Science.gov

Sample records for 4c1 chair conformation

  1. B3LYP/6-311++G** study of alpha- and beta-D-glucopyranose and 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol: 4C1 and 1C4 chairs, (3,O)B and B(3,O) boats, and skew-boat conformations.

    PubMed

    Appell, M; Strati, G; Willett, J L; Momany, F A

    2004-02-25

    Geometry optimization, at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory, was carried out on 4C1 and 1C4 chairs, (3,O)B and B(3,O) boats, and skew-boat conformations of alpha- and beta-D-glucopyranose. Similar calculations on 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol allowed examination of the effect of removal of the 1-hydroxy group on the energy preference of the hydroxymethyl rotamers. Stable minimum energy boat conformers of glucose were found, as were stable skew boats, all having energies ranging from approximately 4-15 kcal/mol above the global energy 4C1 chair conformation. The 1C4 chair electronic energies were approximately 5-10 kcal/mol higher than the 4C1 chair, with the 1C4 alpha-anomers being lower in energy than the beta-anomers. Zero-point energy, enthalpy, entropy, and relative Gibbs free energies are reported at the harmonic level of theory. The alpha-anomer 4C1 chair conformations were found to be approximately 1 kcal/mol lower in electronic energy than the beta-anomers. The hydroxymethyl gt conformation was of lowest electronic energy for both the alpha- and beta-anomers. The glucose alpha/beta anomer ratio calculated from the relative free energies is 63/37%. From a numerical Hessian calculation, the tg conformations were found to be approximately 0.4-0.7 kcal/mol higher in relative free energy than the gg or gt conformers. Transition-state barriers to rotation about the C-5-C-6 bond were calculated for each glucose anomer with resulting barriers to rotation of approximately 3.7-5.8 kcal/mol. No energy barrier was found for the path between the alpha-gt and alpha-gg B(3,O) boat forms and the equivalent 4C1 chair conformations. The alpha-tg conformation has an energy minimum in the 1S3 twist form. Other boat and skew-boat forms are described. The beta-anomer boats retained their starting conformations, with the exception of the beta-tg-(3,O)B boat that moved to a skew form upon optimization.

  2. DFT studies of the conformation and relative energies of alpha-maltotetraose (DP-4): An amylose fragment at atomic resolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DFT optimization studies of more than one hundred conformations of a-maltotetraose have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The DP-4 fragments of predominately 4C1 chair residues include tightly bent forms, helix, band-flips, kinks, boat, and some 1C4 conformers. The three do...

  3. Preparation and structural characterization of cDHAP-cyclic form of dihydroxyacetone phosphate-revealing chair and skew conformations of 1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane ring.

    PubMed

    Slepokura, Katarzyna

    2013-03-01

    A cyclic form of dihydroxyacetone phosphate, cDHAP, was obtained by the acidic hydrolysis of its dimethyl acetal (MeO)(2)cDHAP, and was crystallized in the hydrate, cDHAP-H (gem-diol; 1,3,2-dioxaphosphinane-2,5,5-triol 2-oxide) and the ketone, cDHAP-K (2-hydroxy-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinan-5-one 2-oxide) forms. The synthesis, MS and NMR analyses, crystallization and solid state structures determined by X-ray crystallography are described. The equilibrium state between the hydrate and ketone was established, revealing ∼86% of cDHAP-H in aqueous solution at room temperature. The striking structural feature of the ketone and hydrate forms of the same cyclic phosphate diester in the crystalline state is different conformations of the six-membered P/O/C/C/C/O 1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane ring, namely chair (C) in cDHAP-H·H2O (9a-H) and skew (S) in cDHAP-K (9a-K). Apart from one previous report on the non-chair-puckered, disordered [(MeO)2cDHAP]- anion in the crystal of its ammonium salt (Ślepokura, K. Carbohydr. Res. 2008, 343, 113-131), this is the unique example of the cyclic phosphate diester in skew conformation. Both 9a-H and 9a-K crystallize with the phosphate group protonated, which has been so far rarely observed in the cyclic phosphates. Deformation of the phosphate group and flattening of the chair-puckered ring in 9a-H is typical of protonated P/O/C/C/C/O rings. However, the skew-puckered 9a-K shows different values of O-P-O angles versus the same lengths of P-O(endo) and P-O(exo) bonds. PMID:23353635

  4. Folding chair

    DOEpatents

    Cornell, Howell N.

    1985-08-20

    A foldable chair of the lawn chair type has ground-engaging front and rear legs, attached to and carrying a back frame and seat frame, the back frame and seat frame being pivotally attached to a spreader rod which extends beyond the back and seat frames to bear against one of the leg members when the chair is unfolded. A contact pad mounted on the extending portion of the spreader rod is formed as an externally-contoured bushing fit over the spreader rod and adapted to engage the leg member to restrict side-to-side movement of the spreader rod, with respect to the leg member, when the chair is unfolded.

  5. Atomic levers control pyranose ring conformations

    PubMed Central

    Marszalek, Piotr E.; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Li, Hongbin; Yazal, Jamal El; Oberhauser, Andres F.; Fernandez, Julio M.

    1999-01-01

    Atomic force microscope manipulations of single polysaccharide molecules have recently expanded conformational chemistry to include force-driven transitions between the chair and boat conformers of the pyranose ring structure. We now expand these observations to include chair inversion, a common phenomenon in the conformational chemistry of six-membered ring molecules. We demonstrate that by stretching single pectin molecules (1 → 4-linked α-d-galactouronic acid polymer), we could change the pyranose ring conformation from a chair to a boat and then to an inverted chair in a clearly resolved two-step conversion: 4C1 ⇄ boat ⇄ 1C4. The two-step extension of the distance between the glycosidic oxygen atoms O1 and O4 determined by atomic force microscope manipulations is corroborated by ab initio calculations of the increase in length of the residue vector O1O4 on chair inversion. We postulate that this conformational change results from the torque generated by the glycosidic bonds when a force is applied to the pectin molecule. Hence, the glycosidic bonds act as mechanical levers, driving the conformational transitions of the pyranose ring. When the glycosidic bonds are equatorial (e), the torque is zero, causing no conformational change. However, when the glycosidic bond is axial (a), torque is generated, causing a rotation around C—C bonds and a conformational change. This hypothesis readily predicts the number of transitions observed in pyranose monomers with 1a-4a linkages (two), 1a-4e (one), and 1e-4e (none). Our results demonstrate single-molecule mechanochemistry with the capability of resolving complex conformational transitions. PMID:10393918

  6. First Chair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Donald C.

    1993-01-01

    A high school sophomore exceptionally talented on the violin is enraged and indignant when a less accomplished senior is given first chair in the school orchestra. After reacting rudely to the orchestra director and the principal, the girl discusses the situation with her supportive parents and resolves the problem. (JDD)

  7. Ergonomic Chairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Findings published in the NASA Anthropometric Source Book by Johnson Space Center helped BodyBilt, Inc. to fashion controlled comfort chairs that lessen the harmful effects of gravity on seated workers. Crew members living aboard NASA's Skylab noted that in space the human posture differs from the normal posture caused by the tug of one gravity. There has been an alarming increase in back pain and muscle fatigue in workers, along with a dramatic escalation in repetitive stress injuries. BodyBilt's ergonomically-correct line of office chairs are targeted for the average worker that sits for prolonged periods, be it in the classroom or boardroom. Their roster of national clients lists such organizations as IBM, Microsoft, Texas Instruments, Hewlett-Packard, Eastman-Kodak, Boeing, Motorola, and Walt Disney Studios.

  8. Radiation Pattern of Chair Armed Microstrip Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rabindra Kishore; Sahu, Kumar Satyabrat

    2016-07-01

    This work analyzes planar antenna conformable to chair arm shaped surfaces for WLAN application. Closed form expressions for its radiation pattern are developed and validated using measurements on prototype and commercial EM code at 2.4 GHz.

  9. Uncovering the Relationship between Sulphation Patterns and Conformation of Iduronic Acid in Heparan Sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Thieker, David F.; Guerrini, Marco; Woods, Robert J.; Liu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The L-iduronic acid (IdoA) residue is a critically important structural component in heparan sulphate polysaccharide for the biological functions. The pyranose ring of IdoA is present in 1C4-chair, 2SO-skew boat, and less frequently, in 4C1-chair conformations. Here, we analyzed the conformation of IdoA residue in eight hexasaccharides by NMR. The data demonstrate a correlation between the conformation of IdoA and sulphations in the surrounding saccharide residues. For the 2-O-sulpho IdoA residue, a high degree of sulphation on neighboring residues drives ring dynamics towards the 2SO-skew boat conformer. In contrast, the nonsulphated IdoA residue is pushed towards the 1C4-chair conformer when the neighboring residues are highly sulphated. Our data suggest that the conformation of IdoA is regulated by the sulphation pattern of nearby saccharides that is genetically controlled by the heparan sulphate biosynthetic pathway.

  10. Uncovering the Relationship between Sulphation Patterns and Conformation of Iduronic Acid in Heparan Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Thieker, David F.; Guerrini, Marco; Woods, Robert J.; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The L-iduronic acid (IdoA) residue is a critically important structural component in heparan sulphate polysaccharide for the biological functions. The pyranose ring of IdoA is present in 1C4-chair, 2SO-skew boat, and less frequently, in 4C1-chair conformations. Here, we analyzed the conformation of IdoA residue in eight hexasaccharides by NMR. The data demonstrate a correlation between the conformation of IdoA and sulphations in the surrounding saccharide residues. For the 2-O-sulpho IdoA residue, a high degree of sulphation on neighboring residues drives ring dynamics towards the 2SO-skew boat conformer. In contrast, the nonsulphated IdoA residue is pushed towards the 1C4-chair conformer when the neighboring residues are highly sulphated. Our data suggest that the conformation of IdoA is regulated by the sulphation pattern of nearby saccharides that is genetically controlled by the heparan sulphate biosynthetic pathway. PMID:27412370

  11. Uncovering the Relationship between Sulphation Patterns and Conformation of Iduronic Acid in Heparan Sulphate.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Thieker, David F; Guerrini, Marco; Woods, Robert J; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The L-iduronic acid (IdoA) residue is a critically important structural component in heparan sulphate polysaccharide for the biological functions. The pyranose ring of IdoA is present in (1)C4-chair, (2)SO-skew boat, and less frequently, in (4)C1-chair conformations. Here, we analyzed the conformation of IdoA residue in eight hexasaccharides by NMR. The data demonstrate a correlation between the conformation of IdoA and sulphations in the surrounding saccharide residues. For the 2-O-sulpho IdoA residue, a high degree of sulphation on neighboring residues drives ring dynamics towards the (2)SO-skew boat conformer. In contrast, the nonsulphated IdoA residue is pushed towards the (1)C4-chair conformer when the neighboring residues are highly sulphated. Our data suggest that the conformation of IdoA is regulated by the sulphation pattern of nearby saccharides that is genetically controlled by the heparan sulphate biosynthetic pathway. PMID:27412370

  12. Transposition Musical Chairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankosky, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a classroom activity in which students in a small-sized (n = 4) Abstract Algebra class were able to discover some properties related to permutations and transpositions by physically moving from chair to chair according to suggested guidelines. During the lesson students were able to determine ways to write a permutation as a…

  13. A methodology for chair evaluation.

    PubMed

    Drury, C G; Coury, B G

    1982-09-01

    A methodology for evaluating a single chair, rather than making a comparison among chairs, was developed from previous chair studies. The methodology was found to be rapid and effective when applied to a prototype chair, giving information to the manufacturer on overall comfort and good and bad points in the design. Testing took place on three tasks and showed that chair comfort is influenced by the task as well as the chair. PMID:15676443

  14. Stress Reducing Chair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Flogiston Chair incorporates NASA human factors in spacecraft design technology as well as information from NASA's Anthropometric Source Book. Designed by Brian V. Park, it provides a close approximation of the natural position a body assumes in weightless space. Its principal markets are information workers, designers, software developers, data processors, etc. It assists in maintaining concentration, is useful for relaxation and reality ventures. The chair may be fixed, rockable, or suspended from the ceiling.

  15. 4 CFR 27.2 - The Chair, Vice Chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true The Chair, Vice Chair. 27.2 Section 27.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD; ORGANIZATION § 27.2 The Chair, Vice Chair. The members of the Board shall select from among its membership...

  16. 4 CFR 27.2 - The Chair, Vice Chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Chair, Vice Chair. 27.2 Section 27.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD; ORGANIZATION § 27.2 The Chair, Vice Chair. The members of the Board shall select from among its membership...

  17. 4 CFR 27.2 - The Chair, Vice Chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The Chair, Vice Chair. 27.2 Section 27.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD; ORGANIZATION § 27.2 The Chair, Vice Chair. The members of the Board shall select from among its membership...

  18. 4 CFR 27.2 - The Chair, Vice Chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Chair, Vice Chair. 27.2 Section 27.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD; ORGANIZATION § 27.2 The Chair, Vice Chair. The members of the Board shall select from among its membership...

  19. 4 CFR 27.2 - The Chair, Vice Chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Chair, Vice Chair. 27.2 Section 27.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL APPEALS BOARD; ORGANIZATION § 27.2 The Chair, Vice Chair. The members of the Board shall select from among its membership...

  20. Solubility of alkali metal halides in the ionic liquid [C4C1im][OTf].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, O; Bordes, E; Schmauck, J; Hunt, P A; Hallett, J P; Welton, T

    2016-06-28

    The solubilities of the metal halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KF, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, CsCl, CsI, were measured at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 378.15 K in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4C1im][OTf]). Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) salts with anions matching the ionic liquid have also been investigated to determine how well these cations dissolve in [C4C1im][OTf]. This study compares the influence of metal cation and halide anion on the solubility of salts within this ionic liquid. The highest solubility found was for iodide salts, and the lowest solubility for the three fluoride salts. There is no outstanding difference in the solubility of salts with matching anions in comparison to halide salts. The experimental data were correlated employing several phase equilibria models, including ideal mixtures, van't Hoff, the λh (Buchowski) equation, the modified Apelblat equation, and the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). It was found that the van't Hoff model gave the best correlation results. On the basis of the experimental data the thermodynamic dissolution parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were determined for the studied systems together with computed gas phase metathesis parameters. Dissolution depends on the energy difference between enthalpies of fusion and dissolution of the solute salt. This demonstrates that overcoming the lattice energy of the solid matrix is the key to the solubility of inorganic salts in ionic liquids. PMID:27264676

  1. Solubility of alkali metal halides in the ionic liquid [C4C1im][OTf].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, O; Bordes, E; Schmauck, J; Hunt, P A; Hallett, J P; Welton, T

    2016-06-28

    The solubilities of the metal halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KF, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, CsCl, CsI, were measured at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 378.15 K in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4C1im][OTf]). Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) salts with anions matching the ionic liquid have also been investigated to determine how well these cations dissolve in [C4C1im][OTf]. This study compares the influence of metal cation and halide anion on the solubility of salts within this ionic liquid. The highest solubility found was for iodide salts, and the lowest solubility for the three fluoride salts. There is no outstanding difference in the solubility of salts with matching anions in comparison to halide salts. The experimental data were correlated employing several phase equilibria models, including ideal mixtures, van't Hoff, the λh (Buchowski) equation, the modified Apelblat equation, and the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). It was found that the van't Hoff model gave the best correlation results. On the basis of the experimental data the thermodynamic dissolution parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were determined for the studied systems together with computed gas phase metathesis parameters. Dissolution depends on the energy difference between enthalpies of fusion and dissolution of the solute salt. This demonstrates that overcoming the lattice energy of the solid matrix is the key to the solubility of inorganic salts in ionic liquids.

  2. Specific induction of a functional endogenous D2 short dopamine receptor in GH4C1 cells.

    PubMed

    Allard, S; Lapointe, S; Falardeau, P

    1993-06-15

    In contrast to lactotrophs, tumoral pituitary cells like GH3 and GH4C1 lack expression of dopamine D2short and D2long receptors. In GH4C1 cells, we observed that the expression of only the short isoform of D2 receptor can be induced after transfection with a plasmid which confers resistance to neomycin (pRSVNeo). High levels of fully functional D2short receptor were obtained in GH4C1 following transfection (528fmol/mg protein). Sequence, pharmacology and coupling of the induced-D2 receptor do not show any difference with the cloned rat D2 short receptor.

  3. Chair-ish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art assignment that helps students progress from color theory and the color wheel to understanding watercolor techniques. Explains that students apply their knowledge of watercolor techniques by using three of ten techniques to create different views of a chair in the Cubist style. (CMK)

  4. Chair of surgery.

    PubMed

    Scott-Conner, Carol; Hooks, Mary

    2010-10-01

    There are several essential qualities required for success as a chair of surgery. These include determination and resilience, thoughtful planning, superb organization skills, a balance of hard (accounting, management and finance) and soft skills (interpersonal including faculty development), and careful execution is absolutely essential as is a commitment to maintaining momentum. PMID:20887845

  5. Resources Available to Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, David M.; Bowker, Lee H.

    Resources available to department chairs from the following sources are described: the department's discipline; the national higher education community; the local institution; and the chair's own skills, background, roles, and structural placement within the organization. The use of these resources to deal with common problems faced by chairs is…

  6. Revision of the GROMOS 56A6(CARBO) force field: Improving the description of ring-conformational equilibria in hexopyranose-based carbohydrates chains.

    PubMed

    Plazinski, Wojciech; Lonardi, Alice; Hünenberger, Philippe H

    2016-01-30

    This article describes a revised version 56A6(CARBO_R) of the GROMOS 56A6(CARBO) force field for hexopyranose-based carbohydrates. The simulated properties of unfunctionalized hexopyranoses are unaltered with respect to 56A6CARBO . In the context of both O1 -alkylated hexopyranoses and oligosaccharides, the revision stabilizes the regular (4) C1 chair for α-anomers, with the opposite effect for β-anomers. As a result, spurious ring inversions observed in α(1→4)-linked chains when using the original 56A6(CARBO) force field are alleviated. The (4) C1 chair is now the most stable conformation for all d-hexopyranose residues, irrespective of the linkage type and anomery, and of the position of the residue along the chain. The methylation of a d-hexopyranose leads to a systematic shift in the ring-inversion free energy ((4) C1 to (1) C4 ) by 7-8 kJ mol(-1), positive for the α-anomers and negative for the β-anomers, which is qualitatively compatible with the expected enhancement of the anomeric effect upon methylation at O1. The ring-inversion free energies for residues within chains are typically smaller in magnitude compared to those of the monomers, and correlate rather poorly with the latter. This suggests that the crowding of ring substituents upon chain formation alters the ring flexibility in a nonsystematic fashion. In general, the description of carbohydrate chains afforded by 56A6(CARBO_R) suggests a significant extent of ring flexibility, i.e., small but often non-negligible equilibrium populations of inverted chairs, and challenges the "textbook" picture of conformationally locked carbohydrate rings.

  7. 12 CFR 225.109 - “Services” under section 4(c)(1) of Bank Holding Company Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âServicesâ under section 4(c)(1) of Bank Holding Company Act. 225.109 Section 225.109 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION...

  8. 12 CFR 225.104 - “Services” under section 4(c)(1) of Bank Holding Company Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false âServicesâ under section 4(c)(1) of Bank... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y... and budget loan installment account. (2) In the second case, Corporation Y, a nonbanking subsidiary...

  9. 12 CFR 225.104 - “Services” under section 4(c)(1) of Bank Holding Company Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false âServicesâ under section 4(c)(1) of Bank... (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.104 “Services” under section 4(c... payroll, life insurance and budget loan installment account. (2) In the second case, Corporation Y,...

  10. 12 CFR 225.109 - “Services” under section 4(c)(1) of Bank Holding Company Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false âServicesâ under section 4(c)(1) of Bank... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y...., Senate Report 1095, part 2, p. 3) makes it evident that Congress had in mind the exemption of...

  11. Translocation of PKG1α acts on TRPV4-C1 heteromeric channels to inhibit endothelial Ca2+ entry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Mao, Ai-qin; Sun, Chun-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Pan, Qiong-xi; Yang, Dan-tong; Jin, Jian; Tang, Chun-lei; Yang, Zhen-yu; Yao, Xiao-qiang; Lu, Xiao-jie; Ma, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: TRPV4-C1 heteromeric channels contribute to store-operated Ca2+ entry in vascular endothelial cells. However, the negative regulation of these channels is not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of PKG1α on TRPV4-C1 heteromeric channels. Methods: Immuno-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used to explore the spatial proximity of PKG1α and TRPC1. Phosphorylation of endogenous TRPC1 was tested by phosphorylation assay. [Ca2+]i transients and cation current in MAECs were assessed with Fura-2 fluorescence and whole-cell recording, respectively. In addition, rat mesenteric arteries segments were prepared, and vascular relaxation was examined with wire myography. Results: In immuno-FRET experiments, after exposure of these cells to 8-Br-cGMP, more PKG1α was observed in the plasma membrane, and PKG1α and TRPC1 were observed to be in closer proximity. TAT-TRPC1S172 and TAT-TRPC1T313 peptide fragments, which contain the PKG targeted residues Ser172 and Thr313, respectively, were introduced into isolated endothelial cells to abrogate the translocation of PKG1α. Furthermore, a phosphorylation assay demonstrated that PKG directly phosphorylates TRPC1 at Ser172 and Thr313 in endothelial cells. In addition, PKG activator 8-Br-cGMP markedly reduced the magnitude of the 4αPDD-induced and 11,12-EET-induced [Ca2+]i transients, the cation current and vascular relaxation. Conclusion: This study uncovers a novel mechanism by which PKG negatively regulates endothelial heteromeric TRPV4-C1 channels through increasing the spatial proximity of TRPV4-C1 to PKG1α via translocation and through phosphorylating Ser172 and Thr313 of TRPC1. PMID:27397542

  12. Conformational properties of cyclooctane: a molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Rishikesh K.

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to elucidate the conformational properties of cyclooctane in the gas and bulk liquid phases. Accurate reproduction of the gas phase structure, and of the liquid phase densities and solubility parameters have been used as prerequisites to the prediction of conformational properties. The gas phase results clearly indicate the presence of a conformational mixture consisting of the crown, boat-chair, twist-boat-chair and boat-boat conformers at all temperatures (161, 313 and 400K) studied. The fraction of the crown family of conformers was found to be relatively insensitive to temperature. However, the relative concentrations of the twist-boat-chair and boat-chair conformations was found to be highly temperature dependent with the boat-chair being favoured at low temperatures. Bulk packing was found to have a profound effect on the conformational properties in the liquid phase. At the temperatures studied(313 and 400K) the boat-chair family was predominant, with the crown and boat families being essentially absent. The twist-boatchair conformation was detected in the liquid phase at both temperatures. The pseudorotation pathway for the twist-boat-chair to boat-chair interconversion was prevalent in both gas and liquid phases establishing the conformational flexibility and the relative importance of the twist-boat-chair conformer in comparison to the crown family. The study successfully explains the separate experimental findings in both the gas and liquid phases of cyclooctane.

  13. 21 CFR 882.4125 - Neurosurgical chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4125 Neurosurgical chair. (a) Identification. A neurosurgical chair is an operating room chair used to position and support a patient during... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurosurgical chair. 882.4125 Section...

  14. Bigger chairs at smaller tables.

    PubMed

    Ende, Jack

    2013-07-01

    As noted in the commentary by Kastor, chairs of academic clinical departments in medical schools now find themselves beleaguered by issues and responsibilities-and in reporting relationships-that are beyond the traditional scope of those positions. The situation is particularly acute in departments of medicine. This commentary suggests that departments of medicine have become too large and that chairs are no longer able to focus on the more traditional missions of the department of medicine, most notably direct clinical care and teaching. An argument is made for limiting the scope of departments' clinical and research programs, thereby enabling academic chairs to regain the level of prominence and satisfaction that has traditionally been associated with those distinguished positions. PMID:23799439

  15. Conformation of some sparteine N-16 oxides revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Jacek; Boczoń, Władysław; Fiedorow, Piotr; Jasiewicz, Beata; Knychała, Małgorzata

    2002-12-01

    Sparteine N-16 oxides were thought to occur in all chair conformations with cis fusion between their C and D rings. NMR spectral analysis made possible indication of the chair- chair- boat- chair form with cis fussion of C, D rings for sparteine, 2-phenyl- and 2-methylsparteine N-16 oxides. Molecular energy found by means of DFT, Hartree-Fock, AM1, PM3 methods supported this new shape of bisquinolizidine skeleton.

  16. Legal Issues Confronting Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colm, Maxine

    2002-01-01

    Identifies broad areas affecting department chairs when they deal with academic personnel matters, including sexual harassment and sexual discrimination. Notes that the hiring and reappointment process is at the core of building and maintaining the highest quality faculty members, and that most federal and state courts defer to academic judgment…

  17. Handbook for Business Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication is designed as a reference book for business teachers and school administrators who are concerned with present and future problems of administering and supervising business education at the secondary level. Chapter I details the roles and responsibilities of the business education department chair who is administrator, supervisor,…

  18. Robotic chair at steep and narrow stairways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imazato, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Moromugi, Shunji; Ishimatsu, Takakazu

    2007-12-01

    A robotic chair is developed to support mobility of elderly and disabled people living in the house where steep and narrow stairways are installed. In order to deal with such mobility problem the developed robotic chair has a compact original configuration. The robotic chair vertically moves by actuation of electric cylinders and horizontally moves by push-pull operation given by a care-giver. In order to navigate safely every action of the chair is checked by the operator. Up-and-down motions of the robotic chair on the stairway are executed through combinations of motor and cylinder actuations. Performance of the robotic chair was evaluated through two kinds of experiments. The excellent ability of the robotic chair could be confirmed through these experiments.

  19. The development of an assessment chair.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, G I; Taylor, P M

    1982-08-01

    Initial difficulties in producing seats for the physically disabled have led to an investigation of the process of seat prescription. An adjustable assessment chair was developed for the purpose of identifying patients' seating requirements. The main variables of the chair's configuration are controlled by a number of hydraulic and mechanical systems. Different support surfaces can be attached to the chair to simulate different seat characteristics. At present a bead bag vacuum consolidation system is used to simulate moulded seats. Experience to date has shown that the assessment chair performs a valuable clinical role in the provision of seating.

  20. Microfluorimetric analysis of a purinergic receptor (P2X7) in GH4C1 rat pituitary cells: effects of a bioactive substance produced by Pfiesteria piscicida.

    PubMed Central

    Melo, A C; Moeller, P D; Glasgow, H; Burkholder, J M; Ramsdell, J S

    2001-01-01

    Pfiesteria piscicida Steidinger & Burkholder is a toxic dinoflagellate that leads to fish and human toxicity. It produces a bioactive substance that leads to cytotoxicity of GH4C1 rat pituitary cells. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) acting on P2X7 purinergic receptors induces the formation of a nonselective cation channel, causing elevation of the cytosolic free calcium followed by a characteristic permeabilization of the cell to progressively larger ions and subsequent cell lysis. We investigated whether GH4C1 rat pituitary cells express functional P2X7 receptors, and if so, are they activated by a bioactive substance isolated from toxic P. piscicida cultures. We tested the selective agonist 2'-3'-O-(benzoyl-4-benzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) and antagonists piridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS) and oxidized-ATP (oxATP) using elevated cytosolic free calcium in Fura-2 loaded cells, and induced permeability of these cells to the fluorescent dye YO-PRO-1 as end points. We demonstrated that in GH4C1 cells, BzATP induces both the elevation of cytosolic free calcium and the permeabilization of the cell membrane. ATP-induced membrane permeabilization was inhibited by PPADS reversibly and by oxATP irreversibly. The putative Pfiesteria toxin (pPfTx) also elevated cytosolic free calcium in Fura-2 in GH4C1 cells and increased the permeability to YO-PRO-1 in a manner inhibited fully by oxATP. This study indicates that GH4C1 cells express a purinoceptor with characteristics consistent with the P2X7 subtype, and that pPfTx mimics the kinetics of cell permeabilization by ATP. PMID:11677182

  1. Leading Learning: Science Departments and the Chair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Jones, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we have considered the role of the chair in leading the learning necessary for a department to become effective in the teaching and learning of science from a reformed perspective. We conceptualize the phrase "leading learning" to mean the chair's constitution of influence, power, and authority to intentionally impact…

  2. Secondary School Science Department Chairs Leading Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaubatz, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary school department chairs are content area specialists in their schools and are responsible for providing students with the most appropriate curricula. However, most secondary school department chairs have limited authority to institute change unilaterally (Gmelch, 1993; Hannay & Erb, 1999). To explore how these educational leaders…

  3. 21 CFR 890.3100 - Mechanical chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical chair. 890.3100 Section 890.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3100 Mechanical chair....

  4. 21 CFR 890.3100 - Mechanical chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mechanical chair. 890.3100 Section 890.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3100 Mechanical chair....

  5. 21 CFR 890.3100 - Mechanical chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mechanical chair. 890.3100 Section 890.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3100 Mechanical chair....

  6. 21 CFR 890.3100 - Mechanical chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mechanical chair. 890.3100 Section 890.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3100 Mechanical chair....

  7. 21 CFR 890.3100 - Mechanical chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mechanical chair. 890.3100 Section 890.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3100 Mechanical chair....

  8. Chairs of Graduate Departments: A Structural Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Valey, Thomas L.; Tiemann, Kathleen

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes all U. S. sociology departments listed in the American Sociological Association Guide to Graduate Departments of Sociology from 1969 to 1985 with respect to the backgrounds of chairs as well as selected structural characteristics of their departments. Finds that chairs who are male and who hold the rank of full professor continue to be…

  9. Toward Consistent Terminology for Cyclohexane Conformers in Introductory Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Donna J.; Brammer, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Recommended changes in use of cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature will remedy inconsistencies in cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature that exist across currently used organic chemistry textbooks. These inconsistencies prompted this logical analysis and the resulting recommendations. Recommended conformer names are "chair",…

  10. Chair Talk: Resources to Maximize Administrative Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, H.; Chan, M. A.; Bierly, E. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Earth science department chairs are generally scientists who have little/no formal administrative training. The common rotation of faculty members in three-six year cycles distributes the heavy leadership responsibilities but involves little preparation beforehand to deal with budgets, fundraising, personnel issues, confrontations, and crises. The amount of information exchange and support upon exit and handoff to the next chair is variable. Resources for chairs include workshops, meetings (ranging from annual meetings of geoscience chairs to monthly meetings of small groups of chairs from various disciplines on a campus), discussions, and online resources. These resources, some of which we designed in the past several years, provide information and support for chairs, help them share best practices, and reduce time spent “reinventing the wheel”. Most of these resources involve groups of chairs in our discipline who meet together. The AGU Board of Heads and Chairs of Earth and Space Science Departments offers annual one-day workshops at the Fall AGU meeting. The specific topics vary from year to year; they have included goals and roles of heads and chairs, fundraising and Advisory Boards, student recruitment, interdisciplinarity, dual-career couples, and undergraduate research. The workshop provides ample opportunities for open discussion. Annual one-two day meetings of groups of geoscience department chairs (e.g., research universities in a particular region) provide an opportunity for chairs to share specific data about their departments (e.g., salaries, graduate student stipends, information about facilities) and discuss strategies. At the College of William and Mary, a small group of chairs meets monthly throughout the year; each session includes time for open discussion as well as a more structured discussion on a particular topic (e.g., merit review, development and fundraising, mentoring early career faculty and the tenure process, leadership styles

  11. 21 CFR 886.1140 - Ophthalmic chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic chair is an AC-powered or manual device with adjustable positioning in which a patient is to sit or recline during ophthalmological examination or treatment. (b) Classification. Class I. The...

  12. Disaccharide conformational maps: adiabaticity in analogs with variable ring shapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relaxed MM3 potential energy surfaces (conformational maps) were calculated for analogs of the three trehaloses, maltose, cellobiose and galabiose based on 2-methyltetrahydropyran. Starting structures included not only 4C1 (sugar nomenclature) geometries, but also combinations with 1C4 conformers, a...

  13. The Cost of Academic Leadership: Department Chair Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmelch, Walter H.; Burns, John S.

    Findings from a study that examined stresses associated with the role of the university department chair are presented in this paper. The focuses are on career paths, transitions to the chair position, commitment to administration, role orientation, and strains of chairing. A survey of 808 department chairs in 101 research and doctoral-granting…

  14. The conformational analysis of 2-halocyclooctanones.

    PubMed

    Rozada, Thiago C; Gauze, Gisele F; Rosa, Fernanda A; Favaro, Denize C; Rittner, Roberto; Pontes, Rodrigo M; Basso, Ernani A

    2015-02-25

    The establishment of the most stable structures of eight membered rings is a challenging task to the field of conformational analysis. In this work, a series of 2-halocyclooctanones were synthesized (including fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine derivatives) and submitted to conformational studies using a combination of theoretical calculation and infrared spectroscopy. For each compound, four conformations were identified as the most important ones. These conformations are derived from the chair-boat conformation of cyclooctanone. The pseudo-equatorial (with respect to the halogen) conformer is preferred in vacuum and in low polarity solvents for chlorine, bromine and iodine derivatives. For 2-fluorocyclooctanone, the preferred conformation in vacuum is pseudo-axial. In acetonitrile, the pseudo-axial conformer becomes the most stable for the chlorine derivative. According to NBO calculations, the conformational preference is not dictated by electron delocalization, but by classical electrostatic repulsions.

  15. Noise analysis in professional office chairs.

    PubMed

    Alves, E J W; Filho, J N; Silva, S J; Câmara, J J D

    2012-01-01

    The noise caused by the movement of users on their chairs in the work environment may indicate structural weaknesses and risk, and still significantly reduce productivity by increasing employees stress level. By understanding the activities to be developed in a work place one may understand what should be necessary to a good development, thereafter a search for improvement of labor activity with the aim of better use of resources in the operation of product use may be done. The analysis of the incremental variation of noise in professional chairs aims to identify its origin and the time the emission of noise starts during the period of use, its development and the major causative agents. Determining the characteristics of the sound of different materials and adjustments mechanisms of the chair can determine how different materials interact with each other. The measurement of these noises in an acoustic isolated room using directional microphones, if recorded and analyzed properly makes it possible to investigate and orientate to suspect elements in order to propose solutions and identify the quality of other similar chairs. Based on the results recommendations can be established for the orientation of users, managers and people responsible for the acquisition of the products, inducing them to review the employment of materials and the choice of the processes of production. These aspects are not covered in the Brazilian ergonomics norms and standards in the use of chairs. PMID:22316953

  16. Chair with refrigerator and armrest beverage cooler

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, M.C.

    1988-01-19

    This patent describes a chair having an armrest with an upwardly facing surface alongside and outwardly of a seat, a beverage receptacle cooler and holder, the cooler and holder including a receptacle defined by a bottom and peripheral wall extending downwardly from the upwardly facing surface of the armrest for removably receiving a beverage receptacle, and an evaporative coil means associated with the cooler and holder receptacle in heat exchanger relation thereto for cooling the cooler and holder receptacle and a beverage receptacle therein, the evaporative coil means forming a portion of a refrigeration system mounted on the chair.

  17. A carpet-weaver's chair based on anthropometric data.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Nader; Bazrafshan, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Ergonomic design of chairs has been well studied by ergonomists. Chair design based on anthropometric data analysis is recommended. Weavers in carpet-weaving workshops use chairs with backrests and armrests. An anthropometric survey was carried out among weavers in Tabriz, Iran, to design a flexible chair and to improve its comfort on the basis of design dimensions. This study focused on the design dimensions of a chair for weavers and its recommended dimensions. The developed chair needs to be tested for its effects on weavers' posture and comfort.

  18. CCCC Chair's Address: Representing Ourselves, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the text of the author's address at the fifty-ninth annual convention of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) in March 2008. In her address, the author picks up strands of previous Chairs' addresses and weaves them through the fabric of her remarks. What she hopes will give sheen to the fabric is her…

  19. 21 CFR 892.1820 - Pneumoencephalographic chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pneumoencephalographic chair. 892.1820 Section 892.1820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pneumoencephalography (x-ray imaging of the brain). (b) Classification. Class II....

  20. 21 CFR 892.1820 - Pneumoencephalographic chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pneumoencephalographic chair. 892.1820 Section 892.1820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pneumoencephalography (x-ray imaging of the brain). (b) Classification. Class II....

  1. 21 CFR 892.1820 - Pneumoencephalographic chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pneumoencephalographic chair. 892.1820 Section 892.1820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pneumoencephalography (x-ray imaging of the brain). (b) Classification. Class II....

  2. Perceptions of Leadership Styles of Department Chairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsett, Glee

    2007-01-01

    Much has been written about leadership in business management, but very little research has been done on leadership in academic departments. Department chairs have the authority to make most departmental decisions, but rarely does formal training exist for this position. Therefore, there is a need to study how the leadership styles among…

  3. The Department Chair: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedorf, Rita G.; Gmelch, Walter H.

    Information is presented on a study which investigated the managerial role of the academic department chair and compared it to a study of traditional managers. The study compared management activities to determine whether or not there was a difference between academic management and management outside of the university setting. It made use of the…

  4. The Real Work of Department Chair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that secondary and post secondary academic department chairs are both managers and leaders whose real work is to manage conversational inquiry that engages others in creating possibilities, breakthroughs, and a sustainable future for their common enterprise. Describes leadership capabilities demanded by this work; well-honed communication…

  5. 21 CFR 892.1820 - Pneumoencephalographic chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pneumoencephalographic chair. 892.1820 Section 892.1820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pneumoencephalography (x-ray imaging of the brain). (b) Classification. Class II....

  6. 21 CFR 892.1820 - Pneumoencephalographic chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumoencephalographic chair. 892.1820 Section 892.1820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pneumoencephalography (x-ray imaging of the brain). (b) Classification. Class II....

  7. 21 CFR 880.6140 - Medical chair and table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Devices § 880.6140 Medical chair and table. (a) Identification. A medical chair or table is a device... donors, geriatric patients, or patients undergoing treatment or examination. (b) Classification. Class...

  8. Rear of REPLACEMENT MODEL single chair from mid station. Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear of REPLACEMENT MODEL single chair from mid station. Tower 13 in background, LOOKing northeast. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  9. View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View uphill of single chair lift, tower 15 in foreground, TOWERS 16 and 17 in the distance, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  10. Experimental investigation of chair type, row spacing, occupants, and carpet on theatre chair absorption.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ji; Bradley, John S; Jeong, Dae-Up

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the individual variations of chair type, row spacing, as well as the presence of occupants and carpet, combine to influence the absorption characteristics of theater chairs as a function of sample perimeter-to-area (P/A) ratios. Scale models were used to measure the interactive effects of the four test variables on the chair absorption characteristics, avoiding the practical difficulties of full scale measurements. All of the test variables led to effects that could lead to important changes to auditorium acoustics conditions. At mid and higher frequencies, the various effects can usually be explained as due to, more or less, porous absorbing material. In the 125 and 250 Hz octave bands, the major changes were attributed to resonant absorbing mechanisms. The results indicate that for accurate predictions of the effective absorption of the chairs in an auditorium, one should use the P/A method and reverberation chamber tests of the chair absorption coefficients to predict the absorption coefficients of each block of chairs and use these results as input in a room acoustics computer model of the auditorium. The application of these results to auditorium acoustics design is described, more approximate approaches are considered, and relations to existing methods are discussed.

  11. 21 CFR 880.6140 - Medical chair and table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical chair and table. 880.6140 Section 880.6140...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6140 Medical chair and table. (a) Identification. A medical chair or table is a...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6140 - Medical chair and table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical chair and table. 880.6140 Section 880.6140...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6140 Medical chair and table. (a) Identification. A medical chair or table is a...

  13. Review of the medical and legal literature on restraint chairs.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Edward M; Coyne, Christopher J; Chan, Theodore C; Hall, Christine A; Vilke, Gary M

    2015-07-01

    Use of restraint chairs by law enforcement for violent individuals has generated controversy and a source of litigation because of reported injuries and deaths of restrained subjects. The purpose of this study is to review the available medical and legal literature and to allow the development of evidence-based, best practice recommendations to inform the further development of restraint chair policies. This is a structured literature review of four databases, two medical and two legal. The medical review focus was on the restraint chair with additional review of materials regarding other restraint methods and options. The legal review focused on litigation cases involving the restraint chair. The review of the medical literature revealed 21 peer-reviewed studies investigating the physiological or psychological effects of using a restraint chair on humans or primates. Of these studies, 20 were performed on primates. The single human study revealed no clinically significant effects from the restraint chair on test subjects. The legal literature review revealed very few cases where the restraint chair was either a major or minor focus. The overall issues relating to the restraint chair cases involved deviations from set protocols and rarely involved issues with the chair itself. The available medical literature reveals that the restraint chair poses little to no medical risk. Additionally, when used appropriately, the restraint chair alone carries little legal liability. With proper monitoring and adherence to set protocols, the restraint chair is a safe and appropriate device for use in restraining violent individuals.

  14. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  15. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  16. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  17. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  18. 21 CFR 872.6250 - Dental chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental chair and accessories. 872.6250 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6250 Dental chair and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental chair and accessories is a device, usually AC-powered, in which a patient sits....

  19. Science Instructional Leadership: The Role of the Department Chair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    With science teachers facing comprehensive curriculum reform that will shape science education for decades to come, high school department chairs represent a critical resource for instructional leadership and teacher support. While the historical literature on the department chair indicates that chairs are in prime positions to provide…

  20. DRIVE TERMINAL WITH VAULT MOTOR ROOM IN BASEMENT. SINGLE CHAIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DRIVE TERMINAL WITH VAULT MOTOR ROOM IN BASEMENT. SINGLE CHAIR SKI LIFT (1947) ON LEFT, DOUBLE CHAIR SKI LIFT (1962) ON RIGHT. LOOKING SOUTHWEST WITH GENERAL STARK MOUNTAIN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  1. Probabilistic model-based methodology for the conformational study of cyclic systems: application to copper complexes double-bridged by phosphate and related ligands.

    PubMed

    Kessler, M; Pérez, J; Bueso, M C; García, L; Pérez, E; Serrano, J L; Carrascosa, R

    2007-12-01

    A methodology for the conformational study of cyclic systems through the statistical analysis of torsion angles is presented. It relies on a combination of different methods based on a probabilistic model which takes into account the topological symmetry of the structures. This methodology is applied to copper complexes double-bridged by phosphate and related ligands. Structures from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) are analyzed and the chair, boat-chair and boat conformations are identified as the most frequent conformations. The output of the methodology also provides information about distortions from the ideal conformations, the most frequent being: chair <--> twist-chair, chair <--> twist-boat-chair and boat <--> twist-boat. Molecular mechanics calculations identify these distortions as energetically accessible pathways.

  2. Cyclo-biphenalenyl Biradicaloid Molecular Materials: Conformation, Tautomerization, Magnetism, and Thermochromism

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jingsong; Meunier, Vincent; Tian, Yong-Hui; Kertesz, Prof. Miklos

    2010-01-01

    Phenalenyl and its derivatives have recently attracted a great deal of interest as a result of a two-electron multicenter (2e/mc) - bonding between two -stacked phenalenyl units. The 2e/mc bonded -dimers are close in energy to the -dimers of phenalenyl and therefore fickle properties may emerge from bond fluctuation, yielding smart -functional materials. Here, we examine the valence tautomerization of two cyclo-biphenalenyl biradicaloid molecular materials with chair and boat conformations by spin-restricted (R) and unrestricted (U) DFT using the M06 and B3LYP functionals. We found that the chair conformation involves a 2e/4c - bonded structure, whereas the boat conformation involves a 2e/12c - bonded structure on their potential energy surfaces. The global minimum for the chair conformation is the -bonded structure, whereas it is the - bonded structure for the boat conformation. The chair conformation exhibits a stepwise [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, and calculations predict a negligible paramagnetic susceptibility near room temperature. In comparison, the paramagnetism of the boat conformation should be observable by SQUID and ESR. According to the energy differences of the respective - and -dimers of the two conformations and the UV-vis calculations, the color of the chair conformation is expected to become darker, whereas that of the boat conformation should become lighter with increasing temperature.

  3. Samuel P. Massie Chair of Excellence Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, James H.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract In 1994 the Department of Energy established the DOE Chair of Excellence Professorship in Environmental Disciplines Program. In 2004, the Massie Chair of Excellence Professor at Howard University transitioned from Dr. Edward Martin to Dr. James H. Johnson, Jr. At the time of his appointment Dr. Johnson served as professor of civil engineering and Dean of the College of Engineering, Architecture and Computer Sciences. Program activities under Dr. Johnson were in the following areas: • Increase the institution’s capacity to conduct scientific research and technical investigations at the cutting-edge. • Promote interactions, collaborations and partnerships between the private sector, Federal agencies, majority research institutes and other HBCUs. • Assist other HBCUs in reaching parity in engineering and related fields. • Mentor young investigators and be a role model for students.

  4. Space Grant Research Launches Rehabilitation Chair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Working with funding from the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program-which was implemented by NASA Headquarters to fund research, education, and public service projects-a biomedical engineering student created a vibration-based system that could combat bone loss from prolonged trips to space. A rehabilitation chair incorporating the technology is now sold by Sheboygan, Wisconsin-based VibeTech Inc. and is helping people recover more quickly from injuries and surgery.

  5. Biomechanical analyses of rising from a chair.

    PubMed

    Schultz, A B; Alexander, N B; Ashton-Miller, J A

    1992-12-01

    Quantification of the biomechanical factors that underlie the inability to rise from a chair can help explain why this disability occurs and can aid in the design of chairs and of therapeutic intervention programs. Experimental data collected earlier from 17 young adult and two groups of elderly subjects, 23 healthy and 11 impaired, rising from a standard chair under controlled conditions were analyzed using a planar biomechanical model. The joint torque strength requirements and the location of the floor reaction force at liftoff from the seat in the different groups and under several conditions were calculated. Analyses were also made of how body configurations and the use of hand force affect these joint torques and reaction locations. In all three groups, the required torques at liftoff were modest compared to literature data on voluntary strengths. Among the three groups rising with the use of hands, at the time of liftoff from the seat, the impaired old subjects, on an average, placed the reaction force the most anterior, the healthy old subjects placed it intermediately and the young subjects placed it the least anterior, within the foot support area. Moreover, the results suggest that, at liftoff, all subjects placed more importance on locating the floor reaction force to achieve acceptable postural stability than on diminishing the magnitudes of the needed joint muscle strengths.

  6. Enzymic characterization of murine and human prohormone convertase-1 (mPC1 and hPC1) expressed in mammalian GH4C1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jean, F; Basak, A; Rondeau, N; Benjannet, S; Hendy, G N; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M; Lazure, C

    1993-01-01

    Prohormone convertase-1 (PC1), an endopeptidase that is structurally related to the yeast subtilisin-like Kex2 gene product, has been proposed to be involved in mammalian tissue-specific prohormone processing at pairs of basic residues. To better study this enzyme, a rat somatomammotroph cell line, GH4C1, was infected with vaccinia virus recombinants of murine PC1 (mPC1) and human PC1 (hPC1). An enzymically active form of each protein was secreted into the cell medium and partially purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The 80-85 kDa enzyme was shown to be Ca(2+)-dependent and exhibited a pH optimum of 6.0 when assayed against a synthetic fluorogenic substrate, acetyl-Arg-Ser-Lys-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl-1-amide. mPC1 and hPC1 displayed identical cleavage selectivity towards a number of fluorogenic substrates, and those incorporating an Arg at the P4 site were most favoured. Synthetic peptides, encompassing the junction between the putative pro-region and the active enzyme, and between the pro-region and the biologically active parathyroid hormone, were shown to be recognized and cleaved specifically at the pair of basic residues by both enzymes. Group-specific proteinase inhibitors such as metal ion chelators and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, but not phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride and pepstatin, strongly inhibit the PC1-associated activity. In addition, it is shown that an enzyme activity displaying identical properties is present in the cell medium of uninfected corticotroph AtT-20 cells and that its level is increased following stimulation of secretion by the secretagogue 8-bromo cyclic AMP. PMID:8318017

  7. 8-(2-Chloro­phen­yl)-1-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-4-[(E)-(2-chloro­phen­yl)methyl­idene]-6-methyl-4,5,6,7,7a,8-hexa­hydro-1,2,4-oxadiazolo[5,4-d]pyrido[3,4-c][1,5]benzothia­zepine

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, V. Rajni; Periathai, R. Sudha; Rajagopal, K.; Krishnakumar, R. V.; Srinivasan, N.

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C33H26Cl3N3OS, the oxadiazole, piperidine and benzothia­pezine rings adopt envelope, chair and twist-boat conformations, respectively. In the crystal, the mol­ecular aggregation is characterized by chains of centrosymmetrically related pairs connected through Cl⋯Cl inter­actions [3.533 (2) Å], extending parallel to (202). PMID:21579170

  8. Volunteer Interacting with a Rotating Chair Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Brad McLain for the Space Biology Museum Network spins a volunteer in a rotating chair to illustrate how dependent the human vestibular system is on visual cues. The volunteer's thumbs indicate which way she thinks she is turning. Similar tests are conducted on astronauts to study how they adapt to space and readapt to Earth. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  9. The Conformational Behaviour of Glucosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Isabel; Kolesniková, Lucie; Cabezas, Carlos; Bermúdez, Celina; Berdakin, Matías; Simao, Alcides; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    A laser ablation method has been successfully used to vaporize the bioactive amino monosaccharide D-glucosamine. Three cyclic α-4C1 pyranose forms have been identified using a combination of CP-FTMW and LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy. Stereoelectronic hyperconjugative factors, like those associated with anomeric or gauche effects, as well as the cooperative OH\\cdotsO, OH\\cdotsN and NH\\cdotsO chains, extended along the entire molecule, are the main factors driving the conformational behavior. All observed conformers exhibit a counter-clockwise arrangement (cc) of the network of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The results are compared with those recently obtained for D-glucose. J. L. Alonso, M. A. Lozoya, I. Peña, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, S. Mata, S. Blanco, Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 515.

  10. Comparison of four specific dynamic office chairs with a conventional office chair: impact upon muscle activation, physical activity and posture.

    PubMed

    Ellegast, Rolf P; Kraft, Kathrin; Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Krause, Frank; Berger, Helmut; Vink, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Prolonged and static sitting postures provoke physical inactivity at VDU workplaces and are therefore discussed as risk factors for the musculoskeletal system. Manufacturers have designed specific dynamic office chairs featuring structural elements which promote dynamic sitting and therefore physical activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of four specific dynamic chairs on erector spinae and trapezius EMG, postures/joint angles and physical activity intensity (PAI) compared to those of a conventional standard office chair. All chairs were fitted with sensors for measurement of the chair parameters (backrest inclination, forward and sideward seat pan inclination), and tested in the laboratory by 10 subjects performing 7 standardized office tasks and by another 12 subjects in the field during their normal office work. Muscle activation revealed no significant differences between the specific dynamic chairs and the reference chair. Analysis of postures/joint angles and PAI revealed only a few differences between the chairs, whereas the tasks performed strongly affected the measured muscle activation, postures and kinematics. The characteristic dynamic elements of each specific chair yielded significant differences in the measured chair parameters, but these characteristics did not appear to affect the sitting dynamics of the subjects performing their office tasks.

  11. The Relationship of Department Chair Roles to Importance of Chair Duties. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, James B.; Gmelch, Walter H.

    This study investigated what university and college department chairpersons believe are the most important duties of their position, how they view their roles, and the relationship of perceived roles and duties. Possible role definitions included seeing department chair work as leader, scholar, faculty developer, or manager. The study surveyed 800…

  12. Chair of a department of medicine: now a different job.

    PubMed

    Kastor, John A

    2013-07-01

    The job of chair of a department of medicine, once seen as the apex in the career of an academic internist, has lost much of its allure, in part because of increasing administrative and financial obligations that require more of the time and effort of chairs than formerly. This is the impression the author gathered from interviewing 44 current and former chairs, deans, division chiefs, and hospital directors.He was told that chairs have lost some of their independence as departments have become increasingly dependent on the support of the executives at their university hospitals who, as the source of funds and facilities, can even specify which clinical services the chairs may develop. Conflict over the assignment of resources between dean and hospital CEO, which one interviewee stated can produce "incredible tensions," can complicate efforts of chairs to build clinical and research strength within their departments according to their own preferences. The growing administrative and financial duties of the job have forced some chairs to decrease their dedication to the classic responsibilities of teaching medical students and house officers.Recruiting outstanding leaders for departments of medicine challenges search committees and deans more than in the past because many suitable candidates do not choose to be considered and prefer to lead institutes, centers, or specialty divisions. The author suggests, however, that schools-by providing chairs with adequate administrative support and authority-can structure the job to improve its attractiveness and allow chairs more time to engage in traditional academic pursuits. PMID:23799437

  13. A Qualitative Study of Faculty Members' Views of Women Chairs

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Carol; Griffin, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Concurrent with the evolving role of the department chair in academic medicine is the entry of women physicians into chair positions. Because implicit biases that stereotypically masculine behaviors are required for effective leadership remain strong, examining faculty members' perceptions of their chair's leadership in medical school departments with women chairs can provide insight into the views of women leaders in academic medicine and the complex ways in which gender may impact these chairs' leadership style and actions. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 male and 15 female faculty members representing all faculty tracks in three clinical departments chaired by women. Inductive, qualitative analysis of the subsequent text allowed themes to emerge across interviews. Results Four themes emerged regarding departmental leadership. One dealt with the leadership of the previous chair. The other three described the current chair's characteristics (tough, direct, and transparent), her use of communal actions to help support and mentor her faculty, and her ability to build power through consensus. Because all three chairs were early in their tenure, a wait and see attitude was frequently expressed. Faculty generally viewed having a woman chair as an indication of positive change, with potential individual and institutional advantages. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that the culture of academic medicine has moved beyond questioning women physicians' competence to lead once they are in top organizational leadership positions. The findings are also consonant with experimental research indicating that women leaders are most successful when they pair stereotypic male (agentic) behaviors with stereotypic female (communal) behaviors. All three chairs exhibited features of a transformational leadership style and characteristics deemed essential for effective leadership in academic medicine. PMID:20156081

  14. Turnover of First-Time Chairs in Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Peter F.; Rayburn, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine the tenure of first-time Chairs in academic departments of psychiatry in order to stimulate discussion on extant workforce and leadership issues. Method: Data on tenure of Chairs in psychiatry and other nonsurgical specialties were derived from the longitudinal database of the Association of American Medical Colleges…

  15. The Future Competencies of Department Chairs: A Human Resources Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Faye R.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study of department chairs, deans, and faculty at extensive research public universities in Florida resulted in the identification of 85 future competencies of department chairs using a human resources perspective. Results include a discussion of the top 20 most important competencies and the top 20 competencies anticipated to be…

  16. Effective Communication for Academic Chairs. SUNY Series in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Mark, III, Ed.; Stacks, Don W.

    This book presents 11 contributed papers which examine communication aspects of the department chair position in academia. It is noted that most academic department chairs are not trained in management skills, including communication strategies. After an introductory chapter by Christopher H. Spicer and Ann Q. Staton, the following papers are…

  17. The Strategic Value of Succession Planning for Department Chairs.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, William; Grigsby, Kevin; Brubaker, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Most faculty who aspire to be department chairs are unaware of succession processes at their institution. This Commentary highlights the importance of succession planning, emphasizing the general need for transparency. Succession planning provides institutional leaders the opportunity to optimize, renew, and revitalize their organization by ensuring successful leadership transitions. In contrast to leadership pathways in the military, corporate business, and hospital administration, planned succession of medical school department chairs has received little attention. Different approaches to succession planning are essential for emergency and planned transitions. Emergency succession plans should be in place at all times, regularly revisited, and modified as needed. Department chairs should begin considering their planned succession between one and five years after their initial appointment. The succession discussion between a chair and medical school dean requires cautious, thoughtful, and open discussions. Intradepartmental annual faculty performance evaluations permit the chair to mentor potential successors in acquiring future-oriented, institution-based leadership qualities necessary to be considered for a future department chair position. If health and time permit, the successful chair should remain in his or her current position until a successor is named or, preferably, is in place. Appointment of an interim chair as part of succession planning can be useful for on-the-job training of an internal candidate, yet awkwardness might ensue if there is more than one internal candidate.Succession development offers the great advantage of maintaining smooth organizational performance while optimizing talent management and exploring opportunities for transitioning individuals into leadership roles.

  18. Reflections in the Rearview Mirror of a Departing Board Chair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Prisco, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This article shares reflections in the rearview mirror of a departing board chair. The author has served seven years as board chair of Redwood Day School (California). As he departs, he figures out a few things that might be worth sharing. The author shares his responses to some Frequently Unasked Questions.

  19. Challenges and Opportunities in Chairing Multi-Disciplinary Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerwin-Vaca, MaryAnn

    Departmental chairs at community colleges must administer, coordinate, and direct all of the activities within a given department, a responsibility which becomes more difficult for chairs of multi-disciplinary departments (MDD's). To deal with these additional responsibilities, MDD administrators must have special leadership skills. They must be…

  20. FIRO B: Analyzing Community College Department Chairs' Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Linda T.; And Others

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship between the interpersonal behavior of community college department chairs and the assessment of their leadership effectiveness by department faculty. The study population consisted of 30 humanities and social science chairs at 15 Mississippi community colleges, as well as 171 faculty members at the…

  1. Department Chairs' Perceptions of the Importance of Business Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardrope, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Determines business department chairs' ratings of topics typically covered in the business communication course. Indicates that department chairs perceive writing skills to be more important to business communication courses than other communication skills, such as speaking, technology-mediated communication, interpersonal communication,…

  2. The Hot Seat: Profiling the Marketing Department Chair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Praveen; Rochford, Linda; Vaidyanathan, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    The chair of the marketing department serves a critical role in balancing the needs of the university with those of the faculty. Because most department chairs are drawn from the faculty in their departments, the administrative role they take on conflicts with their desire to maintain their academic roles as teacher and researcher. Although there…

  3. The Strategic Value of Succession Planning for Department Chairs.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, William; Grigsby, Kevin; Brubaker, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Most faculty who aspire to be department chairs are unaware of succession processes at their institution. This Commentary highlights the importance of succession planning, emphasizing the general need for transparency. Succession planning provides institutional leaders the opportunity to optimize, renew, and revitalize their organization by ensuring successful leadership transitions. In contrast to leadership pathways in the military, corporate business, and hospital administration, planned succession of medical school department chairs has received little attention. Different approaches to succession planning are essential for emergency and planned transitions. Emergency succession plans should be in place at all times, regularly revisited, and modified as needed. Department chairs should begin considering their planned succession between one and five years after their initial appointment. The succession discussion between a chair and medical school dean requires cautious, thoughtful, and open discussions. Intradepartmental annual faculty performance evaluations permit the chair to mentor potential successors in acquiring future-oriented, institution-based leadership qualities necessary to be considered for a future department chair position. If health and time permit, the successful chair should remain in his or her current position until a successor is named or, preferably, is in place. Appointment of an interim chair as part of succession planning can be useful for on-the-job training of an internal candidate, yet awkwardness might ensue if there is more than one internal candidate.Succession development offers the great advantage of maintaining smooth organizational performance while optimizing talent management and exploring opportunities for transitioning individuals into leadership roles. PMID:26556290

  4. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Thomas, Charles R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  5. Council and Committee Chairs meet in San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Council members met twice during the Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.—on Sunday at the Council Forum and on Friday at the biennial business meeting.The Forum gives Council members and Focus Group chairs an opportunity to have in-depth discussions of items that are on the agenda for the business meeting and to hear reports from various committee chairs.Francis Albarede, Publications Committee chair, noted some of the challenges facing the program,such as the potential for government-mandated open access of some journal articles and preparing for the demise of print.

  6. Conformational analysis of cyclic sulphites. Twist conformations in 5-chloro 2-oxo 1,3,2-dioxathianes as evidenced by i.r., 1H NMR, dipole moments and X-ray diffraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazaux, Louis; Chassaing, Gérard; Maroni, Pierre

    The possible use of the SO stretching vibration as a conformational probe for the conformational analysis of six-membered cyclic sulphites has been shown on nine 5-chloro sulphites. Ananchomeric 2,5-axis twist forms have been demonstrated for five tert-butylated 5-chloro sulphites and conformational equilibria with 2,5- (and 1,4-) axis twist form participation for three dimethylated and one tert-butylated derivatives. Conformational ACl and ASO energies were deduced from chair forms and the weak free energy difference between chair and twist forms was confirmed.

  7. Cyclo-biphenalenyl biradicaloid molecular materials: conformation, rearrangement, magnetism, and thermochromism

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Tian, Yong-Hui; Kertesz, Prof. Miklos

    2010-01-01

    Cyclo-biphenalenyl biradicaloid molecular materials with chair- and boat-conformations are studied by restricted and broken-symmetry DFT using the M06 family of meta-GGA functionals. The global minima of these molecular materials are magnetically silent due to the sigma-bond connecting the two phenalenyls, while the sigma-bond may undergo low-barrier sigmatropic rearrangements via pi-pi bonded paramagnetic intermediates. The validation of theory is performed for the chair-conformation by comparing the sigma-bonded structures and the rearrangement barriers with experimental data. The boat-conformation is then studied using the validated functional. The electronic spectra of both chair- and boat-conformations are calculated and their applications in thermochromism are discussed.

  8. "Piekara's Chair": Mechanical Model for Atomic Energy Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golab-Meyer, Zofia

    1991-01-01

    Uses the teaching method of models or analogies, specifically the model called "Piekara's chair," to show how teaching classical mechanics can familiarize students with the notion of energy levels in atomic physics. (MDH)

  9. Remaking the Graduate Curriculum: The Chair as Pragmatic Reformer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a practical approach to curricular revision from the point of view of a English department chair who presided over the remaking of the graduate curriculum and the hiring of new faculty. (RS)

  10. 39. BUILTIN WALNUT DESK AND ANTIQUE TUSCAN CHAIR IN NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. BUILT-IN WALNUT DESK AND ANTIQUE TUSCAN CHAIR IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF ENTRANCE FOYER WITH SUPPLEMENTAL FLASH ILLUMINATION. - Fallingwater, State Route 381 (Stewart Township), Ohiopyle, Fayette County, PA

  11. 82. REGENTS' ROOM WEST WALL, WITH ORIGINAL CHAIRS BY JAMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. REGENTS' ROOM WEST WALL, WITH ORIGINAL CHAIRS BY JAMES RENWICK, JR. MANTELPIECE AND MIRROR ARE NOT ORIGINAL TO THE ROOM. - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 32. DETAIL OF BOARD ROOM CHAIR WITH SILVER PLATE LISTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF BOARD ROOM CHAIR WITH SILVER PLATE LISTING NAMES AND DATES OF PAST OCCUPANTS AND PLATE WITH NAME OF CURRENT OCCUPANT - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, Twelfth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Cyclo-biphenalenyl biradicaloid molecular materials: conformation, tautomerization, magnetism, and thermochromism

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Tian, Yong-Hui; Kertesz, Prof. Miklos

    2011-01-01

    Phenalenyl and its derivatives have recently attracted a great deal of interest as a result of a 2-electron multicenter (2e/mc) covalent pi-pi bonding between two pi-stacked phenalenyl units. The 2e/mc bonded pi-dimers are close in energy to the sigma-dimers of phenalenyl and therefore fickle properties may emerge from bond fluctuation, yielding smart pi-functional materials. Here we examine the valence tautomerization of two cyclo-biphenalenyl biradicaloid molecular materials with chair- and boat-conformations by spin-restricted (R) and unrestricted (U) DFT using the M06 and B3LYP functionals. We found that the chair-conformation involves a 2e/4c pi-pi bonded structure while the boat-conformation involves a 2e/12c pi-pi bonded structure on their potential energy surfaces. The global minimum for the chair-conformation is the sigma-bonded structure while it is the pi-pi bonded structure for the boat-conformation. The chair-conformation exhibits a stepwise [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, and calculations predict a negligible paramagnetic susceptibility near room temperature. In comparison, the paramagnetism of the boat-conformation should be observable by SQUID and/or ESR. According to the difference of the global minima of the two conformations and the parameterized UV-Vis calculations, the color of the chair-conformation is expected to become darker while that of the boat-conformation become lighter with increasing temperature.

  14. Ring A conformation of aconine and pseudaconine in CDCl3.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hong-Ying; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Wang, Feng-Peng

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of intensive interpretation of the 1H NMR spectroscopic data, the ring A conformation of aconine (1) was speculated as twist boat in CDCl3, and as chair or twist boat in acetone-d6 and pyridine-d5. The ring A of pseudaconine (2) adopts the chair conformation in CDCl3, acetone-d6, and pyridine-ds. Accordingly, the boat conformation of ring A in these two diterpenoid alkaloids in CDCl3 reported in the literature [1] should be revised. The difference in 13C NMR data for the same compound (1 or 2) in two different solvents (CDCl3, pyridine-d5) can be attributed to solvent effects.

  15. Influence of Chair Vibrations on Indoor Sonic Boom Annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob; Loubeau, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    One goal of NASA’s Commercial Supersonic Technology Project is to identify candidate noise metrics suitable for regulating quiet sonic boom aircraft. A suitable metric must consider the short duration and pronounced low frequency content of sonic booms. For indoor listeners, rattle and creaking sounds and floor and chair vibrations may also be important. The current study examined the effect of such vibrations on the annoyance of test subjects seated indoors. The study involved two chairs exposed to nearly identical acoustic levels: one placed directly on the floor, and the other isolated from floor vibrations by pneumatic elastomeric mounts. All subjects experienced both chairs, sitting in one chair for the first half of the experiment and the other chair for the remaining half. Each half of the experiment consisted of 80 impulsive noises played at the exterior of the sonic boom simulator. When all annoyance ratings were analyzed together there appeared to be no difference in mean annoyance with isolation condition. When the apparent effect of transfer bias was removed, a subtle but measurable effect of vibration on annoyance was identified.

  16. Influence of chair vibrations on indoor sonic boom annoyance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob; Loubeau, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    One goal of NASA's Commercial Supersonic Technology Project is to identify candidate noise metrics suitable for regulating quiet sonic boom aircraft. A suitable metric must consider the short duration and pronounced low frequency content of sonic booms. For indoor listeners, rattle and creaking sounds and floor and chair vibrations may also be important. The current study examined the effect of such vibrations on the annoyance of test subjects seated indoors. The study involved two chairs exposed to nearly identical acoustic levels: one placed directly on the floor, and the other isolated from floor vibrations by pneumatic elastomeric mounts. All subjects experienced both chairs, sitting in one chair for the first half of the experiment and the other chair for the remaining half. Each half of the experiment consisted of 80 impulsive noises played at the exterior of the sonic boom simulator. When all annoyance ratings were analyzed together there appeared to be no difference in mean annoyance with isolation condition. When the apparent effect of transfer bias was removed, a subtle but measurable effect of vibration on annoyance was identified.

  17. Conformable seal

    DOEpatents

    Neef, W.S.; Lambert, D.R.

    1982-08-10

    Sealing apparatus and method, comprising first and second surfaces or membranes, at least one of which surfaces is deformable, placed in proximity to one another. Urging means cause these surfaces to contact one another in a manner such that the deformable surface deforms to conform to the geometry of the other surface, thereby creating a seal. The seal is capable of undergoing multiple cycles of sealing and unsealing.

  18. Jaczko to resign as chair of Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-05-01

    Gregory Jaczko, chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), announced on 21 May that he will resign once his successor is appointed. His resignation will end a stormy 3-year chairmanship during which he was accused of bullying NRC staff, lying to Congress, and being too close to the political process. Jaczko formerly served as science advisor to Sen. Harry Reid (D-Nev.). As NRC chair, Jaczko halted the commission's license application review for storing nuclear waste at Nevada's Yucca Mountain. In addition, during his NRC tenure the commission focused on identifying and implementing lessons from Japan's Fukushima Daiichi reactors damaged by the 2011 tsunami.

  19. Patients' choice of portable folding chairs to reduce symptoms of orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, A. A.; Wieling, W.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; van Emmerik-Levelt, H. M.; Low, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension may use portable folding chairs to prevent or reduce symptoms of low blood pressure. However, a concomitant movement disorder may limit the use of these chairs in daily living. In this prospective study, 13 patients with orthostatic hypotension, balance disturbance associated with motor disability, or both examined three commercially available portable folding chairs. A questionnaire was used to document the characteristics in chair design that were relevant for satisfactory use to these patients. Armrests, seat width, and an adjustable sitting height were found to be important features of a portable folding chair. One chair was selected by 11 of 13 patients to fit most needs.

  20. Development of Leadership Skills in Community College Department Chairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirkis, Jocelyn Eager

    2011-01-01

    The role of a community college department chairperson is not well defined and the job is often perceived as more of a burden than an honor. Faculty come to the position frequently by "default" and without a ready set of management and leadership skills. The matter is of concern since chairs influence academic department strategy, culture, and…

  1. Chairs, Cars, and Bridges: Teaching Aesthetics from the Everyday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zande, Robin Vande

    2007-01-01

    It is very typical for students in K-12 art education to study aesthetics based on artistic objects. Artistic objects, however, need not be the sole source for aesthetic investigation. In this article, the author discusses the use of designed objects such as chairs, cars, and bridges in the discussion of aesthetic concepts. Students, as consumers…

  2. 7 CFR 1900.6 - Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under 7 CFR part 1951, subpart S; (b) The responsibility for making and directing the making of loan... servicing rights and pre-acceleration homestead and preservation loan servicing rights under 7 CFR part 1951... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force. 1900.6...

  3. The Role of the Modern English Department Chair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Joseph M.; Olson, Gary A.

    To determine how deans as a group perceive the role of the English department chair, a study surveyed the deans of Arts and Sciences of 350 randomly selected universities with enrollments over 10,000 students (with a 51% response rate). The questionnaire solicited data about the tasks and qualities of chairmanship, referring both to specific…

  4. Chairing and Caring: Gendered Dimensions of Leadership in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This article uses three frames of analysis, each with gendered implications, to interpret the author's narrative of experience as a department chair (head of department) in a Canadian university from 1999 to 2002. The narrative is based not only on memory but on transcripts of interviews conducted with the author at various points during her term…

  5. Managing People: A Guide for Department Chairs and Deans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaming, Deryl R., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays by experienced department chairs, deans, and vice-presidents. Each essay discusses a different aspect of people management in higher education, explaining the issues and offering suggestions and resources. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Yourself" (Deryl R. Leaming); (2) "Understanding and Communicating…

  6. Competency Assessment and Human Resource Management of County Extension Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, James R.

    The purpose of this descriptive and correlational study was to examine perceptions of Ohio State University Extension county chairs regarding their human resource management competencies and performance of human resource management activities. The study also sought to describe the relationship between human resource management competencies and…

  7. Bourdieu, Department Chairs and the Reform of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Wayne; Hardy, Ian; Bartley, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Using the insights of the French sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu, this article considers the role of the science department chair in the reform of school science education. Using Bourdieu's "thinking tools" of "field", "habitus" and "capital", we case study the work of two teachers who both actively pursue the teaching and learning of science as…

  8. The analytic setting today: using the couch or the chair?

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This paper re-visits Murray Jackson's 1961 paper in the Journal of Analytical Psychology, 'Chair, couch and countertransference', with the aim of exploring the role of the couch for Jungian analysts in clinical practice today. Within the Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP) and some other London-based societies, there has been an evolution of practice from face-to-face sessions with the patient in the chair, as was Jung's preference, to a mode of practice where patients use the couch with the analyst sitting to the side rather than behind, as has been the tradition in psychoanalysis. Fordham was the founding member of the SAP and it was because of his liaison with psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts that this cultural shift came about. Using clinical examples, the author explores the couch/chair question in terms of her own practice and the internal setting as a structure in her mind. With reference to Bleger's (2013) paper 'Psychoanalysis of the psychoanalytic setting', the author discusses how the analytic setting, including use of the couch or the chair, can act as a silent container for the most primitive aspects of the patient's psyche which will only emerge in analysis when the setting changes or is breached.

  9. The analytic setting today: using the couch or the chair?

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This paper re-visits Murray Jackson's 1961 paper in the Journal of Analytical Psychology, 'Chair, couch and countertransference', with the aim of exploring the role of the couch for Jungian analysts in clinical practice today. Within the Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP) and some other London-based societies, there has been an evolution of practice from face-to-face sessions with the patient in the chair, as was Jung's preference, to a mode of practice where patients use the couch with the analyst sitting to the side rather than behind, as has been the tradition in psychoanalysis. Fordham was the founding member of the SAP and it was because of his liaison with psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts that this cultural shift came about. Using clinical examples, the author explores the couch/chair question in terms of her own practice and the internal setting as a structure in her mind. With reference to Bleger's (2013) paper 'Psychoanalysis of the psychoanalytic setting', the author discusses how the analytic setting, including use of the couch or the chair, can act as a silent container for the most primitive aspects of the patient's psyche which will only emerge in analysis when the setting changes or is breached. PMID:26274847

  10. 21 CFR 890.3110 - Electric positioning chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electric positioning chair. 890.3110 Section 890.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3110...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3110 - Electric positioning chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric positioning chair. 890.3110 Section 890.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3110...

  12. 21 CFR 890.3110 - Electric positioning chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric positioning chair. 890.3110 Section 890.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3110...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3110 - Electric positioning chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric positioning chair. 890.3110 Section 890.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3110...

  14. 21 CFR 890.3110 - Electric positioning chair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric positioning chair. 890.3110 Section 890.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3110...

  15. 30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. OPERATORS' CHAIR AND COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT RACK AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE WITH CAPTAIN JAMES L. KING, JR. IN CENTER. LIEUTENANT KEVIN R. MCCLUNEY IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  16. The importance of polarizability: comparison of models of carbon disulphide in the ionic liquids [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2].

    PubMed

    Lynden-Bell, Ruth M; Quitevis, Edward L

    2016-06-28

    The local environment of CS2 and in solution in two ionic liquids ([C1C1im][NTf2] and [C4C1im][NTf2]) are investigated by atomistic simulation and compared with that in neat CS2. The intermolecular vibrational densities of states of CS2 are calculated and compared with experimental OHD-RIKES spectra. The fair agreement of the results from solutions but poor agreement of the results from neat CS2 suggest that while collective effects are unimportant in solutions, they have a major effect on the OHD-RIKES spectrum of neat CS2. Comparing polarizable and unpolarizable models for CS2 emphasizes the importance of polarizability in determining local structure.

  17. Human Research Program 2010 Chair Standing Review Panel Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The 13 Human Research Program (HRP) Standing Review Panel (SRP) Chairs, and in some cases one or two additional panel members (see section XIV, roster) referred to as the Chair (+1) SRP throughout this document, met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 7, 2010 to allow the HRP Elements and Projects to report on their progress over the past year, their current status, and their plans for the upcoming year based on NASA's current goals and objectives for human space exploration. A large focus of the meeting was also used to discuss integration across the HRP scientific disciplines based on a recommendation from the 2009 HRP SRP review. During the one-day meeting, each of the HRP Elements and Projects presented the changes they made to the HRP Integrated Research Plan (IRP Rev. B) over the last year, and what their top three areas of integration are between other HRP Elements/Projects. The Chair (+1) SRP spent sufficient time addressing the panel charge, either as a group or in a separate closed session, and the Chair (+1) SRP and the HRP presenters and observers, in most cases, had sufficient time to discuss during and after the presentations. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, prior to the close of the meeting on December 7, 2010. Overall, the Chair (+1) SRP concluded that most of the HRP Elements/Projects did a commendable job during the past year in addressing integration across the HRP scientific disciplines with the available resources. The Chair (+1) SRP agreed that the idea of integration between HRP Elements/Projects is noble, but believes all parties involved should have the same definition of integration, in order to be successful. The Chair (+1) SRP also believes that a key to successful integration is communication among the HRP Elements/Projects which may present a challenge. The Chair (+1) SRP recommends that the HRP have a workshop on program integration (with HRP Element

  18. TOWER 1 IN CENTER,REPLACEMENT MODEL SINGLE CHAIR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER 1 IN CENTER,REPLACEMENT MODEL SINGLE CHAIR IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST UP THE LIFT LINE. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  19. Decision-Making Styles of Department Chairs at Public Jordanian Universities: A High-Expectancy Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Alomari, Aiman; Abu-tineh, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the decision-making styles of department chairs employed by three public institutions in Jordan. A total of 95 department chairs participated in the study by completing the General Decision-Making Styles survey. The results indicated that department chairs under study have the rational…

  20. A Comparison of Department Chair Tasks in Australia and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi; Gmelch, Walter H.; Wolverton, Marvin L.; Sarros, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Compares how academic department chairs at colleges and universities in Australia and the U.S. define their tasks. Major differences noted include the propensity of U.S. chairs to think of soliciting ideas for departmental improvement as a long-term endeavor, whereas Australian chairs perceive of idea solicitation as an administrative task, and…

  1. Department Chair Advice on Teaching and Research at U.S. Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Gabel

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a 2010 survey of academic chairs, this study reports on academic department chairs' recommended time allocations to new assistant professors. I contend that personal values about research and teaching influence the department chair's recommendations along with organizational characteristics. Multi-level modeling indicates that…

  2. A Case Study of Select Illinois Community College Board Chair Perspective on Their Leadership Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, John

    2003-01-01

    Examines the leadership perspective of three community college board chairs that were examined in a three part study using qualitative data. Themes of facilitation, communication, information, participation, expectation, and collaboration emerged from the data. Author summarizes the chair's perspective and offers a guide to board chair leadership.…

  3. Musical Chairs: An Innovative Teaching and Learning Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ya-Hui

    2010-01-01

    How teaching and learning takes place in classrooms can be easily seen by the way classrooms are set up: Students' desks and chairs are arranged in rolls while teachers' desks are up front. Yet, why must teachers be the ones who lecture, why can't it be students? Would it be better or worse when teachers are the receivers and the students are the…

  4. Bourdieu, Department Chairs and the Reform of Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, Wayne; Hardy, Ian; Bartley, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    Using the insights of the French sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu, this article considers the role of the science department chair in the reform of school science education. Using Bourdieu's 'thinking tools' of 'field', 'habitus' and 'capital', we case study the work of two teachers who both actively pursue the teaching and learning of science as inquiry. One teacher, Dan, has been a department chair since 2000, and has actively encouraged his department to embrace science as inquiry. The other teacher, Leslie, worked for one year in Dan's department before being transferred to another school where science teaching continues to be more traditional. Our work suggests that there are three crucial considerations for chairs seeking to lead the reform of science teaching within their department. The first of these is the development of a reform-minded habitus, as this appears to be foundational to the capital that can be expended in the leadership of reform. The second is an understanding of how to wield power and position in the promotion of reform. The third is the capacity to operate simultaneously and strategically within, and across, two fields; the departmental field and the larger science education field. This involves downplaying administrative logics, and foregrounding more inquiry-focused logics as a vehicle to challenge traditional science-teaching dispositions-the latter being typically dominated by concerns about curriculum 'coverage'.

  5. Analysis of sitting forces on stationary chairs for daily activities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingling; Tackett, Bob; Tor, Onder; Zhang, Jilei

    2016-04-01

    No literature related to the study of sitting forces on chairs sat on by people who weighed over 136 kg was found. The Business Institutional Furniture Manufactures Association needs force data for development of performance test standards to test chairs for users who weigh up to 181 kg. 20 participants who weighed from 136 to 186 kg completed 6 tasks on an instrumented chair in the sequence of sitting down, remaining seated and rising. Effects of sitting motion, armrest use and seat cushion thickness on vertical sitting forces and centre-of-force were investigated. Results indicated hard sitting down yielded the highest sitting force of 213% in terms of participants' body weights. Armrest use affected sitting forces of normal sitting down, but not of rising and hard sitting down. Cushion thickness affected sitting forces of normal and hard sitting down and shifting, but not of rising, static seating or stretching backward situations. Practitioner Summary: Results of the sitting force and centre-of-force data obtained for this research can help furniture manufacturers develop new product performance test standards for creating reliable engineering design and manufacturing quality and durable products to meet a niche market need. PMID:26257071

  6. Analysis of sitting forces on stationary chairs for daily activities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingling; Tackett, Bob; Tor, Onder; Zhang, Jilei

    2016-04-01

    No literature related to the study of sitting forces on chairs sat on by people who weighed over 136 kg was found. The Business Institutional Furniture Manufactures Association needs force data for development of performance test standards to test chairs for users who weigh up to 181 kg. 20 participants who weighed from 136 to 186 kg completed 6 tasks on an instrumented chair in the sequence of sitting down, remaining seated and rising. Effects of sitting motion, armrest use and seat cushion thickness on vertical sitting forces and centre-of-force were investigated. Results indicated hard sitting down yielded the highest sitting force of 213% in terms of participants' body weights. Armrest use affected sitting forces of normal sitting down, but not of rising and hard sitting down. Cushion thickness affected sitting forces of normal and hard sitting down and shifting, but not of rising, static seating or stretching backward situations. Practitioner Summary: Results of the sitting force and centre-of-force data obtained for this research can help furniture manufacturers develop new product performance test standards for creating reliable engineering design and manufacturing quality and durable products to meet a niche market need.

  7. AACP Strategy for Addressing the Professional Development Needs of Department Chairs

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Tobias E.; Weinstein, George; Sorofman, Bernard A.; Bosso, John A.; Kerr, Robert A.; Haden, N. Karl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Characterize the skills and abilities required for department chairs, identify development needs, and then create AACP professional development programs for chairs. Methods. A 30-question electronic survey was sent to AACP member department chairs related to aspects of chairing an academic department. Results. The survey identified development needs in the leadership, management, and personal abilities required for effective performance as department chair. The information was used to prioritize topics for subsequent AACP development programs. Subsequent programs conducted at AACP Interim and Annual Meetings were well attended and generally received favorable reviews from participants. A list of development resources was placed on the AACP website. Conclusions. This ongoing initiative is part of an AACP strategy to identify and address the professional development needs of department chairs. Survey results may also inform faculty members and other academic leaders about the roles and responsibilities of department chairs. PMID:22919099

  8. The Department Chair as Academic Leader. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Irene W. D.; Higgerson, Mary Lou; Gmelch, Walter H.; Tucker, Allan

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to the role of the academic department chair in a time when the chair's role is rapidly becoming more important and more complex. Part 1 describes the new roles chairs face, followed by a general discussion of their responsibilities. Part 2 is concerned with the department chair's work with people,…

  9. Cox’s Chair Revisited: Can Spinning Alter Mood States?

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Lotta; Wollmer, M. Axel; Laurens, Jean; Straumann, Dominik; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is clinical and historical evidence for a vivid relation between the vestibular and emotional systems, the neuroscientific underpinnings are poorly understood. The “spin doctors” of the nineteenth century used spinning chairs (e.g., Cox’s chair) to treat conditions of mania or elevated arousal. On the basis of a recent study on a hexapod motion-simulator, in this prototypic investigation we explore the impact of yaw stimulation on a spinning chair on mood states. Using a controlled experimental stimulation paradigm on a unique 3-D-turntable at the University of Zurich we included 11 healthy subjects and assessed parameters of mood states and autonomic nervous system activity. The Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) were used to assess changes of mood in response to a 100 s yaw stimulation. In addition heart rate was continuously monitored during the experiment. Subjects indicated feeling less “good,” “relaxed,” “comfortable,” and “calm” and reported an increased alertness after vestibular stimulation. However, there were no objective adverse effects of the stimulation. Accordingly, heart rate did not significantly differ in response to the stimulation. This is the first study in a highly controlled setting using the historical approach of stimulating the vestibular system to impact mood states. It demonstrates a specific interaction between the vestibular system and mood states and thereby supports recent experimental findings with a different stimulation technique. These results may inspire future research on the clinical potential of this method. PMID:24133463

  10. Conformal operators in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Makeenko, Y.M.

    1981-03-01

    Utilizing the properties of the representations of the conformal group, we obtain new expressions for the conformal operators composed of spinor or scalar fields of arbitrary dimension in terms of Jacobi polynomials. These expressions generalize the known formulas in terms of Gegenbauer polynomials. Using the conformal Ward identities, we prove the multiplicative renormalizability of conformal operators in the leading logarithmic approximation.

  11. A competency-based approach to recruiting, developing, and giving feedback to department chairs.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Megan; Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista; Walvoord, Emily; Bogdewic, Stephen P; Dankoski, Mary E

    2015-04-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) are under unprecedented pressure, making strong leadership during these challenging times critical. Department chairs have tremendous influence in their AHCs, yet data indicate that--despite outstanding academic credentials--they are often underprepared to take on these important leadership roles. The authors sought to improve the approach to recruiting, developing, and giving feedback to department chairs at their institution, the Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM), by reorganizing these processes around six key leadership competencies: leadership and team development, performance and talent management, vision and strategic planning, emotional intelligence, communication skills, and commitment to the tripartite mission. Over a two-year period (2009-2011), IUSM faculty and administrators developed standardized recruitment procedures to assess potential chairs based on the six leadership domains, and searches are now streamlined through centralized staff support in the dean's office. Additionally, IUSM offers a chair development series to support learning around these leadership competencies and to meet the stated professional development needs of the chairs. Finally, chairs receive structured feedback regarding their leadership (among other considerations) through two different assessment instruments, IUSM's Department Chair 360° Leadership Survey and IUSM's Faculty Vitality Survey--both of which the dean reviews annually. Strategically attending to the way that chairs are selected, developed, and given feedback has tremendous potential to increase the success of chairs and, in turn, to constructively shape the culture of AHCs. PMID:25607939

  12. Effects of dynamic office chairs on trunk kinematics, trunk extensor EMG and spinal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    van Dieën, J H; de Looze, M P; Hermans, V

    2001-06-10

    Seated work has been shown to constitute a risk factor for low-back pain. This is attributed to the prolonged and monotonous low-level mechanical load imposed by a seated posture. To evaluate the potential health effects with respect to the low back of office chairs with a movable seat and back rest, trunk kinematics, erector spinae EMG, spinal shrinkage and local discomfort were assessed in 10 subjects performing simulated office work. On three separate occasions subjects performed a 3 h task consisting of word processing, computer-aided design and reading. Three chairs were used, one with a fixed seat and back rest and two dynamic chairs, one with a seat and back rest movable in a fixed ratio with respect to each other, and one with a freely movable seat and back rest. Spinal shrinkage measurements showed a larger stature gain when working on the two dynamic chairs as compared with working on the chair with fixed seat and back rest. Trunk kinematics and erector spinae EMG were strongly affected by the task performed but not by the chair type. The results imply that dynamic office chairs offer a potential advantage over fixed chairs, but the effects of the task on the indicators of trunk load investigated were more pronounced than the effects of the chair.

  13. Executive onboarding: ensuring the success of the newly hired department chair.

    PubMed

    Ross, Warren E; Huang, Karen H C; Jones, Greg H

    2014-05-01

    The success of newly recruited medical school department chairs has become increasingly important for achievement of organizational goals. An effective onboarding program for these chairs can greatly facilitate early success, as well as satisfaction of the new hire with the position and the school. Onboarding programs can include traditional orientation items such as payroll signup and parking details, but should focus heavily on sharing organizational structure, culture, and how things get done. The goals of onboarding will be well served by implementation of three roles in the process. An Orientation Navigator can assist the new chair in the orientation phase, completing new employee documents and navigating the day-to-day challenges of working at the location. A Peer Mentor, generally a sitting chair, serves as both "buddy" and mentor, providing moral support as well as ensuring that the new chair gains an understanding of the people and processes important for getting things done. A Transition Mentor serves over a longer term as a sounding board and coach outside the peer group, assisting in a variety of ways to promote the chair's growth, development, and success as a leader. Finally, any onboarding process is significantly compromised without the active participation of the dean, meeting regularly with the chair to clarify expectations, promote assimilation, and solve problems. Successful onboarding begins with a mindfulness of the needs of the newly hired chair, and a well-designed and well-implemented plan will have wide-ranging benefits for the chair and the organization. PMID:24667516

  14. A competency-based approach to recruiting, developing, and giving feedback to department chairs.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Megan; Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista; Walvoord, Emily; Bogdewic, Stephen P; Dankoski, Mary E

    2015-04-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) are under unprecedented pressure, making strong leadership during these challenging times critical. Department chairs have tremendous influence in their AHCs, yet data indicate that--despite outstanding academic credentials--they are often underprepared to take on these important leadership roles. The authors sought to improve the approach to recruiting, developing, and giving feedback to department chairs at their institution, the Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM), by reorganizing these processes around six key leadership competencies: leadership and team development, performance and talent management, vision and strategic planning, emotional intelligence, communication skills, and commitment to the tripartite mission. Over a two-year period (2009-2011), IUSM faculty and administrators developed standardized recruitment procedures to assess potential chairs based on the six leadership domains, and searches are now streamlined through centralized staff support in the dean's office. Additionally, IUSM offers a chair development series to support learning around these leadership competencies and to meet the stated professional development needs of the chairs. Finally, chairs receive structured feedback regarding their leadership (among other considerations) through two different assessment instruments, IUSM's Department Chair 360° Leadership Survey and IUSM's Faculty Vitality Survey--both of which the dean reviews annually. Strategically attending to the way that chairs are selected, developed, and given feedback has tremendous potential to increase the success of chairs and, in turn, to constructively shape the culture of AHCs.

  15. Interpreting medium ring canonical conformers by a triangular plane tessellation of the macrocycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Pegah; Barnett, Christopher B.; Naidoo, Kevin J.

    2013-05-01

    Cyclic conformational coordinates are essential for the distinction of molecular ring conformers as the use of Cremer-Pople coordinates have illustrated for five- and six-membered rings. Here, by tessellating medium rings into triangular planes and using the relative angles made between triangular planes we are able to assign macrocyclic pucker conformations into canonical pucker conformers such as chairs, boats, etc. We show that the definition is straightforward compared with other methods popularly used for small rings and that it is computationally simple to implement for complex macrocyclic rings. These cyclic conformational coordinates directly couple to the motion of individual nodes of a ring. Therefore, they are useful for correlating the physical properties of macrocycles with their ring pucker and measuring the dynamic ring conformational behavior. We illustrate the triangular tessellation, assignment, and pucker analysis on 7- and 8-membered rings. Sets of canonical states are given for cycloheptane and cyclooctane that have been previously experimentally analysed.

  16. Conformational analysis of cyclic sulphites. 2-Oxo 1,3,2-dioxathiane-4-spiro-4- tert-butyl-cyclohexanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazaux, Louis; Koudsi, Yahia; Maroni, Pierre

    Three series of 4-spirosulphites, a new class of cyclic sulphites, were synthesized and five couples of diastereoisomers isolated. Their structural analysis, using 1H NMR coupling constants and SO stretching vibration as conformational probes, shows a large variety of ananchomeric chair forms and multicomponent equilibria for the cyclic sulphite moiety, the cyclohexane part of the molecule remaining in the chair form. Related to the occurrence of severe interactions involving the 5-methyl or 6- tert. butyl substituent, several twist forms were encountered, with 2,5-axis and isoclinal SO or 1,4-axis and axial or equatorial SO as a consequence of the weak free energy difference between chair and twist conformations in the cyclic sulphite series.

  17. Pyranose sulfamates: conformation and hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, Maciej; Codding, Penelope W.; Litster, Stephen A.; Szkaradziñska, Maria B.; Bassyouni, Hanan A. R.

    1999-01-01

    The crystal structure of a new anticonvulsant drug, topiramate — 2,3:4,5-bis- O-(1-methylethylidene)- β-D-fructopyranose sulfamate ( 1), together with those of three similar but biologically almost inactive sugar sulfamates: 4,5- O-cyclohexylidene-2,3- O-(1-methyl-ethylidene)- β-D-fructopyranose sulfamate ( 2), 2,3:- O-(1-methylethylidene)- β-D-fructo-pyranose sulfamate ( 3), and 1,2:3,4-bis- O-(1-methylethylidene)- α-D-galactopyranose sulfamate ( 4), have been determined by X-rays. The pyranose rings adopt distorted twist-boat 2S O conformations as a result of flattening of the chair conformation, observed in free pyranoses, by the fused five-membered ring(s). In 3 an unfavourable gauche-trans conformation about C1-C2 bond is observed. The active compound, topiramate ( 1), shows, in comparison with the other three compounds, a different disposition of nitrogen and oxygen atoms from the sulfamate group with respect to the O1-S1 bond. As a result, the nitrogen atom in 1 is ca. 1 Å farther from the O6 pyranose ring oxygen atom than in the other three compounds. This difference describes the mutual disposition of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of the molecule, and can be related to the difference in biological activity. In all compounds, hydrogen bonds connect molecules into three-dimensional networks; simple chains and more complicated rings are found and described using the graph set notation.

  18. Human Vestibular Function, Rotating Litter Chair - Skylab Experiment M131

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 photograph shows the Rotating Litter Chair, a major component of Skylab's Human Vestibular Function experiment (M131). The experiment was a set of medical studies designed to determine the effect of long-duration space missions on astronauts' coordination abilities. The M131 experiment tested the astronauts susceptibility to motion sickness in the Skylab environment, acquired data fundamental to an understanding of the functions of human gravity reception under prolonged absence of gravity, and tested for changes in the sensitivity of the semicircular canals. Data from this experiment was collected before, during, and after flight. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  19. American style or Turkish chair: the triumph of bodily comfort.

    PubMed

    Çevik, Gülen

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the reciprocal influence of Ottoman Turkish and American interiors in the development of seating furniture. Seating furniture is unique because it involves a direct and physical interaction between the piece of furniture and the body, while at the same time it is part of a public space where social interactions occur. I will argue that the interactions between the Ottoman Turks and Americans are reflected in the way these traditions modified their seating furniture as they sought to mediate cultural, political and social differences between them. The concept of bodily comfort will serve as a common thread in understanding the origin of the expression "American style" (Amerikan stili or Amerikan tarzı) in modern Turkish language, the "Turkish chairs" in Victorian America in the late nineteenth century and the English language use of words such as sofa, ottoman and divan.

  20. American style or Turkish chair: the triumph of bodily comfort.

    PubMed

    Çevik, Gülen

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the reciprocal influence of Ottoman Turkish and American interiors in the development of seating furniture. Seating furniture is unique because it involves a direct and physical interaction between the piece of furniture and the body, while at the same time it is part of a public space where social interactions occur. I will argue that the interactions between the Ottoman Turks and Americans are reflected in the way these traditions modified their seating furniture as they sought to mediate cultural, political and social differences between them. The concept of bodily comfort will serve as a common thread in understanding the origin of the expression "American style" (Amerikan stili or Amerikan tarzı) in modern Turkish language, the "Turkish chairs" in Victorian America in the late nineteenth century and the English language use of words such as sofa, ottoman and divan. PMID:21114093

  1. Airline chair-rest deconditioning: induction of immobilisation thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Rehrer, Nancy J.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Quach, David T.; Evans, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence haematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep venous thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accommodations (via sitting immobilisation); travellers' medical history (via tissue injury); cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity); and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalised patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilisation of prolonged air travel.In the healthy flying population, immobilisation factors associated with prolonged (>5 hours) C-RD such as total body dehydration, hypovolaemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced venous blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DVT, but factors such as a history of vascular thromboemboli, venous insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than three pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest or bed-rest deconditioning treatments cause DVT in healthy people.

  2. Airline Chair-rest Deconditioning: Induction of Immobilization Thromboemboli?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Rehrer, N. J.; Mohler, S. R.; Quach, D. T.; Evans, D. G.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Air passenger miles will likely double by year 2020. The altered and restrictive environment in an airliner cabin can influence hematological homeostasis in passengers and crew. Flight-related deep various thromboemboli (DVT) have been associated with at least 577 deaths on 42 of 120 airlines from 1977 to 1984 (25 deaths/million departures), whereas many such cases go unreported. However, there are four major factors that could influence formation of possible flight-induced DVT: sleeping accomodations (via sitting immobilization), travelers' medical history (via tissue injury), cabin environmental factors (via lower partial pressure of oxygen and lower relative humidity), and the more encompassing chair-rest deconditioning (C-RD) syndrome. There is ample evidence that recent injury and surgery (especially in deconditioned hospitalized patients) facilitate thrombophlebitis and formation of DVT that may be exacerbated by the immobilization of prolonged air travel. In the healthy flying population immobilization factors associated with prolonged (> 5 hr) C-RID such as total body dehydration, hypovolemia and increased blood viscosity, and reduced various blood flow (pooling) in the legs may facilitate formation of DVT. However, data from at least four case-controlled epidemiological studies did not confirm a direct causative relationship between air travel and DART, but factors such as history of vascular thromboemboli, various insufficiency, chronic heart failure, obesity, immobile standing position, more than 3 pregnancies, infectious disease, long-distance travel, muscular trauma and violent physical effort were significantly more frequent in DVT patients than in controls. Thus, there is no clear, direct evidence yet that prolonged sitting in airliner seats, or prolonged experimental chair-rest- or bed- rest-deconditioning treatments cause deep various thromboemboli in healthy people.

  3. Report of the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Congress (Organising Chair and Scientific Chair).

    PubMed

    A, Roohi Sharifah; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2016-10-01

    A report on the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for the Surgery of the Hand and 6(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Hand Therapists is submitted detailing the numbers of attendees participating, papers presented and support received as well the some of the challenges faced and how best to overcome them from the local conference chair and scientific chair point of view. PMID:27595972

  4. Report of the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Congress (Organising Chair and Scientific Chair).

    PubMed

    A, Roohi Sharifah; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2016-10-01

    A report on the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for the Surgery of the Hand and 6(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Hand Therapists is submitted detailing the numbers of attendees participating, papers presented and support received as well the some of the challenges faced and how best to overcome them from the local conference chair and scientific chair point of view.

  5. 29 CFR 4002.3 - Board of Directors, Chair, and Representatives of Board Members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Board of Directors, Chair, and Representatives of Board Members. 4002.3 Section 4002.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL BYLAWS OF THE PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION § 4002.3 Board of Directors, Chair, and Representatives of Board Members....

  6. The Body Language Behaviours of the Chairs of the Disputes According to the Disputants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Nihat

    2009-01-01

    The perception form of the body language behaviours of the session chairs by disputants affects the efficiency of the process. Therefore, it is important to determine the effects of the mimic, gesture, physical appearance and tonality and accent of the chairs on disputants. That research was conducted to clarify how the disputants perceive the…

  7. The Art of Chairing: What Deming Taught the Japanese and the Japanese Taught Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Laurel Rasplica

    2001-01-01

    Reveals how a business model--based on the work of W. Edwards Deming--helped a foreign language department chair become a better leader. Outlines seven principles for department chairs: create constancy of purpose; change and improvement are ongoing; drive out fear; work with suppliers to continually improve the quality of incoming people,…

  8. Preparing Department Chairs for Their Leadership Roles. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillet-Karam, Rosemary, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue focuses on preparing department chairs for their leadership roles. It presents qualities that experienced chairs cite as being crucial to success, and asserts the need to develop formal training programs for people newly appointed to these positions. Articles include: (1) "Midlevel Management in the Community College: A Rose Garden?"…

  9. The Chair and the New President: Getting the First Months Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Janet Morgan; Duelks, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Gettysburg College President Janet Morgan Riggs and Board Chair Robert N. Duelks are both members of the Gettysburg class of 1977, but did not know each other as students. As a member of the college's board of trustees, Duelks chaired the presidential search committee that selected Riggs as Gettysburg's 14th president in 2009. Then, one year after…

  10. Leadership Experiences and Characteristics of Chairs of Academic Departments of Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Samuel J.; Buckley, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Effective leadership in academic medicine requires a broad constellation of skills, experiences, and core values. The authors sought to describe and define these. Method: The authors conducted a web-based survey among 132 Chairs of North American departments of psychiatry. Results: Eighty-five Chairs (64%) responded to the survey, the…

  11. 76 FR 20651 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs (76 FR 17118). This notice announces the... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of open meeting. SUMMARY: On March 28, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-7243, on page 17118, the...

  12. Chair Perceptions of Trust between Mentor and Mentee in Online Doctoral Dissertation Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rademaker, Linnea L.; Duffy, Jennifer O'Connor; Wetzler, Elizabeth; Zaikina-Montgomery, Helen

    2016-01-01

    We explored online dissertation chairs' perceptions of trust in the mentor-mentee relationship, as trust was identified as a crucial factor in the success of doctoral students. Through the implementation of a multiple-case study, and a qualitative, online questionnaire, and through qualitative data analysis, we discovered 16 chairs' perceptions of…

  13. Administrative Challenges and Response Strategies to the Job Performance of Marketing Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Beverly G.; Miller, Michael T.

    This study reports on the job challenges and corresponding response strategies that department chairs at graduate and undergraduate colleges and universities encounter and rely upon. Literature and research related to marketing department chairs, marketing education, and marketing majors indicates that business schools have come under attack by…

  14. An Exploratory Study of Community College Department Chairs' Perspectives of Online Learning: Creating Sustainable Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This two-phase exploratory study examined department chairs' perspectives of online learning in a California community college district and examined if differences existed in This two-phase exploratory study examined department chairs' perspectives of online learning in a California community college district and examined if differences existed in…

  15. Curriculum Leadership Roles of Chairs in "Continuously Planning" Departments. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Joan S.; Briggs, Charlotte L.; Rowland-Poplawski, Jean

    This paper examines the role departmental chairs play in curriculum planning, who is chosen to lead the process, the behaviors used, and the complementary or conflicting roles played by other faculty members. Data for the analysis were drawn from interviews with 44 department chairs and 83 faculty in Carnegie classification institutions; these…

  16. Academic Leaders in Alabama Community Colleges: Roles and Tasks of Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, A. Dale; Miller, Michael T.

    This document describes the findings from a survey conducted to compare the middle-level managers, department, and unit chairs and heads in Alabama's two-year colleges with those identified in the National Community College Chair Academy Survey of 1994. In particular, the study was designed to note differences or similarities between the national…

  17. Dimensions of Leadership among Community College Health Career Program Department Chairs and Implications for Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platz-Wiechert, Lynn Marie

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in community colleges, the projected need for health career workers, and the central position of the department chair in higher education, this study explored dimensions of leadership as identified by health career department chairs in five Illinois community colleges. Areas of study included: (a) professional profiles of health…

  18. DOE Chair of Excellence Professorship in Environmental Disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Shoou-Yuh Chang

    2013-01-31

    The United States (US) nuclear weapons program during the Cold War left a legacy of radioactive, hazardous, chemical wastes and facilities that may seriously harm the environment and people even today. Widespread public concern about the environmental pollution has created an extraordinary demand for the treatment and disposal of wastes in a manner to protect the public health and safety. The pollution abatement and environmental protection require an understanding of technical, regulatory, economic, permitting, institutional, and public policy issues. Scientists and engineers have a major role in this national effort to clean our environment, especially in developing alternative solutions and evaluation criteria and designing the necessary facilities to implement the solutions. The objective of the DOE Chair of Excellence project is to develop a high quality educational and research program in environmental engineering at North Carolina A&T State University (A&T). This project aims to increase the number of graduate and undergraduate students trained in environmental areas while developing a faculty concentrated in environmental education and research. Although A&T had a well developed environmental program prior to the Massie Chair grant, A&T's goal is to become a model of excellence in environmental engineering through the program's support. The program will provide a catalyst to enhance collaboration of faculty and students among various engineering departments to work together in a focus research area. The collaboration will be expanded to other programs at A&T. The past research focus areas include: hazardous and radioactive waste treatment and disposal fate and transport of hazardous chemicals in the environment innovative technologies for hazardous waste site remediation pollution prevention Starting from 2005, the new research focus was in the improvement of accuracy for radioactive contaminant transport models by ensemble based data assimilation. The

  19. 75 FR 44767 - Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Chairs From the People's Republic of China, 67 FR 43277 (June 27, 2002). On June 30, 2010, we received a... International Trade Administration Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China... metal tables and chairs (``FMTCs'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), received on June...

  20. Feasibility of Interactive Resistance Chair in Older Adults with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Cisse, Pape; Jeong, In Cheol

    2015-01-01

    An interactive resistance chair (RC) exercise system has been designed to support patients at home in following their individualized strengthening exercise plan. The aim of this study was (1) to introduce a computer-assisted home-based resistance exercise for older adults and (2) to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed system in older adults with diabetes. The RC exercise system was well accepted by older adults with diabetes regardless of education level, race or gender. The post-task questionnaires demonstrated ease of system use and satisfaction with the system. The attitudinal survey results showed positive seniors' attitudes towards the RC exercise system. The system usability (SUS) scale score was 94.0±5.76 demonstrating high acceptance of the RC exercise system. From the qualitative interviews, individualized feedback yielded important system upgrade solutions that can be useful in tailoring patient needs, values and preferences specific for seniors with diabetes. Further research is warranted to assess impact of RC exercise system in home setting with a larger sample size in a randomized trial. PMID:26152953

  1. An allolactose trapped at the lacZ β-galactosidase active site with its galactosyl moiety in a (4)H3 conformation provides insights into the formation, conformation, and stabilization of the transition state.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Robert W; Huber, Reuben E

    2015-12-01

    When lactose was incubated with G794A-β-galactosidase (a variant with a "closed" active site loop that binds transition state analogs well) an allolactose was trapped with its Gal moiety in a (4)H3 conformation, similar to the oxocarbenium ion-like conformation expected of the transition state. The numerous interactions formed between the (4)H3 structure and β-galactosidase indicate that this structure is representative of the transition state. This conformation is also very similar to that of d-galactono-1,5-lactone, a good transition state analog. Evidence indicates that substrates take up the (4)H3 conformation during migration from the shallow to the deep mode. Steric forces utilizing His418 and other residues are important for positioning the O1 leaving group into a quasi-axial position. An electrostatic interaction between the O5 of the distorted Gal and Tyr503 as well as C-H-π bonds with Trp568 are also significant. Computational studies of the energy of sugar ring distortion show that the β-galactosidase reaction itinerary is driven by energetic considerations in utilization of a (4)H3 transition state with a novel (4)C1-(4)H3-(4)C1 conformation itinerary. To our knowledge, this is the first X-ray crystallographic structural demonstration that the transition state of a natural substrate of a glycosidase has a (4)H3 conformation.

  2. An allolactose trapped at the lacZ β-galactosidase active site with its galactosyl moiety in a (4)H3 conformation provides insights into the formation, conformation, and stabilization of the transition state.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Robert W; Huber, Reuben E

    2015-12-01

    When lactose was incubated with G794A-β-galactosidase (a variant with a "closed" active site loop that binds transition state analogs well) an allolactose was trapped with its Gal moiety in a (4)H3 conformation, similar to the oxocarbenium ion-like conformation expected of the transition state. The numerous interactions formed between the (4)H3 structure and β-galactosidase indicate that this structure is representative of the transition state. This conformation is also very similar to that of d-galactono-1,5-lactone, a good transition state analog. Evidence indicates that substrates take up the (4)H3 conformation during migration from the shallow to the deep mode. Steric forces utilizing His418 and other residues are important for positioning the O1 leaving group into a quasi-axial position. An electrostatic interaction between the O5 of the distorted Gal and Tyr503 as well as C-H-π bonds with Trp568 are also significant. Computational studies of the energy of sugar ring distortion show that the β-galactosidase reaction itinerary is driven by energetic considerations in utilization of a (4)H3 transition state with a novel (4)C1-(4)H3-(4)C1 conformation itinerary. To our knowledge, this is the first X-ray crystallographic structural demonstration that the transition state of a natural substrate of a glycosidase has a (4)H3 conformation. PMID:26291713

  3. SU-C-19A-05: Treatment Chairs for Modern Radiation Therapy Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Court, L; Fullen, D; Tharp, K; Palmer, J; Ungchusri, G; Reyes, L; Tong, T; Nguyen, S; Phillips, T; Balter, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Treating patients in a seated position has potential advantages including improved comfort, increased lung volume, and reduced respiratory motion. We compared chair designs for head and neck, thoracic and breast patients for use with either IGRT linacs or a proposed low-cost fixed horizontal beam-line machine. Methods: Three treatment chairs were designed and constructed. Two of the chairs are based on a massage-chair, with the patient angled slightly forwards and knee rests used to minimize intra-fraction slouch. The third chair design is more conventional; the patient is angled backwards, with indexed positioning devices and the ability to attach thermoplastic masks. Patient geometries, including PTV location and patient sizes, were extracted from 137 CTs of past patients were used to model the probability of collision between the patient and the linac for various seated positions. All chairs were designed around the weight limits for couches on our linacs. At the time of writing we have just received IRB approval for imaging studies to evaluate comfort, and intra- and interfraction reproducibility. Results: The geometric analysis showed that head and neck patients and thoracic patients could be treated without collision. However, there is very limited space between the patient and the treatment/imaging devices, so careful design of the chair is essential. The position of the treatment target and extended arm positioning means that this is a particular concern for thoracic and breast patients. This was demonstrated for one of the prototype chairs designed for breast treatment where the arm holders would collide with the kV detector. The extra clearance of a dedicated fixed-beam linac would overcome these difficulties. Intra- and inter-fraction reproducibility results will be presented at the meeting. Conclusion: To take advantage of the clinical advantages of seated treatments, appropriate treatment chairs are needed. A dedicate fixed-beam linac may

  4. Restraint chair with rowing-like movement for exposing exercising nonhuman primates to microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Knepton, J.; Ezell, C.; de Lorge, J.

    1983-04-20

    Design and construction of a Styrofoam exercise restraint chair is described for use with rhesus monkeys exposed to microwaves. Monkeys usually learn the rowing-like motion of the device within five 1-hour conditioning sessions. Radiation intensity measure of the chair and an example animal experiment demonstrated the chair's suitability for bioelectromagnetic studies. Results of a series of base-line behavioral sessions demonstrated concomitant exercise work load effects on colonic temperature, heart rate, correct response rate, and post-reinforcement pause time. With additional instrumentation, detection of minute disturbances of integrated psychological and physiological mechanisms by unusual environmental factors may be possible.

  5. 5-Oxocyclooctanecarboxylic acid: hydrogen-bonding pattern and conformational disorder in a medium-ring varepsilon-keto acid

    PubMed

    Lalancette; Brunskill; Thompson

    2000-10-01

    Molecules of the title compound, C(9)H(14)O(3), adopt a chiral 'boat-chair' conformation, in which the carboxyl group avoids potential cross-ring ketone interactions by an outward 'equatorial' orientation. The asymmetric unit contains two such molecules, one conformationally fixed without disorder, (I), and the other, (I'), extensively disordered, both in the bond lengths and angles of the carboxyl and by a coupled 'up-down' conformational disordering [ratio of 60:40 (1)] of the remote ends of the boat-chair system. Each molecule in the asymmetric unit forms a centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded carboxyl dimer with a second molecule of its own type. For (I), O.O = 2.658 (3) A and O-H.O = 174 degrees. For (I'), O.O = 2.653 (3) A and O-H.O = 165 degrees. A number of intermolecular C=O.H-C close contacts are found. PMID:11025318

  6. Probing of different conformations of piperazine using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SenGupta, Sumana; Maiti, Nandita; Chadha, Ridhima; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2014-06-01

    Piperazine exists in a number of energetically close structural conformations, and here, we investigated the dependence of their relative abundance on the surrounding conditions by using Raman and SERS spectroscopy in pure solid, aqueous solution and Ag hydrosol. The experimental results were interpreted by DFT calculations using B3LYP functional with aug-cc-pvdz/LANL2DZ basis sets. In the chair form of piperazine, which is more stable than the skewed boat by ∼8 kcal mol-1, the two N-H bonds can remain equatorial or axial, leading to three different conformations, eq-eq, eq-ax and ax-ax. The calculated Raman spectrum of the lowest energy eq-eq conformation corresponds well with the experimental spectrum in pure solid, indicating eq-eq to be predominant. But, the contribution of the eq-ax conformation was found to be maximum in aqueous solution. The SERS spectrum revealed that eq-ax conformation was preferably adopted as piperazine was adsorbed vertically through its axial N-atom over silver nanoparticle surface.

  7. The Trial: A Parable of a Department Chair before the Law of the Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beja, Morris

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the seemingly contradictory nature of chairing an English department by highlighting the opposing impulses faced, especially as related to funding. Presents the situation in the form of a parable similar to a work by Franz Kafka. (HB)

  8. The Sit & Stand chair. A revolutionary advance in adaptive seating systems.

    PubMed

    Galumbeck, Michael H; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Wilder, Robert P; Winters, Kathryne L; Hudson, Mary Anne; Edlich, Richard F

    2004-01-01

    A major factor governing independence for the elderly and persons with disabilities is the ability to stand from a chair. Factors such as pain, reduced joint range of motion, stiffness, and muscle weakness frequently limit the ability to stand. Sit-to-stand position is even further reduced in patients whose hands and shoulders are afflicted with rheumatoid arthritis. When achieving a sit-to-stand position in the elderly and persons with disabilities, there is considerable risk of the individual falling and sustaining bone fracture. The purposes of this scientific report are to achieve the following goals: (1) to provide a narrative discussion of the senior author's contributions to furniture manufacturing as well as his successful patent application for the SIT & STAND chair, (2) to describe the steps involved in the development of the SIT & STAND prototype, and (3) to examine the performance of the SIT & STAND chair in assisting the elderly or persons with disabilities in achieving a sit-to-stand position. The invention of the SIT & STAND chair by the senior author, Michael Galumbeck, was a culmination of his lifelong interest in adaptive seating systems. His electrically operated chair has the unique ability to assist the occupant to achieve safely a sit-to-stand position. The rear portion of his chair remains in a fixed position to support the buttocks of the user during mechanical lift. The front portion of the seat folds down incrementally as the chair rises to allow the feet of the user to be positioned in a more posterior position firmly on the floor. Using its actuator, the height that the chair rises will vary with the length of the legs of the occupant. Using the drawing program Solid Works (Solid Works, Concord, Massachusetts), drawings of the chair were made. To visualize the operation and performance of the chair, separate drawings were made in the lateral position. The prototype of the SIT & STAND chair was manufactured with an electric actuator that

  9. Cox's chair: 'a moral and a medical mean in the treatment of maniacs'.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J; Norrsell, U; Presly, A

    2005-03-01

    Two hundred years ago Joseph Cox published his book on the treatment of insanity. His novel technique was rotating the body in a specially designed chair. Initially modest and later extravagant claims were made for the therapeutic benefit of 'Cox's chair'. It was widely adopted in Europe in the first decades of the nineteenth century, but lost favour thereafter. Its benefits have proved to be scientific rather than medical because it was adopted by students of the senses to investigate vertigo; a century later it re-emerged as the Bárány chair for the clinical assessment of vestibular function. The legacy of Cox's chair, and its related treatment of swinging, are to be found in funfairs throughout the world.

  10. Office task effects on comfort and body dynamics in five dynamic office chairs.

    PubMed

    Groenesteijn, Liesbeth; Ellegast, Rolf P; Keller, Kathrin; Krause, Frank; Berger, Helmut; de Looze, Michiel P

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of office tasks on posture and movements in field settings, and the comfort rating for chair characteristics and correlation with type of task. The tasks studied were: computer work, telephoning, desk work and conversation. Postures, movements, chair part inclinations and comfort rating data were collected from 12 subjects. Computer work showed the lowest physical activity, together with upright trunk and head position and low backrest inclination. Conversation shows the highest activity of head legs and low back together with the highest cervical spine extension. In contrast, desk work provoked the most cervical spine flexion and showed the second lowest activity. The telephoning tasks showed medium activity and the highest kyphosis. Conversation showed the highest backrest inclination. Positive comfort relations were found for computer work and a "swing system" chair, for telephoning and an active longitudinal seat rotation, and for desk work and a chair with a three-dimensionally moveable seat.

  11. Structure and conformation of cyclopentene, cycloheptene and trans-cyclooctene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Max K.; Mastryukov, Vladimir S.; Boggs, James E.

    1998-04-01

    The molecular geometries of different conformations of cycloalkenes, C nH 2 n-2 , with n = 5, 7 and 8 were optimized by restricted Hartree-Fock calculations using the 6-31G∗ basis set followed by second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) treatment of electron correlation. For cyclopentene, C 5H 8, the potential function for the ring-puckering motion was constructed, followed by solving for the vibrational eigenvalues in terms of distributed Gaussian bases. Good agreement was obtained with the observed frequencies in the far-infrared spectrum of the molecule. For cycloheptene, C 7H 12, geometries were optimized for the chair, boat, twist-boat, and three possible transition states. The chair-chair interconversion mechanism was investigated and compared with available experimental evidence and with the results of a previous molecular mechanics calculation. The computed potential barrier compares well with NMR evidence, but the conformation of the relevant transition state is found to be different from the one assumed in the experimental study. The structure of the smallest isolable trans-cycloalkene, trans-cyclooctene, C 8H 14, was optimized, yielding a structure in reasonable agreement with a previous gas phase electron diffraction study. The agreement includes the pyramidality of the olefinic carbon atoms which was also compared with available X-ray data on related compounds. The bond angles and torsion angles were in better agreement with the experiment than were those obtained in earlier molecular mechanics studies, although it is remarkable how well that method works for these highly strained cyclic systems.

  12. Managing osteoarthritis: comparisons of chair yoga, Reiki, and education (pilot study).

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; McCaffrey, Ruth; Dunn, Dorothy; Goodman, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether chair yoga and Reiki affect pain, depressive mood, and physical function compared with an educational program for older adults with osteoarthritis. Findings showed significant relationships only between physical function and chair yoga. In focus group interviews, participants expressed feelings of improved health and well-being after the yoga intervention. The major limitation of this study was the small sample size. PMID:22015342

  13. CONSENSUS AND CONFORMITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALLEN, VERNON L.; LEVINE, JOHN M.

    IN THIS STUDY, PROFESSOR ALLEN EMPLOYS TWO METHODS OF BREAKING GROUP CONSENSUS, AND HE MEASURES THE EFFECTS ON THE RESPONSES OF COLLEGE SUBJECTS TO BOTH OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE STIMULI. THE RESULTS SUGGEST THE NEED FOR MODIFICATION OF EXISTING THEORIES OF CONFORMITY BEHAVIOR. IN ADDITION, THESE RESULTS EMPHASIZE THE DIFFERENCES IN CONFORMITY OF…

  14. Modeling and experiment reveal an unexpected stereoelectronic effect on conformation and scalar couplings of alpha-aminoorganostannanes, with possible relevance to the tin-lithium exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Marcelina; Low, Eddy; Chambournier, Gilles; Gawley, Robert E

    2003-10-31

    The solution conformation of N-methyl-2-(tributylstannyl)piperidines has been determined through the use of vicinal 119Sn-13C coupling constants, revealing a conformational distortion caused by an unexpected stereoelectronic effect in some cases. Specifically, the "equatorial" conformer is distorted into a half-chair, in which the nitrogen lone pair eclipses the C-Sn bond. This distortion, which "costs" approximately 1 kcal/mol, correlates with a conformational dependence of geminal 119Sn-15N couplings and a possible correlation with reactivity in the tin-lithium exchange reaction. PMID:14575474

  15. Modeling and experiment reveal an unexpected stereoelectronic effect on conformation and scalar couplings of alpha-aminoorganostannanes, with possible relevance to the tin-lithium exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Marcelina; Low, Eddy; Chambournier, Gilles; Gawley, Robert E

    2003-10-31

    The solution conformation of N-methyl-2-(tributylstannyl)piperidines has been determined through the use of vicinal 119Sn-13C coupling constants, revealing a conformational distortion caused by an unexpected stereoelectronic effect in some cases. Specifically, the "equatorial" conformer is distorted into a half-chair, in which the nitrogen lone pair eclipses the C-Sn bond. This distortion, which "costs" approximately 1 kcal/mol, correlates with a conformational dependence of geminal 119Sn-15N couplings and a possible correlation with reactivity in the tin-lithium exchange reaction.

  16. Effect of Furniture Weight on Carrying, Lifting, and Turning of Chairs and Desks among Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Funatsu, Kyotaro; Xiong, Jinghong; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2015-01-01

    Rearranging furniture in elementary school classrooms encourages classroom activities. In elementary schools in Indonesia and some other developing countries, usually only one style of furniture is used for all children, and the furniture is heavy and oversized for younger children. This affects their ability to carry it. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of elementary school furniture weight and children’s age on performance of three carrying tasks (carrying a chair, lifting and turning a chair on a desk, and carrying both a chair and a desk together), from the ergonomics point of view. A total of 42 schoolchildren (ages 6–9; 17 Indonesian, 25 Japanese) participated in this study. Two types of Japanese chairs (Chair A and B, weight: 3.2 kg and 3.9 kg), one type of Indonesian chair (Chair C, weight: 5.0 kg), and two types of desks (height: 58 cm and 68 cm) were used. Indonesian chairs took significantly longer time to carry than the two Japanese chairs, and there was a significant negative relationship between age and task time for Chairs B and C, but not Chair A. Success rates for lifting and turning the chair declined as age decreased and chair weight increased, but were not significantly influenced by desk height. Success rates for carrying a chair and desk together significantly decreased with heavier furniture. Children aged six showed an extremely low success rate in almost all conditions. In conclusion, children’s ability to carry furniture is affected by their age and furniture characteristics, especially weight. In order to encourage classroom activities in elementary school, school furniture should be of appropriate weight. Supervision for younger children is required during classroom furniture arrangement. PMID:26053154

  17. Effect of Furniture Weight on Carrying, Lifting, and Turning of Chairs and Desks among Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Purwaningrum, Lu'lu'; Funatsu, Kyotaro; Xiong, Jinghong; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur; Muraki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Rearranging furniture in elementary school classrooms encourages classroom activities. In elementary schools in Indonesia and some other developing countries, usually only one style of furniture is used for all children, and the furniture is heavy and oversized for younger children. This affects their ability to carry it. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of elementary school furniture weight and children's age on performance of three carrying tasks (carrying a chair, lifting and turning a chair on a desk, and carrying both a chair and a desk together), from the ergonomics point of view. A total of 42 schoolchildren (ages 6-9; 17 Indonesian, 25 Japanese) participated in this study. Two types of Japanese chairs (Chair A and B, weight: 3.2 kg and 3.9 kg), one type of Indonesian chair (Chair C, weight: 5.0 kg), and two types of desks (height: 58 cm and 68 cm) were used. Indonesian chairs took significantly longer time to carry than the two Japanese chairs, and there was a significant negative relationship between age and task time for Chairs B and C, but not Chair A. Success rates for lifting and turning the chair declined as age decreased and chair weight increased, but were not significantly influenced by desk height. Success rates for carrying a chair and desk together significantly decreased with heavier furniture. Children aged six showed an extremely low success rate in almost all conditions. In conclusion, children's ability to carry furniture is affected by their age and furniture characteristics, especially weight. In order to encourage classroom activities in elementary school, school furniture should be of appropriate weight. Supervision for younger children is required during classroom furniture arrangement.

  18. Investigation of the role of stereoelectronic effects in the conformation of piperidones by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Garcias-Morales, Cesar; Ortegón-Reyna, David; Ariza-Castolo, Armando

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of a series of piperidones 1-8 by the Mannich reaction and analysis of their structures and conformations in solution by NMR and mass spectrometry. The six-membered rings in 2,4,6,8-tetraphenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones, compounds 1 and 2, adopt a chair-boat conformation, while those in 2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones, compounds 3-8, adopt a chair-chair conformation because of stereoelectronic effects. These stereoelectronic effects were analyzed by the (1) J C-H coupling constants, which were measured in the (13)C satellites of the (1)H NMR spectra obtained with the hetero-dqf pulse sequence. In the solid state, these stereoelectronic effects were investigated by measurement of X-ray diffraction data, the molecular geometry (torsional bond angles and bond distances), and inter- and intramolecular interactions, and by natural bond orbital analysis, which was performed using density functional theory at the ωB97XD/6311++G(d,p) level. We found that one of the main factors influencing the conformational stability of 3-8 is the interaction between the lone-pair electrons of nitrogen and the antibonding sigma orbital of C(7)-Heq (nN→σ*C-H(7)eq), a type of hyperconjugative interaction. PMID:26664617

  19. Quality Improvement Practices in Academic Emergency Medicine: Perspectives from the Chairs

    PubMed Central

    DelliFraine, Jami; Langabeer, James; King, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess academic emergency medicine (EM) chairs’ perceptions of quality improvement (QI) training programs. Methods A voluntary anonymous 20 item survey was distributed to a sample of academic chairs of EM through the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine. Data was collected to assess the percentage of academic emergency physicians who had received QI training, the type of training they received, their perception of the impact of this training on behavior, practice and outcomes, and any perceived barriers to implementing QI programs in the emergency department. Results The response rate to the survey was 69% (N = 59). 59.3% of respondents report that their hospital has a formal QI program for physicians. Chairs received training in a variety of QI programs. The type of QI program used by respondents was perceived as having no impact on goals achieved by QI (χ2 = 12.382; p = 0.260), but there was a statistically significant (χ2 = 14.383; p = 0.006) relationship between whether or not goals were achieved and academic EM chairs’ perceptions about return on investment for QI training. Only 22% of chairs responded that they have already made changes as a result of the QI training. 78.8% of EM chairs responded that quality programs could have a significant positive impact on their practice and the healthcare industry. Chairs perceived that QI programs had the most potential value in the areas of understanding and reducing medical errors and improving patient flow and throughput. Other areas of potential value of QI include improving specific clinical indicators and standardizing physician care. Conclusion Academic EM chairs perceived that QI programs were an effective way to drive needed improvements. The results suggest that there is a high level of interest in QI but a low level of adoption of training and implementation. PMID:21293770

  20. Assemblies of Conformal Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Assemblies of tanks having shapes that conform to each other and/or conform to other proximate objects have been investigated for use in storing fuels and oxidizers in small available spaces in upper stages of spacecraft. Such assemblies might also prove useful in aircraft, automobiles, boats, and other terrestrial vehicles in which space available for tanks is limited. The basic concept of using conformal tanks to maximize the utilization of limited space is not new in itself: for example, conformal tanks are used in some automobiles to store windshield -washer liquid and coolant that overflows from radiators. The novelty of the present development lies in the concept of an assembly of smaller conformal tanks, as distinguished from a single larger conformal tank. In an assembly of smaller tanks, it would be possible to store different liquids in different tanks. Even if the same liquid were stored in all the tanks, the assembly would offer an advantage by reducing the mechanical disturbance caused by sloshing of fuel in a single larger tank: indeed, the requirement to reduce sloshing is critical in some applications. The figure shows a prototype assembly of conformal tanks. Each tank was fabricated by (1) copper plating a wax tank mandrel to form a liner and (2) wrapping and curing layers of graphite/epoxy composite to form a shell supporting the liner. In this case, the conformal tank surfaces are flat ones where they come in contact with the adjacent tanks. A band of fibers around the outside binds the tanks together tightly in the assembly, which has a quasi-toroidal shape. For proper functioning, it would be necessary to maintain equal pressure in all the tanks.

  1. ESA chairs the International Living With a Star programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    chairing the ILWS steering committee for the first two years. “There is a clear need to study the Sun and its interaction with the Earth” he says, “ and it is too big a job for a single space agency to cope with.” Notes to editors The new International Living With a Star (ILWS) programme builds upon a previous international framework between Europe, Japan, Russia (formerly the Soviet Union), and the United States to study the Sun and its effects on Earth. That framework was the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) programme. The SOHO and Cluster missions were part of ESA’s contribution. For ILWS, the Canadian Space Agency has joined the collaboration. A ‘kick-off’ meeting between the space agencies involved in ILWS was held on 4-6 September 2002 in Washington DC, United States. An international steering committee of representatives from those agencies will now supervise the programme. The committee comprises five space agencies: the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), Japan's Institute for Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosaviacosmos), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). There will be an ILWS Working Group to coordinate special projects. More than 20 space agencies have announced their participation in the first Working Group meeting, scheduled to take place in Nice, France, on 14 -15 April 2003. Contributions from the various space agencies include missions, payloads, subsystems, launch or tracking services, rockets, balloons, and open access to data sources.

  2. Seat pan and backrest pressure distribution while sitting in office chairs.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Roland; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, an increasing amount of time is spent seated, especially in office environments, where sitting comfort and support are increasingly important due to the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for chair-specific sensor mat calibration, to evaluate the interconnections between specific pressure parameters and to establish those that are most meaningful and significant in order to differentiate pressure distribution measures between office chairs. The shape of the exponential calibration function was highly influenced by the material properties and geometry of the office chairs, and therefore a chair-specific calibration proved to be essential. High correlations were observed between the eight analysed pressure parameters, whereby the pressure parameters could be reduced to a set of four and three parameters for the seat pan and the backrest respectively. In order to find significant differences between office chairs, gradient parameters should be analysed for the seat pan, whereas for the backrest almost all parameters are suitable.

  3. Forget about ergonomics in chair design? Focus on aesthetics and comfort!

    PubMed

    Helander, Martin

    Chair users have difficulties distinguishing between chairs of different ergonomics quality. Many ergonomics features that are supposed to relieve discomfort in sitting are indistinguishable because they cannot be perceived. This is due to poor proprioceptive feedback from ligaments, joints and the spine. The joints are relatively insensitive to small changes in angle, and the spine cannot sense differences in pressure due to different body postures. Aesthetics features on the other hand, and features related to comfort and relaxation, are easier to perceive and differentiate. A study of ergonomics chairs verified that users could distinguish between parameters that relate to aesthetics and comfort, but had difficulty in distinguishing between ergonomics features. In the end aesthetics may be more important than ergonomics--at least to the customer who will be guided more by aesthetics than longer-term ergonomic factors.

  4. A methodology to assess the upper extremity strength in a chair egress posture.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, S A; Stobbe, T J; Stanley, C F

    1993-04-01

    In this paper a method is presented which can be used to analyse the force distribution resulting from the application of force on the left and right armrest of a chair during the action of sitting down or standing up. The peak data for both hands can be combined to obtain the maximum for a trial on a specific chair configuration. This method is useful to assess the upper extremity limitations of an elderly or disabled population when rising from a seated position. The method involved the instrumentation, with strain gauges, of armrests of a prototype lounge chair obtained from a manufacturer of seating for the elderly. Provision for hand placement was included and the system was appropriately calibrated. The methodology presented may have a variety of applications, such as the assessment of seating requirements for the elderly or disabled, and the relative evaluation of a range of seats for nursing homes, clinics, hospitals and rehabilitation or recreational lounges. PMID:15676907

  5. The founder and head of the Chair of Theoretical Physics of the Yerevan State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, L. Sh

    2014-03-01

    The paper is dedicated to the Centenary of an Academician of NAS RA, Professor G S Sahakyan's birth, the Man that founded and headed the Chair of Theoretical Physics (CTP) of the Yerevan State University for almost half a century. The reference to school days of G S Sahakyan is made, information about his 7 years long service in the forces in the fields, about the establishment and administration by him of the Chair of Theoretical Physics in the Yerevan State University, about his collaboration with academician V A Ambartsumian, about the research associates of the G S Sahakyan's Chair, the students of CTP and the advancement of theoretical physics in Armenia is given. The personality characteristics of G S Sahakyan as a principal investigator and leader of CTP are analyzed.

  6. A Profile of Academic Training Program Directors and Chairs in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Lynn D.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To identify objective characteristics and benchmarks for program leadership in academic radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: A study of the 87 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education radiation oncology training program directors (PD) and their chairs was performed. Variables included age, gender, original training department, highest degree, rank, endowed chair assignment, National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, and Hirsch index (H-index). Data were gathered from online sources such as departmental websites, NIH RePORTER, and Scopus. Results: There were a total of 87 PD. The median age was 48, and 14 (16%) were MD/PhD. A total of 21 (24%) were female, and rank was relatively equally distributed above instructor. Of the 26 professors, at least 7 (27%) were female. At least 24 (28%) were working at the institution from which they had received their training. A total of 6 individuals held endowed chairs. Only 2 PD had active NIH funding in 2012. The median H-index was 12 (range, 0-51) but the index dropped to 9 (range, 0-38) when those who served as both PD and chair were removed from the group. A total of 76 chairs were identified at the time of the study. The median age was 55, and 9 (12%) were MD/PhD. A total of 7 (9%) of the chairs were female, and rank was professor for all with the exception of 1 who was listed as “Head” and was an associate professor. Of the 76 chairs, at least 10 (13%) were working at the institution from which they received their training. There were a total of 21 individuals with endowed chairs. A total of 13 (17%) had NIH funding in 2012. The median H-index was 29 (range, 3-60). Conclusions: These data provide benchmarks for individuals and departments evaluating leadership positions in the field of academic radiation oncology. Such data are useful for evaluating leadership trends over time and comparing academic radiation oncology with other specialties.

  7. Effects of methylation at the 2 position of the cation ring on phase behaviors and conformational structures of imidazolium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Endo, Takatsugu; Kato, Tatsuya; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2010-07-22

    The proton at the 2 position of the cation ring in imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) strongly interacts with anions; therefore, the methylation at this position (C(2) methylation) causes significant changes in the physicochemical properties of these liquids. We investigated the C(2) methylation effects on the phase behaviors and cation conformations of ILs by calorimetric and Raman spectroscopic measurements, focusing on the pairs of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salt ([C(4)mim]X) and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium salt ([C(4)C(1)mim]X), where X(-) is Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), BF(4)(-), and PF(6)(-). The melting and freezing points of all pairs increased after the C(2) methylation, as reported previously, and the reason for the increase was the overcompensation of the DeltaS(trans) decrease for the DeltaH(trans) decrease. The C(2) methylation also affected the phase behaviors of the ILs. With Raman spectroscopic measurements, all cation conformations in crystalline phases were assigned to trans-trans (TT), gauche-trans (GT), or gauche'-trans (G'T) conformers of the butyl group. Except in [C(4)C(1)mim]BF(4), all crystal-crystal phase transitions of the present samples occurred accompanied by conformational changes among TT, GT, and G'T. For the gas states of [C(4)mim](+) and [C(4)C(1)mim](+), DFT calculations showed that there were hardly any differences in the structures of the butyl group for each set of paired conformers or in the energetic orders among the conformers. On the other hand, the conformer adopted in the crystalline phase differed between [C(4)mim]X and [C(4)C(1)mim]X. In addition, the population of the conformers in the liquid state also differed in each pair. The data from higher frequency Raman spectra suggested that the difference in cation conformation in each pair, for the crystalline and liquid states, was due to the shift in the position of the anion relative to that of the cation. By C(2) methylation, the relative distance between the anion and

  8. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    SciTech Connect

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  9. Conformational Analysis and Electronic Interactions of Some 4'-Substituted-2-ethylthio-phenylacetates.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniel N S; Ducati, Lucas C; Olivato, Paulo R; Dal Colle, Maurizio

    2015-04-23

    The conformational analysis of various 4'-substituted-2-ethylthio-phenylacetate compounds bearing the substituents NO2 (1), Cl (2), H (3), Me (4), and OMe (5) was performed using infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis of the carbonyl stretching band (νCO) supported by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p), NBO, QTAIM, and SM5.42R calculations for compounds 1, 3, and 5. The IR spectra in n-hexane indicate the presence of three components, whose intensities decrease upon increasing frequency. In solvents with high permittivity, while the low intensity component at higher frequency disappears, the relative intensity of the component at the intermediate frequency changes with respect to the lower frequency component with differing trends for the various derivatives. It can be observed that the intensity does not vary for compounds 1 and 2, which bear an electron-withdrawing substituent at 4', while it increases in intensity for compounds 3-5. The computational results predict the presence of three gauche conformers, defined by the orientation of the C-S bond with respect to the carbonyl group, whose intensities and νCO frequencies are in agreement with the experimental results. In solvents with increasing permittivity, the SM5.42R solvation model results reproduce the experimental trend observed for the two components in the low frequency region, while it overestimates the amount of the higher frequency conformer. NBO analysis suggests that all the conformers are stabilized to the same extent in the gauche conformation via σC-S → π*CO and πCO → σ*C-S orbital interactions. The different stability can be attributed to the geometrical arrangement of the C(O)-CH2-S-CH2-CH3 moiety, which assumes a six-membered chair-like geometry in the g1 conformer, a six-membered twisted-chair-like geometry in the g2 conformer, and a seven-membered chair-like ring in the g3 conformer. Quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) indicates that the ring geometries were formed and stabilized from short

  10. Conformational analysis of oleandomycin and its 8-methylene-9-oxime derivative by NMR and molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Novak, Predrag; Tomisić, Zrinka Banić; Tepes, Predrag; Lazarevski, Gorjana; Plavec, Janez; Turkalj, Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Conformations of the 14-membered macrolide antibiotic oleandomycin and its 8-methylene-9-oxime derivative were determined in various solvents. The experimental NMR data--coupling constants and NOE contacts--were compared with the results of molecular modelling--molecular mechanics calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The conformational changes, on the right-hand side of the 14-membered ring, affected mostly the 3JH2,H3 values and NOE crosspeaks H3 or H4 to H11. Oleandomycin was found to be present predominantly in the C3-C5 folded-in conformations in DMSO-d6 solution, whereas in buffered D2O, acetone-d6 and CDCl3, there was a mixture of folded-in and folded-out conformational families. The predominant conformation of the 8-methylene-oleandomycin-9-oxime derivative in solution was a folded-out one although different amounts of folded-in conformation were also present depending on the solvent. Oleandrose and desosamine sugar moieties adopted the usual and expected chair conformation. The conformation around the glycosidic bonds, governing the relative orientation of sugars vs. the lactone ring, showed a certain flexibility within two conformationally close families. We believe that by combining the experimental NMR data and the molecular modelling techniques, as reported in this paper, we have made significant progress in understanding the conformational behaviour and properties of macrolides. Our belief is based on our own current studies on oleandomycins as well as on the previously reported results and best practices concerning other macrolides. A rational for macrolide conformational studies and advances in methodology has been suggested accordingly. PMID:15602597

  11. Extended conformal field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    1990-08-01

    Some extended conformal field theories are briefly reviewed. They illustrate how non minimal models of the Virasoro algebra (c≥1) can become minimal with respect to a larger algebra. The accent is put on N-extended superconformal algebras, which are relevant in superstring compactification.

  12. Conformational changes in biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vassili

    2005-12-01

    Biopolymer conformational changes are involved in many biological processes. This thesis summarizes some theoretical and experimental approaches which I have taken at UCLA to explore conformational changes in biopolymers. The reversible thermal denaturation of the DNA double helix is, perhaps, the simplest example of biopolymer conformational change. I have developed a statistical mechanics model of DNA melting with reduced degrees of freedom, which allows base stacking interaction to be taken into account and treat base pairing and stacking separately. Unlike previous models, this model describes both the unpairing and unstacking parts of the experimental melting curves and explains the observed temperature dependence of the effective thermodynamic parameters used in models of the nearest neighbor type. I developed a basic kinetic model for irreversible thermal denaturation of F-actin, which incorporates depolymerization of F-actin from the ends and breaking of F-actin fiber in the middle. The model explains the cooperativity of F-actin thermal denaturation observed by D. Pavlov et al. in differential calorimetry measurements. CG-rich DNA sequences form left-handed Z-DNA at high ionic strength or upon binding of polyvalent ions and some proteins. I studied experimentally the B-to-Z transition of the (CG)6 dodecamer. Improvement of the locally linearized model used to interpret the data gives evidence for an intermediate state in the B-to-Z transition of DNA, contrary to previous research on this subject. In the past 15 years it has become possible to study the conformational changes of biomolecules using single-molecule techniques. In collaboration with other lab members I performed a single-molecule experiment, where we monitored the displacement of a micrometer-size bead tethered to a surface by a DNA probe undergoing the conformational change. This technique allows probing of conformational changes with subnanometer accuracy. We applied the method to detect

  13. Quantifying polypeptide conformational space: sensitivity to conformation and ensemble definition.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, David C; Lim, Carmay

    2006-08-24

    Quantifying the density of conformations over phase space (the conformational distribution) is needed to model important macromolecular processes such as protein folding. In this work, we quantify the conformational distribution for a simple polypeptide (N-mer polyalanine) using the cumulative distribution function (CDF), which gives the probability that two randomly selected conformations are separated by less than a "conformational" distance and whose inverse gives conformation counts as a function of conformational radius. An important finding is that the conformation counts obtained by the CDF inverse depend critically on the assignment of a conformation's distance span and the ensemble (e.g., unfolded state model): varying ensemble and conformation definition (1 --> 2 A) varies the CDF-based conformation counts for Ala(50) from 10(11) to 10(69). In particular, relatively short molecular dynamics (MD) relaxation of Ala(50)'s random-walk ensemble reduces the number of conformers from 10(55) to 10(14) (using a 1 A root-mean-square-deviation radius conformation definition) pointing to potential disconnections in comparing the results from simplified models of unfolded proteins with those from all-atom MD simulations. Explicit waters are found to roughen the landscape considerably. Under some common conformation definitions, the results herein provide (i) an upper limit to the number of accessible conformations that compose unfolded states of proteins, (ii) the optimal clustering radius/conformation radius for counting conformations for a given energy and solvent model, (iii) a means of comparing various studies, and (iv) an assessment of the applicability of random search in protein folding.

  14. Gas-Phase Infrared and NMR Investigation of the Conformers of Diacetone Diperoxide (DADP).

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunlei; Persons, John; Woodford, Jeffrey N; Harbison, Gerard S

    2015-10-01

    Gas-phase infrared measurements of diacetone diperoxide (DADP) indicate a chair conformation with less than 5% of the predicted twist conformer. Vibrational frequencies are very similar to those previously measured in the solid state. Solution NMR measurements using 2D exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) also set a very low maximum limit on the equilibrium population of the twist conformer, with a room-temperature free-energy difference in excess of 14.5 kJ/mol. These experimental results are in accord with high-level quantum calculations incorporating full thermochemistry and solvation effects, which indicate a free-energy difference in the range of 14.7-17.5 kJ/mol in polar solvents. PMID:26387762

  15. 77 FR 59975 - Certain Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... an antidumping duty order on imports of certain folding metal tables and chairs from China (67 FR... part 201), and part 207, subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR... chairs from China (72 FR 62626). The Commission is now conducting a second review to determine...

  16. An Investigation of the National School Board Association Key Work Standards for Public Policy Leadership and School Board Chair Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Roger C.

    2011-01-01

    This multiple case qualitative study addressed the National School Board Association's (NSBA) Key Work standards for public policy leadership by local school boards, and how three elite school board chairs understood and implemented those standards. Elite board chair status was defined by experience, training, and peer recognition. The study…

  17. Designing and Building a Cardboard Chair: Children's Engineering at the TECA Eastern Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Charles C.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the 2006 Technology Education Collegiate Association (TECA) Eastern Regional elementary competition, wherein teams of technology education students from nine different universities designed and built cardboard chairs. The competition required the teams (four or five to a team) from universities up and down the East Coast to…

  18. Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.

    PubMed

    Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

    2008-01-01

    The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems.

  19. Principals Fostering the Instructional Leadership Capacities of Department Chairs: A Strategy for Urban High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klar, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of literature has highlighted the affordances of distributive forms of instructional leadership as a means to broaden and deepen instructional leadership capacity within schools. Yet, specifically how the capabilities of such key leaders as high school department chairs can be fostered to realize enhanced instructional capacity…

  20. Fostering Department Chair Instructional Leadership Capacity: Laying the Groundwork for Distributed Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klar, Hans W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I provide findings from a multisite case study of three urban high schools. In each of the schools, principals endeavoured to foster the capabilities of their department chairs to enhance school-wide instructional capacity and increase student achievement. Data were gathered from interviews, participant observations and document…

  1. The effect of Sit 'n' Fit Chair Yoga among community-dwelling older adults with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; McCaffrey, Ruth; Newman, David; Cheung, Corjena; Hagen, Dyana

    2014-01-01

    The study measured effects of Sit 'N' Fit Chair Yoga on pain and physical and psychological functioning. A quasi-experimental research design included a yoga intervention group and an attention control group. There was greater improvement in depression and life satisfaction in the yoga group than in the control group. PMID:24919095

  2. The Role of the Chair of the School Governing Body in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Chris; Jones, Jeff; Connolly, Michael; Brammer, Steve; Fertig, Mike; James, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The research reported here analysed the role of the chair of the school governing body in England, drawing on a national survey of governors and the study of governing in 30 schools. The role encompassed: being a governor; appointing and working with the head teacher; acting as a change agent; active participation in the school; organising the…

  3. K-theory of the chair tiling via AF-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, Antoine; Savinien, Jean

    2016-08-01

    We compute the K-theory groups of the groupoid C∗-algebra of the chair tiling, using a new method. We use exact sequences of Putnam to compute these groups from the K-theory groups of the AF-algebras of the substitution and the induced lower dimensional substitutions on edges and vertices.

  4. Observation of Classroom Performance Using Therapy Balls as a Substitute for Chairs in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Molly E.; Ketcham, Caroline J.

    2015-01-01

    Many classrooms are beginning to substitute standard chairs with therapy balls, which help to improve students' focus and classroom performance, according to teacher and student reports. Researchers conducted an observational study in a classroom at a local elementary school that implemented therapy balls. For each hour-long observation, three…

  5. The Cockpit's Empty Chair: Education through Appropriating Alienation at a Chicago Technology Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lormier, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: In the United States, the percentage of schoolchildren planning to become high-status professionals is grossly disproportionate to the percentage of such jobs comprising our division of labor. As in a game of musical chairs, it is not structurally possible for everyone to remain a contender. Focus of Study: Various adults who…

  6. Design of Lesehan Chair by Using Kansei Engineering Method And Anthropometry Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pambudi, A. T.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Sari, A. D.; Kurnia, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY) is known as city for academic. Many people come to get some education in college. They live in boarding house with some supporting facilities. The most common facilities is low table which lead students have to sit on the floor while studying on table which could cause higher risk of back pain and musculoskeletal disorder. To identify the solution to reduce back pain and musculoskeletal risk, it is needed to design a lesehan chair which also appropriate to customer needs. Kansei engineering method was used with a total of 30 respondents participated, 15 kansei words collected, and 12 kansei words selected by doing validation and reliability test. The result of this study showed that quality, aesthetics, and comfort level influence the design of lesehan chair. A design of lesehan chair was created by considering the suitable concept and merging it with the physical design and its anthropometry measurement. In this case, marginal homogeneity test is needed to identify the differences between each kansei words attribute and the design or product recommendation. The marginal homogeneity test results show that the design and product recommendation has fulfilled customer's desires and needs. For further research, it is needed to analyse and evaluate the posture of lesehan chair users in order to develop and improve its performance.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5365 - Posture chair for cardiac or pulmonary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Posture chair for cardiac or pulmonary treatment. 868.5365 Section 868.5365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5365 Posture...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5365 - Posture chair for cardiac or pulmonary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Posture chair for cardiac or pulmonary treatment. 868.5365 Section 868.5365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5365 Posture...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5365 - Posture chair for cardiac or pulmonary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Posture chair for cardiac or pulmonary treatment. 868.5365 Section 868.5365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5365 Posture...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5365 - Posture chair for cardiac or pulmonary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Posture chair for cardiac or pulmonary treatment. 868.5365 Section 868.5365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5365 Posture...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5365 - Posture chair for cardiac or pulmonary treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Posture chair for cardiac or pulmonary treatment. 868.5365 Section 868.5365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5365 Posture...

  12. Transformational Leadership in a Changing World: A Survival Guide for New Chairs and Deans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilosky, Alexandra; Watwood, Britt

    New academic chairs and deans can assume their new challenges with less frustration if they understand the essential elements for developing a culture of proactive change. One key concept is transformational leadership, in which leaders employ idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration…

  13. Downsizing of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools: Perceptions of Their Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, H. George

    1997-01-01

    The National Caucus of Biomedical Science Chairs administered a 35-item questionnaire concerning department downsizing to medical school basic science department heads (n=400). Results indicate significant loss of faculty positions in one-third of the schools, with a 10% overall reduction from 1985-95. Department restructuring, with merging of…

  14. Cultivating Sacramentality through Administrative Work: Guidance from St. Benedict on Being a Catholic Department Chair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narloch, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    One dilemma encountered by department chairs and administrators at Catholic colleges and universities is how to respect the pluralistic religious views of the faculty while being faithful to one's own and the institution's Catholic tradition. The Rule of St. Benedict offers guidance that can result in deepening the respect for all…

  15. 75 FR 51450 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Site-Specific... the Board is to make recommendations ] to DOE-EM and site management in the areas of...

  16. 76 FR 17118 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Site-Specific... Board is to make recommendations to DOE-EM and site management in the areas of environmental...

  17. 75 FR 17701 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Site-Specific... environmental restoration, waste management, and related activities. Tentative Agenda Topics: Wednesday,...

  18. 77 FR 55813 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Site-Specific... Board is to make recommendations to DOE-EM and site management in the areas of environmental...

  19. 78 FR 59012 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board Chairs AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Site-Specific... environmental restoration, waste management, and related activities. Tentative Agenda Topics: Wednesday,...

  20. Relationships among Central Administrators, Chairs, and Faculty: Academic Change Agents in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Mark, III

    2000-01-01

    Offers an empirically derived model (based on observations of administrative behavior at two institutions of higher education) describing relationships among central administrators, chairs, and faculty. Discusses change agents, the do-it-yourself approach, the rhetoric of change, the faculty retreat, hiring new and more administrators, creating…

  1. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4950 - Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual operating table and accessories and manual operating chair and accessories. 878.4950 Section 878.4950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4960 - Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating tables and accessories and operating chairs and accessories. 878.4960 Section 878.4960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES...

  11. CCSF Survey on Using Technology: Administrators, Department Chairs, Classified Staff, and Student Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA. Office of Institutional Research, Planning and Grants.

    This document discusses the findings of a survey completed by all employees of City College of San Francisco in 2003. The employees surveyed include administrators, department chairs, classified staff, and student service faculty. The survey discovered that these employees differ from instructional faculty in the following ways: (1) they do their…

  12. Defining and Activating the Role of Department Chair as Instructional Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn; Salisbury, Jason

    2013-01-01

    With strong connection to schoolwide policy and vision and to the realities of the daily life of teachers and students, the department chair is uniquely positioned to play an important role in advancing instructional effectiveness (Printy, 2008; Weller, 2001). This article provides an in-depth look at the efforts of three urban comprehensive high…

  13. Pity the Program Chair: A Brief Guide to Preparing Academic Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Joel P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses conference program proposals from the perspective of a former cochair of several international and regional scholarly conference committees. Describes the duties of program chairs. Outlines the way conference program decisions are meted out. Provides suggestions for perfect conference proposals. (HB)

  14. Specific Effects of Gestalt Two-Chair Dialogue on Intrapsychic Conflict in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Leslie S.; Dompierre, Lyse M.

    1981-01-01

    Showed that depth of experiencing and shifts in awareness were higher following Gestalt intervention. Reported conflict resolution was also greater. Results support claims for the efficacy of Gestalt two-chair dialogue used in the context of a good working relationship in helping to resolve intrapsychic conflicts. (Author)

  15. Exploring the active conformation of cyclohexane carboxylate positive allosteric modulators of the type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptor.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Xavier; Harrak, Youssef; Trapero, Ana; González-Bulnes, Patricia; Malhaire, Fanny; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Goudet, Cyril; Giraldo, Jesús; Llebaria, Amadeu

    2014-12-01

    The active conformation of a family of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGlu4 ) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) with the cyclohexane 1,2-dicarboxylic scaffold present in cis-2-(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamoyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (VU0155041) was investigated by testing structurally similar six-membered ring compounds that have a locked conformation. The norbornane and cyclohexane molecules designed as mGlu4 conformational probes and the enantiomers of the trans diastereomer were computationally characterized and tested in mGlu4 pharmacological assays. The results support a VU0155041 active conformation, with the chair cyclohexane having the aromatic amide substituent in an axial position and the carboxylate in an equatorial position. Moreover, the receptor displays enantiomeric discrimination of the chiral PAMs. The constructed pharmacophore characterized a highly constrained mGlu4 allosteric binding site, thus providing a step forward in structure-based drug design for mGlu4 PAMs.

  16. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. PMID:27038223

  17. Conformal complementarity maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbón, José L. F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2013-12-01

    We study quantum cosmological models for certain classes of bang/crunch singularities, using the duality between expanding bubbles in AdS with a FRW interior cosmology and perturbed CFTs on de Sitter space-time. It is pointed out that horizon complementarity in the AdS bulk geometries is realized as a conformal transformation in the dual deformed CFT. The quantum version of this map is described in full detail in a toy model involving conformal quantum mechanics. In this system the complementarity map acts as an exact duality between eternal and apocalyptic Hamiltonian evolutions. We calculate the commutation relation between the Hamiltonians corresponding to the different frames. It vanishes only on scale invariant states.

  18. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer.

    PubMed

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics. PMID:27329824

  19. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics. PMID:27329824

  20. Multiscale conformal pattern transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodewijks, Kristof; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Massiot, Inès; Mekonnen, Addis; Verre, Ruggero; Olsson, Eva; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a method for seamless transfer from a parent flat substrate of basically any lithographic top-down or bottom-up pattern onto essentially any kind of surface. The nano- or microscale patterns, spanning macroscopic surface areas, can be transferred with high conformity onto a large variety of surfaces when such patterns are produced on a thin carbon film, grown on top of a sacrificial layer. The latter allows lifting the patterns from the flat parent substrate onto a water-air interface to be picked up by the host surface of choice. We illustrate the power of this technique by functionalizing broad range of materials including glass, plastics, metals, rough semiconductors and polymers, highlighting the potential applications in in situ colorimetry of the chemistry of materials, anti-counterfeit technologies, biomolecular and biomedical studies, light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, conformal photovoltaics and flexible electronics.

  1. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016.

  2. Conformal scalar field wormholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Jonathan J.; Laflamme, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    The Euclidian Einstein equations with a cosmological constant and a conformally coupled scalar field are solved, taking the metric to be of the Robertson-Walker type. In the case Lambda = 0, solutions are found which represent a wormhole connecting two asymptotically flat Euclidian regions. In the case Lambda greater than 0, the solutions represent tunneling from a small Tolman-like universe to a large Robertson-Walker universe.

  3. The conformal bootstrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2016-06-01

    The conformal bootstrap was proposed in the 1970s as a strategy for calculating the properties of second-order phase transitions. After spectacular success elucidating two-dimensional systems, little progress was made on systems in higher dimensions until a recent renaissance beginning in 2008. We report on some of the main results and ideas from this renaissance, focusing on new determinations of critical exponents and correlation functions in the three-dimensional Ising and O(N) models.

  4. Conformations of organophosphine oxides

    SciTech Connect

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-17

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 force field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. As a result, the predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.

  5. Conformational stability of apoflavodoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Genzor, C. G.; Beldarraín, A.; Gómez-Moreno, C.; López-Lacomba, J. L.; Cortijo, M.; Sancho, J.

    1996-01-01

    Flavodoxins are alpha/beta proteins that mediate electron transfer reactions. The conformational stability of apoflavodoxin from Anaboena PCC 7119 has been studied by calorimetry and urea denaturation as a function of pH and ionic strength. At pH > 12, the protein is unfolded. Between pH 11 and pH 6, the apoprotein is folded properly as judged from near-ultraviolet (UV) circular dichroism (CD) and high-field 1H NMR spectra. In this pH interval, apoflavodoxin is a monomer and its unfolding by urea or temperature follows a simple two-state mechanism. The specific heat capacity of unfolding for this native conformation is unusually low. Near its isoelectric point (3.9), the protein is highly insoluble. At lower pH values (pH 3.5-2.0), apoflavodoxin adopts a conformation with the properties of a molten globule. Although apoflavodoxin at pH 2 unfolds cooperatively with urea in a reversible fashion and the fluorescence and far-UV CD unfolding curves coincide, the transition midpoint depends on the concentration of protein, ruling out a simple two-state process at acidic pH. Apoflavodoxin constitutes a promising system for the analysis of the stability and folding of alpha/beta proteins and for the study of the interaction between apoflavoproteins and their corresponding redox cofactors. PMID:8819170

  6. Conformations of organophosphine oxides

    DOE PAGES

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-17

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 forcemore » field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. As a result, the predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.« less

  7. Conformation and hydration of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y K

    1991-07-01

    Conformational free energy calculations using an empirical potential (ECEPP/2) and the hydration shell model were carried out on the neutral, acidic, zwitterionic, and basic forms of aspartame in the hydrated state. The results indicate that as the molecule becomes more charged, the number of low energy conformations becomes smaller and the molecule becomes less flexible. The calculated free energies of hydration of charged aspartames show that hydration has a significant effect on the conformation in solution. Only two feasible conformations were found for the zwitterionic form, and these are consistent with the conformations deduced from NMR and X-ray diffraction experiments. The calculated free energy difference between these two conformations was 1.25 kcal/mol. The less favored of the two solvated conformations can be expected to be stabilized by hydrophobic interaction of the phenyl groups in the crystal.

  8. Conformal superalgebras via tractor calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischewski, Andree

    2015-01-01

    We use the manifestly conformally invariant description of a Lorentzian conformal structure in terms of a parabolic Cartan geometry in order to introduce a superalgebra structure on the space of twistor spinors and normal conformal vector fields formulated in purely algebraic terms on parallel sections in tractor bundles. Via a fixed metric in the conformal class, one reproduces a conformal superalgebra structure that has been considered in the literature before. The tractor approach, however, makes clear that the failure of this object to be a Lie superalgebra in certain cases is due to purely algebraic identities on the spinor module and to special properties of the conformal holonomy representation. Moreover, it naturally generalizes to higher signatures. This yields new formulas for constructing new twistor spinors and higher order normal conformal Killing forms out of existing ones, generalizing the well-known spinorial Lie derivative. Moreover, we derive restrictions on the possible dimension of the space of twistor spinors in any metric signature.

  9. Key Tenets of Effective Surgery Leadership: Perspectives From the Society of Surgical Chairs Mentorship Sessions.

    PubMed

    Rosengart, Todd K; Kent, K Craig; Bland, Kirby I; Britt, L D; Eberlein, Timothy J; Gewertz, Bruce Labe; Hunter, John G; Lillemoe, Keith D; Pellegrini, Carlos A; Schulick, Richard D; Stain, Steven Charles; Weigel, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    This Special Communication summarizes the key points raised at the Society of Surgical Chairs mentorship panel sessions held at the 2014 and 2015 annual meetings of the society. Highlights of these expert panel discussions include senior chairs' insights into successfully dealing with increasingly complex academic medical organizations and horizontal department management expectations in the context of the arrival of the Millennial Generation into the work force. Three key tenets of effective surgery leadership that arose from these sessions deal with the importance of (1) collaboration and cooperativity, (2) humanized relationships and mentorship, and (3) operational efficiency. Overall, the panel consensus for the future of surgery leadership was optimistic while recognizing that the demands of chairmanship are considerable.

  10. Bond length and charge density variations within extended arm chair defects in graphene.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jamie H; Lee, Gun-Do; He, Kuang; Robertson, Alex W; Yoon, Euijoon; Kirkland, Angus I

    2013-11-26

    Extended linear arm chair defects are intentionally fabricated in suspended monolayer graphene using controlled focused electron beam irradiation. The atomic structure is accurately determined using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy with monochromation of the electron source to achieve ∼80 pm spatial resolution at an accelerating voltage of 80 kV. We show that the introduction of atomic vacancies in graphene disrupts the uniformity of C-C bond lengths immediately surrounding linear arm chair defects in graphene. The measured changes in C-C bond lengths are related to density functional theory (DFT) calculations of charge density variation and corresponding DFT calculated structural models. We show good correlation between the DFT predicted localized charge depletion and structural models with HRTEM measured bond elongation within the carbon tetragon structure of graphene. Further evidence of bond elongation within graphene defects is obtained from imaging a pair of 5-8-5 divacancies.

  11. Key Tenets of Effective Surgery Leadership: Perspectives From the Society of Surgical Chairs Mentorship Sessions.

    PubMed

    Rosengart, Todd K; Kent, K Craig; Bland, Kirby I; Britt, L D; Eberlein, Timothy J; Gewertz, Bruce Labe; Hunter, John G; Lillemoe, Keith D; Pellegrini, Carlos A; Schulick, Richard D; Stain, Steven Charles; Weigel, Ronald J

    2016-08-01

    This Special Communication summarizes the key points raised at the Society of Surgical Chairs mentorship panel sessions held at the 2014 and 2015 annual meetings of the society. Highlights of these expert panel discussions include senior chairs' insights into successfully dealing with increasingly complex academic medical organizations and horizontal department management expectations in the context of the arrival of the Millennial Generation into the work force. Three key tenets of effective surgery leadership that arose from these sessions deal with the importance of (1) collaboration and cooperativity, (2) humanized relationships and mentorship, and (3) operational efficiency. Overall, the panel consensus for the future of surgery leadership was optimistic while recognizing that the demands of chairmanship are considerable. PMID:27096328

  12. Improvement of the Chairs in Classrooms for Better Sitting Posture of Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Keiko; Dake, Kazuo; Ishihara, Shigekazu

    2010-10-01

    We sought to improve the sitting postures of children studying in the classrooms of a primary school. We made the seat of a standard chair lower and attached a cushion designed by one of the authors. The cushion is cut at a 25° downward angle toward the legs to allow the users to support their weight with their feet and alleviate pressure on the underside of the thighs. We also lowered the desktop to below the height of children's elbows. Eighty-three children were given the new chairs and desks, and they were observed over 7 months. Around 10% of them voluntarily maintained good sitting postures; others straightened their postures when the teachers reminded them to do so.

  13. Leaf growth is conformal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  14. Leaf growth is conformal.

    PubMed

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour. PMID:27597439

  15. OSI Conformance Testing for Bibliographic Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbez, Gilbert; Swain, Leigh

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) conformance testing sites, conformance testing tools, and conformance testing services. Discusses related topics such as interoperability testing, arbitration testing, and international harmonization of conformance testing. A glossary is included. (24 references) (SD)

  16. Fluid shifts and endocrine responses during chair rest and water immersion in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Shvartz, E.; Kravik, S.; Keil, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of external water pressure on intercompartmental fluid volume shifts and endocrine responses in man are investigated. Extracellular fluid volumes and plasma and urine electrolyte and endocrine responses of four male subjects were measured during eight hours of head-out water immersion and 16 hours of recovery bed rest and compared to responses obtained during eight hours of chair rest and 16 hours of bed rest without external hydrostatic pressure obtained in the same subjects five months later. Immersion is found to result in a substantial diuresis with respect to chair rest, accounted for by decreases in extracellular volume. A negative water balance during immersion and a positive water balance during chair rest were observed to be accompanied by a shift of extracellular volume to the intracellular compartment, as well as the suppression of plasma arginine vasopressin and renin activities in both regimes. The vasopressin and renin activity decreases are attributed to the increased central blood volume, and half of the plasma loss in immersed subjects is attributed to the effects of external water pressure.

  17. Effects of chair restraint on the strength of the tibia in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, T. M.; Bakulin, A. V.; Rakhmanov, A. S.; Martin, R. B.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effects of the relative inactivity and unloading on the strength of the tibias of monkeys, Macaca mulatta, we used a non-invasive test to measure bending stiffness, or EI (Nm2), a mechanical property. The technique was validated by comparisons of in vivo measurements with standard measures of EI in the same bones post-mortem (r2 = 0.95, P < 0.0001). Inter-test precision was 4.28+/-1.4%. Normative data in 24 monkeys, 3.0+/-0.7 years and 3.6+/-0.6 kg, revealed EI to be 16% higher in the right than left tibia (4.4+/-1.6 vs. 3.7+/-1.6 Nm2, P < 0.05). Five monkeys, restrained in chairs for 14 days, showed decreases in EI. There were no changes in EI in two chaired monkeys that lost weight during a 2-week space flight. The factors that account for both the decreases in bone mechanical properties after chair restraint at 1 g and lack of change after microgravity remain to be identified. Metabolic factors associated with body weight changes are suggested by our results.

  18. Child and adolescent psychiatry in general children's hospitals. A survey of chairs of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Campo, J V; Kingsley, R S; Bridge, J; Mrazek, D

    2000-01-01

    This article characterizes the academic, administrative, clinical service, and fiscal characteristics of departments of psychiatry in traditional children's hospitals to determine the characteristics of fiscally successful programs. A survey of chairs of psychiatry from short-term general children's hospitals was conducted based on 38 questions addressing the descriptive characteristics of their respective departments. The characteristics of psychiatry programs identified as fiscally successful were compared to those of programs that required subsidy. Nine of 45 eligible children's hospitals (20%) did not have a department or section of psychiatry, and surveys were returned by 35 of 36 department chairs (97% response). Considerable variation exists in the academic, administrative, clinical services, and fiscal characteristics of programs, although over half are operating at a deficit. Fiscal success was associated with availability of inpatient and intermediate levels of psychiatric care, better integration of the psychiatry program within the children's hospital, and adequate fiscal information being provided to the psychiatry chair. Additional research regarding the potential of psychiatric services to generate clinical success and cost savings is warranted. Pediatric health care professionals and third-party payers should be educated regarding the relevance of psychiatric services within children's hospitals and in physically ill children.

  19. Conformations of [(R,R)-1,5-diaza-cis-decalin] copper (II) complex and its hydrogen bonding interaction with the crystal water: A combined experimental VA, UV-Vis and ECD spectroscopic and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezhahang, Zahra; Poopari, Mohammad Reza; Xu, Yunjie

    2012-09-01

    Chiral 1,5-diaza-cis-decalin ligand and its copper-complexes have found considerable applications in catalyzing enantioselective organic reactions. In the present article, (R,R)-1,5-diaza-cis-decalin ligand and its copper (II) hydroxide iodine hydrate complex have been investigated by using vibrational absorption (VA), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experimental spectroscopic measurements, as well as density functional theory modeling. An extensive theoretical conformational analysis of the ligand has revealed that the ligand can adopt a good number of orientations in terms of its frame conformations, i.e. Chair-Chair, Chair-Boat, and Boat-Boat, the proximal (also denoted as in) and distal (out) positions for its two N atoms, and the equatorial (e) and axial (a) positions of its two amine H atoms. The most dominant conformation at room temperature was predicted to take on the Chair-Chair N-in H-ea configuration, based on the relative Gibbs free energy ordering at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level. The VA, vibrational CD, UV-Vis, and ECD spectra of the ligand conformers have been simulated. Conformational searches have also been carried out for the titled copper complex at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level and the dominant conformer was predicted to have the Chair-Chair N-in H-ee configuration for its ligands, with a close to 100% Boltzmann population factor at room temperature. Furthermore, geometry optimizations and spectral simulations have been performed for the hydrogen bonded cluster of the complex with the crystal water. The effects of hydrogen bonding interaction with the crystal water on the VA, VCD, UV-Vis, and ECD spectra have been discussed. The interaction with the water molecule has been found to have significant impacts on the appearance of VA, VCD and ECD spectra and its inclusion is essential to obtain satisfactory interpretations of the experimental VA and ECD spectra.

  20. Targeting Inactive Enzyme Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sijiu; Zeng, Li-Fan; Wu, Li; Yu, Xiao; Xue, Ting; Gunawan, Andrea M.; Ya-Qiu, Long; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2009-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a therapeutic target for diabetes, obesity, as well as cancer. Identifying inhibitory compounds with good bioavailability is a major challenge of drug discovery programs targeted toward PTPs. Most current PTP active site-directed pharmacophores are negatively charged pTyr mimetics which cannot readily enter the cell. This lack of cell permeability limits the utility of such compounds in signaling studies and further therapeutic development. We identify aryl diketoacids as novel pTyr surrogates and show that neutral amide-linked aryl diketoacid dimers also exhibit excellent PTP inhibitory activity. Kinetic studies establish that these aryl diketoacid derivatives act as noncompetitive inhibitors of PTP1B. Crystal structures of ligand-bound PTP1B reveal that both the aryl diketoacid and its dimeric derivative bind PTP1B at the active site, albeit with distinct modes of interaction, in the catalytically inactive, WPD loop open conformation. Furthermore, dimeric aryl diketoacids are cell permeable and enhance insulin signaling in hepatoma cells, suggesting that targeting the inactive conformation may provide a unique opportunity for creating active site-directed PTP1B inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties. PMID:19012396

  1. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-10-15

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced.

  2. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  3. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  4. 76 FR 35007 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Country of Origin of Certain Office Chairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... components. The components from China of the SAYL chairs include: casters, tilt assembly, cylinder, arm... liner may be sewn into the back side of the cover. A button hole also is sewn into the back side of...

  5. A radiolucent chair for sitting-posture radiographs in non-ambulatory children: use in biplanar digital slot-scanning.

    PubMed

    Bouloussa, Houssam; Dubory, Arnaud; Seiler, Catherine; Morel, Baptiste; Bachy, Manon; Vialle, Raphaël

    2015-11-01

    EOS imaging (EOS System; EOS imaging, Paris, France) enables fast 2-D/3-D imaging of children in standing load-bearing position. Non-ambulatory children with neuromuscular scoliosis need evaluation of their spinal balance while in a normal daily position. We designed a customized chair fitting the EOS patient-area dimensions to obtain images in natural sitting postures. The chair is a 360° rotating orthopaedic chair made of fully radiolucent polyethylene and equipped with an adjustable headrest and three-point belts. Out of 41 consecutive patients, 36 (88%, 95% confidence interval 74-96%) had successful imaging. In most patients with severe neuromuscular trunk deformities, the EOS system combined with our chair was useful for assessing preoperative trunk collapse, pelvic obliquity and postoperative corrections in all planes. This specific device changed our daily practice for the assessment of spinal deformities in non-ambulatory patients. PMID:26111869

  6. Recent Advances in Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, James; Chaykov, Spasen

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in alternative gravitational theories. Although MOND remains the leading candidate among the alternative models, Conformal Gravity has been studied by Mannheim and O'Brien to solve the rotation curve problem without the need for dark matter. Recently, Mannheim, O'Brien and Chaykov have begun solving other gravitational questions in Conformal Gravity. In this presentation, we highlight the new work of Conformal Gravity's application to random motions of clusters (the original Zwicky problem), gravitational bending of light, gravitational lensing and a very recent survey of dwarf galaxy rotation curves. We will show in each case that Conformal Gravity can provide an accurate explanation and prediction of the data without the need for dark matter. Coupled with the fact that Conformal Gravity is a fully re-normalizable metric theory of gravity, these results help to push Conformal Gravity onto a competitive stage against other alternative models.

  7. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  8. Killing and conformal Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Konstantin; Moroianu, Andrei; Semmelmann, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an appropriate formalism in order to study conformal Killing (symmetric) tensors on Riemannian manifolds. We reprove in a simple way some known results in the field and obtain several new results, like the classification of conformal Killing 2-tensors on Riemannian products of compact manifolds, Weitzenböck formulas leading to non-existence results, and construct various examples of manifolds with conformal Killing tensors.

  9. Effectiveness of a Batteryless and Wireless Wearable Sensor System for Identifying Bed and Chair Exits in Healthy Older People.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roberto Luis Shinmoto; Visvanathan, Renuka; Hoskins, Stephen; van den Hengel, Anton; Ranasinghe, Damith C

    2016-04-15

    Aging populations are increasing worldwide and strategies to minimize the impact of falls on older people need to be examined. Falls in hospitals are common and current hospital technological implementations use localized sensors on beds and chairs to alert caregivers of unsupervised patient ambulations; however, such systems have high false alarm rates. We investigate the recognition of bed and chair exits in real-time using a wireless wearable sensor worn by healthy older volunteers. Fourteen healthy older participants joined in supervised trials. They wore a batteryless, lightweight and wireless sensor over their attire and performed a set of broadly scripted activities. We developed a movement monitoring approach for the recognition of bed and chair exits based on a machine learning activity predictor. We investigated the effectiveness of our approach in generating bed and chair exit alerts in two possible clinical deployments (Room 1 and Room 2). The system obtained recall results above 93% (Room 2) and 94% (Room 1) for bed and chair exits, respectively. Precision was >78% and 67%, respectively, while F-score was >84% and 77% for bed and chair exits, respectively. This system has potential for real-time monitoring but further research in the final target population of older people is necessary.

  10. Effectiveness of a Batteryless and Wireless Wearable Sensor System for Identifying Bed and Chair Exits in Healthy Older People

    PubMed Central

    Shinmoto Torres, Roberto Luis; Visvanathan, Renuka; Hoskins, Stephen; van den Hengel, Anton; Ranasinghe, Damith C.

    2016-01-01

    Aging populations are increasing worldwide and strategies to minimize the impact of falls on older people need to be examined. Falls in hospitals are common and current hospital technological implementations use localized sensors on beds and chairs to alert caregivers of unsupervised patient ambulations; however, such systems have high false alarm rates. We investigate the recognition of bed and chair exits in real-time using a wireless wearable sensor worn by healthy older volunteers. Fourteen healthy older participants joined in supervised trials. They wore a batteryless, lightweight and wireless sensor over their attire and performed a set of broadly scripted activities. We developed a movement monitoring approach for the recognition of bed and chair exits based on a machine learning activity predictor. We investigated the effectiveness of our approach in generating bed and chair exit alerts in two possible clinical deployments (Room 1 and Room 2). The system obtained recall results above 93% (Room 2) and 94% (Room 1) for bed and chair exits, respectively. Precision was >78% and 67%, respectively, while F-score was >84% and 77% for bed and chair exits, respectively. This system has potential for real-time monitoring but further research in the final target population of older people is necessary. PMID:27092506

  11. Reflections on conformal spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungrok; Kravchuk, Petr; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2016-04-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function.

  12. Capturing Chromosome Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Job; Rippe, Karsten; Dekker, Martijn; Kleckner, Nancy

    2002-02-01

    We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

  13. A Comparison of the ab Initio Calculated and Experimental Conformational Energies of Alkylcyclohexanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Fillmore; Tsegai, Zufan M.; Kasner, Marc L.; Hehre, Warren J.

    2000-05-01

    Ab initio 6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d)//6-31G(d) methods were used to calculate the energies of the rotamers of the chair conformers of alkylcyclohexanes and trimethylsilylcyclohexane. The MP2/6-31G(d)//6-31G(d) calculated conformational energies ( ? or A values, in kcal/mol) of the alkylcyclohexanes (Me = 1.96; Et = 1.80; Pr = 1.73 iso-Pr = 1.60; t-Bu = 5.45; neo-pent = 1.32) and trimethylsilylcyclohexane (SiMe3 = 2.69) are similar to the experimental values. Plots of the calculated conformational energies for the alkylcyclohexanes and trimethylsilylcyclohexane versus their experimental values are linear (slope = 1.253 and r = .993 for 6-31G(d) and slope = 1.114 and r = .982 for MP2/6-31G(d)//6-31G(d)). The conformational energies are determined primarily by steric effects which include gauche (synclinal) interactions and repulsive nonbonded interactions in both the axial and equatorial conformers.

  14. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future. PMID:23654033

  15. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.

  16. Conformal gravity and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazboun, Jeffrey Shafiq

    2014-10-01

    Cartan geometry provides a rich formalism from which to look at various geometrically motivated extensions to general relativity. In this manuscript, we start by motivating reasons to extend the theory of general relativity. We then introduce the reader to our technique, called the quotient manifold method, for extending the geometry of spacetime. We will specifically look at the class of theories formed from the various quotients of the conformal group. Starting with the conformal symmetries of Euclidean space, we construct a manifold where time manifests as a part of the geometry. Though there is no matter present in the geome- try studied here, geometric terms analogous to dark energy and dark matter appear when we write down the Einstein tensor. Specifically, the quotient of the conformal group of Euclidean four-space by its Weyl subgroup results in a geometry possessing many of the properties of relativistic phase space, including both a natural symplectic form and nondegenerate Killing metric. We show the general solution possesses orthogonal Lagrangian submanifolds, with the induced metric and the spin connection on the submanifolds necessarily Lorentzian, despite the Euclidean starting point. By examining the structure equations of the biconformal space in an orthonormal frame adapted to its phase space properties, we also find two new tensor fields exist in this geometry, not present in Riemannian geometry. The first is a combination of the Weyl vector with the scale factor on the metric, and determines the time-like directions on the submanifolds. The second comes from the components of the spin connection, symmetric with respect to the new metric. Though this field comes from the spin connection, it transforms ho- mogeneously. Finally, we show in the absence of Cartan curvature or sources, the configuration space has geometric terms equivalent to a perfect fluid and a cosmological constant. We complete the analysis of this homogeneous space by

  17. Conformal Transformations and Space Travel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S N

    1961-10-27

    Conformal transformations are applied to the motion of a space ship experiencing a constant acceleration. The role of proper time is interpreted in terms of atomic periods, and the relationship between the conformal transformations and the general theory of relativity is clarified.

  18. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  19. [Conformal radiotherapy: principles and classification].

    PubMed

    Rosenwald, J C; Gaboriaud, G; Pontvert, D

    1999-01-01

    'Conformal radiotherapy' is the name fixed by usage and given to a new form of radiotherapy resulting from the technological improvements observed during, the last ten years. While this terminology is now widely used, no precise definition can be found in the literature. Conformal radiotherapy refers to an approach in which the dose distribution is more closely 'conformed' or adapted to the actual shape of the target volume. However, the achievement of a consensus on a more specific definition is hampered by various difficulties, namely in characterizing the degree of 'conformality'. We have therefore suggested a classification scheme be established on the basis of the tools and the procedures actually used for all steps of the process, i.e., from prescription to treatment completion. Our classification consists of four levels: schematically, at level 0, there is no conformation (rectangular fields); at level 1, a simple conformation takes place, on the basis of conventional 2D imaging; at level 2, a 3D reconstruction of the structures is used for a more accurate conformation; and level 3 includes research and advanced dynamic techniques. We have used our personal experience, contacts with colleagues and data from the literature to analyze all the steps of the planning process, and to define the tools and procedures relevant to a given level. The corresponding tables have been discussed and approved at the European level within the Dynarad concerted action. It is proposed that the term 'conformal radiotherapy' be restricted to procedures where all steps are at least at level 2.

  20. Optical rotary dispersion studies. 129. Conformational isotope effects and octant contributions of CD/sub 3/ and /sup 13/CH/sub 3/ groups in cyclohexanone

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.F.; Edgar, M.; Pak, C.S.; Barth, G.; Djerassi, C.

    1980-07-02

    Through the variable-temperature circular dichroism measurements of (2S)-2-methyl-d/sub 3/-2-methylcyclohexanone (2) and (2S)-2-methyl-/sup 13/C-2-methylcyclohexanone (4), quantitative values for the conformational isotope effect are obtained. The chair conformation with the heavier isotope in the equatorial position is found to be energetically preferred by 3,4 and 1.5 cal/mol for 3 and 4, respectively, and empirical force-field calculations qualitatively confirm this view. The CD/sub 3/ and /sup 13/CH/sub 3/ groups act as weaker octant perturbers compared to CH/sub 3/.

  1. Recursion relations for conformal blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-01

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension Δ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in [1] for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  2. [90th anniversary of the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine Poznan University of Medical Sciences].

    PubMed

    Zaba, Czesław

    2011-01-01

    The paper outlines the history of the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine Poznan University of Medical Sciences since it was established until today. Changes in the appearance and organization of the seat of the institution were discussed briefly. The profiles of all former heads of the Department, their contribution to the development and improvement of the institution and formation of the new scientific forensic medicine staff were presented. The specification and analysis of the scientific staff achievements was performed, especially taking into account their scientific publications and scope of the research that contributed to the efficient service activities for the prosecution and police, as well as society.

  3. "Astronomy from the Chair" - A New Way of Doing Astronomy over Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomic, Z.; Aleksic, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes how the emergence of the Internet enabled astronomy to become more prevalent as a hobby and contribute to the further development of the new concept of amateur astronomy, "Astronomy from the Chair" (example: Astronomy Live and Virtual Astronomy Telescope Project Group). In this paper we also present the observatories that make it possible to take direct control over their equipment and to conduct observation and photography (example: MyTelescope and Virtual Telescope Project Group), and virtual observatories which can be accessed huge databases and carry out its processing directly through the Internet (example: Galaxy Zoo, Planet Hunters and citizensky).

  4. The Henry Cecil Ranson McBay Chair in Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bota, Kofi B.; King, James, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The goals and objectives of the Henry Cecil Ransom McBay Chair in Space Sciences were to: (1) provide leadership in developing and expanding Space Science curriculum; (2) contribute to the research and education endeavors of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program; (3) expand opportunities for education and hands-on research in Space and Earth Sciences; (4) enhance scientific and technological literacy at all educational levels and to increase awareness of opportunities in the Space Sciences; and (5) develop a pipeline, starting with high school, of African American students who will develop into a cadre of well-trained scientists with interest in Space Science Research and Development.

  5. Conformal Fermi Coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Liang; Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian E-mail: Enrico.pajer@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC) are a useful frame for isolating the locally observable, physical effects of a long-wavelength spacetime perturbation. Their cosmological application, however, is hampered by the fact that they are only valid on scales much smaller than the horizon. We introduce a generalization that we call Conformal Fermi Coordinates (CFC). CFC preserve all the advantages of FNC, but in addition are valid outside the horizon. They allow us to calculate the coupling of long- and short-wavelength modes on all scales larger than the sound horizon of the cosmological fluid, starting from the epoch of inflation until today, by removing the complications of the second order Einstein equations to a large extent, and eliminating all gauge ambiguities. As an application, we present a calculation of the effect of long-wavelength tensor modes on small scale density fluctuations. We recover previous results, but clarify the physical content of the individual contributions in terms of locally measurable effects and ''projection'' terms.

  6. Dynamics of protein conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Maria

    2010-10-01

    A novel theoretical methodology is introduced to identify dynamic structural domains and analyze local flexibility in proteins. The methodology employs a multiscale approach combining identification of essential collective coordinates based on the covariance analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories, construction of the Mori projection operator with these essential coordinates, and analysis of the corresponding generalized Langevin equations [M.Stepanova, Phys.Rev.E 76(2007)051918]. Because the approach employs a rigorous theory, the outcomes are physically transparent: the dynamic domains are associated with regions of relative rigidity in the protein, whereas off-domain regions are relatively soft. This also allows scoring the flexibility in the macromolecule with atomic-level resolution [N.Blinov, M.Berjanskii, D.S.Wishart, and M.Stepanova, Biochemistry, 48(2009)1488]. The applications include the domain coarse-graining and characterization of conformational stability in protein G and prion proteins. The results are compared with published NMR experiments. Potential applications for structural biology, bioinformatics, and drug design are discussed.

  7. Comparative conformational study of α and β epimers of 3-phenethyl-3-azabicyclo [3.2.1] octan-8-ol with atropine and azaprophen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, M. S.; Galvez, E.; Somoza, A.

    1990-03-01

    Conformational analysis of α(I) and β(II) epimers of 3-phenethyl-3-azabicyclo [3.2.1] octan-8-ol has been performed using the Molecular Mechanics Method (MM2). In both cases, the global minimum-energy conformer was the slight distorted chair form with the N-phenethyl group in equatorial position. The preferred conformation is in agreement with the form adopted in solid state and in solution in polar solvents. Higher energy differences between N-axial and N-equatorial conformations have been found with respect to tropine and 6-methyl-6-azabicyclo [3.2.1] octan-3-α-ol, the am i noalcohols components of atropine and azaprophen.

  8. Towards conformal loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H-T Wang, Charles

    2006-03-01

    A discussion is given of recent developments in canonical gravity that assimilates the conformal analysis of gravitational degrees of freedom. The work is motivated by the problem of time in quantum gravity and is carried out at the metric and the triad levels. At the metric level, it is shown that by extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) phase space of general relativity (GR), a conformal form of geometrodynamics can be constructed. In addition to the Hamiltonian and Diffeomorphism constraints, an extra first class constraint is introduced to generate conformal transformations. This phase space consists of York's mean extrinsic curvature time, conformal three-metric and their momenta. At the triad level, the phase space of GR is further enlarged by incorporating spin-gauge as well as conformal symmetries. This leads to a canonical formulation of GR using a new set of real spin connection variables. The resulting gravitational constraints are first class, consisting of the Hamiltonian constraint and the canonical generators for spin-gauge and conformorphism transformations. The formulation has a remarkable feature of being parameter-free. Indeed, it is shown that a conformal parameter of the Barbero-Immirzi type can be absorbed by the conformal symmetry of the extended phase space. This gives rise to an alternative approach to loop quantum gravity that addresses both the conceptual problem of time and the technical problem of functional calculus in quantum gravity.

  9. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more

  10. Molecular mechanics approach for design and conformational studies of macrocyclic ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Rohini,; Akbar, Rifat; Kanungo, B. K.

    2015-08-28

    Computational Chemistry has revolutionized way of viewing molecules at the quantum mechanical scale by allowing simulating various chemical scenarios that are not possible to study in a laboratory. The remarkable applications of computational chemistry have promoted to design and test of the effectiveness of various methods for searching the conformational space of highly flexible molecules. In this context, we conducted a series of optimization and conformational searches on macrocyclic based ligands, 9N3Me5Ox, (1,4,7-tris(5-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) and 12N3Me5Ox, (1,5,9-tris(5-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline)-1,5,9-triazacyclododecane) and studied their selectivity and coordination behavior with some lanthanide metal ions in molecular mechanics and semiempirical methods. The methods include both systematic and random conformational searches for dihedral angles, torsion angles and Cartesian coordinates. Structural studies were carried out by using geometry optimization, coordination scans and electronic properties were evaluated. The results clearly show that chair-boat conformational isomer of 9N3Me5Ox ligand is more stable due to lower eclipsing ethane interaction and form stronger adduct complexes with lanthanide metal ion. This is because of the fact that, in a central unit of 9N3 of the ligand form six endo type bonds out of nine. The rest of bonds have trans conformation. In contrast, for the adduct of 12N3Me5Ox, two C-C bonds have on eclipsed conformation, and others have synclinal and antiperiplanar confirmations. The distortion of the two eclipsed conformations may affect the yields and the stability of the complexes.

  11. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2002-02-28

    This technical progress report describes work performed from June 20 through December 19, 2001, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels''. Interest has increased in some new polymeric products that purport to substantially reduce permeability to water while causing minimum permeability reduction to oil. In view of this interest, we are currently studying BJ's Aqua Con. Results from six corefloods revealed that the Aqua Con gelant consistently reduced permeability to water more than that to oil. However, the magnitude of the disproportionate permeability reduction varied significantly for the various experiments. Thus, as with most materials tested to date, the issue of reproducibility and control of the disproportionate permeability remains to be resolved. Concern exists about the ability of gels to resist washout after placement in fractures. We examined whether a width constriction in the middle of a fracture would cause different gel washout behavior upstream versus downstream of the constriction. Tests were performed using a formed Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel in a 48-in.-long fracture with three sections of equal length, but with widths of 0.08-, 0.02-, and 0.08-in., respectively. The pressure gradients during gel extrusion (i.e., placement) were similar in the two 0.08-in.-wide fracture sections, even though they were separated by a 0.02-in.-wide fracture section. The constriction associated with the middle fracture section may have inhibited gel washout during the first pulse of brine injection after gel placement. However, during subsequent phases of brine injection, the constriction did not inhibit washout in the upstream fracture section any more than in the downstream section.

  12. The effect of overbooking on idle dental chair capacity in the Pretoria region of the Gauteng Oral Health Services.

    PubMed

    Holtshousen, W S J; Coetzee, E

    2012-09-01

    An analysis of annual reports revealed that on average 20% of patient appointments with oral hygienists in the Department of Health in the Pretoria region were not utilised due to patient noncompliance (i.e. broken appointments). Many solutions have been considered to address the high rate of noncompliance and the resulting idle chair capacity. One solution selected to overcome some of the negative consequences of broken appointments was deliberate overbooking. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of overbooking on idle dental chair capacity by measuring the utilisation rate over a three month period (July to September) after 25% overbooking was introduced in the Pretoria region. A statistical analysis was conducted on our results to determine an overbooking rate that would ensure full utilisation of the available dental chair capacity. The available time units over the three month study period amounted to 1365, allocated to 1427 patients resulting in an overal overbooking rate of 4.54%. The overall utilisation rate was found to be 79.2%. The calculated regression line estimated that there would be full utilisation of dental chair capacity at an overbooking rate of 26.7%. Overbooking at the levels applied in this study had a minimal overall effect on idle dental chair capacity. Our results confirm the need for careful planning and management in addressing noncompliance. In a manner similar to the clinical situation, organisational development requires a correct diagnosis in order that an appropriate and effective intervention may be designed.

  13. A smart health monitoring chair for nonintrusive measurement of biological signals.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Chung, Gih Sung; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-01-01

    We developed nonintrusive methods for simultaneous electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, and ballistocardiogram measurements that do not require direct contact between instruments and bare skin. These methods were applied to the design of a diagnostic chair for unconstrained heart rate and blood pressure monitoring purposes. Our methods were operationalized through capacitively coupled electrodes installed in the chair back that include high-input impedance amplifiers, and conductive textiles installed in the seat for capacitive driven-right-leg circuit configuration that is capable of recording electrocardiogram information through clothing. Photoplethysmograms were measured through clothing using seat mounted sensors with specially designed amplifier circuits that vary in light intensity according to clothing type. Ballistocardiograms were recorded using a film type transducer material, polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), which was installed beneath the seat cover. By simultaneously measuring signals, beat-to-beat heart rates could be monitored even when electrocardiograms were not recorded due to movement artifacts. Beat-to-beat blood pressure was also monitored using unconstrained measurements of pulse arrival time and other physiological parameters, and our experimental results indicated that the estimated blood pressure tended to coincide with actual blood pressure measurements. This study demonstrates the feasibility of our method and device for biological signal monitoring through clothing for unconstrained long-term daily health monitoring that does not require user awareness and is not limited by physical activity.

  14. Simulation of a Congress at the Chair of Biology II in Bioengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, A. V.; Reznichenco, V.; López, N.; Hernández, R.; Bajinay, S.

    2007-11-01

    This work has been developed in the Chair of Biology II, the curricular contents of which correspond to Human Anatomy. This subject is taught in the second semester of the second year of studies in Bioengineering. Our main objective is that the students attending the course may integrate the syllabus contents of Anatomy with those of other subjects in the career. Ever since 1998 we have organized a congress named Congreso Intracátedra de Biología II (Intra Chair Congress on Biology II). This is the last assignment in the semester and is compulsory for regular students of the subject. It consists in simulating a scientific congress with international characteristics. The guidelines for the congress are made known to the students at the beginning of the semester. In groups of up to three members, the students must undertake a work that relates aspects of Anatomy with Bioengineering. Students are expected to investigate on diagnostic and/or therapeutic technology in order to write a paper that must be accepted in advance of the event. The presentation of the work must be made through PowerPoint. The originality of the research work done and the wide range of topics selected are surprising. Problems are tackled from the standpoints both of the various medical fields and of bioengineering despite the fact that they are just students of the second year in Bioengineering.

  15. Characteristics of highly successful orthopedic surgeons: a survey of orthopedic chairs and editors

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Guy; Hussain, Nasir; Sprague, Sheila; Mehlman, Charles T.; Dogbey, Godwin; Bhandari, Mohit

    2013-01-01

    Background Highly successful orthopedic surgeons are a small group of individuals who exert a large influence on the orthopedic field. However, the characteristics of these leaders have not been well-described or studied. Methods Orthopedic surgeons who are departmental chairs, journal editors, editorial board members of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (British edition), or current or past presidents of major orthopedic associations were invited to complete a survey designed to provide insight into their motivations, academic backgrounds and accomplishments, emotional and physical health, and job satisfaction. Results In all, 152 surgeons completed the questionnaire. We identified several characteristics of highly successful surgeons. Many have contributed prolific numbers of publications and book chapters and obtained considerable funding for research. They were often motivated by a “desire for personal development (interesting challenge, new opportunities),” whereas “relocating to a new institution, financial gain, or lack of alternative candidates” played little to no role in their decisions to take positions of leadership. Most respondents were happy with their specialty choice despite long hours and high levels of stress. Despite challenges to their time, successful orthopedic surgeons made a strong effort to maintain their health; compared with other physicians, they exercise more, are more likely to have a primary care physician and feel better physically. Conclusion Departmental chairs, journal editors and presidents of orthopedic associations cope with considerable demands of clinical, administrative, educational and research duties while maintaining a high level of health, happiness and job satisfaction. PMID:23706848

  16. Physiological Motion Axis for the Seat of a Dynamic Office Chair

    PubMed Central

    Kuster, Roman Peter; Bauer, Christoph Markus; Oetiker, Sarah; Kool, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine and verify the optimal location of the motion axis (MA) for the seat of a dynamic office chair. Background A dynamic seat that supports pelvic motion may improve physical well-being and decrease the risk of sitting-associated disorders. However, office work requires an undisturbed view on the work task, which means a stable position of the upper trunk and head. Current dynamic office chairs do not fulfill this need. Consequently, a dynamic seat was adapted to the physiological kinematics of the human spine. Method Three-dimensional motion tracking in free sitting helped determine the physiological MA of the spine in the frontal plane. Three dynamic seats with physiological, lower, and higher MA were compared in stable upper body posture (thorax inclination) and seat support of pelvic motion (dynamic fitting accuracy). Spinal kinematics during sitting and walking were compared. Results The physiological MA was at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra, causing minimal thorax inclination and high dynamic fitting accuracy. Spinal motion in active sitting and walking was similar. Conclusion The physiological MA of the seat allows considerable lateral flexion of the spine similar to walking with a stable upper body posture and a high seat support of pelvic motion. Application The physiological MA enables lateral flexion of the spine, similar to walking, without affecting stable upper body posture, thus allowing active sitting while focusing on work. PMID:27150530

  17. [Characteristics of the formation of conditioned defense reactions in monkeys in a primatological chair].

    PubMed

    Karamian, A I; Sollertinskaia, T N; Iliukha, V A

    1987-01-01

    Rate of reactions in motor conditioned electro-defensive reflexes and different kinds of internal inhibition, such as acute extinction, differentiation and delay with different retardations, were studied on monkeys in primatological chair. Specificity in formation of conditioned reactions was studied with simultaneous recording of vegetative (respiration and heart rate) and motor conditioned reactions. It has been established, that forming of vegetative and motor components of defensive reflex does not proceed synchronously. At first (2-4 trials) vegetative reactions appear, such as increase of heart and respiration rates. Conditioned motor reactions (legs' jerks) appear later, after 4-9 trials. It has been shown that in monkeys in the primatological chair we have a possibility to form all kinds of negative conditioned defensive reactions: acute extinction, differentiation, delay. Formation of delay inhibition with retardation of 90 s leads to neurotic disorders. But they last only for short periods and disappear after breaks in work. The obtained data are discussed from evolutionary point of view, with a comparative study of specificity of higher nervous activity formation among lower organized vertebrates and with consideration of processes of excitation and inhibition in evolution.

  18. Are pressure measurements effective in the assessment of office chair comfort/discomfort? A review.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Roland; Taylor, William R; Lorenzetti, Silvio

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, the majority of jobs in the western world involves sitting in an office chair. As a result, a comfortable and supported sitting position is essential for employees. In the literature, various objective methods (e.g. pressure measurements, measurements of posture, EMG etc.) have been used to assess sitting comfort/discomfort, but their validity remains unknown. This review therefore examines the relationship between subjective comfort/discomfort and pressure measurements while sitting in office chairs. The literature search resulted in eight papers that met all our requirements. Four studies identified a relationship between subjective comfort/discomfort and pressure distribution parameters (including correlations of up to r = 0.7 ± 0.13). However, the technique for evaluating subjective comfort/discomfort seems to play an important role on the results achieved, therefore placing their validity into question. The peak pressure on the seat pan, the pressure distribution on the backrest and the pressure pattern changes (seat pan and backrest) all appear to be reliable measures for quantifying comfort or discomfort.

  19. Different Brain Responses to Pain and Its Expectation in the Dental Chair.

    PubMed

    Racek, A J; Hu, X; Nascimento, T D; Bender, M C; Khatib, L; Chiego, D; Holland, G R; Bauer, P; McDonald, N; Ellwood, R P; DaSilva, A F

    2015-07-01

    A dental appointment commonly prompts fear of a painful experience, yet we have never fully understood how our brains react to the expectation of imminent tooth pain once in a dental chair. In our study, 21 patients with hypersensitive teeth were tested using nonpainful and painful stimuli in a clinical setting. Subjects were tested in a dental chair using functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure cortical activity during a stepwise cold stimulation of a hypersensitive tooth, as well as nonpainful control stimulation on the same tooth. Patients' sensory-discriminative and emotional-cognitive cortical regions were studied through the transition of a neutral to a painful stimulation. In the putative somatosensory cortex contralateral to the stimulus, 2 well-defined hemodynamic peaks were detected in the homuncular orofacial region: the first peak during the nonpainful phase and a second peak after the pain threshold was reached. Moreover, in the upper-left and lower-right prefrontal cortices, there was a significant active hemodynamic response in only the first phase, before the pain. Subsequently, the same prefrontal cortical areas deactivated after a painful experience had been reached. Our study indicates for the first time that pain perception and expectation elicit different hemodynamic cortical responses in a dental clinical setting. PMID:25904140

  20. Arthroscopically Assisted Latissimus Dorsi Tendon Transfer in Beach-Chair Position

    PubMed Central

    Jermolajevas, Viktoras; Kordasiewicz, Bartlomiej

    2015-01-01

    Irreparable rotator cuff tears remain a surgical problem. The open technique of latissimus dorsi (LD) tendon transfer to “replace” the irreparable rotator cuff is already well known. The aim of this article is to present a modified arthroscopically assisted LD tendon transfer technique. This technique was adopted to operate on patients in the beach-chair position with several improvements in tendon harvesting and fixation. It can be divided into 6 steps, and only 1 step—LD muscle and tendon release—is performed open. The advantages of the arthroscopic procedure are sparing of the deltoid muscle, the possibility of repairing the subscapularis tendon, and the ability to visualize structures at risk while performing tendon harvesting (radial nerve) and passing into the subacromial space (axillary nerve). It is performed in a similar manner to standard rotator cuff surgery—the beach-chair position does not need any modification, and no sophisticated equipment for either the open or arthroscopic part of the procedure is necessary. Nevertheless, this is a challenging procedure and should only be attempted after training, as well as extensive practice. PMID:26759777

  1. Jean-Martin Charcot and his vibratory chair for Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G

    2009-08-11

    Vibration therapy is currently used in diverse medical specialties ranging from orthopedics to urology to sports medicine. The celebrated 19th-century neurologist, J.-M. Charcot, used vibratory therapy to treat Parkinson disease (PD). This study analyzed printed writings by Charcot and other writers on vibratory therapy and accessed unpublished notes from the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris. Charcot lectured on several occasions on vibratory therapy and its neurologic applications. He developed a vibration chair for patients with PD after he observed that patients were more comfortable and slept better after a train or carriage ride. He replicated this experience by having patients undergo daily 30-minute sessions in the automated vibratory chair (fauteuil trépidant). His junior colleague, Gilles de la Tourette, extended these observations and developed a helmet that vibrated the head on the premise that the brain responded directly to the pulsations. Although after Charcot's death vibratory therapy was not widely pursued, vibratory appliances are reemerging in 21st century medicine and can be retested using adaptations of Charcot's neurologic protocols.

  2. A smart health monitoring chair for nonintrusive measurement of biological signals.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Chung, Gih Sung; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-01-01

    We developed nonintrusive methods for simultaneous electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, and ballistocardiogram measurements that do not require direct contact between instruments and bare skin. These methods were applied to the design of a diagnostic chair for unconstrained heart rate and blood pressure monitoring purposes. Our methods were operationalized through capacitively coupled electrodes installed in the chair back that include high-input impedance amplifiers, and conductive textiles installed in the seat for capacitive driven-right-leg circuit configuration that is capable of recording electrocardiogram information through clothing. Photoplethysmograms were measured through clothing using seat mounted sensors with specially designed amplifier circuits that vary in light intensity according to clothing type. Ballistocardiograms were recorded using a film type transducer material, polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), which was installed beneath the seat cover. By simultaneously measuring signals, beat-to-beat heart rates could be monitored even when electrocardiograms were not recorded due to movement artifacts. Beat-to-beat blood pressure was also monitored using unconstrained measurements of pulse arrival time and other physiological parameters, and our experimental results indicated that the estimated blood pressure tended to coincide with actual blood pressure measurements. This study demonstrates the feasibility of our method and device for biological signal monitoring through clothing for unconstrained long-term daily health monitoring that does not require user awareness and is not limited by physical activity. PMID:22086543

  3. Crystal structures and conformational analyses of three pyranochromene derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, K.; Sethusankar, K.; Kumar, G. Siva; Bakthadoss, M.

    2015-01-01

    The title compounds, C27H20O6, (I) [systematic name: methyl 7-oxo-14-phenyl-1H,7H,14H-pyrano[3,2-c:5,4-c′]dichromene-14a(6bH)-carboxyl­ate], C24H22O5, (II) [systematic name: methyl 1-oxo-6-phenyl-2,3,4,12b-tetra­hydro-1H,6H-chromeno[3,4-c]chromene-6a(7H)-carboxyl­ate], and C25H23N3O4, (III) [systematic name: 6-(4-ethyl­phen­yl)-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxo-2,3,4,12b-tetra­hydro-1H,6H-chromeno[4′,3′:4,5]pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6a(7H)-carbo­nitrile], are pyran­ochromene derivatives. The central pyran rings (B) of compounds (I) and (III) adopt half-chair conformations, whereas that of compound (II) adopts a sofa conformation. The pyran rings (A) of the chromene ring systems of compounds (II) and (III) adopt half-chair conformations, while that of compound (I) adopts a sofa conformation. The mean plane of the central pyran rings (B) make dihedral angles of 70.02 (6), 61.52 (6) and 69.12 (7)°, respectively, with the mean planes of the chromene moieties (C+A) of compounds (I), (II) and (III). The bicyclic coumarin ring system (C+A+B+E) in compound (I) is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.042 Å). The carbo­nitrile side chain in compound (III) is very nearly linear, with the C—C N angle being 176.6 (2)°. The cyclo­hexene ring (E), fused with the central pyran ring (B) in compound (II) adopts a sofa conformation. In the mol­ecular structures of compounds (II) and (III), there are C—H⋯O short contacts, which generate S(7) ring motifs. In the crystal structures of the title compounds, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which generate mol­ecular sheets parallel to the ab plane, with R 4 3(28) loops in (I), inversion dimers with R 2 2(10) loops in (II) and chains along [010] with R 2 2(12) ring motifs in (III). In the crystal structures of (I) and (III), there are also C—H⋯π inter­actions present, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional framework in (II) and to sheets parallel to (101) in (III). PMID:26396757

  4. Conformational Landscape of Nicotinoids: Solving the "conformational - Rity" of Anabasine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesarri, Alberto; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Evangelisti, Luca; Suenram, Richard D.; Caminati, Walther; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2010-06-01

    The conformational landscape of the alkaloid anabasine (neonicotine) has been investigated using rotational spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The results allow a detailed comparison of the structural properties of the prototype piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nicotinoids (anabasine vs. nicotine). Anabasine adopts two most stable conformations in isolation conditions, for which we determined accurate rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling parameters. The preferred conformations are characterized by an equatorial pyridine moiety and additional N-H equatorial stereochemistry at the piperidine ring (Eq-Eq). The two rings of anabasine are close to a bisecting arrangement, with the observed conformations differing in a ca. 180° rotation of the pyridine subunit, denoted either Syn or Anti. The preference of anabasine for the Eq-Eq-Syn conformation has been established by relative intensity measurements (Syn/Anti˜5(2)). The conformational preferences of free anabasine are directed by a N\\cdot\\cdot\\cdotH-C weak hydrogen bond interaction between the nitrogen lone pair at piperidine and the closest hydrogen bond in pyridine, with N\\cdot\\cdot\\cdotN distances ranging from 4.750 Å (Syn) to 4.233 Å (Anti). R. J. Lavrich, R. D. Suenram, D. F. Plusquellic and S. Davis, 58^th OSU Int. Symp. on Mol. Spectrosc., Columbus, OH, 2003, Comm. RH13.

  5. Synthesis, characterisation, conformational preferences, dynamic NMR studies and antimicrobial evaluation of N-nitroso- and N-formyl-c-3,t-3-dimethyl-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnuswamy, S.; Akila, A.; Kiruthiga devi, D.; Maheshwaran, V.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2016-04-01

    The stereochemical preferences of N-nitroso- and N-formyl-c-3,t-3-dimethyl-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-ones 3 & 4, respectively, have been determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectral techniques. Interestingly, the N-nitroso compound 3 is found to prefer an equilibrium between alternate chair conformations with diaxial phenyl groups, while the N-formyl compound 4 prefers flattened boat conformation. This is stereochemically a novel report on the flexible rings adopting a chair conformation with diaxial phenyl groups. The X-ray crystal structure of N-nitroso-c-3,t-3-dimethyl-r-2,c-7-diphenyl-1,4-diazepan-5-one (3) also supports the chair conformation with diaxial phenyl groups. Dynamic 1H NMR spectral studies have been carried out on the N-nitroso and N-formyl diazepan-5-ones 3 &4 and the energy barriers for N-NO and N-CO rotations are found to be 88.7 and 75.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The antimicrobial activities have been determined for the compounds 2-4 and it is found that all the compounds exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities when compared to the standard chloramphenicol.

  6. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more

  7. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate, (3) using partially formed gels, (4

  8. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-03-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from September 1, 2003, through February 29, 2004, for the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' We examined the properties of several ''partially formed'' gels that were formulated with a combination of high and low molecular weight HPAM polymers. After placement in 4-mm-wide fractures, these gels required about 25 psi/ft for brine to breach the gel (the best performance to date in fractures this wide). After this breach, stabilized residual resistance factors decreased significantly with increased flow rate. Also, residual resistance factors were up to 9 times greater for water than for oil. Nevertheless, permeability reduction factors were substantial for both water and oil flow. Gel with 2.5% chopped fiberglass effectively plugged 4-mm-wide fractures if a 0.5-mm-wide constriction was present. The ability to screen-out at a constriction appears crucial for particulate incorporation to be useful in plugging fractures. In addition to fiberglass, we examined incorporation of polypropylene fibers into gels. Once dispersed in brine or gelant, the polypropylene fibers exhibited the least gravity segregation of any particulate that we have tested to date. In fractures with widths of at least 2 mm, 24-hr-old gels (0.5% high molecular weight HPAM) with 0.5% fiber did not exhibit progressive plugging during placement and showed extrusion pressure gradients similar to those of gels without the fiber. The presence of the fiber roughly doubled the gel's resistance to first breach by brine flow. The breaching pressure gradients were not as large as for gels made with high and low molecular weight polymers (mentioned above). However, their material requirements and costs (i.e., polymer and/or particulate concentrations) were substantially lower than for those gels. A partially formed gel made with 0.5% HPAM did not enter a 0.052-mm-wide fracture when applying a pressure gradient of 65 psi/ft. This result

  9. Radial coordinates for conformal blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogervorst, Matthijs; Rychkov, Slava

    2013-05-01

    We develop the theory of conformal blocks in CFTd expressing them as power series with Gegenbauer polynomial coefficients. Such series have a clear physical meaning when the conformal block is analyzed in radial quantization: individual terms describe contributions of descendants of a given spin. Convergence of these series can be optimized by a judicious choice of the radial quantization origin. We argue that the best choice is to insert the operators symmetrically. We analyze in detail the resulting “ρ-series” and show that it converges much more rapidly than for the commonly used variable z. We discuss how these conformal block representations can be used in the conformal bootstrap. In particular, we use them to derive analytically some bootstrap bounds whose existence was previously found numerically.

  10. Conformal mapping of rectangular heptagons

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatyrev, Andrei B

    2012-12-31

    A new effective approach to calculating the direct and inverse conformal mapping of rectangular polygons onto a half-plane is put forward; it is based on the use of Riemann theta functions. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  11. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE PAGES

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A

    2011-09-01

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore » does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  12. Solution NMR conformation of glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been giving a pivotal contribution to the progress of glycomics, mostly by elucidating the structural, dynamical, conformational and intermolecular binding aspects of carbohydrates. Particularly in the field of conformation, NOE resonances, scalar couplings, residual dipolar couplings, and chemical shift anisotropy offsets have been the principal NMR parameters utilized. Molecular dynamics calculations restrained by NMR-data input are usually employed in conjunction to generate glycosidic bond dihedral angles. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a special class of sulfated polysaccharides extensively studied worldwide. Besides regulating innumerous physiological processes, these glycans are also widely explored in the global market as either clinical or nutraceutical agents. The conformational aspects of GAGs are key regulators to the quality of interactions with the functional proteins involved in biological events. This report discusses the solution conformation of each GAG type analyzed by one or more of the above-mentioned methods.

  13. Arytenoid cartilage dislocation after reversed total shoulder replacement surgery in the beach chair position: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Yeo Hae; Choi, Jeong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Arytenoid cartilage dislocation is not a common complication, but its delayed diagnosis reduces the therapeutic effect of treatment. A male patient underwent reversed total shoulder replacement surgery in the beach chair position under general anesthesia. The patient experienced postoperative hoarseness, and it was revealed that he had right arytenoid dislocation. Voice restoration was accomplished with closed reduction. We discussed changes in patient position during the operation and how they may contribute to the arytenoid dislocation. Flexion and a slight rotation of the neck during the operation can lead to an increase in intracuff pressure of the endotracheal tube. It is necessary to check neck position and monitor intracuff pressure in patients undergoing operations in the beach chair position. Also, the anesthesiologist should suspect arytenoid dislocation in the case of persistent hoarseness after surgery in the beach chair position. PMID:27482316

  14. Scale invariance vs conformal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this review article, we discuss the distinction and possible equivalence between scale invariance and conformal invariance in relativistic quantum field theories. Under some technical assumptions, we can prove that scale invariant quantum field theories in d = 2 space-time dimensions necessarily possess the enhanced conformal symmetry. The use of the conformal symmetry is well appreciated in the literature, but the fact that all the scale invariant phenomena in d = 2 space-time dimensions enjoy the conformal property relies on the deep structure of the renormalization group. The outstanding question is whether this feature is specific to d = 2 space-time dimensions or it holds in higher dimensions, too. As of January 2014, our consensus is that there is no known example of scale invariant but non-conformal field theories in d = 4 space-time dimensions under the assumptions of (1) unitarity, (2) Poincaré invariance (causality), (3) discrete spectrum in scaling dimensions, (4) existence of scale current and (5) unbroken scale invariance in the vacuum. We have a perturbative proof of the enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance based on the higher dimensional analogue of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem, but the non-perturbative proof is yet to come. As a reference we have tried to collect as many interesting examples of scale invariance in relativistic quantum field theories as possible in this article. We give a complementary holographic argument based on the energy-condition of the gravitational system and the space-time diffeomorphism in order to support the claim of the symmetry enhancement. We believe that the possible enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance reveals the sublime nature of the renormalization group and space-time with holography. This review is based on a lecture note on scale invariance vs conformal invariance, on which the author gave lectures at Taiwan Central University for the 5th Taiwan School on Strings and

  15. Structure, conformation and hydrogen bonding of 4-( N-methylpiperidinium)-butyric acid bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Dulewicz, E.; Szafran, M.; Thaimattam, R.; Jaskolski, M.

    2007-02-01

    A 1:1 complex between 4-( N-methylpiperidinium)-butyrate inner salt (betaine) and hydrobromide, MPBUH·Br, has been characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P2 1/c, with a = 8.284(1), b = 10.369(1), c = 13.809(2) Å, β = 92.26(1)°. The piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation with the (CH 2) 3COOH substituent in the axial and the CH 3 group in the equatorial positions. In the crystal, the Br - anion is engaged in a medium-strong hydrogen bond with the COOH group (O sbnd H⋯Br - = 3.141(1) Å), N +⋯Br - electrostatic interactions and in several C sbnd H⋯Br - contacts with the aliphatic groups forming a cavity in which it is enclosed. Three conformers ( 2- 4) were optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level of theory. The most stable is conformer 4 with the (CH 2) 3COOH substituent in the equatorial position and the CH 3 group in the axial position. The stability of the investigated conformers is controlled by electrostatic interactions between the oppositely charged groups. The FTIR spectrum of MPBUH·Br shows a strong band at 2941 cm -1 due to νOH and the νC dbnd O band at 1712 cm -1.

  16. The clothing effect: Tactile neurons in the precentral gyrus do not respond to the touch of the familiar primate chair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziano, Michael S. A.; Alisharan, Shalani E.; Hu, Xintian; Gross, Charles G.

    2002-09-01

    Neurons in a restricted zone in the precentral gyrus of macaque monkeys respond to tactile, visual, and auditory stimuli. The tactile receptive fields of these multimodal cells are usually located on the face, arm, or upper torso. In the present study, in awake monkeys sitting in a primate chair, the neurons responded to a tactile probe touching the skin within the tactile receptive field. However, the same neurons did not respond when the tactile receptive field was touched by the primate chair, to which the monkey was habituated.

  17. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the flow capacity of

  18. To conform or not to conform: spontaneous conformity diminishes the sensitivity to monetary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjun; Sun, Sai

    2013-01-01

    When people have different opinions in a group, they often adjust their own attitudes and behaviors to match the group opinion, known as social conformity. The affiliation account of normative conformity states that people conform to norms in order to 'fit in', whereas the accuracy account of informative conformity posits that the motive to learn from others produces herding. Here, we test another possibility that following the crowd reduces the experienced negative emotion when the group decision turns out to be a bad one. Using event related potential (ERP) combined with a novel group gambling task, we found that participants were more likely to choose the option that was predominately chosen by other players in previous trials, although there was little explicit normative pressure at the decision stage and group choices were not informative. When individuals' choices were different from others, the feedback related negativity (FRN), an ERP component sensitive to losses and errors, was enhanced, suggesting that being independent is aversive. At the outcome stage, the losses minus wins FRN effect was significantly reduced following conformity choices than following independent choices. Analyses of the P300 revealed similar patterns both in the response and outcome period. Our study suggests that social conformity serves as an emotional buffer that protects individuals from experiencing strong negative emotion when the outcomes are bad.

  19. Common mode noise cancellation for electrically non-contact ECG measurement system on a chair.

    PubMed

    Keun Kim, Ko; Kyu Lim, Yong; Suk Park, Kwang

    2005-01-01

    Electrically non-contact ECG measurement system on a chair can be applied to a number of various fields for continuous health monitoring in daily life. However, the body is floated electrically for this system due to the capacitive electrodes and the floated body is very sensitive to the external noises or motion artifacts which affect the measurement system as the common mode noise. In this paper, the Driven-Seat-Ground circuit similar to the Driven-Right-Leg circuit is proposed to reduce the common mode noise. The analysis of this equivalent circuit is performed and the output signal waveforms are compared between with Driven-Seat-Ground and with capacitive ground. As the results, the Driven-Seat-Ground circuit improves significantly the properties of the fully capacitive ECG measurement system as the negative feedback.

  20. Do institutional logics predict interpretation of contract rules at the dental chair-side?

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca; Brown, Stephen; Holt, Robin; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    In quasi-markets, contracts find purchasers influencing health care providers, although problems exist where providers use personal bias and heuristics to respond to written agreements, tending towards the moral hazard of opportunism. Previous research on quasi-market contracts typically understands opportunism as fully rational, individual responses selecting maximally efficient outcomes from a set of possibilities. We take a more emotive and collective view of contracting, exploring the influence of institutional logics in relation to the opportunistic behaviour of dentists. Following earlier qualitative work where we identified four institutional logics in English general dental practice, and six dental contract areas where there was scope for opportunism; in 2013 we surveyed 924 dentists to investigate these logics and whether they had predictive purchase over dentists' chair-side behaviour. Factor analysis involving 300 responses identified four logics entwined in (often technical) behaviour: entrepreneurial commercialism, duty to staff and patients, managerialism, public good. PMID:25441320

  1. Do institutional logics predict interpretation of contract rules at the dental chair-side?

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca; Brown, Stephen; Holt, Robin; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    In quasi-markets, contracts find purchasers influencing health care providers, although problems exist where providers use personal bias and heuristics to respond to written agreements, tending towards the moral hazard of opportunism. Previous research on quasi-market contracts typically understands opportunism as fully rational, individual responses selecting maximally efficient outcomes from a set of possibilities. We take a more emotive and collective view of contracting, exploring the influence of institutional logics in relation to the opportunistic behaviour of dentists. Following earlier qualitative work where we identified four institutional logics in English general dental practice, and six dental contract areas where there was scope for opportunism; in 2013 we surveyed 924 dentists to investigate these logics and whether they had predictive purchase over dentists' chair-side behaviour. Factor analysis involving 300 responses identified four logics entwined in (often technical) behaviour: entrepreneurial commercialism, duty to staff and patients, managerialism, public good.

  2. Rocking-chair configuration in ultrathin lithium vanadate-graphene hybrid nanosheets for electrical modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiou; Qin, Xinming; Sun, Xu; Yan, Wensheng; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control electronic property of a material by externally applied voltage is greatly anticipated in modern electronics, and graphene provide potential application foreground for this issue on account of its exotic ambipolar transport property. In this study, we proposed that inorganic-graphene intercalated nanosheet is an effective solution to optimize the transport property of graphene. As an example, lithium vanadate-graphene (LiVO-graphene) alternately intercalated nanosheets were designed and successfully synthesized. Theoretical calculation implied that its rocking chair configuration may provide a new pathway to switch the carrier in graphene layer between p-type and n-type while the position of embedded Li ions is controlled by an external field. Thus, a demo transistor was fabricated with layer-by-layer overlapping of LiVO-graphene nanosheets which proved that this inorganic-graphene structure could be used for electrical modulation in electronic devices.

  3. Implementing a Paid Leave Policy for Graduate Students at UW-Madison: The Department Chair Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the University of Wisconsin - Madison Astronomy Department developed and implemented a departmental paid leave policy for our graduate students, even though the university lacks a campus-wide policy and cannot provide institutional funding for such programs. This policy includes 12 weeks of paid leave in event of a medical emergency or chronic medical condition, as well as paid parental leave for both male and female graduate research assistants. Building on the graduate student perspective of Gosnell (2012), I will discuss the process of this successful development of a departmental family and medical leave policy for graduate students from the perspective of a faculty member and chair. In particular I will discuss implications of university policies, the importance of faculty and staff support, the role of private funds, and issues of effort certification.

  4. Do institutional logics predict interpretation of contract rules at the dental chair-side?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Rebecca; Brown, Stephen; Holt, Robin; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In quasi-markets, contracts find purchasers influencing health care providers, although problems exist where providers use personal bias and heuristics to respond to written agreements, tending towards the moral hazard of opportunism. Previous research on quasi-market contracts typically understands opportunism as fully rational, individual responses selecting maximally efficient outcomes from a set of possibilities. We take a more emotive and collective view of contracting, exploring the influence of institutional logics in relation to the opportunistic behaviour of dentists. Following earlier qualitative work where we identified four institutional logics in English general dental practice, and six dental contract areas where there was scope for opportunism; in 2013 we surveyed 924 dentists to investigate these logics and whether they had predictive purchase over dentists' chair-side behaviour. Factor analysis involving 300 responses identified four logics entwined in (often technical) behaviour: entrepreneurial commercialism, duty to staff and patients, managerialism, public good. PMID:25441320

  5. The gym ball as a chair for the back pain patient: a two case report.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Larry G; Merritt, Celynne M

    2007-03-01

    The popularity of the gym ball has led to its increased use in programs designed for fitness, rehabilitation and prevention. Some people are using the gym ball to replace the office chair and others are sitting on it at home, which has created some controversy among therapists, researchers, ergonomics experts and the general public. The controversy is due in part to a lack of knowledge and experience with this application for the gym ball. Both patients in this report were suffering with low back pain, and both improved when they began consistently using the gym ball. There are two reasons for case presentations, to document a treatment of a condition and to promote discussion that may lead to research. This presentation will hopefully accomplish this.

  6. Significant conformational changes in an antigenic carbohydrate epitope upon binding to a monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Glaudemans, C.P.J.; Lerner, L.; Daves, G.D. Jr.; Kovac, P.; Bax, A. ); Venable, R. )

    1990-12-01

    Transferred nulcear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (TRNOE) was used to observe changes in a ligand's conformation upon binding to its specific antibody. The ligands studied were methyl O-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl(1{yields}6)-4-deoxy-4-fluoro-{beta}-D galactopyranoside (me4FGal{sub 2}) and its selectively deuteriated analogue, methyl O-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl(1{yields}6)-4-deoxy-2-deuterio-4-fluoro-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside (me4F2dGal{sub 2}). The monoclonal antibody was mouse IgA X24. The solution conformation of the free ligand me4F2dGal{sub 2} was inferred from measurements of vicinal {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H coupling constants, long-range {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C coupling constants, and NOE cross-peak intensities. For free ligand, both galactosyl residues adopt a regular chair conformation, but the NMR spectra are incompatible with a single unique conformation of the glycosidic linkage. Analysis of {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H and {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C constants indicates that the major conformer has an extended conformation. TRNOE measurements on me4FGal{sub 2} and me4F2dGal{sub 2} in the presence of the specific antibody indicate that the pyranose ring pucker of each galactose ring remains unchanged, but rotations about the glycosidic linkage occur upon binding to X24. Computer calculations indicate that there are two sets of torsion angles that satisfy the observed NMR constraints. A new method, based on changes in the fluorine longitudinal relaxation rate, is used to measure the ligand-antibody dissociation rate constant.

  7. Chair Side Application of NovaMin for the Treatment of Dentinal Hypersensitivity- A Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    P, Padmavati; Sanghani, Nehal N

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate bioactive glass (NovaMin) as a chair side desensitizing agent. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 subjects divided into 3 groups of 20 each as follows. Group I (NovaMin application without scaling and root planing), Group II (NovaMin application after scaling and root planing) and Group III (control group). Sensitivity was assessed using air blast and cold water stimulus at baseline, immediately after application, after half an hour and after 8d using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results: Mean VAS (air blast stimulus) for group I was 5.9 at baseline, 3.4 immediately after application, 3.05 after half an hour, and 3.0 after 8 days. In group II VAS score were 6.2, 3.35, 2.9, 2.75 and group III 6.6, 7.0, 7.0, 7.0 respectively. For cold water stimulus in group I VAS score were 5.6, 3.35, 3.15, 3.1, group II VAS score 5.7, 3.35, 3.1, 2.85 and group III 5.8, 6.1, 6.05, 6.05 respectively. VAS scores in between group I and group III and group II and group III were statistically significant (<0.001) immediately after application, after half an hour and after 8days (ANOVA). Conclusion: Chair side application of calcium phosphosilicate bioactive glass can be a therapeutic adjunct to provide immediate relief for the patient with dentinal hypersensitivity. PMID:25478437

  8. Chair-side preventive interventions in the Public Dental Service in Norway.

    PubMed

    Widström, E; Tillberg, A; Byrkjeflot, L I; Skudutyte-Rysstad, R

    2016-08-26

    Objective and setting In Norway, the Public Dental Service (PDS) caters for the young (<19 years) and smaller numbers of adults, mostly special needs patients. This study surveyed chair-side preventive measures used in the public clinics and compared them with recommendations in evidence-based guidelines in the neighbouring countries.Materials and methods After ethical approval, the regional Chief Dental Officers (CDOs) emailed questionnaires to their local clinics (N = 421) where the most experienced dentist and dental hygienist were asked to respond on behalf of the clinic. Answers were received from 256 clinics (response rate 61%). Altogether, 215 dentists and 166 dental hygienists answered.Results Of the respondents, 26% reported that their clinic had agreed guidelines on preventive treatment to be used by all staff. Oral hygiene and fluoride toothpaste recommendations were considered appropriate. Almost 60% claimed that flossing instructions were given to all children and adolescents and 40% that fluoride varnish was used on all the young. Fissure sealants were used after individual assessment (80%). A third of the respondents claimed that fluoride tablets and fluoride rinse were recommended for all or most children and fluoride rinses for adults, even in addition to regular use of fluoride toothpaste. Dental hygienists used all methods more often than dentists. On adults, preventive measures were more often used on individual assessment. Half (48%) of the respondents were interested in new evidence-based national guidelines on preventive care.Conclusions Chair-side preventive treatment measures were numerous in the well-resourced Norwegian PDS, but partly outdated. PMID:27561578

  9. Synthesis, structural and conformational study of some esters derived from 3-methyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8(α and β)-ols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriepa, I.; Bellanato, J.

    2014-09-01

    A series of α and β-esters bearing a 3-methyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane moiety as well as methyl and aryl substituents were synthesized and studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. In CDCl3 solution, at room temperature, a chair-envelope conformation for the bicycle moiety with the N-CH3 group in equatorial position with respect to the chair ring is proposed for both, α and β-esters. The chair conformation of the piperidine ring is puckered at C8 in the α-epimers and it is flattened at N3, in the β-epimers. Free rotation of the acyloxy group around the C8sbnd O bond has also been deduced. Analgesic activity of four of these substances was studied. 8β-Benzoyloxy-3-methyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane demonstrated significant analgesic activity in the hot plate test compared to morphine. By measuring the rectal temperature in mice, results also showed a significant antipyretic activity of this compound.

  10. Theoretical approach to the conformational analyses of dithiazinane, thiadiazinane and triazinane, their N-borane adducts and N-H cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Moreno, Galdina V.; Xotlanihua-Flores, Alfonso; Vela, Alberto; Contreras, Rosalinda; Flores-Parra, Angelina

    2016-06-01

    Computational methods were applied to the study of the different nitrogen and chair conformers of [1,3,5]-dithiazinanes, [1,3,5]-thiadiazinanes and [1,3,5]-triazinanes. Optimisation of heterocycles bearing N-H and N-Me were performed by B3LYP density functional and the 6-311++G** basis set methods, and their free energies were correlated. N-Borane adducts and the protonated cations of these heterocycles were also optimized. The relative free energy differences (ΔG) in gas phase of the chair conformers of eighteen heterocycles were calculated. Calculations agree with experimental data and allow to explain the steric and electronic factors that determine the preferred conformations. The distribution of the electronic density and the NBO atomic charges of the optimized structures support the experimental conformational analyses. The bonding and intramolecular interactions were analysed by using critical point search of the electronic density. They were also evaluated by exchange reduced density gradients associated to overlapping, using the PBE functional with the DZUP basis set. Proton-hydride, proton-proton, hydride-hydride, hydride-sulphur, proton-sulphur and hydride-nitrogen stabilising weak interactions were analysed.

  11. DOE Chair of Excellence in Environmental Disciplines-Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kurunganty, Sastry; Loran, Roberto; Roque-Malherbe, Rolando; Hijazi, Yazan; Nieto, Santander; Gomez, Will A.; Duconge, Jose; Cotto, María del C.; Muniz, Carlos; Diaz, Francisco J.; Neira, Carlos F.; Marquez, Francisco; Del Valle, W.; Thommes, M.

    2014-02-19

    The report Massie Chair of Excellence Program at Universidad del Turabo, contract DE-FG02-95EW12610, during the period of 9/29/1995 to 9/29/2011. The initial program aims included development of academic programs in the Environmental Sciences and Engineering, and Research and Development focused initially on environmentally friendly processes and later revised also include: renewable energy and international cooperation. From 1995 -2005, the Program at UT lead the establishment of the new undergraduate program in electrical engineering at the School of Engineering (SoE), worked on requirements to achieve ABET accreditation of the SoE B.S. Mechanical Engineering and B.S. Electrical Engineering programs, mentored junior faculty, taught undergraduate courses in electrical engineering, and revised the electrical engineering curriculum. Engineering undergraduate laboratories were designed and developed. The following research sub-project was developed: Research and development of new perovskite-alumina hydrogen permeable asymmetrical nanostructured membranes for hydrogen purification, and extremely high specific surface area silica materials for hydrogen storage in the form of ammonia, Dr. Rolando Roque-Malherbe Subproject PI, Dr. Santander Nieto and Mr. Will Gómez Research Assistants. In 2006, the Massie Chair of Excellence Program was transferred to the National Nuclear Security Agency, NNSA and DNN. DoE required a revised proposal aligned with the priorities of the Administration. The revised approved program aims included: (1) Research (2) Student Development: promote the development of minority undergraduate and graduate students through research teams, internships, conferences, new courses; and, (3) Support: (a) Research administration and (b) Dissemination through international conferences, the UT Distinguished Lecturer Series in STEM fields and at the annual Universidad del Turabo (UT) Researchers Conference. Research included: Sub-Project 1: Synthesis and

  12. 40 CFR 93.154 - Conformity analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 93.154 Section 93...) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.154 Conformity analysis. Any...

  13. Walking the Tightrope: The Balance between Innovation and Leadership. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Chair Academy (6th, Reno, NV, February 12-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Community Coll. Chair Academy, Mesa, AZ.

    The papers provided in this proceedings discuss the roles and responsibilities of chairs, deans, and other organizational leaders at community colleges, focusing on strategies for balancing innovative educational approaches with traditional leadership. Following background material on the Chair Academy, the following three keynote speeches are…

  14. Hitchcock versus Shaker Chairs: Artifacts to Teach about the Rise and Rejection of Industrialism in the Young Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    Students in elementary gifted class use discovery to learn about life in industrial New England. Taking multiple days to analyze this topic, students use artifacts (chairs), discussion, and primary sources to explore the politics of the 1830s. They examine the workings of Hitchcockville, Connecticut, and a Massachusetts Shaker colony. Students…

  15. Is the Process the Problem? Impact of Selection Methods on Reported Job Satisfaction among Academic Department Chairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Julie E.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of low job satisfaction (JS) among academic department chairs (ADC) may result from the selection process. ADC searches seldom comply with best practices for hiring or are predictive of a good fit. Formal searches are seldom used. Some incumbents did not want the job. Research into the history, nature, and problems of the position…

  16. Female Academic Department Chairs at a Public, Very High Research Activity University: Exploring Their Career Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Marthe, Tamara Jaslene Marcelle

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of women into academic leadership remains a problem facing public, high-research activity universities. While there are more women who are qualified to assume the position of department chair in research institutions today than there were 30 years ago, women still lag behind their male counterparts in holding these academic…

  17. 77 FR 71168 - Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... China, 67 FR 43277 (June 27, 2002). \\2\\ See Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of the Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 62626 (November 6, 2007). \\3\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 77 FR 59897 (October 1, 2012). We did not receive a notice...

  18. 76 FR 16379 - Foreign-Trade Zone 177-Evansville, IN; Application for Manufacturing Authority, Best Chair, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... proposed -- Doc. 3-2011, 76 FR 1133, 1-7-2011). The facilities are used to produce upholstered furniture..., Best Chair, Inc. d/b/a Best Home Furnishings, (Upholstered Furniture), Ferdinand, Cannelton, and Paoli... Furnishings (Best Home), to manufacture upholstered furniture and related parts under FTZ procedures...

  19. 76 FR 774 - Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... New Shipper Review, 75 FR 44767 (July 29, 2010). This review covers the period June 1, 2009, through... International Trade Administration Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Notice...'') published the initiation of the new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on folding metal tables...

  20. 76 FR 72903 - Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Correction to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and New Shipper Review, and Revocation of the Order in Part, 76 FR... Order in Part, 76 FR 35832, 35836 (June 20, 2011) (``Preliminary Results''). \\4\\ Id. This correction is... International Trade Administration Folding Metal Tables and Chairs From the People's Republic of China:...

  1. 75 FR 56651 - Notice of Cancellation of Meeting of the Chairs of the Industry Trade Advisory Committee (ITACs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Notice of Cancellation of Meeting of the Chairs of the Industry Trade Advisory Committee (ITACs) AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice......

  2. Pushing for the "Sputnik Moment": A Conversation with Arizona Governor and National Governor's Association Chair, Janet Napolitano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Janet Napolitano is the governor of Arizona and chair of the National Governor's Association. Napolitano, a Democrat, has brought a new energy to her state and to the nation with initiatives that demonstrate the fact that she really means business. Topping the list is Innovation America, which aims to drive American competitiveness via government…

  3. Leading Academic Change: Essential Roles for Department Chairs. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ann F.

    This book offers a strategy for institutional change and an examination of the role of leadership in organizations. Essays focus on the shift away from faculty to a concentration on learning, especially on changes in the role of the department chair. The 12 essays are organized in three parts: Part 1, "Leading Change," includes: "A Teamwork…

  4. The Hunt for Hidden Resources: A Chair's Guide to Finding Campus Support for Faculty and Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Maxine C.

    In times of budget constraints and cutbacks, it is especially important to promote staff and faculty development activities since they may not be viewed as college priorities and employee morale and motivation can suffer during such times. Department chairs must engage in a "treasure hunt" to search for hidden resources to meet professional…

  5. Universality class in conformal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu

    2013-07-01

    We develop a new class of chaotic inflation models with spontaneously broken conformal invariance. Observational consequences of a broad class of such models are stable with respect to strong deformations of the scalar potential. This universality is a critical phenomenon near the point of enhanced symmetry, SO(1,1), in case of conformal inflation. It appears because of the exponential stretching of the moduli space and the resulting exponential flattening of scalar potentials upon switching from the Jordan frame to the Einstein frame in this class of models. This result resembles stretching and flattening of inhomogeneities during inflationary expansion. It has a simple interpretation in terms of velocity versus rapidity near the Kähler cone in the moduli space, similar to the light cone of special theory of relativity. This effect makes inflation possible even in the models with very steep potentials. We describe conformal and superconformal versions of this cosmological attractor mechanism.

  6. Conformation-sensitive capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Emma Jane

    2011-01-01

    Conformation-sensitive capillary electrophoresis (CSCE) is a rapid, high-throughput screening method that can be applied to any region of a genome for detection of sequence variants. Slab gel-based conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis was first described by Ganguly et al., and the transfer from slab gels to capillaries for higher throughput was reported by Rozycka et al. CSCE is based on the principle that DNA homoduplexes and heteroduplexes migrate at different rates during electrophoresis under mildly denaturing conditions. Fragments showing an altered peak morphology compared to the wild type are then sequenced to determine the precise nature of the sequence variant detected.

  7. Strength from weakness: conformational divergence between solid and solution states of substituted cyclitols facilitated by CH···O hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Vibhute, Amol M; Sureshan, Kana M

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the conformational preferences of a series of cyclitol derivatives, namely mono- and diesters of 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-myo-inositol and 1,2:5,6-di-O-cyclohexylidene-myo-inositol, in both solid and solution states. The solid-state conformations were determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The solution-state conformations were determined by using NMR. The experimental (3)J(HH) values were applied in the Haasnoot-Altona equation to calculate the dihedral angle (ϕ) between the respective vicinal protons. By fixing the dihedral angle between different sets of vicinal protons, the molecules were energy-minimized by MM2 method to visualize their conformation in solution. As the solvent polarities can influence the conformational preference, we have determined the conformations of these molecules in various solvents of different polarities such as benzene-d6, chloroform-d, acetonitrile-d3, acetone-d6, methanol-d4, and DMSO-d6. All of the compounds adopted boat conformations in solution irrespective of the solvents, acyl groups, or alkylidene protecting groups. This conformation places H6 and O3 of the cyclitol ring in proximity, such that an intramolecular CH···O hydrogen bond between them stabilizes this otherwise unstable conformation. However, in the solid state, several intermolecular CH···O hydrogen bonds force these molecules to adopt the chair conformation. This study uncovers the role of weak noncovalent interactions in influencing the molecular conformations differentially in different states.

  8. Temperature: Human Regulating, Ants Conforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopton, Joe R.

    2007-01-01

    Biological processes speed up as temperature rises. Procedures for demonstrating this with ants traveling on trails, and data gathered by students on the Argentine ant ("Linepithema humile") are presented. The concepts of temperature regulation and conformity are detailed with a focus on the processes rather than on terms that label the organisms.

  9. Conformal coating using parylene polymers.

    PubMed

    Noordegraaf, J

    1997-01-01

    Parylene, a conformal polymer film, is being used increasingly in Europe to provide environmental and dielectric isolation. Application areas include electronic circuitry, sensors, and medical substrates. This article describes the variants of parylene and their characteristics, together with the process and applications of parylene coating. PMID:10167681

  10. Caspase Allostery and Conformational Selection.

    PubMed

    Clark, A Clay

    2016-06-01

    The role of caspase proteases in regulated processes such as apoptosis and inflammation has been studied for more than two decades, and the activation cascades are known in detail. Apoptotic caspases also are utilized in critical developmental processes, although it is not known how cells maintain the exquisite control over caspase activity in order to retain subthreshold levels required for a particular adaptive response while preventing entry into apoptosis. In addition to active site-directed inhibitors, caspase activity is modulated by post-translational modifications or metal binding to allosteric sites on the enzyme, which stabilize inactive states in the conformational ensemble. This review provides a comprehensive global view of the complex conformational landscape of caspases and mechanisms used to select states in the ensemble. The caspase structural database provides considerable detail on the active and inactive conformations in the ensemble, which provide the cell multiple opportunities to fine tune caspase activity. In contrast, the current database on caspase modifications is largely incomplete and thus provides only a low-resolution picture of global allosteric communications and their effects on the conformational landscape. In recent years, allosteric control has been utilized in the design of small drug compounds or other allosteric effectors to modulate caspase activity.

  11. Conformational studies of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlman, D.A.

    1984-11-01

    Techniques are developed for thorough examinations of the conformational energetics of nucleic acids and their constituents. The first one is a method for modeling the furanose sugar ring in nucleic acids. This method allows the coordinates corresponding to any sugar conformation to be generated rapidly and unambiguously from just the phase angle of pseudorotation. Taking advantage of this simplification, we carry out the first calculations to completely explore the conformational spaces available to the eight commonly occurring nucleosides using experimentally consistent furanose geometries and an appropriate classical potential energy force field. Results are in excellent agreement with experiment. We also develop empirically fit multiple correlation functions between the torsion angles of nucleic acids. This reduces the number of conformations which need to be considered in a thorough energetic survey for a nucleic acid. Such surveys are then carried out for two single-stranded nucleic acid tetramers: d(ApApApA) and ApApApA. We create energy contour maps for each of the 21 possible torsion angle pairs in a nucleotide repeating unit. The maps are quite consistent with the experimental distribution of oligonucleotide data and provide rationalizations for several experimentally observed angle-angle correlations. Complete energy minimization is carried out on all local minima found in the surveys. Both the maps and minimizations indicate DNA and RNA to be highly polymorphic. Conformational changes in DNA upon damage by uv radiation are also studied using energy minimization techniques. Finally, we derive a set of partial charges for a nucleotide (2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate monohydrate) from high resolution x-ray data.

  12. Astronomy from the chair - the application of the Internet in promoting of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomic, Zoran

    2014-05-01

    Internet and modern communication technologies are an indispensable part of modern life. The use of the Internet makes it possible to enhance the education and expand opportunities for acquiring new knowledge. One example is Astronomy, where today thanks to the Internet, we can control telescopes that are distant from us and listen to lectures from Universities in other countries. "Astronomy from the chair" is the name for a concept where amateur astronomers can deal with astronomy from their homes using the Internet. The concept can be divided into four sections depending on the content being offered: Robotic Observatory, Virtual Observatory, Online astronomy broadcasting and Online courses. Robotic observatory is defined as an astronomical instrument and detection system that enables efficient observation without the need of a person's physical intervention. Virtual Observatory is defined as a collection of databases and software tools that use the Internet as a platform for scientific research. Online astronomy broadcasting is part of concept "Astronomy from the chair" which gives users the opportunity to get directly involved in astronomical observation organized by an amateur astronomer from somewhere in the world. Online courses are groups of sites and organizations that provide the opportunity to amateur astronomers to attend lectures, save and watch video materials from lectures, do homework, communicate with other seminar participants and in that way become familiar with the various areas of Astronomy. This paper discusses a new concept that describes how the Internet can be applied in modern education. In this paper will be described projects that allows a large number of astronomy lovers to do their own research without the need to own a large and expensive set of astronomical equipment (Virtual Telescope from Italy, Observatory "Night Hawk" from Serbia and project "Astronomy from an armchair" at Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics in Nis), to help

  13. Fake conformal symmetry in unimodular gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    We study Weyl symmetry (local conformal symmetry) in unimodular gravity. It is shown that the Noether currents for both Weyl symmetry and global scale symmetry vanish exactly as in conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. We clearly explain why in the class of conformally invariant gravitational theories, the Noether currents vanish by starting with conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity. Moreover, we comment on both classical and quantum-mechanical equivalences in Einstein's general relativity, conformally invariant scalar-tensor gravity, and the Weyl-transverse gravity. Finally, we discuss the Weyl current in the conformally invariant scalar action and see that it is also vanishing.

  14. A tong-like fluorescence sensor for metal ions: perfect conformational switch of hinge sugar by pyrene stacking.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hideya; Miyagawa, Naofusa; Nakatani, Masatoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Hironobu

    2004-12-21

    Carbohydrates are among the potential materials for molecular devices, since they are abundant natural resources. However, their rigidity has restricted their use for movable devices. Hinge sugars, 2,4-diamino-2,4-dideoxy-xylopyranosides, shed light on the use of carbohydrates as movable components, as demonstrated by the motion by which all four equatorial substituents can change to an axial orientation in synchronization with a chelation-driven 4C1-1C4 ring flip. In this study, we synthesized a tong-like metal ion sensor, 1,3-di-O-pyrenylmethylated hinge sugar (1), and its model compound, methyl 2,4-di-O-pyrenecarbonyl-xylopyranoside (2), to extend the abilities of hinge sugars as molecular components. From observations of the solvent-dependent conformational and fluorescent behavior of 2, we found that the pyrene stacking assists the 1C4 formation of xylopyranoside by 1.7 kcal mol(-1). We also found that compound 1 produced excimer fluorescence by chelation to Pt2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Mg2+ or Mn2+, and unexpectedly by addition of acids. 1H NMR measurements ascribed this behavior to the 4C1-1C4 ring flip of hinge sugar in response to chelation or protonation at N2, and revealed rapid and perfect 1C4 formation in the case of Zn2+. These findings will extend the scope of hinge sugars as movable components.

  15. Does Academic Blogging Enhance Promotion and Tenure? A Survey of US and Canadian Medicine and Pediatric Department Chairs

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Manu; Adams, Martha; Jhaveri, Kenar D

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic educational (e-learning) technology usage continues to grow. Many medical journals operate companion blogs (an application of e-learning technology) that enable rapid dissemination of scientific knowledge and discourse. Faculty members participating in promotion and tenure academic tracks spend valuable time and effort contributing, editing, and directing these medical journal blogs. Objective We sought to understand whether chairs of medicine and pediatric departments acknowledge blog authorship as academic achievement. Methods The authors surveyed 267 chairs of US and Canadian medicine and pediatric departments regarding their attitudes toward the role of faculty participation in e-learning and blogging in the promotion and tenure process. The survey completion rate was 22.8% (61/267). Results A majority of respondents (87%, 53/61) viewed educational scholarship as either important or very important for promotion. However, only 23% (14/61) perceived importance to faculty effort in producing content for journal-based blogs. If faculty were to participate in blog authorship, 72% (44/61) of surveyed chairs favored involvement in a journal-based versus a society-based or a personal (nonaffiliated) blog. We identified a “favorable group” of chairs (19/59, 32%), who rated leadership roles in e-learning tools as important or very important, and an “unfavorable group” of chairs (40/59, 68%), who rated leadership roles in e-learning tools as somewhat important or not important. The favorable group were more likely to be aware of faculty bloggers within their departments (58%, 11/19 vs 25%, 10/40), viewed serving on editorial boards of e-learning tools more favorably (79%, 15/19 vs 31%, 12/39), and were more likely to value effort spent contributing to journal-based blogs (53%, 10/19 vs 10%, 4/40). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that although the majority of department chairs value educational scholarship, only a minority perceive value

  16. Conformal Gravity rotation curves with a conformal Higgs halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Keith

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the effect of a conformally coupled Higgs field on conformal gravity (CG) predictions for the rotation curves of galaxies. The Mannheim-Kazanas (MK) metric is a valid vacuum solution of CG's fourth-order Poisson equation if and only if the Higgs field has a particular radial profile, S(r) = S0 a/(r + a), decreasing from S0 at r = 0 with radial scalelength a. Since particle rest masses scale with S(r)/S0, their world lines do not follow time-like geodesics of the MK metric gμν, as previously assumed, but rather those of the Higgs-frame MK metric tilde{g}_{μ ν }=Ω ^2 g_{μ ν }, with the conformal factor Ω(r) = S(r)/S0. We show that the required stretching of the MK metric exactly cancels the linear potential that has been invoked to fit galaxy rotation curves without dark matter. We also formulate, for spherical structures with a Higgs halo S(r), the CG equations that must be solved for viable astrophysical tests of CG using galaxy and cluster dynamics and lensing.

  17. Beach chair position with instrumental distraction for arthroscopic and open shoulder surgeries.

    PubMed

    Correa, Mario Chaves; Gonçalves, Lucas B J; Andrade, Ronaldo P; Carvalho, Lucio H

    2008-01-01

    Arthroscopy is widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of shoulder disorders. It can be performed in the lateral or sitting position (beach chair). Both have advantages and disadvantages. We present a simple, inexpensive, versatile, portable, continuous distraction device for arthroscopic, combined, and open shoulder surgeries in the sitting position that offers the advantages of the 2 classic positions without their disadvantages. The device was used in 101 consecutive procedures: 61 rotator cuff repairs (29 arthroscopic, 18 mini-open, 14 open), 4 two-part humeral fractures, 1 septic arthritis, 3 calcifying tendinitis, 9 capsular releases, 8 Bankart repairs (6 arthroscopic, 2 open), 13 acromioplasty and biceps tenotomy, and 2 superior labrum anteroposterior repairs. Our experience with this device is extremely positive. We have had no complications and have used it for shoulder arthroscopy, open, and combined surgeries. We have also not had difficulty visualizing or approaching the glenohumeral and subacromial spaces in the treatment of shoulder disorders. It is a safe, practical, easy, and fast set up. Its versatility makes it particularly helpful for the less experienced arthroscopic surgeon.

  18. [THE FOUNDERS OF FIRST CHAIRS OF HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND SOCIAL HYGIENE IN THE USSR].

    PubMed

    Gorelova, L E; Kasimovskaia, N A

    2015-01-01

    The USSR academy of medical sciences was organized in 1944. At the same year, the institute of health care organization, medical statistics and social hygiene was included in its structure. Before the institute global tasks in area of research and pedagogic activities were stated. They were implemented in accordance with actual national demands. The institute became a leading research center of studying problems of population health, social hygiene, organization and management of health care and history of medicine. In 2003, the institute was renamed in the The RAMS national research institute of public health, and in 2013 was handed over the Federal agency of research organizations (FANO) of Russia. The directors of the institute were well-known scientists in the field of social hygiene health care organization and history of medicine. They made a significant input into development of medical education, combining scientific, managerial and pedagogic activities. The founders of the first chairs of history of medicine and social hygiene were the directors of the institute I.D. Strashun and N.A. Semashko. PMID:26411172

  19. Analysis of Sabine and Eyring equations and their application to concert hall audience and chair absorption.

    PubMed

    Beranek, Leo L

    2006-09-01

    Historically, two equations have been used for predicting reverberation times, Sabine and Eyring. A precise means is presented for determining Eyring absorption coefficients alpha(eyring) when the Sabine coefficients alpha(sabine) are known, and vice versa. Thus, either formula can be used provided the absorption coefficients for the Sabine formula are allowed to exceed 1.0. The Sabine formula is not an approximation to the Eyring equation and is not a shortcoming. Given low reverberation times, the ratio of alpha(sabine) to alpha(eyring) may become greater than 2.0. It is vital that, for correct prediction of reverberation times, the absorption coefficients used in either formula must have been determined in spaces similar in size and shape, with similar locations of high absorption (audience) areas, and with similar reverberation times. For concert halls, it is found that, when the audience area (fully occupied) and midfrequency reverberation time are postulated, the hall volume is directly proportional to the audience absorption coefficient. Approximately 6% greater room volumes are needed when choosing nonrectangular versus classical-rectangular shaped halls and approximately 10% greater volumes when choosing heavily upholstered versus medium upholstered chairs. Determinations of audience sound absorption coefficients are presented, based on published acoustical and architectural data for 20 halls.

  20. Paracrine, endocrine and neurocrine controls of the adipocyte color phenotype: view from the chair

    PubMed Central

    Picard, F

    2015-01-01

    After a long drought caused by misjudged irrelevance to human biology, the research field of brown adipose tissue has seen a period of resurgence since 2009 when discoveries of brown fat in adults were reported. However, the molecular and physiological regulators of the different types of adipose tissues—white, beige or brown—are still far from being fully determined. Speakers of the morning session of the 16th Annual Symposium of the Université Laval's Chair in Obesity, a series interestingly launched in 1998 precisely on the topic of uncoupling proteins, presented past and recent findings on non-adrenergic signaling pathways—both upstream and downstream—regulating the metabolic and thermogenic activities of adipose tissue. They went on to show that these pathways are altered in the contexts of obesity and aging, the latter being a very important factor involved in the decline of non-shivering thermogenesis. Whereas opinions diverged on readily applicable solutions for development of candidate therapeutics, the panelists agreed that the new factors involved in the control of the adipose thermogenic program hold great promise for innovation. This will likely depend on how this novel knowledge is integrated into the complex regulation of thermogenesis, which will be achieved through better-defined experimental protocols, both in humans and non-human models. PMID:27152174

  1. Paracrine, endocrine and neurocrine controls of the adipocyte color phenotype: view from the chair.

    PubMed

    Picard, F

    2015-08-01

    After a long drought caused by misjudged irrelevance to human biology, the research field of brown adipose tissue has seen a period of resurgence since 2009 when discoveries of brown fat in adults were reported. However, the molecular and physiological regulators of the different types of adipose tissues-white, beige or brown-are still far from being fully determined. Speakers of the morning session of the 16th Annual Symposium of the Université Laval's Chair in Obesity, a series interestingly launched in 1998 precisely on the topic of uncoupling proteins, presented past and recent findings on non-adrenergic signaling pathways-both upstream and downstream-regulating the metabolic and thermogenic activities of adipose tissue. They went on to show that these pathways are altered in the contexts of obesity and aging, the latter being a very important factor involved in the decline of non-shivering thermogenesis. Whereas opinions diverged on readily applicable solutions for development of candidate therapeutics, the panelists agreed that the new factors involved in the control of the adipose thermogenic program hold great promise for innovation. This will likely depend on how this novel knowledge is integrated into the complex regulation of thermogenesis, which will be achieved through better-defined experimental protocols, both in humans and non-human models. PMID:27152174

  2. How to Study Placebo Responses in Motion Sickness with a Rotation Chair Paradigm in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Katja; Horing, Björn; Muth, Eric R.; Enck, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Placebo responses occur in every medical intervention when patients or participants expect to receive an effective treatment to relieve symptoms. However, underlying mechanisms of placebo responses are not fully understood. It has repeatedly been shown that placebo responses are associated with changes in neural activity but for many conditions it is unclear whether they also affect the target organ, such as the stomach in motion sickness. Therefore, we present a methodology for the multivariate assessment of placebo responses by subjective, behavioral and objective measures in motion sickness with a rotation chair paradigm. The physiological correlate of motion sickness is a shift in gastric myoelectrical activity towards tachygastria that can be recorded with electrogastrography. The presented study applied the so-called balanced placebo design (BPD) to investigate the effects of ginger compared to placebo and the effects of expectations by verbal information. However, the study revealed no significant main or interactional effects of ginger (as a drug) or information on outcome measures but showed interactions when sex of participants and experimenters are taken into considerations. We discuss limitations of the presented study and report modifications that were used in subsequent studies demonstrating placebo responses when rotation speed was lowered. In general, future placebo studies have to identify the appropriate target organ for the studied placebo responses and to apply the specific methods to assess the physiological correlates. PMID:25549015

  3. Faculty Hiring and Development at BYU: Perspectives of a Recent Hire and Department Chair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turley, R. Steven

    2002-04-01

    I will present a personal perspective on the transition from an industrial to an academic physicist. For those planning on a similar transition, I will mention several things that were helpful in preparing myself, marketing myself, and adapting to an academic setting. For instance, a significant difference between academic and industrial physics is the responsibility of classroom teaching. Several things that proved particularly useful in improving my own teaching were mentoring teaching partnerships, student evaluations, help in the tenure and promotion process, and programs available from our Faculty Center. From my current perspective as a department chair, I will further discuss mentoring practices I have found helpful with other new faculty. These include such things as inviting mentors to participate with new faculty in development workshops and providing financial and other recognition for participation as a mentor. In addition to developing professional skills, I have found that good mentoring is particularly critical in encouraging new faculty to adapt to departmental culture. Finally, I will discuss ideas I have found helpful in successfully recruiting new faculty. This involves researching, identifying, and actively recruiting faculty we think will build our department. For us, it has not been sufficient to passively rely on responses from applicants to advertisements and word-of-mouth inquiries. Through careful hiring and effective mentoring, we have developed an excellent record of having our faculty being successful in the tenure process.

  4. [Digital smile design and anterior monolithic restorations chair side fabrication with Cerec Cad/Cam system].

    PubMed

    Perez-Davidi, M

    2015-10-01

    Digital dentistry and digital smile design are both components of modern dentistry. The combination of the two enables the dentist to simulate the desired outcome, share the mock up with the patient and coordinate his or her expectations with the probable esthetic outcome. In this article a case is presented of anterior restorations performed to improve the smile and esthetics of the patient, combining the digital smile design (by Christian Coachman) and the Avatar Digital smile aide of the Cerec SW4 (sirona Germany) software for designing and the MCxI inlab milling unit for the fabrication. The patients picture was imported into the software and the model of the teeth was super imposed into the 3d picture of the face enabling positioning the incisal edge and midline in the desired place and sharing the virtual demo with the patient. All this procedure was performed after the patient had a mockup session in the mouth done according to the wax up procedure. The mockup can be scanned in the mouth and added as a protocol to the patient's digital models, to be used later in the biogeneric copy option. Using this option the software uses the outline of the mockup as guide lins for the final restoration computerized proposal. It is still an aide tool to be improved and simplified but definitely it is the present and future of chair side prosthodontics.

  5. The work covenant: a management strategy for department chairs and program directors.

    PubMed

    Durham, Timothy M; Lange, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Learning contracts have been used in adult education to ensure a positive and successful learning process. By means of a learning contract, the instructor can support the learner in a manner that best suits the learner's individual requirements. Like the learning environment, the workplace finds individuals with varying skill sets, areas of interest, and degrees of motivation. Understanding and applying the skills of the worker to appropriate tasks and interests have important ramifications for how workers perceive their jobs and the ultimate effectiveness of the organization. Studies show that the quality of the work environment is critical for the job satisfaction and retention of employees in the public and private sector as well as for the dental academician. Recent literature on faculty development has focused on adapting business-based motivation, mentoring, and performance counseling strategies to the academic setting. By leading and managing faculty development through the use of such strategies, the quality of the work environment can be improved. This article briefly summarizes the commonality between retention strategies and learning contracts within a human resource context and provides a model document that can be used by chairs and program directors to organize and focus their faculty development efforts. PMID:14761174

  6. Conformal Window and Correlation Functions in Lattice Conformal QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Y.

    We discuss various aspects of Conformal Field Theories on the Lattice. We mainly investigate the SU(3) gauge theory with Nf degenerate fermions in the fundamental representation, employing the one-plaquette gauge action and the Wilson fermion action. First we make a brief review of our previous works on the phase structure of lattice gauge theories in terms of the gauge coupling constant and the quark mass. We thereby clarify the reason why we conjecture that the conformal window is 7 ≤ Nf ≤ 16. Secondly, we introduce a new concept, "conformal theories with IR cutof" and point out that any numerical simulation on a lattice is bounded by an IR cutoff ∧IR. Then we make predictions that when Nf is within the conformal window, the propagator of a meson G(t) behaves at large t, as G(t) = c exp (-mHt)/tα, that is, a modified Yukawa-type decay form, instead of the usual exponential decay form exp (-mHt), in the small quark mass region. This holds on an any lattice for any coupling constant g, as far as g is between 0 and g*, where g* is the IR fixed point. We verify that numerical results really satisfy the predictions for the Nf = 7 case and the Nf = 16 case. Thirdly, we discuss small number of flavors (Nf = 2 ˜ 6) QCD at finite temperatures. We point out theoretically and verify numerically that the correlation functions at T/Tc > 1 exhibit the characteristics of the conformal function with IR cutoff, an exponential decay with power correction. Investigating our numerical data by a new method which we call the "local-analysis" of propagators, we observe that the Nf = 7 case and the Nf = 2 at T ˜ 2Tc case are similar to each other, while the Nf = 16 case and the Nf = 2 at T = 102 ˜ 105Tc cases are similar to each other. Further, we observe our data are consistent with the picture that the Nf = 7 case and the Nf = 2 at T ˜ 2Tc case are close to the meson unparticle model. On the other hand, the Nf = 16 case and the Nf = 2 at T = 102 ˜ 105Tc cases are close to

  7. Conformal triality of the Kepler problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariglia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    We show that the Kepler problem is projectively equivalent to null geodesic motion on the conformal compactification of Minkowski-4 space. This space realises the conformal triality of Minkowski, dS and AdS spaces.

  8. Gauge natural formulation of conformal gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Campigotto, M.; Fatibene, L.

    2015-03-15

    We consider conformal gravity as a gauge natural theory. We study its conservation laws and superpotentials. We also consider the Mannheim and Kazanas spherically symmetric vacuum solution and discuss conserved quantities associated to conformal and diffeomorphism symmetries.

  9. Killing Initial Data on spacelike conformal boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetz, Tim-Torben

    2016-08-01

    We analyze Killing Initial Data on Cauchy surfaces in conformally rescaled vacuum space-times satisfying Friedrich's conformal field equations. As an application, we derive the KID equations on a spacelike ℐ-.

  10. [Conformal radiotherapy of brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Haie-Meder, C; Beaudré, A; Breton, C; Biron, B; Cordova, A; Dubray, B; Mazeron, J J

    1999-01-01

    Conformal irradiation of brain tumours is based on the three-dimensional reconstruction of the targeted volumes and at-risk organ images, the three-dimensional calculation of the dose distribution and a treatment device (immobilisation, beam energy, collimation, etc.) adapted to the high precision required by the procedure. Each step requires an appropriate methodology and a quality insurance program. Specific difficulties in brain tumour management are related to GTV and CTV definition depending upon the histological type, the quality of the surgical resection and the medical team. Clinical studies have reported dose escalation trials, mostly in high-grade gliomas and tumours at the base of the skull. Clinical data are now providing a better knowledge of the tolerance of normal tissues. As for small tumours, the implementation of beam intensity modulation is likely to narrow the gap between conformal and stereotaxic radiotherapy. PMID:10572510

  11. The conformational cycle of kinesin.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, R A; Crevel, I; Carter, N J; Alonso, M C; Hirose, K; Amos, L A

    2000-01-01

    The stepping mechanism of kinesin can be thought of as a programme of conformational changes. We briefly review protein chemical, electron microscopic and transient kinetic evidence for conformational changes, and working from this evidence, outline a model for the mechanism. In the model, both kinesin heads initially trap Mg x ADP. Microtubule binding releases ADP from one head only (the trailing head). Subsequent ATP binding and hydrolysis by the trailing head progressively accelerate attachment of the leading head, by positioning it closer to its next site. Once attached, the leading head releases its ADP and exerts a sustained pull on the trailing head. The rate of closure of the molecular gate which traps ADP on the trailing head governs its detachment rate. A speculative but crucial coordinating feature is that this rate is strain sensitive, slowing down under negative strain and accelerating under positive strain. PMID:10836499

  12. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2009-11-01

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.

  13. Anomalous dimensions of conformal baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three-color theory as functions of the number of massless flavors within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within the δ expansion, for a wide range of number of flavors. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm.

  14. Stabilizing the boat conformation of cyclohexane rings

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, S.; Goddard, W.A. III; Moldowan, J.M.; Carlson, R.M.K.; Goddard, W.A. III.

    1995-06-21

    In calculating the energetics for various conformers of the A, B, and C series of hopanoid hydrocarbons present in mature oil reservoirs, we find that the B series prefers the boat conformation (by 1.3-2.5 kcal/mol) for the D cyclohexane ring. We analyze the structural elements responsible for stabilizing this boat conformation, identify the key features, and illustrate how one might stabilize boat conformations of other systems. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  16. A question of merit: John Hutton Balfour, Joseph Hooker and the 'concussion' over the Edinburgh chair of botany.

    PubMed

    Bellon, Richard

    2005-03-01

    In 1845, Robert Graham's death created a vacancy for the traditionally dual appointment to the University of Edinburgh's chair of botany and the Regius Keepership of the Edinburgh Royal Botanic Garden. John Hutton Balfour and Joseph Hooker emerged as the leading candidates. The contest quickly became embroiled in long running controversies over the nature and control of Scottish university education at a time of particular social and political tension after a recent schism in Church of Scotland. The politics of the appointment were complicated by the fact that the Edinburgh Town Council (which preferred Balfour) chose the chair while the keepership was under the patronage of the Westminster government (which preferred Hooker). Balfour eventually emerged triumphant after a bitter campaign marked on all sides by intense politicking. The struggle to replace Graham provides a case study in how Victorian men of science adapted their aspirations to the practical realities of life in industrial, reforming, imperial, multinational Britain.

  17. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam; Seiberg, Nathan; Theisen, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space {M} is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail {N}=(2,2) and {N}=(0,2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and {N}=2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is Kähler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing Kähler class. For {N}=(2,2) theories in d = 2 and {N}=2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the Kähler potential of {M} follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.

  18. Conformal Invariance of Graphene Sheets.

    PubMed

    Giordanelli, I; Posé, N; Mendoza, M; Herrmann, H J

    2016-03-10

    Suspended graphene sheets exhibit correlated random deformations that can be studied under the framework of rough surfaces with a Hurst (roughness) exponent 0.72 ± 0.01. Here, we show that, independent of the temperature, the iso-height lines at the percolation threshold have a well-defined fractal dimension and are conformally invariant, sharing the same statistical properties as Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLEκ) curves with κ = 2.24 ± 0.07. Interestingly, iso-height lines of other rough surfaces are not necessarily conformally invariant even if they have the same Hurst exponent, e.g. random Gaussian surfaces. We have found that the distribution of the modulus of the Fourier coefficients plays an important role on this property. Our results not only introduce a new universality class and place the study of suspended graphene membranes within the theory of critical phenomena, but also provide hints on the long-standing question about the origin of conformal invariance in iso-height lines of rough surfaces.

  19. Limit cycles and conformal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Jean-François; Grinstein, Benjamín; Stergiou, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that conformal field theories (CFTs) require zero beta functions. Nevertheless, the work of Jack and Osborn implies that the beta functions are not actually the quantites that decide conformality, but until recently no such behavior had been exhibited. Our recent work has led to the discovery of CFTs with nonzero beta functions, more precisely CFTs that live on recurrent trajectories, e.g., limit cycles, of the beta-function vector field. To demonstrate this we study the S function of Jack and Osborn. We use Weyl consistency conditions to show that it vanishes at fixed points and agrees with the generator Q of limit cycles on them. Moreover, we compute S to third order in perturbation theory, and explicitly verify that it agrees with our previous determinations of Q. A byproduct of our analysis is that, in perturbation theory, unitarity and scale invariance imply conformal invariance in four-dimensional quantum field theories. Finally, we study some properties of these new, "cyclic" CFTs, and point out that the a-theorem still governs the asymptotic behavior of renormalization-group flows.

  20. The Conformational Landscape of Serinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia; Loru, Donatella; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of the amino alcohol serinol CH_2OH--CH(NH_2)--CH_2OH, which constitutes the hydrophilic head of the lipid sphingosine, has been investigated using chirped-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in combination with laser ablation Five different forms of serinol have been observed and conclusively identified by the comparison between the experimental values of their rotational and 14N quadrupole coupling constants and those predicted by ab initio calculations. In all observed conformers several hydrogen bonds are established between the two hydroxyl groups and the amino groups in a chain or circular arrangement. The most abundant conformer is stabilised by O--H···N and N--H···O hydrogen bonds forming a chain rather than a cycle. One of the detected conformers presents a tunnelling motion of the hydrogen atoms of the functional groups similar to that observed in glycerol. S. Mata, I. Peña, C. Cabezas, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2012, 280, 91 V. V. Ilyushin, R. A. Motiyenko, F. J. Lovas, D. F. Plusquellic, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2008, 251, 129.

  1. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    DOE PAGES

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam; Seiberg, Nathan; Theisen, Stefan

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space $M$ is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail $N$ = (2; 2) and $N$ = (0; 2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and $N$ = 2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads tomore » new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is K ahler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing K ahler class. For $N$ = (2; 2) theories in d = 2 and N = 2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the K ahler potential of $M$ follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Ultimately, along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.« less

  2. Electrophysiological precursors of social conformity.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, Anna; Rieskamp, Jörg; Tugin, Sergey; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Krutitskaya, Janina; Klucharev, Vasily

    2013-10-01

    Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. This study explored, with the use of human event-related potentials (ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke a feedback-related negativity (FRN) often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. The experimental results show that individual judgments of facial attractiveness were adjusted in line with a normative group opinion. A mismatch between individual and group opinions triggered a frontocentral negative deflection with the maximum at 200 ms, similar to FRN. Overall, a conflict with a normative group opinion triggered a cascade of neuronal responses: from an earlier FRN response reflecting a conflict with the normative opinion to a later ERP component (peaking at 380 ms) reflecting a conforming behavioral adjustment. These results add to the growing literature on neuronal mechanisms of social influence by disentangling the conflict-monitoring signal in response to the perceived violation of social norms and the neural signal of a conforming behavioral adjustment.

  3. Conformal Invariance of Graphene Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Giordanelli, I.; Posé, N.; Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Suspended graphene sheets exhibit correlated random deformations that can be studied under the framework of rough surfaces with a Hurst (roughness) exponent 0.72 ± 0.01. Here, we show that, independent of the temperature, the iso-height lines at the percolation threshold have a well-defined fractal dimension and are conformally invariant, sharing the same statistical properties as Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLEκ) curves with κ = 2.24 ± 0.07. Interestingly, iso-height lines of other rough surfaces are not necessarily conformally invariant even if they have the same Hurst exponent, e.g. random Gaussian surfaces. We have found that the distribution of the modulus of the Fourier coefficients plays an important role on this property. Our results not only introduce a new universality class and place the study of suspended graphene membranes within the theory of critical phenomena, but also provide hints on the long-standing question about the origin of conformal invariance in iso-height lines of rough surfaces. PMID:26961723

  4. Electrophysiological precursors of social conformity.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, Anna; Rieskamp, Jörg; Tugin, Sergey; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Krutitskaya, Janina; Klucharev, Vasily

    2013-10-01

    Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. This study explored, with the use of human event-related potentials (ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke a feedback-related negativity (FRN) often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. The experimental results show that individual judgments of facial attractiveness were adjusted in line with a normative group opinion. A mismatch between individual and group opinions triggered a frontocentral negative deflection with the maximum at 200 ms, similar to FRN. Overall, a conflict with a normative group opinion triggered a cascade of neuronal responses: from an earlier FRN response reflecting a conflict with the normative opinion to a later ERP component (peaking at 380 ms) reflecting a conforming behavioral adjustment. These results add to the growing literature on neuronal mechanisms of social influence by disentangling the conflict-monitoring signal in response to the perceived violation of social norms and the neural signal of a conforming behavioral adjustment. PMID:22683703

  5. On the cohomology of Leibniz conformal algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    We construct a new cohomology complex of Leibniz conformal algebras with coefficients in a representation instead of a module. The low-dimensional cohomology groups of this complex are computed. Meanwhile, we construct a Leibniz algebra from a Leibniz conformal algebra and prove that the category of Leibniz conformal algebras is equivalent to the category of equivalence classes of formal distribution Leibniz algebras.

  6. Flexible ligand docking using conformational ensembles.

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, D. M.; Shoichet, B. K.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular docking algorithms suggest possible structures for molecular complexes. They are used to model biological function and to discover potential ligands. A present challenge for docking algorithms is the treatment of molecular flexibility. Here, the rigid body program, DOCK, is modified to allow it to rapidly fit multiple conformations of ligands. Conformations of a given molecule are pre-calculated in the same frame of reference, so that each conformer shares a common rigid fragment with all other conformations. The ligand conformers are then docked together, as an ensemble, into a receptor binding site. This takes advantage of the redundancy present in differing conformers of the same molecule. The algorithm was tested using three organic ligand protein systems and two protein-protein systems. Both the bound and unbound conformations of the receptors were used. The ligand ensemble method found conformations that resembled those determined in X-ray crystal structures (RMS values typically less than 1.5 A). To test the method's usefulness for inhibitor discovery, multi-compound and multi-conformer databases were screened for compounds known to bind to dihydrofolate reductase and compounds known to bind to thymidylate synthase. In both cases, known inhibitors and substrates were identified in conformations resembling those observed experimentally. The ligand ensemble method was 100-fold faster than docking a single conformation at a time and was able to screen a database of over 34 million conformations from 117,000 molecules in one to four CPU days on a workstation. PMID:9568900

  7. 40 CFR 52.799 - Transportation conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation conformity. 52.799... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.799 Transportation conformity. On June 4, 2010, Indiana submitted the Transportation Conformity Consultation SIP consisting...

  8. 40 CFR 52.799 - Transportation conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation conformity. 52.799... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.799 Transportation conformity. On June 4, 2010, Indiana submitted the Transportation Conformity Consultation SIP consisting...

  9. 40 CFR 52.799 - Transportation conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation conformity. 52.799... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.799 Transportation conformity. On June 4, 2010, Indiana submitted the Transportation Conformity Consultation SIP consisting...

  10. 40 CFR 52.799 - Transportation conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation conformity. 52.799... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.799 Transportation conformity. On June 4, 2010, Indiana submitted the Transportation Conformity Consultation SIP consisting...

  11. 40 CFR 51.854 - Conformity analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 51.854 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.854 Conformity analysis. Link to...

  12. Vestibulo-Ocular Responses to Vertical Translation using a Hand-Operated Chair as a Field Measure of Otolith Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Campbell, D. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Prather, L.; Clement, G.

    2016-01-01

    The translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (tVOR) is an important otolith-mediated response to stabilize gaze during natural locomotion. One goal of this study was to develop a measure of the tVOR using a simple hand-operated chair that provided passive vertical motion. Binocular eye movements were recorded with a tight-fitting video mask in ten healthy subjects. Vertical motion was provided by a modified spring-powered chair (swopper.com) at approximately 2 Hz (+/- 2 cm displacement) to approximate the head motion during walking. Linear acceleration was measured with wireless inertial sensors (Xsens) mounted on the head and torso. Eye movements were recorded while subjects viewed near (0.5m) and far (approximately 4m) targets, and then imagined these targets in darkness. Subjects also provided perceptual estimates of target distances. Consistent with the kinematic properties shown in previous studies, the tVOR gain was greater with near targets, and greater with vision than in darkness. We conclude that this portable chair system can provide a field measure of otolith-ocular function at frequencies sufficient to elicit a robust tVOR.

  13. X-ray and 1H-NMR spectroscopic studies of the structures and conformations of the new nootropic agents RU-35929, RU-47010 and RU-35965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Maria E.; Bandoli, Giuliano; Casellato, Umberto; Pappalardo, Giuseppe C.; Toja, Emilio

    1990-10-01

    The crystal and molecular structures of the nootropics (±)1-benzenesulphonyl-2-oxo-5-ethoxypyrrolidine ( 1), (±)1-(3-pyridinylsulphonyl)-2-oxo-5-ethoxypyrrolidine ( 2) and (±)1-benzenesulphonyl-2-oxo-5-isopropyloxypyrrolidine ( 3) have been determined by X-ray analysis. The solution conformation of 1, 2 and 3 has been investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In the solid state, the main feature consists of the similar structural parameters and conformations, with the exception of the conformation adopted by the 5-ethoxy moiety which changes on passing from 1 to 2. The solid state overall enveloped conformation of the 2-pyrrolidinone ring for the three nootropics is found to be retained in solution on the basis of NMR evidence. Comparison between calculated and experimental coupling constant values shows that one of the two possible puckered opposite conformational isomers (half-chair shapes) occurs in solution. The relative pharmacological potencies of 1, 2 and 3 cannot therefore be interpreted in terms of the different conformation features presently detectable by available experimental methods.

  14. Samuel P. Massie Chair of Excellence In Environmental Disciplines: Hampton University 1994-2010 Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    Adeyiga, Adeyinka A.

    2014-12-17

    The establishment of the DOE-EM Dr. Samuel P. Massie Chair of Excellence provides an excellent opportunity for Hampton University to be involved in key environmental issues in the 21st Century. The main areas of focus are on: 1. Coal gasification with respect to pollution prevention and reduction. 2. Solid waste treatment through bioremediation technology and 3. Industrial wastewater treatment Synthesizing ion catalysts suitable for use in slurry bubble column reaction was carried out. Construction of an autoclave continuous stirred tank reactor has been completed. At the initial stage of the development of this program, work was conducted in the area of formic acid recovery from waste streams, which yielded useful results. We also succeeded in the removal of priority metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium, zinc, etc., from industrial and municipal wastewater by using natural wastes. The process uses tree leaves to adsorb the metal ions in the wastewater. The ultimate goal is to develop inexpensive, highly available, effective metal ion adsorbents from natural wastes as an alternative to existing commercial adsorbents, and also to explain the possible adsorption mechanism that is taking place. This technology uses natural wastes to eliminate other wastes. Obviously, there are several advantages: (1) the negative impact on environment is eliminated, (2) the complicated regeneration step is not needed, and (3) the procedure saves money and energy. Twelve different types of leaves have been tested with lead, zinc, and nickel. The study mechanism showed that the leaf tannin is an active ingredient in the adsorption of metal ions. The ion-exchange mechanism controlled the adsorption process.

  15. Investigation of the role of stereoelectronic effects in the conformation of piperidones by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Garcias-Morales, Cesar; Ortegón-Reyna, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper reports the synthesis of a series of piperidones 1–8 by the Mannich reaction and analysis of their structures and conformations in solution by NMR and mass spectrometry. The six-membered rings in 2,4,6,8-tetraphenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones, compounds 1 and 2, adopt a chair–boat conformation, while those in 2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones, compounds 3–8, adopt a chair–chair conformation because of stereoelectronic effects. These stereoelectronic effects were analyzed by the 1 J C–H coupling constants, which were measured in the 13C satellites of the 1H NMR spectra obtained with the hetero-dqf pulse sequence. In the solid state, these stereoelectronic effects were investigated by measurement of X-ray diffraction data, the molecular geometry (torsional bond angles and bond distances), and inter- and intramolecular interactions, and by natural bond orbital analysis, which was performed using density functional theory at the ωB97XD/6311++G(d,p) level. We found that one of the main factors influencing the conformational stability of 3–8 is the interaction between the lone-pair electrons of nitrogen and the antibonding sigma orbital of C(7)–Heq (nN→σ*C–H(7)eq), a type of hyperconjugative interaction. PMID:26664617

  16. NMR-based conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide-repeating sulfated fucan substituted by different counterions.

    PubMed

    Soares, Paulo A G; Queiroz, Ismael N L; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S; Pomin, Vitor H

    2016-11-01

    The sulfated fucan from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is composed of the repetitive sequence [-3)-α-l-Fucp-4( OSO3-)-(1-3)-α-l-Fucp-2,4-di( OSO3-)-(1-3)-α-l-Fucp-2( OSO3-)-(1-3)-α-l-Fucp-2( OSO3-)-(1-]n . Conformation (of rings and chains) and dynamics of this tetrasaccharide-repeating sulfated fucan substituted by Na(+) , Ca(2+) , and Li(+) as counterions have been examined through experiments of liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Scalar coupling and nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE)-based data have confirmed that all composing units occur as (1) C4 chair conformer regardless of the cation type, unit position within the repeating sequence, and sulfation type. Chain conformation determined by NOE signal pattern assisted by molecular modeling for a theoretical octasaccharide has shown a similar linear 3D structure for the three differently substituted forms. Data derived from spin-relaxation measurements have indicated a contribution of counterion type to dynamics. The calcium-based preparation has shown the highest mobility while the sodiated one showed the lowest mobility. The set of results from this work suggests that counterion type can affect the physicochemical properties of the structurally well-defined sulfated fucan. The counterion effect seems to impact more on the structural mobility than on average conformation of the studied sulfated glycan in solution. PMID:27434759

  17. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  18. The Biological Bases of Conformity

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, T. J. H.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favor adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective copying and decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behavior in non-human animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history, and ontogeny of conformity, and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behavior conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subjects’ behavior is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behavior may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for effective social learning. PMID:22712006

  19. Conformance Verification of Privacy Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiang

    Web applications are both the consumers and providers of information. To increase customer confidence, many websites choose to publish their privacy protection policies. However, policy conformance is often neglected. We propose a logic based framework for formally specifying and reasoning about the implementation of privacy protection by a web application. A first order extension of computation tree logic is used to specify a policy. A verification paradigm, built upon a static control/data flow analysis, is presented to verify if a policy is satisfied.

  20. Chromosome Conformation Capture in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Linear chromatin fiber is packed inside the nuclei as a complex three-dimensional structure, and the organization of the chromatin has important roles in the appropriate spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression. To understand how chromatin organizes inside nuclei, and how regulatory proteins physically interact with genes, chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique provides a powerful and sensitive tool to detect both short- and long-range DNA-DNA interaction. Here I describe the 3C technique to detect the DNA-DNA interactions mediated by insulator proteins that are closely related to PcG in Drosophila, which is also broadly applicable to other systems. PMID:27659987

  1. Conformational Transitions in Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, M.; Janke, W.

    2008-11-01

    Proteins are the "work horses" in biological systems. In almost all functions specific proteins are involved. They control molecular transport processes, stabilize the cell structure, enzymatically catalyze chemical reactions; others act as molecular motors in the complex machinery of molecular synthetization processes. Due to their significance, misfolds and malfunctions of proteins typically entail disastrous diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, the understanding of the trinity of amino acid composition, geometric structure, and biological function is one of the most essential challenges for the natural sciences. Here, we glance at conformational transitions accompanying the structure formation in protein folding processes.

  2. Toward TeV Conformality

    SciTech Connect

    Appelquist, T; Avakian, A; Babich, R; Brower, R C; Cheng, M; Clark, M A; Cohen, S D; Fleming, G T; Kiskis, J; Neil, E T; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C; Schaich, D; Soltz, R; Vranas, P

    2009-11-30

    We study the chiral condensate <{bar {psi}}{psi}> for an SU(3) gauge theory with N{sub f} massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation when N{sub f} is increased from 2 to 6. For N{sub f} = 2, our lattice simulations of <{bar {psi}}{psi}>/F{sup 3}, where F is the Nambu-Goldstone-boson decay constant, agree with the measured QCD value. For N{sub f} = 6, this ratio shows significant enhancement, presaging an even larger enhancement anticipated as N{sub f} increases further, toward the critical value for transition from confinement to infrared conformality.

  3. Effects of a dynamic chair on pelvic mobility, fatigue, and work efficiency during work performed while sitting: a comparison of dynamic sitting and static sitting.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Hironori; Mitsuhashi, Toshitaka; Sako, Shunji; Goto, Ryokichi; Nakai, Tomohiro; Inaba, Ryoichi

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Working while sitting for long periods can cause lumbar pain, fatigue, and reduced work efficiency. How a dynamic chair with a seat that moves three-dimensionally affects pelvic mobility before and after work, work efficiency, and post-work fatigue were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 17 healthy adults (10 males, 7 females, mean age 21.8 ± 2.7 years). Subjects performed a 30-min Kraepelin test under two conditions: sitting in a standard office chair and sitting in a dynamic sitting balance chair. Root mean square (RMS) values of pelvic movement measured by a triaxial accelerometer during 30 minutes of work, finger-floor distance before and after work, lumbar fatigue, and pelvic movement RMS values during finger-floor distance measurement were used as outcome measures. [Results] Pelvic movement RMS values collected every 5 minutes during 30 minutes of work were significantly higher while sitting in the dynamic balance chair. Changes in pelvic movement RMS values during finger-floor distance measurement after work and amount of work performed during 30 minutes were significantly higher and lumbar fatigue was significantly lower for the dynamic balance chair. [Conclusion] Dynamic sitting maintained or increased pelvic flexibility. The dynamic balance chair may effectively help workers work continuously in seated postures with little fatigue. PMID:27390410

  4. Effects of a dynamic chair on pelvic mobility, fatigue, and work efficiency during work performed while sitting: a comparison of dynamic sitting and static sitting

    PubMed Central

    Tanoue, Hironori; Mitsuhashi, Toshitaka; Sako, Shunji; Goto, Ryokichi; Nakai, Tomohiro; Inaba, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Working while sitting for long periods can cause lumbar pain, fatigue, and reduced work efficiency. How a dynamic chair with a seat that moves three-dimensionally affects pelvic mobility before and after work, work efficiency, and post-work fatigue were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 17 healthy adults (10 males, 7 females, mean age 21.8 ± 2.7 years). Subjects performed a 30-min Kraepelin test under two conditions: sitting in a standard office chair and sitting in a dynamic sitting balance chair. Root mean square (RMS) values of pelvic movement measured by a triaxial accelerometer during 30 minutes of work, finger-floor distance before and after work, lumbar fatigue, and pelvic movement RMS values during finger-floor distance measurement were used as outcome measures. [Results] Pelvic movement RMS values collected every 5 minutes during 30 minutes of work were significantly higher while sitting in the dynamic balance chair. Changes in pelvic movement RMS values during finger-floor distance measurement after work and amount of work performed during 30 minutes were significantly higher and lumbar fatigue was significantly lower for the dynamic balance chair. [Conclusion] Dynamic sitting maintained or increased pelvic flexibility. The dynamic balance chair may effectively help workers work continuously in seated postures with little fatigue. PMID:27390410

  5. Effects of a dynamic chair on pelvic mobility, fatigue, and work efficiency during work performed while sitting: a comparison of dynamic sitting and static sitting.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Hironori; Mitsuhashi, Toshitaka; Sako, Shunji; Goto, Ryokichi; Nakai, Tomohiro; Inaba, Ryoichi

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Working while sitting for long periods can cause lumbar pain, fatigue, and reduced work efficiency. How a dynamic chair with a seat that moves three-dimensionally affects pelvic mobility before and after work, work efficiency, and post-work fatigue were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 17 healthy adults (10 males, 7 females, mean age 21.8 ± 2.7 years). Subjects performed a 30-min Kraepelin test under two conditions: sitting in a standard office chair and sitting in a dynamic sitting balance chair. Root mean square (RMS) values of pelvic movement measured by a triaxial accelerometer during 30 minutes of work, finger-floor distance before and after work, lumbar fatigue, and pelvic movement RMS values during finger-floor distance measurement were used as outcome measures. [Results] Pelvic movement RMS values collected every 5 minutes during 30 minutes of work were significantly higher while sitting in the dynamic balance chair. Changes in pelvic movement RMS values during finger-floor distance measurement after work and amount of work performed during 30 minutes were significantly higher and lumbar fatigue was significantly lower for the dynamic balance chair. [Conclusion] Dynamic sitting maintained or increased pelvic flexibility. The dynamic balance chair may effectively help workers work continuously in seated postures with little fatigue.

  6. Conformational gating of DNA conductance

    PubMed Central

    Artés, Juan Manuel; Li, Yuanhui; Qi, Jianqing; Anantram, M. P.; Hihath, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    DNA is a promising molecule for applications in molecular electronics because of its unique electronic and self-assembly properties. Here we report that the conductance of DNA duplexes increases by approximately one order of magnitude when its conformation is changed from the B-form to the A-form. This large conductance increase is fully reversible, and by controlling the chemical environment, the conductance can be repeatedly switched between the two values. The conductance of the two conformations displays weak length dependencies, as is expected for guanine-rich sequences, and can be fit with a coherence-corrected hopping model. These results are supported by ab initio electronic structure calculations that indicate that the highest occupied molecular orbital is more disperse in the A-form DNA case. These results demonstrate that DNA can behave as a promising molecular switch for molecular electronics applications and also provide additional insights into the huge dispersion of DNA conductance values found in the literature. PMID:26648400

  7. Metrics with Galilean conformal isometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, Arjun; Kundu, Arnab

    2011-03-15

    The Galilean conformal algebra (GCA) arises in taking the nonrelativistic limit of the symmetries of a relativistic conformal field theory in any dimensions. It is known to be infinite dimensional in all spacetime dimensions. In particular, the 2d GCA emerges out of a scaling limit of linear combinations of two copies of the Virasoro algebra. In this paper, we find metrics in dimensions greater than 2 which realize the finite 2d GCA (the global part of the infinite algebra) as their isometry by systematically looking at a construction in terms of cosets of this finite algebra. We list all possible subalgebras consistent with some physical considerations motivated by earlier work in this direction and construct all possible higher-dimensional nondegenerate metrics. We briefly study the properties of the metrics obtained. In the standard one higher-dimensional ''holographic'' setting, we find that the only nondegenerate metric is Minkowskian. In four and five dimensions, we find families of nontrivial metrics with a rather exotic signature. A curious feature of these metrics is that all but one of them are Ricci-scalar flat.

  8. Charged gravastars admitting conformal motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmani, A. A.; Rahaman, F.; Ray, Saibal; Nandi, K. K.; Kuhfittig, Peter K. F.; Rakib, Sk. A.; Hasan, Z.

    2011-07-01

    We propose a new model of a gravastar admitting conformal motion. While retaining the framework of the Mazur-Mottola model, the gravastar is assumed to be internally charged, with an exterior defined by a Reissner-Nordström instead of a Schwarzschild line element. The solutions, obtained by exploiting an assumed conformal Killing vector, involve (i) the interior region, (ii) the shell, and (iii) the exterior region of the sphere. Of these three cases the first one is of primary interest since the total gravitational mass here turns out to be an electromagnetic mass under some specific conditions. This suggests that the interior de Sitter vacuum of a charged gravastar is essentially an electromagnetic mass model that must generate gravitational mass which provides a stable configuration by balancing the repulsive pressure arising from charge with its attractive gravity to avert a singularity. Therefore the present model, like the Mazur-Mottola model, results in the construction of a compact astrophysical object, as an alternative to a black hole. We have also analyzed various other aspects such as the stress energy tensor in the thin shell and the entropy of the system.

  9. Conformational gating of DNA conductance.

    PubMed

    Artés, Juan Manuel; Li, Yuanhui; Qi, Jianqing; Anantram, M P; Hihath, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    DNA is a promising molecule for applications in molecular electronics because of its unique electronic and self-assembly properties. Here we report that the conductance of DNA duplexes increases by approximately one order of magnitude when its conformation is changed from the B-form to the A-form. This large conductance increase is fully reversible, and by controlling the chemical environment, the conductance can be repeatedly switched between the two values. The conductance of the two conformations displays weak length dependencies, as is expected for guanine-rich sequences, and can be fit with a coherence-corrected hopping model. These results are supported by ab initio electronic structure calculations that indicate that the highest occupied molecular orbital is more disperse in the A-form DNA case. These results demonstrate that DNA can behave as a promising molecular switch for molecular electronics applications and also provide additional insights into the huge dispersion of DNA conductance values found in the literature. PMID:26648400

  10. Quantifying macromolecular conformational transition pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Sean; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, Michael; Beckstein, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes that are challenging for computer simulations. A range of fast path-sampling techniques have been used to generate transitions, but it has been difficult to compare paths from (and assess the relative strengths of) different methods. We introduce a comprehensive method (pathway similarity analysis, PSA) for quantitatively characterizing and comparing macromolecular pathways. The Hausdorff and Fréchet metrics (known from computational geometry) are used to quantify the degree of similarity between polygonal curves in configuration space. A strength of PSA is its use of the full information available from the 3 N-dimensional configuration space trajectory without requiring additional specific knowledge about the system. We compare a sample of eleven different methods for the closed-to-open transitions of the apo enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK) and also apply PSA to an ensemble of 400 AdK trajectories produced by dynamic importance sampling MD and the Geometrical Pathways algorithm. We discuss the method's potential to enhance our understanding of transition path sampling methods, validate them, and help guide future research toward deeper physical insights into conformational transitions.

  11. Conformal inflation coupled to matter

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    We formulate new conformal models of inflation and dark energy which generalise the Higgs-Dilaton scenario. We embed these models in unimodular gravity whose effect is to break scale invariance in the late time Universe. In the early Universe, inflation occurs close to a maximum of both the scalar potential and the scalar coupling to the Ricci scalar in the Jordan frame. At late times, the dilaton, which decouples from the dynamics during inflation, receives a potential term from unimodular gravity and leads to the acceleration of the Universe. We address two central issues in this scenario. First we show that the Damour-Polyalov mechanism, when non-relativistic matter is present prior to the start of inflation, sets the initial conditions for inflation at the maximum of the scalar potential. We then show that conformal invariance implies that matter particles are not coupled to the dilaton in the late Universe at the classical level. When fermions acquire masses at low energy, scale invariance is broken and quantum corrections induce a coupling between the dilaton and matter which is still small enough to evade the gravitational constraints in the solar system.

  12. Modeling conformational changes in cyclosporin A.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donohue, M. F.; Burgess, A. W.; Walkinshaw, M. D.; Treutlein, H. R.

    1995-01-01

    NMR and X-ray structures for the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) reveal a remarkable difference between the unbound (free) conformation in organic solvents and the conformation bound to cyclophilin. We have performed computer simulations of the molecular dynamics of CsA under a variety of conditions and confirmed the stability of these two conformations at room temperature in water and in vacuum. However, when the free conformation was modeled in vacuum at 600 K, a transition pathway leading to the bound conformation was observed. This involved a change in the cis MeLeu-9 peptide bond to a trans conformation and the movement of the side chains forming the dominant hydrophobic cluster (residues MeBmt-1, MeLeu-4, MeLeu-6, and MeLeu-10) to the opposite side of the plane formed by the backbone atoms in the molecular ring. The final conformation had a backbone RMS deviation from the bound conformation of 0.53 A and was as stable in dynamics simulations as the bound conformation. Our calculations allowed us to make a detailed analysis of a transition pathway between the free and the bound conformations of CsA and to identify two distinct regions of coordinated movement in CsA, both of which underwent transitions independently. PMID:8535256

  13. Conformational preferences for some 3-(4‧-substituted phenylsulfonyl)-1-methyl-2-piperidones through spectroscopic and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivato, Paulo R.; Santos, Jean M. M.; Cerqueira, Carlos R.; Vinhato, Elisângela; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.; Colle, Maurizio Dal

    2012-11-01

    The analysis of the infrared (IR) carbonyl band of some 3-(4'-substituted phenylsulfonyl)-1-methyl-2-piperidones 1-5 bearing as substituents: OMe 1, Me 2, H 3, Cl 4 and NO25, supported by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations along with NBO analysis (for 1, 3 and 5) and X-ray diffraction (for 5), indicated the existence of three stable conformations i.e. quasi-axial (q-ax), syn-clinal (s-cl) and quasi-equatorial (q-eq). In the gas phase, the q-ax conformer is calculated as the most stable (ca. 88%) and the least polar, the s-cl conformer is less stable (ca. 12%) but more polar, and the q-eq conformer is the least stable (ca. 1%) and the most polar of the three conformers evaluated. The sum of the most important orbital interactions from NBO analysis and the trend of the electrostatic interactions accounts for the relative populations as well as for the νCO frequencies of the q-ax, s-cl and q-eq conformers calculated in the gas phase. The unique IR νCO band in CCl4 may be ascribed to the most stable q-ax conformer. The more intense (60%) high frequency doublet component in CHCl3 may be assigned to the summing up of the least stable q-eq and the less stable s-cl conformers, as their frequencies are almost coincident. The occurrence of only a single νCO band in both CH2Cl2 and CH3CN supports the fact that the νCO band of the two more polar conformers appear as a single band. Additional support to this rationalization is given by the single point PCM method, which showed a progressive increase of the q-eq + s-cl/q-ax population ratio going from the gas phase to CCl4, to CHCl3, to CH2Cl2 and to CH3CN. X-ray single crystal analysis of 5 indicates that this compound displays a quasi-axial geometry with respect to the [Odbnd Csbnd CHsbnd S] moiety, and that the 2-piperidone ring assumes a slightly distorted half-chair conformation. In the crystal packing, molecules of 5 are arranged into supramolecular layers linked through Csbnd H⋯O interactions along with

  14. A quantitative measure for protein conformational heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Lyle, Nicholas; Das, Rahul K.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2013-01-01

    Conformational heterogeneity is a defining characteristic of proteins. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and denatured state ensembles are extreme manifestations of this heterogeneity. Inferences regarding globule versus coil formation can be drawn from analysis of polymeric properties such as average size, shape, and density fluctuations. Here we introduce a new parameter to quantify the degree of conformational heterogeneity within an ensemble to complement polymeric descriptors. The design of this parameter is guided by the need to distinguish between systems that couple their unfolding-folding transitions with coil-to-globule transitions and those systems that undergo coil-to-globule transitions with no evidence of acquiring a homogeneous ensemble of conformations upon collapse. The approach is as follows: Each conformation in an ensemble is converted into a conformational vector where the elements are inter-residue distances. Similarity between pairs of conformations is quantified using the projection between the corresponding conformational vectors. An ensemble of conformations yields a distribution of pairwise projections, which is converted into a distribution of pairwise conformational dissimilarities. The first moment of this dissimilarity distribution is normalized against the first moment of the distribution obtained by comparing conformations from the ensemble of interest to conformations drawn from a Flory random coil model. The latter sets an upper bound on conformational heterogeneity thus ensuring that the proposed measure for intra-ensemble heterogeneity is properly calibrated and can be used to compare ensembles for different sequences and across different temperatures. The new measure of conformational heterogeneity will be useful in quantitative studies of coupled folding and binding of IDPs and in de novo sequence design efforts that are geared toward controlling the degree of heterogeneity in unbound forms of IDPs. PMID:24089719

  15. Conformational Properties of 1-Halogenated-1-Silacyclohexanes, C5H10SiHX (X = Cl, Br, I): Gas Electron Diffraction, Low-Temperature NMR, Temperature-Dependent Raman Spectroscopy, and Quantum-Chemical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Wallevik, Sunna Ó; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Kvaran, Agúst; Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Arnason, Ingvar; Belyakov, Alexander V; Kern, Thomas; Hassler, Karl

    2013-12-01

    The molecular structures of axial and equatorial conformers of cyclo-C5H10SiHX (X = Cl, Br, I) as well as the thermodynamic equilibrium between these species was investigated by means of gas electron diffraction, dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance, temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations applying CCSD(T), MP2, and DFT methods. According to the experimental and calculated results, all three compounds exist as a mixture of two chair conformers of the six-membered ring. The two chair forms of Cs symmetry differ in the axial or equatorial position of the X atom. In all cases, the axial conformer is preferred over the equatorial one. When the experimental uncertainties are taken into account, all of the experimental and theoretical results for the conformational energy (E axial - E equatorial) fit into a remarkably narrow range of -0.50 ± 0.15 kcal mol(-1). It was found by NBO analysis that the axial conformers are unfavorable in terms of steric energy and conjugation effects and that they are stabilized mainly by electrostatic interactions. The conformational energies for C6H11X and cyclo-C5H10SiHX (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At) were compared using CCSD(T) calculations. In both series, fluorine is predicted to have a lower conformational preference (cyclohexane equatorial, silacyclohexane axial) than Cl, Br, and I. It is predicted that astatine would behave very similarly to Cl, Br, and I within each series. PMID:24353364

  16. Conformational Properties of 1-Halogenated-1-Silacyclohexanes, C5H10SiHX (X = Cl, Br, I): Gas Electron Diffraction, Low-Temperature NMR, Temperature-Dependent Raman Spectroscopy, and Quantum-Chemical Calculations†

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The molecular structures of axial and equatorial conformers of cyclo-C5H10SiHX (X = Cl, Br, I) as well as the thermodynamic equilibrium between these species was investigated by means of gas electron diffraction, dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance, temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations applying CCSD(T), MP2, and DFT methods. According to the experimental and calculated results, all three compounds exist as a mixture of two chair conformers of the six-membered ring. The two chair forms of Cs symmetry differ in the axial or equatorial position of the X atom. In all cases, the axial conformer is preferred over the equatorial one. When the experimental uncertainties are taken into account, all of the experimental and theoretical results for the conformational energy (Eaxial – Eequatorial) fit into a remarkably narrow range of −0.50 ± 0.15 kcal mol–1. It was found by NBO analysis that the axial conformers are unfavorable in terms of steric energy and conjugation effects and that they are stabilized mainly by electrostatic interactions. The conformational energies for C6H11X and cyclo-C5H10SiHX (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At) were compared using CCSD(T) calculations. In both series, fluorine is predicted to have a lower conformational preference (cyclohexane equatorial, silacyclohexane axial) than Cl, Br, and I. It is predicted that astatine would behave very similarly to Cl, Br, and I within each series. PMID:24353364

  17. Measuring the mechanical properties of molecular conformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, S. P.; Taylor, S.; Baran, J. D.; Champness, N. R.; Larsson, J. A.; Moriarty, P.

    2015-09-01

    Scanning probe-actuated single molecule manipulation has proven to be an exceptionally powerful tool for the systematic atomic-scale interrogation of molecular adsorbates. To date, however, the extent to which molecular conformation affects the force required to push or pull a single molecule has not been explored. Here we probe the mechanochemical response of two tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin conformers using non-contact atomic force microscopy where we find a large difference between the lateral forces required for manipulation. Remarkably, despite sharing very similar adsorption characteristics, variations in the potential energy surface are capable of prohibiting probe-induced positioning of one conformer, while simultaneously permitting manipulation of the alternative conformational form. Our results are interpreted in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations which reveal significant differences in the diffusion barriers for each conformer. These results demonstrate that conformational variation significantly modifies the mechanical response of even simple porpyhrins, potentially affecting many other flexible molecules.

  18. Conformal Electromagnetic Particle in Cell: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, Collin S.; Greenwood, Andrew D.; Verboncoeur, John P.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2015-10-26

    We review conformal (or body-fitted) electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) numerical solution schemes. Included is a chronological history of relevant particle physics algorithms often employed in these conformal simulations. We also provide brief mathematical descriptions of particle-tracking algorithms and current weighting schemes, along with a brief summary of major time-dependent electromagnetic solution methods. Several research areas are also highlighted for recommended future development of new conformal EM-PIC methods.

  19. [Determination of antimicrobial, 10,10'-oxybis-10H-phenoxarsine, in artificial leather used for the seat of chairs].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Y; Kaniwa, M; Nakamura, A

    2000-09-01

    Recently, a case of patients with allergic contact dermatitis caused by the poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) seat, containing 10,10'-oxybis-10H-phenoxarsine (OBPA), of a chair was reported. OBPA was developed as an antimicrobial for plastics such as PVC and polyurethane, and it has been widely used in artificial leather for the seats of chairs and sofas. To identify causative chemicals for allergic contact dermatitis, a combination of patch testing in the patients and chemical analysis of causative products is valuable. However, no analytical method and data of OBPA in commercial products was reported. In this study, a method for the determination of OBPA in the artificial leather (PVV base) was developed. OBPA was extracted from PVC samples with methanol. The extract was loaded on an aluminum oxide column, and washed with diethyl ether:hexane, and eluted with ethanol:hexane. The eluate was evaporated, dissolved in methanol and injected to a HPLC equipped an ODS column and an UV detector (detection wavelength 300 nm). OBPA standard crystal was isolated from commercial agents containing OBPA. The calibration curve for OBPA was linear in the range of 0.1-100 micrograms/ml. The minimum detection and determination concentrations of OBPA in samples were 0.07 and 0.25 microgram/g. By this method, eight PVC sheets for the seat of a chair were analyzed. In two PVC sheets, 52.7 and 84.9 micrograms/g of OBPA were detected. In the PVC product that caused contact dermatitis, OBPA was not found. PMID:11019652

  20. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  1. Conformal approach to cylindrical DLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taloni, A.; Caglioti, E.; Loreto, V.; Pietronero, L.

    2006-09-01

    We extend the conformal mapping approach elaborated for the radial diffusion limited aggregation model (DLA) to cylindrical geometry. We introduce in particular a complex function which allows a cylindrical cluster to be grown using as an intermediate step a radial aggregate. The aggregate grown exhibits the same self-affine features as the original cylindrical DLA. The specific choice of the transformation allows us to study the relationship between the radial and the cylindrical geometry. In particular the cylindrical aggregate can be seen as a radial aggregate with particles of size increasing with the radius. On the other hand, the radial aggregate can be seen as a cylindrical aggregate with particles of size decreasing with the height. This framework, which shifts the point of view from the geometry to the size of the particles, can open the way to more quantitative studies on the relationship between radial and cylindrical DLA.

  2. Conformable eddy current array delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.

  3. Approaching Conformality with Ten Flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Appelquist, Thomas; Brower, Richard C.; Buchoff, Michael I.; Cheng, Michael; Cohen, Saul D.; Fleming, George T.; Kiskis, Joe; Lin, Meifeng; Na, Heechang; Neil, Ethan T.; Osborn, James C.

    2012-04-01

    We present first results for lattice simulations, on a single volume, of the low-lying spectrum of an SU(3) Yang-Mills gauge theory with N{sub f} = 10 light fermions in the fundamental representation. Fits to the fermion mass dependence of various observables are found to be globally consistent with the hypothesis that this theory is within or just outside the strongly-coupled edge of the conformal window, with mass anomalous dimension {gamma}* {approx} 1 over the range of scales simulated. We stress that we cannot rule out the possibility of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking at scales well below our infrared cutoff. We discuss important systematic effects, including finite-volume corrections, and consider directions for future improvement.

  4. Electromagnetic characterization of conformal antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.; Kempel, Leo C.; Alexanian, Angelos; Jin, J. M.; Yu, C. L.; Woo, Alex C.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this project is to develop a new technique which permits an accurate simulation of microstrip patch antennas or arrays with various feed, superstrate and/or substrate configurations residing in a recessed cavity whose aperture is planar, cylindrical or otherwise conformed to the substructure. The technique combines the finite element and boundary integral methods to formulate a system suitable for solution via the conjugate gradient method in conjunction with the fast Fourier transform. The final code is intended to compute both scattering and radiation patterns of the structure with an affordable memory demand. With upgraded capabilities, the four included papers examined the radar cross section (RCS), input impedance, gain, and resonant frequency of several rectangular configurations using different loading and substrate/superstrate configurations.

  5. Evolutionary Conserved Positions Define Protein Conformational Diversity.

    PubMed

    Saldaño, Tadeo E; Monzon, Alexander M; Parisi, Gustavo; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Conformational diversity of the native state plays a central role in modulating protein function. The selection paradigm sustains that different ligands shift the conformational equilibrium through their binding to highest-affinity conformers. Intramolecular vibrational dynamics associated to each conformation should guarantee conformational transitions, which due to its importance, could possibly be associated with evolutionary conserved traits. Normal mode analysis, based on a coarse-grained model of the protein, can provide the required information to explore these features. Herein, we present a novel procedure to identify key positions sustaining the conformational diversity associated to ligand binding. The method is applied to an adequate refined dataset of 188 paired protein structures in their bound and unbound forms. Firstly, normal modes most involved in the conformational change are selected according to their corresponding overlap with structural distortions introduced by ligand binding. The subspace defined by these modes is used to analyze the effect of simulated point mutations on preserving the conformational diversity of the protein. We find a negative correlation between the effects of mutations on these normal mode subspaces associated to ligand-binding and position-specific evolutionary conservations obtained from multiple sequence-structure alignments. Positions whose mutations are found to alter the most these subspaces are defined as key positions, that is, dynamically important residues that mediate the ligand-binding conformational change. These positions are shown to be evolutionary conserved, mostly buried aliphatic residues localized in regular structural regions of the protein like β-sheets and α-helix. PMID:27008419

  6. Rotational Spectroscopy Unveils Eleven Conformers of Adrenaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Recent improvements in our LA-MB-FTMW instrumentation have allowed the characterization of eleven and eight conformers for the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. The observation of this rich conformational behavior is in accordance with the recent observation of seven conformers for dopamine and in sharp contrast with the conformational reduction proposed for catecholamines. C. Cabezas, I. Peña, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 486. H. Mitsuda, M. Miyazaki, I. B. Nielsen, P. Carcabal,C. Dedonder, C. Jouvet, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1130.

  7. Pyrrolidine nucleotide analogs with a tunable conformation

    PubMed Central

    Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Rejman, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Summary Conformational preferences of the pyrrolidine ring in nucleotide analogs 7–14 were investigated by means of NMR and molecular modeling. The effect of the relative configuration of hydroxy and nucleobase substituents as well as the effect of the alkylation or acylation of the pyrrolidine nitrogen atom on the conformation of the pyrrolidine ring were studied. The results of a conformational analysis show that the alkylation/acylation can be effectively used for tuning the pyrrolidine conformation over the whole pseudorotation cycle. PMID:25246956

  8. Evolutionary Conserved Positions Define Protein Conformational Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Saldaño, Tadeo E.; Monzon, Alexander M.; Parisi, Gustavo; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Conformational diversity of the native state plays a central role in modulating protein function. The selection paradigm sustains that different ligands shift the conformational equilibrium through their binding to highest-affinity conformers. Intramolecular vibrational dynamics associated to each conformation should guarantee conformational transitions, which due to its importance, could possibly be associated with evolutionary conserved traits. Normal mode analysis, based on a coarse-grained model of the protein, can provide the required information to explore these features. Herein, we present a novel procedure to identify key positions sustaining the conformational diversity associated to ligand binding. The method is applied to an adequate refined dataset of 188 paired protein structures in their bound and unbound forms. Firstly, normal modes most involved in the conformational change are selected according to their corresponding overlap with structural distortions introduced by ligand binding. The subspace defined by these modes is used to analyze the effect of simulated point mutations on preserving the conformational diversity of the protein. We find a negative correlation between the effects of mutations on these normal mode subspaces associated to ligand-binding and position-specific evolutionary conservations obtained from multiple sequence-structure alignments. Positions whose mutations are found to alter the most these subspaces are defined as key positions, that is, dynamically important residues that mediate the ligand-binding conformational change. These positions are shown to be evolutionary conserved, mostly buried aliphatic residues localized in regular structural regions of the protein like β-sheets and α-helix. PMID:27008419

  9. Fabrication challenges associated with conformal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, John; Eichholtz, Richard A.; Sulzbach, Frank C.

    2001-09-01

    A conformal optic is typically an optical window that conforms smoothly to the external shape of a system platform to improve aerodynamics. Conformal optics can be on-axis, such as an ogive missile dome, or off-axis, such as in a free form airplane wing. A common example of conformal optics is the automotive head light window that conforms to the body of the car aerodynamics and aesthetics. The unusual shape of conformal optics creates tremendous challenges for design, manufacturing, and testing. This paper will discuss fabrication methods that have been successfully demonstrated to produce conformal missile domes and associated wavefront corrector elements. It will identify challenges foreseen with more complex free-form configurations. Work presented in this paper was directed by the Precision Conformal Optics Consortium (PCOT). PCOT is comprised of both industrial and academic members who teamed to develop and demonstrate conformal optical systems suitable for insertion into future military programs. The consortium was funded under DARPA agreement number MDA972-96-9-08000.

  10. Does physical exposure throughout working life influence chair-rise performance in midlife? A retrospective cohort study of associations between work and physical function in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anne; Reventlow, Susanne; Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars L; Siersma, Volkert; Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to study associations between physical exposures throughout working life and physical function measured as chair-rise performance in midlife. Methods The Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) provided data about employment and measures of physical function. Individual job histories were assigned exposures from a job exposure matrix. Exposures were standardised to ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in 1 year), stand-years (standing/walking for 6 h each day in 1 year) and kneel-years (kneeling for 1 h each day in 1 year). The associations between exposure-years and chair-rise performance (number of chair-rises in 30 s) were analysed in multivariate linear and non-linear regression models adjusted for covariates. Results Mean age among the 5095 participants was 59 years in both genders, and, on average, men achieved 21.58 (SD=5.60) and women 20.38 (SD=5.33) chair-rises in 30 s. Physical exposures were associated with poorer chair-rise performance in both men and women, however, only associations between lifting and standing/walking and chair-rise remained statistically significant among men in the final model. Spline regression analyses showed non-linear associations and confirmed the findings. Conclusions Higher physical exposure throughout working life is associated with slightly poorer chair-rise performance. The associations between exposure and outcome were non-linear. PMID:26537502

  11. Synthesis, spectral characterization, single crystal and conformational study of 1,5-dimethyl-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswaramoorthi, R.; John Francis Xavier, J.; Krishnasamy, K.; Saleem, H.

    2012-03-01

    1,5-Dimethyl-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one 1 and their derivatives 2-8 were obtained by condensation of 2,6-dimethyl cyclohexanone, Ammonium acetate and substituted aromatic aldehydes and characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GC-MS, HOMOCOSY, HSQC, NOESY, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and theoretical DFT calculation. Compound 1 crystallized in the Triclinic system, space group P-1 with a = 6.8950(5) Ǻ, b = 11.5889(9) Ǻ, c = 11.9172(9) Ǻ, α = 76.277(4)°, β = 78.000(3)°, γ = 72.920(4)°, V = 874.41(12) Ǻ3 and Z = 2. 1,5-Dimethyl-2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one 1 and their derivatives 2-8 were exist in boat-chair conformation with equatorial orientation of all the substituents at piperidine ring (two phenyl rings at C-2 and C-4 position, two methyl substituents at C-1 and C-5 position) of compound 1. In the crystal structure of compound 1, the molecules are connected by Nsbnd H⋯Odbnd C intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The existence of boat-chair conformation was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and theoretical DFT calculation.

  12. Time and space variations in magmatic and phreatomagmatic eruptive processes at Easy Chair (Lunar Crater Volcanic Field, Nevada, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Cortés, Joaquín A.

    2013-09-01

    The products of monogenetic volcanoes often record complex sequences of eruptive processes. Easy Chair volcano (Lunar Crater Volcanic Field, Nevada, USA) was formed by a monogenetic eruption along a ˜2.5-km-long series of en echelon fissure vents. Hawaiian to Strombolian fountains along the fissures dominated initial activity, producing a series of agglomerate ramparts. Focusing of eruptive activity to two central vents and the formation of two overlapping scoria cones followed the early phase. Fountain-fed lavas from those cones merged to form a channel that fed lava onto a flow field at the foot of the cones. Focusing of subsurface magma flow toward the central conduits may have reduced magma flux in the remaining fissures, and the southern segment(s) entered a phase of phreatomagmatic explosions that destroyed the early agglomerate rampart and formed a maar and tephra ring composed of lapilli tuff rich in clasts derived from pre-Easy Chair lavas and early agglomerates. The eruption closed with a minor phase of magmatic activity that deposited scoria lapilli and bombs on top of the phreatomagmatic deposits. The eruptive sequence indicates that relatively low hazard Strombolian to Hawaiian activity can be replaced by more hazardous phreatomagmatic explosions well into a monogenetic eruption.

  13. Conformational readout of RNA by small ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kligun, Efrat; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2013-01-01

    RNA molecules have highly versatile structures that can fold into myriad conformations, providing many potential pockets for binding small molecules. The increasing number of available RNA structures, in complex with proteins, small ligands and in free form, enables the design of new therapeutically useful RNA-binding ligands. Here we studied RNA ligand complexes from 10 RNA groups extracted from the protein data bank (PDB), including adaptive and non-adaptive complexes. We analyzed the chemical, physical, structural and conformational properties of binding pockets around the ligand. Comparing the properties of ligand-binding pockets to the properties of computed pockets extracted from all available RNA structures and RNA-protein interfaces, revealed that ligand-binding pockets, mainly the adaptive pockets, are characterized by unique properties, specifically enriched in rare conformations of the nucleobase and the sugar pucker. Further, we demonstrate that nucleotides possessing the rare conformations are preferentially involved in direct interactions with the ligand. Overall, based on our comprehensive analysis of RNA-ligand complexes, we suggest that the unique conformations adopted by RNA nucleotides play an important role in RNA recognition by small ligands. We term the recognition of a binding site by a ligand via the unique RNA conformations “RNA conformational readout.” We propose that “conformational readout” is a general way by which RNA binding pockets are recognized and selected from an ensemble of different RNA states. PMID:23618839

  14. Conformational Sampling of Peptides in Cellular Environments☆

    PubMed Central

    Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Clifford, Jacob; Connelly, Brian D.; Feig, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Biological systems provide a complex environment that can be understood in terms of its dielectric properties. High concentrations of macromolecules and cosolvents effectively reduce the dielectric constant of cellular environments, thereby affecting the conformational sampling of biomolecules. To examine this effect in more detail, the conformational preference of alanine dipeptide, poly-alanine, and melittin in different dielectric environments is studied with computer simulations based on recently developed generalized Born methodology. Results from these simulations suggest that extended conformations are favored over α-helical conformations at the dipeptide level at and below dielectric constants of 5–10. Furthermore, lower-dielectric environments begin to significantly stabilize helical structures in poly-alanine at ɛ = 20. In the more complex peptide melittin, different dielectric environments shift the equilibrium between two main conformations: a nearly fully extended helix that is most stable in low dielectrics and a compact, V-shaped conformation consisting of two helices that is preferred in higher dielectric environments. An additional conformation is only found to be significantly populated at intermediate dielectric constants. Good agreement with previous studies of different peptides in specific, less-polar solvent environments, suggest that helix stabilization and shifts in conformational preferences in such environments are primarily due to a reduced dielectric environment rather than specific molecular details. The findings presented here make predictions of how peptide sampling may be altered in dense cellular environments with reduced dielectric response. PMID:17905846

  15. 40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The Commonwealth of Kentucky incorporated by reference regulations 40 CFR part 51... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The...

  16. 14 CFR 17.45 - Conforming amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conforming amendments. 17.45 Section 17.45 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Finality and Review § 17.45 Conforming amendments. The...

  17. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  18. Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinesh, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…

  19. CCProf: exploring conformational change profile of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Che-Wei; Chou, Chai-Wei; Chang, Darby Tien-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In many biological processes, proteins have important interactions with various molecules such as proteins, ions or ligands. Many proteins undergo conformational changes upon these interactions, where regions with large conformational changes are critical to the interactions. This work presents the CCProf platform, which provides conformational changes of entire proteins, named conformational change profile (CCP) in the context. CCProf aims to be a platform where users can study potential causes of novel conformational changes. It provides 10 biological features, including conformational change, potential binding target site, secondary structure, conservation, disorder propensity, hydropathy propensity, sequence domain, structural domain, phosphorylation site and catalytic site. All these information are integrated into a well-aligned view, so that researchers can capture important relevance between different biological features visually. The CCProf contains 986 187 protein structure pairs for 3123 proteins. In addition, CCProf provides a 3D view in which users can see the protein structures before and after conformational changes as well as binding targets that induce conformational changes. All information (e.g. CCP, binding targets and protein structures) shown in CCProf, including intermediate data are available for download to expedite further analyses. Database URL: http://zoro.ee.ncku.edu.tw/ccprof/ PMID:27016699

  20. Technidilaton at the conformal edge

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Michio; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Technidilaton (TD) was proposed long ago in the technicolor near criticality/conformality. To reveal the critical behavior of TD, we explicitly compute the nonperturbative contributions to the scale anomaly <{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}>} and to the technigluon condensate <{alpha}G{sub {mu}{nu}}{sup 2}>, which are generated by the dynamical mass m of the technifermions. Our computation is based on the (improved) ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation, with the gauge coupling {alpha} replaced by the two-loop running coupling {alpha}({mu}) having the Caswell-Banks-Zaks infrared fixed point {alpha}{sub *}: {alpha}({mu}){approx_equal}{alpha}={alpha}{sub *} for the infrared region m<{mu}<{Lambda}{sub TC}, where {Lambda}{sub TC} is the intrinsic scale (analogue of {Lambda}{sub QCD} of QCD) relevant to the perturbative scale anomaly. We find that -<{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}}>/m{sup 4}{yields}const{ne}0 and <{alpha}G{sub {mu}}{nu}{sup 2}>/m{sup 4}{yields}({alpha}/{alpha}{sub cr}-1){sup -3/2}{yields}{infinity} in the criticality limit m/{Lambda}{sub TC}{approx}exp(-{pi}/({alpha}/{alpha}{sub cr}-1){sup 1/2}){yields}0 ({alpha}={alpha}{sub *}=>{alpha}{sub cr}, or N{sub f} approaches N{sub f}{sup cr}) ('conformal edge'). Our result precisely reproduces the formal identity <{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}>}=({beta}({alpha})/4{alpha}{sup 2})<{alpha}G{sub {mu}{nu}}{sup 2}>, where {beta}({alpha})={Lambda}{sub TC}({partial_derivative}{alpha}/{partial_derivative}{Lambda}{sub TC})=-(2{alpha}{sub cr}/{pi}){center_dot}({alpha}/{alpha}{sub cr}-1){sup 3/2} is the nonperturbative beta function corresponding to the above essential singularity scaling of m/{Lambda}{sub TC}. Accordingly, the partially conserved dilatation current implies (M{sub TD}/m){sup 2}(F{sub TD}/m){sup 2}=-4<{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}}>/m{sup 4}{yields}const{ne}0 at criticality limit, where M{sub TD} is the mass of TD and F{sub TD} the decay constant of TD. We thus conclude that at criticality limit the TD could become a ''true

  1. Technidilaton at the conformal edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Technidilaton (TD) was proposed long ago in the technicolor near criticality/conformality. To reveal the critical behavior of TD, we explicitly compute the nonperturbative contributions to the scale anomaly ⟨θμμ⟩ and to the technigluon condensate ⟨αGμν2⟩, which are generated by the dynamical mass m of the technifermions. Our computation is based on the (improved) ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation, with the gauge coupling α replaced by the two-loop running coupling α(μ) having the Caswell-Banks-Zaks infrared fixed point α*: α(μ)≃α=α* for the infrared region m<μ<ΛTC, where ΛTC is the intrinsic scale (analogue of ΛQCD of QCD) relevant to the perturbative scale anomaly. We find that -⟨θμμ⟩/m4→const≠0 and ⟨αGμν2⟩/m4→(α/αcr-1)-3/2→∞ in the criticality limit m/ΛTC˜exp⁡(-π/(α/αcr-1)1/2)→0 (α=α*↘αcr, or Nf↗Nfcr) (“conformal edge”). Our result precisely reproduces the formal identity ⟨θμμ⟩=(β(α)/4α2)⟨αGμν2⟩, where β(α)=ΛTC(∂α)/(∂ΛTC)=-(2αcr/π)·(α/αcr-1)3/2 is the nonperturbative beta function corresponding to the above essential singularity scaling of m/ΛTC. Accordingly, the partially conserved dilatation current implies (MTD/m)2(FTD/m)2=-4⟨θμμ⟩/m4→const≠0 at criticality limit, where MTD is the mass of TD and FTD the decay constant of TD. We thus conclude that at criticality limit the TD could become a “true (massless) Nambu-Goldstone boson” MTD/m→0, only when m/FTD→0, namely, getting decoupled, as was the case of “holographic technidilaton” of Haba-Matsuzaki-Yamawaki. The decoupled TD can be a candidate of dark matter.

  2. Impact of sulfation pattern on the conformation and dynamics of sulfated fucan oligosaccharides as revealed by NMR and MD.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Ismael N L; Wang, Xiaocong; Glushka, John N; Santos, Gustavo R C; Valente, Ana P; Prestegard, James H; Woods, Robert J; Mourão, Paulo A S; Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-05-01

    Sulfated fucans from sea urchin egg jelly express well-defined chemical structures that vary with species. This species specificity regulates the sperm acrosome reaction, a critical step to assure intra-specific fertilization. In addition, these polysaccharides are involved in other biological activities such as anticoagulation. Although sulfation patterns are relevant to the levels of response in both activities, conformation and dynamics of these glycans are also contributing factors. However, data about these features of sulfated fucans are very rare. To address this, we have employed nuclear magnetic resonance experiments combined with molecular dynamics on structurally defined oligosaccharides derived from two sulfated fucans. The results have indicated that the oligosaccharides are flexible in solution. Ring conformation of their composing units displays just the (1)C4 chair configuration. In a particular octasaccharide, composed of two tetrasaccharide sequences, inter-residual hydrogen bonds play a role to decrease dynamics in these repeating units. Conversely, the linking disaccharide [-3)-α-L-Fucp-2(OSO3(-))-(1-3)-α-L-Fucp-4(OCO3(-))-(1-] located right between the two tetrasaccharide units has amplified motions suggested to be promoted by electrostatic repulsion of sulfates on opposite sides of the central glycosidic bond. This conjunction of information about conformation and dynamics of sulfated fucan oligosaccharides provides new insights to explain how these glycans behave free in solution and influenced by sulfation patterns. It may also serve for future studies concerning structure-function relationship of sulfated fucans, especially those involving sea urchin fertilization and anticoagulation.

  3. Acyclic forms of aldohexoses and ketohexoses in aqueous and DMSO solutions: conformational features studied using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Plazinski, Wojciech; Plazinska, Anita; Drach, Mateusz

    2016-04-14

    The molecular properties of aldohexoses and ketohexoses are usually studied in the context of their cyclic, furanose or pyranose structures which is due to the abundance of related tautomeric forms in aqueous solution. We studied the conformational features of a complete series of D-aldohexoses (D-allose, D-altrose, D-glucose, D-mannose, D-gulose, d-idose, D-galactose and D-talose) and D-ketohexoses (D-psicose, D-fructose, D-sorbose and D-tagatose) as well as of L-psicose by using microsecond-timescale molecular dynamics in explicit water and DMSO with the use of enhanced sampling methods. In each of the studied cases the preferred conformation corresponded to an extended chain structure; the less populated conformers included the quasi-cyclic structures, close to furanose rings and common for both aldo- and ketohexoses. The orientational preferences of the aldehyde or ketone groups are correlated with the relative populations of anomers characteristic of cyclic aldo- and ketohexoses, respectively, thus indicating that basic features of anomeric equilibria are preserved even if hexose molecules are not in their cyclic forms. No analogous relationship is observed in the case of other structural characteristics, such as the preferences of acyclic molecules to form either the furanose-or pyranose-like structures or maintaining the chair-like geometry of pseudo-pyranose rings.

  4. Superintegrability of d-Dimensional Conformal Blocks.

    PubMed

    Isachenkov, Mikhail; Schomerus, Volker

    2016-08-12

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar four-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can be mapped to eigenfunctions of a two-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Pöschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions. We conclude with a short outlook, in particular, on the consequences of integrability for the theory of conformal blocks. PMID:27563949

  5. Performance of Conformable Ablators in Aerothermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J.; Fan, W.; Skokova, K.; Stackpoole, M.; Beck, R.; Chavez-Garcia, J.

    2012-01-01

    Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICAs performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.

  6. Superintegrability of d -Dimensional Conformal Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail; Schomerus, Volker

    2016-08-01

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar four-point functions in a d -dimensional conformal field theory can be mapped to eigenfunctions of a two-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Pöschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d , is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions. We conclude with a short outlook, in particular, on the consequences of integrability for the theory of conformal blocks.

  7. Vibrational and vibronic spectra of tryptamine conformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorkas, Nitzan; Bernat, Amir; Izbitski, Shay; Bar, Ilana

    2013-03-01

    Conformation-specific ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectra, including both Raman loss and Raman gain lines, along with visible-visible-ultraviolet hole-burning spectra of tryptamine (TRA) conformers have been measured simultaneously, with the aim of obtaining new data for identifying them. The slightly different orientations of the ethylamine side chain relative to the indole lead to unique spectral signatures, pointing to the presence of seven TRA conformers in the molecular beam. Comparison of ionization-loss stimulated Raman spectra to computationally scaled harmonic Raman spectra, especially in the alkyl C-H and amine N-H stretch regions together with the retrieved information on the stabilities of the TRA conformers assisted their characterization and structural identification. The prospects and limitations of using these spectroscopic methods as potential conformational probes of flexible molecules are discussed.

  8. Dolastatin 11 conformations, analogues and pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Ahad; Bates, Robert B; Crane, Zackary D; Dicus, Christopher W; Gramme, Michelle R; Hamel, Ernest; Marcischak, Jacob; Martinez, David S; McClure, Kelly J; Nakkiew, Pichaya; Pettit, George R; Stessman, Chad C; Sufi, Bilal A; Yarick, Gayle V

    2005-07-01

    Twenty analogues of the natural antitumor agent dolastatin 11, including majusculamide C, were synthesized and tested for cytotoxicity against human cancer cells and stimulation of actin polymerization. Only analogues containing the 30-membered ring were active. Molecular modeling and NMR evidence showed the low-energy conformations. The amide bonds are all trans except for the one between the Tyr and Val units, which is cis. Since an analogue restricted to negative 2-3-4-5 angles stimulated actin polymerization but was inactive in cells, the binding conformation (most likely the lowest-energy conformation in water) has a negative 2-3-4-5 angle, whereas a conformation with a positive 2-3-4-5 angle (most likely the lowest energy conformation in chloroform) goes through cell walls. The highly active R alcohol from borohydride reduction of dolastatin 11 is a candidate for conversion to prodrugs.

  9. Conformational implications of asparagine-linked glycosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Imperiali, B; Rickert, K W

    1995-01-01

    The effects of cotranslational protein modification on the process of protein folding are poorly understood. Time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer has been used to assess the impact of glycosylation on the conformational dynamics of flexible oligopeptides. The peptide sequences examined are selected from glycoproteins of known three-dimensional structure. The energy transfer modulation associated with N-linked glycosylation is consistent with the glycopeptides sampling different conformational profiles in water. Results show that glycosylation causes the modified peptides to adopt a different ensemble of conformations, and for some peptides this change may lead to conformations that are more compact and better approximate the conformation of these peptides in the final folded protein. This result further implies that cotranslational glycosylation can trigger the timely formation of structural nucleation elements and thus assist in the complex process of protein folding. PMID:7816856

  10. Protein biosynthesis with conformationally restricted amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, D. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Ellman, J.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1993-05-19

    The incorporation of conformationally constrained amino acids into peptides is a powerful approach for generating structurally defined peptides as conformational probes and bioactive agents. The ability to site-specifically introduce constrained amino acids into large polypeptide chains would provide a similar opportunity to probe the flexibility, conformation, folding and stability of proteins. To this end, we have examined the competence of the Escherichia coli protein biosynthetic machinery to incorporate a number of these unnatural amino acids into the 164 residue protein T4 lysozyme (T4L). Results clearly demonstrate that the protein biosynthetic machinery can accommodate a wide variety of conformationally constrained amino acids. The expansion of structural motifs that can be biosynthetically incorporated into proteins to include a large number of conformationally constrained amino acids significantly increases the power of mutagenesis methods as probes of protein structure and function and provides additional insights into the steric requirements of the translational machinery. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  11. The impact of active site protonation on substrate ring conformation in Melanocarpus albomyces cellobiohydrolase Cel7B.

    PubMed

    Schutt, Timothy C; Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Granum, David M; Maupin, C Mark

    2015-07-14

    The ability to utilize biomass as a feedstock for liquid fuel and value-added chemicals is dependent on the efficient and economic utilization of lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. In current bioreactors, cellulases are used to convert crystalline and amorphous cellulose to smaller oligomers and eventually glucose by means of cellulase enzymes. A critical component of the enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis reaction is the degree to which the enzyme can facilitate substrate ring deformation from the chair to a more catalytically active conformation (e.g. skewed boat) at the -1 subsite. Presented here is an evaluation of the impact of the protonation state for critical active site residues (i.e. Glu212, Asp214, Glu217, and His228) in Melanocarpus albomyces (Ma) Cellobiohydrolase Cel7B on the substrate's orientation and ring conformation. It is found that the protonation state of the active site can disrupt the intra-enzyme hydrogen bonding network and enhance the sampling of various ring puckering conformations for the substrate ring at the +1 and -1 subsites. In particular it is observed that the protonation state of Asp214 dictates the accessibility of the glycosidic bond to the catalytic acid/base Glu217 by influencing the φ/ψ dihedral angles and the puckering of the ring structure. The protonation-orientation-conformation analysis has revealed an active site that primarily utilizes two highly coupled protonation schemes; one protonation scheme to orient the substrate and generate catalytically favorable substrate geometries and ring puckering conformations and another protonation scheme to hydrolyze the glycosidic bond. In addition to identifying how enzymes utilize protonation state to manipulate substrate geometry, this study identifies possible directions for improving catalytic activity through protein engineering. PMID:26061383

  12. Conformational analysis of 2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-one hydrazones by X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, C.; Umamatheswari, S.; Pandiarajan, K.

    2015-03-01

    A new series of 3t-alkyl-2r,6c-diarylpiperidin-4-one N-isonicotinoylhydrazones (12-22) derived from the condensation of 3t-alkyl-2r,6c-diarylpiperidin-4-ones with isoniazid (INH) is reported. Newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by using elemental analysis, IR, 1H, 13C and 2D NMR spectral analysis. Moreover, representative crystal structure of 3,3-dimethyl-2r,6c-diarylpiperidin-4-one N-isonicotinoylhydrazone has been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. NMR data revealed that two geometrical isomers (E and Z) are formed in all cases, and the piperidine ring adopts chair conformation. Whereas in solid state the compounds have E configuration about the Cdbnd N bond. These conclusions have also been confirmed by X-ray data of compound 16.

  13. Conforming Morse-Smale Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, Attila; Gunther, David; Levine, Joshua A.; Tierny, Julien; Pascucci, Valerio

    2014-08-11

    Morse-Smale (MS) complexes have been gaining popularity as a tool for feature-driven data analysis and visualization. However, the quality of their geometric embedding and the sole dependence on the input scalar field data can limit their applicability when expressing application-dependent features. In this paper we introduce a new combinatorial technique to compute an MS complex that conforms to both an input scalar field and an additional, prior segmentation of the domain. The segmentation constrains the MS complex computation guaranteeing that boundaries in the segmentation are captured as separatrices of the MS complex. We demonstrate the utility and versatility of our approach with two applications. First, we use streamline integration to determine numerically computed basins/mountains and use the resulting segmentation as an input to our algorithm. This strategy enables the incorporation of prior flow path knowledge, effectively resulting in an MS complex that is as geometrically accurate as the employed numerical integration. Our second use case is motivated by the observation that often the data itself does not explicitly contain features known to be present by a domain expert. We introduce edit operations for MS complexes so that a user can directly modify their features while maintaining all the advantages of a robust topology-based representation.

  14. Conforming Morse-Smale Complexes.

    PubMed

    Gyulassy, Attila; Günther, David; Levine, Joshua A; Tierny, Julien; Pascucci, Valerio

    2014-12-01

    Morse-Smale (MS) complexes have been gaining popularity as a tool for feature-driven data analysis and visualization. However, the quality of their geometric embedding and the sole dependence on the input scalar field data can limit their applicability when expressing application-dependent features. In this paper we introduce a new combinatorial technique to compute an MS complex that conforms to both an input scalar field and an additional, prior segmentation of the domain. The segmentation constrains the MS complex computation guaranteeing that boundaries in the segmentation are captured as separatrices of the MS complex. We demonstrate the utility and versatility of our approach with two applications. First, we use streamline integration to determine numerically computed basins/mountains and use the resulting segmentation as an input to our algorithm. This strategy enables the incorporation of prior flow path knowledge, effectively resulting in an MS complex that is as geometrically accurate as the employed numerical integration. Our second use case is motivated by the observation that often the data itself does not explicitly contain features known to be present by a domain expert. We introduce edit operations for MS complexes so that a user can directly modify their features while maintaining all the advantages of a robust topology-based representation.

  15. Conformal Higgs, or Techni-Dilaton -- Composite Higgs Near Conformality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the folklore that Technicolor (TC) is a "Higgsless theory", we shall discuss existence of a composite Higgs boson, Techni-Dilaton (TD), a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of the scale invariance in the Scale-invariant/Walking/Conformal TC (SWC TC) which generates a large anomalous dimension γm ≃ 1 in a wide region from the dynamical mass m = {O} ({TeV}) of the techni-fermion all the way up to the intrinsic scale ΛTC of the SWC TC (analogue of ΛQCD), where ΛTC is taken typically as the scale of the Extended TC scale ΛETC: ΛTC ≃ ΛETC 103 TeV (≫ m). All the techni-hadrons have mass on the same order {O}(m), which in SWC TC is extremely smaller than the intrinsic scale ΛTC ≃ ΛETC, in sharp contrast to QCD where both are of the same order. The mass of TD arises from the non-perturbative scale anomaly associated with the techni-fermion mass generation and is typically 500-600 GeV, even smaller than other techni-hadrons of the same order of {O}(m), in another contrast to QCD which is believed to have no scalar bar qq bound state lighter than other hadrons. We discuss the TD mass in various methods, Gauged NJL model via ladder Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation, straightforward calculations in the ladder SD/ Bethe-Salpeter equation, and the holographic approach including techni-gluon condensate. The TD may be discovered in LHC.

  16. Perceived Symbols of Authority and Their Influence on Conformity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushman, Brad J.

    Although there are many variables that influence conformity, Bickman (1974) found that the apparel of the person making a request had a significant influence on conformity. To evaluate other factorswhicn may influence conformity (gender, age, status of the conforming subject, and altruism in conforming), 150 adult pedestrians (45% female, 71%…

  17. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a...

  18. Representation of target-bound drugs by computed conformers: implications for conformational libraries

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Stefan; Senger, Christian; Michalsky, Elke; Goede, Andrean; Preissner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background The increasing number of known protein structures provides valuable information about pharmaceutical targets. Drug binding sites are identifiable and suitable lead compounds can be proposed. The flexibility of ligands is a critical point for the selection of potential drugs. Since computed 3D structures of millions of compounds are available, the knowledge of their binding conformations would be a great benefit for the development of efficient screening methods. Results Integration of two public databases allowed superposition of conformers for 193 approved drugs with 5507 crystallised target-bound counterparts. The generation of 9600 drug conformers using an atomic force field was carried out to obtain an optimal coverage of the conformational space. Bioactive conformations are best described by a conformational ensemble: half of all drugs exhibit multiple active states, distributed over the entire range of the reachable energy and conformational space. A number of up to 100 conformers per drug enabled us to reproduce the bound states within a similarity threshold of 1.0 Å in 70% of all cases. This fraction rises to about 90% for smaller or average sized drugs. Conclusion Single drugs adopt multiple bioactive conformations if they interact with different target proteins. Due to the structural diversity of binding sites they adopt conformations that are distributed over a broad conformational space and wide energy range. Since the majority of drugs is well represented by a predefined low number of conformers (up to 100) this procedure is a valuable method to compare compounds by three-dimensional features or for fast similarity searches starting with pharmacophores. The underlying 9600 generated drug conformers are downloadable from the Super Drug Web site [1]. All superpositions are visualised at the same source. Additional conformers (110,000) of 2400 classified WHO-drugs are also available. PMID:16764718

  19. Theoretical investigation of conformational stabilities and 13C NMR chemical shifts of a seven-membered ring thiosugar, (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Chin-Kuen; Yeh, Pao-Ling; Wu, Yun-Sheng; Shih, Tzenge-Lien; Wang, Bo-Cheng

    2014-06-01

    DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations have been performed to obtain optimized structures for fourteen conformers of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol. These conformers are considered as the twist-chair (TC) and twist-boat (TB) conformations. Among all conformers, the TCS5 and TCS6 conformers appear to be the most energetically stable since they contain an intramolecular hydrogen bond between hydroxyl group at C(8) and S atom. Boltzmann weighting factor analysis provides valuable information on the population of the fourteen conformers, including both the TC and TB conformations. The analysis results demonstrate that the TCS2, TCS5, and TCS6 conformers provide a major population contribution with Boltzamann weighting factors larger than 7% as compared to other conformers. For these conformers of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol, the GIAO/HF, GIAO/DFT/OPBE, GIAO/DFT/B3LYP and GIAO/DFT/mPW1PW91 calculations with the 6-311++G(d,p), 6-311+G(2d,p), cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets were used to obtain their 13C NMR chemical shifts. The calculated 13C NMR chemical shifts of the TCS2, TCS5, and TCS6 conformers show a close correlation with experimental data, within 2.4-3.0 ppm of MAE values. The experimental 13C NMR chemical shifts represent a combination of contributions from all the conformers. In our investigation, the calculated 13C NMR chemical shifts of the mixture of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol conformers display a remarkable MAE and RMS improvement comparing to those for each individual conformer. The most appropriate calculation method and basis set to evaluate the theoretical 13C NMR chemical shifts for these conformers are OPBE/6-311+G(2d,p). Calculated results represent that the conformation of (3R,4R,5R,7S)-7-(hydroxymethyl)thiepane-3,4,5-triol can be determined by the intramolecular hydrogen bond which could be simulated by the 13C NMR chemical shift calculation.

  20. [Achievements of the Cracow School of Forensic Medicine--on the 200 the anniversary of the Chair of Forensic Medicine--Part I].

    PubMed

    Marek, Zdzisław

    2006-01-01

    The Chair of Forensic Medicine was established at the Jagiellonian University in 1804. Initially, the Cracow academic institution developed along the similar lines as other Chairs of those times. Considerable progress was made thanks to Professor W. Hechel, who headed the Chair since 1834 and initiated intensive research and didactic activities. His successors, mostly Professors Antoni Bryk and Stanisław Janikowski, extended the Chair, strengthening its importance at the University and in the judicial system. The golden age commenced in 1882, when Professor Leon Blumenstock became Head of the Chair. Other founders of the Cracow School of Forensic Medicine include Professors Leon Wachholz and Jan Olbrycht (1895-1962). It was these two eminent scientists that wrote important textbooks, discovered new methods and helped the Cracow institution to become a significant research center of forensic medicine. Their important achievements include the test for COHb determination in blood of victims of carbon monoxide poisoning (the Wachholz-Sieradzki test), the explanation of death mechanisms involved in violent death by drawning, the development of protocols for opinionating and event reconstruction in cases of violent death by poisoning and mechanical injuries, and the widely accepted theory and medicolegal assessment of medical errors. Other outstanding achievements focused on investigations of biological trace evidence, serohematology in determinations of fatherhood, and--what may be the most important--identification of responsibilities and role of an expert in legal proceedings, and many others. The work of several generations of Cracow forensic medicine specialist has culminated in training a cadre of specialists who became heads of the majority of Chairs of Forensic Medicine in Poland, writing numerous textbooks for students, monographs, hundreds of research papers and an enormous number of medico-legal opinions, the participation in almost all major court

  1. The Principle of Maximum Conformality

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J; Giustino, Di; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD predictions is the uncertainty in determining the renormalization scale of the running coupling {alpha}{sub s}({mu}{sup 2}). It is common practice to guess a physical scale {mu} = Q which is of order of a typical momentum transfer Q in the process, and then vary the scale over a range Q/2 and 2Q. This procedure is clearly problematic since the resulting fixed-order pQCD prediction will depend on the renormalization scheme, and it can even predict negative QCD cross sections at next-to-leading-order. Other heuristic methods to set the renormalization scale, such as the 'principle of minimal sensitivity', give unphysical results for jet physics, sum physics into the running coupling not associated with renormalization, and violate the transitivity property of the renormalization group. Such scale-setting methods also give incorrect results when applied to Abelian QED. Note that the factorization scale in QCD is introduced to match nonperturbative and perturbative aspects of the parton distributions in hadrons; it is present even in conformal theory and thus is a completely separate issue from renormalization scale setting. The PMC provides a consistent method for determining the renormalization scale in pQCD. The PMC scale-fixed prediction is independent of the choice of renormalization scheme, a key requirement of renormalization group invariance. The results avoid renormalon resummation and agree with QED scale-setting in the Abelian limit. The PMC global scale can be derived efficiently at NLO from basic properties of the PQCD cross section. The elimination of the renormalization scheme ambiguity using the PMC will not only increases the precision of QCD tests, but it will also increase the sensitivity of colliders to new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  2. Conformation sensitive charge transport in conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mattias Andersson, L.; Hedström, Svante; Persson, Petter

    2013-11-18

    Temperature dependent charge carrier mobility measurements using field effect transistors and density functional theory calculations are combined to show how the conformation dependent frontier orbital delocalization influences the hole- and electron mobilities in a donor-acceptor based polymer. A conformationally sensitive lowest unoccupied molecular orbital results in an electron mobility that decreases with increasing temperature above room temperature, while a conformationally stable highest occupied molecular orbital is consistent with a conventional hole mobility behavior and also proposed to be one of the reasons for why the material works well as a hole transporter in amorphous bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  3. The conformal window from the worldline formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armoni, Adi

    2010-02-01

    We use the worldline formalism to derive a universal relation for the lower boundary of the conformal window in non-supersymmetric QCD-like theories. The derivation relies on the convergence of the expansion of the fermionic determinant in terms of Wilson loops. The expansion shares a similarity with the lattice strong coupling expansion and the genus expansion in string theory. Our result relates the lower boundary of the conformal window in theories with different representations and different gauge groups. Finally, we use SQCD to estimate the boundary of the conformal window in QCD-like theories and compare it with other approaches.

  4. Novel Approach to Conformal FINFET Extension Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Zschaetzsch, G.; Vandervorst, W.; Hoffmann, T. Y.; Horiguchi, N.; Hautala, J.; Shao, Y.

    2011-01-07

    This paper presents a novel strategy to achieve conformal FINFET extension doping with low tilt-angle beam-line ion implantation. The process relies on the self-aligned cap layer formation exclusively on top of the FIN to tune doping levels in this particular area by partial dopant trapping. The conformality itself is evaluated for n- and p-type dopants by a novel extraction method applied to FIN resistor test structures. Furthermore, the process was integrated into a full NMOS device flow and compared to a highly tilted and more conformal As implant condition.

  5. Conformational and Vibrational Studies of Triclosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özişik, Haci; Bayari, S. Haman; Saǧlam, Semran

    2010-01-01

    The conformational equilibrium of triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2, 4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFTe/B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p)) method. Four different geometries were found to correspond to energy minimum conformations. The IR spectrum of triclosan was measured in the 4000-400 cm-1 region. We calculated the harmonic frequencies and intensities of the most stable conformers in order to assist in the assignment of the vibrational bands in the experimental spectrum. The fundamental vibrational modes were characterized depending on their total energy distribution (TED%) using scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) force field method.

  6. Conformable Fractional Nikiforov—Uvarov Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karayer, H.; Demirhan, D.; Büyükkılıç, F.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce conformable fractional Nikiforov—Uvarov (NU) method by means of conformable fractional derivative which is the most natural definition in non-integer calculus. Since, NU method gives exact eigenstate solutions of Schrödinger equation (SE) for certain potentials in quantum mechanics, this method is carried into the domain of fractional calculus to obtain the solutions of fractional SE. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the conformable fractional NU method, we solve fractional SE for harmonic oscillator potential, Woods—Saxon potential, and Hulthen potential.

  7. Anticholinergic substances: A single consistent conformation

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Peter; Datta, Narayandas

    1980-01-01

    An interactive computer-graphics analysis of 24 antagonists of acetylcholine at peripheral autonomic post-ganglionic (muscarinic) nervous junctions and at similar junctions in the central nervous system, the crystal structures of which are known, has led to the determination of a single, consistent, energetically favorable conformation for all 24 substances, although their observed crystal structure conformations vary widely. The absolute configuration and the single, consistent (ideal) conformation of the chemical groups required for maximum anticholinergic activity are described quantitatively. Images PMID:16592775

  8. Conformity and Dissonance in Generalized Voter Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Scott E.; Sander, Leonard M.; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.

    2007-09-01

    We generalize the voter model to include social forces that produce conformity among voters and avoidance of cognitive dissonance of opinions within a voter. The time for both conformity and consistency (which we call the exit time) is, in general, much longer than for either process alone. We show that our generalized model can be applied quite widely: it is a form of Wright's island model of population genetics, and is related to problems in the physical sciences. We give scaling arguments, numerical simulations, and analytic estimates for the exit time for a range of relative strengths in the tendency to conform and to avoid dissonance.

  9. Toward Focusing Conformational Ensembles on Bioactive Conformations: A Molecular Mechanics/Quantum Mechanics Study.

    PubMed

    Avgy-David, Hannah H; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2015-10-26

    The identification of bound conformations, namely, conformations adopted by ligands when binding their target is critical for target-based and ligand-based drug design. Bound conformations could be obtained computationally from unbound conformational ensembles generated by conformational search tools. However, these tools also generate many nonrelevant conformations thus requiring a focusing mechanism. To identify such a mechanism, this work focuses on a comparison of energies and structural properties of bound and unbound conformations for a set of FDA approved drugs whose complexes are available in the PDB. Unbound conformational ensembles were initially obtained with three force fields. These were merged, clustered, and reminimized using the same force fields and four QM methods. Bound conformations of all ligands were represented by their crystal structures or by approximations to these structures. Energy differences were calculated between global minima of the unbound state or the Boltzmann averaged energies of the unbound ensemble and the approximated bound conformations. Ligand conformations which resemble the X-ray conformation (RMSD < 1.0 Å) were obtained in 91%-97% and 96%-98% of the cases using the ensembles generated by the individual force fields and the reminimized ensembles, respectively, yet only in 52%-56% (original ensembles) and 47%-65% (reminimized ensembles) as global energy minima. The energy window within which the different methods identified the bound conformation (approximated by its closest local energy minimum) was found to be at 4-6 kcal/mol with respect to the global minimum and marginally lower with respect to a Boltzmann averaged energy of the unbound ensemble. Better approximations to the bound conformation obtained with a constrained minimization using the crystallographic B-factors or with a newly developed Knee Point Detection (KPD) method gave lower values (2-5 kcal/mol). Overall, QM methods gave lower energy differences than

  10. Polymorphic transformation of dense ZnO nanoparticles: Implications for chair/boat-type Peierls distortions of AB semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.-Y.; Shen Pouyan; Jiang Jianzhong

    2004-12-08

    Peierls distortion path was proved experimentally for dense ZnO nanoparticles prepared by static compression. Electron irradiation caused rock salt (R) to wurtzite (W) transition, following preferential (11-bar1){sub R}//(01-bar11){sub W}; [011]{sub R}//[1-bar21-bar3]{sub W} and then transformation strain induced (111-bar){sub R}//(1-bar011){sub W}; [011]{sub R}//[011-bar1]{sub W}. The two relationships can be rationalized by specified extent of chair- and boat-type Peierls distortions accompanied with band gap opening and intermediate {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub R} slip for energetically favorable {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub R}/(01-bar11){sub W} match.

  11. Conformational dynamics of peptide T molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akverdieva, Gulnare; Godjayev, Niftali; Akyuz, Sevim

    2002-05-01

    Using a method of the theoretical conformational analysis, a conformational dynamics of the side chains of the amino acid residues of peptide T, a competitor of the human immuno-deficiency virus in the binding to human T cells, was investigated. For this purpose, the conformational maps of the potential surfaces were constructed over the angles of the side chains for the preferable conformations of peptide T molecule. Permissible deviations of these angles from the optimal values were determined. It has been found that the angles of the side chains of the amino acid residues involved in physiologically active fragment Thr4-Thr8 are more rigid than in the other segment of the molecule. This fact confirms the existence of such a regular structure as β-turn revealed previously in studies of the spatial structure of the peptide T molecule.

  12. Energy maps for glycosidic linkage conformations.

    PubMed

    French, Alfred D

    2015-01-01

    Glycosidic linkage conformations are the main factors in determining the shapes of disaccharide, oligosaccharide, and polysaccharide molecules. The conformations are expressed in terms of the torsion angles about the bonds from each ring of the disaccharide moiety to its glycosidic oxygen atom, and the probability of a given conformation is often expressed in terms of its free or potential energy. The energy surface or map for a disaccharide is a display of the energy plotted against the two torsion angles. Successful mapping allows a particular kind of energy calculation to provide the energy values for each conformation and avoids possible pitfalls. Although different methods are discussed, the main emphasis of this chapter is on the technical production of the maps and their exploitation in further understanding the shape of the molecule in question.

  13. The Conformational Behaviour of the Odorant Dihydrocarveol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loru, Donatella; Jarman, Natasha; Sanz, M. Eugenia

    2016-06-01

    The odorant dihydrocarveol (C10H18O) has been investigated in the gas phase using a 2-8 GHz chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Dihydrocarveol was purchased as a mixture of n-, iso-, neo-, and neoiso- isomers. The sample was placed in a bespoke heating nozzle at about 85°C and seeded in Ne at 5 bar. Three conformers were observed and their rotational constants were determined. By comparing the experimental rotational constants with those calculated ab initio the three conformers were identified as belonging to n-dihydrocarveol. In all three conformers the isopropenyl group is in equatorial position with respect to the six-membered ring, and the OH group maintains the same configuration. The conformers differ in the orientation of the isopropenyl group.

  14. Conformational NMR Study of Bistriazolyl Anion Receptors.

    PubMed

    Makuc, Damjan; Merckx, Tamara; Dehaen, Wim; Plavec, Janez

    2016-01-01

    Conformational features of pyridine- and pyrimidine-based bistriazolyl anion receptors dissolved in acetonitrile-d3 were assessed by multidimensional, heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. NOESY correlation signals suggested preorganization of both host molecules in solution in the absence of anions. In addition, only a single set of signals was observed in the 1H NMR spectra, which suggested a symmetrical conformation of anion receptors or their conformational exchange that is fast on the NMR time-scale. Furthermore, the predominant conformations of the pyridine- and pyrimidine-based anion receptors are preserved upon addition of chloride, bromide, and acetate anions. Chemical shift changes observed upon addition of anions showed that the NH (thio)urea and triazole protons are involved in anion-receptor interactions through hydrogen bonding. PMID:27640375

  15. Conformational Electroresistance and Hysteresis in Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiangguo; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2014-07-02

    Among many mechanisms proposed for electroresistance, ones involving structural changes are the least understood because of challenges of controllability and repeatability. Yet structural changes can cause dramatic changes in electronic properties, leading to multiple ways in which conduction paths can be opened and closed, not limited to filament movement or variation in molecular conductance. Here we show at least another way: conformational dependence of the Coulomb charging energy of a nanocluster, where charging induced conformational distortion changes the blockade voltage, which in turn leads to a giant electroresistance. This intricate interplay between charging and conformation change is demonstrated in a nanocluster Zn3O4 by combining a first-principles calculation with a temperature dependent transport model. The predicted hysteretic Coulomb blockade staircase in the current-voltage curve adds another dimension to the rich phenomenon of tunneling electroresistance. The new mechanism also provides a better controlled and repeatable platform to study conformational electroresistance.

  16. Conformational Electroresistance and Hysteresis in Nanoclusters

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xiangguo; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2014-07-02

    Among many mechanisms proposed for electroresistance, ones involving structural changes are the least understood because of challenges of controllability and repeatability. Yet structural changes can cause dramatic changes in electronic properties, leading to multiple ways in which conduction paths can be opened and closed, not limited to filament movement or variation in molecular conductance. Here we show at least another way: conformational dependence of the Coulomb charging energy of a nanocluster, where charging induced conformational distortion changes the blockade voltage, which in turn leads to a giant electroresistance. This intricate interplay between charging and conformation change is demonstrated in amore » nanocluster Zn3O4 by combining a first-principles calculation with a temperature dependent transport model. The predicted hysteretic Coulomb blockade staircase in the current-voltage curve adds another dimension to the rich phenomenon of tunneling electroresistance. The new mechanism also provides a better controlled and repeatable platform to study conformational electroresistance.« less

  17. Nanoporous films: From conventional to the conformal

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie

    2015-12-14

    Here, thin and continuous films of porous metal-organic frameworks can now be conformally deposited on various substrates using a vapor-phase synthesis approach that departs from conventional solution-based routes.

  18. Structure of The Planar Galilean Conformal Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shoulan; Liu, Dong; Pei, Yufeng

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we compute the low-dimensional cohomology groups of the planar Galilean conformal algebra introduced by Bagchi and Goparkumar. Consequently we determine its derivations, central extensions, and automorphisms.

  19. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  20. Theory of conformational transitions of viral shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, Thomas; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2007-12-01

    We propose a continuum theory for the conformational transitions of viral shells. Conformational transitions of viral shells, as encountered during viral maturation, are associated with a soft mode instability of the capsid proteins [F. Tama and C. L. Brooks, J. Mol. Biol. 345(2), 299 (2005)]. The continuum theory presented here is an adaptation of the Ginzburg-Landau theory of soft-mode structural phase transitions of solids to viral shells. The theory predicts that the conformational transitions are characterized by a pronounced softening of the shell elasticity in the critical region. We demonstrate that the thermodynamics of the conformational transition can be probed quantitatively by a micromechanical atomic force microscope study. The external force can drive a capsid into a state of phase coexistence characterized by a highly nonlinear force deformation curve.