; Mink, Ronald G.; Chambers, John; Robinson, F. David; Content, David; Davila, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The surface figure of a developmental silicon carbide mirror, cooled to 87 K and then 20 K within a cryostat, was measured with unusually high precision at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The concave spherical mirror, with a radius of 600 mm and a clear aperture of 150 mm, was fabricated of sintered silicon carbide. The mirror was mounted to an interface plate representative of an optical bench, made of the material Cesic@, a composite of silicon, carbon, and silicon carbide. The change in optical surface figure as the mirror and interface plate cooled from room temperature to 20 K was 3.7 nm rms, with a standard uncertainty of 0.23 nm in the rms statistic. Both the cryo-change figure and the uncertainty are among the lowest such figures yet published. This report describes the facilities, experimental methods, and uncertainty analysis of the measurements.

  1. A new figure of merit for wideband vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Q.; Badel, A.; Formosa, F.; Wu, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The performance evaluation method is a very important part in the field of vibration energy harvesting. It provides the ability to compare and rate different vibration energy harvesters (VEHs). Considering the lack of a well-recognized tool, this article proposed a new systematic figure of merit for the appraisement of wideband VEHs. Extensive investigations are first performed for some classic figures for linear VEHs. With the common fundamental information obtained, the proposed figure integrates four essential factors: the revised energy harvester effectiveness, the mechanical quality factor, the normalized bandwidth and the effective mass density. Special considerations are devoted to the properties of wideband VEHs about the operation range and the average power in this domain which are related to the performance target of stable power output. Afterward, this new figure is applied to some literature VEHs and demonstrated to present good evaluations of wideband VEHs. Moreover, it exhibits the ability to point out the improvement information of the concerned VEHs further developments.

  2. 51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. photocopy of Indian figure which later was mounted on Tower. Photograph taken at Tacony Iron and Metal Co. works, c. 1892. PCA - The New Public Buildings, Penn Square, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Self-Esteem and Children's Human Figure Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, J. Thomas; Vale, Helen L.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen students in Grade 5 made human figure drawings which were compared with their scores on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and on teachers' ratings of the students' self-esteem. (Author)

  4. The concave cusp as a determiner of figure-ground.

    PubMed

    Stevens, K A; Brookes, A

    1988-01-01

    The tendency to interpret as figure, relative to background, those regions that are lighter, smaller, and, especially, more convex is well known. Wherever convex opaque objects abut or partially occlude one another in an image, the points of contact between the silhouettes form concave cusps, each indicating the local assignment of figure versus ground across the contour segments. It is proposed that this local geometric feature is a preattentive determiner of figure-ground perception and that it contributes to the previously observed tendency for convexity preference. Evidence is presented that figure-ground assignment can be determined solely on the basis of the concave cusp feature, and that the salience of the cusp derives from local geometry and not from adjacent contour convexity. PMID:3205668

  5. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Qian, Y.; Fan, S. H.; Liu, C. R.; Wang, H. R.; Zuo, Y. X.; Cheng, J. Q.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the measurement equipments, most of the high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be applied under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high resolution industrial camera sitting on an automatic experimental platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm rms is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness variation of the paper targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C.

  6. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  7. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.044 ER04OC96.045 ER04OC96.046...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.044 ER04OC96.045 ER04OC96.046...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App. A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.000 ER16JN08.006 ER14DE06.002 ER14DE06.003...

  13. Support Of The Lunar Fossil Figure By The Elastic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Isamu

    2010-10-01

    The figure of the Moon is triaxial, with three different principal moments of inertia, as expected. However, the moment differences are significantly larger than those predicted assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This has been explained as due to a fossil bulge that retains a figure for prior rotational and tidal deformation, at a time when the Moon was closer to Earth (Jeffeys, 1915; Lambeck & Pullan, 1980; Garrick-Bethell et al.,2006). Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) illustrated that a fossil figure can entirely account for the moment differences if it is established at a time when the orbital eccentricity was high. They approximate the Moon as a strengthless homogeneous body; however, a strengthless Moon cannot support a fossil figure over billions of years. We extend the analysis of Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) by taking into the presence of an elastic lithosphere capable of supporting a fossil figure. The fossil figure is established when the elastic lithosphere forms. For a 50 km thick elastic lithosphere, the moment differences can be explained by a lunar orbit with an initial semimajor axis a=17.1 Earth radii and eccentricity e=0.49 if the Moon remains locked in synchronous rotation. If the fossil figure is established during a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, a=18.1 Earth radii and e=0.16, or a=20.0 Earth radii and e=0.60. The initial semimajor axis decreases with decreasing elastic lithospheric thickness, as expected. The initial orbital eccentricity is not sensitive to the elastic lithospheric thickness. As Lambeck & Pullan (1980) noted, it is unlikely that the moment differences are due to a fossil figure alone. Therefore, we also consider the effect of including other contributions to the moment differences. This work is supported by the Miller Institute for Basic Research.

  14. Support of the lunar fossil figure by the elastic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, I.

    2010-12-01

    The figure of the Moon is triaxial, with three different principal moments of inertia, as expected. However, the moment differences are significantly larger than those predicted assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This has been explained as due to a fossil bulge that retains a figure for prior rotational and tidal deformation, at a time when the Moon was closer to Earth (Jeffeys, 1915; Lambeck & Pullan, 1980; Garrick-Bethell et al.,2006). Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) illustrated that a fossil figure can entirely account for the moment differences if it is established at a time when the orbital eccentricity was high. They approximate the Moon as a strengthless homogeneous body; however, a strengthless Moon cannot support a fossil figure over billions of years. We extend the analysis of Garrick-Bethell et al. (2006) by taking into the presence of an elastic lithosphere capable of supporting a fossil figure. The fossil figure is established when the elastic lithosphere forms. For a 50 km thick elastic lithosphere, the moment differences can be explained by a lunar orbit with an initial semimajor axis a=17.1 Earth radii and eccentricity e=0.49 if the Moon remains locked in synchronous rotation. If the fossil figure is established during a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, a=18.1 Earth radii and e=0.16, or a=20.0 Earth radii and e=0.60. The initial semimajor axis decreases with decreasing elastic lithospheric thickness, as expected. The initial orbital eccentricity is not sensitive to the elastic lithospheric thickness. As Lambeck & Pullan (1980) noted, it is unlikely that the moment differences are due to a fossil figure alone. Therefore, we also consider the effect of including other contributions to the moment differences. This work is supported by the Miller Institute for Basic Research.

  15. Precise method for investigation of Lissajous generalized figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers—a horizontal and a vertical—cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate anharmonic vibrations because loudspeakers are powered by electronic generators. Eccentric mounting, and rotation of a vertical loudspeaker, also allow composition of the oscillations in inclined directions, which generates Lissajous’ generalized figures.

  16. Local figure-ground cues are valid for natural images.

    PubMed

    Fowlkes, Charless C; Martin, David R; Malik, Jitendra

    2007-01-01

    Figure-ground organization refers to the visual perception that a contour separating two regions belongs to one of the regions. Recent studies have found neural correlates of figure-ground assignment in V2 as early as 10-25 ms after response onset, providing strong support for the role of local bottom-up processing. How much information about figure-ground assignment is available from locally computed cues? Using a large collection of natural images, in which neighboring regions were assigned a figure-ground relation by human observers, we quantified the extent to which figural regions locally tend to be smaller, more convex, and lie below ground regions. Our results suggest that these Gestalt cues are ecologically valid, and we quantify their relative power. We have also developed a simple bottom-up computational model of figure-ground assignment that takes image contours as input. Using parameters fit to natural image statistics, the model is capable of matching human-level performance when scene context limited. PMID:17685809

  17. Noise figure characterization of preamplifiers at NMR frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmeyer-Massner, J. A.; De Zanche, N.; Pruessmann, K. P.

    2011-05-01

    A method for characterizing the noise figure of preamplifiers at NMR frequencies is presented. The noise figure of preamplifiers as used for NMR and MRI detection varies with source impedance and with the operating frequency. Therefore, to characterize a preamplifier's noise behavior, it is necessary to perform noise measurements at the targeted frequency while varying the source impedance with high accuracy. At high radiofrequencies, such impedance variation is typically achieved with transmission-line tuners, which however are not available for the relatively low range of typical NMR frequencies. To solve this issue, this work describes an alternative approach that relies on lumped-element circuits for impedance manipulation. It is shown that, using a fixed-impedance noise source and suitable ENR correction, this approach permits noise figure characterization for NMR and MRI purposes. The method is demonstrated for two preamplifiers, a generic BF998 MOSFET module and an MRI-dedicated, integrated preamplifier, which were both studied at 128 MHz, i.e., at the Larmor frequency of protons at 3 Tesla. Variations in noise figure of 0.01 dB or less over repeated measurements reflect high precision even for small noise figures in the order of 0.4 dB. For validation, large sets of measured noise figure values are shown to be consistent with the general noise-parameter model of linear two-ports. Finally, the measured noise characteristics of the superior preamplifier are illustrated by SNR measurements in MRI data.

  18. Root-Canal Therapy: A Means of Treating Oral Pain and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Mitchell

    1988-01-01

    What is root-canal treatment? This article shows how endodontic treatment (root-canal therapy) can preserve teeth that would otherwise be extracted, and how tooth-pulp pathology can be diagnosed. Some clinical examples illustrate how non-dental infections can masquerade as dental problems, and vice versa. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3aFigure 3bFigure 3cFigure 4aFigure 4bFigure 4cFigure 5Figure 6aFigure 6bFigure 7Figure 8aFigure 8bFigure 9Figure 10Figure 11aFigure 11b PMID:21253195

  19. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and enzymatic activity of 4b,9b-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydro-4bH-indeno[1,2-b]benzofuran-9,10(6H,9bH)-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Sayed Hasan; Hashim, Rokiah; Ghalib, Raza Murad; Fátima C. Guedes da Silva, M.; Sulaiman, Othman; Rahman, Syed Ziaur; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Marimuthu, Mani Maran

    2011-12-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, 4b,9b-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydro-4bH-indeno[1,2-b]benzofuran-9,10(6H,9bH)-dione has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1/c with Z = 4. The FTIR as well as the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the compound were also recorded and briefly discussed. The compound showed potential antimicrobial activity comparable to that of clinically used antimicrobial agents against selected microorganisms. It has selective and moderate inhibitory activity on butyryl cholinesterase enzyme and could serve as potential lead compound for synthesis of more bioactive derivatives.

  20. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    PubMed

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A; Hearst, Marti A

    2010-01-01

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface. PMID:20418942

  1. Full Text and Figure Display Improves Bioscience Literature Search

    PubMed Central

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A.; Hearst, Marti A.

    2010-01-01

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine [1], a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface. PMID:20418942

  2. 26 CFR 1.148-4A - Yield on an issue of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yield on an issue of bonds. 1.148-4A Section 1....148-4A Yield on an issue of bonds. (a) through (b)(4) . For guidance see § 1.148-4. (b)(5) Special aggregation rule treating certain bonds as a single fixed yield bond. Two variable yield bonds of an issue...

  3. Semantically Meaningful and Abstract Figural Reasoning in the Context of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, D.; Beauducel, A.; Brocke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Because figural reasoning tasks are often assumed to indicate fluid intelligence (gf), we investigated which aspect of figural reasoning tasks make that they tend to mark gf-the figural content itself or the high degree of abstraction in these tasks. To this end, the assessment of figural reasoning abilities by means of concrete figural task…

  4. Report on inspection of compliance with DOE Order 2030.4B at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this inspection was to evaluate contractor compliance at the Savannah River Site (SRS) with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 2030.4B, {open_quotes}Reporting Fraud, Waste, And Abuse To The Office Of Inspector General.{close_quotes} The specific objective was to determine if the SRS management and operating (M&O) contractors were complying with the requirements in Paragraph 6.c. of DOE Order 2030.4B. These requirements are: (1) annual notification to employees of their duty to report allegations of fraud, waste, abuse, corruption, or mismanagement; (2) display and publish the DOE Office of Inspector General (OIG) Hotline telephone number in common areas of buildings; (3) display and publish the DOE OIG Hotline number in telephone books and newsletters; and (4) notify the OIG cases referred to other law enforcement entities.

  5. Synthesis of novel hydrazone and azole functionalized pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives as promising anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Nagender, P; Naresh Kumar, R; Malla Reddy, G; Krishna Swaroop, D; Poornachandra, Y; Ganesh Kumar, C; Narsaiah, B

    2016-09-15

    A series of novel pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine based target compounds were synthesized starting from the key intermediate ethyl 2-(3-amino-6-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-1-yl)acetate 5 on reaction with hydrazine hydrate followed by reaction with different aldehydes, acid chlorides and isothiocyanates to form hydrazones 7, oxadiazoles 8, 1,2,4 triazoles 10 and thiadiazoles 11 respectively in high yield. All the final compounds were screened for anticancer activity against four human cancer cell lines. Among them, 1,2,4 triazole derivatives showed promising activity and compound 10d is identified as a lead molecule. PMID:27528432

  6. Toroidal order in a partially disordered state on a layered triangular lattice: implication to UNi4B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2015-03-01

    A partial disorder on a layered triangular lattice is theoretically investigated from a viewpoint of toroidal ordering and magnetoelectric effects. We consider an extended periodic Anderson model including a site-dependent antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling between conduction and localized electrons. We show that, by the mean-field approximation, the model exhibits a coplanar vortex-lattice-type magnetic order as observed in a hexagonal uranium compound UNi4B, in the parameter region with intermediate hybridization and electron correlation. This peculiar state accommodates a toroidal order, which leads to the linear magnetoelectric effect. We discuss the implications of our results to UNi4B, focusing on the possible source of the site-dependent antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling.

  7. Fe3O4@B-MCM-41: A new magnetically recoverable nanostructured catalyst for the synthesis of polyhydroquinolines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi-Alibeik, Mohammad; Rezaeipoor-Anari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Boron modified MCM-41 with magnetite core (Fe3O4@B-MCM-41) as a new magnetically recoverable heterogeneous catalyst was prepared and characterized by SEM, TEM, BET, XRD, VSM and FT-IR techniques. The catalytic activity of Fe3O4@B-MCM-41 was investigated in the four-component reaction of aldehyde, dimedone, active methylene compounds and ammonium acetate for the synthesis of polyhydroquinolines. According to optimization and characterization results the catalyst with Si:B:Fe3O4 mole composition of 40:4:1 has the best activity. The catalyst could be recovered easily by external magnet and has excellent reusability many times without significant decrease of activity.

  8. The calculated magnetic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of Ce3Co29Si4B10 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jin-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Hu, Yao-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Li, Lu; Qian, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic moment, lattice parameter and atom fraction coordinates for Ce3Co29Si4B10 are calculated by the first-principles GGA+U method, and the results indicate that the calculated and experimental values are basically accordant when U=2.6 eV. We study the interaction effect and orbital hybridization between Co and Ce atoms. The projected density of states at U=2.6 eV which provided by Co-2c, Ce-2b and Ce-4d sites are contrasted with else U values. Meanwhile the electron density of states for different sites and the distance between various atoms are exhibited. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of Ce3Co29Si4B10 are evaluated by using a series of interatomic pair potentials.

  9. Human C3b- and C4b-regulatory proteins: a new multi-gene family.

    PubMed

    Holers, V M; Cole, J L; Lublin, D M; Seya, T; Atkinson, J P

    1985-06-01

    The complement cascade is regulated to prevent inappropriate activation. This regulation is targeted not only at the initiation of the cascade but also at the amplification andjunctional (C3) steps. Five glycoproteins with both complement regulatory activity and binding affinity for C3b/C4b have been characterized. In plasma these molecules are factor H(H) and C4-binding protein (C4-bp) and, on cells, they are the C3b/C4b receptor (CR1), decay-accelerating factor (DAF), and gp45-70. Here Michael Holers and his colleagues review structural, functional and genetic studies of these proteins and discuss the evidence for a new multi-gene family with a common ancestral protein. PMID:25289982

  10. New triterpene constituents, foliasalacins A(1)-A(4), B(1)-B(3), and C, from the leaves of Salacia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2008-07-01

    Four dammarane-type, three lupane-type, and an oleanane-type triterpenes named foliasalacins A(1) (1), A(2) (2), A(3) (3), A(4) (4), B(1) (5), B(2) (6), B(3) (7), and C (8) were isolated from the leaves of Salacia chinensis LINN. collected in Thailand. The structures of new triterpene constituents (1-8) were characterized on the basis of chemical and physiochemical evidence. PMID:18591801

  11. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Viral and Host Cell Substrate Recognition by Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, Keith P.; Laine, Jennifer M.; Deveau, Laura M.; Cao, Hong; Massi, Francesca; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2011-08-16

    Hepatitis C NS3/4A protease is a prime therapeutic target that is responsible for cleaving the viral polyprotein at junctions 3-4A, 4A4B, 4B5A, and 5A5B and two host cell adaptor proteins of the innate immune response, TRIF and MAVS. In this study, NS3/4A crystal structures of both host cell cleavage sites were determined and compared to the crystal structures of viral substrates. Two distinct protease conformations were observed and correlated with substrate specificity: (i) 3-4A, 4A4B, 5A5B, and MAVS, which are processed more efficiently by the protease, form extensive electrostatic networks when in complex with the protease, and (ii) TRIF and 4B5A, which contain polyproline motifs in their full-length sequences, do not form electrostatic networks in their crystal complexes. These findings provide mechanistic insights into NS3/4A substrate recognition, which may assist in a more rational approach to inhibitor design in the face of the rapid acquisition of resistance.

  13. Identification of a new dengue virus inhibitor that targets the viral NS4B protein and restricts genomic RNA replication.

    PubMed

    van Cleef, Koen W R; Overheul, Gijs J; Thomassen, Michael C; Kaptein, Suzanne J F; Davidson, Andrew D; Jacobs, Michael; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; van Rij, Ronald P

    2013-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an important human arthropod-borne virus with a major impact on public health. Nevertheless, a licensed vaccine or specific treatment is still lacking. We therefore screened the NIH Clinical Collection (NCC), a library of drug-like small molecules, for inhibitors of DENV replication using a cell line that contains a stably replicating DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) subgenomic replicon. The most potent DENV inhibitor in the NCC was δ opioid receptor antagonist SDM25N. This compound showed antiviral activity against wild-type DENV2 in both Hela and BHK-21 cells, but not in the C6/36 cell line derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus. The structurally related compound naltrindole also inhibited DENV replication, albeit less potently. Using a transient subgenomic replicon, we demonstrate that SDM25N restricts genomic RNA replication rather than translation of the viral genome. We identified a single amino acid substitution (F164L) in the NS4B protein that confers resistance to SDM25N. Remarkably, an NS4B amino acid substitution (P104L), which was previously shown to confer resistance to the DENV inhibitor NITD-618, also provided resistance to SDM25N. In conclusion, we have identified a new DENV inhibitor, SDM25N, which restricts genomic RNA replication by - directly or indirectly - targeting the viral NS4B protein. PMID:23735301

  14. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. VI. The curious case of TrES-4b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.; Bonomo, A. S.; Biazzo, K.; Mancini, L.; Damasso, M.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Lanza, A. F.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Malavolta, L.; Affer, L.; Barbieri, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Boccato, C.; Bonavita, M.; Borsa, F.; Ciceri, S.; Claudi, R. U.; Gandolfi, D.; Giacobbe, P.; Henning, T.; Knapic, C.; Latham, D. W.; Lodato, G.; Maggio, A.; Maldonado, J.; Marzari, F.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Mordasini, C.; Nascimbeni, V.; Pagano, I.; Pedani, M.; Pepe, F.; Piotto, G.; Santos, N.; Scandariato, G.; Shkolnik, E.; Southworth, J.

    2015-03-01

    We update the TrES-4 system parameters using high-precision HARPS-N radial-velocity measurements and new photometric light curves. A combined spectroscopic and photometric analysis allows us to determine a spectroscopic orbit with a semi-amplitude K = 51 ± 3 m s-1. The derived mass of TrES-4b is found to be Mp = 0.49 ± 0.04 MJup, significantly lower than previously reported. Combined with the large radius () inferred from our analysis, TrES-4b becomes the transiting hot Jupiter with the second-lowest density known. We discuss several scenarios to explain the puzzling discrepancy in the mass of TrES-4b in the context of the exotic class of highly inflated transiting giant planets. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundacion Galileo Galilei of the INAF at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC in the frame of the program Global Architecture of Planetary Systems (GAPS), and with the Zeiss 1.23-m telescope at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto, Spain. Tables 1 and 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  16. LAPTM4B is associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC and promotes the NRF2-mediated stress response pathway in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yuho; Fujimoto, Junya; Lang, Wenhua; Xu, Li; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Kadara, Humam

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B) is elevated in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and in the surrounding premalignant airway field of cancerization. In the present study, we sought to begin to understand the relevance of LAPTM4B expression and signaling to NSCLC pathogenesis. In situ hybridization analysis of LAPTM4B transcript in tissue microarrays comprised of 368 NSCLCs demonstrated that LAPTM4B expression was significantly increased in smoker compared to non-smoker lung adenocarcinoma tumors (P < 0.001) and was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P < 0.05) in adenocarcinoma patients. Knockdown of LAPTM4B expression inhibited cell growth, induced cellular apoptosis and decreased cellular autophagy in serum starved lung cancer cells. Expression profiling coupled with pathways analysis revealed decreased activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NRF2) stress response pathway following LAPTM4B knockdown. Further analysis demonstrated that LAPTM4B augmented the expression and nuclear translocation of the NRF2 transcription factor following serum deprivation as well as increased the expression of NRF2 target genes such as heme oxygenase 1/HMOX1). Our study points to the relevance of LAPTM4B expression to NSCLC pathogenesis as well as to the probable role of LAPTM4B/NRF2 signaling in promoting lung cancer cell survival. PMID:26343532

  17. LAPTM4B is associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC and promotes the NRF2-mediated stress response pathway in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Yuho; Fujimoto, Junya; Lang, Wenhua; Xu, Li; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Kadara, Humam

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B) is elevated in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and in the surrounding premalignant airway field of cancerization. In the present study, we sought to begin to understand the relevance of LAPTM4B expression and signaling to NSCLC pathogenesis. In situ hybridization analysis of LAPTM4B transcript in tissue microarrays comprised of 368 NSCLCs demonstrated that LAPTM4B expression was significantly increased in smoker compared to non-smoker lung adenocarcinoma tumors (P < 0.001) and was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P < 0.05) in adenocarcinoma patients. Knockdown of LAPTM4B expression inhibited cell growth, induced cellular apoptosis and decreased cellular autophagy in serum starved lung cancer cells. Expression profiling coupled with pathways analysis revealed decreased activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NRF2) stress response pathway following LAPTM4B knockdown. Further analysis demonstrated that LAPTM4B augmented the expression and nuclear translocation of the NRF2 transcription factor following serum deprivation as well as increased the expression of NRF2 target genes such as heme oxygenase 1/HMOX1). Our study points to the relevance of LAPTM4B expression to NSCLC pathogenesis as well as to the probable role of LAPTM4B/NRF2 signaling in promoting lung cancer cell survival. PMID:26343532

  18. Association of PDE4B Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yanguo; Cheng, Dejun; Zhang, Chaofeng; Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Zhiying; Wang, Juan; Shi, Yuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background The PDE4B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia risk. However, current findings are ambiguous or even conflicting. To better facilitate the understanding the genetic role played by PDE4B in susceptibility to schizophrenia, we collected currently available data and conducted this meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive electronic literature searching of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library was performed. The association between PDE4B SNPs and schizophrenia was evaluated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under allelic, dominant and recessive genetic models. The random effects model was utilized when high between-study heterogeneity (I2 > 50%) existed, otherwise the fixed effects model was used. Results Five studies comprising 2376 schizophrenia patients and 3093 controls were finally included for meta-analysis. The rs1040716 was statistically significantly associated with schizophrenia risk in Asian and Caucasian populations under dominant model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76–0.99, P = 0.04). The rs2180335 was significantly related with schizophrenia risk in Asian populations under allelic (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72–0.93, P = 0.003) and dominant (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64–0.88, P < 0.001) models. A significant association was also observed between rs4320761 and schizophrenia in Asian populations under allelic model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75–1.00, P = 0.048). In addition, a strong association tendency was found between rs6588190 and schizophrenia in Asian populations under allelic model (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76–1.00, P = 0.055). Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that PDE4B SNPs are genetically associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, due to limited sample size, more large-scale, multi-racial association studies are needed to further clarify the genetic association between various PDE4B variants and schizophrenia. PMID:26756575

  19. Figures of merit for airfoil/aircraft design integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maughmer, Mark D.; Somers, Dan M.

    1988-01-01

    Because the airfoil can so strongly impact other aspects of an aircraft configuration, it is important that the airfoil design process be integrated with that of the aircraft to achieve the best possible performance of a new flight vehicle. To aid in preliminary design efforts, several aerodynamic figures of merit are presented which facilitate the matching of the airfoil performance characteristics to those of the aircraft. These figures of merit are fairly general and can assist the airfoil design process for flight vehicles designed for maximum endurance, range, or ceiling. Although specifically applicable to vehicles for which the wing area is sized by some required minimum airspeed, the discussion is pertinent to all airfoil/aircraft matching situations and points the way for developing similar figures of merit to aid the airfoil/aircraft design process for any flight vehicle.

  20. Pathognomonic symptom associated with lightning strike: Lichtenberg figure.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Mehmet; Tanrikulu, Nazmiye; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Yigit, Eda

    2015-02-01

    Lightning strikes especially occur during spring and summer months in the afternoons when there is heavy rain. In deaths resulting from lightning strike, there may either be no evidence on the dead person's clothes or body, or there may be burnt or torn patches on their clothes and lichtenberg figures specific to lightning strikes on their bodies. In such cases that also have a comorbid of cognitive dysfunction, since there is generally amnesia, having these figures during the physical examination has a valuable place in early diagnosis and quick treatment. This paper presents a case of lightning strike that was found to have Lichtenberg figures on the back and right leg after secondary examination. PMID:25842563