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Sample records for 4d cbct images

  1. 2D/4D marker-free tumor tracking using 4D CBCT as the reference image

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengjiao; Rit, Simon; Delmon, Vivien; Wang, Guangzhi

    2014-01-01

    Tumor motion caused by respiration is an important issue in image guided radiotherapy. A 2D/4D matching method between 4D volumes derived from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 2D fluoroscopic images was implemented to track the tumor motion without the use of implanted markers. In this method, firstly, 3DCBCT and phase-rebinned 4DCBCT are reconstructed from cone beam acquisition. Secondly, 4DCBCT volumes and streak free 3DCBCT volume are combined to improve the image quality of the DRRs. Finally, the 2D/4D matching problem is converted into a 2D/2D matching between incoming projections and DRR images from each phase of the 4DCBCT. The diaphragm is used as a target surrogate for matching instead of using the tumor position directly. This relies on the assumption that if a patient has the same breathing phase and diaphragm position as the reference 4DCBCT, then the tumor position is the same. From the matching results, the phase information, diaphragm position and tumor position at the time of each incoming projection acquisition can be derived. The accuracy of this method was verified using 16 candidate datasets, representing lung and liver applications and 1-minute and 2-minute acquisitions. The criteria for the eligibility of datasets were described: 11 eligible datasets were selected to verify the accuracy of diaphragm tracking, and one eligible dataset was chosen to verify the accuracy of tumor tracking. Diaphragm matching accuracy was 1.88±1.35mm in the isocenter plane, the 2D tumor tracking accuracy was 2.13±1.26mm in the isocenter plane. These features make this method feasible for real-time marker-free tumor motion tracking purpose. PMID:24710793

  2. 2D/4D marker-free tumor tracking using 4D CBCT as the reference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengjiao; Sharp, Gregory C.; Rit, Simon; Delmon, Vivien; Wang, Guangzhi

    2014-05-01

    Tumor motion caused by respiration is an important issue in image-guided radiotherapy. A 2D/4D matching method between 4D volumes derived from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 2D fluoroscopic images was implemented to track the tumor motion without the use of implanted markers. In this method, firstly, 3DCBCT and phase-rebinned 4DCBCT are reconstructed from cone beam acquisition. Secondly, 4DCBCT volumes and a streak-free 3DCBCT volume are combined to improve the image quality of the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Finally, the 2D/4D matching problem is converted into a 2D/2D matching between incoming projections and DRR images from each phase of the 4DCBCT. The diaphragm is used as a target surrogate for matching instead of using the tumor position directly. This relies on the assumption that if a patient has the same breathing phase and diaphragm position as the reference 4DCBCT, then the tumor position is the same. From the matching results, the phase information, diaphragm position and tumor position at the time of each incoming projection acquisition can be derived. The accuracy of this method was verified using 16 candidate datasets, representing lung and liver applications and one-minute and two-minute acquisitions. The criteria for the eligibility of datasets were described: 11 eligible datasets were selected to verify the accuracy of diaphragm tracking, and one eligible dataset was chosen to verify the accuracy of tumor tracking. The diaphragm matching accuracy was 1.88 ± 1.35 mm in the isocenter plane and the 2D tumor tracking accuracy was 2.13 ± 1.26 mm in the isocenter plane. These features make this method feasible for real-time marker-free tumor motion tracking purposes.

  3. SU-E-J-74: Impact of Respiration-Correlated Image Quality On Tumor Motion Reconstruction in 4D-CBCT: A Phantom Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Lu, B; Samant, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of scanning parameters and respiratory patterns on the image quality for 4-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography(4D-CBCT) imaging, and assess the accuracy of computed tumor trajectory for lung imaging using registration of phased 4D-CBCT imaging with treatment planning-CT. Methods: We simulated a periodic and non-sinusoidal respirations with various breathing periods and amplitudes using a respiratory phantom(Quasar, Modus Medical Devices Inc) to acquire respiration-correlated 4D-CBCT images. 4D-CBCT scans(Elekta Oncology Systems Ltd) were performed with different scanning parameters for collimation size(e.g., small and medium field-of-views) and scanning speed(e.g., slow 50°·min{sup −1}, fast 100°·min{sup −1}). Using a standard CBCT-QA phantom(Catphan500, The Phantom Laboratory), the image qualities of all phases in 4D-CBCT were evaluated with contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR) for lung tissue and uniformity in each module. Using a respiratory phantom, the target imaging in 4D-CBCT was compared to 3D-CBCT target image. The target trajectory from 10-respiratory phases in 4D-CBCT was extracted using an automatic image registration and subsequently assessed the accuracy by comparing with actual motion of the target. Results: Image analysis indicated that a short respiration with a small amplitude resulted in superior CNR and uniformity. Smaller variation of CNR and uniformity was present amongst different respiratory phases. The small field-of-view with a partial scan using slow scan can improve CNR, but degraded uniformity. Large amplitude of respiration can degrade image quality. RMS of voxel densities in tumor area of 4D-CBCT images between sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal motion exhibited no significant difference. The maximum displacement errors of motion trajectories were less than 1.0 mm and 13.5 mm, for sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal breathings, respectively. The accuracy of motion reconstruction showed good overall

  4. SU-D-207-03: Development of 4D-CBCT Imaging System with Dual Source KV X-Ray Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M; Ishihara, Y; Matsuo, Y; Ueki, N; Iizuka, Y; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purposes of this work are to develop 4D-CBCT imaging system with orthogonal dual source kV X-ray tubes, and to determine the imaging doses from 4D-CBCT scans. Methods: Dual source kV X-ray tubes were used for the 4D-CBCT imaging. The maximum CBCT field of view was 200 mm in diameter and 150 mm in length, and the imaging parameters were 110 kV, 160 mA and 5 ms. The rotational angle was 105°, the rotational speed of the gantry was 1.5°/s, the gantry rotation time was 70 s, and the image acquisition interval was 0.3°. The observed amplitude of infrared marker motion during respiration was used to sort each image into eight respiratory phase bins. The EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc packages were used to simulate kV X-ray dose distributions of 4D-CBCT imaging. The kV X-ray dose distributions were calculated for 9 lung cancer patients based on the planning CT images with dose calculation grid size of 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 mm. The dose covering a 2-cc volume of skin (D2cc), defined as the inner 5 mm of the skin surface with the exception of bone structure, was assessed. Results: A moving object was well identified on 4D-CBCT images in a phantom study. Given a gantry rotational angle of 105° and the configuration of kV X-ray imaging subsystems, both kV X-ray fields overlapped at a part of skin surface. The D2cc for the 4D-CBCT scans was in the range 73.8–105.4 mGy. Linear correlation coefficient between the 1000 minus averaged SSD during CBCT scanning and D2cc was −0.65 (with a slope of −0.17) for the 4D-CBCT scans. Conclusion: We have developed 4D-CBCT imaging system with dual source kV X-ray tubes. The total imaging dose with 4D-CBCT scans was up to 105.4 mGy.

  5. Impact of scanning parameters and breathing patterns on image quality and accuracy of tumor motion reconstruction in 4D CBCT: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoung; Yan, Guanghua; Lu, Bo; Kahler, Darren; Li, Jonathan G; Sanjiv, Samat S

    2015-01-01

    Four-dimensional, cone-beam CT (4D CBCT) substantially reduces respiration-induced motion blurring artifacts in three-dimension (3D) CBCT. However, the image quality of 4D CBCT is significantly degraded which may affect its accuracy in localizing a mobile tumor for high-precision, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of scanning parameters hereinafter collectively referred to as scanning sequence) and breathing patterns on the image quality and the accuracy of computed tumor trajectory for a commercial 4D CBCT system, in preparation for its clinical implementation. We simulated a series of periodic and aperiodic sinusoidal breathing patterns with a respiratory motion phantom. The aperiodic pattern was created by varying the period or amplitude of individual sinusoidal breathing cycles. 4D CBCT scans of the phantom were acquired with a manufacturer-supplied scanning sequence (4D-S-slow) and two in-house modified scanning sequences (4D-M-slow and 4D-M-fast). While 4D-S-slow used small field of view (FOV), partial rotation (200°), and no imaging filter, 4D-M-slow and 4D-M-fast used medium FOV, full rotation, and the F1 filter. The scanning speed was doubled in 4D-M-fast (100°/min gantry rotation). The image quality of the 4D CBCT scans was evaluated using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and motion blurring ratio (MBR). The trajectory of the moving target was reconstructed by registering each phase of the 4D CBCT with a reference CT. The root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) analysis was used to quantify its accuracy. Significant decrease in CNR and SNR from 3D CBCT to 4D CBCT was observed. The 4D-S-slow and 4D-M-fast scans had comparable image quality, while the 4D-M-slow scans had better performance due to doubled projections. Both CNR and SNR decreased slightly as the breathing period increased, while no dependence on the amplitude was observed. The difference of both CNR and SNR

  6. SU-E-J-06: A Feasibility Study On Clinical Implementation of 4D-CBCT in Lung Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y; Stanford, J; Duggar, W; Ruan, C; He, R; Yang, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) is a novel imaging technique to setup patients with pulmonary lesions in radiation therapy. This paper is to perform a feasibility study on the implementation of 4D-CBCT as image guidance for (1) SBRT and (2) Low Modulation (Low-Mod) IMRT in lung cancer treatment. Methods: Image artifacts and observers variability are evaluated by analyzing the 4D-CT QA phantom and patient 4D image data. There are two 4D-CBCT image artifacts: (1) Spatial artifact caused by the patient irregular breathing pattern will generate blurring and anatomy gap/overlap; (2) Cone beam scattering and hardening artifact will affect the image spatial and contrast resolution. The couch shift varies between 1mm to 3mm from different observers during the 4D-CBCT registration. Breath training is highly recommended to improve the respiratory regularity during CT simulation and treatment, especially for SBRT. Elekta XVI 4.5 Symmetry protocol is adopted in the patient 4DCBCT scanning and intensity-based registration. Physician adjustments on the auto-registration are involved prior to the treatment. Physician peer review on 4D-CBCT image acquisition and registration is also recommended to reduce the inter-observer variability. The average 4D-CT in reference volume coordinates is exported to MIM Vista 5.6.2 to manually fuse to the planning CT for further evaluation. Results: (1) SBRT: 4DCBCT is performed in dry-run and in each treatment fraction. Image registration and couch shift are reviewed by another physician on the 1st fraction before the treatment starts. (2) Low-Mod IMRT: 4D-CBCT is performed and peer reviewed on weekly basis. Conclusion: 4D-CBCT in SBRT dry-run can discover the ITV discrepancies caused by the low quality 4D-CT simulation. 4D-CBCT during SBRT and Low-Mod IMRT treatment provides physicians more confidence to target lung tumor and capability to evaluate inter-fractional ITV changes. More advanced 4D-CBCT scan protocol and

  7. Simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) for 4D cone-beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Xuejun

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Image reconstruction and motion model estimation in four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) are conventionally handled as two sequential steps. Due to the limited number of projections at each phase, the image quality of 4D-CBCT is degraded by view aliasing artifacts, and the accuracy of subsequent motion modeling is decreased by the inferior 4D-CBCT. The objective of this work is to enhance both the image quality of 4D-CBCT and the accuracy of motion model estimation with a novel strategy enabling simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR).Methods: The proposed SMEIR algorithm consists of two alternating steps: (1) model-based iterative image reconstruction to obtain a motion-compensated primary CBCT (m-pCBCT) and (2) motion model estimation to obtain an optimal set of deformation vector fields (DVFs) between the m-pCBCT and other 4D-CBCT phases. The motion-compensated image reconstruction is based on the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) coupled with total variation minimization. During the forward- and backprojection of SART, measured projections from an entire set of 4D-CBCT are used for reconstruction of the m-pCBCT by utilizing the updated DVF. The DVF is estimated by matching the forward projection of the deformed m-pCBCT and measured projections of other phases of 4D-CBCT. The performance of the SMEIR algorithm is quantitatively evaluated on a 4D NCAT phantom. The quality of reconstructed 4D images and the accuracy of tumor motion trajectory are assessed by comparing with those resulting from conventional sequential 4D-CBCT reconstructions (FDK and total variation minimization) and motion estimation (demons algorithm). The performance of the SMEIR algorithm is further evaluated by reconstructing a lung cancer patient 4D-CBCT.Results: Image quality of 4D-CBCT is greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm in both phantom and patient studies. When all projections are used to reconstruct a 3D-CBCT by FDK, motion

  8. A technique for estimating 4D-CBCT using prior knowledge and limited-angle projections

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei; Segars, W. Paul

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate onboard 4D-CBCT using prior information and limited-angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy.Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation from one selected phase (prior volume) of the planning 4D-CT. The deformation field maps (DFMs) are solved using a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique. In the MM-FD technique, the DFMs are estimated using a motion model which is extracted from planning 4D-CT based on principal component analysis (PCA). The motion model parameters are optimized by matching the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the deformed volumes to the limited-angle onboard projections (data fidelity constraint). Afterward, the estimated DFMs are fine-tuned using a FD model based on data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso phantom was used to evaluate the MM-FD technique. A lung patient with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume, including changes of respiration amplitude, lesion size and lesion average-position, and phase shift between lesion and body respiratory cycle. The lesions were contoured in both the estimated and “ground-truth” onboard 4D-CBCT for comparison. 3D volume percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass shift (COMS) were calculated to evaluate the estimation accuracy of three techniques: MM-FD, MM-only, and FD-only. Different onboard projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy.Results: For all simulated patient and projection acquisition scenarios, the mean VPD (±S.D.)/COMS (±S.D.) between lesions in prior images and “ground-truth” onboard images were 136.11% (±42.76%)/15.5 mm (±3.9 mm). Using orthogonal-view 15°-each scan angle, the mean VPD/COMS between the lesion

  9. Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of a 4D-CBCT Estimation Technique using Prior Information and Limited-angle Projections

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Pan, Tinsu; Vergalasova, Irina; Ren, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose A new technique has been previously reported to estimate high-quality 4D-CBCT using prior information and limited-angle projections. This study is to investigate its clinical feasibility through both phantom and patient studies. Materials and Methods The new technique used to estimate 4D-CBCT is called MMFD-NCC. It is based on the previously reported motion-modeling and free-form deformation (MMFD) method, with the introduction of normalized-cross-correlation (NCC) as a new similarity metric. The clinical feasibility of this technique was evaluated by assessing the accuracy of estimated anatomical structures in comparison to those in the ‘ground-truth’ reference 4D-CBCT, using data obtained from a physical phantom and three lung cancer patients. Both volume percentage error (VPE) and center-of-mass error (COME) of the estimated tumor volume were used as the evaluation metrics. Results The average VPE/COME of the tumor in the prior image was 257.1%/10.1 mm for the phantom study and 55.6%/3.8 mm for the patient study. Using only orthogonal-view 30° projections, the MMFD-NCC has reduced the corresponding values to 7.7% /1.2 mm and 9.6%/1.1 mm, respectively. Conclusions The MMFD-NCC technique is able to estimate 4D-CBCT images with geometrical accuracy of the tumor within 10% VPE and 2 mm COME, which can be used to improve the localization accuracy of radiotherapy. PMID:25818396

  10. CT & CBCT imaging: assessment of the orbits.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, David C

    2012-11-01

    The orbits can be visualized easily on routine or customized protocols for computed tomography (CT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) scans. Detailed orbital investigations are best performed with 3-dimensional imaging methods. CT scans are preferred for visualizing the osseous orbital anatomy and fissures while magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating tumors and inflammation. CBCT provides high-resolution anatomic data of the sinonasal spaces, airway, soft tissue surfaces, and bones but does not provide much detail within the soft tissues. This article discusses CBCT imaging of the orbits, osseous anatomy of the orbits, and CBCT investigation of selected orbital pathosis. PMID:22981080

  11. CBCT imaging – A boon to orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Genevive L.

    2014-01-01

    The application of innovative technologies in dentistry and orthodontics has been very interesting to observe. The development of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a preferred imaging procedure for comprehensive orthodontic treatment is of particular interest. The information obtained from CBCT imaging provides several substantial advantages. For example, CBCT imaging provides accurate measurements, improves localization of impacted teeth, provides visualization of airway abnormalities, it identifies and quantifies asymmetry, it can be used to assess periodontal structures, to identify endodontic problems, to plan placement sites for temporary skeletal anchorage devices, and to view condylar positions and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bony structures according to the practitioner’s knowledge at the time of orthodontic diagnosis. Moreover, CBCT imaging involves only a minimal increase in radiation dose relative to combined diagnostic modern digital panoramic and cephalometric imaging. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of CBCT imaging, including its technique, advantages, and applications in orthodontics. PMID:25544810

  12. SU-E-J-246: A Deformation-Field Map Based Liver 4D CBCT Reconstruction Method Using Gold Nanoparticles as Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W; Zhang, Y; Ren, L; Yin, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using nanoparticle markers to validate liver tumor motion together with a deformation field map-based four dimensional (4D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction method. Methods: A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In this method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation of a prior CT volume. The DFM is solved by a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique, using a data fidelity constraint and the deformation energy minimization. For liver imaging, there is low contrast of a liver tumor in on-board projections. A validation of liver tumor motion using implanted gold nanoparticles, along with the MM-FD deformation technique is implemented to reconstruct onboard 4D CBCT liver radiotherapy images. These nanoparticles were placed around the liver tumor to reflect the tumor positions in both CT simulation and on-board image acquisition. When reconstructing each phase of the 4D-CBCT, the migrations of the gold nanoparticles act as a constraint to regularize the deformation field, along with the data fidelity and the energy minimization constraints. In this study, multiple tumor diameters and positions were simulated within the liver for on-board 4D-CBCT imaging. The on-board 4D-CBCT reconstructed by the proposed method was compared with the “ground truth” image. Results: The preliminary data, which uses reconstruction for lung radiotherapy suggests that the advanced reconstruction algorithm including the gold nanoparticle constraint will Resultin volume percentage differences (VPD) between lesions in reconstructed images by MM-FD and “ground truth” on-board images of 11.5% (± 9.4%) and a center of mass shift of 1.3 mm (± 1.3 mm) for liver radiotherapy. Conclusion: The advanced MM-FD technique enforcing the additional constraints from gold nanoparticles, results in improved accuracy

  13. Artifacts: The downturn of CBCT image

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajappa, Anil Kumar; Dwivedi, Neha; Tiwari, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been accepted as a useful tool for diagnosis and treatment planning in dentistry. Despite a growing trend of CBCT in dentistry, it has some disadvantages like artifacts. Artifacts are discrepancies between the reconstructed visual image and the actual content of the subject which degrade the quality of CBCT images, making them diagnostically unusable. Additionally, structures that do not exist in the subject may appear within images. Such structures can occur because of patient motion, the image capture and reconstruction process. To optimize image quality, it is necessary to understand the types of artifacts. This article aims to throw light on the various types of artifacts associated with CBCT images. PMID:26759795

  14. SU-E-J-183: Quantifying the Image Quality and Dose Reduction of Respiratory Triggered 4D Cone-Beam Computed Tomography with Patient- Measured Breathing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, B; OBrien, R; Kipritidis, J; Keall, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Respiratory triggered four dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (RT 4D CBCT) is a novel technique that uses a patient's respiratory signal to drive the image acquisition with the goal of imaging dose reduction without degrading image quality. This work investigates image quality and dose using patient-measured respiratory signals for RT 4D CBCT simulations instead of synthetic sinusoidal signals used in previous work. Methods: Studies were performed that simulate a 4D CBCT image acquisition using both the novel RT 4D CBCT technique and a conventional 4D CBCT technique from a database of oversampled Rando phantom CBCT projections. A database containing 111 free breathing lung cancer patient respiratory signal files was used to create 111 RT 4D CBCT and 111 conventional 4D CBCT image datasets from realistic simulations of a 4D RT CBCT system. Each of these image datasets were compared to a ground truth dataset from which a root mean square error (RMSE) metric was calculated to quantify the degradation of image quality. The number of projections used in each simulation is counted and was assumed as a surrogate for imaging dose. Results: Based on 111 breathing traces, when comparing RT 4D CBCT with conventional 4D CBCT the average image quality was reduced by 7.6%. However, the average imaging dose reduction was 53% based on needing fewer projections (617 on average) than conventional 4D CBCT (1320 projections). Conclusion: The simulation studies using a wide range of patient breathing traces have demonstrated that the RT 4D CBCT method can potentially offer a substantial saving of imaging dose of 53% on average compared to conventional 4D CBCT in simulation studies with a minimal impact on image quality. A patent application (PCT/US2012/048693) has been filed which is related to this work.

  15. Quantifying the image quality and dose reduction of respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography with patient-measured breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Benjamin J.; O'Brien, Ricky T.; Kipritidis, John; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J.

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory triggered four dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (RT 4D CBCT) is a novel technique that uses a patient’s respiratory signal to drive the image acquisition with the goal of imaging dose reduction without degrading image quality. This work investigates image quality and dose using patient-measured respiratory signals for RT 4D CBCT simulations. Studies were performed that simulate a 4D CBCT image acquisition using both the novel RT 4D CBCT technique and a conventional 4D CBCT technique. A set containing 111 free breathing lung cancer patient respiratory signal files was used to create 111 pairs of RT 4D CBCT and conventional 4D CBCT image sets from realistic simulations of a 4D CBCT system using a Rando phantom and the digital phantom, XCAT. Each of these image sets were compared to a ground truth dataset from which a mean absolute pixel difference (MAPD) metric was calculated to quantify the degradation of image quality. The number of projections used in each simulation was counted and was assumed as a surrogate for imaging dose. Based on 111 breathing traces, when comparing RT 4D CBCT with conventional 4D CBCT, the average image quality was reduced by 7.6% (Rando study) and 11.1% (XCAT study). However, the average imaging dose reduction was 53% based on needing fewer projections (617 on average) than conventional 4D CBCT (1320 projections). The simulation studies have demonstrated that the RT 4D CBCT method can potentially offer a 53% saving in imaging dose on average compared to conventional 4D CBCT in simulation studies using a wide range of patient-measured breathing traces with a minimal impact on image quality.

  16. SU-E-J-26: A Novel Technique for Markerless Self-Sorted 4D-CBCT Using Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Harris, W; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an automatic markerless 4D-CBCT projection sorting technique by using a patient respiratory motion model extracted from the planning 4D-CT images. Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation of one phase of the prior planning 4D-CT. The deformation field map (DFM) is represented as a linear combination of three major deformation patterns extracted from the planning 4D-CT using principle component analysis (PCA). The coefficients of the PCA deformation patterns are solved by matching the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the deformed volume to the onboard projection acquired. The PCA coefficients are solved for each single projection, and are used for phase sorting. Projections at the peaks of the Z direction coefficient are sorted as phase 1 and other projections are assigned into 10 phase bins by dividing phases equally between peaks. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the proposed technique. Three scenarios were simulated, with different tumor motion amplitude (3cm to 2cm), tumor spatial shift (8mm SI), and tumor body motion phase shift (2 phases) from prior to on-board images. Projections were simulated over 180 degree scan-angle for the 4D-XCAT. The percentage of accurately binned projections across entire dataset was calculated to represent the phase sorting accuracy. Results: With a changed tumor motion amplitude from 3cm to 2cm, markerless phase sorting accuracy was 100%. With a tumor phase shift of 2 phases w.r.t. body motion, the phase sorting accuracy was 100%. With a tumor spatial shift of 8mm in SI direction, phase sorting accuracy was 86.1%. Conclusion: The XCAT phantom simulation results demonstrated that it is feasible to use prior knowledge and motion modeling technique to achieve markerless 4D-CBCT phase sorting. National Institutes of Health Grant No. R01-CA184173 Varian Medical System.

  17. SU-E-J-207: Assessing the Validity of 4D-CT Based Target Volumes and Free Breathing CBCT Localization in Lung Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy (SABR)

    SciTech Connect

    Badkul, R; Pokhrel, D; Jiang, H; Park, J; Wang, F; Kumar, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional-computed-tomography(4D-CT) imaging for target-volume delineation and cone-beam-tomography(CBCT) for treatment localization are widely utilized in lung-SABR.Aim of this study was to perform a quantitative-assessment and inter-comparison of Internal-targetvolumes( ITV) drawn on various phases of breathing-cycle 4D-CT-scans, Maximum-intensity-projection(MIP), average-intensity-projection(AIP)and static CT-scans of lung-motion-phantom to simulate lung-SABR patient geometry. We also analyzed and compared the ITVs drawn on freebreathing- CBCT. Materials and Methods: 4D-CT-scans were acquired on Philips big-bore 16slice CT and Bellows-respiratory monitoring-system using retrospective phase-binning method. Each respiratory cycle divided into 10-phases. Quasar-Phantom with lung-inserts and 3cm-diameter nylonball to simulate tumor and was placed on respiratory-motion-platform for 4D-CT and CBCT-acquisition. Amplitudes of motions: 0.5,1.0,2.0,3.0cm in superior-inferior direction with breathing-cycle time of 6,5,4,6sec, respectively used.4D-CTs with 10-phases(0%to90%)for each excursion-set and 3D-CT for static-phantom exported to iPlan treatment-planningsystem( TPS).Tumor-volumes delineated in all phases of 4D-CT, MIP,AIP,CBCT scans using fixed-HU-threshold(−500to1000)values automatically.For each 4D-dataset ITV obtained by unifying the tumorcontours on all phases.CBCT-ITV-volumes were drawn in Eclipse-TPS. Results: Mean volume of tumor contours for all phases compared with static 3D-CT were 0.62±0.08%, 1.67±0.26%, 4.77±0.54% and 9.27±1.23% for 0.5cm,1cm,2cm,3cm excursions respectively. Differences of mean Union-ITV with MIP-ITV were close(≤2.4%).Mean Union-ITV from expected-theoretical values differed from −4.9% to 3.8%.Union-ITV and MIP-ITV were closer within 2.3%. AIP-ITVs were underestimated from 14 to 32% compared to union-ITV for all motion datasets. Differences of −5.9% to −44% and −5% to 6.7% for CBCT-ITV from MIP-ITV and AIP

  18. CBCT Cyst Leasions Diagnosis Imaging Mandible Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Yuvaraj, A; Prakash, C.A; Parthiban, J; Praveen, B

    2014-01-01

    The bony anatomy and the soft tissue contours of the maxillofacial region, along with the oro dental tissues, is very complex. In earlier times, analog radiographs of the skull, the mandible and the sinuses, along with intraoral films, were the only tools which were available for dentists. The past decade has seen a revolution in dental imaging, with the introduction of Cone beam computed tomography/cone beam volumetric tomography (CBCT/CBVT). In this article, we have discussed the value of CBCT in diagnosis and treatment planning which we observed in four cases of maxillofacial cystic lesions. It proved to be a multifaceted win-win situation for the diagnostician, the patient and the operating surgeon. The 3D imaging led to a precise pre-operative surgical planning, resulting in a surgery that was minimally invasive, minimally morbid and time saving and at the same time, conservative, yet complete. PMID:24959518

  19. Performance evaluation and optimization of BM4D-AV denoising algorithm for cone-beam CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuidong; Tian, Xiaofei; Zhang, Dinghua; Zhang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    The broadening application of cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in medical diagnostics and nondestructive testing, necessitates advanced denoising algorithms for its 3D images. The block-matching and four dimensional filtering algorithm with adaptive variance (BM4D-AV) is applied to the 3D image denoising in this research. To optimize it, the key filtering parameters of the BM4D-AV algorithm are assessed firstly based on the simulated CBCT images and a table of optimized filtering parameters is obtained. Then, considering the complexity of the noise in realistic CBCT images, possible noise standard deviations in BM4D-AV are evaluated to attain the chosen principle for the realistic denoising. The results of corresponding experiments demonstrate that the BM4D-AV algorithm with optimized parameters presents excellent denosing effect on the realistic 3D CBCT images.

  20. SU-C-BRF-04: Delivered 4D Dose Calculation for Lung-VMAT Patients Using In- Treatment CBCT and LINAC Log Data

    SciTech Connect

    Saotome, N; Haga, A; Imae, T; Kida, S; Nakano, M; Yamashita, H; Nakagawa, K; Ohtomo, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To verify the delivered four-dimensional (4D) dose distribution for the lung VMAT using in-treatment 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) and LINAC log data. Methods: Three patients for lung stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) were treated by single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) created by SmartArc in Pinnacle v9.2 (Philips, USA).Kilovoltage (kV) projection images were acquired during VMAT delivery using the x-ray volumetric imager, XVI (Elekta, UK). LINAC log data were also recorded via iCom interface (Elekta, UK). Subsequently, the iCom data format was converted to Pinnacle data format, thereby allowing Pinnacle to read actual MLC positions, jaw positions, gantry angles and MUs. These parameters were categorized into four groups according to patient's respiratory phase. The patient respiratory phase was determined from kV-projection images by in-house phase recognizing software. By exporting these data back to Pinnacle, in-treatment dose distributions for each respiratory phase were obtained by combining calculated dose having a particular phase. The 4D CBCT were reconstructed by in-house program. The density in the structures on the CBCT was overridden by the average density in the corresponding structures on the planning CT for the dose calculation. The dose indexes, such as maximum, minimum, mean dose in the target were compared among the plan, in-treatment 3D calculation, and in-treatment 4D calculation. Results: The day-to-day variation of the delivered dose was observed for all three patients. The maximum difference was 5.9% for the minimum dose in the target. Difference for the mean dose was found to be small (1.1% at maximum). Conclusion: We have obtained in-treatment dose distribution for each of the different respiratory phases using in-treatment 4D CBCT and LINAC log data during lung VMAT delivery. Our result indicate a small but significant dose difference between the 3D and 4D calculations for the case of large target traveling.

  1. Cardiac 4D Ultrasound Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'hooge, Jan

    Volumetric cardiac ultrasound imaging has steadily evolved over the last 20 years from an electrocardiography (ECC) gated imaging technique to a true real-time imaging modality. Although the clinical use of echocardiography is still to a large extent based on conventional 2D ultrasound imaging it can be anticipated that the further developments in image quality, data visualization and interaction and image quantification of three-dimensional cardiac ultrasound will gradually make volumetric ultrasound the modality of choice. In this chapter, an overview is given of the technological developments that allow for volumetric imaging of the beating heart by ultrasound.

  2. A hybrid reconstruction algorithm for fast and accurate 4D cone-beam CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hao; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B. E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Jia, Xun E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Zhen, Xin; Li, Yongbao; Pan, Tinsu; Cervino, Laura

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: 4D cone beam CT (4D-CBCT) has been utilized in radiation therapy to provide 4D image guidance in lung and upper abdomen area. However, clinical application of 4D-CBCT is currently limited due to the long scan time and low image quality. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new 4D-CBCT reconstruction method that restores volumetric images based on the 1-min scan data acquired with a standard 3D-CBCT protocol. Methods: The model optimizes a deformation vector field that deforms a patient-specific planning CT (p-CT), so that the calculated 4D-CBCT projections match measurements. A forward-backward splitting (FBS) method is invented to solve the optimization problem. It splits the original problem into two well-studied subproblems, i.e., image reconstruction and deformable image registration. By iteratively solving the two subproblems, FBS gradually yields correct deformation information, while maintaining high image quality. The whole workflow is implemented on a graphic-processing-unit to improve efficiency. Comprehensive evaluations have been conducted on a moving phantom and three real patient cases regarding the accuracy and quality of the reconstructed images, as well as the algorithm robustness and efficiency. Results: The proposed algorithm reconstructs 4D-CBCT images from highly under-sampled projection data acquired with 1-min scans. Regarding the anatomical structure location accuracy, 0.204 mm average differences and 0.484 mm maximum difference are found for the phantom case, and the maximum differences of 0.3–0.5 mm for patients 1–3 are observed. As for the image quality, intensity errors below 5 and 20 HU compared to the planning CT are achieved for the phantom and the patient cases, respectively. Signal-noise-ratio values are improved by 12.74 and 5.12 times compared to results from FDK algorithm using the 1-min data and 4-min data, respectively. The computation time of the algorithm on a NVIDIA GTX590 card is 1–1.5 min per phase

  3. TU-C-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT I: Multi-Modality 4D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, J; Mageras, G; Pan, T

    2014-06-15

    Motion management is one of the critical technical challenges for radiation therapy. 4D imaging has been rapidly adopted as essential tool to assess organ motion associated with respiratory breathing. A variety of 4D imaging techniques have been developed and are currently under development based on different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, PET, and CBCT. Each modality provides specific and complementary information about organ and tumor respiratory motion. Effective use of each different technique or combined use of different techniques can introduce a comprehensive management of tumor motion. Specifically, these techniques have afforded tremendous opportunities to better define and delineate tumor volumes, more accurately perform patient positioning, and effectively apply highly conformal therapy techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Successful implementation requires good understanding of not only each technique, including unique features, limitations, artifacts, imaging acquisition and process, but also how to systematically apply the information obtained from different imaging modalities using proper tools such as deformable image registration. Furthermore, it is important to understand the differences in the effects of breathing variation between different imaging modalities. A comprehensive motion management strategy using multi-modality 4D imaging has shown promise in improving patient care, but at the same time faces significant challenges. This session will focuses on the current status and advances in imaging respiration-induced organ motion with different imaging modalities: 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, 4D-PET, and 4D-CBCT/DTS. Learning Objectives: Understand the need and role of multimodality 4D imaging in radiation therapy. Understand the underlying physics behind each 4D imaging technique. Recognize the advantages and limitations of each 4D imaging technique.

  4. Evaluation of intrinsic respiratory signal determination methods for 4D CBCT adapted for mice

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Rachael; Pan, Tinsu; Rubinstein, Ashley; Court, Laurence; Ahmad, Moiz

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: 4D CT imaging in mice is important in a variety of areas including studies of lung function and tumor motion. A necessary step in 4D imaging is obtaining a respiratory signal, which can be done through an external system or intrinsically through the projection images. A number of methods have been developed that can successfully determine the respiratory signal from cone-beam projection images of humans, however only a few have been utilized in a preclinical setting and most of these rely on step-and-shoot style imaging. The purpose of this work is to assess and make adaptions of several successful methods developed for humans for an image-guided preclinical radiation therapy system. Methods: Respiratory signals were determined from the projection images of free-breathing mice scanned on the X-RAD system using four methods: the so-called Amsterdam shroud method, a method based on the phase of the Fourier transform, a pixel intensity method, and a center of mass method. The Amsterdam shroud method was modified so the sharp inspiration peaks associated with anesthetized mouse breathing could be detected. Respiratory signals were used to sort projections into phase bins and 4D images were reconstructed. Error and standard deviation in the assignment of phase bins for the four methods compared to a manual method considered to be ground truth were calculated for a range of region of interest (ROI) sizes. Qualitative comparisons were additionally made between the 4D images obtained using each of the methods and the manual method. Results: 4D images were successfully created for all mice with each of the respiratory signal extraction methods. Only minimal qualitative differences were noted between each of the methods and the manual method. The average error (and standard deviation) in phase bin assignment was 0.24 ± 0.08 (0.49 ± 0.11) phase bins for the Fourier transform method, 0.09 ± 0.03 (0.31 ± 0.08) phase bins for the modified Amsterdam shroud method, 0

  5. Optimizing Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) System for Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chun Joo

    Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) system is the most widely used imaging device in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), where set of 3D volumetric image of patient can be reconstructed to identify and correct position setup errors prior to the radiation treatment. This CBCT system can significantly improve precision of on-line setup errors of patient position and tumor target localization prior to the treatment. However, there are still a number of issues that needs to be investigated with CBCT system such as 1) progressively increasing defective pixels in imaging detectors by its frequent usage, 2) hazardous radiation exposure to patients during the CBCT imaging, 3) degradation of image quality due to patients' respiratory motion when CBCT is acquired and 4) unknown knowledge of certain anatomical features such as liver, due to lack of soft-tissue contrast which makes tumor motion verification challenging. In this dissertation, we explore on optimizing the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system under such circumstances. We begin by introducing general concept of IGRT. We then present the development of automated defective pixel detection algorithm for X-ray imagers that is used for CBCT imaging using wavelet analysis. We next investigate on developing fast and efficient low-dose volumetric reconstruction techniques which includes 1) fast digital tomosynthesis reconstruction using general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) programming and 2) fast low-dose CBCT image reconstruction based on the Gradient-Projection-Barzilai-Borwein formulation (GP-BB). We further developed two efficient approaches that could reduce the degradation of CBCT images from respiratory motion. First, we propose reconstructing four dimensional (4D) CBCT and DTS using respiratory signal extracted from fiducial markers implanted in liver. Second, novel motion-map constrained image reconstruction (MCIR) is proposed that allows reconstruction of high quality and high phase

  6. SU-D-17A-01: Geometric and Dosimetric Evaluation of a 4D-CBCT Reconstruction Technique Using Prior Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a 4D-CBCT reconstruction technique both geometrically and dosimetrically Methods: A prior-knowledge guided 4DC-BCT reconstruction method named the motion-modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) has been developed. MM-FD views each phase of the 4D-CBCT as a deformation of a prior CT volume. The deformation field is first solved by principal component analysis based motion modeling, followed by constrained free-form deformation.The 4D digital extended-cardiac- torso (XCAT) phantom was used for comprehensive evaluation. Based on a simulated 4D planning CT of a lung patient, 8 different scenarios were simulated to cover the typical on-board anatomical and respiratory variations: (1) synchronized and (2) unsynchronized motion amplitude change for body and tumor; tumor (3) shrinkage and (4) expansion; tumor average position shift in (5) superior-inferior (SI) direction, (6) anterior-posterior (AP) direction and (7) SI, AP and lateral directions altogether; and (8) tumor phase shift relative to the respiratory cycle of the body. Orthogonal-view 30° projections were simulated based on the eight patient scenarios to reconstruct on-board 4D-CBCTs. For geometric evaluation, the volume-percentage-difference (VPD) was calculated to assess the volumetric differences between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumor.For dosimetric evaluation, a gated treatment plan was designed for the prior 4D-CT. The dose distributions were calculated on the reconstructed 4D-CBCTs and the ground-truth images for comparison. The MM-FD technique was compared with MM-only and FD-only techniques. Results: The average (±s.d.) VPD values of reconstructed tumors for MM-only, FDonly and MM-FD methods were 59.16%(± 26.66%), 75.98%(± 27.21%) and 5.22%(± 2.12%), respectively. The average min/max/mean dose (normalized to prescription) of the reconstructed tumors by MM-only, FD-only, MM-FD methods and ground-truth tumors were 78.0%/122.2%/108.2%, 13%/117.7%/86%, 58

  7. 4D image reconstruction for emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Andrew J.; Verhaeghe, Jeroen

    2014-11-01

    An overview of the theory of 4D image reconstruction for emission tomography is given along with a review of the current state of the art, covering both positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). By viewing 4D image reconstruction as a matter of either linear or non-linear parameter estimation for a set of spatiotemporal functions chosen to approximately represent the radiotracer distribution, the areas of so-called ‘fully 4D’ image reconstruction and ‘direct kinetic parameter estimation’ are unified within a common framework. Many choices of linear and non-linear parameterization of these functions are considered (including the important case where the parameters have direct biological meaning), along with a review of the algorithms which are able to estimate these often non-linear parameters from emission tomography data. The other crucial components to image reconstruction (the objective function, the system model and the raw data format) are also covered, but in less detail due to the relatively straightforward extension from their corresponding components in conventional 3D image reconstruction. The key unifying concept is that maximum likelihood or maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation of either linear or non-linear model parameters can be achieved in image space after carrying out a conventional expectation maximization (EM) update of the dynamic image series, using a Kullback-Leibler distance metric (comparing the modeled image values with the EM image values), to optimize the desired parameters. For MAP, an image-space penalty for regularization purposes is required. The benefits of 4D and direct reconstruction reported in the literature are reviewed, and furthermore demonstrated with simple simulation examples. It is clear that the future of reconstructing dynamic or functional emission tomography images, which often exhibit high levels of spatially correlated noise, should ideally exploit these 4D

  8. Image analysis for dental bone quality assessment using CBCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suprijanto; Epsilawati, L.; Hajarini, M. S.; Juliastuti, E.; Susanti, H.

    2016-03-01

    Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) is one of X-ray imaging modalities that are applied in dentistry. Its modality can visualize the oral region in 3D and in a high resolution. CBCT jaw image has potential information for the assessment of bone quality that often used for pre-operative implant planning. We propose comparison method based on normalized histogram (NH) on the region of inter-dental septum and premolar teeth. Furthermore, the NH characteristic from normal and abnormal bone condition are compared and analyzed. Four test parameters are proposed, i.e. the difference between teeth and bone average intensity (s), the ratio between bone and teeth average intensity (n) of NH, the difference between teeth and bone peak value (Δp) of NH, and the ratio between teeth and bone of NH range (r). The results showed that n, s, and Δp have potential to be the classification parameters of dental calcium density.

  9. Controlled Source 4D Seismic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Morency, C.; Tromp, J.

    2009-12-01

    Earth's material properties may change after significant tectonic events, e.g., volcanic eruptions, earthquake ruptures, landslides, and hydrocarbon migration. While many studies focus on how to interpret observations in terms of changes in wavespeeds and attenuation, the oil industry is more interested in how we can identify and locate such temporal changes using seismic waves generated by controlled sources. 4D seismic analysis is indeed an important tool to monitor fluid movement in hydrocarbon reservoirs during production, improving fields management. Classic 4D seismic imaging involves comparing images obtained from two subsequent seismic surveys. Differences between the two images tell us where temporal changes occurred. However, when the temporal changes are small, it may be quite hard to reliably identify and characterize the differences between the two images. We propose to back-project residual seismograms between two subsequent surveys using adjoint methods, which results in images highlighting temporal changes. We use the SEG/EAGE salt dome model to illustrate our approach. In two subsequent surveys, the wavespeeds and density within a target region are changed, mimicking possible fluid migration. Due to changes in material properties induced by fluid migration, seismograms recorded in the two surveys differ. By back propagating these residuals, the adjoint images identify the location of the affected region. An important issue involves the nature of model. For instance, are we characterizing only changes in wavespeed, or do we also consider density and attenuation? How many model parameters characterize the model, e.g., is our model isotropic or anisotropic? Is acoustic wave propagation accurate enough or do we need to consider elastic or poroelastic effects? We will investigate how imaging strategies based upon acoustic, elastic and poroelastic simulations affect our imaging capabilities.

  10. Impact of 4D image quality on the accuracy of target definition.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tine Bjørn; Hansen, Christian Rønn; Westberg, Jonas; Hansen, Olfred; Brink, Carsten

    2016-03-01

    Delineation accuracy of target shape and position depends on the image quality. This study investigates whether the image quality on standard 4D systems has an influence comparable to the overall delineation uncertainty. A moving lung target was imaged using a dynamic thorax phantom on three different 4D computed tomography (CT) systems and a 4D cone beam CT (CBCT) system using pre-defined clinical scanning protocols. Peak-to-peak motion and target volume were registered using rigid registration and automatic delineation, respectively. A spatial distribution of the imaging uncertainty was calculated as the distance deviation between the imaged target and the true target shape. The measured motions were smaller than actual motions. There were volume differences of the imaged target between respiration phases. Imaging uncertainties of >0.4 cm were measured in the motion direction which showed that there was a large distortion of the imaged target shape. Imaging uncertainties of standard 4D systems are of similar size as typical GTV-CTV expansions (0.5-1 cm) and contribute considerably to the target definition uncertainty. Optimising and validating 4D systems is recommended in order to obtain the most optimal imaged target shape. PMID:26577711

  11. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Imaging Dose during CBCT Scan Acquisition and Accuracy of CBCT Based Dose Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, David Matthew

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a recent development in radiotherapy for use in image guidance. Image guided radiotherapy using CBCT allows visualization of soft tissue targets and critical structures prior to treatment. Dose escalation is made possible by accurately localizing the target volume while reducing normal tissue toxicity. The kilovoltage x-rays of the cone beam imaging system contribute additional dose to the patient. In this study a 2D reference radiochromic film dosimetry method employing GAFCHROMIC(TM) model XR-QA film is used to measure point skin doses and dose profiles from the Elekta XVI CBCT system integrated onto the Synergy linac. The soft tissue contrast of the daily CBCT images makes adaptive radiotherapy possible in the clinic. In order to track dose to the patient or utilize on-line replanning for adaptive radiotherapy the CBCT images must be used to calculate dose. A Hounsfield unit calibration method for scatter correction is investigated for heterogeneity corrected dose calculation in CBCT images. Three Hounsfield unit to density calibration tables are used for each of four cases including patients and an anthropomorphic phantom, and the calculated dose from each is compared to results from the clinical standard fan beam CT. The dose from the scan acquisition is reported and the effect of scan geometry and total output of the x-ray tube on dose magnitude and distribution is shown. The ability to calculate dose with CBCT is shown to improve with the use of patient specific density tables for scatter correction, and for high beam energies the calculated dose agreement is within 1%.

  12. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  13. Influence of acquisition parameters on MV-CBCT image quality.

    PubMed

    Gayou, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The production of high quality pretreatment images plays an increasing role in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) is the simplest solution of all the commercially available volumetric imaging systems for localization. It also suffers the most from relatively poor contrast due to the energy range of the imaging photons. Several avenues can be investigated to improve MV-CBCT image quality while maintaining an acceptable patient exposure: beam generation, detector technology, reconstruction parameters, and acquisition parameters. This article presents a study of the effects of the acquisition scan length and number of projections of a Siemens Artiste MV-CBCT system on image quality within the range provided by the manufacturer. It also discusses other aspects not related to image quality one should consider when selecting an acquisition protocol. Noise and uniformity were measured on the image of a cylindrical water phantom. Spatial resolution was measured using the same phantom half filled with water to provide a sharp water/air interface to derive the modulation transfer function (MTF). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured on a pelvis-shaped phantom with four inserts of different electron densities relative to water (1.043, 1.117, 1.513, and 0.459). Uniformity was independent of acquisition protocol. Noise decreased from 1.96% to 1.64% when the total number of projections was increased from 100 to 600 for a total exposure of 13.5 MU. The CNR showed a ± 5% dependence on the number of projections and 10% dependence on the scan length. However, these variations were not statistically significant. The spatial resolution was unaffected by the arc length or the sampling rate. Acquisition parameters have little to no effect on the image quality of the MV-CBCT system within the range of parameters available on the system. Considerations other than image quality, such as memory

  14. 4D cone-beam CT imaging for guidance in radiation therapy: setup verification by use of implanted fiducial markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Peng; van Wieringen, Niek; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Bel, Arjan; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    The use of 4D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fiducial markers for guidance during radiation therapy of mobile tumors is challenging due to the trade-off between image quality, imaging dose, and scanning time. We aimed to investigate the visibility of markers and the feasibility of marker-based 4D registration and manual respiration-induced marker motion quantification for different CBCT acquisition settings. A dynamic thorax phantom and a patient with implanted gold markers were included. For both the phantom and patient, the peak-to-peak amplitude of marker motion in the cranial-caudal direction ranged from 5.3 to 14.0 mm, which did not affect the marker visibility and the associated marker-based registration feasibility. While using a medium field of view (FOV) and the same total imaging dose as is applied for 3D CBCT scanning in our clinic, it was feasible to attain an improved marker visibility by reducing the imaging dose per projection and increasing the number of projection images. For a small FOV with a shorter rotation arc but similar total imaging dose, streak artifacts were reduced due to using a smaller sampling angle. Additionally, the use of a small FOV allowed reducing total imaging dose and scanning time (~2.5 min) without losing the marker visibility. In conclusion, by using 4D CBCT with identical or lower imaging dose and a reduced gantry speed, it is feasible to attain sufficient marker visibility for marker-based 4D setup verification. Moreover, regardless of the settings, manual marker motion quantification can achieve a high accuracy with the error <1.2 mm.

  15. 4-D display of satellite cloud images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.

    1987-01-01

    A technique has been developed to display GOES satellite cloud images in perspective over a topographical map. Cloud heights are estimated using temperatures from an infrared (IR) satellite image, surface temperature observations, and a climatological model of vertical temperature profiles. Cloud levels are discriminated from each other and from the ground using a pattern recognition algorithm based on the brightness variance technique of Coakley and Bretherton. The cloud regions found by the pattern recognizer are rendered in three-dimensional perspective over a topographical map by an efficient remap of the visible image. The visible shades are mixed with an artificial shade based on the geometry of the cloud-top surface, in order to enhance the texture of the cloud top.

  16. Assessing the reliability of MRI-CBCT image registration to visualize temporomandibular joints

    PubMed Central

    Jaremko, J L; Alsufyani, N; Jibri, Z; Lai, H; Major, P W

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate image quality of two methods of registering MRI and CBCT images of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), particularly regarding TMJ articular disc–condyle relationship and osseous abnormality. Methods: MR and CBCT images for 10 patients (20 TMJs) were obtained and co-registered using two methods (non-guided and marker guided) using Mirada XD software (Mirada Medical Ltd, Oxford, UK). Three radiologists independently and blindly evaluated three types of images (MRI, CBCT and registered MRI-CBCT) at two times (T1 and T2) on two criteria: (1) quality of MRI-CBCT registrations (excellent, fair or poor) and (2) TMJ disc–condylar position and articular osseous abnormalities (osteophytes, erosions and subcortical cyst, surface flattening, sclerosis). Results: 75% of the non-guided registered images showed excellent quality, and 95% of the marker-guided registered images showed poor quality. Significant difference was found between the non-guided and marker-guided registration (χ2 = 108.5; p < 0.01). The interexaminer variability of the disc position in MRI [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.50 at T1, 0.56 at T2] was lower than that in MRI-CBCT registered images [ICC = 0.80 (0.52–0.92) at T1, 0.84 (0.62–0.93) at T2]. Erosions and subcortical cysts were noticed less frequently in the MRI-CBCT images than in CBCT images. Conclusions: Non-guided registration proved superior to marker-guided registration. Although MRI-CBCT fused images were slightly more limited than CBCT alone to detect osseous abnormalities, use of the fused images improved the consistency among examiners in detecting disc position in relation to the condyle. PMID:25734241

  17. 4D microvascular imaging based on ultrafast Doppler tomography.

    PubMed

    Demené, Charlie; Tiran, Elodie; Sieu, Lim-Anna; Bergel, Antoine; Gennisson, Jean Luc; Pernot, Mathieu; Deffieux, Thomas; Cohen, Ivan; Tanter, Mickael

    2016-02-15

    4D ultrasound microvascular imaging was demonstrated by applying ultrafast Doppler tomography (UFD-T) to the imaging of brain hemodynamics in rodents. In vivo real-time imaging of the rat brain was performed using ultrasonic plane wave transmissions at very high frame rates (18,000 frames per second). Such ultrafast frame rates allow for highly sensitive and wide-field-of-view 2D Doppler imaging of blood vessels far beyond conventional ultrasonography. Voxel anisotropy (100 μm × 100 μm × 500 μm) was corrected for by using a tomographic approach, which consisted of ultrafast acquisitions repeated for different imaging plane orientations over multiple cardiac cycles. UFT-D allows for 4D dynamic microvascular imaging of deep-seated vasculature (up to 20 mm) with a very high 4D resolution (respectively 100 μm × 100 μm × 100 μm and 10 ms) and high sensitivity to flow in small vessels (>1 mm/s) for a whole-brain imaging technique without requiring any contrast agent. 4D ultrasound microvascular imaging in vivo could become a valuable tool for the study of brain hemodynamics, such as cerebral flow autoregulation or vascular remodeling after ischemic stroke recovery, and, more generally, tumor vasculature response to therapeutic treatment. PMID:26555279

  18. Common-mask guided image reconstruction (c-MGIR) for enhanced 4D cone-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Justin C.; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yunmei; Fan, Qiyong; Li, Jonathan G.; Liu, Chihray; Lu, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Compared to 3D cone beam computed tomography (3D CBCT), the image quality of commercially available four-dimensional (4D) CBCT is severely impaired due to the insufficient amount of projection data available for each phase. Since the traditional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK)-based algorithm is infeasible for reconstructing high quality 4D CBCT images with limited projections, investigators had developed several compress-sensing (CS) based algorithms to improve image quality. The aim of this study is to develop a novel algorithm which can provide better image quality than the FDK and other CS based algorithms with limited projections. We named this algorithm ‘the common mask guided image reconstruction’ (c-MGIR). In c-MGIR, the unknown CBCT volume is mathematically modeled as a combination of phase-specific motion vectors and phase-independent static vectors. The common-mask matrix, which is the key concept behind the c-MGIR algorithm, separates the common static part across all phase images from the possible moving part in each phase image. The moving part and the static part of the volumes were then alternatively updated by solving two sub-minimization problems iteratively. As the novel mathematical transformation allows the static volume and moving volumes to be updated (during each iteration) with global projections and ‘well’ solved static volume respectively, the algorithm was able to reduce the noise and under-sampling artifact (an issue faced by other algorithms) to the maximum extent. To evaluate the performance of our proposed c-MGIR, we utilized imaging data from both numerical phantoms and a lung cancer patient. The qualities of the images reconstructed with c-MGIR were compared with (1) standard FDK algorithm, (2) conventional total variation (CTV) based algorithm, (3) prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm, and (4) motion-map constrained image reconstruction (MCIR) algorithm, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the

  19. Evaluation of the effect of respiratory and anatomical variables on a Fourier technique for markerless, self-sorted 4D-CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Vergalasova, I.; Cai, J.; Segars, W. P.; Yin, F. F.

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique based on Fourier Transform theory has been developed that directly extracts respiratory information from projections without the use of external surrogates. While the feasibility has been demonstrated with three patients, a more extensive validation is necessary. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of a variety of respiratory and anatomical scenarios on the performance of the technique with the 4D Digital Extended Cardiac Torso phantom. FT-Phase and FT-Magnitude methods were each applied to identify peak-inspiration projections and quantitatively compared to the gold standard of visual identification. Both methods proved to be robust across the studied scenarios with average differences in respiratory phase<10% and percentage of projections assigned within 10% of the gold standard >90%, when incorporating minor modifications to region-of-interest selection and/or low-frequency location for select cases of diaphragm amplitude and lung percentage in the field-of-view of the projection. Nevertheless, in the instance where one method initially faltered, the other method prevailed and successfully identified peak-inspiration projections. This is promising because it suggests that the two methods provide complementary information to each other. To ensure appropriate clinical adaptation of markerless, self-sorted 4D-CBCT, perhaps an optimal integration of the two methods can be developed. PMID:24061289

  20. 4D MR imaging using robust internal respiratory signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, CheukKai; Wen, Zhifei; Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, R. H. N.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Beddar, Sam

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using internal respiratory (IR) surrogates to sort four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance (MR) images. The 4D MR images were constructed by acquiring fast 2D cine MR images sequentially, with each slice scanned for more than one breathing cycle. The 4D volume was then sorted retrospectively using the IR signal. In this study, we propose to use multiple low-frequency components in the Fourier space as well as the anterior body boundary as potential IR surrogates. From these potential IR surrogates, we used a clustering algorithm to identify those that best represented the respiratory pattern to derive the IR signal. A study with healthy volunteers was performed to assess the feasibility of the proposed IR signal. We compared this proposed IR signal with the respiratory signal obtained using respiratory bellows. Overall, 99% of the IR signals matched the bellows signals. The average difference between the end inspiration times in the IR signal and bellows signal was 0.18 s in this cohort of matching signals. For the acquired images corresponding to the other 1% of non-matching signal pairs, the respiratory motion shown in the images was coherent with the respiratory phases determined by the IR signal, but not the bellows signal. This suggested that the IR signal determined by the proposed method could potentially correct the faulty bellows signal. The sorted 4D images showed minimal mismatched artefacts and potential clinical applicability. The proposed IR signal therefore provides a feasible alternative to effectively sort MR images in 4D.

  1. Automatic image registration performance for two different CBCT systems; variation with imaging dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, J.; Sykes, J. R.; Holloway, L.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-03-01

    The performance of an automatic image registration algorithm was compared on image sets collected with two commercial CBCT systems, and the relationship with imaging dose was explored. CBCT images of a CIRS Virtually Human Male Pelvis phantom (VHMP) were collected on Varian TrueBeam/OBI and Elekta Synergy/XVI linear accelerators, across a range of mAs settings. Each CBCT image was registered 100 times, with random initial offsets introduced. Image registration was performed using the grey value correlation ratio algorithm in the Elekta XVI software, to a mask of the prostate volume with 5 mm expansion. Residual registration errors were calculated after correcting for the initial introduced phantom set-up error. Registration performance with the OBI images was similar to that of XVI. There was a clear dependence on imaging dose for the XVI images with residual errors increasing below 4mGy. It was not possible to acquire images with doses lower than ~5mGy with the OBI system and no evidence of reduced performance was observed at this dose. Registration failures (maximum target registration error > 3.6 mm on the surface of a 30mm sphere) occurred in 5% to 9% of registrations except for the lowest dose XVI scan (31%). The uncertainty in automatic image registration with both OBI and XVI images was found to be adequate for clinical use within a normal range of acquisition settings.

  2. Automated bone segmentation from dental CBCT images using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Liao, Shu; Li, Gang; Chen, Ken Chung; Shen, Steve G. F.; Yan, Jin; Lee, Philip K. M.; Chow, Ben; Liu, Nancy X.; Xia, James J.; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an increasingly utilized imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformities. Accurate segmentation of CBCT image is an essential step to generate three-dimensional (3D) models for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with CMF deformities. However, due to the poor image quality, including very low signal-to-noise ratio and the widespread image artifacts such as noise, beam hardening, and inhomogeneity, it is challenging to segment the CBCT images. In this paper, the authors present a new automatic segmentation method to address these problems. Methods: To segment CBCT images, the authors propose a new method for fully automated CBCT segmentation by using patch-based sparse representation to (1) segment bony structures from the soft tissues and (2) further separate the mandible from the maxilla. Specifically, a region-specific registration strategy is first proposed to warp all the atlases to the current testing subject and then a sparse-based label propagation strategy is employed to estimate a patient-specific atlas from all aligned atlases. Finally, the patient-specific atlas is integrated into amaximum a posteriori probability-based convex segmentation framework for accurate segmentation. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on a dataset with 15 CBCT images. The effectiveness of the proposed region-specific registration strategy and patient-specific atlas has been validated by comparing with the traditional registration strategy and population-based atlas. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the best segmentation accuracy by comparison with other state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Conclusions: The authors have proposed a new CBCT segmentation method by using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization, which can achieve considerably accurate segmentation results in CBCT

  3. Automated bone segmentation from dental CBCT images using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Chen, Ken Chung; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Liao, Shu; Li, Gang; Shen, Steve G. F.; Yan, Jin; Lee, Philip K. M.; Chow, Ben; Liu, Nancy X.; Xia, James J.; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an increasingly utilized imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with craniomaxillofacial (CMF) deformities. Accurate segmentation of CBCT image is an essential step to generate three-dimensional (3D) models for the diagnosis and treatment planning of the patients with CMF deformities. However, due to the poor image quality, including very low signal-to-noise ratio and the widespread image artifacts such as noise, beam hardening, and inhomogeneity, it is challenging to segment the CBCT images. In this paper, the authors present a new automatic segmentation method to address these problems. Methods: To segment CBCT images, the authors propose a new method for fully automated CBCT segmentation by using patch-based sparse representation to (1) segment bony structures from the soft tissues and (2) further separate the mandible from the maxilla. Specifically, a region-specific registration strategy is first proposed to warp all the atlases to the current testing subject and then a sparse-based label propagation strategy is employed to estimate a patient-specific atlas from all aligned atlases. Finally, the patient-specific atlas is integrated into a maximum a posteriori probability-based convex segmentation framework for accurate segmentation. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on a dataset with 15 CBCT images. The effectiveness of the proposed region-specific registration strategy and patient-specific atlas has been validated by comparing with the traditional registration strategy and population-based atlas. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the best segmentation accuracy by comparison with other state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Conclusions: The authors have proposed a new CBCT segmentation method by using patch-based sparse representation and convex optimization, which can achieve considerably accurate segmentation results in CBCT

  4. SU-E-J-185: Gated CBCT Imaging for Positioning Moving Lung Tumor in Lung SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Burton, S; Karlovits, B; Clump, D; Heron, D; Huq, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Lung stereo-tactic body radiotherapy(SBRT) treatment requires high accuracy of lung tumor positioning during treatment, which is usually accomplished by free breathing Cone-Beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan. However, respiratory motion induced image artifacts in free breathing CBCT may degrade such positioning accuracy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of gated CBCT imaging for lung SBRT treatment. Methods: Six Lung SBRT patients were selected for this study. The respiratory motion of the tumors ranged from 1.2cm to 3.5cm, and the gating windows for all patients were set between 35% and 65% of the respiratory phases. Each Lung SBRT patient underwent free-breathing CBCT scan using half-fan scan technique. The acquired projection images were transferred out for off-line analyses. An In-house semi-automatic algorithm was developed to trace the diaphragm movement from those projection images to acquire a patient's specific respiratory motion curve, which was used to correlate respiratory phases with each projection image. Afterwards, a filtered back-projection algorithm was utilized to reconstruct the gated CBCT images based on the projection images only within the gating window. Results: Target volumes determined by free breathing CBCT images were 71.9%±72% bigger than the volume shown in gated CBCT image. On the contrary, the target volume differences between gated CBCT and planning CT images at exhale stage were 5.8%±2.4%. The center to center distance of the targets shown in free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT images were 9.2±8.1mm. For one particular case, the superior boundary of the target was shifted 15mm between free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT. Conclusion: Gated CBCT imaging provides better representation of the moving lung tumor with less motion artifacts, and has the potential to improve the positioning accuracy in lung SBRT treatment.

  5. Image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT: A sensitivity analysis of respiratory signal, binning method, reconstruction algorithm, and projection angular spacing

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Kipritidis, John; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Kuncic, Zdenka; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory signal, binning method, and reconstruction algorithm are three major controllable factors affecting image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT), which is widely used in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Previous studies have investigated each of these factors individually, but no integrated sensitivity analysis has been performed. In addition, projection angular spacing is also a key factor in reconstruction, but how it affects image quality is not obvious. An investigation of the impacts of these four factors on image quality can help determine the most effective strategy in improving 4D-CBCT for IGRT. Methods: Fourteen 4D-CBCT patient projection datasets with various respiratory motion features were reconstructed with the following controllable factors: (i) respiratory signal (real-time position management, projection image intensity analysis, or fiducial marker tracking), (ii) binning method (phase, displacement, or equal-projection-density displacement binning), and (iii) reconstruction algorithm [Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK), McKinnon–Bates (MKB), or adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS)]. The image quality was quantified using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio, and edge-response width in order to assess noise/streaking and blur. The SNR values were also analyzed with respect to the maximum, mean, and root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) projection angular spacing to investigate how projection angular spacing affects image quality. Results: The choice of respiratory signals was found to have no significant impact on image quality. Displacement-based binning was found to be less prone to motion artifacts compared to phase binning in more than half of the cases, but was shown to suffer from large interbin image quality variation and large projection angular gaps. Both MKB and ASD-POCS resulted in noticeably improved image quality almost 100% of the time relative to FDK. In addition, SNR

  6. Image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT: A sensitivity analysis of respiratory signal, binning method, reconstruction algorithm, and projection angular spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Kipritidis, John; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Keall, Paul J.; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory signal, binning method, and reconstruction algorithm are three major controllable factors affecting image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT), which is widely used in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Previous studies have investigated each of these factors individually, but no integrated sensitivity analysis has been performed. In addition, projection angular spacing is also a key factor in reconstruction, but how it affects image quality is not obvious. An investigation of the impacts of these four factors on image quality can help determine the most effective strategy in improving 4D-CBCT for IGRT. Methods: Fourteen 4D-CBCT patient projection datasets with various respiratory motion features were reconstructed with the following controllable factors: (i) respiratory signal (real-time position management, projection image intensity analysis, or fiducial marker tracking), (ii) binning method (phase, displacement, or equal-projection-density displacement binning), and (iii) reconstruction algorithm [Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK), McKinnon–Bates (MKB), or adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS)]. The image quality was quantified using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio, and edge-response width in order to assess noise/streaking and blur. The SNR values were also analyzed with respect to the maximum, mean, and root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) projection angular spacing to investigate how projection angular spacing affects image quality. Results: The choice of respiratory signals was found to have no significant impact on image quality. Displacement-based binning was found to be less prone to motion artifacts compared to phase binning in more than half of the cases, but was shown to suffer from large interbin image quality variation and large projection angular gaps. Both MKB and ASD-POCS resulted in noticeably improved image quality almost 100% of the time relative to FDK. In addition, SNR

  7. Phase and amplitude binning for 4D-CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour, A F; Nehmeh, S A; Pan, T; Humm, J L; Vernon, P; Schöder, H; Rosenzweig, K E; Mageras, G S; Yorke, E; Larson, S M; Erdi, Y E

    2007-06-21

    We compare the consistency and accuracy of two image binning approaches used in 4D-CT imaging. One approach, phase binning (PB), assigns each breathing cycle 2pi rad, within which the images are grouped. In amplitude binning (AB), the images are assigned bins according to the breathing signal's full amplitude. To quantitate both approaches we used a NEMA NU2-2001 IEC phantom oscillating in the axial direction and at random frequencies and amplitudes, approximately simulating a patient's breathing. 4D-CT images were obtained using a four-slice GE Lightspeed CT scanner operating in cine mode. We define consistency error as a measure of ability to correctly bin over repeated cycles in the same field of view. Average consistency error mue+/-sigmae in PB ranged from 18%+/-20% to 30%+/-35%, while in AB the error ranged from 11%+/-14% to 20%+/-24%. In PB nearly all bins contained sphere slices. AB was more accurate, revealing empty bins where no sphere slices existed. As a proof of principle, we present examples of two non-small cell lung carcinoma patients' 4D-CT lung images binned by both approaches. While AB can lead to gaps in the coronal images, depending on the patient's breathing pattern, PB exhibits no gaps but suffers visible artifacts due to misbinning, yielding images that cover a relatively large amplitude range. AB was more consistent, though often resulted in gaps when no data existed due to patients' breathing pattern. We conclude AB is more accurate than PB. This has important consequences to treatment planning and diagnosis. PMID:17664557

  8. 4D Light Field Imaging System Using Programmable Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam

    2012-01-01

    Complete depth information can be extracted from analyzing all angles of light rays emanated from a source. However, this angular information is lost in a typical 2D imaging system. In order to record this information, a standard stereo imaging system uses two cameras to obtain information from two view angles. Sometimes, more cameras are used to obtain information from more angles. However, a 4D light field imaging technique can achieve this multiple-camera effect through a single-lens camera. Two methods are available for this: one using a microlens array, and the other using a moving aperture. The moving-aperture method can obtain more complete stereo information. The existing literature suggests a modified liquid crystal panel [LC (liquid crystal) panel, similar to ones commonly used in the display industry] to achieve a moving aperture. However, LC panels cannot withstand harsh environments and are not qualified for spaceflight. In this regard, different hardware is proposed for the moving aperture. A digital micromirror device (DMD) will replace the liquid crystal. This will be qualified for harsh environments for the 4D light field imaging. This will enable an imager to record near-complete stereo information. The approach to building a proof-ofconcept is using existing, or slightly modified, off-the-shelf components. An SLR (single-lens reflex) lens system, which typically has a large aperture for fast imaging, will be modified. The lens system will be arranged so that DMD can be integrated. The shape of aperture will be programmed for single-viewpoint imaging, multiple-viewpoint imaging, and coded aperture imaging. The novelty lies in using a DMD instead of a LC panel to move the apertures for 4D light field imaging. The DMD uses reflecting mirrors, so any light transmission lost (which would be expected from the LC panel) will be minimal. Also, the MEMS-based DMD can withstand higher temperature and pressure fluctuation than a LC panel can. Robotics need

  9. 4D remote sensing image coding with JPEG2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Gómez, Juan; Bartrina-Rapesta, Joan; Blanes, Ian; Jiménez-Rodríguez, Leandro; Aulí-Llinàs, Francesc; Serra-Sagristà, Joan

    2010-08-01

    Multicomponent data have become popular in several scientific fields such as forest monitoring, environmental studies, or sea water temperature detection. Nowadays, this multicomponent data can be collected more than one time per year for the same region. This generates different instances in time of multicomponent data, also called 4D-Data (1D Temporal + 1D Spectral + 2D Spatial). For multicomponent data, it is important to take into account inter-band redundancy to produce a more compact representation of the image by packing the energy into fewer number of bands, thus enabling a higher compression performance. The principal decorrelators used to compact the inter-band correlation redundancy are the Karhunen Loeve Transform (KLT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Because of the Temporal Dimension added, the inter-band redundancy among different multicomponent images is increased. In this paper we analyze the influence of the Temporal Dimension (TD) and the Spectral Dimension (SD) in 4D-Data in terms of coding performance for JPEG2000, because it has support to apply different decorrelation stages and transforms to the components through the different dimensions. We evaluate the influence to perform different decorrelators techniques to the different dimensions. Also we will assess the performance of the two main decorrelation techniques, KLT and DWT. Experimental results are provided, showing rate-distortion performances encoding 4D-Data using KLT and WT techniques to the different dimensions TD and SD.

  10. Proton dose calculation on scatter-corrected CBCT image: Feasibility study for adaptive proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yang-Kyun; Sharp, Gregory C.; Phillips, Justin; Winey, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of proton dose calculation on scatter-corrected cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images for the purpose of adaptive proton therapy. Methods: CBCT projection images were acquired from anthropomorphic phantoms and a prostate patient using an on-board imaging system of an Elekta infinity linear accelerator. Two previously introduced techniques were used to correct the scattered x-rays in the raw projection images: uniform scatter correction (CBCTus) and a priori CT-based scatter correction (CBCTap). CBCT images were reconstructed using a standard FDK algorithm and GPU-based reconstruction toolkit. Soft tissue ROI-based HU shifting was used to improve HU accuracy of the uncorrected CBCT images and CBCTus, while no HU change was applied to the CBCTap. The degree of equivalence of the corrected CBCT images with respect to the reference CT image (CTref) was evaluated by using angular profiles of water equivalent path length (WEPL) and passively scattered proton treatment plans. The CBCTap was further evaluated in more realistic scenarios such as rectal filling and weight loss to assess the effect of mismatched prior information on the corrected images. Results: The uncorrected CBCT and CBCTus images demonstrated substantial WEPL discrepancies (7.3 ± 5.3 mm and 11.1 ± 6.6 mm, respectively) with respect to the CTref, while the CBCTap images showed substantially reduced WEPL errors (2.4 ± 2.0 mm). Similarly, the CBCTap-based treatment plans demonstrated a high pass rate (96.0% ± 2.5% in 2 mm/2% criteria) in a 3D gamma analysis. Conclusions: A priori CT-based scatter correction technique was shown to be promising for adaptive proton therapy, as it achieved equivalent proton dose distributions and water equivalent path lengths compared to those of a reference CT in a selection of anthropomorphic phantoms. PMID:26233175

  11. Preoperative implant planning considering alveolar bone grafting needs and complication prediction using panoramic versus CBCT images

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Maria Eugenia; Noriega, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to determine the efficacy of observers' prediction for the need of bone grafting and presence of perioperative complications on the basis of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiographic (PAN) planning as compared to the surgical outcome. Materials and Methods One hundred and eight partially edentulous patients with a need for implant rehabilitation were referred for preoperative imaging. Imaging consisted of PAN and CBCT images. Four observers carried out implant planning using PAN image datasets, and at least one month later, using CBCT image datasets. Based on their own planning, the observers assessed the need for bone graft augmentation as well as complication prediction. The implant length and diameter, the need for bone graft augmentation, and the occurrence of anatomical complications during planning and implant placement were statistically compared. Results In the 108 patients, 365 implants were installed. Receiver operating characteristic analyses of both PAN and CBCT preoperative planning showed that CBCT performed better than PAN-based planning with respect to the need for bone graft augmentation and perioperative complications. The sensitivity and the specificity of CBCT for implant complications were 96.5% and 90.5%, respectively, and for bone graft augmentation, they were 95.2% and 96.3%, respectively. Significant differences were found between PAN-based planning and the surgery of posterior implant lengths. Conclusion Our findings indicated that CBCT-based preoperative implant planning enabled treatment planning with a higher degree of prediction and agreement as compared to the surgical standard. In PAN-based surgery, the prediction of implant length was poor. PMID:25279342

  12. 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P.; Sturgeon, G.; Mendonca, S.; Grimes, Jason; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The authors develop the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. Methods: Highly detailed whole-body anatomies for the adult male and female were defined in the XCAT using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and subdivision surfaces based on segmentation of the Visible Male and Female anatomical datasets from the National Library of Medicine as well as patient datasets. Using the flexibility of these surfaces, the Visible Human anatomies were transformed to match body measurements and organ volumes for a 50th percentile (height and weight) male and female. The desired body measurements for the models were obtained using the PEOPLESIZE program that contains anthropometric dimensions categorized from 1st to the 99th percentile for US adults. The desired organ volumes were determined from ICRP Publication 89 [ICRP, ''Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values,'' ICRP Publication 89 (International Commission on Radiological Protection, New York, NY, 2002)]. The male and female anatomies serve as standard templates upon which anatomical variations may be modeled in the XCAT through user-defined parameters. Parametrized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions were also incorporated into the XCAT based on high-resolution cardiac- and respiratory-gated multislice CT data. To demonstrate the usefulness of the phantom, the authors show example simulation studies in PET, SPECT, and CT using publicly available simulation packages. Results: As demonstrated in the pilot studies, the 4D XCAT (which includes thousands of anatomical structures) can produce realistic imaging data when combined with accurate models of the imaging process. With the flexibility of the NURBS surface primitives, any number of different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, and spatial resolutions can be simulated to perform imaging research. Conclusions: With the ability to produce

  13. 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research

    PubMed Central

    Segars, W. P.; Sturgeon, G.; Mendonca, S.; Grimes, Jason; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors develop the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. Methods: Highly detailed whole-body anatomies for the adult male and female were defined in the XCAT using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and subdivision surfaces based on segmentation of the Visible Male and Female anatomical datasets from the National Library of Medicine as well as patient datasets. Using the flexibility of these surfaces, the Visible Human anatomies were transformed to match body measurements and organ volumes for a 50th percentile (height and weight) male and female. The desired body measurements for the models were obtained using the PEOPLESIZE program that contains anthropometric dimensions categorized from 1st to the 99th percentile for US adults. The desired organ volumes were determined from ICRP Publication 89 [ICRP, ‘‘Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values,” ICRP Publication 89 (International Commission on Radiological Protection, New York, NY, 2002)]. The male and female anatomies serve as standard templates upon which anatomical variations may be modeled in the XCAT through user-defined parameters. Parametrized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions were also incorporated into the XCAT based on high-resolution cardiac- and respiratory-gated multislice CT data. To demonstrate the usefulness of the phantom, the authors show example simulation studies in PET, SPECT, and CT using publicly available simulation packages. Results: As demonstrated in the pilot studies, the 4D XCAT (which includes thousands of anatomical structures) can produce realistic imaging data when combined with accurate models of the imaging process. With the flexibility of the NURBS surface primitives, any number of different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, and spatial resolutions can be simulated to perform imaging research. Conclusions: With the ability to produce

  14. Reference radiochromic film dosimetry in kilovoltage photon beams during CBCT image acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Tomic, Nada; Devic, Slobodan; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: A common approach for dose assessment during cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition is to use thermoluminescent detectors for skin dose measurements (on patients or phantoms) or ionization chamber (in phantoms) for body dose measurements. However, the benefits of a daily CBCT image acquisition such as margin reduction in planning target volume and the image quality must be weighted against the extra dose received during CBCT acquisitions. Methods: The authors describe a two-dimensional reference dosimetry technique for measuring dose from CBCT scans using the on-board imaging system on a Varian Clinac-iX linear accelerator that employs the XR-QA radiochromic film model, specifically designed for dose measurements at low energy photons. The CBCT dose measurements were performed for three different body regions (head and neck, pelvis, and thorax) using humanoid Rando phantom. Results: The authors report on both surface dose and dose profiles measurements during clinical CBCT procedures carried out on a humanoid Rando phantom. Our measurements show that the surface doses per CBCT scan can range anywhere between 0.1 and 4.7 cGy, with the lowest surface dose observed in the head and neck region, while the highest surface dose was observed for the Pelvis spot light CBCT protocol in the pelvic region, on the posterior side of the Rando phantom. The authors also present results of the uncertainty analysis of our XR-QA radiochromic film dosimetry system. Conclusions: Radiochromic film dosimetry protocol described in this work was used to perform dose measurements during CBCT acquisitions with the one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty of up to 3% for doses above 1 cGy. Our protocol is based on film exposure calibration in terms of ''air kerma in air,'' which simplifies both the calibration procedure and reference dosimetry measurements. The results from a full Monte Carlo investigation of the dose conversion of measured XR-QA film dose at the surface into

  15. SU-E-J-36: Comparison of CBCT Image Quality for Manufacturer Default Imaging Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose CBCT is being increasingly used in patient setup for radiotherapy. Often the manufacturer default scan modes are used for performing these CBCT scans with the assumption that they are the best options. To quantitatively assess the image quality of these scan modes, all of the scan modes were tested as well as options with the reconstruction algorithm. Methods A CatPhan 504 phantom was scanned on a TrueBeam Linear Accelerator using the manufacturer scan modes (FSRT Head, Head, Image Gently, Pelvis, Pelvis Obese, Spotlight, & Thorax). The Head mode scan was then reconstructed multiple times with all filter options (Smooth, Standard, Sharp, & Ultra Sharp) and all Ring Suppression options (Disabled, Weak, Medium, & Strong). An open source ImageJ tool was created for analyzing the CatPhan 504 images. Results The MTF curve was primarily dictated by the voxel size and the filter used in the reconstruction algorithm. The filters also impact the image noise. The CNR was worst for the Image Gently mode, followed by FSRT Head and Head. The sharper the filter, the worse the CNR. HU varied significantly between scan modes. Pelvis Obese had lower than expected HU values than most while the Image Gently mode had higher than expected HU values. If a therapist tried to use preset window and level settings, they would not show the desired tissue for some scan modes. Conclusion Knowing the image quality of the set scan modes, will enable users to better optimize their setup CBCT. Evaluation of the scan mode image quality could improve setup efficiency and lead to better treatment outcomes.

  16. SU-E-J-153: Reconstructing 4D Cone Beam CT Images for Clinical QA of Lung SABR Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, J; Bergman, A; Cropp, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To verify that the planned Primary Target Volume (PTV) and Internal Gross Tumor Volume (IGTV) fully enclose a moving lung tumor volume as visualized on a pre-SABR treatment verification 4D Cone Beam CT. Methods: Daily 3DCBCT image sets were acquired immediately prior to treatment for 10 SABR lung patients using the on-board imaging system integrated into a Varian TrueBeam (v1.6: no 4DCBCT module available). Respiratory information was acquired during the scan using the Varian RPM system. The CBCT projections were sorted into 8 bins offline, both by breathing phase and amplitude, using in-house software. An iterative algorithm based on total variation minimization, implemented in the open source reconstruction toolkit (RTK), was used to reconstruct the binned projections into 4DCBCT images. The relative tumor motion was quantified by tracking the centroid of the tumor volume from each 4DCBCT image. Following CT-CBCT registration, the planning CT volumes were compared to the location of the CBCT tumor volume as it moves along its breathing trajectory. An overlap metric quantified the ability of the planned PTV and IGTV to contain the tumor volume at treatment. Results: The 4DCBCT reconstructed images visibly show the tumor motion. The mean overlap between the planned PTV (IGTV) and the 4DCBCT tumor volumes was 100% (94%), with an uncertainty of 5% from the 4DCBCT tumor volume contours. Examination of the tumor motion and overlap metric verify that the IGTV drawn at the planning stage is a good representation of the tumor location at treatment. Conclusion: It is difficult to compare GTV volumes from a 4DCBCT and a planning CT due to image quality differences. However, it was possible to conclude the GTV remained within the PTV 100% of the time thus giving the treatment staff confidence that SABR lung treatements are being delivered accurately.

  17. Estimating Myocardial Motion by 4D Image Warping

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Hari; Litt, Harold; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-01-01

    A method for spatio-temporally smooth and consistent estimation of cardiac motion from MR cine sequences is proposed. Myocardial motion is estimated within a 4-dimensional (4D) registration framework, in which all 3D images obtained at different cardiac phases are simultaneously registered. This facilitates spatio-temporally consistent estimation of motion as opposed to other registration-based algorithms which estimate the motion by sequentially registering one frame to another. To facilitate image matching, an attribute vector (AV) is constructed for each point in the image, and is intended to serve as a “morphological signature” of that point. The AV includes intensity, boundary, and geometric moment invariants (GMIs). Hierarchical registration of two image sequences is achieved by using the most distinctive points for initial registration of two sequences and gradually adding less-distinctive points to refine the registration. Experimental results on real data demonstrate good performance of the proposed method for cardiac image registration and motion estimation. The motion estimation is validated via comparisons with motion estimates obtained from MR images with myocardial tagging. PMID:20379351

  18. Assessment of image quality and dose calculation accuracy on kV CBCT, MV CBCT, and MV CT images for urgent palliative radiotherapy treatments.

    PubMed

    Held, Mareike; Cremers, Florian; Sneed, Penny K; Braunstein, Steve; Fogh, Shannon E; Nakamura, Jean; Barani, Igor; Perez-Andujar, Angelica; Pouliot, Jean; Morin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    A clinical workflow was developed for urgent palliative radiotherapy treatments that integrates patient simulation, planning, quality assurance, and treatment in one 30-minute session. This has been successfully tested and implemented clinically on a linac with MV CBCT capabilities. To make this approach available to all clin-ics equipped with common imaging systems, dose calculation accuracy based on treatment sites was assessed for other imaging units. We evaluated the feasibility of palliative treatment planning using on-board imaging with respect to image qual-ity and technical challenges. The purpose was to test multiple systems using their commercial setup, disregarding any additional in-house development. kV CT, kV CBCT, MV CBCT, and MV CT images of water and anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired on five different imaging units (Philips MX8000 CT Scanner, and Varian TrueBeam, Elekta VersaHD, Siemens Artiste, and Accuray Tomotherapy linacs). Image quality (noise, contrast, uniformity, spatial resolution) was evalu-ated and compared across all machines. Using individual image value to density calibrations, dose calculation accuracies for simple treatment plans were assessed for the same phantom images. Finally, image artifacts on clinical patient images were evaluated and compared among the machines. Image contrast to visualize bony anatomy was sufficient on all machines. Despite a high noise level and low contrast, MV CT images provided the most accurate treatment plans relative to kV CT-based planning. Spatial resolution was poorest for MV CBCT, but did not limit the visualization of small anatomical structures. A comparison of treatment plans showed that monitor units calculated based on a prescription point were within 5% difference relative to kV CT-based plans for all machines and all studied treatment sites (brain, neck, and pelvis). Local dose differences > 5% were found near the phantom edges. The gamma index for 3%/3 mm criteria was ≥ 95% in most

  19. Breast density measurement: 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images versus 2D digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer. However, breast density is currently estimated using mammograms which are intrinsically 2D in nature and cannot accurately represent the real breast anatomy. In this study, a novel technique for measuring breast density based on the segmentation of 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) images was developed and the results were compared to those obtained from 2D digital mammograms. 16 mastectomy breast specimens were imaged with a bench top flat-panel based CBCT system. The reconstructed 3D CT images were corrected for the cupping artifacts and then filtered to reduce the noise level, followed by using threshold-based segmentation to separate the dense tissue from the adipose tissue. For each breast specimen, volumes of the dense tissue structures and the entire breast were computed and used to calculate the volumetric breast density. BI-RADS categories were derived from the measured breast densities and compared with those estimated from conventional digital mammograms. The results show that in 10 of 16 cases the BI-RADS categories derived from the CBCT images were lower than those derived from the mammograms by one category. Thus, breasts considered as dense in mammographic examinations may not be considered as dense with the CBCT images. This result indicates that the relation between breast cancer risk and true (volumetric) breast density needs to be further investigated.

  20. Analysis of Pharyngeal Airway Using Lateral Cephalogram vs CBCT Images: A Cross-sectional Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bronoosh, Pegah; Khojastepour, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background : As the basic biological relationship of form and function, changes in the normal pattern of nasopharyngeal space can profoundly affect the development of the craniofacial growth. The lateral cephalogram, part of the patient’s normal records for orthodontic treatment, may show some of these changes either at the initial examination or later during treatment. The validity of the information the lateral cephalogram may present, have been questioned previously. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between the area and the volume measurements of pharyngeal airway size in a lateral cephalogram and a 3-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan in adolescent subjects. Materials and Methods : CBCT scan and a lateral cephalogram of 35 subjects which were taken within 1 week were included in this study. Airway area of the region of interest from the lateral cephalogram and airway volume over the same of region of interest from the CBCT scan were assessed for all patients. The correlation between the area and the volume measurements were evaluated statistically by Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Mann Whitney U Test was used for comparing the area and the volume measurements in different sex. Results : Strong correlation was found between lateral cephalogram and CBCT measurements of pharyngeal airway. (r=0.831). Conclusion : Pharyngeal airway area on a lateral cephalogram is correlated strongly with volumetric data on CBCT images. Henceforth the use of CBCT images for volume measurements in orthodontic patients can aid in the better evaluation of airways and acted as a diagnostic instrument in this area. PMID:26464593

  1. SU-E-J-186: Acquiring and Assessing Upright CBCT Images for Future Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Fave, X; Yang, J; Balter, P; Court, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To acquire upright CBCT images using the onboard imager of a Varian TrueBeam. An easy to implement upright imaging protocol could allow for widespread upright radiation therapy which would greatly benefit certain patients. These include thoracic cancer patients (because lung volume increases in a seated position) and patients who experience substantial discomfort during supine treatment. Methods: To acquire upright CBCT images, the gantry head remained stationary at 0 degrees with the KV imager arms extended to their lateral positions. Phantoms were placed upright at the end of the treatment couch. During a scan, the couch rotated from 270 to 90 degrees while continuous fluoroscopic projections were taken by the onboard imager. To extend the field-of-view, this sequence was performed twice: once with the KV detector longitudinally offset +14.5cm and once with it longitudinally offset −14.5cm. The resulting two image sets were stitched together before reconstruction. The imaging beam parameters were chosen to deliver a dose similar to that given during a simulation CT. Image quality was evaluated for spatial linearity, high and low contrast resolution, and HU linearity using CatPhan and anthropomorphic phantoms. A deformable registration technique was used to evaluate HU mapping from a simulation CT. Results: Spatial linearity and high contrast resolution were maintained in upright CBCT when compared to simulation CT. However, low contrast resolution and HU linearity degraded. Streak artifacts were caused by the limited 180 degree arc of the couch, and the stitching process created a sharp artifact at the center of the reconstruction. The deformable registration was robust in the HU mapping even with these artifacts and the loss of HU linearity. Conclusions: The image quality obtained from upright CBCT was sufficient for treatment planning. The success of this novel technique is an important step towards a future clinical protocol. This project was funded

  2. Association between extra- and intracranial calcifications of the internal carotid artery: a CBCT imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Aartman, I H A; Tsiklakis, K; van der Stelt, P; Berkhout, W E R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the association between the extracranial and intracranial calcification depiction of the internal carotid artery (ICA), incidentally found in CBCT examinations in adults, and to discuss the conspicuous clinical implications. Methods: Out of a series of 1085 CBCT examinations, 705 CBCT scans were selected according to pre-defined criteria. The extra- and intracranial calcifications depicted along the course of the ICA were documented according to a comprehensive set of descriptive criteria. Results: In total, 799 findings were detected, 60.1% (n = 480) were intracranially and 39.9% (n = 319) were extracranially allocated. The χ2 test showed associations between all variables (p < 0.001). Also, most of the combinations of variables showed statistically significant results in the McNemar's test (p < 0.001). Conclusions: We found that a significant correlation exists between extra- and intracranial calcifications of the ICA. It is clear that in cases of the presence of a calcification in the ICA extracranially, the artery's intracranial portion has an increased risk of showing the same findings. CBCT imaging is widely used as a diagnostic tool, thus, our results contribute to the identification of a subgroup of patients who should undergo further medical evaluation of the atherosclerosis of the ICAs. PMID:25690425

  3. SU-E-J-31: Monitor Interfractional Variation of Tumor Respiratory Motion Using 4D KV Conebeam Computed Tomography for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, A; Prior, P; Gore, E; Johnstone, C; Li, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 4DCT has been widely used to generate internal tumor volume (ITV) for a lung tumor for treatment planning. However, lung tumors may show different respiratory motion on the treatment day. The purpose of this study is to evaluate 4D KV conebeam computed tomography (CBCT) for monitoring tumor interfractional motion variation between simulation and each fraction of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. Methods: 4D KV CBCT was acquired with the Elekta XVI system. The accuracy of 4D KV CBCT for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) was tested with a dynamic thorax motion phantom (CIRS, Virginia) with a linear amplitude of 2 cm. In addition, an adult anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson, Rando) with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters embedded at the center and periphery of a slab of solid water was used to measure the dose of 4D KV CBCT and to compare it with the dose with 3D KV CBCT. The image registration was performed by aligning\\ each phase images of 4D KV CBCT to the planning images and the final couch shifts were calculated as a mean of all these individual shifts along each direction.A workflow was established based on these quality assurance tests for lung cancer patients. Results: 4D KV CBCT does not increase imaging dose in comparison to 3D KV CBCT. Acquisition of 4D KV CBCT is 4 minutes as compared to 2 minutes for 3D KV CBCT. Most of patients showed a small daily variation of tumor respiratory motion about 2 mm. However, some patients may have more than 5 mm variations of tumor respiratory motion. Conclusion: The radiation dose does not increase with 4D KV CBCT. 4D KV CBCT is a useful tool for monitoring interfractional variations of tumor respiratory motion before SBRT of lung cancer patients.

  4. SU-E-J-28: Gantry Speed Significantly Affects Image Quality and Imaging Dose for 4D Cone-Beam Computed Tomography On the Varian Edge Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, A; Song, K; Gardner, S; Chetty, I; Wen, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 4D-CBCT facilitates assessment of tumor motion at treatment position. We investigated the effect of gantry speed on 4D-CBCT image quality and dose using the Varian Edge On-Board Imager (OBI). Methods: A thoracic protocol was designed using a 125 kVp spectrum. Image quality parameters were obtained via 4D acquisition using a Catphan phantom with a gating system. A sinusoidal waveform was executed with a five second period and superior-inferior motion. 4D-CBCT scans were sorted into 4 and 10 phases. Image quality metrics included spatial resolution, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), uniformity index (UI), Hounsfield unit (HU) sensitivity, and RMS error (RMSE) of motion amplitude. Dosimetry was accomplished using Gafchromic XR-QA2 films within a CIRS Thorax phantom. This was placed on the gating phantom using the same motion waveform. Results: High contrast resolution decreased linearly from 5.93 to 4.18 lp/cm, 6.54 to 4.18 lp/cm, and 5.19 to 3.91 lp/cm for averaged, 4 phase, and 10 phase 4DCBCT volumes respectively as gantry speed increased from 1.0 to 6.0 degs/sec. CNRs decreased linearly from 4.80 to 1.82 as the gantry speed increased from 1.0 to 6.0 degs/sec, respectively. No significant variations in UIs, HU sensitivities, or RMSEs were observed with variable gantry speed. Ion chamber measurements compared to film yielded small percent differences in plastic water regions (0.1–9.6%), larger percent differences in lung equivalent regions (7.5–34.8%), and significantly larger percent differences in bone equivalent regions (119.1–137.3%). Ion chamber measurements decreased from 17.29 to 2.89 cGy with increasing gantry speed from 1.0 to 6.0 degs/sec. Conclusion: Maintaining technique factors while changing gantry speed changes the number of projections used for reconstruction. Increasing the number of projections by decreasing gantry speed decreases noise, however, dose is increased. The future of 4DCBCT’s clinical utility relies on further

  5. A novel approach for establishing benchmark CBCT/CT deformable image registrations in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinkoo; Kumar, Sanath; Liu, Chang; Zhong, Hualiang; Pradhan, Deepak; Shah, Mira; Cattaneo, Richard; Yechieli, Raphael; Robbins, Jared R.; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2013-11-01

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is an integral component for adaptive radiation therapy. However, accurate registration between daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and treatment planning CT is challenging, due to significant daily variations in rectal and bladder fillings as well as the increased noise levels in CBCT images. Another significant challenge is the lack of ‘ground-truth’ registrations in the clinical setting, which is necessary for quantitative evaluation of various registration algorithms. The aim of this study is to establish benchmark registrations of clinical patient data. Three pairs of CT/CBCT datasets were chosen for this institutional review board approved retrospective study. On each image, in order to reduce the contouring uncertainty, ten independent sets of organs were manually delineated by five physicians. The mean contour set for each image was derived from the ten contours. A set of distinctive points (round natural calcifications and three implanted prostate fiducial markers) were also manually identified. The mean contours and point features were then incorporated as constraints into a B-spline based DIR algorithm. Further, a rigidity penalty was imposed on the femurs and pelvic bones to preserve their rigidity. A piecewise-rigid registration approach was adapted to account for the differences in femur pose and the sliding motion between bones. For each registration, the magnitude of the spatial Jacobian (|JAC|) was calculated to quantify the tissue compression and expansion. Deformation grids and finite-element-model-based unbalanced energy maps were also reviewed visually to evaluate the physical soundness of the resultant deformations. Organ DICE indices (indicating the degree of overlap between registered organs) and residual misalignments of the fiducial landmarks were quantified. Manual organ delineation on CBCT images varied significantly among physicians with overall mean DICE index of only 0.7 among redundant

  6. A novel approach for establishing benchmark CBCT/CT deformable image registrations in prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkoo; Kumar, Sanath; Liu, Chang; Zhong, Hualiang; Pradhan, Deepak; Shah, Mira; Cattaneo, Richard; Yechieli, Raphael; Robbins, Jared R; Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Chetty, Indrin J

    2013-11-21

    Deformable image registration (DIR) is an integral component for adaptive radiation therapy. However, accurate registration between daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and treatment planning CT is challenging, due to significant daily variations in rectal and bladder fillings as well as the increased noise levels in CBCT images. Another significant challenge is the lack of 'ground-truth' registrations in the clinical setting, which is necessary for quantitative evaluation of various registration algorithms. The aim of this study is to establish benchmark registrations of clinical patient data. Three pairs of CT/CBCT datasets were chosen for this institutional review board approved retrospective study. On each image, in order to reduce the contouring uncertainty, ten independent sets of organs were manually delineated by five physicians. The mean contour set for each image was derived from the ten contours. A set of distinctive points (round natural calcifications and three implanted prostate fiducial markers) were also manually identified. The mean contours and point features were then incorporated as constraints into a B-spline based DIR algorithm. Further, a rigidity penalty was imposed on the femurs and pelvic bones to preserve their rigidity. A piecewise-rigid registration approach was adapted to account for the differences in femur pose and the sliding motion between bones. For each registration, the magnitude of the spatial Jacobian (|JAC|) was calculated to quantify the tissue compression and expansion. Deformation grids and finite-element-model-based unbalanced energy maps were also reviewed visually to evaluate the physical soundness of the resultant deformations. Organ DICE indices (indicating the degree of overlap between registered organs) and residual misalignments of the fiducial landmarks were quantified. Manual organ delineation on CBCT images varied significantly among physicians with overall mean DICE index of only 0.7 among redundant

  7. The accuracy of a designed software for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on CBCT images

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Two-dimensional projection radiographs have been traditionally considered the modality of choice for cephalometric analysis. To overcome the shortcomings of two-dimensional images, three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) has been used to evaluate craniofacial structures. However, manual landmark detection depends on medical expertise, and the process is time-consuming. The present study was designed to produce software capable of automated localization of craniofacial landmarks on cone beam (CB) CT images based on image registration and to evaluate its accuracy. Methods The software was designed using MATLAB programming language. The technique was a combination of feature-based (principal axes registration) and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration. A total of 8 CBCT images were selected as our reference images for creating a head atlas. Then, 20 CBCT images were randomly selected as the test images for evaluating the method. Three experts twice located 14 landmarks in all 28 CBCT images during two examinations set 6 weeks apart. The differences in the distances of coordinates of each landmark on each image between manual and automated detection methods were calculated and reported as mean errors. Results The combined intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.89 and for interobserver reliability 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.93). The mean errors of all 14 landmarks were <4 mm. Additionally, 63.57% of landmarks had a mean error of <3 mm compared with manual detection (gold standard method). Conclusion The accuracy of our approach for automated localization of craniofacial landmarks, which was based on combining feature-based and voxel similarity-based methods for image registration, was acceptable. Nevertheless we recommend repetition of this study using other techniques, such as intensity-based methods. PMID:25223399

  8. SU-E-J-122: The CBCT Dose Calculation Using a Patient Specific CBCT Number to Mass Density Conversion Curve Based On a Novel Image Registration and Organ Mapping Method in Head-And-Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J; Lasio, G; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Langen, K; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B; Huang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a CBCT HU correction method using a patient specific HU to mass density conversion curve based on a novel image registration and organ mapping method for head-and-neck radiation therapy. Methods: There are three steps to generate a patient specific CBCT HU to mass density conversion curve. First, we developed a novel robust image registration method based on sparseness analysis to register the planning CT (PCT) and the CBCT. Second, a novel organ mapping method was developed to transfer the organs at risk (OAR) contours from the PCT to the CBCT and corresponding mean HU values of each OAR were measured in both the PCT and CBCT volumes. Third, a set of PCT and CBCT HU to mass density conversion curves were created based on the mean HU values of OARs and the corresponding mass density of the OAR in the PCT. Then, we compared our proposed conversion curve with the traditional Catphan phantom based CBCT HU to mass density calibration curve. Both curves were input into the treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculation. Last, the PTV and OAR doses, DVH and dose distributions of CBCT plans are compared to the original treatment plan. Results: One head-and-neck cases which contained a pair of PCT and CBCT was used. The dose differences between the PCT and CBCT plans using the proposed method are −1.33% for the mean PTV, 0.06% for PTV D95%, and −0.56% for the left neck. The dose differences between plans of PCT and CBCT corrected using the CATPhan based method are −4.39% for mean PTV, 4.07% for PTV D95%, and −2.01% for the left neck. Conclusion: The proposed CBCT HU correction method achieves better agreement with the original treatment plan compared to the traditional CATPhan based calibration method.

  9. 5D respiratory motion model based image reconstruction algorithm for 4D cone-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiulong; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhao, Hongkai; Gao, Yu; Thomas, David; Low, Daniel A.; Gao, Hao

    2015-11-01

    4D cone-beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) reconstructs a temporal sequence of CBCT images for the purpose of motion management or 4D treatment in radiotherapy. However the image reconstruction often involves the binning of projection data to each temporal phase, and therefore suffers from deteriorated image quality due to inaccurate or uneven binning in phase, e.g., under the non-periodic breathing. A 5D model has been developed as an accurate model of (periodic and non-periodic) respiratory motion. That is, given the measurements of breathing amplitude and its time derivative, the 5D model parametrizes the respiratory motion by three time-independent variables, i.e., one reference image and two vector fields. In this work we aim to develop a new 4DCBCT reconstruction method based on 5D model. Instead of reconstructing a temporal sequence of images after the projection binning, the new method reconstructs time-independent reference image and vector fields with no requirement of binning. The image reconstruction is formulated as a optimization problem with total-variation regularization on both reference image and vector fields, and the problem is solved by the proximal alternating minimization algorithm, during which the split Bregman method is used to reconstruct the reference image, and the Chambolle's duality-based algorithm is used to reconstruct the vector fields. The convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm is provided for this nonconvex problem. Validated by the simulation studies, the new method has significantly improved image reconstruction accuracy due to no binning and reduced number of unknowns via the use of the 5D model.

  10. CBCT with specification of imaging dose and CNR by anatomical volume of interest

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, Del; Robar, James L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: A novel method has been developed for volume of interest (VOI) cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging using a 2.35 MV/Carbon target linac imaging beam line combined with dynamic multileaf collimator sequences. Methods: The authors demonstrate the concept of acquisition of multiple, separate imaging volumes, where volumes can be either completely separated or nested, and are associated with predetermined imaging dose and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) characteristics. Two individual MLC sequences were established in the planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical) to collimate the beam according to a defined inner VOI (e.g., containing a target volume under image guidance) and an outer VOI (e.g., including surrounding landmarks or organs-at-risk). MLC sequences were interleaved as a function of gantry angle to produce a reconstructed CBCT image with nested VOIs. By controlling the ratio of inner-to-outer ratio of MLC segments (and thus Monitor Units) during acquisition, the relative dose and CNR in the two volumes can be controlled. Inner-to-outer ratios of 2:1 to 6:1 were examined. Results: The concept was explored using an anatomical head phantom to assess image quality. A geometric phantom was used to quantify absolute dose and CNR values for the various sequences. The authors found that the dose in the outer VOI decreased by a functional relationship dependent on the inner-to-outer sequence ratio, while the CNR varied by the square root of dose, as expected. Conclusions: In this study the authors demonstrate flexibility in VOI CBCT by tailoring the imaging dose and CNR distribution in separate volumes within the patient anatomy. This would allow for high quality imaging of a target volume for alignment purposes, with simultaneous low dose imaging of the surrounding anatomy (e.g., for coregistration)

  11. SU-E-J-89: Comparative Analysis of MIM and Velocity’s Image Deformation Algorithm Using Simulated KV-CBCT Images for Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, K; Narayanasamy, G; Obediat, M; Stanley, D; Stathakis, S; Kirby, N; Kim, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) is used routinely in the clinic without a formalized quality assurance (QA) process. Using simulated deformations to digitally deform images in a known way and comparing to DIR algorithm predictions is a powerful technique for DIR QA. This technique must also simulate realistic image noise and artifacts, especially between modalities. This study developed an algorithm to create simulated daily kV cone-beam computed-tomography (CBCT) images from CT images for DIR QA between these modalities. Methods: A Catphan and physical head-and-neck phantom, with known deformations, were used. CT and kV-CBCT images of the Catphan were utilized to characterize the changes in Hounsfield units, noise, and image cupping that occur between these imaging modalities. The algorithm then imprinted these changes onto a CT image of the deformed head-and-neck phantom, thereby creating a simulated-CBCT image. CT and kV-CBCT images of the undeformed and deformed head-and-neck phantom were also acquired. The Velocity and MIM DIR algorithms were applied between the undeformed CT image and each of the deformed CT, CBCT, and simulated-CBCT images to obtain predicted deformations. The error between the known and predicted deformations was used as a metric to evaluate the quality of the simulated-CBCT image. Ideally, the simulated-CBCT image registration would produce the same accuracy as the deformed CBCT image registration. Results: For Velocity, the mean error was 1.4 mm for the CT-CT registration, 1.7 mm for the CT-CBCT registration, and 1.4 mm for the CT-simulated-CBCT registration. These same numbers were 1.5, 4.5, and 5.9 mm, respectively, for MIM. Conclusion: All cases produced similar accuracy for Velocity. MIM produced similar values of accuracy for CT-CT registration, but was not as accurate for CT-CBCT registrations. The MIM simulated-CBCT registration followed this same trend, but overestimated MIM DIR errors relative to the CT-CBCT

  12. Phantom based evaluation of CT to CBCT image registration for proton therapy dose recalculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Guillaume; Dedes, George; Zöllner, Christoph; Handrack, Josefine; Janssens, Guillaume; Orban de Xivry, Jonathan; Reiner, Michael; Paganelli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Kamp, Florian; Söhn, Matthias; Wilkens, Jan J.; Baroni, Guido; Belka, Claus; Parodi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform dose recalculation on the anatomy of the day is important in the context of adaptive proton therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of deformable image registration (DIR) and cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging to generate the daily stopping power distribution of the patient. We investigated the deformation of the planning CT scan (pCT) onto daily CBCT images to generate a virtual CT (vCT) using a deformable phantom designed for the head and neck (H & N) region. The phantom was imaged at a planning CT scanner in planning configuration, yielding a pCT and in deformed, treatment day configuration, yielding a reference CT (refCT). The treatment day configuration was additionally scanned at a CBCT scanner. A Morphons DIR algorithm was used to generate a vCT. The accuracy of the vCT was evaluated by comparison to the refCT in terms of corresponding features as identified by an adaptive scale invariant feature transform (aSIFT) algorithm. Additionally, the vCT CT numbers were compared to those of the refCT using both profiles and regions of interest and the volumes and overlap (DICE coefficients) of various phantom structures were compared. The water equivalent thickness (WET) of the vCT, refCT and pCT were also compared to evaluate proton range differences. Proton dose distributions from the same initial fluence were calculated on the refCT, vCT and pCT and compared in terms of proton range. The method was tested on a clinical dataset using a replanning CT scan acquired close in time to a CBCT scan as reference using the WET evaluation. Results from the aSIFT investigation suggest a deformation accuracy of 2-3 mm. The use of the Morphon algorithm did not distort CT number intensity in uniform regions and WET differences between vCT and refCT were of the order of 2% of the proton range. This result was confirmed by proton dose calculations. The patient results were consistent with phantom observations. In conclusion, our phantom

  13. SU-E-J-175: Proton Dose Calculation On Scatter-Corrected CBCT Image: Feasibility Study for Adaptive Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y; Winey, B; Sharp, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate feasibility of proton dose calculation on scattercorrected CBCT images for the purpose of adaptive proton therapy. Methods: Two CBCT image sets were acquired from a prostate cancer patient and a thorax phantom using an on-board imaging system of an Elekta infinity linear accelerator. 2-D scatter maps were estimated using a previously introduced CT-based technique, and were subtracted from each raw projection image. A CBCT image set was then reconstructed with an open source reconstruction toolkit (RTK). Conversion from the CBCT number to HU was performed by soft tissue-based shifting with reference to the plan CT. Passively scattered proton plans were simulated on the plan CT and corrected/uncorrected CBCT images using the XiO treatment planning system. For quantitative evaluation, water equivalent path length (WEPL) was compared in those treatment plans. Results: The scatter correction method significantly improved image quality and HU accuracy in the prostate case where large scatter artifacts were obvious. However, the correction technique showed limited effects on the thorax case that was associated with fewer scatter artifacts. Mean absolute WEPL errors from the plans with the uncorrected and corrected images were 1.3 mm and 5.1 mm in the thorax case and 13.5 mm and 3.1 mm in the prostate case. The prostate plan dose distribution of the corrected image demonstrated better agreement with the reference one than that of the uncorrected image. Conclusion: A priori CT-based CBCT scatter correction can reduce the proton dose calculation error when large scatter artifacts are involved. If scatter artifacts are low, an uncorrected CBCT image is also promising for proton dose calculation when it is calibrated with the soft-tissue based shifting.

  14. 4D flow imaging: current status to future clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Markl, Michael; Schnell, Susanne; Barker, Alex J

    2014-05-01

    4D flow MRI permits a comprehensive in-vivo assessment of three-directional blood flow within 3-dimensional vascular structures throughout the cardiac cycle. Given the large coverage permitted from a 4D flow acquisition, the distribution of vessel wall and flow parameters along an entire vessel of interest can thus be derived from a single measurement without being dependent on multiple predefined 2D acquisitions. In addition to qualitative 3D visualizations of complex cardiac and vascular flow patterns, quantitative flow analysis can be performed and is complemented by the ability to compute sophisticated hemodynamic parameters, such as wall shear stress or 3D pressure difference maps. These metrics can provide information previously unavailable with conventional modalities regarding the impact of cardiovascular disease or therapy on global and regional changes in hemodynamics. This review provides an introduction to the methodological aspects of 4D flow MRI to assess vascular hemodynamics and describes its potential for the assessment and understanding of altered hemodynamics in the presence of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24700368

  15. SU-E-J-45: The Correlation Between CBCT Flat Panel Misalignment and 3D Image Guidance Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Kenton, O; Valdes, G; Yin, L; Teo, B; Brousmiche, S; Wikler, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To simulate the impact of CBCT flat panel misalignment on the image quality, the calculated correction vectors in 3D image guided proton therapy and to determine if these calibration errors can be caught in our QA process. Methods The X-ray source and detector geometrical calibration (flexmap) file of the CBCT system in the AdaPTinsight software (IBA proton therapy) was edited to induce known changes in the rotational and translational calibrations of the imaging panel. Translations of up to ±10 mm in the x, y and z directions (see supplemental) and rotational errors of up to ±3° were induced. The calibration files were then used to reconstruct the CBCT image of a pancreatic patient and CatPhan phantom. Correction vectors were calculated for the patient using the software’s auto match system and compared to baseline values. The CatPhan CBCT images were used for quantitative evaluation of image quality for each type of induced error. Results Translations of 1 to 3 mm in the x and y calibration resulted in corresponding correction vector errors of equal magnitude. Similar 10mm shifts were seen in the y-direction; however, in the x-direction, the image quality was too degraded for a match. These translational errors can be identified through differences in isocenter from orthogonal kV images taken during routine QA. Errors in the z-direction had no effect on the correction vector and image quality.Rotations of the imaging panel calibration resulted in corresponding correction vector rotations of the patient images. These rotations also resulted in degraded image quality which can be identified through quantitative image quality metrics. Conclusion Misalignment of CBCT geometry can lead to incorrect translational and rotational patient correction vectors. These errors can be identified through QA of the imaging isocenter as compared to orthogonal images combined with monitoring of CBCT image quality.

  16. A new phantom for image quality, geometric destortion, and HU calibration in MSCT and CBCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Johannes M.; Blendl, Christian; Selbach, Markus; Uphoff, Clemens; Fiebich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Flat panel cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is developing to the state-of-the-art technique in several medical disciplines such as dental and otorhinolaryngological imaging. Dental and otorhinolaryngological CBCT systems offer a variety of different field-of-view sizes from 6.0 to 17.0 cm. Standard phantoms are only designed for the use in multi-slices CT (MSCT) and there is no phantom which provides detail structures for all common characteristic values and Hounsfield calibration. In this study we present a new phantom specially designed for use with MSCT and CBCT systems providing detail structures for MTF, 3D MTF, NPS, SNR, geometric distortion and HU calibration. With this phantom you'll only need one acquisition for image quality investigation and assurance. Materials and methods: The phantom design is shown in figure 1. To investigate the practicability, the phantom was scanned using dedicated MSCT-scanners, 3D C-arms und digital volume tomographs. The acquired axial image stacks were analyzed using a dedicated computer program, which is provided as an ImageJ plugin. The MTF was compared to other methodologies such as a thin wire, a sphere or noise response [10, 13, 14]. The HU values were also computed using other common methods. Results: These results are similar to the results of others studies [10, 13, 14]. The method has proven to be stable and delivers comparable results to other methodologies such as using a thin wire. The NPS was calculated for all materials. Furthermore, CT numbers for all materials were computed and compared to the desired values. The measurement of geometric deformation has proven to be accurate. Conclusion: A unique feature of this phantom is to compute the geometric deformation of the 3D-volume image. This offers the chance to improve accuracy, e.g. in dental implant planning. Another convenient feature is that the phantom needs to be scanned only once with otorhinolaryngological volume tomographs to be fully displayed. It is

  17. Change in Image Quality According to the 3D Locations of a CBCT Phantom.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Joon; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho-Gul; Han, Sang-Sun

    2016-01-01

    A patient's position changes in every CBCT scan despite patient alignment protocols. However, there have been studies to determine image quality differences when an object is located at the center of the field of view (FOV). To evaluate changes in the image quality of the CBCT scan according to different object positions, the image quality indexes of the Alphard 3030 (Alphard Roentgen Ind., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) and the Rayscan Symphony (RAY Ind., Ltd., Suwon, Korea) were measured using the Quart DVT_AP phantom at the center of the FOV and 6 peripheral positions under four types of exposure conditions. Anterior, posterior, right, left, upper, and lower positions 1 cm offset from the center of the FOV were used for the peripheral positions. We evaluated and compared the voxel size, homogeneity, contrast to noise ratio (CNR), and the 10% point of the modulation transfer function (MTF10%) of the center and periphery. Because the voxel size, which is determined by the Nyquist frequency, was within tolerance, other image quality indexes were not influenced by the voxel size. For the CNR, homogeneity, and MTF10%, there were peripheral positions which showed considerable differences with statistical significance. The average difference between the center and periphery was up to 31.27% (CNR), 70.49% (homogeneity), and 13.64% (MTF10%). Homogeneity was under tolerance at some of the peripheral locations. Because the CNR, homogeneity, and MTF10% were significantly affected by positional changes of the phantom, an object's position can influence the interpretation of follow up CBCT images. Therefore, efforts to locate the object in the same position are important. PMID:27093639

  18. Change in Image Quality According to the 3D Locations of a CBCT Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Joon; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho-Gul; Han, Sang-Sun

    2016-01-01

    A patient’s position changes in every CBCT scan despite patient alignment protocols. However, there have been studies to determine image quality differences when an object is located at the center of the field of view (FOV). To evaluate changes in the image quality of the CBCT scan according to different object positions, the image quality indexes of the Alphard 3030 (Alphard Roentgen Ind., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) and the Rayscan Symphony (RAY Ind., Ltd., Suwon, Korea) were measured using the Quart DVT_AP phantom at the center of the FOV and 6 peripheral positions under four types of exposure conditions. Anterior, posterior, right, left, upper, and lower positions 1 cm offset from the center of the FOV were used for the peripheral positions. We evaluated and compared the voxel size, homogeneity, contrast to noise ratio (CNR), and the 10% point of the modulation transfer function (MTF10%) of the center and periphery. Because the voxel size, which is determined by the Nyquist frequency, was within tolerance, other image quality indexes were not influenced by the voxel size. For the CNR, homogeneity, and MTF10%, there were peripheral positions which showed considerable differences with statistical significance. The average difference between the center and periphery was up to 31.27% (CNR), 70.49% (homogeneity), and 13.64% (MTF10%). Homogeneity was under tolerance at some of the peripheral locations. Because the CNR, homogeneity, and MTF10% were significantly affected by positional changes of the phantom, an object’s position can influence the interpretation of follow up CBCT images. Therefore, efforts to locate the object in the same position are important. PMID:27093639

  19. Scatter correction for kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarry, G.; Graham, S. A.; Jaffray, D. A.; Moseley, D. J.; Verhaegen, F.

    2006-03-01

    In this work Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are used to correct kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) projections for scatter radiation. All images were acquired using a kV CBCT bench-top system composed of an x-ray tube, a rotation stage and a flat-panel imager. The EGSnrc MC code was used to model the system. BEAMnrc was used to model the x-ray tube while a modified version of the DOSXYZnrc program was used to transport the particles through various phantoms and score phase space files with identified scattered and primary particles. An analytical program was used to read the phase space files and produce image files. The scatter correction was implemented by subtracting Monte Carlo predicted scatter distribution from measured projection images; these projection images were then reconstructed. Corrected reconstructions showed an important improvement in image quality. Several approaches to reduce the simulation time were tested. To reduce the number of simulated scatter projections, the effect of varying the projection angle on the scatter distribution was evaluated for different geometries. It was found that the scatter distribution does not vary significantly over a 30-degree interval for the geometries tested. It was also established that increasing the size of the voxels in the voxelized phantom does not affect the scatter distribution but reduces the simulation time. Different techniques to smooth the scatter distribution were also investigated.

  20. An Inter-Projection Interpolation (IPI) Approach with Geometric Model Restriction to Reduce Image Dose in Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Kong, Fengchong; Ren, Lei; Jin, Jian-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is a key step in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to improve tumor targeting. The quality and imaging dose of CBCT are two important factors. However, X-ray scatter in the large cone beam field usually induces image artifacts and degrades the image quality for CBCT. A synchronized moving grid (SMOG) approach has recently been proposed to resolve this issue and shows great promise. However, the SMOG technique requires two projections in the same gantry angle to obtain full information due to signal blockage by the grid. This study aims to develop an inter-projection interpolation (IPI) method to estimate the blocked image information. This approach will require only one projection in each gantry angle, thus reducing the scan time and patient dose. IPI is also potentially suitable for sparse-view CBCT reconstruction to reduce the imaging dose. To be compared with other state-of-the-art spatial interpolation (called inpainting) methods in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on a Catphan and head phantoms, IPI increases SNR from 15.3dB and 12.7dB to 29.0dB and 28.1dB, respectively. The SNR of IPI on sparse-view CBCT reconstruction can achieve from 28dB to 17dB for undersample projection sets with gantry angle interval varying from 1 to 3 degrees for both phantoms. PMID:26005721

  1. Evaluation of a 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction approach using a simulation framework.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Alexander; Yaniv, Ziv

    2009-01-01

    Current image-guided navigation systems for thoracic abdominal interventions utilize three dimensional (3D) images acquired at breath-hold. As a result they can only provide guidance at a specific point in the respiratory cycle. The intervention is thus performed in a gated manner, with the physician advancing only when the patient is at the same respiratory cycle in which the 3D image was acquired. To enable a more continuous workflow we propose to use 4D image data. We describe an approach to constructing a set of 4D images from a diagnostic CT acquired at breath-hold and a set of intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection images acquired while the patient is freely breathing. Our approach is based on an initial reconstruction of a gated 4D CBCT data set. The 3D CBCT images for each respiratory phase are then non-rigidly registered to the diagnostic CT data. Finally the diagnostic CT is deformed based on the registration results, providing a 4D data set with sufficient quality for navigation purposes. In this work we evaluate the proposed reconstruction approach using a simulation framework. A 3D CBCT dataset of an anthropomorphic phantom is deformed using internal motion data acquired from an animal model to create a ground truth 4D CBCT image. Simulated projection images are then created from the 4D image and the known CBCT scan parameters. Finally, the original 3D CBCT and the simulated X-ray images are used as input to our reconstruction method. The resulting 4D data set is then compared to the known ground truth by normalized cross correlation(NCC). We show that the deformed diagnostic CTs are of better quality than the gated reconstructions with a mean NCC value of 0.94 versus a mean 0.81 for the reconstructions. PMID:19964143

  2. SU-D-207-04: GPU-Based 4D Cone-Beam CT Reconstruction Using Adaptive Meshing Method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z; Gu, X; Iyengar, P; Mao, W; Wang, J; Guo, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Due to the limited number of projections at each phase, the image quality of a four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) is often degraded, which decreases the accuracy of subsequent motion modeling. One of the promising methods is the simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) approach. The objective of this work is to enhance the computational speed of the SMEIR algorithm using adaptive feature-based tetrahedral meshing and GPU-based parallelization. Methods: The first step is to generate the tetrahedral mesh based on the features of a reference phase 4D-CBCT, so that the deformation can be well captured and accurately diffused from the mesh vertices to voxels of the image volume. After the mesh generation, the updated motion model and other phases of 4D-CBCT can be obtained by matching the 4D-CBCT projection images at each phase with the corresponding forward projections of the deformed reference phase of 4D-CBCT. The entire process of this 4D-CBCT reconstruction method is implemented on GPU, resulting in significantly increasing the computational efficiency due to its tremendous parallel computing ability. Results: A 4D XCAT digital phantom was used to test the proposed mesh-based image reconstruction algorithm. The image Result shows both bone structures and inside of the lung are well-preserved and the tumor position can be well captured. Compared to the previous voxel-based CPU implementation of SMEIR, the proposed method is about 157 times faster for reconstructing a 10 -phase 4D-CBCT with dimension 256×256×150. Conclusion: The GPU-based parallel 4D CBCT reconstruction method uses the feature-based mesh for estimating motion model and demonstrates equivalent image Result with previous voxel-based SMEIR approach, with significantly improved computational speed.

  3. Creation of 4D imaging data using open source image registration software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kenneth H.; Ibanez, Luis; Popa, Teo; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-03-01

    4D images (3 spatial dimensions plus time) using CT or MRI will play a key role in radiation medicine as techniques for respiratory motion compensation become more widely available. Advance knowledge of the motion of a tumor and its surrounding anatomy will allow the creation of highly conformal dose distributions in organs such as the lung, liver, and pancreas. However, many of the current investigations into 4D imaging rely on synchronizing the image acquisition with an external respiratory signal such as skin motion, tidal flow, or lung volume, which typically requires specialized hardware and modifications to the scanner. We propose a novel method for 4D image acquisition that does not require any specific gating equipment and is based solely on open source image registration algorithms. Specifically, we use the Insight Toolkit (ITK) to compute the normalized mutual information (NMI) between images taken at different times and use that value as an index of respiratory phase. This method has the advantages of (1) being able to be implemented without any hardware modification to the scanner, and (2) basing the respiratory phase on changes in internal anatomy rather than external signal. We have demonstrated the capabilities of this method with CT fluoroscopy data acquired from a swine model.

  4. Evaluation of the accuracy of Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT): medical imaging technology in head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the introduction, development and commercialization of Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) technologies in the field of head and neck reconstruction, clinicians now have increased access to the technology. Given the growth of this new user group, there is an increasing concern regarding proper use, understanding, quality and patient safety. Methods The present study was carried out to evaluate data acquisition of CBCT medical imaging technology and the accuracy of the scanning at three different machine warming times. The study also compared the accuracy of CBCT at 0.2 mm slice thickness and Computerized Tomography (CT) at 1 mm slice thickness. A control model was CT scanned at five random intervals, at 1 mm slice thickness and CBCT scanned at specialized intervals, at 0.2 mm slice thickness. The data was then converted and imported into a software program where a digital registration procedure was used to compare the average deviations of the scanned models to the control. Results The study found that there was no statistically significant difference amongst the three CBCT machine warming times. There was a statistically significant difference between CT scanning with 1 mm slice thickness and CBCT scanning with 0.2 mm slice thickness. Conclusions The accuracy of the i-CAT CBCT scans used in the present study with a parameter at voxel size 0.2, will remain consistent and reliable at any warming stage. Also the difference between the CBCT i-CAT scans and the CT scans was not clinically significant based on suggested requirements of clinicians in head and neck reconstruction. PMID:23672880

  5. Imaging characteristics of distance-driven method in a prototype cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sunghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Lee, Haenghwa; Lee, Donghoon; Seo, Chang-Woo; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has widely been used and studied in both medical imaging and radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate our newly developed CBCT system by implementing a distance-driven system modeling technique in order to produce excellent and accurate cross-sectional images. For the purpose of comparing the performance of the distance-driven methods, we also performed pixel-driven and ray-driven techniques when conducting forward- and back-projection schemes. We conducted the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) to retrieve a volumetric information of scanned chest phantom. The results indicated that contrast-to-noise (CNR) of the reconstructed images by using FDK and SART showed 8.02 and 15.78 for distance-driven, whereas 4.02 and 5.16 for pixel-driven scheme and 7.81 and 13.01 for ray-driven scheme, respectively. This could demonstrate that distance-driven method described more closely the chest phantom compared to pixel- and ray-driven. However, both elapsed time for modeling a system matrix and reconstruction time took longer time when performing the distance-driven scheme. Therefore, future works will be directed toward reducing computational time to acceptable limits for real applications.

  6. The impact of CBCT imaging when placing dental implants in the anterior edentulous mandible: a before–after study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, A; Brunton, P; Goodwin, M; Horner, K

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of CBCT imaging when placing dental implants in the anterior edentulous mandible, using a “before–after” study design. Methods: Eight dental practitioners, who regularly place dental implants in independent dental practice in the North West of England, were presented with realistic simulations of four edentulous cases. The practitioners were asked to assess case difficulty, select implants and then drill osteotomies in preparation for dental implants in the lower canine regions to support a complete overdenture. In the “before” part of the study, a panoramic and a trans-symphyseal view were available. In the “after” part of the study, a CBCT image was added. Perception of case difficulty, implant selection and the incidence of perforations or “near miss perforations” of the lingual cortical plate were recorded. Two cases were regarded as “regular” and two as “challenging”. Results: In challenging cases, the availability of CBCT led practitioners to select narrower implants and to assess cases as more difficult. In the challenging cases only, there were fewer perforations of the lingual cortical plate after the availability of CBCT, but this difference was not statistically significant. There were no perforations in the regular cases either before or after the availability of CBCT. Conclusions: Perception of case difficulty and implant selection are of importance only if they change the outcome for the patient. This study provided weak evidence that CBCT is helpful in avoiding perforations in challenging cases. The availability of CBCT had no impact in regular cases. PMID:25472617

  7. Characterization of scattered radiation in kV CBCT images using Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Genevieve; Graham, Sean A.; Moseley, Douglas J.; Jaffray, David J.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2006-11-15

    Kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images suffer from a substantial scatter contribution. In this study, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are used to evaluate the scattered radiation present in projection images. These predicted scatter distributions are also used as a scatter correction technique. Images were acquired using a kV CBCT bench top system. The EGSnrc MC code was used to model the flat panel imager, the phantoms, and the x-ray source. The x-ray source model was validated using first and second half-value layers (HVL) and profile measurements. The HVLs and the profile were found to agree within 3% and 6%, respectively. MC simulated and measured projection images for a cylindrical water phantom and for an anthropomorphic head phantom agreed within 8% and 10%. A modified version of the DOSXYZnrc MC code was used to score phase space files with identified scattered and primary particles behind the phantoms. The cone angle, the source-to-detector distance, the phantom geometry, and the energy were varied to determine their effect on the scattered radiation distribution. A scatter correction technique was developed in which the MC predicted scatter distribution is subtracted from the projections prior to reconstruction. Preliminary testing of the procedure was done with an anthropomorphic head phantom and a contrast phantom. Contrast and profile measurements were obtained for the scatter corrected and noncorrected images. An improvement of 3% for contrast between solid water and a liver insert and 11% between solid water and a Teflon insert were obtained and a significant reduction in cupping and streaking artifacts was observed.

  8. Adaptive 4D MR Imaging Using Navigator-Based Respiratory Signal for MRI-Guided Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Junichi; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Haque, Hasnine A.; Tsukamoto, Tetsuji; Matsumiya, Kiyoshi; Liao, Hongen; Masamune, Ken; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2010-01-01

    For real-time 3D visualization of respiratory organ motion for MRI-guided therapy, a new adaptive 4D MR imaging method based on navigator echo and multiple gating windows was developed. This method was designed to acquire a time series of volumetric 3D images of a cyclically moving organ, enabling therapy to be guided by synchronizing the 4D image with the actual organ motion in real time. The proposed method was implemented in an open-configuration 0.5T clinical MR scanner. To evaluate the feasibility and determine optimal imaging conditions, studies were conducted with a phantom, volunteers, and a patient. In the phantom study the root mean square (RMS) position error in the 4D image of the cyclically moving phantom was 1.9 mm and the imaging time was ≈10 min when the 4D image had six frames. In the patient study, 4D images were successfully acquired under clinical conditions and a liver tumor was discriminated in the series of frames. The image quality was affected by the relations among the encoding direction, the slice orientation, and the direction of motion of the target organ. In conclusion, this study has shown that the proposed method is feasible and capable of providing a real-time dynamic 3D atlas for surgical navigation with sufficient accuracy and image quality. PMID:18429011

  9. SU-E-I-72: First Experimental Study of On-Board CBCT Imaging Using 2.5MV Beam On a Radiotherapy Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q; Li, R; Yang, Y; Xing, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Varian TrueBeam version 2.0 comes with a new inline 2.5MV beam modality for image guided patient setup. In this work we develop an iterative volumetric image reconstruction technique specific to the beam and investigate the possibility of obtaining metal artifact free CBCT images using the new imaging modality. Methods: An iterative reconstruction algorithm with a sparse representation constraint based on dictionary learning is developed, in which both sparse projection and low dose rate (10 MU/min) are considered. Two CBCT experiments were conducted using the newly available 2.5MV beam on a Varian TrueBeam linac. First, a Rando anthropomorphic head phantom with and without a copper bar inserted in the center was scanned using both 2.5MV and kV (100kVp) beams. In a second experiment, an MRI phantom with many coils was scanned using 2.5MV, 6MV, and kV (100kVp) beams. Imaging dose and the resultant image quality is studied. Results: Qualitative assessment suggests that there were no visually detectable metal artifacts in MV CBCT images, compared with significant metal artifacts in kV CBCT images, especially in the MRI phantom. For a region near the metal object in the head phantom, the 2.5MV CBCT gave a more accurate quantification of the electron density compared with kV CBCT, with a ∼50% reduction in mean HU error. As expected, the contrast between bone and soft-tissue in 2.5MV CBCT decreased compared with kV CBCT. Conclusion: On-board CBCT imaging with the new 2.5MV beam can effectively reduce metal artifacts, although with a reduced softtissue contrast. Combination of kV and MV scanning may lead to metal artifact free CBCT images with uncompromised soft-tissue contrast.

  10. MR image-based synthetic CT for IMRT prostate treatment planning and CBCT image-guided localization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shupeng; Quan, Hong; Qin, An; Yee, Seonghwan; Yan, Di

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and evaluate a method of creating a synthetic CT (S-CT) from MRI simulation for dose calculation and daily CBCT localization. A pair of MR and CT images was obtained in the same day from each of 10 prostate patients. The pair of MR and CT images was preregistered using the deformable image registration (DIR). Using the corresponding displacement vector field (atlas-DVF), the CT image was deformed to the MR image to create an atlas MR-CT pair. Regions of interest (ROI) on the atlas MR-CT pair were delineated and used to create atlas-ROI masks. 'Leave-one-out' test (one pair of MR and CT was used as subject-MR and subject-CT for evaluation, and the remaining 9 pairs were in the atlas library) was performed. For a subject-MR, autosegmentation and DVFs were generated using DIR between the subject-MR and the 9 atlas-MRs. An S-CT was then generated using the corresponding 9 paired atlas-CTs, the 9 atlas-DVFs and the corresponding atlas-ROI masks. The total 10 S-CTs were evaluated using the Hounsfield unit (HU), the calculated dose distribution, and the auto bony registration to daily CBCT images with respect to the 10 subject-CTs. HU differences (mean ± STD) were (2.4 ± 25.23), (1.18 ± 39.49), (32.46 ± 81.9), (0.23 ± 40.13), and (3.74 ± 144.76) for prostate, bladder, rectal wall, soft tissue outside all ROIs, and bone, respectively. The discrepancy of dose-volume param-eters calculated using the S-CT for treatment planning was small (≤ 0.22% with 95% confidence). Gamma pass rate (2% & 2 mm) was higher than 99.86% inside PTV and 98.45% inside normal structures. Using the 10 S-CTs as the reference CT for daily CBCT localization achieved the similar results compared to using the subject-CT. The translational vector differences were within 1.08 mm (0.37 ± 0.23 mm), and the rotational differences were within 1.1° in all three directions. S-CT created from a simulation MR image using the proposed approach with the

  11. Small animal imaging using a flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPD-CBCT) imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, David L.; Ning, Ruola; Yu, Yong; Lu, Xianghua; Wood, Ronald W.; Reeder, Jay E.; Johnson, Aimee M.

    2005-04-01

    Flat panel detector-based cone beam CT (FPD-CBCT) imaging system prototypes have been constructed based on modified clinical CT scanners (a modified GE 8800 CT system and a modified GE HighSpeed Advantage (HSA) spiral CT system) each with a Varian PaxScan 2520 imager. The functions of the electromechanical and radiographic subsystems of the CT system were controlled through specially made hardware, software and data acquisition modules to perform animal cone beam CT studies. Small animal (mouse) imaging studies were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of an optimized CBCT imaging system to have the capability to perform longitudinal studies to monitor the progression of cancerous tumors or the efficacy of treatments. Radiographic parameters were optimized for fast (~10 second) scans of live mice to produce good reconstructed image quality with dose levels low enough to avoid any detectable radiation treatment to the animals. Specifically, organs in the pelvic region were clearly imaged and contrast studies showed the feasibility to visualize small vasculature and space-filling bladder tumors. In addition, prostate and mammary tumors were monitored in volume growth studies.

  12. SU-E-J-151: Dosimetric Evaluation of DIR Mapped Contours for Image Guided Adaptive Radiotherapy with 4D Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Balik, S; Weiss, E; Williamson, J; Hugo, G; Jan, N; Zhang, L; Roman, N; Christensen, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate dosimetric errors resulting from using contours deformably mapped from planning CT to 4D cone beam CT (CBCT) images for image-guided adaptive radiotherapy of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Ten locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients underwent one planning 4D fan-beam CT (4DFBCT) and weekly 4DCBCT scans. Multiple physicians delineated the gross tumor volume (GTV) and normal structures in planning CT images and only GTV in CBCT images. Manual contours were mapped from planning CT to CBCTs using small deformation, inverse consistent linear elastic (SICLE) algorithm for two scans in each patient. Two physicians reviewed and rated the DIR-mapped (auto) and manual GTV contours as clinically acceptable (CA), clinically acceptable after minor modification (CAMM) and unacceptable (CU). Mapped normal structures were visually inspected and corrected if necessary, and used to override tissue density for dose calculation. CTV (6mm expansion of GTV) and PTV (5mm expansion of CTV) were created. VMAT plans were generated using the DIR-mapped contours to deliver 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 95% and 100% coverage (V66) to PTV and CTV, respectively. Plan evaluation for V66 was based on manual PTV and CTV contours. Results: Mean PTV V66 was 84% (range 75% – 95%) and mean CTV V66 was 97% (range 93% – 100%) for CAMM scored plans (12 plans); and was 90% (range 80% – 95%) and 99% (range 95% – 100%) for CA scored plans (7 plans). The difference in V66 between CAMM and CA was significant for PTV (p = 0.03) and approached significance for CTV (p = 0.07). Conclusion: The quality of DIR-mapped contours directly impacted the plan quality for 4DCBCT-based adaptation. Larger safety margins may be needed when planning with auto contours for IGART with 4DCBCT images. Reseach was supported by NIH P01CA116602.

  13. Using the ACR CT accreditation phantom for routine image quality assurance on both CT and CBCT imaging systems in a radiotherapy environment.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Maritza A; Soisson, Emilie T; Davis, Stephen D; Parker, William

    2014-01-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming routine practice in modern radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to develop an imaging QA program for CT and CBCT units in our department, based on the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation phantom. The phantom has four testing modules, permitting one to test CT number accuracy, slice width, low contrast resolution, image uniformity, in-plane distance accuracy, and high-contrast resolution reproducibly with suggested window/levels for image analysis. Additional tests for contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and noise were added using the polyethylene and acrylic plugs. Baseline values were obtained from CT simulator images acquired on a Phillips Brilliance Big Bore CT simulator and CBCT images acquired on three Varian CBCTs for the imaging protocols most used clinically. Images were then acquired quarterly over a period of two years. Images were exported via DICOM and analyzed manually using OsiriX. Baseline values were used to ensure that image quality remained consistent quarterly, and baselines were reset at any major maintenance or recalibration. Analysis of CT simulator images showed that image quality was within ACR guidelines for all tested scanning protocols. All three CBCT systems were unable to distinguish the low-contrast resolution plugs and had the same high-contrast resolution over all imaging protocols. Analysis of CBCT results over time determined a range of values that could be used to establish quantitative tolerance levels for image quality deterioration. While appropriate for the helical CT, the ACR phantom and guidelines could be modified to be more useful in evaluating CBCT systems. In addition, the observed values for the CT simulator were well within ACR tolerances. PMID:25207412

  14. Respiratory motion correction in 4D-PET by simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Faraz; Li, Tianfang; Jin, Mingwu; Wang, Jing

    2016-08-01

    In conventional 4D positron emission tomography (4D-PET), images from different frames are reconstructed individually and aligned by registration methods. Two issues that arise with this approach are as follows: (1) the reconstruction algorithms do not make full use of projection statistics; and (2) the registration between noisy images can result in poor alignment. In this study, we investigated the use of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) methods for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. A modified ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm coupled with total variation minimization (OSEM-TV) was used to obtain a primary motion-compensated PET (pmc-PET) from all projection data, using Demons derived deformation vector fields (DVFs) as initial motion vectors. A motion model update was performed to obtain an optimal set of DVFs in the pmc-PET and other phases, by matching the forward projection of the deformed pmc-PET with measured projections from other phases. The OSEM-TV image reconstruction was repeated using updated DVFs, and new DVFs were estimated based on updated images. A 4D-XCAT phantom with typical FDG biodistribution was generated to evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm in lung and liver tumors with different contrasts and different diameters (10–40 mm). The image quality of the 4D-PET was greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm. When all projections were used to reconstruct 3D-PET without motion compensation, motion blurring artifacts were present, leading up to 150% tumor size overestimation and significant quantitative errors, including 50% underestimation of tumor contrast and 59% underestimation of tumor uptake. Errors were reduced to less than 10% in most images by using the SMEIR algorithm, showing its potential in motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET.

  15. Respiratory motion correction in 4D-PET by simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR).

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Faraz; Li, Tianfang; Jin, Mingwu; Wang, Jing

    2016-08-01

    In conventional 4D positron emission tomography (4D-PET), images from different frames are reconstructed individually and aligned by registration methods. Two issues that arise with this approach are as follows: (1) the reconstruction algorithms do not make full use of projection statistics; and (2) the registration between noisy images can result in poor alignment. In this study, we investigated the use of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) methods for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. A modified ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm coupled with total variation minimization (OSEM-TV) was used to obtain a primary motion-compensated PET (pmc-PET) from all projection data, using Demons derived deformation vector fields (DVFs) as initial motion vectors. A motion model update was performed to obtain an optimal set of DVFs in the pmc-PET and other phases, by matching the forward projection of the deformed pmc-PET with measured projections from other phases. The OSEM-TV image reconstruction was repeated using updated DVFs, and new DVFs were estimated based on updated images. A 4D-XCAT phantom with typical FDG biodistribution was generated to evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm in lung and liver tumors with different contrasts and different diameters (10-40 mm). The image quality of the 4D-PET was greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm. When all projections were used to reconstruct 3D-PET without motion compensation, motion blurring artifacts were present, leading up to 150% tumor size overestimation and significant quantitative errors, including 50% underestimation of tumor contrast and 59% underestimation of tumor uptake. Errors were reduced to less than 10% in most images by using the SMEIR algorithm, showing its potential in motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. PMID:27385378

  16. Detection of tooth fractures in CBCT images using attention index estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Andre; Falcão, Alexandre; Ray, Lawrence

    2014-03-01

    The attention index (𝜑) is a number from zero to one that indicates a possible fracture is detected inside a selected tooth. The higher the 𝜑 number, the greater the likelihood for needed attention in the visual examination. The method developed for the 𝜑 estimation extracts a connected component with image properties that are similar to those of a typical tooth fracture. That is, in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, a fracture appears as a dark canyon inside the tooth. In order to start the visual examination process, the method provides a plane across the geometric center of the suspicious fracture component, which maximizes the number of pixels from that component inside the plane. During visual examination, the user (doctor) can change plane orientations and locations, by manipulating the mouse toward different graphical elements that represent the plane on a 3-D rendition of the tooth, while the corresponding image of the plane is shown at its side. The visual examination aims at confirming or disproving the fracture-detection event. We have designed and implemented these algorithms using the image-foresting transform methodology.

  17. Feature Guided Motion Artifact Reduction with Structure-Awareness in 4D CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dongfeng; Bayouth, John; Song, Qi; Bhatia, Sudershan; Sonka, Milan; Wu, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method to reduce the magnitude of 4D CT artifacts by stitching two images with a data-driven regularization constrain, which helps preserve the local anatomy structures. Our method first computes an interface seam for the stitching in the overlapping region of the first image, which passes through the “smoothest” region, to reduce the structure complexity along the stitching interface. Then, we compute the displacements of the seam by matching the corresponding interface seam in the second image. We use sparse 3D features as the structure cues to guide the seam matching, in which a regularization term is incorporated to keep the structure consistency. The energy function is minimized by solving a multiple-label problem in Markov Random Fields with an anatomical structure preserving regularization term. The displacements are propagated to the rest of second image and the two image are stitched along the interface seams based on the computed displacement field. The method was tested on both simulated data and clinical 4D CT images. The experiments on simulated data demonstrated that the proposed method was able to reduce the landmark distance error on average from 2.9 mm to 1.3 mm, outperforming the registration-based method by about 55%. For clinical 4D CT image data, the image quality was evaluated by three medical experts, and all identified much fewer artifacts from the resulting images by our method than from those by the compared method. PMID:22058647

  18. Graph-based retrospective 4D image construction from free-breathing MRI slice acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Ciesielski, Krzysztof C.; McDonough, Joseph M.; Mong, Andrew; Campbell, Robert M.

    2014-03-01

    4D or dynamic imaging of the thorax has many potential applications [1, 2]. CT and MRI offer sufficient speed to acquire motion information via 4D imaging. However they have different constraints and requirements. For both modalities both prospective and retrospective respiratory gating and tracking techniques have been developed [3, 4]. For pediatric imaging, x-ray radiation becomes a primary concern and MRI remains as the de facto choice. The pediatric subjects we deal with often suffer from extreme malformations of their chest wall, diaphragm, and/or spine, as such patient cooperation needed by some of the gating and tracking techniques are difficult to realize without causing patient discomfort. Moreover, we are interested in the mechanical function of their thorax in its natural form in tidal breathing. Therefore free-breathing MRI acquisition is the ideal modality of imaging for these patients. In our set up, for each coronal (or sagittal) slice position, slice images are acquired at a rate of about 200-300 ms/slice over several natural breathing cycles. This produces typically several thousands of slices which contain both the anatomic and dynamic information. However, it is not trivial to form a consistent and well defined 4D volume from these data. In this paper, we present a novel graph-based combinatorial optimization solution for constructing the best possible 4D scene from such data entirely in the digital domain. Our proposed method is purely image-based and does not need breath holding or any external surrogates or instruments to record respiratory motion or tidal volume. Both adult and children patients' data are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the reconstructed 4D scenes are smooth and consistent spatially and temporally, agreeing with known shape and motion of the lungs.

  19. SU-E-I-40: Phantom Research On Monochromatic Images Taken by Dual CBCT with Multiple Energy Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, R; Wang, H; Zhang, Y; Mao, R; Ren, L; Yin, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the quality of monochromatic images at the same virtual monochromatic energy using dual cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with either kV/kV or MV/kV or MV/MV energy sets. Methods: CT images of Catphan 504 phantom were acquired using four different KV and MV settings: 80kV, 140kV, 4MV, 6MV. Three sets of monochromatic images were calculated: 80kV-140kV, 140kV-4MV and 4MV-6MV. Each set of CBCT images were reconstructed from the same selected virtual monochromatic energy of 1MeV. Contrast-to-Noise Ratios (CNRs) were calculated and compared between each pair of images with different energy sets. Results: Between kV/MV and MV/MV images, the CNRs are comparable for all inserts. However, differences of CNRs were observed between the kV/kV and kV/MV images. Delrin’s CNR ratio between kV/kV image and kV/MV image is 1.634. LDPE’s (Low-Density Polyethylene) CNR ratio between kV/kV and kV/MV images is 0.509. Polystyrene’s CNR ratio between kV/kV image and kV/MV image is 2.219. Conclusion: Preliminary results indicated that the CNRs calculated from CBCT images reconstructed from either kV/MV projections or MV/MV projections for the same selected virtual monochromatic energy may be comparable.

  20. 4D rotational x-ray imaging of wrist joint dynamic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Carelsen, Bart; Bakker, Niels H.; Strackee, Simon D.; Boon, Sjirk N.; Maas, Mario; Sabczynski, Joerg; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.; Streekstra, Geert J.

    2005-09-15

    Current methods for imaging joint motion are limited to either two-dimensional (2D) video fluoroscopy, or to animated motions from a series of static three-dimensional (3D) images. 3D movement patterns can be detected from biplane fluoroscopy images matched with computed tomography images. This involves several x-ray modalities and sophisticated 2D to 3D matching for the complex wrist joint. We present a method for the acquisition of dynamic 3D images of a moving joint. In our method a 3D-rotational x-ray (3D-RX) system is used to image a cyclically moving joint. The cyclic motion is synchronized to the x-ray acquisition to yield multiple sets of projection images, which are reconstructed to a series of time resolved 3D images, i.e., four-dimensional rotational x ray (4D-RX). To investigate the obtained image quality parameters the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function (PSF) via the edge spread function and the contrast to noise ratio between air and phantom were determined on reconstructions of a bullet and rod phantom, using 4D-RX as well as stationary 3D-RX images. The CNR in volume reconstructions based on 251 projection images in the static situation and on 41 and 34 projection images of a moving phantom were 6.9, 3.0, and 2.9, respectively. The average FWHM of the PSF of these same images was, respectively, 1.1, 1.7, and 2.2 mm orthogonal to the motion and parallel to direction of motion 0.6, 0.7, and 1.0 mm. The main deterioration of 4D-RX images compared to 3D-RX images is due to the low number of projection images used and not to the motion of the object. Using 41 projection images seems the best setting for the current system. Experiments on a postmortem wrist show the feasibility of the method for imaging 3D dynamic joint motion. We expect that 4D-RX will pave the way to improved assessment of joint disorders by detection of 3D dynamic motion patterns in joints.

  1. A hybrid reconstruction algorithm for fast and accurate 4D cone-beam CT imaginga)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hao; Zhen, Xin; Folkerts, Michael; Li, Yongbao; Pan, Tinsu; Cervino, Laura; Jiang, Steve B.; Jia, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: 4D cone beam CT (4D-CBCT) has been utilized in radiation therapy to provide 4D image guidance in lung and upper abdomen area. However, clinical application of 4D-CBCT is currently limited due to the long scan time and low image quality. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new 4D-CBCT reconstruction method that restores volumetric images based on the 1-min scan data acquired with a standard 3D-CBCT protocol. Methods: The model optimizes a deformation vector field that deforms a patient-specific planning CT (p-CT), so that the calculated 4D-CBCT projections match measurements. A forward-backward splitting (FBS) method is invented to solve the optimization problem. It splits the original problem into two well-studied subproblems, i.e., image reconstruction and deformable image registration. By iteratively solving the two subproblems, FBS gradually yields correct deformation information, while maintaining high image quality. The whole workflow is implemented on a graphic-processing-unit to improve efficiency. Comprehensive evaluations have been conducted on a moving phantom and three real patient cases regarding the accuracy and quality of the reconstructed images, as well as the algorithm robustness and efficiency. Results: The proposed algorithm reconstructs 4D-CBCT images from highly under-sampled projection data acquired with 1-min scans. Regarding the anatomical structure location accuracy, 0.204 mm average differences and 0.484 mm maximum difference are found for the phantom case, and the maximum differences of 0.3–0.5 mm for patients 1–3 are observed. As for the image quality, intensity errors below 5 and 20 HU compared to the planning CT are achieved for the phantom and the patient cases, respectively. Signal-noise-ratio values are improved by 12.74 and 5.12 times compared to results from FDK algorithm using the 1-min data and 4-min data, respectively. The computation time of the algorithm on a NVIDIA GTX590 card is 1–1.5 min per phase

  2. Compressed-sensing (CS)-based 3D image reconstruction in cone-beam CT (CBCT) for low-dose, high-quality dental X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. S.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, H. S.; Hong, D. K.; Je, U. K.; Oh, J. E.; Park, Y. O.; Lee, S. H.; Cho, H. M.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S.

    2013-09-01

    The most popular reconstruction algorithm for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is based on the computationally-inexpensive filtered-backprojection (FBP) method. However, that method usually requires dense projections over the Nyquist samplings, which imposes severe restrictions on the imaging doses. Moreover, the algorithm tends to produce cone-beam artifacts as the cone angle is increased. Several variants of the FBP-based algorithm have been developed to overcome these difficulties, but problems with the cone-beam reconstruction still remain. In this study, we considered a compressed-sensing (CS)-based reconstruction algorithm for low-dose, high-quality dental CBCT images that exploited the sparsity of images with substantially high accuracy. We implemented the algorithm and performed systematic simulation works to investigate the imaging characteristics. CBCT images of high quality were successfully reconstructed by using the built-in CS-based algorithm, and the image qualities were evaluated quantitatively in terms of the universal-quality index (UQI) and the slice-profile quality index (SPQI).We expect the reconstruction algorithm developed in the work to be applicable to current dental CBCT systems, to reduce imaging doses, and to improve the image quality further.

  3. Image-guided radiotherapy of the prostate using daily CBCT: the feasibility and likely benefit of implementing a margin reduction

    PubMed Central

    Benson, R J; Fairfoul, J; Cook, J; Huddart, R; Poynter, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether planning target volume (PTV) margins may be safely reduced in radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer incorporating daily online tube potential-cone beam CT (CBCT) image guidance and the anticipated benefit in predicted rectal toxicity. Methods: The prostate-only clinical target volume (CTV2) and rectum were delineated on 1 pre-treatment CBCT each week in 18 randomly selected patients. By transposing these contours onto the original plan, dose–volume histograms (DVHs) for CTV2 and the rectum were each calculated and combined, for each patient, to produce a single mean DVH representative of the dose delivered over the treatment course. Plans were reoptimized using reduced CTV2 to PTV2 margins and the consequent radiobiological impact modelled by the tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the rectum. Results: All CBCT images were deemed of sufficient quality to identify the CTV and rectum. No loss of TCP was observed when plans using the standard 5-mm CTV2 to PTV2 margin of the centre were reoptimized with a 4- or 3-mm margin. Margin reduction was associated with a significant decrease in rectal NTCP (5–4 mm; p < 0.05 and 5–3 mm; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Using daily online image guidance with CBCT, a reduction in CTV2 to PTV2 margins to 3 mm is achievable without compromising tumour control. The consequent sparing of surrounding normal tissues is associated with reduced anticipated rectal toxicity. Advances in knowledge: Margin reduction is feasible and potentially beneficial. Centres with image-guided radiotherapy capability should consider assessing whether margin reduction is possible within their institutes. PMID:25354015

  4. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E.; Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D.; Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve

  5. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    PubMed Central

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Williams, Cameron H.; Feng, Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.; Frush, D.; Samei, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest–abdomen–pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore

  6. Investigating CT to CBCT image registration for head and neck proton therapy as a tool for daily dose recalculation

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Guillaume; Nijhuis, Reinoud; Thieke, Christian; Reiner, Michael; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Dedes, George; Handrack, Josefine; Parodi, Katia; Janssens, Guillaume; Orban de Xivry, Jonathan; Kamp, Florian; Wilkens, Jan J.; Paganelli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) of head and neck (H and N) cancer patients may be improved by plan adaptation. The decision to adapt the treatment plan based on a dose recalculation on the current anatomy requires a diagnostic quality computed tomography (CT) scan of the patient. As gantry-mounted cone beam CT (CBCT) scanners are currently being offered by vendors, they may offer daily or weekly updates of patient anatomy. CBCT image quality may not be sufficient for accurate proton dose calculation and it is likely necessary to perform CBCT CT number correction. In this work, the authors investigated deformable image registration (DIR) of the planning CT (pCT) to the CBCT to generate a virtual CT (vCT) to be used for proton dose recalculation. Methods: Datasets of six H and N cancer patients undergoing photon intensity modulated radiation therapy were used in this study to validate the vCT approach. Each dataset contained a CBCT acquired within 3 days of a replanning CT (rpCT), in addition to a pCT. The pCT and rpCT were delineated by a physician. A Morphons algorithm was employed in this work to perform DIR of the pCT to CBCT following a rigid registration of the two images. The contours from the pCT were deformed using the vector field resulting from DIR to yield a contoured vCT. The DIR accuracy was evaluated with a scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm comparing automatically identified matching features between vCT and CBCT. The rpCT was used as reference for evaluation of the vCT. The vCT and rpCT CT numbers were converted to stopping power ratio and the water equivalent thickness (WET) was calculated. IMPT dose distributions from treatment plans optimized on the pCT were recalculated with a Monte Carlo algorithm on the rpCT and vCT for comparison in terms of gamma index, dose volume histogram (DVH) statistics as well as proton range. The DIR generated contours on the vCT were compared to physician-drawn contours on the rp

  7. SU-E-J-76: CBCT Reconstruction of a Full Couch Using Rigid Registration and Pre-Scanned Couch Image and Its Clinical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, E; Lasio, G; Lee, M; Chen, S; Yi, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Only a part of a treatment couch is reconstructed in CBCT due to the limited field of view (FOV). This often generates inaccurate results in the delivered dose evaluation with CBCT and more noise in the CBCT reconstruction. Full reconstruction of the couch at treatment setup can be used for more accurate exit beam dosimetry. The goal of this study is to develop a method to reconstruct a full treatment couch using a pre-scanned couch image and rigid registration. Methods: A full couch (Exact Couch, Varian) model image was reconstructed by rigidly registering and combining two sets of partial CBCT images. The full couch model includes three parts: two side rails and a couch top. A patient CBCT was reconstructed with reconstruction grid size larger than the physical field of view to include the full couch. The image quality of the couch is not good due to data truncation, but good enough to allow rigid registration of the couch. A composite CBCT image of the patient plus couch has been generated from the original reconstruction by replacing couch portion with the pre-acquired model couch, rigidly registered to the original scan. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of this method by comparing treatment plans generated on the original and on the modified scans. Results: The full couch model could be attached to a patient CBCT image set via rigid image registration. Plan DVHs showed 1∼2% difference between plans with and without full couch modeling. Conclusion: The proposed method generated a full treatment couch CBCT model, which can be successfully registered to the original patient image. This method was also shown to be useful in generating more accurate dose distributions, by lowering 1∼2% dose in PTV and a few other critical organs. Part of this study is supported by NIH R01CA133539.

  8. Preliminary studies for a CBCT imaging protocol for offline organ motion analysis: registration software validation and CTDI measurements.

    PubMed

    Falco, Maria Daniela; Fontanarosa, Davide; Miceli, Roberto; Carosi, Alessandra; Santoni, Riccardo; D'Andrea, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Cone-beam X-ray volumetric imaging in the treatment room, allows online correction of set-up errors and offline assessment of residual set-up errors and organ motion. In this study the registration algorithm of the X-ray volume imaging software (XVI, Elekta, Crawley, United Kingdom), which manages a commercial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based positioning system, has been tested using a homemade and an anthropomorphic phantom to: (1) assess its performance in detecting known translational and rotational set-up errors and (2) transfer the transformation matrix of its registrations into a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for offline organ motion analysis. Furthermore, CBCT dose index has been measured for a particular site (prostate: 120 kV, 1028.8 mAs, approximately 640 frames) using a standard Perspex cylindrical body phantom (diameter 32 cm, length 15 cm) and a 10-cm-long pencil ionization chamber. We have found that known displacements were correctly calculated by the registration software to within 1.3 mm and 0.4°. For the anthropomorphic phantom, only translational displacements have been considered. Both studies have shown errors within the intrinsic uncertainty of our system for translational displacements (estimated as 0.87 mm) and rotational displacements (estimated as 0.22°). The resulting table translations proposed by the system to correct the displacements were also checked with portal images and found to place the isocenter of the plan on the linac isocenter within an error of 1 mm, which is the dimension of the spherical lead marker inserted at the center of the homemade phantom. The registration matrix translated into the TPS image fusion module correctly reproduced the alignment between planning CT scans and CBCT scans. Finally, measurements on the CBCT dose index indicate that CBCT acquisition delivers less dose than conventional CT scans and electronic portal imaging device portals. The registration software was found to be

  9. Preliminary Studies for a CBCT Imaging Protocol for Offline Organ Motion Analysis: Registration Software Validation and CTDI Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, Maria Daniela; Fontanarosa, Davide; Miceli, Roberto; Carosi, Alessandra; Santoni, Riccardo; D'Andrea, Marco

    2011-04-01

    Cone-beam X-ray volumetric imaging in the treatment room, allows online correction of set-up errors and offline assessment of residual set-up errors and organ motion. In this study the registration algorithm of the X-ray volume imaging software (XVI, Elekta, Crawley, United Kingdom), which manages a commercial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based positioning system, has been tested using a homemade and an anthropomorphic phantom to: (1) assess its performance in detecting known translational and rotational set-up errors and (2) transfer the transformation matrix of its registrations into a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for offline organ motion analysis. Furthermore, CBCT dose index has been measured for a particular site (prostate: 120 kV, 1028.8 mAs, approximately 640 frames) using a standard Perspex cylindrical body phantom (diameter 32 cm, length 15 cm) and a 10-cm-long pencil ionization chamber. We have found that known displacements were correctly calculated by the registration software to within 1.3 mm and 0.4{sup o}. For the anthropomorphic phantom, only translational displacements have been considered. Both studies have shown errors within the intrinsic uncertainty of our system for translational displacements (estimated as 0.87 mm) and rotational displacements (estimated as 0.22{sup o}). The resulting table translations proposed by the system to correct the displacements were also checked with portal images and found to place the isocenter of the plan on the linac isocenter within an error of 1 mm, which is the dimension of the spherical lead marker inserted at the center of the homemade phantom. The registration matrix translated into the TPS image fusion module correctly reproduced the alignment between planning CT scans and CBCT scans. Finally, measurements on the CBCT dose index indicate that CBCT acquisition delivers less dose than conventional CT scans and electronic portal imaging device portals. The registration software was

  10. From Wheatstone to Cameron and beyond: overview in 3-D and 4-D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbreath, G. Charmaine

    2012-02-01

    This paper reviews three-dimensional (3-D) and four-dimensional (4-D) imaging technology, from Wheatstone through today, with some prognostications for near future applications. This field is rich in variety, subject specialty, and applications. A major trend, multi-view stereoscopy, is moving the field forward to real-time wide-angle 3-D reconstruction as breakthroughs in parallel processing and multi-processor computers enable very fast processing. Real-time holography meets 4-D imaging reconstruction at the goal of achieving real-time, interactive, 3-D imaging. Applications to telesurgery and telemedicine as well as to the needs of the defense and intelligence communities are also discussed.

  11. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  12. Robust segmentation of 4D cardiac MRI-tagged images via spatio-temporal propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Zhen; Huang, Xiaolei; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Axel, Leon

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we present a robust method for segmenting and tracking cardiac contours and tags in 4D cardiac MRI tagged images via spatio-temporal propagation. Our method is based on two main techniques: the Metamorphs Segmentation for robust boundary estimation, and the tunable Gabor filter bank for tagging lines enhancement, removal and myocardium tracking. We have developed a prototype system based on the integration of these two techniques, and achieved efficient, robust segmentation and tracking with minimal human interaction.

  13. Real-time volume rendering of 4D image using 3D texture mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, June-Sic; Kim, Jae Seok; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun Il

    2001-05-01

    Four dimensional image is 3D volume data that varies with time. It is used to express deforming or moving object in virtual surgery of 4D ultrasound. It is difficult to render 4D image by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering time or pre-processing stage whenever the volume data are changed. Even 3D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is also time-consuming in 4D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real time rendering based on 3D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one which was already loaded in memory. If the brick passed the test, it is defined as 3D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Continuously deforming fifty volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Real-time volume rendering based on 3D texture mapping is currently available on PC.

  14. 4-D Cardiac MR Image Analysis: Left and Right Ventricular Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wahle, Andreas; Johnson, Ryan K.; Scholz, Thomas D.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a combination of active shape model (ASM) and active appearance model (AAM) was used to segment the left and right ventricles of normal and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) hearts on 4-D (3-D+time) MR images. For each ventricle, a 4-D model was first used to achieve robust preliminary segmentation on all cardiac phases simultaneously and a 3-D model was then applied to each phase to improve local accuracy while maintaining the overall robustness of the 4-D segmentation. On 25 normal and 25 TOF hearts, in comparison to the expert traced independent standard, our comprehensive performance assessment showed subvoxel segmentation accuracy, high overlap ratios, good ventricular volume correlations, and small percent volume differences. Following 4-D segmentation, novel quantitative shape and motion features were extracted using shape information, volume-time and dV/dt curves, analyzed and used for disease status classification. Automated discrimination between normal/TOF subjects achieved 90%–100% sensitivity and specificity. The features obtained from TOF hearts show higher variability compared to normal subjects, suggesting their potential use as disease progression indicators. The abnormal shape and motion variations of the TOF hearts were accurately captured by both the segmentation and feature characterization. PMID:19709962

  15. Analysis of free breathing motion using artifact reduced 4D CT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, Rene; Frenzel, Thorsten; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Handels, Heinz

    2007-03-01

    The mobility of lung tumors during the respiratory cycle is a source of error in radiotherapy treatment planning. Spatiotemporal CT data sets can be used for studying the motion of lung tumors and inner organs during the breathing cycle. We present methods for the analysis of respiratory motion using 4D CT data in high temporal resolution. An optical flow based reconstruction method was used to generate artifact-reduced 4D CT data sets of lung cancer patients. The reconstructed 4D CT data sets were segmented and the respiratory motion of tumors and inner organs was analyzed. A non-linear registration algorithm is used to calculate the velocity field between consecutive time frames of the 4D data. The resulting velocity field is used to analyze trajectories of landmarks and surface points. By this technique, the maximum displacement of any surface point is calculated, and regions with large respiratory motion are marked. To describe the tumor mobility the motion of the lung tumor center in three orthogonal directions is displayed. Estimated 3D appearance probabilities visualize the movement of the tumor during the respiratory cycle in one static image. Furthermore, correlations between trajectories of the skin surface and the trajectory of the tumor center are determined and skin regions are identified which are suitable for prediction of the internal tumor motion. The results of the motion analysis indicate that the described methods are suitable to gain insight into the spatiotemporal behavior of anatomical and pathological structures during the respiratory cycle.

  16. SU-E-J-119: Head-And-Neck Digital Phantoms for Geometric and Dosimetric Uncertainty Evaluation of CT-CBCT Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z; Koyfman, S; Xia, P; Bzdusek, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate geometric and dosimetric uncertainties of CT-CBCT deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms using digital phantoms generated from real patients. Methods: We selected ten H&N cancer patients with adaptive IMRT. For each patient, a planning CT (CT1), a replanning CT (CT2), and a pretreatment CBCT (CBCT1) were used as the basis for digital phantom creation. Manually adjusted meshes were created for selected ROIs (e.g. PTVs, brainstem, spinal cord, mandible, and parotids) on CT1 and CT2. The mesh vertices were input into a thin-plate spline algorithm to generate a reference displacement vector field (DVF). The reference DVF was applied to CBCT1 to create a simulated mid-treatment CBCT (CBCT2). The CT-CBCT digital phantom consisted of CT1 and CBCT2, which were linked by the reference DVF. Three DIR algorithms (Demons, B-Spline, and intensity-based) were applied to these ten digital phantoms. The images, ROIs, and volumetric doses were mapped from CT1 to CBCT2 using the DVFs computed by these three DIRs and compared to those mapped using the reference DVF. Results: The average Dice coefficients for selected ROIs were from 0.83 to 0.94 for Demons, from 0.82 to 0.95 for B-Spline, and from 0.67 to 0.89 for intensity-based DIR. The average Hausdorff distances for selected ROIs were from 2.4 to 6.2 mm for Demons, from 1.8 to 5.9 mm for B-Spline, and from 2.8 to 11.2 mm for intensity-based DIR. The average absolute dose errors for selected ROIs were from 0.7 to 2.1 Gy for Demons, from 0.7 to 2.9 Gy for B- Spline, and from 1.3 to 4.5 Gy for intensity-based DIR. Conclusion: Using clinically realistic CT-CBCT digital phantoms, Demons and B-Spline were shown to have similar geometric and dosimetric uncertainties while intensity-based DIR had the worst uncertainties. CT-CBCT DIR has the potential to provide accurate CBCT-based dose verification for H&N adaptive radiotherapy. Z Shen: None; K Bzdusek: an employee of Philips Healthcare; S Koyfman: None; P Xia

  17. 4D scanning transmission ultrafast electron microscopy: Single-particle imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ortalan, Volkan; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2011-07-20

    We report the development of 4D scanning transmission ultrafast electron microscopy (ST-UEM). The method was demonstrated in the imaging of silver nanowires and gold nanoparticles. For the wire, the mechanical motion and shape morphological dynamics were imaged, and from the images we obtained the resonance frequency and the dephasing time of the motion. Moreover, we demonstrate here the simultaneous acquisition of dark-field images and electron energy loss spectra from a single gold nanoparticle, which is not possible with conventional methods. The local probing capabilities of ST-UEM open new avenues for probing dynamic processes, from single isolated to embedded nanostructures, without being affected by the heterogeneous processes of ensemble-averaged dynamics. Such methodology promises to have wide-ranging applications in materials science and in single-particle biological imaging. PMID:21615171

  18. 3D and 4D Seismic Imaging in the Oilfield; the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strudley, A.

    2005-05-01

    Seismic imaging in the oilfield context has seen enormous changes over the last 20 years driven by a combination of improved subsurface illumination (2D to 3D), increased computational power and improved physical understanding. Today Kirchhoff Pre-stack migration (in time or depth) is the norm with anisotropic parameterisation and finite difference methods being increasingly employed. In the production context Time-Lapse (4D) Seismic is of growing importance as a tool for monitoring reservoir changes to facilitate increased productivity and recovery. In this paper we present an overview of state of the art technology in 3D and 4D seismic and look at future trends. Pre-stack Kirchhoff migration in time or depth is the imaging tool of choice for the majority of contemporary 3D datasets. Recent developments in 3D pre-stack imaging have been focussed around finite difference solutions to the acoustic wave equation, the so-called Wave Equation Migration methods (WEM). Application of finite difference solutions to imaging is certainly not new, however 3D pre-stack migration using these schemes is a relatively recent development driven by the need for imaging complex geologic structures such as sub salt, and facilitated by increased computational resources. Finally there are a class of imaging methods referred to as beam migration. These methods may be based on either the wave equation or rays, but all operate on a localised (in space and direction) part of the wavefield. These methods offer a bridge between the computational efficiency of Kirchhoff schemes and the improved image quality of WEM methods. Just as 3D seismic has had a radical impact on the quality of the static model of the reservoir, 4D seismic is having a dramatic impact on the dynamic model. Repeat shooting of seismic surveys after a period of production (typically one to several years) reveals changes in pressure and saturation through changes in the seismic response. The growth in interest in 4D seismic

  19. Automated Lung Segmentation and Image Quality Assessment for Clinical 3-D/4-D-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang

    2014-01-01

    4-D-computed tomography (4DCT) provides not only a new dimension of patient-specific information for radiation therapy planning and treatment, but also a challenging scale of data volume to process and analyze. Manual analysis using existing 3-D tools is unable to keep up with vastly increased 4-D data volume, automated processing and analysis are thus needed to process 4DCT data effectively and efficiently. In this paper, we applied ideas and algorithms from image/signal processing, computer vision, and machine learning to 4DCT lung data so that lungs can be reliably segmented in a fully automated manner, lung features can be visualized and measured on the fly via user interactions, and data quality classifications can be computed in a robust manner. Comparisons of our results with an established treatment planning system and calculation by experts demonstrated negligible discrepancies (within ±2%) for volume assessment but one to two orders of magnitude performance enhancement. An empirical Fourier-analysis-based quality measure-delivered performances closely emulating human experts. Three machine learners are inspected to justify the viability of machine learning techniques used to robustly identify data quality of 4DCT images in the scalable manner. The resultant system provides a toolkit that speeds up 4-D tasks in the clinic and facilitates clinical research to improve current clinical practice. PMID:25621194

  20. Application of adaptive kinetic modelling for bias propagation reduction in direct 4D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Matthews, J. C.; Reader, A. J.; Angelis, G. I.; Zaidi, H.

    2014-10-01

    Parametric imaging in thoracic and abdominal PET can provide additional parameters more relevant to the pathophysiology of the system under study. However, dynamic data in the body are noisy due to the limiting counting statistics leading to suboptimal kinetic parameter estimates. Direct 4D image reconstruction algorithms can potentially improve kinetic parameter precision and accuracy in dynamic PET body imaging. However, construction of a common kinetic model is not always feasible and in contrast to post-reconstruction kinetic analysis, errors in poorly modelled regions may spatially propagate to regions which are well modelled. To reduce error propagation from erroneous model fits, we implement and evaluate a new approach to direct parameter estimation by incorporating a recently proposed kinetic modelling strategy within a direct 4D image reconstruction framework. The algorithm uses a secondary more general model to allow a less constrained model fit in regions where the kinetic model does not accurately describe the underlying kinetics. A portion of the residuals then is adaptively included back into the image whilst preserving the primary model characteristics in other well modelled regions using a penalty term that trades off the models. Using fully 4D simulations based on dynamic [15O]H2O datasets, we demonstrate reduction in propagation-related bias for all kinetic parameters. Under noisy conditions, reductions in bias due to propagation are obtained at the cost of increased noise, which in turn results in increased bias and variance of the kinetic parameters. This trade-off reflects the challenge of separating the residuals arising from poor kinetic modelling fits from the residuals arising purely from noise. Nonetheless, the overall root mean square error is reduced in most regions and parameters. Using the adaptive 4D image reconstruction improved model fits can be obtained in poorly modelled regions, leading to reduced errors potentially propagating

  1. Application of adaptive kinetic modelling for bias propagation reduction in direct 4D image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kotasidis, F A; Matthews, J C; Reader, A J; Angelis, G I; Zaidi, H

    2014-10-21

    Parametric imaging in thoracic and abdominal PET can provide additional parameters more relevant to the pathophysiology of the system under study. However, dynamic data in the body are noisy due to the limiting counting statistics leading to suboptimal kinetic parameter estimates. Direct 4D image reconstruction algorithms can potentially improve kinetic parameter precision and accuracy in dynamic PET body imaging. However, construction of a common kinetic model is not always feasible and in contrast to post-reconstruction kinetic analysis, errors in poorly modelled regions may spatially propagate to regions which are well modelled. To reduce error propagation from erroneous model fits, we implement and evaluate a new approach to direct parameter estimation by incorporating a recently proposed kinetic modelling strategy within a direct 4D image reconstruction framework. The algorithm uses a secondary more general model to allow a less constrained model fit in regions where the kinetic model does not accurately describe the underlying kinetics. A portion of the residuals then is adaptively included back into the image whilst preserving the primary model characteristics in other well modelled regions using a penalty term that trades off the models. Using fully 4D simulations based on dynamic [(15)O]H2O datasets, we demonstrate reduction in propagation-related bias for all kinetic parameters. Under noisy conditions, reductions in bias due to propagation are obtained at the cost of increased noise, which in turn results in increased bias and variance of the kinetic parameters. This trade-off reflects the challenge of separating the residuals arising from poor kinetic modelling fits from the residuals arising purely from noise. Nonetheless, the overall root mean square error is reduced in most regions and parameters. Using the adaptive 4D image reconstruction improved model fits can be obtained in poorly modelled regions, leading to reduced errors potentially propagating

  2. SU-E-J-34: Setup Accuracy in Spine SBRT Using CBCT 6D Image Guidance in Comparison with 6D ExacTrac

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Z; Yip, S; Lewis, J; Mannarino, E; Friesen, S; Wagar, M; Hacker, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Volumetric information of the spine captured on CBCT can potentially improve the accuracy in spine SBRT setup that has been commonly performed through 2D radiographs. This work evaluates the setup accuracy in spine SBRT using 6D CBCT image guidance that recently became available on Varian systems. Methods ExacTrac radiographs have been commonly used for Spine SBRT setup. The setup process involves first positioning patients with lasers followed by localization imaging, registration, and repositioning. Verification images are then taken providing the residual errors (ExacTracRE) before beam on. CBCT verification is also acquired in our institute. The availability of both ExacTrac and CBCT verifications allows a comparison study. 41 verification CBCT of 16 patients were retrospectively registered with the planning CT enabling 6D corrections, giving CBCT residual errors (CBCTRE) which were compared with ExacTracRE. Results The RMS discrepancies between CBCTRE and ExacTracRE are 1.70mm, 1.66mm, 1.56mm in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions and 0.27°, 0.49°, 0.35° in yaw, roll and pitch respectively. The corresponding mean discrepancies (and standard deviation) are 0.62mm (1.60mm), 0.00mm (1.68mm), −0.80mm (1.36mm) and 0.05° (0.58°), 0.11° (0.48°), −0.16° (0.32°). Of the 41 CBCT, 17 had high-Z surgical implants. No significant difference in ExacTrac-to-CBCT discrepancy was observed between patients with and without the implants. Conclusion Multiple factors can contribute to the discrepancies between CBCT and ExacTrac: 1) the imaging iso-centers of the two systems, while calibrated to coincide, can be different; 2) the ROI used for registration can be different especially if ribs were included in ExacTrac images; 3) small patient motion can occur between the two verification image acquisitions; 4) the algorithms can be different between CBCT (volumetric) and ExacTrac (radiographic) registrations.

  3. Quantitative 4D Transcatheter Intraarterial Perfusion MR Imaging as a Method to Standardize Angiographic Chemoembolization Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Brian; Wang, Dingxin; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Larson, Andrew C.; Salem, Riad; Omary, Reed A.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to test the hypothesis that subjective angiographic endpoints during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit consistency and correlate with objective intraprocedural reductions in tumor perfusion as determined by quantitative four dimensional (4D) transcatheter intraarterial perfusion (TRIP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Eighteen consecutive patients underwent TACE in a combined MR/interventional radiology (MR-IR) suite. Three board-certified interventional radiologists independently graded the angiographic endpoint of each procedure based on a previously described subjective angiographic chemoembolization endpoint (SACE) scale. A consensus SACE rating was established for each patient. Patients underwent quantitative 4D TRIP-MR imaging immediately before and after TACE, from which mean whole tumor perfusion (Fρ) was calculated. Consistency of SACE ratings between observers was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The relationship between SACE ratings and intraprocedural TRIP-MR imaging perfusion changes was evaluated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS The SACE rating scale demonstrated very good consistency among all observers (ICC = 0.80). The consensus SACE rating was significantly correlated with both absolute (r = 0.54, P = 0.022) and percent (r = 0.85, P < 0.001) intraprocedural perfusion reduction. CONCLUSION The SACE rating scale demonstrates very good consistency between raters, and significantly correlates with objectively measured intraprocedural perfusion reductions during TACE. These results support the use of the SACE scale as a standardized alternative method to quantitative 4D TRIP-MR imaging to classify patients based on embolic endpoints of TACE. PMID:22021520

  4. The study of integration about measurable image and 4D production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunsen; Hu, Pingbo; Niu, Weiyun

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we create the geospatial data of three-dimensional (3D) modeling by the combination of digital photogrammetry and digital close-range photogrammetry. For large-scale geographical background, we make the establishment of DEM and DOM combination of three-dimensional landscape model based on the digital photogrammetry which uses aerial image data to make "4D" (DOM: Digital Orthophoto Map, DEM: Digital Elevation Model, DLG: Digital Line Graphic and DRG: Digital Raster Graphic) production. For the range of building and other artificial features which the users are interested in, we realize that the real features of the three-dimensional reconstruction adopting the method of the digital close-range photogrammetry can come true on the basis of following steps : non-metric cameras for data collection, the camera calibration, feature extraction, image matching, and other steps. At last, we combine three-dimensional background and local measurements real images of these large geographic data and realize the integration of measurable real image and the 4D production.The article discussed the way of the whole flow and technology, achieved the three-dimensional reconstruction and the integration of the large-scale threedimensional landscape and the metric building.

  5. Tracking the motion trajectories of junction structures in 4D CT images of the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guanglei; Chen, Chuangzhen; Chen, Jianzhou; Xie, Yaoqin; Xing, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory motion poses a major challenge in lung radiotherapy. Based on 4D CT images, a variety of intensity-based deformable registration techniques have been proposed to study the pulmonary motion. However, the accuracy achievable with these approaches can be sub-optimal because the deformation is defined globally in space. Therefore, the accuracy of the alignment of local structures may be compromised. In this work, we propose a novel method to detect a large collection of natural junction structures in the lung and use them as the reliable markers to track the lung motion. Specifically, detection of the junction centers and sizes is achieved by analysis of local shape profiles on one segmented image. To track the temporal trajectory of a junction, the image intensities within a small region of interest surrounding the center are selected as its signature. Under the assumption of the cyclic motion, we describe the trajectory by a closed B-spline curve and search for the control points by maximizing a metric of combined correlation coefficients. Local extrema are suppressed by improving the initial conditions using random walks from pair-wise optimizations. Several descriptors are introduced to analyze the motion trajectories. Our method was applied to 13 real 4D CT images. More than 700 junctions in each case are detected with an average positive predictive value of greater than 90%. The average tracking error between automated and manual tracking is sub-voxel and smaller than the published results using the same set of data.

  6. MCAT to XCAT: The Evolution of 4-D Computerized Phantoms for Imaging Research

    PubMed Central

    Paul Segars, W.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work in the development of computerized phantoms has focused on the creation of ideal “hybrid” models that seek to combine the realism of a patient-based voxelized phantom with the flexibility of a mathematical or stylized phantom. We have been leading the development of such computerized phantoms for use in medical imaging research. This paper will summarize our developments dating from the original four-dimensional (4-D) Mathematical Cardiac-Torso (MCAT) phantom, a stylized model based on geometric primitives, to the current 4-D extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) and Mouse Whole-Body (MOBY) phantoms, hybrid models of the human and laboratory mouse based on state-of-the-art computer graphics techniques. This paper illustrates the evolution of computerized phantoms toward more accurate models of anatomy and physiology. This evolution was catalyzed through the introduction of nonuniform rational b-spline (NURBS) and subdivision (SD) surfaces, tools widely used in computer graphics, as modeling primitives to define a more ideal hybrid phantom. With NURBS and SD surfaces as a basis, we progressed from a simple geometrically based model of the male torso (MCAT) containing only a handful of structures to detailed, whole-body models of the male and female (XCAT) anatomies (at different ages from newborn to adult), each containing more than 9000 structures. The techniques we applied for modeling the human body were similarly used in the creation of the 4-D MOBY phantom, a whole-body model for the mouse designed for small animal imaging research. From our work, we have found the NURBS and SD surface modeling techniques to be an efficient and flexible way to describe the anatomy and physiology for realistic phantoms. Based on imaging data, the surfaces can accurately model the complex organs and structures in the body, providing a level of realism comparable to that of a voxelized phantom. In addition, they are very flexible. Like stylized models, they can easily be

  7. SU-E-J-27: Shifting Multiple EPID Imager Layers to Improve Image Quality and Resolution in MV CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Rottmann, J; Yip, S; Berbeco, R; Morf, D; Fueglistaller, R; Star-Lack, J; Zentai, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Vertical stacking of four conventional EPID layers can improve DQE for MV-CBCT applications. We hypothesize that shifting each layer laterally by half a pixel relative to the layer above, will improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image resolution. Methods: For CNR assessment, a 20 cm diameter digital phantom with 8 inserts is created. The attenuation coefficient of the phantom is similar to lung at the average energy of a 6 MV photon beam. The inserts have attenuations 1, 2…8 times of lung. One of the inserts is close to soft tissue, resembling the case of a tumor in lung. For resolution assessment, a digital phantom featuring a bar pattern is created. The phantom has an attenuation coefficient similar to soft tissue and the bars have an attenuation coefficient of calcium sulfate. A 2 MeV photon beam is attenuated through these phantoms and hits each of the four stacked detector layers. Each successive layer is shifted by half a pixel in the x only, y only, and x and y (combined) directions, respectively. Blurring and statistical noise are added to the projections. Projections from one, two, three and four layers are used for reconstruction. CNR and image resolution are evaluated and compared. Results: When projections from multiple layers are combined for reconstruction, CNR increases with the number of layers involved. CNR in reconstructions from two, three and four layers are 1.4, 1.7 and 1.99 times that from one layer. The resolution from the shifted four layer detector is also improved from a single layer. In a comparison between one layer versus four layers in this preliminary study, the resolution from four shifted layers is at least 20% better. Conclusion: Layer-shifting in a stacked EPID imager design enhances resolution as well as CNR for half scan MV-CBCT. The project described was supported, in part, by a grant from Varian Medical Systems, Inc., and Award No. R01CA188446-01 from the National Cancer Institute. The content is solely

  8. Uniform distribution of projection data for improved reconstruction quality of 4D EPR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Vikram, Deepti S.; Clymer, Bradley; Potter, Lee C.; Deng, Yuanmu; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy; Zweier, Jay L.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2008-01-01

    In continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI), high quality of reconstruction in a limited acquisition time is a high priority. It has been shown for the case of 3D EPRI, that a uniform distribution of the projection data generally enhances reconstruction quality. In this work, we have suggested two data acquisition techniques for which the gradient orientations are more evenly distributed over the 4D acquisition space as compared to the existing methods. The first sampling technique is based on equal solid angle partitioning of 4D space, while the second technique is based on Fekete points estimation in 4D to generate a more uniform distribution of data. After acquisition, filtered backprojection (FBP) is applied to carryout the reconstruction in a single stage. The single-stage reconstruction improves the spatial resolution by eliminating the necessity of data interpolation in multi-stage reconstructions. For the proposed data distributions, the simulations and experimental results indicate a higher fidelity to the true object configuration. Using the uniform distribution, we expect about 50% reduction in the acquisition time over the traditional method of equal linear angle acquisition. PMID:17562375

  9. Experimental validation of a kV source model and dose computation method for CBCT imaging in an anthropomorphic phantom.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Yannick; Tambasco, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental validation of a kilovoltage (kV) X-ray source characterization model in an anthropomorphic phantom to estimate patient-specific absorbed dose from kV cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging procedures and compare these doses to nominal weighted CT-dose index (CTDIw) dose estimates. We simulated the default Varian on-board imager 1.4 (OBI) default CBCT imaging protocols (i.e., standard-dose head, low-dose thorax, pelvis, and pelvis spotlight) using our previously developed and easy to implement X-ray point-source model and source characterization approach. We used this characterized source model to compute absorbed dose in homogeneous and anthropomorphic phantoms using our previously validated in-house kV dose computation software (kVDoseCalc). We compared these computed absorbed doses to doses derived from ionization chamber measurements acquired at several points in a homogeneous cylindrical phantom and from thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) placed in the anthropomorphic phantom. In the homogeneous cylindrical phantom, computed values of absorbed dose relative to the center of the phantom agreed with measured values within ≤2% of local dose, except in regions of high-dose gradient where the distance to agreement (DTA) was 2 mm. The computed absorbed dose in the anthropomorphic phantom generally agreed with TLD measurements, with an average percent dose difference ranging from 2.4% ± 6.0% to 5.7% ± 10.3%, depending on the characterized CBCT imaging protocol. The low-dose thorax and the standard dose scans showed the best and worst agreement, respectively. Our results also broadly agree with published values, which are approximately twice as high as the nominal CTDIw would suggest. The results demonstrate that our previously developed method for modeling and characterizing a kV X-ray source could be used to accurately assess patient-specific absorbed dose from kV CBCT procedures within reasonable accuracy, and serve as further

  10. [Possibilities of 4D ultrasonography in imaging of the pelvic floor structures].

    PubMed

    Dlouhá, K; Krofta, L

    2011-12-01

    Technological boom of the last decades brought urogynaecologists and other specialists new possibilities in imaging of the pelvic floor structures which may substantially add to search for etiology of pelvic floor dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an expensive, less accessible method and may pose certain dyscomphort to the patient. 3D/4D ultrasonography overcomes these disadvantages and brings new possibilities especially in dynamic, real time imaging and consequently enables focus on functional anatomy of complex of muscles and fascial structures of the pelvic floor. With 3D/4D ultrasound we can visualise urethra and surrounding structures, levator ani and urogenital hiatus, its changes during muscle contraction and Valsalva manévre. This method has great potential in diagnostics of pelvic organ prolapse, it may bring new knowledge of factors contributing to loss of integrity of pelvic floor structures resulting in prolapse and incontinence. Studies exist which describe changes in urogenital hiatus after vaginal delivery, further studies of large numbers of patients during longer period of time are though necessary so that conclusions can be drawn for clinical praxis. PMID:22312840

  11. 4D in vivo imaging of subpleural lung parenchyma by swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, S.; Tabuchi, A.; Mertens, M.; Homann, H.; Walther, J.; Kuebler, W. M.; Koch, E.

    2009-07-01

    In this feasibility study we present a method for 4D imaging of healthy and injured subpleural lung tissue in a mouse model. We used triggered swept source optical coherence tomography with an A-scan frequency of 20 kHz to image murine subpleural alveoli during the ventilation cycle. The data acquisition was gated to the pulmonary airway pressure to take one B-scan in each ventilation cycle for different pressure levels. The acquired B-scans were combined offline to one C-scan for each pressure level. Due to the high acquisition rate of the used optical coherence tomography system, we are also able to perform OCT Doppler imaging of the alveolar arterioles. We demonstrated that OCT is a useful tool to investigate the alveolar dynamics in spatial dimensions and to analyze the alveolar blood flow by using Doppler OCT.

  12. Image-domain motion compensated time resolved 4D cardiac CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Sun, Zhihui; Segars, W. Paul; Fishman, Elliot K.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2007-03-01

    Two major problems with the current electrocardiogram-gated cardiac computed tomography (CT) imaging technique are a large patient radiation dose (10-15 mSv) and insufficient temporal resolution (83-165 ms). Our long-term goal is to develop new time resolved and low dose cardiac CT imaging techniques that consist of image reconstruction algorithms and estimation methods of the time-dependent motion vector field (MVF) of the heart from the acquired CT data. Toward this goal, we developed a method that estimates the 2D components of the MVF from a sequence of cardiac CT images and used it to "reconstruct" cardiac images at rapidly moving phases. First, two sharp image frames per heart beat (cycle) obtained at slow motion phases (i.e., mid-diastole and end-systole) were chosen. Nodes were coarsely placed among images; and the temporal motion of each node was modeled by B-splines. Our cost function consisted of 3 terms: mean-squared-error with the block-matching, and smoothness constraints in space and time. The time-dependent MVF was estimated by minimizing the cost function. We then warped images at slow motion phases using the estimated vector fields to "reconstruct" images at rapidly moving phase. The warping algorithm was evaluated using true time-dependent motion vector fields and images both provided by the NCAT phantom program. Preliminary results from ongoing quantitative and qualitative evaluation using the 4D NCAT phantom and patient data are encouraging. Major motion artifact is much reduced. We conclude the new image-based motion estimation technique is an important step toward the development of the new cardiac CT imaging techniques.

  13. Evaluation of different set-up error corrections on dose-volume metrics in prostate IMRT using CBCT images.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Tomita, Tsuneyuki; Kitsuda, Kenji; Notogawa, Takuya; Miki, Katsuhito; Nakamura, Kiyonao; Ishigaki, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effect of different set-up error corrections on dose-volume metrics in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer under different planning target volume (PTV) margin settings using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A total of 30 consecutive patients who underwent IMRT for prostate cancer were retrospectively analysed, and 7-14 CBCT datasets were acquired per patient. Interfractional variations in dose-volume metrics were evaluated under six different set-up error corrections, including tattoo, bony anatomy, and four different target matching groups. Set-up errors were incorporated into planning the isocenter position, and dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images. These processes were repeated under two different PTV margin settings. In the on-line bony anatomy matching groups, systematic error (∑) was 0.3 mm, 1.4 mm, and 0.3 mm in the left-right, anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior directions, respectively. ∑ in three successive off-line target matchings was finally comparable with that in the on-line bony anatomy matching in the AP direction. Although doses to the rectum and bladder wall were reduced for a small PTV margin, averaged reductions in the volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose from planning were within 2.5% under all PTV margin settings for all correction groups, with the exception of the tattoo set-up error correction only (≥ 5.0%). Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between on-line bony anatomy matching and target matching. While variations between the planned and delivered doses were smallest when target matching was applied, the use of bony anatomy matching still ensured the planned doses. PMID:24820094

  14. Evaluation of different set-up error corrections on dose–volume metrics in prostate IMRT using CBCT images

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Tomita, Tsuneyuki; Kitsuda, Kenji; Notogawa, Takuya; Miki, Katsuhito; Nakamura, Kiyonao; Ishigaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different set-up error corrections on dose–volume metrics in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer under different planning target volume (PTV) margin settings using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A total of 30 consecutive patients who underwent IMRT for prostate cancer were retrospectively analysed, and 7–14 CBCT datasets were acquired per patient. Interfractional variations in dose–volume metrics were evaluated under six different set-up error corrections, including tattoo, bony anatomy, and four different target matching groups. Set-up errors were incorporated into planning the isocenter position, and dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images. These processes were repeated under two different PTV margin settings. In the on-line bony anatomy matching groups, systematic error (∑) was 0.3 mm, 1.4 mm, and 0.3 mm in the left–right, anterior–posterior (AP), and superior–inferior directions, respectively. ∑ in three successive off-line target matchings was finally comparable with that in the on-line bony anatomy matching in the AP direction. Although doses to the rectum and bladder wall were reduced for a small PTV margin, averaged reductions in the volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose from planning were within 2.5% under all PTV margin settings for all correction groups, with the exception of the tattoo set-up error correction only (≥5.0%). Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between on-line bony anatomy matching and target matching. While variations between the planned and delivered doses were smallest when target matching was applied, the use of bony anatomy matching still ensured the planned doses. PMID:24820094

  15. Experimental study on the application of a compressed-sensing (CS) algorithm to dental cone-beam CT (CBCT) for accurate, low-dose image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jieun; Cho, Hyosung; Je, Uikyu; Lee, Minsik; Kim, Hyojeong; Hong, Daeki; Park, Yeonok; Lee, Seonhwa; Cho, Heemoon; Choi, Sungil; Koo, Yangseo

    2013-03-01

    In practical applications of three-dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging, there are often challenges for image reconstruction from insufficient data. In computed tomography (CT); for example, image reconstruction from few views would enable fast scanning with reduced doses to the patient. In this study, we investigated and implemented an efficient reconstruction method based on a compressed-sensing (CS) algorithm, which exploits the sparseness of the gradient image with substantially high accuracy, for accurate, low-dose dental cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction. We applied the algorithm to a commercially-available dental CBCT system (Expert7™, Vatech Co., Korea) and performed experimental works to demonstrate the algorithm for image reconstruction in insufficient sampling problems. We successfully reconstructed CBCT images from several undersampled data and evaluated the reconstruction quality in terms of the universal-quality index (UQI). Experimental demonstrations of the CS-based reconstruction algorithm appear to show that it can be applied to current dental CBCT systems for reducing imaging doses and improving the image quality.

  16. Artefacts in CBCT: a review

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, R; Heil, U; Groβ, D; Bruellmann, DD; Dranischnikow, E; Schwanecke, U; Schoemer, E

    2011-01-01

    Artefacts are common in today's cone beam CT (CBCT). They are induced by discrepancies between the mathematical modelling and the actual physical imaging process. Since artefacts may interfere with the diagnostic process performed on CBCT data sets, every user should be aware of their presence. This article aims to discuss the most prominent artefacts identified in the scientific literature and review the existing knowledge on these artefacts. We also briefly review the basic three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction concept applied by today's CBCT scanners, as all artefacts are more or less directly related to it. PMID:21697151

  17. Using 4D Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Validate Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Biglino, Giovanni; Cosentino, Daria; Steeden, Jennifer A.; De Nova, Lorenzo; Castelli, Matteo; Ntsinjana, Hopewell; Pennati, Giancarlo; Taylor, Andrew M.; Schievano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can have a complementary predictive role alongside the exquisite visualization capabilities of 4D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. In order to exploit these capabilities (e.g., for decision-making), it is necessary to validate computational models against real world data. In this study, we sought to acquire 4D CMR flow data in a controllable, experimental setup and use these data to validate a corresponding computational model. We applied this paradigm to a case of congenital heart disease, namely, transposition of the great arteries (TGA) repaired with arterial switch operation. For this purpose, a mock circulatory loop compatible with the CMR environment was constructed and two detailed aortic 3D models (i.e., one TGA case and one normal aortic anatomy) were tested under realistic hemodynamic conditions, acquiring 4D CMR flow. The same 3D domains were used for multi-scale CFD simulations, whereby the remainder of the mock circulatory system was appropriately summarized with a lumped parameter network. Boundary conditions of the simulations mirrored those measured in vitro. Results showed a very good quantitative agreement between experimental and computational models in terms of pressure (overall maximum % error = 4.4% aortic pressure in the control anatomy) and flow distribution data (overall maximum % error = 3.6% at the subclavian artery outlet of the TGA model). Very good qualitative agreement could also be appreciated in terms of streamlines, throughout the cardiac cycle. Additionally, velocity vectors in the ascending aorta revealed less symmetrical flow in the TGA model, which also exhibited higher wall shear stress in the anterior ascending aorta. PMID:26697416

  18. Using 4D Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Validate Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Biglino, Giovanni; Cosentino, Daria; Steeden, Jennifer A; De Nova, Lorenzo; Castelli, Matteo; Ntsinjana, Hopewell; Pennati, Giancarlo; Taylor, Andrew M; Schievano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can have a complementary predictive role alongside the exquisite visualization capabilities of 4D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. In order to exploit these capabilities (e.g., for decision-making), it is necessary to validate computational models against real world data. In this study, we sought to acquire 4D CMR flow data in a controllable, experimental setup and use these data to validate a corresponding computational model. We applied this paradigm to a case of congenital heart disease, namely, transposition of the great arteries (TGA) repaired with arterial switch operation. For this purpose, a mock circulatory loop compatible with the CMR environment was constructed and two detailed aortic 3D models (i.e., one TGA case and one normal aortic anatomy) were tested under realistic hemodynamic conditions, acquiring 4D CMR flow. The same 3D domains were used for multi-scale CFD simulations, whereby the remainder of the mock circulatory system was appropriately summarized with a lumped parameter network. Boundary conditions of the simulations mirrored those measured in vitro. Results showed a very good quantitative agreement between experimental and computational models in terms of pressure (overall maximum % error = 4.4% aortic pressure in the control anatomy) and flow distribution data (overall maximum % error = 3.6% at the subclavian artery outlet of the TGA model). Very good qualitative agreement could also be appreciated in terms of streamlines, throughout the cardiac cycle. Additionally, velocity vectors in the ascending aorta revealed less symmetrical flow in the TGA model, which also exhibited higher wall shear stress in the anterior ascending aorta. PMID:26697416

  19. Can radiomics features be reproducibly measured from CBCT images for patients with non-small cell lung cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Fave, Xenia Fried, David; Mackin, Dennis; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhang, Joy; Balter, Peter; Followill, David; Gomez, Daniel; Kyle Jones, A.; Stingo, Francesco; Fontenot, Jonas; Court, Laurence

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests radiomics features extracted from computed tomography (CT) images may be useful in prognostic models for patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was designed to determine whether such features can be reproducibly obtained from cone-beam CT (CBCT) images taken using medical Linac onboard-imaging systems in order to track them through treatment. Methods: Test-retest CBCT images of ten patients previously enrolled in a clinical trial were retrospectively obtained and used to determine the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for 68 different texture features. The volume dependence of each feature was also measured using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Features with a high reproducibility (CCC > 0.9) that were not due to volume dependence in the patient test-retest set were further examined for their sensitivity to differences in imaging protocol, level of scatter, and amount of motion by using two phantoms. The first phantom was a texture phantom composed of rectangular cartridges to represent different textures. Features were measured from two cartridges, shredded rubber and dense cork, in this study. The texture phantom was scanned with 19 different CBCT imagers to establish the features’ interscanner variability. The effect of scatter on these features was studied by surrounding the same texture phantom with scattering material (rice and solid water). The effect of respiratory motion on these features was studied using a dynamic-motion thoracic phantom and a specially designed tumor texture insert of the shredded rubber material. The differences between scans acquired with different Linacs and protocols, varying amounts of scatter, and with different levels of motion were compared to the mean intrapatient difference from the test-retest image set. Results: Of the original 68 features, 37 had a CCC >0.9 that was not due to volume dependence. When the Linac manufacturer and imaging protocol

  20. Quantifying the impact of respiratory-gated 4D CT acquisition on thoracic image quality: A digital phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernatowicz, K. Knopf, A.; Lomax, A.; Keall, P.; Kipritidis, J.; Mishra, P.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Prospective respiratory-gated 4D CT has been shown to reduce tumor image artifacts by up to 50% compared to conventional 4D CT. However, to date no studies have quantified the impact of gated 4D CT on normal lung tissue imaging, which is important in performing dose calculations based on accurate estimates of lung volume and structure. To determine the impact of gated 4D CT on thoracic image quality, the authors developed a novel simulation framework incorporating a realistic deformable digital phantom driven by patient tumor motion patterns. Based on this framework, the authors test the hypothesis that respiratory-gated 4D CT can significantly reduce lung imaging artifacts. Methods: Our simulation framework synchronizes the 4D extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom with tumor motion data in a quasi real-time fashion, allowing simulation of three 4D CT acquisition modes featuring different levels of respiratory feedback: (i) “conventional” 4D CT that uses a constant imaging and couch-shift frequency, (ii) “beam paused” 4D CT that interrupts imaging to avoid oversampling at a given couch position and respiratory phase, and (iii) “respiratory-gated” 4D CT that triggers acquisition only when the respiratory motion fulfills phase-specific displacement gating windows based on prescan breathing data. Our framework generates a set of ground truth comparators, representing the average XCAT anatomy during beam-on for each of ten respiratory phase bins. Based on this framework, the authors simulated conventional, beam-paused, and respiratory-gated 4D CT images using tumor motion patterns from seven lung cancer patients across 13 treatment fractions, with a simulated 5.5 cm{sup 3} spherical lesion. Normal lung tissue image quality was quantified by comparing simulated and ground truth images in terms of overall mean square error (MSE) intensity difference, threshold-based lung volume error, and fractional false positive/false negative rates. Results

  1. TH-A-18C-11: An Investigation of KV CBCT Image Quality and Dose Reduction for Volume-Of-Interest Imaging Using Dynamic Collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, D; Robar, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The focus of this work was to investigate the improvements in image quality and dose reduction for volume-of-interest (VOI) kV-CBCT using dynamic collimation. Methods: A prototype iris aperture was used to track a VOI during a CBCT acquisition. The current aperture design is capable of one-dimensional translation as a function of gantry angle and dynamic adjustment of the iris radius. The aperture occupies the location of the bow-tie filter on a Varian OBI system. CBCT and planar image quality was investigated as a function of aperture radius, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI, for a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom with a 9 mm diameter bone insert centered on isocenter. Corresponding scatter-to-primary ratios (SPR) were determined at the detector plane with Monte Carlo simulation using EGSnrc. Dose distributions for various anatomical sites were modeled using a dynamic BEAMnrc library and DOSXYZnrc. The resulting VOI dose distributions were compared to full-field distributions. Results: SPR was reduced by a factor of 8.4 when decreasing iris diameter from 21.2 cm to 2.4 cm (at isocenter). Similarly, this change in iris diameter corresponds to a factor increase of approximately 1.4 and 1.5 in image contrast for CBCT and planar images, respectively, and similarly a factor decrease in image noise of approximately 1.7 and 1.5. This results in a measured gain in contrast-to-noise ratio of a factor of approximately 2.3 for both CBCT and planar images. Depending upon the anatomical site, dose was reduced to 10%–70% of the full field value along the central axis plane and down to 2% along the axial planes, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI compared to full-field techniques. Conclusion: The presented VOI technique offers improved image quality for image-guided radiotherapy while sparing the surrounding volume of unnecessary dose compared to full-field techniques.

  2. Segmentation of 4D cardiac images: investigation on statistical shape models.

    PubMed

    Renno, Markus S; Shang, Yan; Sweeney, James; Dossel, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was two-fold: (1) to investigate the properties of statistical shape models constructed from manually segmented cardiac ventricular chambers to confirm the validity of an automatic 4-dimensional (4D) segmentation model that uses gradient vector flow (GVF) images of the original data and (2) to develop software to further automate the steps necessary in active shape model (ASM) training. These goals were achieved by first constructing ASMs from manually segmented ventricular models by allowing the user to cite entire datasets for processing using a GVF-based landmarking procedure and principal component analysis (PCA) to construct the statistical shape model. The statistical shape model of one dataset was used to regulate the segmentation of another dataset according to its GVF, and these results were then analyzed and found to accurately represent the original cardiac data when compared to the manual segmentation results as the golden standard. PMID:17947007

  3. brainR: Interactive 3 and 4D Images of High Resolution Neuroimage Data

    PubMed Central

    Muschelli, John; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Crainiceanu, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    We provide software tools for displaying and publishing interactive 3-dimensional (3D) and 4-dimensional (4D) figures to html webpages, with examples of high-resolution brain imaging. Our framework is based in the R statistical software using the rgl package, a 3D graphics library. We build on this package to allow manipulation of figures including rotation and translation, zooming, coloring of brain substructures, adjusting transparency levels, and addition/or removal of brain structures. The need for better visualization tools of ultra high dimensional data is ever present; we are providing a clean, simple, web-based option. We also provide a package (brainR) for users to readily implement these tools. PMID:27330829

  4. SU-C-9A-06: The Impact of CT Image Used for Attenuation Correction in 4D-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Y; Bowsher, J; Yan, S; Cai, J; Das, S; Yin, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the appropriateness of using 3D non-gated CT image for attenuation correction (AC) in a 4D-PET (gated PET) imaging protocol used in radiotherapy treatment planning simulation. Methods: The 4D-PET imaging protocol in a Siemens PET/CT simulator (Biograph mCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Hoffman Estates, IL) was evaluated. CIRS Dynamic Thorax Phantom (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA) with a moving glass sphere (8 mL) in the middle of its thorax portion was used in the experiments. The glass was filled with {sup 18}F-FDG and was in a longitudinal motion derived from a real patient breathing pattern. Varian RPM system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was used for respiratory gating. Both phase-gating and amplitude-gating methods were tested. The clinical imaging protocol was modified to use three different CT images for AC in 4D-PET reconstruction: first is to use a single-phase CT image to mimic actual clinical protocol (single-CT-PET); second is to use the average intensity projection CT (AveIP-CT) derived from 4D-CT scanning (AveIP-CT-PET); third is to use 4D-CT image to do the phase-matched AC (phase-matching- PET). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) and volume of the moving target (glass sphere) with threshold of 40% SUVmax were calculated for comparison between 4D-PET images derived with different AC methods. Results: The SUVmax varied 7.3%±6.9% over the breathing cycle in single-CT-PET, compared to 2.5%±2.8% in AveIP-CT-PET and 1.3%±1.2% in phasematching PET. The SUVmax in single-CT-PET differed by up to 15% from those in phase-matching-PET. The target volumes measured from single- CT-PET images also presented variations up to 10% among different phases of 4D PET in both phase-gating and amplitude-gating experiments. Conclusion: Attenuation correction using non-gated CT in 4D-PET imaging is not optimal process for quantitative analysis. Clinical 4D-PET imaging protocols should consider phase-matched 4D-CT image if available to achieve better accuracy.

  5. A patient specific 4D MRI liver motion model based on sparse imaging and registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorda, Y. H.; Bartels, L. W.; van Stralen, Marijn; Pluim, J. P. W.

    2013-03-01

    Introduction: Image-guided minimally invasive procedures are becoming increasingly popular. Currently, High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of lesions in mobile organs, such as the liver, is in development. A requirement for such treatment is automatic motion tracking, such that the position of the lesion can be followed in real time. We propose a 4D liver motion model, which can be used during planning of this procedure. During treatment, the model can serve as a motion predictor. In a similar fashion, this model could be used for radiotherapy treatment of the liver. Method: The model is built by acquiring 2D dynamic sagittal MRI data at six locations in the liver. By registering these dynamics to a 3D MRI liver image, 2D deformation fields are obtained at every location. The 2D fields are ordered according to the position of the liver at that specific time point, such that liver motion during an average breathing period can be simulated. This way, a sparse deformation field is created over time. This deformation field is finally interpolated over the entire volume, yielding a 4D motion model. Results: The accuracy of the model is evaluated by comparing unseen slices to the slice predicted by the model at that specific location and phase in the breathing cycle. The mean Dice coefficient of the liver regions was 0.90. The mean misalignment of the vessels was 1.9 mm. Conclusion: The model is able to predict patient specific deformations of the liver and can predict regular motion accurately.

  6. SU-E-J-26: Analysis of Image Quality in CBCT QA Using a Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to propose an alternative QA technique that analyzes imaging quality(IQ) in CBCT-QA processing. Methods: A catphan phantom was used to take CT imaging data set that were imported into a treatment planning system - Eclipse. The image quality was analyzed in terms of in-slice geometry resolution, Hounsfield numbers(HU) accuracy, mean-slice thickness, edge-to-center uniformity, low contrast resolution, and high contrast spatial resolution in Eclipse workstation. The CBCT-QA was also analyzed by OBI-workstation and a commercial software. Comparison was made to evaluation feasibility in a TPS environment. Results: The analysis of IQ was conducted in Eclipse v10.0 TPS. In-slice geometric resolution was measured between 2-rods in section CTP404 and repeated for all 4 rods with the difference between expected and measured values less than +/−0.1 cm. For HU, the difference between expected and measured values in HU was found much less than +/−40. Mean slice thickness measured by a distance on the wire proportional to scanner increment multiplying by a factor of 0.42. After repeating measurements to 4 wires, the average difference between expected and measured values was less +/−0.124 mm in slice thickness. HU uniformity was measured in section CTP486 with the tolerance less than +/−40 HU. Low contrast resolution in section CTP515 and high contrast resolution in section CTP528 were found to be 7 disks in diameter of 4 mm and 6 lp/cm, respectively. Eclipse TPS results indicated a good agreement to those obtained in OBI workstation and ImagePro software for major parameters. Conclusion: An analysis of IQ was proposed as an alternative CBCT QA processing. Based upon measured data assessment, proposed method was accurate and consistent to IQ evaluation and TG142 guideline. The approach was to utilize TPS resource, which can be valuable to re-planning, verification, and delivery in adaptive therapy.

  7. 3D and 4D magnetic susceptibility tomography based on complex MR images

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-11

    Magnetic susceptibility is the physical property for T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI). The invention relates to methods for reconstructing an internal distribution (3D map) of magnetic susceptibility values, .chi. (x,y,z), of an object, from 3D T2*MRI phase images, by using Computed Inverse Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CIMRI) tomography. The CIMRI technique solves the inverse problem of the 3D convolution by executing a 3D Total Variation (TV) regularized iterative convolution scheme, using a split Bregman iteration algorithm. The reconstruction of .chi. (x,y,z) can be designed for low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass features by using a convolution kernel that is modified from the standard dipole kernel. Multiple reconstructions can be implemented in parallel, and averaging the reconstructions can suppress noise. 4D dynamic magnetic susceptibility tomography can be implemented by reconstructing a 3D susceptibility volume from a 3D phase volume by performing 3D CIMRI magnetic susceptibility tomography at each snapshot time.

  8. Segmentation of 4D cardiac computer tomography images using active shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, Barba-J.; Olveres, Jimena; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris; Arámbula, Fernando; Vallejo, Enrique

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a segmentation method for time series of 3D cardiac images based on deformable models. The goal of this work is to extend active shape models (ASM) of tree-dimensional objects to the problem of 4D (3D + time) cardiac CT image modeling. The segmentation is achieved by constructing a point distribution model (PDM) that encodes the spatio-temporal variability of a training set, i.e., the principal modes of variation of the temporal shapes are computed using some statistical parameters. An active search is used in the segmentation process where an initial approximation of the spatio-temporal shape is given and the gray level information in the neighborhood of the landmarks is analyzed. The starting shape is able to deform so as to better fit the data, but in the range allowed by the point distribution model. Several time series consisting of eleven 3D images of cardiac CT are employed for the method validation. Results are compared with manual segmentation made by an expert. The proposed application can be used for clinical evaluation of the left ventricle mechanical function. Likewise, the results can be taken as the first step of processing for optic flow estimation algorithms.

  9. CBCT Use in Endodontic Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Beach, David A

    2016-02-01

    Endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning has taken a giant leap forward due to introduction of CBCT in dentistry. While conventional 2-D radiographs remain the most cost-effective and routine method to evaluate a patient’s dentition, their diagnostic potential is limited. The 3-D manipulation of images that CBCT offers provides better insight into diagnostic dilemmas and complicate treatment decisions. Despite the advantages of CBCT imaging, it should be used complimentary to 2-D radiography, not as a replacement. The principle of ALARA (in which patients should be exposed to radiation “as low as reasonably achievable”), still applies to this technology. CBCT should not be used routinely in the absence of clinical signs or symptoms that necessitate a more in-depth view of a tooth and surrounding structures. In other words, if a conventional 2-D radiograph will suffice, then a CBCT pretreatment scan is not necessary. However, if more information is needed to make an accurate diagnosis, a 3-D CBCT image is justified and highly beneficial as shown through several case examples share in this article. PMID:26995838

  10. Dynamic real-time 4D cardiac MDCT image display using GPU-accelerated volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry M

    2009-09-01

    Intraoperative cardiac monitoring, accurate preoperative diagnosis, and surgical planning are important components of minimally-invasive cardiac therapy. Retrospective, electrocardiographically (ECG) gated, multidetector computed tomographical (MDCT), four-dimensional (3D + time), real-time, cardiac image visualization is an important tool for the surgeon in such procedure, particularly if the dynamic volumetric image can be registered to, and fused with the actual patient anatomy. The addition of stereoscopic imaging provides a more intuitive environment by adding binocular vision and depth cues to structures within the beating heart. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a comprehensive stereoscopic 4D cardiac image visualization and manipulation platform, based on the opacity density radiation model, which exploits the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) in the rendering pipeline. In addition, we present a new algorithm to synchronize the phases of the dynamic heart to clinical ECG signals, and to calculate and compensate for latencies in the visualization pipeline. A dynamic multiresolution display is implemented to enable the interactive selection and emphasis of volume of interest (VOI) within the entire contextual cardiac volume and to enhance performance, and a novel color and opacity adjustment algorithm is designed to increase the uniformity of the rendered multiresolution image of heart. Our system provides a visualization environment superior to noninteractive software-based implementations, but with a rendering speed that is comparable to traditional, but inferior quality, volume rendering approaches based on texture mapping. This retrospective ECG-gated dynamic cardiac display system can provide real-time feedback regarding the suspected pathology, function, and structural defects, as well as anatomical information such as chamber volume and morphology. PMID:19467840

  11. An innovative detector concept for hybrid 4D-PET/MRI imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerello, P.; Pennazio, F.; Bisogni, M. G.; Marino, N.; Marzocca, C.; Peroni, C.; Wheadon, R.; Del Guerra, A.

    2013-02-01

    The importance of a high-quality hybrid imaging, providing morphological and functional information with only one acquisition session, is widely acknowledged by the scientific community. The historical limitations to the quality of PET images are related to the unsatisfactory measurement of the depth of interaction (DOI) in the crystals and of the time of flight (TOF), that cause a parallax error and an unfavorable signal to background condition in the image reconstruction process, respectively. The 4DMPET project is developing a high performance PET block-detector featuring 4D image reconstruction capabilities. The detector module is based on a fast scintillating continuous crystal coupled on both sides to arrays of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). The SiPMs collect the scintillation light and provide the trigger signal, the time and the energy released in the crystal at the pixel level. The photon depth of interaction (DOI) is reconstructed by measuring the cluster size asymmetry on the two faces of the crystal, thus obtaining a comparable spatial resolution in the three coordinates and removing the parallax error. The event position along the line of response can be measured with high precision by means of TOF techniques. We discuss the module design concept and the results of the detailed Monte Carlo detector simulation, which inspire the architectural solutions selected for the layout and the front-end The expected resolution for 3D spatial coordinates of the interaction point in the crystal (1 mm) and the TOF (about 110 ps) would provide a substantial improvement of the image quality. 4DMPET aims at building a prototype block detector demonstrating that the proposed layout meets the expected performance and is suitable for designing a detector focused on a specific application.

  12. 4D medical image computing and visualization of lung tumor mobility in spatio-temporal CT image data.

    PubMed

    Handels, Heinz; Werner, René; Schmidt, Rainer; Frenzel, Thorsten; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Ehrhardt, Jan

    2007-12-01

    The development of 4D CT imaging has introduced the possibility of measuring breathing motion of tumors and inner organs. Conformal thoracic radiation therapy relies on a quantitative understanding of the position of lungs, lung tumors, and other organs during radiation delivery. Using 4D CT data sets, medical image computing and visualization methods were developed to visualize different aspects of lung and lung tumor mobility during the breathing cycle and to extract quantitative motion parameters. A non-linear registration method was applied to estimate the three-dimensional motion field and to compute 3D point trajectories. Specific visualization techniques were used to display the resulting motion field, the tumor's appearance probabilities during a breathing cycle as well as the volume covered by the moving tumor. Furthermore, trajectories of the tumor center-of-mass and organ specific landmarks were computed for the quantitative analysis of tumor and organ motion. The analysis of 4D data sets of seven patients showed that tumor mobility differs significantly between the patients depending on the individual breathing pattern and tumor location. PMID:17602865

  13. Hessian Schatten-norm regularization for CBCT image reconstruction using fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxin; Wang, Jiang; Tan, Shan

    2015-03-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction in Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) uses prior knowledge to form different kinds of regularization terms. The total variation (TV) regularization has shown state-of-the-art performance in suppressing noises and preserving edges. However, it produces the well-known staircase effect. In this paper, a method that involves second-order differential operators was employed to avoid the staircase effect. The ability to avoid staircase effect lies in that higher-order derivatives can avoid over-sharpening the regions of smooth intensity transitions. Meanwhile, a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm was used for the corresponding optimization problem. The proposed Hessian Schatten norm-based regularization keeps lots of favorable properties of TV, such as translation and scale invariant, with getting rid of the staircase effect that appears in TV-based reconstructions. The experiments demonstrated the outstanding ability of the proposed algorithm over TV method especially in suppressing the staircase effect.

  14. A deformable phantom for 4D radiotherapy verification: Design and image registration evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Serban, Monica; Heath, Emily; Stroian, Gabriela; Collins, D. Louis; Seuntjens, Jan

    2008-03-15

    peak inhale. The SI displacement of the landmarks varied between 94% and 3% of the piston excursion for positions closer and farther away from the piston, respectively. The reproducibility of the phantom deformation was within the image resolution (0.7x0.7x1.25 mm{sup 3}). Vector average registration accuracy based on point landmarks was found to be 0.5 (0.4 SD) mm. The tumor and lung mean 3D DTA obtained from triangulated surfaces were 0.4 (0.1 SD) mm and 1.0 (0.8 SD) mm, respectively. This phantom is capable of reproducibly emulating the physically realistic lung features and deformations and has a wide range of potential applications, including four-dimensional (4D) imaging, evaluation of deformable registration accuracy, 4D planning and dose delivery.

  15. Temporomandibular joint diagnostics using CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsson, A-K; Kristensen, M; Arvidsson, L Z

    2015-01-01

    The present review will give an update on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) imaging using CBCT. It will focus on diagnostic accuracy and the value of CBCT compared with other imaging modalities for the evaluation of TMJs in different categories of patients; osteoarthritis (OA), juvenile OA, rheumatoid arthritis and related joint diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other intra-articular conditions. Finally, sections on other aspects of CBCT research related to the TMJ, clinical decision-making and concluding remarks are added. CBCT has emerged as a cost- and dose-effective imaging modality for the diagnostic assessment of a variety of TMJ conditions. The imaging modality has been found to be superior to conventional radiographical examinations as well as MRI in assessment of the TMJ. However, it should be emphasized that the diagnostic information obtained is limited to the morphology of the osseous joint components, cortical bone integrity and subcortical bone destruction/production. For evaluation of soft-tissue abnormalities, MRI is mandatory. There is an obvious need for research on the impact of CBCT examinations on patient outcome. PMID:25369205

  16. Development of a new metal artifact reduction algorithm by using an edge preserving method for CBCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Juhye; Nam, Haewon; Lee, Rena

    2015-07-01

    CT (computed tomography) images, metal materials such as tooth supplements or surgical clips can cause metal artifact and degrade image quality. In severe cases, this may lead to misdiagnosis. In this research, we developed a new MAR (metal artifact reduction) algorithm by using an edge preserving filter and the MATLAB program (Mathworks, version R2012a). The proposed algorithm consists of 6 steps: image reconstruction from projection data, metal segmentation, forward projection, interpolation, applied edge preserving smoothing filter, and new image reconstruction. For an evaluation of the proposed algorithm, we obtained both numerical simulation data and data for a Rando phantom. In the numerical simulation data, four metal regions were added into the Shepp Logan phantom for metal artifacts. The projection data of the metal-inserted Rando phantom were obtained by using a prototype CBCT scanner manufactured by medical engineering and medical physics (MEMP) laboratory research group in medical science at Ewha Womans University. After these had been adopted the proposed algorithm was performed, and the result were compared with the original image (with metal artifact without correction) and with a corrected image based on linear interpolation. Both visual and quantitative evaluations were done. Compared with the original image with metal artifacts and with the image corrected by using linear interpolation, both the numerical and the experimental phantom data demonstrated that the proposed algorithm reduced the metal artifact. In conclusion, the evaluation in this research showed that the proposed algorithm outperformed the interpolation based MAR algorithm. If an optimization and a stability evaluation of the proposed algorithm can be performed, the developed algorithm is expected to be an effective tool for eliminating metal artifacts even in commercial CT systems.

  17. Application of 4D resistivity image profiling to detect DNAPLs plume.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Yang, C.; Tsai, Y.

    2008-12-01

    In July 1993, the soil and groundwater of the factory of Taiwan , Miaoli was found to be contaminated by dichloroethane, chlorobenzene and other hazardous solvents. The contaminants were termed to be dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The contaminated site was neglected for the following years until May 1998, the Environment Protection Agency of Miaoli ordered the company immediately take an action for treatment of the contaminated site. Excavating and exposing the contaminated soil was done at the previous waste DNAPL dumped area. In addition, more than 53 wells were drilled around the pool with a maximum depth of 12 m where a clayey layer was found. Continuous pumping the groundwater and monitoring the concentration of residual DNAPL contained in the well water samples have done in different stages of remediation. However, it is suspected that the DNAPL has existed for a long time, therefore the contaminants might dilute but remnants of a DNAPL plume that are toxic to humans still remain in the soil and migrate to deeper aquifers. A former contaminated site was investigated using the 2D, 3D and 4D resisitivity image technique, with aims of determining buried contaminant geometry. This paper emphasizes the use of resistivity image profiling (RIP) method to map the limit of this DNAPL waste disposal site where the records of operations are not variations. A significant change in resistivity values was detected between known polluted and non-polluted subsurface; a high resistivity value implies that the subsurface was contaminated by DNAPL plume. The results of the survey serve to provide insight into the sensitivity of RIP method for detecting DNAPL plumes within the shallow subsurface, and help to provide valuable information related to monitoring the possible migration path of DNAPL plume in the past. According to the formerly studies in this site, affiliation by excavates with pumps water remediation had very long time, Therefore this research was used

  18. SU-E-J-103: Setup Errors Analysis by Cone-Beam CT (CBCT)-Based Imaged-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H; Wang, W; Hu, W; Chen, X; Wang, X; Yu, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify setup errors by pretreatment kilovolt cone-beam computed tomography(KV-CBCT) scans for middle or distal esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods: Fifty-two consecutive middle or distal esophageal carcinoma patients who underwent IMRT were included this study. A planning CT scan using a big-bore CT simulator was performed in the treatment position and was used as the reference scan for image registration with CBCT. CBCT scans(On-Board Imaging v1. 5 system, Varian Medical Systems) were acquired daily during the first treatment week. A total of 260 CBCT scans was assessed with a registration clip box defined around the PTV-thorax in the reference scan based on(nine CBCTs per patient) bony anatomy using Offline Review software v10.0(Varian Medical Systems). The anterior-posterior(AP), left-right(LR), superiorinferior( SI) corrections were recorded. The systematic and random errors were calculated. The CTV-to-PTV margins in each CBCT frequency was based on the Van Herk formula (2.5Σ+0.7σ). Results: The SD of systematic error (Σ) was 2.0mm, 2.3mm, 3.8mm in the AP, LR and SI directions, respectively. The average random error (σ) was 1.6mm, 2.4mm, 4.1mm in the AP, LR and SI directions, respectively. The CTV-to-PTV safety margin was 6.1mm, 7.5mm, 12.3mm in the AP, LR and SI directions based on van Herk formula. Conclusion: Our data recommend the use of 6 mm, 8mm, and 12 mm for esophageal carcinoma patient setup in AP, LR, SI directions, respectively.

  19. Posterior kV-CBCT scanning of the head and neck region minimizes doses to critical organs with sustained image quality.

    PubMed

    Khamfongkhruea, Chirasak; Utapom, Kitsana; Munsing, Siwapon; Suttiprapha, Sittipong; Tannanonta, Chirapha; Yabsantia, Sumalee

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the absorbed dose to critical organs, as well as the image quality, at different partial angles in kV-CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) scanning of the head and neck region. CBCT images of phantom from a 200° rotation were performed by using three different scanning paths, anterior, posterior, and right lateral with Catphan504 and RANDO phantoms. Critical organ dose was measured using TLD 100H in the RANDO phantom. The image quality of those phantoms was evaluated, using HU uniformity, HU linearity, contrast-to-noise ratio, low contrast visibility and spatial resolution with the Catphan504 dataset; and 5-point grading scales for the RANDO phantom dataset by five radiation oncologists. The image qualities from Catphan504 and RANDO phantom of every scanning path were comparable, with no statistically significant difference (p ≥ 0.05). However, there was a significant difference in the critical organ dose in all paths (p < 0.05), depending on the critical organ location and the scanning direction. Scanning directions show no effects on the image quality. Differences in absorbed dose to critical organs should were evaluated. The posterior scanning path for the CBCT was deemed preferable due because of considerably lower doses to several critical organs of the head and neck region. PMID:25921330

  20. Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) for Prostate Cancer Comparing kV Imaging of Fiducial Markers With Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, Brandon M.; Lee, R. Jeffrey; Handrahan, Diana; Welsh, Keith T.; Cook, J. Taylor; Sause, William T.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To present our single-institution experience with image-guided radiotherapy comparing fiducial markers and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for daily localization of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From April 2007 to October 2008, 36 patients with prostate cancer received intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily localization by use of implanted fiducials. Orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) portal imaging preceded all 1244 treatments. Cone-beam computed tomography images were also obtained before 286 treatments (23%). Shifts in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right (LR) dimensions were made from kV fiducial imaging. Cone-beam computed tomography shifts based on soft tissues were recorded. Shifts were compared by use of Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Mean and standard deviation of absolute differences were also compared. A difference of 5 mm or less was acceptable. Subsets including start date, body mass index, and prostate size were analyzed. Results: Of 286 treatments, 81 (28%) resulted in a greater than 5.0-mm difference in one or more dimensions. Mean differences in the AP, SI, and LR dimensions were 3.4 {+-} 2.6 mm, 3.1 {+-} 2.7 mm, and 1.3 {+-} 1.6 mm, respectively. Most deviations occurred in the posterior (fiducials, 78%; CBCT, 59%), superior (79%, 61%), and left (57%, 63%) directions. Bland-Altman 95% confidence intervals were -4.0 to 9.3 mm for AP, -9.0 to 5.3 mm for SI, and -4.1 to 3.9 mm for LR. The percentages of shift agreements within {+-}5 mm were 72.4% for AP, 72.7% for SI, and 97.2% for LR. Correlation between imaging techniques was not altered by time, body mass index, or prostate size. Conclusions: Cone-beam computed tomography and kV fiducial imaging are similar; however, more than one-fourth of CBCT and kV shifts differed enough to affect target coverage. This was even more pronounced with smaller margins (3 mm). Fiducial imaging requires less daily physician input, is less time-consuming, and is

  1. Edge preserving smoothing and segmentation of 4-D images via transversely isotropic scale-space processing and fingerprint analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reutter, Bryan W.; Algazi, V. Ralph; Gullberg, Grant T; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2004-01-19

    Enhancements are described for an approach that unifies edge preserving smoothing with segmentation of time sequences of volumetric images, based on differential edge detection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Potential applications of these 4-D methods include segmentation of respiratory gated positron emission tomography (PET) transmission images to improve accuracy of attenuation correction for imaging heart and lung lesions, and segmentation of dynamic cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images to facilitate unbiased estimation of time-activity curves and kinetic parameters for left ventricular volumes of interest. Improved segmentation of lung surfaces in simulated respiratory gated cardiac PET transmission images is achieved with a 4-D edge detection operator composed of edge preserving 1-D operators applied in various spatial and temporal directions. Smoothing along the axis of a 1-D operator is driven by structure separation seen in the scale-space fingerprint, rather than by image contrast. Spurious noise structures are reduced with use of small-scale isotropic smoothing in directions transverse to the 1-D operator axis. Analytic expressions are obtained for directional derivatives of the smoothed, edge preserved image, and the expressions are used to compose a 4-D operator that detects edges as zero-crossings in the second derivative in the direction of the image intensity gradient. Additional improvement in segmentation is anticipated with use of multiscale transversely isotropic smoothing and a novel interpolation method that improves the behavior of the directional derivatives. The interpolation method is demonstrated on a simulated 1-D edge and incorporation of the method into the 4-D algorithm is described.

  2. SU-E-J-160: Comparing the Setup Accuracy of Non-Ionizing Patient Localization Systems with CBCT to Reduce Imaging Dose in Prone Breast Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, E; Yamamoto, T; Mayadev, J; Dieterich, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: CBCT is the current gold standard to verify prone breast patient setup. We investigated in a phantom if non-ionizing localization systems can replace ionizing localization systems for prone breast treatments. Methods: An anthropomorphic phantom was positioned on a prone breast board. Electromagnetic transponders were attached on the left chest surface. The CT images of the phantom were imported to the treatment planning system. The isocenter was set to the center of the transponders. The positions of the isocenter and transponders transferred to the transponder tracking system. The posterior phantom surface was contoured and exported to the optical surface tracking system. A CBCT was taken for the initial setup alignment on the treatment machine. Using the electromagnetic and optical localization systems, the deviation of the phantom setup from the original CT images was measured. This was compared with the difference between the original CT and kV-CBCT images. Results: For the electromagnetic localization system, the phantom position deviated from the original CT in 1.5 mm, 0.0 mm and 0.5 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI) and left-right (LR) directions. For the optical localization system, the phantom position deviated from the original CT in 2.0 mm, −2.0 mm and 0.1 mm in the AP, SI and LR directions. For the CBCT, the phantom position deviated from the original CT in 4.0 mm, 1.0 mm and −1.0 mm in the AP, SI and LR directions. The measured values from the non-ionizing localization systems differed from those with the CBCT less than 3.0 mm in all directions. Conclusions: This phantom study showed the feasibility of using a combination of non-ionizing localization systems to achieve a similar setup accuracy as CBCT for prone breast patients. This could potentially eliminate imaging dose. As a next step, we are expanding this study to actual patients. This work has been in part supported by Departmental Research Award RODEPT1-JS

  3. TH-E-BRF-02: 4D-CT Ventilation Image-Based IMRT Plans Are Dosimetrically Comparable to SPECT Ventilation Image-Based Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kida, S; Bal, M; Kabus, S; Loo, B; Keall, P; Yamamoto, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: An emerging lung ventilation imaging method based on 4D-CT can be used in radiotherapy to selectively avoid irradiating highly-functional lung regions, which may reduce pulmonary toxicity. Efforts to validate 4DCT ventilation imaging have been focused on comparison with other imaging modalities including SPECT and xenon CT. The purpose of this study was to compare 4D-CT ventilation image-based functional IMRT plans with SPECT ventilation image-based plans as reference. Methods: 4D-CT and SPECT ventilation scans were acquired for five thoracic cancer patients in an IRB-approved prospective clinical trial. The ventilation images were created by quantitative analysis of regional volume changes (a surrogate for ventilation) using deformable image registration of the 4D-CT images. A pair of 4D-CT ventilation and SPECT ventilation image-based IMRT plans was created for each patient. Regional ventilation information was incorporated into lung dose-volume objectives for IMRT optimization by assigning different weights on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The objectives and constraints of the other structures in the plan were kept identical. The differences in the dose-volume metrics have been evaluated and tested by a paired t-test. SPECT ventilation was used to calculate the lung functional dose-volume metrics (i.e., mean dose, V20 and effective dose) for both 4D-CT ventilation image-based and SPECT ventilation image-based plans. Results: Overall there were no statistically significant differences in any dose-volume metrics between the 4D-CT and SPECT ventilation imagebased plans. For example, the average functional mean lung dose of the 4D-CT plans was 26.1±9.15 (Gy), which was comparable to 25.2±8.60 (Gy) of the SPECT plans (p = 0.89). For other critical organs and PTV, nonsignificant differences were found as well. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that 4D-CT ventilation image-based functional IMRT plans are dosimetrically comparable to SPECT ventilation image

  4. 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. PMID:26758496

  5. 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations.

  6. Applying an animal model to quantify the uncertainties of an image-based 4D-CT algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Greg; Wang, Kevin; Battista, Jerry; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use an animal model to quantify the spatial displacement uncertainties and test the fundamental assumptions of an image-based 4D-CT algorithm in vivo. Six female Landrace cross pigs were ventilated and imaged using a 64-slice CT scanner (GE Healthcare) operating in axial cine mode. The breathing amplitude pattern of the pigs was varied by periodically crimping the ventilator gas return tube during the image acquisition. The image data were used to determine the displacement uncertainties that result from matching CT images at the same respiratory phase using normalized cross correlation (NCC) as the matching criteria. Additionally, the ability to match the respiratory phase of a 4.0 cm subvolume of the thorax to a reference subvolume using only a single overlapping 2D slice from the two subvolumes was tested by varying the location of the overlapping matching image within the subvolume and examining the effect this had on the displacement relative to the reference volume. The displacement uncertainty resulting from matching two respiratory images using NCC ranged from 0.54 ± 0.10 mm per match to 0.32 ± 0.16 mm per match in the lung of the animal. The uncertainty was found to propagate in quadrature, increasing with number of NCC matches performed. In comparison, the minimum displacement achievable if two respiratory images were matched perfectly in phase ranged from 0.77 ± 0.06 to 0.93 ± 0.06 mm in the lung. The assumption that subvolumes from separate cine scan could be matched by matching a single overlapping 2D image between to subvolumes was validated. An in vivo animal model was developed to test an image-based 4D-CT algorithm. The uncertainties associated with using NCC to match the respiratory phase of two images were quantified and the assumption that a 4.0 cm 3D subvolume can by matched in respiratory phase by matching a single 2D image from the 3D subvolume was validated. The work in this paper shows the image-based 4D

  7. SU-D-17A-04: The Impact of Audiovisual Biofeedback On Image Quality During 4D Functional and Anatomic Imaging: Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, P; Pollock, S; Yang, J; Diehn, M; Berger, J; Graves, E; Loo, B; Yamamoto, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The ability of audiovisual (AV) biofeedback to improve breathing regularity has not previously been investigated for functional imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of AV biofeedback on 4D-PET and 4D-CT image quality in a prospective clinical trial. We hypothesized that motion blurring in 4D-PET images and the number of artifacts in 4D-CT images are reduced using AV biofeedback. Methods: AV biofeedback is a real-time, interactive and personalized system designed to help a patient self-regulate his/her breathing using a patient-specific representative waveform and musical guides. In an IRB-approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-PET and 4D-CT images of 10 lung cancer patients were acquired with AV biofeedback (AV) and free breathing (FB). The 4D-PET images in 6 respiratory bins were analyzed for motion blurring by: (1) decrease of GTVPET and (2) increase of SUVmax in 4-DPET compared to 3D-PET. The 4D-CT images were analyzed for artifacts by: (1) comparing normalized cross correlation-based scores (NCCS); and (2) quantifying a visual assessment score (VAS). A two-tailed paired t-test was used to test the hypotheses. Results: The impact of AV biofeedback on 4D-PET and 4D-CT images varied widely between patients, suggesting inconsistent patient comprehension and capability. Overall, the 4D-PET decrease of GTVPET was 2.0±3.0cm3 with AV and 2.3±3.9cm{sup 3} for FB (p=0.61). The 4D-PET increase of SUVmax was 1.6±1.0 with AV and 1.1±0.8 with FB (p=0.002). The 4D-CT NCCS were 0.65±0.27 with AV and 0.60±0.32 for FB (p=0.32). The 4D-CT VAS was 0.0±2.7 (p=ns). Conclusion: A 10-patient study demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of motion blurring of AV over FB for 1/2 functional 4D-PET imaging metrics. No difference between AV and FB was found for 2 anatomic 4D-CT imaging metrics. Future studies will focus on optimizing the human-computer interface and including patient training sessions for improved

  8. Effects of quantum noise in 4D-CT on deformable image registration and derived ventilation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifi, Kujtim; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Feygelman, Vladimir; Budzevich, Mikalai M.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Dilling, Thomas J.; Stevens, Craig W.; van Elmpt, Wouter; Dekker, Andre; Zhang, Geoffrey G.

    2013-11-01

    Quantum noise is common in CT images and is a persistent problem in accurate ventilation imaging using 4D-CT and deformable image registration (DIR). This study focuses on the effects of noise in 4D-CT on DIR and thereby derived ventilation data. A total of six sets of 4D-CT data with landmarks delineated in different phases, called point-validated pixel-based breathing thorax models (POPI), were used in this study. The DIR algorithms, including diffeomorphic morphons (DM), diffeomorphic demons (DD), optical flow and B-spline, were used to register the inspiration phase to the expiration phase. The DIR deformation matrices (DIRDM) were used to map the landmarks. Target registration errors (TRE) were calculated as the distance errors between the delineated and the mapped landmarks. Noise of Gaussian distribution with different standard deviations (SD), from 0 to 200 Hounsfield Units (HU) in amplitude, was added to the POPI models to simulate different levels of quantum noise. Ventilation data were calculated using the ΔV algorithm which calculates the volume change geometrically based on the DIRDM. The ventilation images with different added noise levels were compared using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The root mean square (RMS) values of the landmark TRE over the six POPI models for the four DIR algorithms were stable when the noise level was low (SD <150 HU) and increased with added noise when the level is higher. The most accurate DIR was DD with a mean RMS of 1.5 ± 0.5 mm with no added noise and 1.8 ± 0.5 mm with noise (SD = 200 HU). The DSC values between the ventilation images with and without added noise decreased with the noise level, even when the noise level was relatively low. The DIR algorithm most robust with respect to noise was DM, with mean DSC = 0.89 ± 0.01 and 0.66 ± 0.02 for the top 50% ventilation volumes, as compared between 0 added noise and SD = 30 and 200 HU, respectively. Although the landmark TRE were stable with low noise, the

  9. On the automated definition of mobile target volumes from 4D-CT images for stereotactic body radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Tiezhi; Orton, Nigel P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2005-11-15

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) can be used to treat small lesions in the chest. A vacuum-based immobilization system is used in our clinic for SBRT, and a motion envelope is used in treatment planning. The purpose of this study is to automatically derive motion envelopes using deformable image registration of 4D-CT images, and to assess the effect of abdominal pressure on the motion envelopes. 4D-CT scans at ten phases were acquired prior to treatment for both free and restricted breathing using a vacuum-based immobilization system that includes an abdominal pressure pillow. To study the stability of the motion envelope over the course of treatment, a mid-treatment 4D-CT scan was obtained after delivery of the third fraction for two patients. The planning target volume excluding breathing motion (PTV{sub ex}) was defined on the image set at full exhalation phase and transformed into all other phases using displacement maps from deformable image registration. The motion envelope was obtained as the union of PTV{sub ex} masks of all phases. The ratios of the motion envelope to PTV{sub ex} volume ranged from 1.3 to 2.5. When pressure was applied, the ratios were reduced by as much as 29% compared to free breathing for some patients, but increased by up to 9% for others. The abdominal pressure pillow has more motion restriction effects on the anterior/inferior region of the lung. For one of the two patients for whom the 4D-CT scan was repeated at mid-treatment, the motion envelope was reproducible. However, for the other patient the tumor location and lung motion pattern significantly changed due to changes in the anatomy surrounding the tumor during the course of treatment, indicating that an image-guided approach to SBRT may increase the efficacy of this treatment.

  10. Whole-body direct 4D parametric PET imaging employing nested generalized Patlak expectation–maximization reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Casey, Michael E.; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body (WB) dynamic PET has recently demonstrated its potential in translating the quantitative benefits of parametric imaging to the clinic. Post-reconstruction standard Patlak (sPatlak) WB graphical analysis utilizes multi-bed multi-pass PET acquisition to produce quantitative WB images of the tracer influx rate K i as a complimentary metric to the semi-quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV). The resulting K i images may suffer from high noise due to the need for short acquisition frames. Meanwhile, a generalized Patlak (gPatlak) WB post-reconstruction method had been suggested to limit K i bias of sPatlak analysis at regions with non-negligible 18F-FDG uptake reversibility; however, gPatlak analysis is non-linear and thus can further amplify noise. In the present study, we implemented, within the open-source software for tomographic image reconstruction platform, a clinically adoptable 4D WB reconstruction framework enabling efficient estimation of sPatlak and gPatlak images directly from dynamic multi-bed PET raw data with substantial noise reduction. Furthermore, we employed the optimization transfer methodology to accelerate 4D expectation–maximization (EM) convergence by nesting the fast image-based estimation of Patlak parameters within each iteration cycle of the slower projection-based estimation of dynamic PET images. The novel gPatlak 4D method was initialized from an optimized set of sPatlak ML-EM iterations to facilitate EM convergence. Initially, realistic simulations were conducted utilizing published 18F-FDG kinetic parameters coupled with the XCAT phantom. Quantitative analyses illustrated enhanced K i target-to-background ratio (TBR) and especially contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) performance for the 4D versus the indirect methods and static SUV. Furthermore, considerable convergence acceleration was observed for the nested algorithms involving 10–20 sub-iterations. Moreover, systematic reduction in K i % bias and improved TBR were

  11. Whole-body direct 4D parametric PET imaging employing nested generalized Patlak expectation-maximization reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Casey, Michael E; Lodge, Martin A; Rahmim, Arman; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body (WB) dynamic PET has recently demonstrated its potential in translating the quantitative benefits of parametric imaging to the clinic. Post-reconstruction standard Patlak (sPatlak) WB graphical analysis utilizes multi-bed multi-pass PET acquisition to produce quantitative WB images of the tracer influx rate K i as a complimentary metric to the semi-quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV). The resulting K i images may suffer from high noise due to the need for short acquisition frames. Meanwhile, a generalized Patlak (gPatlak) WB post-reconstruction method had been suggested to limit K i bias of sPatlak analysis at regions with non-negligible (18)F-FDG uptake reversibility; however, gPatlak analysis is non-linear and thus can further amplify noise. In the present study, we implemented, within the open-source software for tomographic image reconstruction platform, a clinically adoptable 4D WB reconstruction framework enabling efficient estimation of sPatlak and gPatlak images directly from dynamic multi-bed PET raw data with substantial noise reduction. Furthermore, we employed the optimization transfer methodology to accelerate 4D expectation-maximization (EM) convergence by nesting the fast image-based estimation of Patlak parameters within each iteration cycle of the slower projection-based estimation of dynamic PET images. The novel gPatlak 4D method was initialized from an optimized set of sPatlak ML-EM iterations to facilitate EM convergence. Initially, realistic simulations were conducted utilizing published (18)F-FDG kinetic parameters coupled with the XCAT phantom. Quantitative analyses illustrated enhanced K i target-to-background ratio (TBR) and especially contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) performance for the 4D versus the indirect methods and static SUV. Furthermore, considerable convergence acceleration was observed for the nested algorithms involving 10-20 sub-iterations. Moreover, systematic reduction in K i % bias and improved TBR were

  12. Real-time dynamic display of registered 4D cardiac MR and ultrasound images using a GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Huang, X.; Eagleson, R.; Guiraudon, G.; Peters, T. M.

    2007-03-01

    In minimally invasive image-guided surgical interventions, different imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US), can provide complementary, multi-spectral image information. Multimodality dynamic image registration is a well-established approach that permits real-time diagnostic information to be enhanced by placing lower-quality real-time images within a high quality anatomical context. For the guidance of cardiac procedures, it would be valuable to register dynamic MRI or CT with intraoperative US. However, in practice, either the high computational cost prohibits such real-time visualization of volumetric multimodal images in a real-world medical environment, or else the resulting image quality is not satisfactory for accurate guidance during the intervention. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) provide the programmability, parallelism and increased computational precision to begin to address this problem. In this work, we first outline our research on dynamic 3D cardiac MR and US image acquisition, real-time dual-modality registration and US tracking. Then we describe image processing and optimization techniques for 4D (3D + time) cardiac image real-time rendering. We also present our multimodality 4D medical image visualization engine, which directly runs on a GPU in real-time by exploiting the advantages of the graphics hardware. In addition, techniques such as multiple transfer functions for different imaging modalities, dynamic texture binding, advanced texture sampling and multimodality image compositing are employed to facilitate the real-time display and manipulation of the registered dual-modality dynamic 3D MR and US cardiac datasets.

  13. SU-E-J-02: 4D Digital Tomosynthesis Based On Algebraic Image Reconstruction and Total-Variation Minimization for the Improvement of Image Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, T; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this paper, we implemented the four-dimensional (4D) digital tomosynthesis (DTS) imaging based on algebraic image reconstruction technique and total-variation minimization method in order to compensate the undersampled projection data and improve the image quality. Methods: The projection data were acquired as supposed the cone-beam computed tomography system in linear accelerator by the Monte Carlo simulation and the in-house 4D digital phantom generation program. We performed 4D DTS based upon simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) among the iterative image reconstruction technique and total-variation minimization method (TVMM). To verify the effectiveness of this reconstruction algorithm, we performed systematic simulation studies to investigate the imaging performance. Results: The 4D DTS algorithm based upon the SART and TVMM seems to give better results than that based upon the existing method, or filtered-backprojection. Conclusion: The advanced image reconstruction algorithm for the 4D DTS would be useful to validate each intra-fraction motion during radiation therapy. In addition, it will be possible to give advantage to real-time imaging for the adaptive radiation therapy. This research was supported by Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program (Grant No.2009-00420) and Basic Atomic Energy Research Institute (BAERI); (Grant No. 2009-0078390) through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP)

  14. One-year analysis of Elekta CBCT image quality using NPS and MTF.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Satomi; Tachibana, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The image quality (IQ) of imaging systems must be sufficiently high for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Hence, users should implement a quality assurance program to maintain IQ. In our routine IQ tests of the kV cone-beam CT system (Elekta XVI), image noise was quantified by noise standard deviation (NSD), which was the standard deviation of CT numbers measured in a small area in an image of an IQ test phantom (Catphan), and the high spatial resolution (HSR) was evaluated by the number of line-pairs (LPN) visually recognizable in the image. We also measured the image uniformity, the low contrast resolution, and the distances of two points for geometrical accuracy. For this study, we did an additional evaluation of the XVI data for 12 monthly IQ tests by using noise power spectrum (NPS) for noise, modulation transfer function (MTF) for HSR, and CT number-to-density relationship. NPS was obtained by applying Fourier analysis in a small area on the uniformity test section of Catphan. The MTF analysis was performed by applying the Droege-Morin (D-M) method to the line-pair bar regions in the phantom. The CT number-to-density relationship was obtained for insert materials in the low-contrast test section of the phantom. All the quantities showed a noticeable change over the one-year period. Especially the noise level improved significantly after a repair of the imager. NPS was more sensitive to the IQ change than NSD. MTF could provide more quantitative and objective evaluation of HSR. The CT number was very different from the expected CT number, but the CT number-to-density curves were constant within 5% except for two months. Since the D-M method is easy to implement, we recommend using MTF instead of LPN even for routine QA. The IQ of the imaging systems was constantly changing; hence, IQ tests should be periodically performed. Additionally, we found the importance of IQ tests after every service work, including detector calibration as well as preventive

  15. SU-E-J-157: Improving the Quality of T2-Weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Clinical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, D; Mutic, S; Hu, Y; Caruthers, S; Glide-Hurst, C; Low, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop an imaging technique that enables us to acquire T2- weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (4DMRI) with sufficient spatial coverage, temporal resolution and spatial resolution for clinical evaluation. Methods: T2-weighed 4DMRI images were acquired from a healthy volunteer using a respiratory amplitude triggered T2-weighted Turbo Spin Echo sequence. 10 respiratory states were used to equally sample the respiratory range based on amplitude (0%, 20%i, 40%i, 60%i, 80%i, 100%, 80%e, 60%e, 40%e and 20%e). To avoid frequent scanning halts, a methodology was devised that split 10 respiratory states into two packages in an interleaved manner and packages were acquired separately. Sixty 3mm sagittal slices at 1.5mm in-plane spatial resolution were acquired to offer good spatial coverage and reasonable spatial resolution. The in-plane field of view was 375mm × 260mm with nominal scan time of 3 minutes 42 seconds. Acquired 2D images at the same respiratory state were combined to form the 3D image set corresponding to that respiratory state and reconstructed in the coronal view to evaluate whether all slices were at the same respiratory state. 3D image sets of 10 respiratory states represented a complete 4D MRI image set. Results: T2-weighted 4DMRI image were acquired in 10 minutes which was within clinical acceptable range. Qualitatively, the acquired MRI images had good image quality for delineation purposes. There were no abrupt position changes in reconstructed coronal images which confirmed that all sagittal slices were in the same respiratory state. Conclusion: We demonstrated it was feasible to acquire T2-weighted 4DMRI image set within a practical amount of time (10 minutes) that had good temporal resolution (10 respiratory states), spatial resolution (1.5mm × 1.5mm × 3.0mm) and spatial coverage (60 slices) for future clinical evaluation.

  16. Correlation between internal fiducial tumor motion and external marker motion for liver tumors imaged with 4D-CT

    SciTech Connect

    Beddar, A. Sam . E-mail: abeddar@mdanderson.org; Kainz, Kristofer; Briere, Tina Marie; Tsunashima, Yoshikazu; Pan Tinsu; Prado, Karl; Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael; Krishnan, Sunil

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: We investigated the correlation between the motions of an external marker and internal fiducials implanted in the liver for 8 patients undergoing respiratory-based computed tomography (four-dimensional CT [4D-CT]) procedures. Methods and Materials: The internal fiducials were gold seeds, 3 mm in length and 1.2 mm in diameter. Four patients each had one implanted fiducial, and the other four had three implanted fiducials. The external marker was a plastic box, which is part of the Real-Time Position Management System (RPM) used to track the patient's respiration. Each patient received a standard helical CT scan followed by a time-correlated CT-image acquisition (4D-CT). The 4D-CT images were reconstructed in 10 separate phases covering the entire respiratory cycle. Results: The internal fiducial motion is predominant in the superior-inferior direction, with a range of 7.5-17.5 mm. The correlation between external respiration and internal fiducial motion is best during expiration. For 2 patients with their three fiducials separated by a maximum of 3.2 cm, the motions of the fiducials were well correlated, whereas for 2 patients with more widely spaced fiducials, there was less correlation. Conclusions: In general, there is a good correlation between internal fiducial motion imaged by 4D-CT and external marker motion. We have demonstrated that gating may be best performed at the end of the respiratory cycle. Special attention should be paid to gating for patients whose fiducials do not move in synchrony, because targeting on the correct respiratory amplitude alone would not guarantee that the entire tumor volume is within the treatment field.

  17. 4-D Photoacoustic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy. PMID:23346370

  18. 4-D Photoacoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy.

  19. Feasibility study of a synchronized-moving-grid (SMOG) system to improve image quality in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Lei; Yin Fangfang; Chetty, Indrin J.; Jaffray, David A.; Jin Jianyue

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a synchronized moving grid (SMOG) system to remove scatter artifacts, improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and reduce image lag artifacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT). Methods: The SMOG system proposed here uses a rapidly oscillating, synchronized moving grid attached to the kV source. Multiple partial projections are taken at different grid positions to form a complete projection in each gantry position, before the gantry moves to the next position during a scan. The grid has a low transmission factor, and it is used for both scatter reduction and scatter measurement for postscan scatter correction. Experimental studies using a static grid and an enlarged CATphan phantom were performed to evaluate the potential CNR enhancement for different SMOG exposure numbers (1, 2, and 4). Simulation studies were performed to evaluate the image lag correction for different exposure numbers (2, 3, and 4) and grid interspace widths in SMOG using the data from an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom scan. Imaging dose of SMOG was also estimated by measuring the imaging dose in a CIRS CT dose phantom using a static grid. Results: SMOG can enhance the CNR by 16% and 13% when increasing exposure number from 1 to 2 and from 2 to 4, respectively. This enhancement was more dramatic for larger phantoms and smaller initial exposure numbers. Simulation results indicated that SMOG could reduce the lag to less than 4.3% for 2-exposure mode and to less than 0.8% for 3-exposure mode when the grid interspace width was 1.4 cm. Increasing the number of exposures in SMOG dramatically reduced the residual lag in the image. Reducing the grid interspace width somewhat reduced the residual lag. Skin line artifacts were removed entirely in SMOG. Point dose measurement showed that imaging dose of SMOG at isocenter was similar as that of a conventional CBCT. Conclusions: Compared to our previously developed static-grid dual-rotation method, the proposed SMOG technique

  20. Advanced image reconstruction strategies for 4D prostate DCE-MRI: steps toward clinical practicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, Eric G.; Borisch, Eric A.; Froemming, Adam T.; Kawashima, Akira; Young, Phillip M.; Warndahl, Brent A.; Grimm, Roger C.; Manduca, Armando; Riederer, Stephen J.; Trzasko, Joshua D.

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is an important tool for the detection and characterization of primary and recurring prostate cancer. Advanced reconstruction strategies (e.g., sparse or low-rank regression) provide improved depiction of contrast dynamics and pharmacokinetic parameters; however, the high computation cost of reconstructing 4D (3D+time, 50+ frames) datasets typically inhibits their routine clinical use. Here, a novel alternating direction method-of-multipliers (ADMM) optimization strategy is described that enables these methods to be executed in ∠5 minutes, and thus within the standard clinical workflow. After overviewing the mechanics of this approach, high-performance implementation strategies will be discussed and demonstrated through clinical cases.

  1. Deblurring in iterative reconstruction of half CBCT for image guided brain radiosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, SayedMasoud; Lee, Young; Eriksson, Markus; Nordström, Hâkan; Song, Bongyong; Nam, Wooseok; Sahgal, Arjun; Song, William; Ruschin, Mark

    2016-03-01

    A high spatial resolution iterative reconstruction algorithm is proposed for a half cone beam CT (HCBCT) geometry. The proposed algorithm improves spatial resolution by explicitly accounting for image blurriness caused by different factors, such as extended X-ray source and detector response. The blurring kernel is estimated using the MTF slice of the Catphan phantom. The proposed algorithm is specifically optimized for the new Leksell Gamma Knife Icon (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) which incorporates the HCBCT geometry to accommodate the existing treatment couch while covering down to the base-of-skull in the reconstructed field-of-view. Image reconstruction involves a Fourier-based scaling simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) coupled with total variation (TV) minimization and non-local mean denoising, solved using a split Bregman separation technique that splits the reconstruction problem into a gradient based updating step and a TV-based deconvolution algorithm. This formulation preserves edges and reduces the staircase effect caused by regular TV-penalized iterative algorithms. Our experiments indicate that our proposed method outperforms the conventional filtered back projection and TV penalized SART methods in terms of line pair resolution and retains the favorable properties of the standard TV-penalized reconstruction.

  2. 2D–3D radiograph to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) registration for C-arm image-guided robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen Pei; Otake, Yoshito; Azizian, Mahdi; Wagner, Oliver J.; Sorger, Jonathan M.; Armand, Mehran; Taylor, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose C-arm radiographs are commonly used for intraoperative image guidance in surgical interventions. Fluoroscopy is a cost-effective real-time modality, although image quality can vary greatly depending on the target anatomy. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are sometimes available, so 2D–3D registration is needed for intra-procedural guidance. C-arm radiographs were registered to CBCT scans and used for 3D localization of peritumor fiducials during a minimally invasive thoracic intervention with a da Vinci Si robot. Methods Intensity-based 2D–3D registration of intraoperative radiographs to CBCT was performed. The feasible range of X-ray projections achievable by a C-arm positioned around a da Vinci Si surgical robot, configured for robotic wedge resection, was determined using phantom models. Experiments were conducted on synthetic phantoms and animals imaged with an OEC 9600 and a Siemens Artis zeego, representing the spectrum of different C-arm systems currently available for clinical use. Results The image guidance workflow was feasible using either an optically tracked OEC 9600 or a Siemens Artis zeego C-arm, resulting in an angular difference of Δθ : ~ 30°. The two C-arm systems provided TREmean ≤ 2.5 mm and TREmean ≤ 2.0 mm, respectively (i.e., comparable to standard clinical intraoperative navigation systems). Conclusions C-arm 3D localization from dual 2D–3D registered radiographs was feasible and applicable for intraoperative image guidance during da Vinci robotic thoracic interventions using the proposed workflow. Tissue deformation and in vivo experiments are required before clinical evaluation of this system. PMID:25503592

  3. Using kV-kV and CBCT imaging to evaluate rectal cancer patient position when treated prone on a newly available belly board

    SciTech Connect

    Cranmer-Sargison, Gavin; Kundapur, Vijayananda; Tu, Deluan; Ternes, Shyanne; Vachhrajani, Haresh; Sidhu, Narinder P.

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this work was to use daily kV-kV imaging and weekly cone-beam CT (CBCT) to evaluate rectal cancer patient position when treated on a new couch top belly board (BB). Quality assurance (QA) of the imaging system was conducted weekly to ensure proper performance. The positional uncertainty of the combined kV-kV image match and subsequent couch move was found to be no more than {+-} 1.0 mm. The average (1 SD) CBCT QA phantom match was anterior-posterior (AP) = -0.8 {+-} 0.2 mm, superior-inferior (SI) = 0.9 {+-} 0.2 mm, and left-right (LR) = -0.1 {+-} 0.1 mm. For treatment, a set of orthogonal kV-kV images were taken and a bony anatomy match performed online. Moves were made along each axis (AP, SI, and LR) and recorded for analysis. CBCT data were acquired once every 5 fractions for a total of 5 images per patient. The images were all taken after the couch move but before treatment. A 3-dimensional (3D-3D) bony anatomy auto-match was performed offline and the residual difference in position recorded for analysis. The average ({+-} 1 SD) move required from skin marks, calculated over all 375 fractions (15 patients Multiplication-Sign 25 fractions/patient), were AP = -2.6 {+-} 3.7 mm, SI = -0.3 {+-} 4.9 mm, and LR = 1.8 {+-} 4.5 mm. The average residual difference in patient position calculated from the weekly CBCT data (75 total) were AP = -1.7 {+-} 0.4 mm, SI = 1.1 {+-} 0.6 mm, and LR = -0.5 {+-} 0.2 mm. These results show that the BB does provide simple patient positioning that is accurate to within {+-} 2.0 mm when using online orthogonal kV-kV image matching of the pelvic bony anatomy.

  4. SU-E-J-114: A Practical Hybrid Method for Improving the Quality of CT-CBCT Deformable Image Registration for Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C; Kumarasiri, A; Chetvertkov, M; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Siddiqui, F; Kim, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate deformable image registration (DIR) between CT and CBCT in H&N is challenging. In this study, we propose a practical hybrid method that uses not only the pixel intensities but also organ physical properties, structure volume of interest (VOI), and interactive local registrations. Methods: Five oropharyngeal cancer patients were selected retrospectively. For each patient, the planning CT was registered to the last fraction CBCT, where the anatomy difference was largest. A three step registration strategy was tested; Step1) DIR using pixel intensity only, Step2) DIR with additional use of structure VOI and rigidity penalty, and Step3) interactive local correction. For Step1, a public-domain open-source DIR algorithm was used (cubic B-spline, mutual information, steepest gradient optimization, and 4-level multi-resolution). For Step2, rigidity penalty was applied on bony anatomies and brain, and a structure VOI was used to handle the body truncation such as the shoulder cut-off on CBCT. Finally, in Step3, the registrations were reviewed on our in-house developed software and the erroneous areas were corrected via a local registration using level-set motion algorithm. Results: After Step1, there were considerable amount of registration errors in soft tissues and unrealistic stretching in the posterior to the neck and near the shoulder due to body truncation. The brain was also found deformed to a measurable extent near the superior border of CBCT. Such errors could be effectively removed by using a structure VOI and rigidity penalty. The rest of the local soft tissue error could be corrected using the interactive software tool. The estimated interactive correction time was approximately 5 minutes. Conclusion: The DIR using only the image pixel intensity was vulnerable to noise and body truncation. A corrective action was inevitable to achieve good quality of registrations. We found the proposed three-step hybrid method efficient and practical for CT/CBCT

  5. Impact of CT attenuation correction method on quantitative respiratory-correlated (4D) PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nyflot, Matthew J.; Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Wollenweber, Scott D.; Stearns, Charles W.; Bowen, Stephen R.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-correlated positron emission tomography (PET/CT) 4D PET/CT is used to mitigate errors from respiratory motion; however, the optimal CT attenuation correction (CTAC) method for 4D PET/CT is unknown. The authors performed a phantom study to evaluate the quantitative performance of CTAC methods for 4D PET/CT in the ground truth setting. Methods: A programmable respiratory motion phantom with a custom movable insert designed to emulate a lung lesion and lung tissue was used for this study. The insert was driven by one of five waveforms: two sinusoidal waveforms or three patient-specific respiratory waveforms. 3DPET and 4DPET images of the phantom under motion were acquired and reconstructed with six CTAC methods: helical breath-hold (3DHEL), helical free-breathing (3DMOT), 4D phase-averaged (4DAVG), 4D maximum intensity projection (4DMIP), 4D phase-matched (4DMATCH), and 4D end-exhale (4DEXH) CTAC. Recovery of SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, SUV{sub peak}, and segmented tumor volume was evaluated as RC{sub max}, RC{sub mean}, RC{sub peak}, and RC{sub vol}, representing percent difference relative to the static ground truth case. Paired Wilcoxon tests and Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA were used to test for significant differences. Results: For 4DPET imaging, the maximum intensity projection CTAC produced significantly more accurate recovery coefficients than all other CTAC methods (p < 0.0001 over all metrics). Over all motion waveforms, ratios of 4DMIP CTAC recovery were 0.2 ± 5.4, −1.8 ± 6.5, −3.2 ± 5.0, and 3.0 ± 5.9 for RC{sub max}, RC{sub peak}, RC{sub mean}, and RC{sub vol}. In comparison, recovery coefficients for phase-matched CTAC were −8.4 ± 5.3, −10.5 ± 6.2, −7.6 ± 5.0, and −13.0 ± 7.7 for RC{sub max}, RC{sub peak}, RC{sub mean}, and RC{sub vol}. When testing differences between phases over all CTAC methods and waveforms, end-exhale phases were significantly more accurate (p = 0.005). However, these differences were driven by

  6. WE-G-BRF-03: A Quasi-Cine CBCT Reconstruction Technique for Real-Time On- Board Target Tracking of Lung Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a quasi-cine CBCT reconstruction technique that uses extremely-small angle (∼3°) projections to generate real-time high-quality lung CBCT images. Method: 4D-CBCT is obtained at the beginning and used as prior images. This study uses extremely-small angle (∼3°) on-board projections acquired at a single respiratory phase to reconstruct the CBCT image at this phase. An adaptive constrained free-form deformation (ACFD) method is developed to deform the prior 4D-CBCT volume at the same phase to reconstruct the new CBCT. Quasi-cine CBCT images are obtained by continuously reconstructing CBCT images at subsequent phases every 3° angle (∼0.5s). Note that the prior 4D-CBCT images are dynamically updated using the latest CBCT images. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the efficacy of ACFD. A lung patient was simulated with a tumor baseline shift of 2mm along superior-inferior (SI) direction after every respiratory cycle for 5 cycles. Limited-angle projections were simulated for each cycle. The 4D-CBCT reconstructed by these projections were compared with the ground-truth generated in XCAT.Volume-percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass-shift (COMS) were calculated between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumors to evaluate their geometric differences.The ACFD was also compared to a principal-component-analysis based motion-modeling (MM) method. Results: Using orthogonal-view 3° projections, the VPD/COMS values for tumor baseline shifts of 2mm, 4mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm were 11.0%/0.3mm, 25.3%/2.7mm, 22.4%/2.9mm, 49.5%/5.4mm, 77.2%/8.1mm for the MM method, and 2.9%/0.7mm, 3.9%/0.8mm, 6.2%/1mm, 7.9%/1.2mm, 10.1%/1.1mm for the ACFD method. Using orthogonal-view 0° projections (1 projection only), the ACFD method yielded VPD/COMS results of 5.0%/0.9mm, 10.5%/1.2mm, 15.1%/1.4mm, 20.9%/1.6mm and 24.8%/1.6mm. Using single-view instead of orthogonal-view projections yielded less accurate results for ACFD

  7. WE-G-BRF-09: Force- and Image-Adaptive Strategies for Robotised Placement of 4D Ultrasound Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlemann, I; Bruder, R; Ernst, F; Schweikard, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To allow continuous acquisition of high quality 4D ultrasound images for non-invasive live tracking of tumours for IGRT, image- and force-adaptive strategies for robotised placement of 4D ultrasound probes are developed and evaluated. Methods: The developed robotised ultrasound system is based on a 6-axes industrial robot (adept Viper s850) carrying a 4D ultrasound transducer with a mounted force-torque sensor. The force-adaptive placement strategies include probe position control using artificial potential fields and contact pressure regulation by a PD controller strategy. The basis for live target tracking is a continuous minimum contact pressure to ensure good image quality and high patient comfort. This contact pressure can be significantly disturbed by respiratory movements and has to be compensated. All measurements were performed on human subjects under realistic conditions. When performing cardiac ultrasound, rib- and lung shadows are a common source of interference and can disrupt the tracking. To ensure continuous tracking, these artefacts had to be detected to automatically realign the probe. The detection is realised by multiple algorithms based on entropy calculations as well as a determination of the image quality. Results: Through active contact pressure regulation it was possible to reduce the variance of the contact pressure by 89.79% despite respiratory motion of the chest. The results regarding the image processing clearly demonstrate the feasibility to detect image artefacts like rib shadows in real-time. Conclusion: In all cases, it was possible to stabilise the image quality by active contact pressure control and automatically detected image artefacts. This fact enables the possibility to compensate for such interferences by realigning the probe and thus continuously optimising the ultrasound images. This is a huge step towards fully automated transducer positioning and opens the possibility for stable target tracking in

  8. 4D reconstruction of the past: the image retrieval and 3D model construction pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiprocopis, Andreas; Ioannides, Marinos; Wenzel, Konrad; Rothermel, Mathias; Johnsons, Paul S.; Fritsch, Dieter; Doulamis, Anastasios; Protopapadakis, Eftychios; Kyriakaki, Georgia; Makantasis, Kostas; Weinlinger, Guenther; Klein, Michael; Fellner, Dieter; Stork, Andre; Santos, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Internet era we are living in, is the free and online availability of a huge amount of data. This data is of varied reliability and accuracy and exists in various forms and formats. Often, it is cross-referenced and linked to other data, forming a nexus of text, images, animation and audio enabled by hypertext and, recently, by the Web3.0 standard. Our main goal is to enable historians, architects, archaeolo- gists, urban planners and affiliated professionals to reconstruct views of historical monuments from thousands of images floating around the web. This paper aims to provide an update of our progress in designing and imple- menting a pipeline for searching, filtering and retrieving photographs from Open Access Image Repositories and social media sites and using these images to build accurate 3D models of archaeological monuments as well as enriching multimedia of cultural / archaeological interest with metadata and harvesting the end products to EU- ROPEANA. We provide details of how our implemented software searches and retrieves images of archaeological sites from Flickr and Picasa repositories as well as strategies on how to filter the results, on two levels; a) based on their built-in metadata including geo-location information and b) based on image processing and clustering techniques. We also describe our implementation of a Structure from Motion pipeline designed for producing 3D models using the large collection of 2D input images (>1000) retrieved from Internet Repositories.

  9. 4D optical coherence tomography of the embryonic heart using gated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Michael W.; Rothenberg, Florence; Roy, Debashish; Nikolski, Vladimir P.; Wilson, David L.; Efimov, Igor R.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2005-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to image and diagnose diseases of the human heart. By gating the acquisition of the images to the heart cycle (gated imaging), these modalities enable one to produce 3D images of the heart without significant motion artifact and to more accurately calculate various parameters such as ejection fractions [1-3]. Unfortunately, these imaging modalities give inadequate resolution when investigating embryonic development in animal models. Defects in developmental mechanisms during embryogenesis have long been thought to result in congenital cardiac anomalies. Our understanding of normal mechanisms of heart development and how abnormalities can lead to defects has been hampered by our inability to detect anatomic and physiologic changes in these small (<2mm) organs. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has made it possible to visualize internal structures of the living embryonic heart with high-resolution in two- and threedimensions. OCT offers higher resolution than ultrasound (30 um axial, 90 um lateral) and magnetic resonance microscopy (25 um axial, 31 um lateral) [4, 5], with greater depth penetration over confocal microscopy (200 um). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses back reflected light from a sample to create an image with axial resolutions ranging from 2-15 um, while penetrating 1-2 mm in depth [6]. In the past, OCT groups estimated ejection fractions using 2D images in a Xenopus laevis [7], created 3D renderings of chick embryo hearts [8], and used a gated reconstruction technique to produce 2D Doppler OCT image of an in vivo Xenopus laevis heart [9]. In this paper we present a gated imaging system that allowed us to produce a 16-frame 3D movie of a beating chick embryo heart. The heart was excised from a day two (stage 13) chicken embryo and electrically paced at 1 Hz. We acquired 2D images (B-scans) in 62.5 ms, which provides enough temporal resolution to distinguish end

  10. 4D motion modeling of the coronary arteries from CT images for robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong Ping; Edwards, Eddie; Mei, Lin; Rueckert, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for coronary artery motion modeling from cardiac Computed Tomography( CT) images. The aim of this work is to develop a 4D motion model of the coronaries for image guidance in robotic-assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) surgery. To utilize the pre-operative cardiac images to guide the minimally invasive surgery, it is essential to have a 4D cardiac motion model to be registered with the stereo endoscopic images acquired intraoperatively using the da Vinci robotic system. In this paper, we are investigating the extraction of the coronary arteries and the modelling of their motion from a dynamic sequence of cardiac CT. We use a multi-scale vesselness filter to enhance vessels in the cardiac CT images. The centerlines of the arteries are extracted using a ridge traversal algorithm. Using this method the coronaries can be extracted in near real-time as only local information is used in vessel tracking. To compute the deformation of the coronaries due to cardiac motion, the motion is extracted from a dynamic sequence of cardiac CT. Each timeframe in this sequence is registered to the end-diastole timeframe of the sequence using a non-rigid registration algorithm based on free-form deformations. Once the images have been registered a dynamic motion model of the coronaries can be obtained by applying the computed free-form deformations to the extracted coronary arteries. To validate the accuracy of the motion model we compare the actual position of the coronaries in each time frame with the predicted position of the coronaries as estimated from the non-rigid registration. We expect that this motion model of coronaries can facilitate the planning of TECAB surgery, and through the registration with real-time endoscopic video images it can reduce the conversion rate from TECAB to conventional procedures.

  11. 4D PET iterative deconvolution with spatiotemporal regularization for quantitative dynamic PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Reilhac, Anthonin; Charil, Arnaud; Wimberley, Catriona; Angelis, Georgios; Hamze, Hasar; Callaghan, Paul; Garcia, Marie-Paule; Boisson, Frederic; Ryder, Will; Meikle, Steven R; Gregoire, Marie-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements in dynamic PET imaging are usually limited by the poor counting statistics particularly in short dynamic frames and by the low spatial resolution of the detection system, resulting in partial volume effects (PVEs). In this work, we present a fast and easy to implement method for the restoration of dynamic PET images that have suffered from both PVE and noise degradation. It is based on a weighted least squares iterative deconvolution approach of the dynamic PET image with spatial and temporal regularization. Using simulated dynamic [(11)C] Raclopride PET data with controlled biological variations in the striata between scans, we showed that the restoration method provides images which exhibit less noise and better contrast between emitting structures than the original images. In addition, the method is able to recover the true time activity curve in the striata region with an error below 3% while it was underestimated by more than 20% without correction. As a result, the method improves the accuracy and reduces the variability of the kinetic parameter estimates calculated from the corrected images. More importantly it increases the accuracy (from less than 66% to more than 95%) of measured biological variations as well as their statistical detectivity. PMID:26080302

  12. Evaluation of the cone beam CT for internal target volume localization in lung stereotactic radiotherapy in comparison with 4D MIP images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiaoming; Lin, Mu-Han; Lin, Teh; Fan, Jiajin; Jin, Lihui; Ma, Charlie M.; Xue, Jun

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether the three-dimensional cone-beam CT (CBCT) is clinically equivalent to the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstructed images for internal target volume (ITV) localization in image-guided lung stereotactic radiotherapy.Methods: A ball-shaped polystyrene phantom with built-in cube, sphere, and cone of known volumes was attached to a motor-driven platform, which simulates a sinusoidal movement with changeable motion amplitude and frequency. Target motion was simulated in the patient in a superior-inferior (S-I) direction with three motion periods and 2 cm peak-to-peak amplitudes. The Varian onboard Exact-Arms kV CBCT system and the GE LightSpeed four-slice CT integrated with the respiratory-position-management 4DCT scanner were used to scan the moving phantom. MIP images were generated from the 4DCT images. The clinical equivalence of the two sets of images was evaluated by comparing the extreme locations of the moving objects along the motion direction, the centroid position of the ITV, and the ITV volumes that were contoured automatically by Velocity or calculated with an imaging gradient method. The authors compared the ITV volumes determined by the above methods with those theoretically predicted by taking into account the physical object dimensions and the motion amplitudes. The extreme locations were determined by the gradient method along the S-I axis through the center of the object. The centroid positions were determined by autocenter functions. The effect of motion period on the volume sizes was also studied.Results: It was found that the extreme locations of the objects determined from the two image modalities agreed with each other satisfactorily. They were not affected by the motion period. The average difference between the two modalities in the extreme locations was 0.68% for the cube, 1.35% for the sphere, and 0.5% for the cone, respectively. The maximum difference in the

  13. Iterative 4D cardiac micro-CT image reconstruction using an adaptive spatio-temporal sparsity prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschl, Ludwig; Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Hess, Andreas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Temporal-correlated image reconstruction, also known as 4D CT image reconstruction, is a big challenge in computed tomography. The reasons for incorporating the temporal domain into the reconstruction are motions of the scanned object, which would otherwise lead to motion artifacts. The standard method for 4D CT image reconstruction is extracting single motion phases and reconstructing them separately. These reconstructions can suffer from undersampling artifacts due to the low number of used projections in each phase. There are different iterative methods which try to incorporate some a priori knowledge to compensate for these artifacts. In this paper we want to follow this strategy. The cost function we use is a higher dimensional cost function which accounts for the sparseness of the measured signal in the spatial and temporal directions. This leads to the definition of a higher dimensional total variation. The method is validated using in vivo cardiac micro-CT mouse data. Additionally, we compare the results to phase-correlated reconstructions using the FDK algorithm and a total variation constrained reconstruction, where the total variation term is only defined in the spatial domain. The reconstructed datasets show strong improvements in terms of artifact reduction and low-contrast resolution compared to other methods. Thereby the temporal resolution of the reconstructed signal is not affected.

  14. A novel non-registration based segmentation approach of 4D dynamic upper airway MR images: minimally interactive fuzzy connectedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Sin, Sanghun; Wagshul, Mark E.; Arens, Raanan

    2014-03-01

    There are several disease conditions that lead to upper airway restrictive disorders. In the study of these conditions, it is important to take into account the dynamic nature of the upper airway. Currently, dynamic MRI is the modality of choice for studying these diseases. Unfortunately, the contrast resolution obtainable in the images poses many challenges for an effective segmentation of the upper airway structures. No viable methods have been developed to date to solve this problem. In this paper, we demonstrate the adaptation of the iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC) algorithm for this application as a potential practical tool. After preprocessing to correct for background image non-uniformities and the non-standardness of MRI intensities, seeds are specified for the airway and its crucial background tissue components in only the 3D image corresponding to the first time instance of the 4D volume. Subsequently the process runs without human interaction and completes segmenting the whole 4D volume in 10 sec. Our evaluations indicate that the segmentations are of very good quality achieving true positive and false positive volume fractions and boundary distance with respect to reference manual segmentations of about 93%, 0.1%, and 0.5 mm, respectively.

  15. Comparison between 3D volumetric rendering and multiplanar slices on the reliability of linear measurements on CBCT images: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    FERNANDES, Thais Maria Freire; ADAMCZYK, Julie; POLETI, Marcelo Lupion; HENRIQUES, José Fernando Castanha; FRIEDLAND, Bernard; GARIB, Daniela Gamba

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of two methods of measurements of linear distances (multiplanar 2D and tridimensional reconstruction 3D) obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with different voxel sizes. Material and Methods Ten dry human mandibles were scanned at voxel sizes of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. Craniometric anatomical landmarks were identified twice by two independent operators on the multiplanar reconstructed and on volume rendering images that were generated by the software Dolphin®. Subsequently, physical measurements were performed using a digital caliper. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman were used for evaluating accuracy and reliability (p<0.05). Results Excellent intraobserver reliability and good to high precision interobserver reliability values were found for linear measurements from CBCT 3D and multiplanar images. Measurements performed on multiplanar reconstructed images were more accurate than measurements in volume rendering compared with the gold standard. No statistically significant difference was found between voxel protocols, independently of the measurement method. Conclusions Linear measurements on multiplanar images of 0.2 and 0.4 voxel are reliable and accurate when compared with direct caliper measurements. Caution should be taken in the volume rendering measurements, because the measurements were reliable, but not accurate for all variables. An increased voxel resolution did not result in greater accuracy of mandible measurements and would potentially provide increased patient radiation exposure. PMID:25004053

  16. Actively triggered 4d cone-beam CT acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Martin F.; Wisotzky, Eric; Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 4d cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are usually reconstructed by extracting the motion information from the 2d projections or an external surrogate signal, and binning the individual projections into multiple respiratory phases. In this “after-the-fact” binning approach, however, projections are unevenly distributed over respiratory phases resulting in inefficient utilization of imaging dose. To avoid excess dose in certain respiratory phases, and poor image quality due to a lack of projections in others, the authors have developed a novel 4d CBCT acquisition framework which actively triggers 2d projections based on the forward-predicted position of the tumor.Methods: The forward-prediction of the tumor position was independently established using either (i) an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system based on implanted EM-transponders which act as a surrogate for the tumor position, or (ii) an external motion sensor measuring the chest-wall displacement and correlating this external motion to the phase-shifted diaphragm motion derived from the acquired images. In order to avoid EM-induced artifacts in the imaging detector, the authors devised a simple but effective “Faraday” shielding cage. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of their acquisition strategy by scanning an anthropomorphic lung phantom moving on 1d or 2d sinusoidal trajectories.Results: With both tumor position devices, the authors were able to acquire 4d CBCTs free of motion blurring. For scans based on the EM tracking system, reconstruction artifacts stemming from the presence of the EM-array and the EM-transponders were greatly reduced using newly developed correction algorithms. By tuning the imaging frequency independently for each respiratory phase prior to acquisition, it was possible to harmonize the number of projections over respiratory phases. Depending on the breathing period (3.5 or 5 s) and the gantry rotation time (4 or 5 min), between ∼90 and 145

  17. Accelerated 4D Quantitative Single Point EPR Imaging Using Model-based Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyungseok; Matsumoto, Shingo; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Zhuo, Jiachen; Krishna, Murali C.; McMillan, Alan B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose EPRI has surfaced as a promising non-invasive imaging modality that is capable of imaging tissue oxygenation. Due to extremely short spin-spin relaxation time, EPRI benefits from single point imaging and inherently suffers from limited spatial and temporal resolution, preventing localization of small hypoxic tissues and differentiation of hypoxia dynamics, making accelerated imaging a crucial issue. Method In this study, methods for accelerated single point imaging were developed by combining a bilateral k-space extrapolation technique with model-based reconstruction that benefits from dense sampling in the parameter domain (measurement of the T2* decay of an FID). In bilateral k-space extrapolation, more k-space samples are obtained in a sparsely sampled region by bilaterally extrapolating data from temporally neighboring k-spaces. To improve the accuracy of T2* estimation, a principal component analysis (PCA)-based method was implemented. Result In a computer simulation and a phantom experiment, the proposed methods showed its capability for reliable T2* estimation with high acceleration (8-fold, 15-fold, and 30-fold accelerations for 61×61×61, 95×95×95, and 127×127×127 matrix, respectively). Conclusion By applying bilateral k-space extrapolation and model-based reconstruction, improved scan times with higher spatial resolution can be achieved in the current SP-EPRI modality. PMID:24803382

  18. Evaluation of the Elekta Symmetry ™ 4D IGRT system by using a moving lung phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hun-Joo; Kim, Shin-Wook; Kay, Chul Seung; Seo, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Gi-Woong; Kang, Ki-Mun; Jang, Hong Seok; Kang, Young-nam

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: 4D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a beneficial tool for the treatment of movable tumors because it can help us to understand where the tumors are actually located and it has a precise treatment plan. However, general CBCT images have a limitation in that they cannot perfectly perform a sophisticated registration. On the other hand, the Symmetry TM 4D image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system of Elekta offers a 4D CBCT registration option. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of Symmetry TM . Method and Materials: Planning CT images of the CIRS moving lung phantom were acquired 4D multi-detector CT (MDCT), and the images were sorted as 10 phases from 0% phase to 90% phase. The thickness of the CT images was 1 mm. Acquired MDCT images were transferred to the contouring software, and a virtual target was generated. A one-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan was performed by using the treatment planning system on the virtual target. Finally, the movement of the phantom was verified by using the XVI Symmetry TM system. Results: The physical movement of the CIRS moving lung phantom was ±10.0 mm in the superiorinferior direction, ±1.0 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. The movement of the phantom was measured from the 4D MDCT registration as ±10.2 mm in the superior-inferior direction, ±0.9 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.45 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. The movement of the phantom was measured from the SymmetryTM registration as ±10.1 mm in the superior-inferior direction, ±0.9 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.4 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. Conclusion: We confirmed that 4D CBCT is a beneficial tool for the treatment of movable tumors, and that the 4D registration of SymmetryTM can increase the precision of the registration when a movable tumor is the target of radiation treatment.

  19. Dynamic Multiscale Boundary Conditions for 4D CT Images of Healthy and Emphysematous Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Carson, James P.; Thomas, Mathew; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2013-06-14

    Changes in the shape of the lung during breathing determine the movement of airways and alveoli, and thus impact airflow dynamics. Modeling airflow dynamics in health and disease is a key goal for predictive multiscale models of respiration. Past efforts to model changes in lung shape during breathing have measured shape at multiple breath-holds. However, breath-holds do not capture hysteretic differences between inspiration and expiration resulting from the additional energy required for inspiration. Alternatively, imaging dynamically – without breath-holds – allows measurement of hysteretic differences. In this study, we acquire multiple micro-CT images per breath (4DCT) in live rats, and from these images we develop, for the first time, dynamic volume maps. These maps show changes in local volume across the entire lung throughout the breathing cycle and accurately predict the global pressure-volume (PV) hysteresis.

  20. Dose-Response Relationship for Image-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Pulmonary Tumors: Relevance of 4D Dose Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Guckenberger, Matthias Wulf, Joern; Mueller, Gerd; Krieger, Thomas; Baier, Kurt; Gabor, Manuela; Richter, Anne; Wilbert, Juergen; Flentje, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome after image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pulmonary metastases. Methods and Materials: A total of 124 patients with 159 pulmonary lesions (metastases n = 118; NSCLC, n = 41; Stage IA, n = 13; Stage IB, n = 19; T3N0, n = 9) were treated with SBRT. Patients were treated with hypofractionated schemata (one to eight fractions of 6-26 Gy); biologic effective doses (BED) to the clinical target volume (CTV) were calculated based on four-dimensional (4D) dose calculation. The position of the pulmonary target was verified using volume imaging before all treatments. Results: With mean/median follow-up of 18/14 months, actuarial local control was 83% at 36 months with no difference between NSCLC and metastases. The dose to the CTV based on 4D dose calculation was closely correlated with local control: local control rates were 89% and 62% at 36 months for >100 Gy and <100 Gy BED (p = 0.0001), respectively. Actuarial freedom from regional and systemic progression was 34% at 36 months for primary NSCLC group; crude rate of regional failure was 15%. Three-year overall survival was 37% for primary NSCLC and 16% for metastases; no dose-response relationship for survival was observed. Exacerbation of comorbidities was the most frequent cause of death for primary NSCLC. Conclusions: Doses of >100 Gy BED to the CTV based on 4D dose calculation resulted in excellent local control rates. This cutoff dose is not specific to the treatment technique and protocol of our study and may serve as a general recommendation.

  1. 4-D flow magnetic resonance imaging: blood flow quantification compared to 2-D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and Doppler echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Gabbour, Maya; Schnell, Susanne; Jarvis, Kelly; Robinson, Joshua D.; Markl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Doppler echocardiography (echo) is the reference standard for blood flow velocity analysis, and two-dimensional (2-D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the reference standard for quantitative blood flow assessment. However, both clinical standard-of-care techniques are limited by 2-D acquisitions and single-direction velocity encoding and may make them inadequate to assess the complex three-dimensional hemodynamics seen in congenital heart disease. Four-dimensional flow MRI (4-D flow) enables qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex blood flow in the heart and great arteries. Objectives The objectives of this study are to compare 4-D flow with 2-D phase-contrast MRI for quantification of aortic and pulmonary flow and to evaluate the advantage of 4-D flow-based volumetric flow analysis compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo for peak velocity assessment in children and young adults. Materials and methods Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI of the aortic root, main pulmonary artery (MPA), and right and left pulmonary arteries (RPA, LPA) and 4-D flow with volumetric coverage of the aorta and pulmonary arteries were performed in 50 patients (mean age: 13.1±6.4 years). Four-dimensional flow analyses included calculation of net flow and regurgitant fraction with 4-D flow analysis planes similarly positioned to 2-D planes. In addition, 4-D flow volumetric assessment of aortic root/ascending aorta and MPA peak velocities was performed and compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo. Results Excellent correlation and agreement were found between 2-D phase-contrast MRI and 4-D flow for net flow (r=0.97, P<0.001) and excellent correlation with good agreement was found for regurgitant fraction (r= 0.88, P<0.001) in all vessels. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI significantly underestimated aortic (P= 0.032) and MPA (P<0.001) peak velocities compared to echo, while volumetric 4-D flow analysis resulted in higher (aortic: P=0

  2. Technical aspects of dental CBCT: state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Araki, K; Siewerdsen, J H; Thongvigitmanee, S S

    2015-01-01

    As CBCT is widely used in dental and maxillofacial imaging, it is important for users as well as referring practitioners to understand the basic concepts of this imaging modality. This review covers the technical aspects of each part of the CBCT imaging chain. First, an overview is given of the hardware of a CBCT device. The principles of cone beam image acquisition and image reconstruction are described. Optimization of imaging protocols in CBCT is briefly discussed. Finally, basic and advanced visualization methods are illustrated. Certain topics in these review are applicable to all types of radiographic imaging (e.g. the principle and properties of an X-ray tube), others are specific for dental CBCT imaging (e.g. advanced visualization techniques). PMID:25263643

  3. Online 4d Reconstruction Using Multi-Images Available Under Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannides, M.; Hadjiprocopi, A.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Protopapadakis, E.; Makantasis, K.; Santos, P.; Fellner, D.; Stork, A.; Balet, O.; Julien, M.; Weinlinger, G.; Johnson, P. S.; Klein, M.; Fritsch, D.

    2013-07-01

    The advent of technology in digital cameras and their incorporation into virtually any smart mobile device has led to an explosion of the number of photographs taken every day. Today, the number of images stored online and available freely has reached unprecedented levels. It is estimated that in 2011, there were over 100 billion photographs stored in just one of the major social media sites. This number is growing exponentially. Moreover, advances in the fields of Photogrammetry and Computer Vision have led to significant breakthroughs such as the Structure from Motion algorithm which creates 3D models of objects using their twodimensional photographs. The existence of powerful and affordable computational machinery not only the reconstruction of complex structures but also entire cities. This paper illustrates an overview of our methodology for producing 3D models of Cultural Heritage structures such as monuments and artefacts from 2D data (pictures, video), available on Internet repositories, social media, Google Maps, Bing, etc. We also present new approaches to semantic enrichment of the end results and their subsequent export to Europeana, the European digital library, for integrated, interactive 3D visualisation within regular web browsers using WebGl and X3D. Our main goal is to enable historians, architects, archaeologists, urban planners and affiliated professionals to reconstruct views of historical structures from millions of images floating around the web and interact with them.

  4. Assessment of regional ventilation and deformation using 4D-CT imaging for healthy human lungs during tidal breathing.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Nariman; Choi, Sanghun; Choi, Jiwoong; Iyer, Krishna; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-11-15

    This study aims to assess regional ventilation, nonlinearity, and hysteresis of human lungs during dynamic breathing via image registration of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) scans. Six healthy adult humans were studied by spiral multidetector-row CT during controlled tidal breathing as well as during total lung capacity and functional residual capacity breath holds. Static images were utilized to contrast static vs. dynamic (deep vs. tidal) breathing. A rolling-seal piston system was employed to maintain consistent tidal breathing during 4D-CT spiral image acquisition, providing required between-breath consistency for physiologically meaningful reconstructed respiratory motion. Registration-derived variables including local air volume and anisotropic deformation index (ADI, an indicator of preferential deformation in response to local force) were employed to assess regional ventilation and lung deformation. Lobar distributions of air volume change during tidal breathing were correlated with those of deep breathing (R(2) ≈ 0.84). Small discrepancies between tidal and deep breathing were shown to be likely due to different distributions of air volume change in the left and the right lungs. We also demonstrated an asymmetric characteristic of flow rate between inhalation and exhalation. With ADI, we were able to quantify nonlinearity and hysteresis of lung deformation that can only be captured in dynamic images. Nonlinearity quantified by ADI is greater during inhalation, and it is stronger in the lower lobes (P < 0.05). Lung hysteresis estimated by the difference of ADI between inhalation and exhalation is more significant in the right lungs than that in the left lungs. PMID:26316512

  5. 4-D imaging and monitoring of the Solfatara crater (Italy) by ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Woith, Heiko; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Imaging shallow subsurface structures and monitoring related temporal variations are two of the main tasks for modern geosciences and seismology. Although many observations have reported temporal velocity changes, e.g., in volcanic areas and on landslides, new methods based on passive sources like ambient seismic noise can provide accurate spatially and temporally resolved information on the velocity structure and on velocity changes. The success of these passive applications is explained by the fact that these methods are based on surface waves which are always present in the ambient seismic noise wave field because they are excited preferentially by superficial sources. Such surface waves can easily be extracted because they dominate the Greeńs function between receivers located at the surface. For real-time monitoring of the shallow velocity structure of the Solfatara crater, one of the forty volcanoes in the Campi Flegrei area characterized by an intense hydrothermal activity due to the interaction of deep convection and meteoric water, we have installed a dense network of 50 seismological sensing units covering the whole surface area in the framework of the European project MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7 under Grant agreement no 308665). Continuous recordings of the ambient seismic noise over several days as well as signals of an active vibroseis source have been used. Based on a weighted inversion procedure for 3D-passive imaging using ambient noise cross-correlations of both Rayleigh and Love waves, we will present a high-resolution shear-wave velocity model of the structure beneath the Solfatara crater and its temporal changes. Results of seismic tomography are compared with a 3-D electrical resistivity model and CO2 flux map.

  6. 4D imaging of fracturing in organic-rich shales during heating

    SciTech Connect

    Maya Kobchenko; Hamed Panahi; François Renard; Dag K. Dysthe; Anders Malthe-Sørenssen; Adriano Mazzini; Julien Scheibert1; Bjørn Jamtveit; Paul Meakin

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the mechanisms of fracture pattern development and fluid escape in low permeability rocks, we performed time-resolved in situ X-ray tomography imaging to investigate the processes that occur during the slow heating (from 60 to 400 C) of organic-rich Green River shale. At about 350 C cracks nucleated in the sample, and as the temperature continued to increase, these cracks propagated parallel to shale bedding and coalesced, thus cutting across the sample. Thermogravimetry and gas chromatography revealed that the fracturing occurring at {approx}350 C was associated with significant mass loss and release of light hydrocarbons generated by the decomposition of immature organic matter. Kerogen decomposition is thought to cause an internal pressure build up sufficient to form cracks in the shale, thus providing pathways for the outgoing hydrocarbons. We show that a 2D numerical model based on this idea qualitatively reproduces the experimentally observed dynamics of crack nucleation, growth and coalescence, as well as the irregular outlines of the cracks. Our results provide a new description of fracture pattern formation in low permeability shales.

  7. Computational biomechanics and experimental validation of vessel deformation based on 4D-CT imaging of the porcine aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazer, Dilana; Finol, Ender A.; Kostrzewa, Michael; Kopaigorenko, Maria; Richter, Götz-M.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease results from pathological biomechanical conditions and fatigue of the vessel wall. Image-based computational modeling provides a physical and realistic insight into the patient-specific biomechanics and enables accurate predictive simulations of development, growth and failure of cardiovascular disease. An experimental validation is necessary for the evaluation and the clinical implementation of such computational models. In the present study, we have implemented dynamic Computed-Tomography (4D-CT) imaging and catheter-based in vivo measured pressures to numerically simulate and experimentally evaluate the biomechanics of the porcine aorta. The computations are based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and simulate the arterial wall response to the transient pressure-based boundary condition. They are evaluated by comparing the numerically predicted wall deformation and that calculated from the acquired 4D-CT data. The dynamic motion of the vessel is quantified by means of the hydraulic diameter, analyzing sequences at 5% increments over the cardiac cycle. Our results show that accurate biomechanical modeling is possible using FEM-based simulations. The RMS error of the computed hydraulic diameter at five cross-sections of the aorta was 0.188, 0.252, 0.280, 0.237 and 0.204 mm, which is equivalent to 1.7%, 2.3%, 2.7%, 2.3% and 2.0%, respectively, when expressed as a function of the time-averaged hydraulic diameter measured from the CT images. The present investigation is a first attempt to simulate and validate vessel deformation based on realistic morphological data and boundary conditions. An experimentally validated system would help in evaluating individual therapies and optimal treatment strategies in the field of minimally invasive endovascular surgery.

  8. SU-E-J-11: Measurement of Eye Lens Dose for Varian On-Board Imaging with Different CBCT Acquisition Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, S; Dhote, D; Kumar, R; Thakur, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To measure actual patient eye lens dose for different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocol of Varian’s On Board Imagining (OBI) system using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeter and study the eye lens dose with patient geometry and distance of isocenter to the eye lens Methods: OSL dosimeter was used to measure eye lens dose of patient. OSL dosimeter was placed on patient forehead center during CBCT image acquisition to measure eye lens dose. For three different cone beam acquisition protocol (standard dose head, low dose head and high quality head) of Varian On-Board Imaging, eye lens doses were measured. Measured doses were correlated with patient geometry and distance between isocenter to eye lens. Results: Measured eye lens dose for standard dose head was in the range of 1.8 mGy to 3.2 mGy, for high quality head protocol dose was in range of 4.5mGy to 9.9 mGy whereas for low dose head was in the range of 0.3mGy to 0.7mGy. Dose to eye lens is depends upon position of isocenter. For posterioraly located tumor eye lens dose is less. Conclusion: From measured doses it can be concluded that by proper selection of imagining protocol and frequency of imaging, it is possible to restrict the eye lens dose below the new limit set by ICRP. However, undoubted advantages of imaging system should be counter balanced by careful consideration of imaging protocol especially for very intense imaging sequences for Adoptive Radiotherapy or IMRT.

  9. SU-E-J-35: Using CBCT as the Alternative Method of Assessing ITV Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Y; Turian, J; Templeton, A; Redler, G; Chu, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To study the accuracy of Internal Target Volumes (ITVs) created on cone beam CT (CBCT) by comparing the visible target volume on CBCT to volumes (GTV, ITV, and PTV) outlined on free breathing (FB) CT and 4DCT. Methods A Quasar Cylindrical Motion Phantom with a 3cm diameter ball (14.14 cc) embedded within a cork insert was set up to simulate respiratory motion with a period of 4 seconds and amplitude of 2cm superioinferiorly and 1cm anterioposteriorly. FBCT and 4DCT images were acquired. A PTV-4D was created on the 4DCT by applying a uniform margin of 5mm to the ITV-CT. PTV-FB was created by applying a margin of the motion range plus 5mm, i.e. total of 1.5cm laterally and 2.5cm superioinferiorly to the GTV outlined on the FBCT. A dynamic conformal arc was planned to treat the PTV-FB with 1mm margin. A CBCT was acquired before the treatment, on which the target was delineated. During the treatment, the position of the target was monitored using the EPID in cine mode. Results ITV-CBCT and ITV-CT were measured to be 56.6 and 62.7cc, respectively, with a Dice Coefficient (DC) of 0.94 and disagreement in center of mass (COM) of 0.59 mm. On the other hand, GTV-FB was 11.47cc, 19% less than the known volume of the ball. PTV-FB and PTV-4D were 149 and 116 cc, with a DC of 0.71. Part of the ITV-CT was not enclosed by the PTV-FB despite the large margin. The cine EPID images have confirmed geometrical misses of the target. Similar under-coverage was observed in one clinical case and captured by the CBCT, where the implanted fiducials moved outside PTV-FB. Conclusion ITV-CBCT is in good agreement with ITV-CT. When 4DCT was not available, CBCT can be an effective alternative in determining and verifying the PTV margin.

  10. First Steps Toward Ultrasound-Based Motion Compensation for Imaging and Therapy: Calibration with an Optical System and 4D PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schwaab, Julia; Kurz, Christopher; Sarti, Cristina; Bongers, André; Schoenahl, Frédéric; Bert, Christoph; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia; Jenne, Jürgen Walter

    2015-01-01

    Target motion, particularly in the abdomen, due to respiration or patient movement is still a challenge in many diagnostic and therapeutic processes. Hence, methods to detect and compensate this motion are required. Diagnostic ultrasound (US) represents a non-invasive and dose-free alternative to fluoroscopy, providing more information about internal target motion than respiration belt or optical tracking. The goal of this project is to develop an US-based motion tracking for real-time motion correction in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging, notably in 4D positron emission tomography (PET). In this work, a workflow is established to enable the transformation of US tracking data to the coordinates of the treatment delivery or imaging system – even if the US probe is moving due to respiration. It is shown that the US tracking signal is equally adequate for 4D PET image reconstruction as the clinically used respiration belt and provides additional opportunities in this concern. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the US probe being within the PET field of view generally has no relevant influence on the image quality. The accuracy and precision of all the steps in the calibration workflow for US tracking-based 4D PET imaging are found to be in an acceptable range for clinical implementation. Eventually, we show in vitro that an US-based motion tracking in absolute room coordinates with a moving US transducer is feasible. PMID:26649277

  11. The development of a population of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms for CT imaging research and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Hannah; Zhang, Yakun; Frush, Jack; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Minhas, Anum; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Miller, M. I.; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul

    2014-03-01

    With the increased use of CT examinations, the associated radiation dose has become a large concern, especially for pediatrics. Much research has focused on reducing radiation dose through new scanning and reconstruction methods. Computational phantoms provide an effective and efficient means for evaluating image quality, patient-specific dose, and organ-specific dose in CT. We previously developed a set of highly-detailed 4D reference pediatric XCAT phantoms at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years with organ and tissues masses matched to ICRP Publication 89 values. We now extend this reference set to a series of 64 pediatric phantoms of a variety of ages and height and weight percentiles, representative of the public at large. High resolution PET-CT data was reviewed by a practicing experienced radiologist for anatomic regularity and was then segmented with manual and semi-automatic methods to form a target model. A Multi-Channel Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (MC-LDDMM) algorithm was used to calculate the transform from the best age matching pediatric reference phantom to the patient target. The transform was used to complete the target, filling in the non-segmented structures and defining models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. The complete phantoms, consisting of thousands of structures, were then manually inspected for anatomical accuracy. 3D CT data was simulated from the phantoms to demonstrate their ability to generate realistic, patient quality imaging data. The population of pediatric phantoms developed in this work provides a vital tool to investigate dose reduction techniques in 3D and 4D pediatric CT.

  12. 4-D segmentation and normalization of 3He MR images for intrasubject assessment of ventilated lung volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contrella, Benjamin; Tustison, Nicholas J.; Altes, Talissa A.; Avants, Brian B.; Mugler, John P., III; de Lange, Eduard E.

    2012-03-01

    Although 3He MRI permits compelling visualization of the pulmonary air spaces, quantitation of absolute ventilation is difficult due to confounds such as field inhomogeneity and relative intensity differences between image acquisition; the latter complicating longitudinal investigations of ventilation variation with respiratory alterations. To address these potential difficulties, we present a 4-D segmentation and normalization approach for intra-subject quantitative analysis of lung hyperpolarized 3He MRI. After normalization, which combines bias correction and relative intensity scaling between longitudinal data, partitioning of the lung volume time series is performed by iterating between modeling of the combined intensity histogram as a Gaussian mixture model and modulating the spatial heterogeneity tissue class assignments through Markov random field modeling. Evaluation of the algorithm was retrospectively applied to a cohort of 10 asthmatics between 19-25 years old in which spirometry and 3He MR ventilation images were acquired both before and after respiratory exacerbation by a bronchoconstricting agent (methacholine). Acquisition was repeated under the same conditions from 7 to 467 days (mean +/- standard deviation: 185 +/- 37.2) later. Several techniques were evaluated for matching intensities between the pre and post-methacholine images with the 95th percentile value histogram matching demonstrating superior correlations with spirometry measures. Subsequent analysis evaluated segmentation parameters for assessing ventilation change in this cohort. Current findings also support previous research that areas of poor ventilation in response to bronchoconstriction are relatively consistent over time.

  13. Light field image denoising using a linear 4D frequency-hyperfan all-in-focus filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dansereau, Donald G.; Bongiorno, Daniel L.; Pizarro, Oscar; Williams, Stefan B.

    2013-02-01

    Imaging in low light is problematic as sensor noise can dominate imagery, and increasing illumination or aperture size is not always effective or practical. Computational photography offers a promising solution in the form of the light field camera, which by capturing redundant information offers an opportunity for elegant noise rejection. We show that the light field of a Lambertian scene has a 4D hyperfan-shaped frequency-domain region of support at the intersection of a dual-fan and a hypercone. By designing and implementing a filter with appropriately shaped passband we accomplish denoising with a single all-in-focus linear filter. Drawing examples from the Stanford Light Field Archive and images captured using a commercially available lenselet- based plenoptic camera, we demonstrate that the hyperfan outperforms competing methods including synthetic focus, fan-shaped antialiasing filters, and a range of modern nonlinear image and video denoising techniques. We show the hyperfan preserves depth of field, making it a single-step all-in-focus denoising filter suitable for general-purpose light field rendering. We include results for different noise types and levels, over a variety of metrics, and in real-world scenarios. Finally, we show that the hyperfan's performance scales with aperture count.

  14. TH-E-17A-02: High-Pitch and Sparse-View Helical 4D CT Via Iterative Image Reconstruction Method Based On Tensor Framelet

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, M; Nam, H; Li, R; Xing, L; Gao, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: 4D CT is routinely performed during radiation therapy treatment planning of thoracic and abdominal cancers. Compared with the cine mode, the helical mode is advantageous in temporal resolution. However, a low pitch (∼0.1) for 4D CT imaging is often required instead of the standard pitch (∼1) for static imaging, since standard image reconstruction based on analytic method requires the low-pitch scanning in order to satisfy the data sufficient condition when reconstructing each temporal frame individually. In comparison, the flexible iterative method enables the reconstruction of all temporal frames simultaneously, so that the image similarity among frames can be utilized to possibly perform high-pitch and sparse-view helical 4D CT imaging. The purpose of this work is to investigate such an exciting possibility for faster imaging with lower dose. Methods: A key for highpitch and sparse-view helical 4D CT imaging is the simultaneous reconstruction of all temporal frames using the prior that temporal frames are continuous along the temporal direction. In this work, such a prior is regularized through the sparsity transform based on spatiotemporal tensor framelet (TF) as a multilevel and high-order extension of total variation transform. Moreover, GPU-based fast parallel computing of X-ray transform and its adjoint together with split Bregman method is utilized for solving the 4D image reconstruction problem efficiently and accurately. Results: The simulation studies based on 4D NCAT phantoms were performed with various pitches (i.e., 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1) and sparse views (i.e., 400 views per rotation instead of standard >2000 views per rotation), using 3D iterative individual reconstruction method based on 3D TF and 4D iterative simultaneous reconstruction method based on 4D TF respectively. Conclusion: The proposed TF-based simultaneous 4D image reconstruction method enables high-pitch and sparse-view helical 4D CT with lower dose and faster speed.

  15. CBCT-based 3D MRA and angiographic image fusion and MRA image navigation for neuro interventions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jiakang; Sun, Qi; Luo, Yongchun; Shan, Tonghui; Zhang, Hao; Han, Jingfeng; Liang, Chunyang; Pan, Wenlong; Gu, Chuanqi; Mao, Gengsheng; Xu, Ruxiang

    2016-08-01

    Digital subtracted angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard for diagnosis of cerebral vascular diseases and provides intraprocedural guidance. This practice involves extensive usage of x-ray and iodinated contrast medium, which can induce side effects. In this study, we examined the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) registration of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and DSA imaging for cerebral vessels, and tested the feasibility of using preprocedural MRA for real-time guidance during endovascular procedures.Twenty-three patients with suspected intracranial arterial lesions were enrolled. The contrast medium-enhanced 3D DSA of target vessels were acquired in 19 patients during endovascular procedures, and the images were registered with preprocedural MRA for fusion accuracy evaluation. Low-dose noncontrasted 3D angiography of the skull was performed in the other 4 patients, and registered with the MRA. The MRA was overlaid afterwards with 2D live fluoroscopy to guide endovascular procedures.The 3D registration of the MRA and angiography demonstrated a high accuracy for vessel lesion visualization in all 19 patients examined. Moreover, MRA of the intracranial vessels, registered to the noncontrasted 3D angiography in the 4 patients, provided real-time 3D roadmap to successfully guide the endovascular procedures. Radiation dose to patients and contrast medium usage were shown to be significantly reduced.Three-dimensional MRA and angiography fusion can accurately generate cerebral vasculature images to guide endovascular procedures. The use of the fusion technology could enhance clinical workflow while minimizing contrast medium usage and radiation dose, and hence lowering procedure risks and increasing treatment safety. PMID:27512846

  16. CBCT-based 3D MRA and angiographic image fusion and MRA image navigation for neuro interventions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jiakang; Sun, Qi; Luo, Yongchun; Shan, Tonghui; Zhang, Hao; Han, Jingfeng; Liang, Chunyang; Pan, Wenlong; Gu, Chuanqi; Mao, Gengsheng; Xu, Ruxiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Digital subtracted angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard for diagnosis of cerebral vascular diseases and provides intraprocedural guidance. This practice involves extensive usage of x-ray and iodinated contrast medium, which can induce side effects. In this study, we examined the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) registration of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and DSA imaging for cerebral vessels, and tested the feasibility of using preprocedural MRA for real-time guidance during endovascular procedures. Twenty-three patients with suspected intracranial arterial lesions were enrolled. The contrast medium-enhanced 3D DSA of target vessels were acquired in 19 patients during endovascular procedures, and the images were registered with preprocedural MRA for fusion accuracy evaluation. Low-dose noncontrasted 3D angiography of the skull was performed in the other 4 patients, and registered with the MRA. The MRA was overlaid afterwards with 2D live fluoroscopy to guide endovascular procedures. The 3D registration of the MRA and angiography demonstrated a high accuracy for vessel lesion visualization in all 19 patients examined. Moreover, MRA of the intracranial vessels, registered to the noncontrasted 3D angiography in the 4 patients, provided real-time 3D roadmap to successfully guide the endovascular procedures. Radiation dose to patients and contrast medium usage were shown to be significantly reduced. Three-dimensional MRA and angiography fusion can accurately generate cerebral vasculature images to guide endovascular procedures. The use of the fusion technology could enhance clinical workflow while minimizing contrast medium usage and radiation dose, and hence lowering procedure risks and increasing treatment safety. PMID:27512846

  17. A rapid compression technique for 4-D functional MRI images using data rearrangement and modified binary array techniques.

    PubMed

    Uma Vetri Selvi, G; Nadarajan, R

    2015-12-01

    Compression techniques are vital for efficient storage and fast transfer of medical image data. The existing compression techniques take significant amount of time for performing encoding and decoding and hence the purpose of compression is not fully satisfied. In this paper a rapid 4-D lossy compression method constructed using data rearrangement, wavelet-based contourlet transformation and a modified binary array technique has been proposed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images. In the proposed method, the image slices of fMRI data are rearranged so that the redundant slices form a sequence. The image sequence is then divided into slices and transformed using wavelet-based contourlet transform (WBCT). In WBCT, the high frequency sub-band obtained from wavelet transform is further decomposed into multiple directional sub-bands by directional filter bank to obtain more directional information. The relationship between the coefficients has been changed in WBCT as it has more directions. The differences in parent–child relationships are handled by a repositioning algorithm. The repositioned coefficients are then subjected to quantization. The quantized coefficients are further compressed by modified binary array technique where the most frequently occurring value of a sequence is coded only once. The proposed method has been experimented with fMRI images the results indicated that the processing time of the proposed method is less compared to existing wavelet-based set partitioning in hierarchical trees and set partitioning embedded block coder (SPECK) compression schemes [1]. The proposed method could also yield a better compression performance compared to wavelet-based SPECK coder. The objective results showed that the proposed method could gain good compression ratio in maintaining a peak signal noise ratio value of above 70 for all the experimented sequences. The SSIM value is equal to 1 and the value of CC is greater than 0.9 for all

  18. SU-E-J-36: Combining CBCT Dose Into IMRT Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Grelewicz, Z; Wiersma, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cone beam CT (CBCT) is increasingly used in patient setup for IMRT. Daily CBCT may provide effective localization, however, it introduces concern over excessive imaging dose. Previous studies investigated the calculation of excess CBCT dose, however, no study has yet treated this dose as a source of therapeutic radiation, optimized in consideration of PTV and OARs constrains. Here we present a novel combined MV+kV inverse optimization engine to weave the CBCT and MV dose together such that CBCT dose is used for both imaging and therapeutic purposes. This may mitigate some of the excess imaging dose effects of daily CBCT and allow complete evaluation of the CBCT dose prior to treatment. Methods: The EGSnrc Monte Carlo system was used to model a Varian Trilogy CBCT system and 6 MV treatment beam. Using the model, the dose to patient from treatment beam and imaging beam was calculated for ten patients. The standard IMRT objective function was modified to include CBCT dose. Treatment plan optimization using the MOSEK optimization tool was performed retrospectively with and without assuming kV radiation dose from CBCT, assuming one CBCT per fraction. Results: Across ten patients, the CBCT delivered peaks of between .4% and 3.0% of the prescription dose to the PTV, with average CBCT dose to the PTV between .3% and .8%. By including CBCT dose to skin as a constraint during optimization, peak skin dose is reduced by between 1.9% and 7.4%, and average skin dose is reduced by .2% to 3.3%. Conclusions: Pre-treatment CBCT may deliver a substantial amount of radiation dose to the target volume. By considering CBCT dose to skin at the point of treatment planning, it is possible to reduce patient skin dose from current clinical levels, and to provide patient treatment with the improved accuracy that daily CBCT provides.

  19. TU-F-12A-05: Sensitivity of Textural Features to 3D Vs. 4D FDG-PET/CT Imaging in NSCLC Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F; Nyflot, M; Bowen, S; Kinahan, P; Sandison, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Neighborhood Gray-level difference matrices (NGLDM) based texture parameters extracted from conventional (3D) 18F-FDG PET scans in patients with NSCLC have been previously shown to associate with response to chemoradiation and poorer patient outcome. However, the change in these parameters when utilizing respiratory-correlated (4D) FDG-PET scans has not yet been characterized for NSCLC. The Objectives: of this study was to assess the extent to which NGLDM-based texture parameters on 4D PET images vary with reference to values derived from 3D scans in NSCLC. Methods: Eight patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. 4D PET scans were reconstructed with OSEM-IR in 5 respiratory phase-binned images and corresponding CT data of each phase were employed for attenuation correction. NGLDM-based texture features, consisting of coarseness, contrast, busyness, complexity and strength, were evaluated for gross tumor volumes defined on 3D/4D PET scans by radiation oncologists. Variation of the obtained texture parameters over the respiratory cycle were examined with respect to values extracted from 3D scans. Results: Differences between texture parameters derived from 4D scans at different respiratory phases and those extracted from 3D scans ranged from −30% to 13% for coarseness, −12% to 40% for contrast, −5% to 50% for busyness, −7% to 38% for complexity, and −43% to 20% for strength. Furthermore, no evident correlations were observed between respiratory phase and 4D scan texture parameters. Conclusion: Results of the current study showed that NGLDM-based texture parameters varied considerably based on choice of 3D PET and 4D PET reconstruction of NSCLC patient images, indicating that standardized image acquisition and analysis protocols need to be established for clinical studies, especially multicenter clinical trials, intending to validate prognostic values of texture features for NSCLC.

  20. SU-E-J-13: Six Degree of Freedom Image Fusion Accuracy for Cranial Target Localization On the Varian Edge Stereotactic Radiosurgery System: Comparison Between 2D/3D and KV CBCT Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, H; Song, K; Chetty, I; Kim, J; Wen, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the 6 degree of freedom systematic deviations between 2D/3D and CBCT image registration with various imaging setups and fusion algorithms on the Varian Edge Linac. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with radio opaque targets embedded was scanned with CT slice thicknesses of 0.8, 1, 2, and 3mm. The 6 DOF systematic errors were assessed by comparing 2D/3D (kV/MV with CT) with 3D/3D (CBCT with CT) image registrations with different offset positions, similarity measures, image filters, and CBCT slice thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). The 2D/3D registration accuracy of 51 fractions for 26 cranial SRS patients was also evaluated by analyzing 2D/3D pre-treatment verification taken after 3D/3D image registrations. Results: The systematic deviations of 2D/3D image registration using kV- kV, MV-kV and MV-MV image pairs were within ±0.3mm and ±0.3° for translations and rotations with 95% confidence interval (CI) for a reference CT with 0.8 mm slice thickness. No significant difference (P>0.05) on target localization was observed between 0.8mm, 1mm, and 2mm CT slice thicknesses with CBCT slice thicknesses of 1mm and 2mm. With 3mm CT slice thickness, both 2D/3D and 3D/3D registrations performed less accurately in longitudinal direction than thinner CT slice thickness (0.60±0.12mm and 0.63±0.07mm off, respectively). Using content filter and using similarity measure of pattern intensity instead of mutual information, improved the 2D/3D registration accuracy significantly (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively). For the patient study, means and standard deviations of residual errors were 0.09±0.32mm, −0.22±0.51mm and −0.07±0.32mm in VRT, LNG and LAT directions, respectively, and 0.12°±0.46°, −0.12°±0.39° and 0.06°±0.28° in RTN, PITCH, and ROLL directions, respectively. 95% CI of translational and rotational deviations were comparable to those in phantom study. Conclusion: 2D/3D image registration provided on the Varian Edge radiosurgery, 6 DOF

  1. Real-time image-content-based beamline control for smart 4D X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Vogelgesang, Matthias; Farago, Tomas; Morgeneyer, Thilo F; Helfen, Lukas; Dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Myagotin, Anton; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-09-01

    Real-time processing of X-ray image data acquired at synchrotron radiation facilities allows for smart high-speed experiments. This includes workflows covering parameterized and image-based feedback-driven control up to the final storage of raw and processed data. Nevertheless, there is presently no system that supports an efficient construction of such experiment workflows in a scalable way. Thus, here an architecture based on a high-level control system that manages low-level data acquisition, data processing and device changes is described. This system is suitable for routine as well as prototypical experiments, and provides specialized building blocks to conduct four-dimensional in situ, in vivo and operando tomography and laminography. PMID:27577784

  2. Imaging performance evaluation of full and binning acquisition modes in a prototype CBCT system equipped with the TFT X-ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Chang-Woo; Cha, Bo Kyung; Yang, Keedong; Jeon, Seongchae; Huh, Young; Park, Justin C.; Song, Bongyong; Song, William Y.; Lee, Byeonghun

    2014-11-01

    The projection number, acquisition time, radiation dose, and full and 2×2 binning modes of the thin film transistor (TFT) X-ray imaging detector were evaluated for image quality in a prototype cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) built for medical applications. The detector is an amorphous silicon (a-Si) based TFT X-ray detector (PaxScan 4030CB, Varian, Inc.). The a-Si based TFT X-ray detector has a 397×298 mm2 active area with 194 μm pixel pitch and 2048×1536 pixel, of which, 388 μm pixel pitch and 1024×768 pixel were used for the 2×2 binning mode. The Feldkamp, Davis, and Kress (FDK) reconstruction algorithm was used to generate 3D images, and the comparisons were made between different modes of acquisition. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) computed tomography (CT) performance phantom (model 610, CIRS) and the chest phantom (model 76-683, Nuclear Associates) were used to evaluate the image quality.

  3. SU-E-J-154: Image Quality Assessment of Contrast-Enhanced 4D-CT for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Radiotherapy Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W; Xue, M; Patel, K; Regine, W; Wang, J; D’Souza, W; Lu, W; Kang, M; Klahr, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study presents quantitative and qualitative assessment of the image qualities in contrast-enhanced (CE) 3D-CT, 4D-CT and CE 4D-CT to identify feasibility for replacing the clinical standard simulation with a single CE 4D-CT for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA) in radiotherapy simulation. Methods: Ten PDA patients were enrolled and underwent three CT scans: a clinical standard pair of CE 3D-CT immediately followed by a 4D-CT, and a CE 4D-CT one week later. Physicians qualitatively evaluated the general image quality and regional vessel definitions and gave a score from 1 to 5. Next, physicians delineated the contours of the tumor (T) and the normal pancreatic parenchyma (P) on the three CTs (CE 3D-CT, 50% phase for 4D-CT and CE 4D-CT), then high density areas were automatically removed by thresholding at 500 HU and morphological operations. The pancreatic tumor contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and conspicuity (C, absolute difference of mean enhancement levels in P and T) were computed to quantitatively assess image quality. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare these quantities. Results: In qualitative evaluations, CE 3D-CT and CE 4D-CT scored equivalently (4.4±0.4 and 4.3±0.4) and both were significantly better than 4D-CT (3.1±0.6). In quantitative evaluations, the C values were higher in CE 4D-CT (28±19 HU, p=0.19 and 0.17) than the clinical standard pair of CE 3D-CT and 4D-CT (17±12 and 16±17 HU, p=0.65). In CE 3D-CT and CE 4D-CT, mean CNR (1.8±1.4 and 1.8±1.7, p=0.94) and mean SNR (5.8±2.6 and 5.5±3.2, p=0.71) both were higher than 4D-CT (CNR: 1.1±1.3, p<0.3; SNR: 3.3±2.1, p<0.1). The absolute enhancement levels for T and P were higher in CE 4D-CT (87, 82 HU) than in CE 3D-CT (60, 56) and 4DCT (53, 70). Conclusions: The individually optimized CE 4D-CT is feasible and achieved comparable image qualities to the clinical standard simulation. This study was supported in part by Philips Healthcare.

  4. Extension of wavelet compression algorithms to 3D and 4D image data: exploitation of data coherence in higher dimensions allows very high compression ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li; Jansen, Christian; Unser, Michael A.; Hunziker, Patrick

    2001-12-01

    High resolution multidimensional image data yield huge datasets. For compression and analysis, 2D approaches are often used, neglecting the information coherence in higher dimensions, which can be exploited for improved compression. We designed a wavelet compression algorithm suited for data of arbitrary dimensions, and assessed its ability for compression of 4D medical images. Basically, separable wavelet transforms are done in each dimension, followed by quantization and standard coding. Results were compared with conventional 2D wavelet. We found that in 4D heart images, this algorithm allowed high compression ratios, preserving diagnostically important image features. For similar image quality, compression ratios using the 3D/4D approaches were typically much higher (2-4 times per added dimension) than with the 2D approach. For low-resolution images created with the requirement to keep predefined key diagnostic information (contractile function of the heart), compression ratios up to 2000 could be achieved. Thus, higher-dimensional wavelet compression is feasible, and by exploitation of data coherence in higher image dimensions allows much higher compression than comparable 2D approaches. The proven applicability of this approach to multidimensional medical imaging has important implications especially for the fields of image storage and transmission and, specifically, for the emerging field of telemedicine.

  5. TU-F-17A-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY) - An Automatic Toolkit for Efficient and Robust Analysis of 4D Respiratory Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J; Yuan, A; Li, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To provide an automatic image analysis toolkit to process thoracic 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and extract patient-specific motion information to facilitate investigational or clinical use of 4DCT. Methods: We developed an automatic toolkit in MATLAB to overcome the extra workload from the time dimension in 4DCT. This toolkit employs image/signal processing, computer vision, and machine learning methods to visualize, segment, register, and characterize lung 4DCT automatically or interactively. A fully-automated 3D lung segmentation algorithm was designed and 4D lung segmentation was achieved in batch mode. Voxel counting was used to calculate volume variations of the torso, lung and its air component, and local volume changes at the diaphragm and chest wall to characterize breathing pattern. Segmented lung volumes in 12 patients are compared with those from a treatment planning system (TPS). Voxel conversion was introduced from CT# to other physical parameters, such as gravity-induced pressure, to create a secondary 4D image. A demon algorithm was applied in deformable image registration and motion trajectories were extracted automatically. Calculated motion parameters were plotted with various templates. Machine learning algorithms, such as Naive Bayes and random forests, were implemented to study respiratory motion. This toolkit is complementary to and will be integrated with the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR). Results: The automatic 4D image/data processing toolkit provides a platform for analysis of 4D images and datasets. It processes 4D data automatically in batch mode and provides interactive visual verification for manual adjustments. The discrepancy in lung volume calculation between this and the TPS is <±2% and the time saving is by 1–2 orders of magnitude. Conclusion: A framework of 4D toolkit has been developed to analyze thoracic 4DCT automatically or interactively, facilitating both investigational

  6. SU-E-J-200: A Dosimetric Analysis of 3D Versus 4D Image-Based Dose Calculation for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, M; Rouabhi, O; Flynn, R; Xia, J; Bayouth, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric difference between 3D and 4Dweighted dose calculation using patient specific respiratory trace and deformable image registration for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung tumors. Methods: Two dose calculation techniques, 3D and 4D-weighed dose calculation, were used for dosimetric comparison for 9 lung cancer patients. The magnitude of the tumor motion varied from 3 mm to 23 mm. Breath-hold exhale CT was used for 3D dose calculation with ITV generated from the motion observed from 4D-CT. For 4D-weighted calculation, dose of each binned CT image from the ten breathing amplitudes was first recomputed using the same planning parameters as those used in the 3D calculation. The dose distribution of each binned CT was mapped to the breath-hold CT using deformable image registration. The 4D-weighted dose was computed by summing the deformed doses with the temporal probabilities calculated from their corresponding respiratory traces. Dosimetric evaluation criteria includes lung V20, mean lung dose, and mean tumor dose. Results: Comparing with 3D calculation, lung V20, mean lung dose, and mean tumor dose using 4D-weighted dose calculation were changed by −0.67% ± 2.13%, −4.11% ± 6.94% (−0.36 Gy ± 0.87 Gy), −1.16% ± 1.36%(−0.73 Gy ± 0.85 Gy) accordingly. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that conventional 3D dose calculation method may overestimate the lung V20, MLD, and MTD. The absolute difference between 3D and 4D-weighted dose calculation in lung tumor may not be clinically significant. This research is supported by Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc and Iowa Center for Research By Undergraduates.

  7. Non-rigid dual respiratory and cardiac motion correction methods after, during, and before image reconstruction for 4D cardiac PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tao; Wang, Jizhe; Fung, George; Tsui, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory motion (RM) and cardiac motion (CM) degrade the quality and resolution in cardiac PET scans. We have developed non-rigid motion estimation methods to estimate both RM and CM based on 4D cardiac gated PET data alone, and compensate the dual respiratory and cardiac (R&C) motions after (MCAR), during (MCDR), and before (MCBR) image reconstruction. In all three R&C motion correction methods, attenuation-activity mismatch effect was modeled by using transformed attenuation maps using the estimated RM. The difference of using activity preserving and non-activity preserving models in R&C correction was also studied. Realistic Monte Carlo simulated 4D cardiac PET data using the 4D XCAT phantom and accurate models of the scanner design parameters and performance characteristics at different noise levels were employed as the known truth and for method development and evaluation. Results from the simulation study suggested that all three dual R&C motion correction methods provide substantial improvement in the quality of 4D cardiac gated PET images as compared with no motion correction. Specifically, the MCDR method yields the best performance for all different noise levels compared with the MCAR and MCBR methods. While MCBR reduces computational time dramatically but the resultant 4D cardiac gated PET images has overall inferior image quality when compared to that from the MCAR and MCDR approaches in the ‘almost’ noise free case. Also, the MCBR method has better noise handling properties when compared with MCAR and provides better quantitative results in high noise cases. When the goal is to reduce scan time or patient radiation dose, MCDR and MCBR provide a good compromise between image quality and computational times.

  8. Task-based evaluation of a 4D MAP-RBI-EM image reconstruction method for gated myocardial perfusion SPECT using a human observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lautamäki, Riikka; Bengel, Frank M.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the performance of a new 4D image reconstruction method for improved 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT using a task-based human observer study. We used a realistic 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that models cardiac beating motion. Half of the population was normal; the other half had a regional hypokinetic wall motion abnormality. Noise-free and noisy projection data with 16 gates/cardiac cycle were generated using an analytical projector that included the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter (ADS), and were reconstructed using the 3D FBP without and 3D OS-EM with ADS corrections followed by different cut-off frequencies of a 4D linear post-filter. A 4D iterative maximum a posteriori rescaled-block (MAP-RBI)-EM image reconstruction method with ADS corrections was also used to reconstruct the projection data using various values of the weighting factor for its prior. The trade-offs between bias and noise were represented by the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and averaged normalized standard deviation (NSDav), respectively. They were used to select reasonable ranges of the reconstructed images for use in a human observer study. The observers were trained with the simulated cine images and were instructed to rate their confidence on the absence or presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. We then applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and used the area under the ROC curve (AUC) index. The results showed that significant differences in detection performance among the different NMSE-NSDav combinations were found and the optimal trade-off from optimized reconstruction parameters corresponded to a maximum AUC value. The 4D MAP-RBI-EM with ADS correction, which had the best trade-off among the tested reconstruction methods, also had the highest AUC value, resulting in significantly better human observer detection performance when detecting regional myocardial wall motion

  9. Task-Based Evaluation of a 4D MAP-RBI-EM Image Reconstruction Method for Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT using a Human Observer Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lautamäki, Riikka; Bengel, Frank M.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of a new 4D image reconstruction method for improved 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT using a task-based human observer study. We used a realistic 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that models cardiac beating motion. Half of the population was normal; the other half had a regional hypokinetic wall motion abnormality. Noise-free and noisy projection data with 16 gates/cardiac cycle were generated using an analytical projector that included the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter (ADS), and were reconstructed using the 3D FBP without and 3D OS-EM with ADS corrections followed by different cut-off frequencies of a 4D linear post-filter. A 4D iterative maximum a posteriori rescaled-block (MAP-RBI)-EM image reconstruction method with ADS corrections was also used to reconstruct the projection data using various values of the weighting factor for its prior. The trade-offs between bias and noise were represented by the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and averaged normalized standard deviation (NSDav), respectively. They were used to select reasonable ranges of the reconstructed images for use in a human observer study. The observers were trained with the simulated cine images and were instructed to rate their confidence on the absence or presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. We then applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and used the area under the ROC curve (AUC) index. The results showed that significant differences in detection performance among the different NMSE-NSDav combinations were found and the optimal trade-off from optimized reconstruction parameters corresponded to a maximum AUC value. The 4D MAP-RBI-EM with ADS correction, which had the best trade-off among the tested reconstruction methods, also had the highest AUC value, resulting in significantly better human observer detection performance when detecting regional myocardial wall motion

  10. Task-based evaluation of a 4D MAP-RBI-EM image reconstruction method for gated myocardial perfusion SPECT using a human observer study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lautamäki, Riikka; Bengel, Frank M; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the performance of a new 4D image reconstruction method for improved 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT using a task-based human observer study. We used a realistic 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that models cardiac beating motion. Half of the population was normal; the other half had a regional hypokinetic wall motion abnormality. Noise-free and noisy projection data with 16 gates/cardiac cycle were generated using an analytical projector that included the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter (ADS), and were reconstructed using the 3D FBP without and 3D OS-EM with ADS corrections followed by different cut-off frequencies of a 4D linear post-filter. A 4D iterative maximum a posteriori rescaled-block (MAP-RBI)-EM image reconstruction method with ADS corrections was also used to reconstruct the projection data using various values of the weighting factor for its prior. The trade-offs between bias and noise were represented by the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and averaged normalized standard deviation (NSDav), respectively. They were used to select reasonable ranges of the reconstructed images for use in a human observer study. The observers were trained with the simulated cine images and were instructed to rate their confidence on the absence or presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. We then applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and used the area under the ROC curve (AUC) index. The results showed that significant differences in detection performance among the different NMSE-NSDav combinations were found and the optimal trade-off from optimized reconstruction parameters corresponded to a maximum AUC value. The 4D MAP-RBI-EM with ADS correction, which had the best trade-off among the tested reconstruction methods, also had the highest AUC value, resulting in significantly better human observer detection performance when detecting regional myocardial wall motion

  11. SU-E-J-74: Dosimetric Advantages of Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer Are Confirmed with Weekly CBCT Images

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Q; Li, Z; Qu, H; Ward, M; Greskovich, J; Koyfman, S; Xia, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Our previous study showed that weekly dose monitoring using cone-beam CT (CBCT) images can guide the timing and need for adaptive re-planning during the treatment of head and neck (HN) cancer. Here we aim to confirm the dosimetric improvement of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) using weekly CBCTs. Methods: We randomly selected seven HN patients treated with ART due to noticeable anatomic changes. Twenty weekly images acquired during the second treatment course were included. These CBCTs were aligned with both the initial and re-planning simulation CTs according to the clinical shifts. Daily doses were re-calculated for both the initial and adaptive plans. Contours of the tumor and organs-at-risk (OARs) were manually delineated by a physician on the re-planning CT and then were transferred to the CBCTs for plan evaluation. Contour modifications were made based on the daily anatomic changes observed on CBCTs. All patients were treated with 70Gy to the primary tumor and 56Gy to the elective lymph nodes. Results: Volumetric changes of the tumor (range — 43.9%∼+15.9%) were observed. The average D99 to the primary tumor was (70.1±2.0)Gy (range 62.2∼72.5Gy) for the adaptive plan and (66.0±5.5)Gy (range 50.9∼70.7Gy) for the initial plan(p<<0.01). The average D99 to the elective neck was (56.3±1.3)Gy (range 52.8∼59.2Gy) for the adaptive plan and (52.4±7.0)Gy (range 37.7∼58.6Gy) for the initial plan(p=0.01). The parotid decreased in volume during the treatment course (range 7.3%∼42.2%). The average D-mean to the spared parotid decreased by 15.3% (p=0.002) for the adaptive plan when compared to the original. With ART, 4 out of 7 patients experienced better sparing of the spinal cord (D-max reduced by 2.5%∼10.2%) and the oral cavity (D-mean reduced by 3.5%∼20.1%). Conclusion: Weekly CBCT dosimetry confirms that ART is an effective method to accommodate on-treatment anatomic changes. In select patients, tumor coverage and OAR sparing may be improved

  12. A proposed framework for consensus-based lung tumour volume auto-segmentation in 4D computed tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Spencer; Brophy, Mark; Palma, David; Louie, Alexander V.; Yu, Edward; Yaremko, Brian; Ahmad, Belal; Barron, John L.; Beauchemin, Steven S.; Rodrigues, George; Gaede, Stewart

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to propose and validate a framework for tumour volume auto-segmentation based on ground-truth estimates derived from multi-physician input contours to expedite 4D-CT based lung tumour volume delineation. 4D-CT datasets of ten non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were manually segmented by 6 physicians. Multi-expert ground truth (GT) estimates were constructed using the STAPLE algorithm for the gross tumour volume (GTV) on all respiratory phases. Next, using a deformable model-based method, multi-expert GT on each individual phase of the 4D-CT dataset was propagated to all other phases providing auto-segmented GTVs and motion encompassing internal gross target volumes (IGTVs) based on GT estimates (STAPLE) from each respiratory phase of the 4D-CT dataset. Accuracy assessment of auto-segmentation employed graph cuts for 3D-shape reconstruction and point-set registration-based analysis yielding volumetric and distance-based measures. STAPLE-based auto-segmented GTV accuracy ranged from (81.51  ±  1.92) to (97.27  ±  0.28)% volumetric overlap of the estimated ground truth. IGTV auto-segmentation showed significantly improved accuracies with reduced variance for all patients ranging from 90.87 to 98.57% volumetric overlap of the ground truth volume. Additional metrics supported these observations with statistical significance. Accuracy of auto-segmentation was shown to be largely independent of selection of the initial propagation phase. IGTV construction based on auto-segmented GTVs within the 4D-CT dataset provided accurate and reliable target volumes compared to manual segmentation-based GT estimates. While inter-/intra-observer effects were largely mitigated, the proposed segmentation workflow is more complex than that of current clinical practice and requires further development.

  13. Transformation of light double cones in the human retina: the origin of trichromatism, of 4D-spatiotemporal vision, and of patchwise 4D Fourier transformation in Talbot imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    1997-09-01

    The interpretation of the 'inverted' retina of primates as an 'optoretina' (a light cones transforming diffractive cellular 3D-phase grating) integrates the functional, structural, and oscillatory aspects of a cortical layer. It is therefore relevant to consider prenatal developments as a basis of the macro- and micro-geometry of the inner eye. This geometry becomes relevant for the postnatal trichromatic synchrony organization (TSO) as well as the adaptive levels of human vision. It is shown that the functional performances, the trichromatism in photopic vision, the monocular spatiotemporal 3D- and 4D-motion detection, as well as the Fourier optical image transformation with extraction of invariances all become possible. To transform light cones into reciprocal gratings especially the spectral phase conditions in the eikonal of the geometrical optical imaging before the retinal 3D-grating become relevant first, then in the von Laue resp. reciprocal von Laue equation for 3D-grating optics inside the grating and finally in the periodicity of Talbot-2/Fresnel-planes in the near-field behind the grating. It is becoming possible to technically realize -- at least in some specific aspects -- such a cortical optoretina sensor element with its typical hexagonal-concentric structure which leads to these visual functions.

  14. Impact of time-of-flight on indirect 3D and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent dynamic PET data.

    PubMed

    Kotasidis, F A; Mehranian, A; Zaidi, H

    2016-05-01

    Kinetic parameter estimation in dynamic PET suffers from reduced accuracy and precision when parametric maps are estimated using kinetic modelling following image reconstruction of the dynamic data. Direct approaches to parameter estimation attempt to directly estimate the kinetic parameters from the measured dynamic data within a unified framework. Such image reconstruction methods have been shown to generate parametric maps of improved precision and accuracy in dynamic PET. However, due to the interleaving between the tomographic and kinetic modelling steps, any tomographic or kinetic modelling errors in certain regions or frames, tend to spatially or temporally propagate. This results in biased kinetic parameters and thus limits the benefits of such direct methods. Kinetic modelling errors originate from the inability to construct a common single kinetic model for the entire field-of-view, and such errors in erroneously modelled regions could spatially propagate. Adaptive models have been used within 4D image reconstruction to mitigate the problem, though they are complex and difficult to optimize. Tomographic errors in dynamic imaging on the other hand, can originate from involuntary patient motion between dynamic frames, as well as from emission/transmission mismatch. Motion correction schemes can be used, however, if residual errors exist or motion correction is not included in the study protocol, errors in the affected dynamic frames could potentially propagate either temporally, to other frames during the kinetic modelling step or spatially, during the tomographic step. In this work, we demonstrate a new strategy to minimize such error propagation in direct 4D image reconstruction, focusing on the tomographic step rather than the kinetic modelling step, by incorporating time-of-flight (TOF) within a direct 4D reconstruction framework. Using ever improving TOF resolutions (580 ps, 440 ps, 300 ps and 160 ps), we demonstrate that direct 4D TOF image

  15. Impact of time-of-flight on indirect 3D and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent dynamic PET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Mehranian, A.; Zaidi, H.

    2016-05-01

    Kinetic parameter estimation in dynamic PET suffers from reduced accuracy and precision when parametric maps are estimated using kinetic modelling following image reconstruction of the dynamic data. Direct approaches to parameter estimation attempt to directly estimate the kinetic parameters from the measured dynamic data within a unified framework. Such image reconstruction methods have been shown to generate parametric maps of improved precision and accuracy in dynamic PET. However, due to the interleaving between the tomographic and kinetic modelling steps, any tomographic or kinetic modelling errors in certain regions or frames, tend to spatially or temporally propagate. This results in biased kinetic parameters and thus limits the benefits of such direct methods. Kinetic modelling errors originate from the inability to construct a common single kinetic model for the entire field-of-view, and such errors in erroneously modelled regions could spatially propagate. Adaptive models have been used within 4D image reconstruction to mitigate the problem, though they are complex and difficult to optimize. Tomographic errors in dynamic imaging on the other hand, can originate from involuntary patient motion between dynamic frames, as well as from emission/transmission mismatch. Motion correction schemes can be used, however, if residual errors exist or motion correction is not included in the study protocol, errors in the affected dynamic frames could potentially propagate either temporally, to other frames during the kinetic modelling step or spatially, during the tomographic step. In this work, we demonstrate a new strategy to minimize such error propagation in direct 4D image reconstruction, focusing on the tomographic step rather than the kinetic modelling step, by incorporating time-of-flight (TOF) within a direct 4D reconstruction framework. Using ever improving TOF resolutions (580 ps, 440 ps, 300 ps and 160 ps), we demonstrate that direct 4D TOF image

  16. A Pilot Evaluation of a 4-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Scheme Based on Simultaneous Motion Estimation and Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Jun; Gu, Xuejun; Pan, Tinsu; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a 4-dimensional (4-D) cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) reconstruction scheme based on simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) through patient studies. Methods and Materials: The SMEIR algorithm contains 2 alternating steps: (1) motion-compensated CBCT reconstruction using projections from all phases to reconstruct a reference phase 4D-CBCT by explicitly considering the motion models between each different phase and (2) estimation of motion models directly from projections by matching the measured projections to the forward projection of the deformed reference phase 4D-CBCT. Four lung cancer patients were scanned for 4 to 6 minutes to obtain approximately 2000 projections for each patient. To evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm on a conventional 1-minute CBCT scan, the number of projections at each phase was reduced by a factor of 5, 8, or 10 for each patient. Then, 4D-CBCTs were reconstructed from the down-sampled projections using Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, total variation (TV) minimization, prior image constrained compressive sensing (PICCS), and SMEIR. Using the 4D-CBCT reconstructed from the fully sampled projections as a reference, the relative error (RE) of reconstructed images, root mean square error (RMSE), and maximum error (MaxE) of estimated tumor positions were analyzed to quantify the performance of the SMEIR algorithm. Results: The SMEIR algorithm can achieve results consistent with the reference 4D-CBCT reconstructed with many more projections per phase. With an average of 30 to 40 projections per phase, the MaxE in tumor position detection is less than 1 mm in SMEIR for all 4 patients. Conclusion: The results from a limited number of patients show that SMEIR is a promising tool for high-quality 4D-CBCT reconstruction and tumor motion modeling.

  17. High-quality four-dimensional cone-beam CT by deforming prior images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Due to a limited number of projections at each phase, severe view aliasing artifacts are present in four-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) when reconstruction is performed using conventional algorithms. In this work, we aim to obtain high-quality 4D-CBCT of lung cancer patients in radiation therapy by deforming the planning CT. The deformation vector fields (DVF) to deform the planning CT are estimated through matching the forward projection of the deformed prior image and measured on-treatment CBCT projection. The estimation of the DVF is formulated as an unconstrained optimization problem, where the objective function to be minimized is the sum of the squared difference between the forward projection of the deformed planning CT and the measured 4D-CBCT projection. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the DVF. As the number of the variables in the DVF is much greater than the number of measurements, the solution to such a highly ill-posed problem is very sensitive to the initials during the optimization process. To improve the estimation accuracy of DVF, we proposed a new strategy to obtain better initials for the optimization. In this strategy, 4D-CBCT is first reconstructed by total variation minimization. Demons deformable registration is performed to register the planning CT and the 4D-CBCT reconstructed by total variation minimization. The resulted DVF from demons registration is then used as the initial parameters in the optimization process. A 4D nonuniform rotational B-spline-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom and a patient 4D-CBCT are used to evaluate the algorithm. Image quality of 4D-CBCT is substantially improved by using the proposed strategy in both NCAT phantom and patient studies. The proposed method has the potential to improve the temporal resolution of 4D-CBCT. Improved 4D-CBCT can better characterize the motion of lung tumors and will be a valuable tool for image-guided adaptive radiation therapy.

  18. Comparison of two respiration monitoring systems for 4D imaging with a Siemens CT using a new dynamic breathing phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vásquez, A. C.; Runz, A.; Echner, G.; Sroka-Perez, G.; Karger, C. P.

    2012-05-01

    Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) requires breathing information from the patient, and for this, several systems are available. Testing of these systems, under realistic conditions, requires a phantom with a moving target and an expandable outer contour. An anthropomorphic phantom was developed to simulate patient breathing as well as lung tumor motion. Using the phantom, an optical camera system (GateCT) and a pressure sensor (AZ-733V) were simultaneously operated, and 4D-CTs were reconstructed with a Siemens CT using the provided local-amplitude-based sorting algorithm. The comparison of the tumor trajectories of both systems revealed discrepancies up to 9.7 mm. Breathing signal differences, such as baseline drift, temporal resolution and noise level were shown not to be the reason for this. Instead, the variability of the sampling interval and the accuracy of the sampling rate value written on the header of the GateCT-signal file were identified as the cause. Interpolation to regular sampling intervals and correction of the sampling rate to the actual value removed the observed discrepancies. Consistently, the introduction of sampling interval variability and inaccurate sampling rate values into the header of the AZ-733V file distorted the tumor trajectory for this system. These results underline the importance of testing new equipment thoroughly, especially if components of different manufacturers are combined.

  19. IMRT treatment plans and functional planning with functional lung imaging from 4D-CT for thoracic cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Currently, the inhomogeneity of the pulmonary function is not considered when treatment plans are generated in thoracic cancer radiotherapy. This study evaluates the dose of treatment plans on highly-functional volumes and performs functional treatment planning by incorporation of ventilation data from 4D-CT. Materials and methods Eleven patients were included in this retrospective study. Ventilation was calculated using 4D-CT. Two treatment plans were generated for each case, the first one without the incorporation of the ventilation and the second with it. The dose of the first plans was overlapped with the ventilation and analyzed. Highly-functional regions were avoided in the second treatment plans. Results For small targets in the first plans (PTV < 400 cc, 6 cases), all V5, V20 and the mean lung dose values for the highly-functional regions were lower than that of the total lung. For large targets, two out of five cases had higher V5 and V20 values for the highly-functional regions. All the second plans were within constraints. Conclusion Radiation treatments affect functional lung more seriously in large tumor cases. With compromise of dose to other critical organs, functional treatment planning to reduce dose in highly-functional lung volumes can be achieved PMID:23281734

  20. A novel CT-FFR method for the coronary artery based on 4D-CT image analysis and structural and fluid analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohata, K.; Kano, A.; Goryu, A.; Ooga, J.; Hongo, T.; Higashi, S.; Fujisawa, Y.; Wakai, S.; Arakita, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Kaminaga, S.; Ko, B. S.; Seneviratne, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    Non invasive fractional flow reserve derived from CT coronary angiography (CT-FFR) has to date been typically performed using the principles of fluid analysis in which a lumped parameter coronary vascular bed model is assigned to represent the impedance of the downstream coronary vascular networks absent in the computational domain for each coronary outlet. This approach may have a number of limitations. It may not account for the impact of the myocardial contraction and relaxation during the cardiac cycle, patient-specific boundary conditions for coronary artery outlets and vessel stiffness. We have developed a novel approach based on 4D-CT image tracking (registration) and structural and fluid analysis, to address these issues. In our approach, we analyzed the deformation variation of vessels and the volume variation of vessels, primarily from 70% to 100% of cardiac phase, to better define boundary conditions and stiffness of vessels. We used a statistical estimation method based on a hierarchical Bayes model to integrate 4D-CT measurements and structural and fluid analysis data. Under these analysis conditions, we performed structural and fluid analysis to determine pressure, flow rate and CT-FFR. The consistency of this method has been verified by a comparison of 4D-CTFFR analysis results derived from five clinical 4D-CT datasets with invasive measurements of FFR. Additionally, phantom experiments of flexible tubes with/without stenosis using pulsating pumps, flow sensors and pressure sensors were performed. Our results show that the proposed 4D-CT-FFR analysis method has the potential to accurately estimate the effect of coronary artery stenosis on blood flow.

  1. Validation of CBCT for the computation of textural biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Ruellas, Antonio C.; Benavides, Erika; Marron, Steve; Wolford, Larry; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with significant pain and 42.6% of patients with TMJ disorders present with evidence of TMJ OA. However, OA diagnosis and treatment remain controversial, since there are no clear symptoms of the disease. The subchondral bone in the TMJ is believed to play a major role in the progression of OA. We hypothesize that the textural imaging biomarkers computed in high resolution Conebeam CT (hr- CBCT) and μCT scans are comparable. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of computing textural imaging biomarkers in-vivo using hr-CBCT, compared to those computed in μCT scans as our Gold Standard. Specimens of condylar bones obtained from condylectomies were scanned using μCT and hr- CBCT. Nine different textural imaging biomarkers (four co-occurrence features and five run-length features) from each pair of μCT and hr-CBCT were computed and compared. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to compare textural biomarkers values of μCT and hr-CBCT. Four of the nine computed textural biomarkers showed a strong positive correlation between biomarkers computed in μCT and hr-CBCT. Higher correlations in Energy and Contrast, and in GLN (grey-level non-uniformity) and RLN (run length non-uniformity) indicate quantitative texture features can be computed reliably in hr-CBCT, when compared with μCT. The textural imaging biomarkers computed in-vivo hr-CBCT have captured the structure, patterns, contrast between neighboring regions and uniformity of healthy and/or pathologic subchondral bone. The ability to quantify bone texture non-invasively now makes it possible to evaluate the progression of subchondral bone alterations, in TMJ OA.

  2. 4-D OCT in Developmental Cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    Although strong evidence exists to suggest that altered cardiac function can lead to CHDs, few studies have investigated the influential role of cardiac function and biophysical forces on the development of the cardiovascular system due to a lack of proper in vivo imaging tools. 4-D imaging is needed to decipher the complex spatial and temporal patterns of biomechanical forces acting upon the heart. Numerous solutions over the past several years have demonstrated 4-D OCT imaging of the developing cardiovascular system. This chapter will focus on these solutions and explain their context in the evolution of 4-D OCT imaging. The first sections describe the relevant techniques (prospective gating, direct 4-D imaging, retrospective gating), while later sections focus on 4-D Doppler imaging and measurements of force implementing 4-D OCT Doppler. Finally, the techniques are summarized, and some possible future directions are discussed.

  3. CBCT-based bone quality assessment: are Hounsfield units applicable?

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, R; Singer, S R; Mupparapu, M

    2015-01-01

    CBCT is a widely applied imaging modality in dentistry. It enables the visualization of high-contrast structures of the oral region (bone, teeth, air cavities) at a high resolution. CBCT is now commonly used for the assessment of bone quality, primarily for pre-operative implant planning. Traditionally, bone quality parameters and classifications were primarily based on bone density, which could be estimated through the use of Hounsfield units derived from multidetector CT (MDCT) data sets. However, there are crucial differences between MDCT and CBCT, which complicates the use of quantitative gray values (GVs) for the latter. From experimental as well as clinical research, it can be seen that great variability of GVs can exist on CBCT images owing to various reasons that are inherently associated with this technique (i.e. the limited field size, relatively high amount of scattered radiation and limitations of currently applied reconstruction algorithms). Although attempts have been made to correct for GV variability, it can be postulated that the quantitative use of GVs in CBCT should be generally avoided at this time. In addition, recent research and clinical findings have shifted the paradigm of bone quality from a density-based analysis to a structural evaluation of the bone. The ever-improving image quality of CBCT allows it to display trabecular bone patterns, indicating that it may be possible to apply structural analysis methods that are commonly used in micro-CT and histology. PMID:25315442

  4. A Desktop Computer Based Workstation for Display and Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Bradley J.; Robb, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    While great advances have been made in developing new and better ways to produce medical images, the technology to efficiently display and analyze them has lagged. This paper describes design considerations and development of a workstation based on an IBM PC/AT for the analysis of three and four dimensional medical image data. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9

  5. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Caroline; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Werner, Franziska; Them, Kolja; Reimer, Rudolph; Nielsen, Peter; vom Scheidt, Annika; Adam, Gerhard; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. Materials and Methods A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4) was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography. Results Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide. Conclusions 4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions. PMID:27249022

  6. Tissue Probability Map Constrained 4-D Clustering Algorithm for Increased Accuracy and Robustness in Serial MR Brain Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zhong; Shen, Dinggang; Li, Hai; Wong, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The traditional fuzzy clustering algorithm and its extensions have been successfully applied in medical image segmentation. However, because of the variability of tissues and anatomical structures, the clustering results might be biased by the tissue population and intensity differences. For example, clustering-based algorithms tend to over-segment white matter tissues of MR brain images. To solve this problem, we introduce a tissue probability map constrained clustering algorithm and apply it to serial MR brain image segmentation, i.e., a series of 3-D MR brain images of the same subject at different time points. Using the new serial image segmentation algorithm in the framework of the CLASSIC framework, which iteratively segments the images and estimates the longitudinal deformations, we improved both accuracy and robustness for serial image computing, and at the mean time produced longitudinally consistent segmentation and stable measures. In the algorithm, the tissue probability maps consist of both the population-based and subject-specific segmentation priors. Experimental study using both simulated longitudinal MR brain data and the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) data confirmed that using both priors more accurate and robust segmentation results can be obtained. The proposed algorithm can be applied in longitudinal follow up studies of MR brain imaging with subtle morphological changes for neurological disorders. PMID:26566399

  7. MO-C-17A-02: A Novel Method for Evaluating Hepatic Stiffness Based On 4D-MRI and Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, T; Liang, X; Czito, B; Palta, M; Bashir, M; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging of hepatic stiffness has significant potential in radiation therapy, ranging from treatment planning to response assessment. This study aims to develop a novel, noninvasive method to quantify liver stiffness with 3D strains liver maps using 4D-MRI and deformable image registration (DIR). Methods: Five patients with liver cancer were imaged with an institutionally developed 4D-MRI technique under an IRB-approved protocol. Displacement vector fields (DVFs) across the liver were generated via DIR of different phases of 4D-MRI. Strain tensor at each voxel of interest (VOI) was computed from the relative displacements between the VOI and each of the six adjacent voxels. Three principal strains (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2} and E{sub 3}) of the VOI were derived as the eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which represent the magnitudes of the maximum and minimum stretches. Strain tensors for two regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated and compared for each patient, one within the tumor (ROI{sub 1}) and the other in normal liver distant from the heart (ROI{sub 2}). Results: 3D strain maps were successfully generated fort each respiratory phase of 4D-MRI for all patients. Liver deformations induced by both respiration and cardiac motion were observed. Differences in strain values adjacent to the distant from the heart indicate significant deformation caused by cardiac expansion during diastole. The large E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} (∼2) and E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} (∼10) ratios reflect the predominance of liver deformation in the superior-inferior direction. The mean E{sub 1} in ROI{sub 1} (0.12±0.10) was smaller than in ROI{sub 2} (0.15±0.12), reflecting a higher degree of stiffness of the cirrhotic tumor. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a novel method for quantitatively evaluating regional hepatic stiffness based on DIR of 4D-MRI. Our initial findings indicate that liver strain is heterogeneous, and liver tumors may have lower principal strain values

  8. Imaging 4-D hydrogeologic processes with geophysics: an example using crosswell electrical measurements to characterize a tracer plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, K.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2005-05-01

    Geophysical methods provide an inexpensive way to collect spatially exhaustive data about hydrogeologic, mechanical or geochemical parameters. In the presence of heterogeneity over multiple scales of these parameters at most field sites, geophysical data can contribute greatly to our understanding about the subsurface by providing important data we would otherwise lack without extensive, and often expensive, direct sampling. Recent work has highlighted the use of time-lapse geophysical data to help characterize hydrogeologic processes. We investigate the potential for making quantitative assessments of sodium-chloride tracer transport using 4-D crosswell electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in a sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod. Given information about the relation between electrical conductivity and tracer concentration, we can estimate spatial moments from the 3-D ERT inversions, which give us information about tracer mass, center of mass, and dispersivity through time. The accuracy of these integrated measurements of tracer plume behavior is dependent on spatially variable resolution. The ERT inversions display greater apparent dispersion than tracer plumes estimated by 3D advective-dispersive simulation. This behavior is attributed to reduced measurement sensitivity to electrical conductivity values with distance from the electrodes and differential smoothing from tomographic inversion. The latter is a problem common to overparameterized inverse problems, which often occur when real-world budget limitations preclude extensive well-drilling or additional data collection. These results prompt future work on intelligent methods for reparameterizing the inverse problem and coupling additional disparate data sets.

  9. Digital in-line holography: 4-D imaging and tracking of micro-structures and organisms in microfluidics and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sucerquia, J.; Xu, W.; Jericho, S. K.; Jericho, M. H.; Tamblyn, I.; Kreuzer, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, in-line holography as originally proposed by Gabor, supplemented with numerical reconstruction, has been perfected to the point at which wavelength resolution both laterally and in depth is routinely achieved with light by using digital in-line holographic microscopy (DIHM). The advantages of DIHM are: (1) simplicity of the hardware (laser- pinhole-CCD camera), (2) magnification is obtained in the numerical reconstruction, (3) maximum information of the 3-D structure with a depth of field of millimeters, (4) changes in the specimen and the simultaneous motion of many species, can be followed in 4-D at the camera frame rate. We present results obtained with DIHM in biological and microfluidic applications. By taking advantage of the large depth of field and the plane-to-plane reconstruction capability of DIHM, we can produce 3D representations of the paths followed by micron-sized objects such as suspensions of microspheres and biological samples (cells, algae, protozoa, bacteria). Examples from biology include a study of the motion of bacteria in a diatom and the track of algae and paramecium. In microfluidic applications we observe micro-channel flow, motion of bubbles in water and evolution in electrolysis. The paper finishes with new results from an underwater version of DIHM.

  10. A finite element updating approach for identification of the anisotropic hyperelastic properties of normal and diseased aortic walls from 4D ultrasound strain imaging.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Andreas; Derwich, Wojciech; Karatolios, Konstantinos; Fritzen, Claus Peter; Vogt, Sebastian; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Blase, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Computational analysis of the biomechanics of the vascular system aims at a better understanding of its physiology and pathophysiology and eventually at diagnostic clinical use. Because of great inter-individual variations, such computational models have to be patient-specific with regard to geometry, material properties and applied loads and boundary conditions. Full-field measurements of heterogeneous displacement or strain fields can be used to improve the reliability of parameter identification based on a reduced number of observed load cases as is usually given in an in vivo setting. Time resolved 3D ultrasound combined with speckle tracking (4D US) is an imaging technique that provides full field information of heterogeneous aortic wall strain distributions in vivo. In a numerical verification experiment, we have shown the feasibility of identifying nonlinear and orthotropic constitutive behaviour based on the observation of just two load cases, even though the load free geometry is unknown, if heterogeneous strain fields are available. Only clinically available 4D US measurements of wall motion and diastolic and systolic blood pressure are required as input for the inverse FE updating approach. Application of the developed inverse approach to 4D US data sets of three aortic wall segments from volunteers of different age and pathology resulted in the reproducible identification of three distinct and (patho-) physiologically reasonable constitutive behaviours. The use of patient-individual material properties in biomechanical modelling of AAAs is a step towards more personalized rupture risk assessment. PMID:26455809

  11. Imaging and dosimetric errors in 4D PET/CT-guided radiotherapy from patient-specific respiratory patterns: a dynamic motion phantom end-to-end study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, S. R.; Nyflot, M. J.; Herrmann, C.; Groh, C. M.; Meyer, J.; Wollenweber, S. D.; Stearns, C. W.; Kinahan, P. E.; Sandison, G. A.

    2015-05-01

    Effective positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT) guidance in radiotherapy of lung cancer requires estimation and mitigation of errors due to respiratory motion. An end-to-end workflow was developed to measure patient-specific motion-induced uncertainties in imaging, treatment planning, and radiation delivery with respiratory motion phantoms and dosimeters. A custom torso phantom with inserts mimicking normal lung tissue and lung lesion was filled with [18F]FDG. The lung lesion insert was driven by six different patient-specific respiratory patterns or kept stationary. PET/CT images were acquired under motionless ground truth, tidal breathing motion-averaged (3D), and respiratory phase-correlated (4D) conditions. Target volumes were estimated by standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds that accurately defined the ground-truth lesion volume. Non-uniform dose-painting plans using volumetrically modulated arc therapy were optimized for fixed normal lung and spinal cord objectives and variable PET-based target objectives. Resulting plans were delivered to a cylindrical diode array at rest, in motion on a platform driven by the same respiratory patterns (3D), or motion-compensated by a robotic couch with an infrared camera tracking system (4D). Errors were estimated relative to the static ground truth condition for mean target-to-background (T/Bmean) ratios, target volumes, planned equivalent uniform target doses, and 2%-2 mm gamma delivery passing rates. Relative to motionless ground truth conditions, PET/CT imaging errors were on the order of 10-20%, treatment planning errors were 5-10%, and treatment delivery errors were 5-30% without motion compensation. Errors from residual motion following compensation methods were reduced to 5-10% in PET/CT imaging, <5% in treatment planning, and <2% in treatment delivery. We have demonstrated that estimation of respiratory motion uncertainty and its propagation from PET/CT imaging to RT planning, and RT

  12. Imaging and dosimetric errors in 4D PET/CT-guided radiotherapy from patient-specific respiratory patterns: a dynamic motion phantom end-to-end study

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, S R; Nyflot, M J; Hermann, C; Groh, C; Meyer, J; Wollenweber, S D; Stearns, C W; Kinahan, P E; Sandison, G A

    2015-01-01

    Effective positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) guidance in radiotherapy of lung cancer requires estimation and mitigation of errors due to respiratory motion. An end-to-end workflow was developed to measure patient-specific motion-induced uncertainties in imaging, treatment planning, and radiation delivery with respiratory motion phantoms and dosimeters. A custom torso phantom with inserts mimicking normal lung tissue and lung lesion was filled with [18F]FDG. The lung lesion insert was driven by 6 different patient-specific respiratory patterns or kept stationary. PET/CT images were acquired under motionless ground truth, tidal breathing motion-averaged (3D), and respiratory phase-correlated (4D) conditions. Target volumes were estimated by standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds that accurately defined the ground-truth lesion volume. Non-uniform dose-painting plans using volumetrically modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were optimized for fixed normal lung and spinal cord objectives and variable PET-based target objectives. Resulting plans were delivered to a cylindrical diode array at rest, in motion on a platform driven by the same respiratory patterns (3D), or motion-compensated by a robotic couch with an infrared camera tracking system (4D). Errors were estimated relative to the static ground truth condition for mean target-to-background (T/Bmean) ratios, target volumes, planned equivalent uniform target doses (EUD), and 2%-2mm gamma delivery passing rates. Relative to motionless ground truth conditions, PET/CT imaging errors were on the order of 10–20%, treatment planning errors were 5–10%, and treatment delivery errors were 5–30% without motion compensation. Errors from residual motion following compensation methods were reduced to 5–10% in PET/CT imaging, < 5% in treatment planning, and < 2% in treatment delivery. We have demonstrated that estimation of respiratory motion uncertainty and its propagation from PET/CT imaging to RT

  13. Assessing Cardiac Injury in Mice With Dual Energy-MicroCT, 4D-MicroCT, and MicroSPECT Imaging After Partial Heart Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Min, Hooney; Befera, Nicholas; Clark, Darin; Qi, Yi; Das, Shiva; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T.; Kirsch, David G.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a mouse model of cardiac injury after partial heart irradiation (PHI) and to test whether dual energy (DE)-microCT and 4-dimensional (4D)-microCT can be used to assess cardiac injury after PHI to complement myocardial perfusion imaging using micro-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods and Materials: To study cardiac injury from tangent field irradiation in mice, we used a small-field biological irradiator to deliver a single dose of 12 Gy x-rays to approximately one-third of the left ventricle (LV) of Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/+} and Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/−} mice, where 1 or both alleles of p53 are deleted in endothelial cells. Four and 8 weeks after irradiation, mice were injected with gold and iodinated nanoparticle-based contrast agents, and imaged with DE-microCT and 4D-microCT to evaluate myocardial vascular permeability and cardiac function, respectively. Additionally, the same mice were imaged with microSPECT to assess myocardial perfusion. Results: After PHI with tangent fields, DE-microCT scans showed a time-dependent increase in accumulation of gold nanoparticles (AuNp) in the myocardium of Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/−} mice. In Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/−} mice, extravasation of AuNp was observed within the irradiated LV, whereas in the myocardium of Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/+} mice, AuNp were restricted to blood vessels. In addition, data from DE-microCT and microSPECT showed a linear correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.97) between the fraction of the LV that accumulated AuNp and the fraction of LV with a perfusion defect. Furthermore, 4D-microCT scans demonstrated that PHI caused a markedly decreased ejection fraction, and higher end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, to develop in Tie2Cre; p53{sup FL/−} mice, which were associated with compensatory cardiac hypertrophy of the heart that was not irradiated. Conclusions: Our results show that DE-microCT and 4D-microCT with nanoparticle-based contrast agents are novel imaging approaches

  14. Visualisation of the Bonebridge by means of CT and CBCT

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the Bonebridge, a new bone-anchored hearing aid has been available since March 2012. The objective of the study was to analyse the visualisation of the implant itself as well as its impact on the representation of the bony structures of the petrosal bone in CT, MRI and cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods The Bonebridge was implanted unilaterally in two completely prepared human heads. The radiological imaging by means of CBCT, 64-slice CT, 1.5-T and 3.0-T MRI was conducted both preoperatively and postoperatively. The images were subsequently evaluated from both the ENT medical and nd radiological perspectives. Results As anticipated, no visualisation of the implant or of the petrosal bones could be realised on MRI because of the interactive technology and the magnet artefact. In contrast, an excellent evaluability of the implant itself as well as of the surrounding neurovascular structures (sinus sigmoideus, skull base, middle ear, inner ear, inner auditory canal) was exhibited in both the CT and in the CBCT. Conclusion The Bonebridge can be excellently imaged with the radiological imaging technologies of CT and CBCT. In the process, CBCT shows discrete advantages in comparison with CT. No relevant restrictions in image quality in the evaluation of the bony structures of the petrosal bones could be seen. PMID:24004903

  15. NiftyFit: a Software Package for Multi-parametric Model-Fitting of 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data.

    PubMed

    Melbourne, Andrew; Toussaint, Nicolas; Owen, David; Simpson, Ivor; Anthopoulos, Thanasis; De Vita, Enrico; Atkinson, David; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2016-07-01

    Multi-modal, multi-parametric Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging is becoming an increasingly sophisticated tool for neuroimaging. The relationships between parameters estimated from different individual MR modalities have the potential to transform our understanding of brain function, structure, development and disease. This article describes a new software package for such multi-contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging that provides a unified model-fitting framework. We describe model-fitting functionality for Arterial Spin Labeled MRI, T1 Relaxometry, T2 relaxometry and Diffusion Weighted imaging, providing command line documentation to generate the figures in the manuscript. Software and data (using the nifti file format) used in this article are simultaneously provided for download. We also present some extended applications of the joint model fitting framework applied to diffusion weighted imaging and T2 relaxometry, in order to both improve parameter estimation in these models and generate new parameters that link different MR modalities. NiftyFit is intended as a clear and open-source educational release so that the user may adapt and develop their own functionality as they require. PMID:26972806

  16. A new method for automatic tracking of facial landmarks in 3D motion captured images (4D).

    PubMed

    Al-Anezi, T; Khambay, B; Peng, M J; O'Leary, E; Ju, X; Ayoub, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the automatic tracking of facial landmarks in 3D image sequences. 32 subjects (16 males and 16 females) aged 18-35 years were recruited. 23 anthropometric landmarks were marked on the face of each subject with non-permanent ink using a 0.5mm pen. The subjects were asked to perform three facial animations (maximal smile, lip purse and cheek puff) from rest position. Each animation was captured by the 3D imaging system. A single operator manually digitised the landmarks on the 3D facial models and their locations were compared with those of the automatically tracked ones. To investigate the accuracy of manual digitisation, the operator re-digitised the same set of 3D images of 10 subjects (5 male and 5 female) at 1 month interval. The discrepancies in x, y and z coordinates between the 3D position of the manual digitised landmarks and that of the automatic tracked facial landmarks were within 0.17mm. The mean distance between the manually digitised and the automatically tracked landmarks using the tracking software was within 0.55 mm. The automatic tracking of facial landmarks demonstrated satisfactory accuracy which would facilitate the analysis of the dynamic motion during facial animations. PMID:23218511

  17. 4D megahertz optical coherence tomography (OCT): imaging and live display beyond 1 gigavoxel/sec (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Robert A.; Draxinger, Wolfgang; Wieser, Wolfgang; Kolb, Jan Philip; Pfeiffer, Tom; Karpf, Sebastian N.; Eibl, Matthias; Klein, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Over the last 20 years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a valuable diagnostic tool in ophthalmology with several 10,000 devices sold today. Other applications, like intravascular OCT in cardiology and gastro-intestinal imaging will follow. OCT provides 3-dimensional image data with microscopic resolution of biological tissue in vivo. In most applications, off-line processing of the acquired OCT-data is sufficient. However, for OCT applications like OCT aided surgical microscopes, for functional OCT imaging of tissue after a stimulus, or for interactive endoscopy an OCT engine capable of acquiring, processing and displaying large and high quality 3D OCT data sets at video rate is highly desired. We developed such a prototype OCT engine and demonstrate live OCT with 25 volumes per second at a size of 320x320x320 pixels. The computer processing load of more than 1.5 TFLOPS was handled by a GTX 690 graphics processing unit with more than 3000 stream processors operating in parallel. In the talk, we will describe the optics and electronics hardware as well as the software of the system in detail and analyze current limitations. The talk also focuses on new OCT applications, where such a system improves diagnosis and monitoring of medical procedures. The additional acquisition of hyperspectral stimulated Raman signals with the system will be discussed.

  18. Usefulness of four dimensional (4D) PET/CT imaging in the evaluation of thoracic lesions and in radiotherapy planning: Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sindoni, Alessandro; Minutoli, Fabio; Pontoriero, Antonio; Iatì, Giuseppe; Baldari, Sergio; Pergolizzi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In the past decade, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has become a routinely used methodology for the assessment of solid tumors, which can detect functional abnormalities even before they become morphologically evident on conventional imaging. PET imaging has been reported to be useful in characterizing solitary pulmonary nodules, guiding biopsy, improving lung cancer staging, guiding therapy, monitoring treatment response and predicting outcome. This review focuses on the most relevant and recent literature findings, highlighting the current role of PET/CT and the evaluation of 4D-PET/CT modality for radiation therapy planning applications. Current evidence suggests that gross tumor volume delineation based on 4D-PET/CT information may be the best approach currently available for its delineation in thoracic cancers (lung and non-lung lesions). In our opinion, its use in this clinical setting is strongly encouraged, as it may improve patient treatment outcome in the setting of radiation therapy for cancers of the thoracic region, not only involving lung, but also lymph nodes and esophageal tissue. Literature results warrants further investigation in future prospective studies, especially in the setting of dose escalation. PMID:27133755

  19. Simultaneous reduction of radiation dose and scatter for CBCT by using collimators

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianfang; Li, Xiang; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: On-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging has been widely available in radiotherapy clinic for target localization. However, the extra radiation dose from CBCT is always a concern for its frequent use. Additionally, the relatively large scatter in CBCT often degrades the image quality. By using collimators, some of the X-rays can be stopped from reaching the patient and the detectors, hence both the scatter and the patient doses are simultaneously reduced. The authors show in this work that the collimated CBCT data can be reconstructed without any noticeable artifacts for certain collimator blocking ratios and blocking patterns, and the focus of this work is to study the relationship between the image quality and these two collimator factors.Methods: A CBCT system with collimators was simulated following the typical geometry used in clinic. Different collimator designs were tested by varying the size and the number of the collimator slits, and at the same time, the ratio of transmitted beams to total beams was varied from 100% to 10%, resulting in hundreds of different simulation scenarios. Lung and pelvis phantoms created from patients CT images were used in the simulations, and an iterative reconstruction algorithm using the compressed sensing technique was adopted. The image quality was examined by root mean square errors (RMSEs) and compared with the conventional CBCT images.Results: The CBCT image quality increases as the amount of beams passing through the collimators increases, and decreases as the size of the collimator slits increases. With ultra-high resolution collimators, the RMSEs were comparable to the conventional CBCT image quality until the beam transmission rate is reduced below 25%.Conclusions: Collimators can reduce the scatters and radiation dose, however, the collimated CBCT image quality is strongly dependent on both the collimator blocking ratio and the blocking pattern. To achieve image quality comparable to the conventional CBCT, the

  20. Multimodal 4D imaging of cell-pathogen interactions in the lungs provides new insights into pulmonary infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiole, Daniel; Douady, Julien; Cleret, Aurélie; Garraud, Kévin; Mathieu, Jacques; Quesnel-Hellmann, Anne; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas

    2011-07-01

    Lung efficiency as gas exchanger organ is based on the delicate balance of its associated mucosal immune system between inflammation and sterility. In this study, we developed a dynamic imaging protocol using confocal and twophoton excitation fluorescence (2PEF) on freshly harvested infected lungs. This modus operandi allowed the collection of important information about CX3CR1+ pulmonary cells. This major immune cell subset turned out to be distributed in an anisotropic way in the lungs: subpleural, parenchymal and bronchial CX3CR1+ cells have then been described. The way parenchymal CX3CR1+ cells react against LPS activation has been considered using Matlab software, demonstrating a dramatic increase of average cell speed. Then, interactions between Bacillus anthracis spores and CX3CR1+ dendritic cells have been investigated, providing not only evidences of CX3CR1+ cells involvement in pathogen uptake but also details about the capture mechanisms.

  1. Cardiac function and perfusion dynamics measured on a beat-by-beat basis in the live mouse using ultra-fast 4D optoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Steven J.; Deán-Ben, Xosé L.; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The fast heart rate (~7 Hz) of the mouse makes cardiac imaging and functional analysis difficult when studying mouse models of cardiovascular disease, and cannot be done truly in real-time and 3D using established imaging modalities. Optoacoustic imaging, on the other hand, provides ultra-fast imaging at up to 50 volumetric frames per second, allowing for acquisition of several frames per mouse cardiac cycle. In this study, we combined a recently-developed 3D optoacoustic imaging array with novel analytical techniques to assess cardiac function and perfusion dynamics of the mouse heart at high, 4D spatiotemporal resolution. In brief, the heart of an anesthetized mouse was imaged over a series of multiple volumetric frames. In another experiment, an intravenous bolus of indocyanine green (ICG) was injected and its distribution was subsequently imaged in the heart. Unique temporal features of the cardiac cycle and ICG distribution profiles were used to segment the heart from background and to assess cardiac function. The 3D nature of the experimental data allowed for determination of cardiac volumes at ~7-8 frames per mouse cardiac cycle, providing important cardiac function parameters (e.g., stroke volume, ejection fraction) on a beat-by-beat basis, which has been previously unachieved by any other cardiac imaging modality. Furthermore, ICG distribution dynamics allowed for the determination of pulmonary transit time and thus additional quantitative measures of cardiovascular function. This work demonstrates the potential for optoacoustic cardiac imaging and is expected to have a major contribution toward future preclinical studies of animal models of cardiovascular health and disease.

  2. 4D Imaging of Salt Precipitation during Evaporation from Saline Porous Media Influenced by the Particle Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi Rad, M.; Shokri, N.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the physics of water evaporation from saline porous media is important in many processes such as evaporation from porous media, vegetation, plant growth, biodiversity in soil, and durability of building materials. To investigate the effect of particle size distribution on the dynamics of salt precipitation in saline porous media during evaporation, we applied X-ray micro-tomography technique. Six samples of quartz sand with different grain size distributions were used in the present study enabling us to constrain the effects of particle and pore sizes on salt precipitation patterns and dynamics. The pore size distributions were computed using the pore-scale X-ray images. The packed beds were saturated with NaCl solution of 3 Molal and the X-ray imaging was continued for one day with temporal resolution of 30 min resulting in pore scale information about the evaporation and precipitation dynamics. Our results show more precipitation at the early stage of the evaporation in the case of sand with the larger particle size due to the presence of fewer evaporation sites at the surface. The presence of more preferential evaporation sites at the surface of finer sands significantly modified the patterns and thickness of the salt crust deposited on the surface such that a thinner salt crust was formed in the case of sand with smaller particle size covering larger area at the surface as opposed to the thicker patchy crusts in samples with larger particle sizes. Our results provide new insights regarding the physics of salt precipitation in porous media during evaporation.

  3. Validating and improving CT ventilation imaging by correlating with ventilation 4D-PET/CT using {sup 68}Ga-labeled nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kipritidis, John Keall, Paul J.; Siva, Shankar; Hofman, Michael S.; Callahan, Jason; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: CT ventilation imaging is a novel functional lung imaging modality based on deformable image registration. The authors present the first validation study of CT ventilation using positron emission tomography with{sup 68}Ga-labeled nanoparticles (PET-Galligas). The authors quantify this agreement for different CT ventilation metrics and PET reconstruction parameters. Methods: PET-Galligas ventilation scans were acquired for 12 lung cancer patients using a four-dimensional (4D) PET/CT scanner. CT ventilation images were then produced by applying B-spline deformable image registration between the respiratory correlated phases of the 4D-CT. The authors test four ventilation metrics, two existing and two modified. The two existing metrics model mechanical ventilation (alveolar air-flow) based on Hounsfield unit (HU) change (V{sub HU}) or Jacobian determinant of deformation (V{sub Jac}). The two modified metrics incorporate a voxel-wise tissue-density scaling (ρV{sub HU} and ρV{sub Jac}) and were hypothesized to better model the physiological ventilation. In order to assess the impact of PET image quality, comparisons were performed using both standard and respiratory-gated PET images with the former exhibiting better signal. Different median filtering kernels (σ{sub m} = 0 or 3 mm) were also applied to all images. As in previous studies, similarity metrics included the Spearman correlation coefficient r within the segmented lung volumes, and Dice coefficient d{sub 20} for the (0 − 20)th functional percentile volumes. Results: The best agreement between CT and PET ventilation was obtained comparing standard PET images to the density-scaled HU metric (ρV{sub HU}) with σ{sub m} = 3 mm. This leads to correlation values in the ranges 0.22 ⩽ r ⩽ 0.76 and 0.38 ⩽ d{sub 20} ⩽ 0.68, with r{sup ¯}=0.42±0.16 and d{sup ¯}{sub 20}=0.52±0.09 averaged over the 12 patients. Compared to Jacobian-based metrics, HU-based metrics lead to statistically significant

  4. Design and construction of a flat-panel-based cone-beam computed tomography (FPD-CBCT) imaging system through the adaptation of a commercially available CT system: recent data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, David L.; Ning, Ruola

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show how a commercially available spiral CT has been modified for use as the electro-mechanical scanner hardware for a prototype flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPD-CBCT) imaging system. FPD-CBCT has the benefits of isotropic high resolution, low contrast sensitivity and 3D visualization. In contrast to spiral CT, which acquires a series of narrow slices, FPD-CBCT acquires a full volume of data (limited by the cone angle and the FPD active area) in one <= 360° scan. Our goal was to use a GE HighSpeed Advantage (HSA) CT system as the basis for an FPD-CBVCT imaging prototype for performing phantom, animal and patient imaging studies. Specific electromechanical and radiographic subsystems controlled include: gantry rotation and tilt, patient table positioning, rotor control, mA control, the high frequency generator (kVp, exposure time, repetition rate) and image data acquisition. Also, a 2D full field FPD replaced the 1D detector, as well as the existing slit collimator was retrofitted to a full field collimator to allow x-ray exposure over the entire active area of the FPD. In addition, x-ray projection data was acquired at 30 fps. Power and communication signals to control modules on the rotating part of the gantry were transmitted through integrated slip rings on the gantry. A stationary host computer controlled mechanical motion of the gantry and sent trigger signals to on-board electronic interface modules to control data acquisition and radiographic functions. Acquired image data was grabbed to the system memory of an on-board industrial computer, saved to hard disk and downloaded through a network connection to the stationary computer for 3D reconstruction. Through the synchronized control of the pulsed x-ray exposures, data acquisition, and gantry rotation the system achieved a circle cone beam image acquisition protocol. With integrated control of the gantry tilt and of the position and

  5. Evaluation of on-board kV cone beam CT (CBCT)-based dose calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong; Schreibmann, Eduard; Li, Tianfang; Wang, Chuang; Xing, Lei

    2007-02-01

    On-board CBCT images are used to generate patient geometric models to assist patient setup. The image data can also, potentially, be used for dose reconstruction in combination with the fluence maps from treatment plan. Here we evaluate the achievable accuracy in using a kV CBCT for dose calculation. Relative electron density as a function of HU was obtained for both planning CT (pCT) and CBCT using a Catphan-600 calibration phantom. The CBCT calibration stability was monitored weekly for 8 consecutive weeks. A clinical treatment planning system was employed for pCT- and CBCT-based dose calculations and subsequent comparisons. Phantom and patient studies were carried out. In the former study, both Catphan-600 and pelvic phantoms were employed to evaluate the dosimetric performance of the full-fan and half-fan scanning modes. To evaluate the dosimetric influence of motion artefacts commonly seen in CBCT images, the Catphan-600 phantom was scanned with and without cyclic motion using the pCT and CBCT scanners. The doses computed based on the four sets of CT images (pCT and CBCT with/without motion) were compared quantitatively. The patient studies included a lung case and three prostate cases. The lung case was employed to further assess the adverse effect of intra-scan organ motion. Unlike the phantom study, the pCT of a patient is generally acquired at the time of simulation and the anatomy may be different from that of CBCT acquired at the time of treatment delivery because of organ deformation. To tackle the problem, we introduced a set of modified CBCT images (mCBCT) for each patient, which possesses the geometric information of the CBCT but the electronic density distribution mapped from the pCT with the help of a BSpline deformable image registration software. In the patient study, the dose computed with the mCBCT was used as a surrogate of the 'ground truth'. We found that the CBCT electron density calibration curve differs moderately from that of pCT. No

  6. 4D seismic to image a thin carbonate reservoir during a miscible C02 flood: Hall-Gurney Field, Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raef, A.E.; Miller, R.D.; Franseen, E.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Watney, W.L.; Harrison, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    The movement of miscible CO2 injected into a shallow (900 m) thin (3.6-6m) carbonate reservoir was monitored using the high-resolution parallel progressive blanking (PPB) approach. The approach concentrated on repeatability during acquisition and processing, and use of amplitude envelope 4D horizon attributes. Comparison of production data and reservoir simulations to seismic images provided a measure of the effectiveness of time-lapse (TL) to detect weak anomalies associated with changes in fluid concentration. Specifically, the method aided in the analysis of high-resolution data to distinguish subtle seismic characteristics and associated trends related to depositional lithofacies and geometries and structural elements of this carbonate reservoir that impact fluid character and EOR efforts.

  7. Data assimilation of non-conventional observations using GEOS-R flash lightning: 1D+4D-VAR approach vs. assimilation of images (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, M. I.; Stefanescu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Previous assimilation of lightning used nudging approaches. We develop three approaches namely, 3D-VAR WRFDA and1D+nD-VAR (n=3,4) WRFDA . The present research uses Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) as a proxy between lightning data and model variables. To test performance of aforementioned schemes, we assess quality of resulting analysis and forecasts of precipitation compared to those from a control experiment and verify them against NCEP stage IV precipitation. Results demonstrate that assimilating lightning observations improves precipitation statistics during the assimilation window and for 3-7 h thereafter. The 1D+4D-VAR approach yielded the best performance significantly improving precipitation rmse errors by 25% and 27.5%,compared to control during the assimilation window for two tornadic test cases. Finally we propose a new approach to assimilate 2-D images of lightning flashes based on pixel intensity, mitigating dimensionality by a reduced order method.

  8. 4-D imaging of sub-second dynamics in pore-scale processes using real-time synchrotron X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Katherine J.; Coban, Sophia B.; McDonald, Samuel A.; Walsh, Joanna N.; Atwood, Robert C.; Withers, Philip J.

    2016-07-01

    A variable volume flow cell has been integrated with state-of-the-art ultra-high-speed synchrotron X-ray tomography imaging. The combination allows the first real-time (sub-second) capture of dynamic pore (micron)-scale fluid transport processes in 4-D (3-D + time). With 3-D data volumes acquired at up to 20 Hz, we perform in situ experiments that capture high-frequency pore-scale dynamics in 5-25 mm diameter samples with voxel (3-D equivalent of a pixel) resolutions of 2.5 to 3.8 µm. The data are free from motion artefacts and can be spatially registered or collected in the same orientation, making them suitable for detailed quantitative analysis of the dynamic fluid distribution pathways and processes. The methods presented here are capable of capturing a wide range of high-frequency nonequilibrium pore-scale processes including wetting, dilution, mixing, and reaction phenomena, without sacrificing significant spatial resolution. As well as fast streaming (continuous acquisition) at 20 Hz, they also allow larger-scale and longer-term experimental runs to be sampled intermittently at lower frequency (time-lapse imaging), benefiting from fast image acquisition rates to prevent motion blur in highly dynamic systems. This marks a major technical breakthrough for quantification of high-frequency pore-scale processes: processes that are critical for developing and validating more accurate multiscale flow models through spatially and temporally heterogeneous pore networks.

  9. Integration of image/video understanding engine into 4D/RCS architecture for intelligent perception-based behavior of robots in real-world environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-10-01

    To be completely successful, robots need to have reliable perceptual systems that are similar to human vision. It is hard to use geometric operations for processing of natural images. Instead, the brain builds a relational network-symbolic structure of visual scene, using different clues to set up the relational order of surfaces and objects with respect to the observer and to each other. Feature, symbol, and predicate are equivalent in the biologically inspired Network-Symbolic systems. A linking mechanism binds these features/symbols into coherent structures, and image converts from a "raster" into a "vector" representation. View-based object recognition is a hard problem for traditional algorithms that directly match a primary view of an object to a model. In Network-Symbolic Models, the derived structure, not the primary view, is a subject for recognition. Such recognition is not affected by local changes and appearances of the object as seen from a set of similar views. Once built, the model of visual scene changes slower then local information in the visual buffer. It allows for disambiguating visual information and effective control of actions and navigation via incremental relational changes in visual buffer. Network-Symbolic models can be seamlessly integrated into the NIST 4D/RCS architecture and better interpret images/video for situation awareness, target recognition, navigation and actions.

  10. Noise correlation in CBCT projection data and its application for noise reduction in low-dose CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hua; Ouyang, Luo; Wang, Jing E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu; Ma, Jianhua E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu; Huang, Jing; Chen, Wufan

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To study the noise correlation properties of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection data and to incorporate the noise correlation information to a statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for noise reduction in low-dose CBCT. Methods: In this study, the authors systematically investigated the noise correlation properties among detector bins of CBCT projection data by analyzing repeated projection measurements. The measurements were performed on a TrueBeam onboard CBCT imaging system with a 4030CB flat panel detector. An anthropomorphic male pelvis phantom was used to acquire 500 repeated projection data at six different dose levels from 0.1 to 1.6 mAs per projection at three fixed angles. To minimize the influence of the lag effect, lag correction was performed on the consecutively acquired projection data. The noise correlation coefficient between detector bin pairs was calculated from the corrected projection data. The noise correlation among CBCT projection data was then incorporated into the covariance matrix of the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion for noise reduction of low-dose CBCT. Results: The analyses of the repeated measurements show that noise correlation coefficients are nonzero between the nearest neighboring bins of CBCT projection data. The average noise correlation coefficients for the first- and second-order neighbors are 0.20 and 0.06, respectively. The noise correlation coefficients are independent of the dose level. Reconstruction of the pelvis phantom shows that the PWLS criterion with consideration of noise correlation (PWLS-Cor) results in a lower noise level as compared to the PWLS criterion without considering the noise correlation (PWLS-Dia) at the matched resolution. At the 2.0 mm resolution level in the axial-plane noise resolution tradeoff analysis, the noise level of the PWLS-Cor reconstruction is 6.3% lower than that of the PWLS-Dia reconstruction. Conclusions: Noise is correlated among nearest neighboring

  11. Direct 4D PET MLEM reconstruction of parametric images using the simplified reference tissue model with the basis function method for [¹¹C]raclopride.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Paul; Reader, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    This work assesses the one-step late maximum likelihood expectation maximization (OSL-MLEM) 4D PET reconstruction algorithm for direct estimation of parametric images from raw PET data when using the simplified reference tissue model with the basis function method (SRTM-BFM) for the kinetic analysis. To date, the OSL-MLEM method has been evaluated using kinetic models based on two-tissue compartments with an irreversible component. We extend the evaluation of this method for two-tissue compartments with a reversible component, using SRTM-BFM on simulated 3D + time data sets (with use of [(11)C]raclopride time-activity curves from real data) and on real data sets acquired with the high resolution research tomograph. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing voxel-level binding potential (BPND) estimates with those obtained from conventional post-reconstruction kinetic parameter estimation. For the commonly chosen number of iterations used in practice, our results show that for the 3D + time simulation, the direct method delivers results with lower (%)RMSE at the normal count level (decreases of 9-10 percentage points, corresponding to a 38-44% reduction), and also at low count levels (decreases of 17-21 percentage points, corresponding to a 26-36% reduction). As for the real 3D data set, the results obtained follow a similar trend, with the direct reconstruction method offering a 21% decrease in (%)CV compared to the post reconstruction method at low count levels. Thus, based on the results presented herein, using the SRTM-BFM kinetic model in conjunction with the OSL-MLEM direct 4D PET MLEM reconstruction method offers an improvement in performance when compared to conventional post reconstruction methods. PMID:25992999

  12. SU-D-17A-02: Four-Dimensional CBCT Using Conventional CBCT Dataset and Iterative Subtraction Algorithm of a Lung Patient

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, E; Lasio, G; Yi, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Iterative Subtraction Algorithm (ISA) method generates retrospectively a pre-selected motion phase cone-beam CT image from the full motion cone-beam CT acquired at standard rotation speed. This work evaluates ISA method with real lung patient data. Methods: The goal of the ISA algorithm is to extract motion and no- motion components form the full reconstruction CBCT. The workflow consists of subtracting from the full CBCT all of the undesired motion phases and obtain a motion de-blurred single-phase CBCT image, followed by iteration of this subtraction process. ISA is realized as follows: 1) The projections are sorted to various phases, and from all phases, a full reconstruction is performed to generate an image CTM. 2) Generate forward projections of CTM at the desired phase projection angles, the subtraction of projection and the forward projection will reconstruct a CTSub1, which diminishes the desired phase component. 3) By adding back the CTSub1 to CTm, no motion CBCT, CTS1, can be computed. 4) CTS1 still contains residual motion component. 5) This residual motion component can be further reduced by iteration.The ISA 4DCBCT technique was implemented using Varian Trilogy accelerator OBI system. To evaluate the method, a lung patient CBCT dataset was used. The reconstruction algorithm is FDK. Results: The single phase CBCT reconstruction generated via ISA successfully isolates the desired motion phase from the full motion CBCT, effectively reducing motion blur. It also shows improved image quality, with reduced streak artifacts with respect to the reconstructions from unprocessed phase-sorted projections only. Conclusion: A CBCT motion de-blurring algorithm, ISA, has been developed and evaluated with lung patient data. The algorithm allows improved visualization of a single phase motion extracted from a standard CBCT dataset. This study has been supported by National Institute of Health through R01CA133539.

  13. Establishing a framework to implement 4D XCAT Phantom for 4D radiotherapy research

    PubMed Central

    Panta, Raj K.; Segars, Paul; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Aims To establish a framework to implement the 4D integrated extended cardiac torso (XCAT) digital phantom for 4D radiotherapy (RT) research. Materials and Methods A computer program was developed to facilitate the characterization and implementation of the 4D XCAT phantom. The program can (1) generate 4D XCAT images with customized parameter files; (2) review 4D XCAT images; (3) generate composite images from 4D XCAT images; (4) track motion of selected region-of-interested (ROI); (5) convert XCAT raw binary images into DICOM format; (6) analyse clinically acquired 4DCT images and real-time position management (RPM) respiratory signal. Motion tracking algorithm was validated by comparing with manual method. Major characteristics of the 4D XCAT phantom were studied. Results The comparison between motion tracking and manual measurements of lesion motion trajectory showed a small difference between them (mean difference in motion amplitude: 1.2 mm). The maximum lesion motion decreased nearly linearly (R2 = 0.97) as its distance to the diaphragm (DD) increased. At any given DD, lesion motion amplitude increased nearly linearly (R 2 range: 0.89 to 0.95) as the inputted diaphragm motion increased. For a given diaphragm motion, the lesion motion is independent of the lesion size at any given DD. The 4D XCAT phantom can closely reproduce irregular breathing profile. The end-to-end test showed that clinically comparable treatment plans can be generated successfully based on 4D XCAT images. Conclusions An integrated computer program has been developed to generate, review, analyse, process, and export the 4D XCAT images. A framework has been established to implement the 4D XCAT phantom for 4D RT research. PMID:23361276

  14. SU-E-J-150: Four-Dimensional Cone-Beam CT Algorithm by Extraction of Physical and Motion Parameter of Mobile Targets Retrospective to Image Reconstruction with Motion Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, I; Ahmad, S; Alsbou, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop 4D-cone-beam CT (CBCT) algorithm by motion modeling that extracts actual length, CT numbers level and motion amplitude of a mobile target retrospective to image reconstruction by motion modeling. Methods: The algorithm used three measurable parameters: apparent length and blurred CT number distribution of a mobile target obtained from CBCT images to determine actual length, CT-number value of the stationary target, and motion amplitude. The predictions of this algorithm were tested with mobile targets that with different well-known sizes made from tissue-equivalent gel which was inserted into a thorax phantom. The phantom moved sinusoidally in one-direction to simulate respiratory motion using eight amplitudes ranging 0–20mm. Results: Using this 4D-CBCT algorithm, three unknown parameters were extracted that include: length of the target, CT number level, speed or motion amplitude for the mobile targets retrospective to image reconstruction. The motion algorithms solved for the three unknown parameters using measurable apparent length, CT number level and gradient for a well-defined mobile target obtained from CBCT images. The motion model agreed with measured apparent lengths which were dependent on the actual target length and motion amplitude. The gradient of the CT number distribution of the mobile target is dependent on the stationary CT number level, actual target length and motion amplitude. Motion frequency and phase did not affect the elongation and CT number distribution of the mobile target and could not be determined. Conclusion: A 4D-CBCT motion algorithm was developed to extract three parameters that include actual length, CT number level and motion amplitude or speed of mobile targets directly from reconstructed CBCT images without prior knowledge of the stationary target parameters. This algorithm provides alternative to 4D-CBCT without requirement to motion tracking and sorting of the images into different breathing phases

  15. Morphology of Mandibular Incisors: A Study on CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Kamtane, Smita; Ghodke, Monali

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of the study was to identify the number of root canals and examine root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in an Indian sub-population of Pune, Maharashtra, India using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material/Methods This study was conducted at Elite CBCT & Dental Diagnostics, Pune. One hundred mandibular incisors were evaluated for the number of root, root canals and root morphology. Results In the present study, amongst 102 mandibular incisors, all had one root, 36% of them had a second canal, and Vertucci Type I was the most common type. Conclusions CBCT imaging is an excellent method for detection of different canal configurations of mandibular incisors. PMID:26834865

  16. Mandibular sexual dimorphism analysis in CBCT scans.

    PubMed

    Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual dimorphism using anthropometric measurements on mandibular images obtained by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The sample consisted of 160 CT scans collected from a Brazilian population (74 males, 86 females) aged 18-60 years. The CBCT images were analyzed by five reviewers. Six measurements (ramus length, gonion-gnathion length, minimum ramus breadth, gonial angle, bicondylar breadth, and bigonial breadth) were collected for the sexual prediction analysis. For the statistical analysis, intraclass correlation was used to evaluate intra- and inter-reviewers, analysis of variance was used to compare the mean values of these measurements, binary logistic regression equations were created to predict sex. Using these four variables, the rate of correct sex classification was 95.1%. After, the discriminant function was used to validate the formula built. Accuracy of 93.33% and 94.74% was found for estimating male and females, respectively. Thus, the formula developed in this study can be used for sex estimation in forensic settings. PMID:26773251

  17. TH-A-18C-03: Noise Correlation in CBCT Projection Data and Its Application for Noise Reduction in Low-Dose CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, H; Huang, J; Ma, J; Chen, W; Ouyang, L; Wang, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the noise correlation properties of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection data and to incorporate the noise correlation information to a statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for noise reduction in low-dose CBCT. Methods: In this study, we systematically investigated the noise correlation properties among detector bins of CBCT projection data by analyzing repeated projection measurements. The measurements were performed on a TrueBeam on-board CBCT imaging system with a 4030CB flat panel detector. An anthropomorphic male pelvis phantom was used to acquire 500 repeated projection data at six different dose levels from 0.1 mAs to 1.6 mAs per projection at three fixed angles. To minimize the influence of the lag effect, lag correction was performed on the consecutively acquired projection data. The noise correlation coefficient between detector bin pairs was calculated from the corrected projection data. The noise correlation among CBCT projection data was then incorporated into the covariance matrix of the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion for noise reduction of low-dose CBCT. Results: The analyses of the repeated measurements show that noise correlation coefficients are non-zero between the nearest neighboring bins of CBCT projection data. The average noise correlation coefficients for the first- and second- order neighbors are about 0.20 and 0.06, respectively. The noise correlation coefficients are independent of the dose level. Reconstruction of the pelvis phantom shows that the PWLS criterion with consideration of noise correlation (PWLS-Cor) results in a lower noise level as compared to the PWLS criterion without considering the noise correlation (PWLS-Dia) at the matched resolution. Conclusion: Noise is correlated among nearest neighboring detector bins of CBCT projection data. An accurate noise model of CBCT projection data can improve the performance of the statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for low

  18. SU-D-17A-03: 5D Respiratory Motion Model Based Iterative Reconstruction Method for 4D Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Y; Thomas, D; Low, D; Gao, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a new iterative reconstruction method for 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) based on a published time-independent 5D respiratory motion model. The proposed method will offer a single high-resolution image at a user-selected breathing phase and the 5D motion model parameters, which could be used to generate the breathing pattern during the CT acquisition. Methods: 5D respiratory motion model was proposed for accurately modeling the motion of lung and lung tumor tissues. 4D images are then parameterized by a reference image, measured breathing amplitude, breathing rate, two time-independent vector fields that describe the 5D model parameters, and a scalar field that describes the change in HU as a function of breathing amplitude. In contrast with the traditional method of reconstructing multiple temporal image phases to reduce respiratory artifact, 5D model based method simplify the problem into the reconstruction of a single reference image and the 5D motion model parameters. The reconstruction formulation of the reference image and scalar and vector fields is a nonlinear least-square optimization problem that consists of solving the reference image and fields alternately, in which the reference image is regularized with the total variation sparsity transform and the vector fields are solved through linearizations regularized by the H1 norm. 2D lung simulations were performed in this proof-of-concept study. Results: The breathing amplitude, its rate, and the corresponding scalar and vector fields were generated from a patient case. Compared with filtered backprojection method and sparsity regularized iterative method for the phase-by-phase reconstruction, the proposed 5D motion model based method yielded improved image quality. Conclusion: Based on 5D respiratory motion model, we have developed a new iterative reconstruction method for 4D CBCT that has the potential for improving image quality while providing needed on

  19. A Novel Fast Helical 4D-CT Acquisition Technique to Generate Low-Noise Sorting Artifact–Free Images at User-Selected Breathing Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, David; Lamb, James; White, Benjamin; Jani, Shyam; Gaudio, Sergio; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; McNitt-Gray, Michael; Low, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) technique that exploits standard fast helical acquisition, a simultaneous breathing surrogate measurement, deformable image registration, and a breathing motion model to remove sorting artifacts. Methods and Materials: Ten patients were imaged under free-breathing conditions 25 successive times in alternating directions with a 64-slice CT scanner using a low-dose fast helical protocol. An abdominal bellows was used as a breathing surrogate. Deformable registration was used to register the first image (defined as the reference image) to the subsequent 24 segmented images. Voxel-specific motion model parameters were determined using a breathing motion model. The tissue locations predicted by the motion model in the 25 images were compared against the deformably registered tissue locations, allowing a model prediction error to be evaluated. A low-noise image was created by averaging the 25 images deformed to the first image geometry, reducing statistical image noise by a factor of 5. The motion model was used to deform the low-noise reference image to any user-selected breathing phase. A voxel-specific correction was applied to correct the Hounsfield units for lung parenchyma density as a function of lung air filling. Results: Images produced using the model at user-selected breathing phases did not suffer from sorting artifacts common to conventional 4D-CT protocols. The mean prediction error across all patients between the breathing motion model predictions and the measured lung tissue positions was determined to be 1.19 ± 0.37 mm. Conclusions: The proposed technique can be used as a clinical 4D-CT technique. It is robust in the presence of irregular breathing and allows the entire imaging dose to contribute to the resulting image quality, providing sorting artifact–free images at a patient dose similar to or less than current 4D-CT techniques.

  20. A Questionnaire Cross-Sectional Study on Application of CBCT in Dental Postgraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Lavanya, Reddy; Babu, D.B. Gandhi; Waghray, Shefali; Chaitanya, Nallan C.S.K.; Mamatha, Boring; Nithika, Madhireddy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background CBCT is a new emerging imaging technique which uses a cone-shaped radiation beam that is centered on a 2D detector. It is now routinely evaluated for oral and para-oral disorders. It has been widely accepted in practice in radiology in academic and hospital settings and included in the curricula of some countries. The present study aimed to evaluate the awareness of and knowledge on CBCT among postgraduates. Material/Methods After obtaining permission and ethical clearance from concerned authorities, an anonymous survey on CBCT was conducted in a dental college by using a close-ended validated questionnaire to get to know the knowledge on CBCT among postgraduates in a dental college in India. Results A total of 100 volunteers participated but only 88 postgraduates responded to the questionnaire. Among the respondents, 54.5% were not using CBCT for diagnostic purposes at their work place. A total of 68.2% of respondents were partially aware of common terminologies used in CBCT. Most of the respondents were unsure about radiation exposure of CBCT when compared to other types of imaging. Almost nobody had any idea on relative importance of image characteristics. Only half of the respondents were willing to attend a hands-on course on CBCT interpretations versus pathology. Conclusions In the present study it was apparent that most of the respondents were lacking adequate knowledge on CBCT. Hence, there is an urgent need for more training programs on CBCT which would result in better diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:27158283

  1. Enhanced Optoelectronic Performance of a Passivated Nanowire-Based Device: Key Information from Real-Space Imaging Using 4D Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Jafar I; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Sun, Jingya; Priante, Davide; Bose, Riya; Shaheen, Basamat S; Ng, Tien Khee; Zhao, Chao; Bakr, Osman M; Ooi, Boon S; Mohammed, Omar F

    2016-05-01

    Managing trap states and understanding their role in ultrafast charge-carrier dynamics, particularly at surface and interfaces, remains a major bottleneck preventing further advancements and commercial exploitation of nanowire (NW)-based devices. A key challenge is to selectively map such ultrafast dynamical processes on the surfaces of NWs, a capability so far out of reach of time-resolved laser techniques. Selective mapping of surface dynamics in real space and time can only be achieved by applying four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM). Charge carrier dynamics are spatially and temporally visualized on the surface of InGaN NW arrays before and after surface passivation with octadecylthiol (ODT). The time-resolved secondary electron images clearly demonstrate that carrier recombination on the NW surface is significantly slowed down after ODT treatment. This observation is fully supported by enhancement of the performance of the light emitting device. Direct observation of surface dynamics provides a profound understanding of the photophysical mechanisms on materials' surfaces and enables the formulation of effective surface trap state management strategies for the next generation of high-performance NW-based optoelectronic devices. PMID:26938476

  2. Diffractive centrosymmetric 3D-transmission phase gratings positioned at the image plane of optical systems transform lightlike 4D-WORLD as tunable resonators into spectral metrics...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauinger, Norbert

    1999-08-01

    Diffractive 3D phase gratings of spherical scatterers dense in hexagonal packing geometry represent adaptively tunable 4D-spatiotemporal filters with trichromatic resonance in visible spectrum. They are described in the (lambda) - chromatic and the reciprocal (nu) -aspects by reciprocal geometric translations of the lightlike Pythagoras theorem, and by the direction cosine for double cones. The most elementary resonance condition in the lightlike Pythagoras theorem is given by the transformation of the grating constants gx, gy, gz of the hexagonal 3D grating to (lambda) h1h2h3 equals (lambda) 111 with cos (alpha) equals 0.5. Through normalization of the chromaticity in the von Laue-interferences to (lambda) 111, the (nu) (lambda) equals (lambda) h1h2h3/(lambda) 111-factor of phase velocity becomes the crucial resonance factor, the 'regulating device' of the spatiotemporal interaction between 3D grating and light, space and time. In the reciprocal space equal/unequal weights and times in spectral metrics result at positions of interference maxima defined by hyperbolas and circles. A database becomes built up by optical interference for trichromatic image preprocessing, motion detection in vector space, multiple range data analysis, patchwide multiple correlations in the spatial frequency spectrum, etc.

  3. Helical 4D CT and Comparison with Cine 4D CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tinsu

    4D CT was one of the most important developments in radiation oncology in the last decade. Its early development in single slice CT and commercialization in multi-slice CT has radically changed our practice in radiation treatment of lung cancer, and has enabled the stereotactic radiosurgery of early stage lung cancer. In this chapter, we will document the history of 4D CT development, detail the data sufficiency condition governing the 4D CT data collection; present the design of the commercial helical 4D CTs from Philips and Siemens; compare the differences between the helical 4D CT and the GE cine 4D CT in data acquisition, slice thickness, acquisition time and work flow; review the respiratory monitoring devices; and understand the causes of image artifacts in 4D CT.

  4. 4-D imaging of seepage in earthen embankments with time-lapse inversion of self-potential data constrained by acoustic emissions localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittgers, J. B.; Revil, A.; Planes, T.; Mooney, M. A.; Koelewijn, A. R.

    2015-02-01

    New methods are required to combine the information contained in the passive electrical and seismic signals to detect, localize and monitor hydromechanical disturbances in porous media. We propose a field experiment showing how passive seismic and electrical data can be combined together to detect a preferential flow path associated with internal erosion in a Earth dam. Continuous passive seismic and electrical (self-potential) monitoring data were recorded during a 7-d full-scale levee (earthen embankment) failure test, conducted in Booneschans, Netherlands in 2012. Spatially coherent acoustic emissions events and the development of a self-potential anomaly, associated with induced concentrated seepage and internal erosion phenomena, were identified and imaged near the downstream toe of the embankment, in an area that subsequently developed a series of concentrated water flows and sand boils, and where liquefaction of the embankment toe eventually developed. We present a new 4-D grid-search algorithm for acoustic emissions localization in both time and space, and the application of the localization results to add spatially varying constraints to time-lapse 3-D modelling of self-potential data in the terms of source current localization. Seismic signal localization results are utilized to build a set of time-invariant yet spatially varying model weights used for the inversion of the self-potential data. Results from the combination of these two passive techniques show results that are more consistent in terms of focused ground water flow with respect to visual observation on the embankment. This approach to geophysical monitoring of earthen embankments provides an improved approach for early detection and imaging of the development of embankment defects associated with concentrated seepage and internal erosion phenomena. The same approach can be used to detect various types of hydromechanical disturbances at larger scales.

  5. Novel use of 4D-CTA in imaging of intranidal aneurysms in an acutely ruptured arteriovenous malformation: is this the way forward?

    PubMed

    Chandran, Arun; Radon, Mark; Biswas, Shubhabrata; Das, Kumar; Puthuran, Mani; Nahser, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Ruptured arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a frequent cause of intracranial hemorrhage. The presence of associated aneurysms, especially intranidal aneurysms, is considered to increase the risk of re-hemorrhage. We present two cases where an intranidal aneurysm was demonstrated on four-dimensional CT angiography (time-resolved CT angiography) (4D-CTA). These features were confirmed by digital subtraction angiography (catheter arterial angiogram). This is the first report of an intranidal aneurysm demonstrated by 4D-CTA. 4D-CTA can offer a comprehensive evaluation of the angioarchitecture and flow dynamics of an AVM for appropriate classification and management. PMID:26180096

  6. Comparison between full face and hemifacial CBCT cephalograms in clinically symmetrical patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira, Cintia Helena Zingaretti; Janson, Guilherme; Junqueira, Marisa Helena Zingaretti; Mendes, Lucas Marzullo; Favilla, Eduardo Esberard; Garib, Daniela Gamba

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: One of the advantages of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is the possibility of obtaining images of conventional lateral cephalograms derived from partial or complete reconstruction of facial images. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at comparing full face, right and left hemifacial CBCT cephalograms of orthodontic patients without clinical facial asymmetry. METHODS: The sample comprised nine clinically symmetrical patients who had pretreament full face CBCT. The CBCTs were reconstructed so as to obtain full face, right and left hemifacial cephalograms. Two observers, at two different times, obtained linear and angular measurements for the images using Dolphin 3D software. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to assess the reproducibility of measurements. Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the variables obtained in the CBCT derived cephalometric views. RESULTS: There was good reproducibility for CBCT scans and no statistically significant differences between measurements of full face, right and left hemifacial CBCT scans. CONCLUSIONS: Cephalometric measurements in full face, right and left hemifacial CBCT scans in clinically symmetrical patients are similar. PMID:25992992

  7. Four Dimensional Digital Tomosynthesis Using on-Board Imager for the Verification of Respiratory Motion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Justin C.; Kim, Jin Sung; Park, Sung Ho; Webster, Matthew J.; Lee, Soyoung; Song, William Y.; Han, Youngyih

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate respiratory motion of a patient by generating four-dimensional digital tomosynthesis (4D DTS), extracting respiratory signal from patients' on-board projection data, and ensuring the feasibility of 4D DTS as a localization tool for the targets which have respiratory movement. Methods and Materials Four patients with lung and liver cancer were included to verify the feasibility of 4D-DTS with an on-board imager. CBCT acquisition (650–670 projections) was used to reconstruct 4D DTS images and the breath signal of the patients was generated by extracting the motion of diaphragm during data acquisition. Based on the extracted signal, the projection data was divided into four phases: peak-exhale phase, mid-inhale phase, peak-inhale phase, and mid-exhale phase. The binned projection data was then used to generate 4D DTS, where the total scan angle was assigned as ±22.5° from rotation center, centered on 0° and 180° for coronal “half-fan” 4D DTS, and 90° and 270° for sagittal “half-fan” 4D DTS. The result was then compared with 4D CBCT which we have also generated with the same phase distribution. Results The motion of the diaphragm was evident from the 4D DTS results for peak-exhale, mid-inhale, peak-inhale and mid-exhale phase assignment which was absent in 3D DTS. Compared to the result of 4D CBCT, the view aliasing effect due to arbitrary angle reconstruction was less severe. In addition, the severity of metal artifacts, the image distortion due to presence of metal, was less than that of the 4D CBCT results. Conclusion We have implemented on-board 4D DTS on patients data to visualize the movement of anatomy due to respiratory motion. The results indicate that 4D-DTS could be a promising alternative to 4D CBCT for acquiring the respiratory motion of internal organs just prior to radiotherapy treatment. PMID:25541710

  8. Use of INSAT-3D sounder and imager radiances in the 4D-VAR data assimilation system and its implications in the analyses and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indira Rani, S.; Taylor, Ruth; George, John P.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    INSAT-3D, the first Indian geostationary satellite with sounding capability, provides valuable information over India and the surrounding oceanic regions which are pivotal to Numerical Weather Prediction. In collaboration with UK Met Office, NCMRWF developed the assimilation capability of INSAT-3D Clear Sky Brightness Temperature (CSBT), both from the sounder and imager, in the 4D-Var assimilation system being used at NCMRWF. Out of the 18 sounder channels, radiances from 9 channels are selected for assimilation depending on relevance of the information in each channel. The first three high peaking channels, the CO2 absorption channels and the three water vapor channels (channel no. 10, 11, and 12) are assimilated both over land and Ocean, whereas the window channels (channel no. 6, 7, and 8) are assimilated only over the Ocean. Measured satellite radiances are compared with that from short range forecasts to monitor the data quality. This is based on the assumption that the observed satellite radiances are free from calibration errors and the short range forecast provided by NWP model is free from systematic errors. Innovations (Observation - Forecast) before and after the bias correction are indicative of how well the bias correction works. Since the biases vary with air-masses, time, scan angle and also due to instrument degradation, an accurate bias correction algorithm for the assimilation of INSAT-3D sounder radiance is important. This paper discusses the bias correction methods and other quality controls used for the selected INSAT-3D sounder channels and the impact of bias corrected radiance in the data assimilation system particularly over India and surrounding oceanic regions.

  9. SU-E-J-101: Improved CT to CBCT Deformable Registration Accuracy by Incorporating Multiple CBCTs

    SciTech Connect

    Godley, A; Stephans, K; Olsen, L Sheplan

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Combining prior day CBCT contours with STAPLE was previously shown to improve automated prostate contouring. These accurate STAPLE contours are now used to guide the planning CT to pre-treatment CBCT deformable registration. Methods: Six IGRT prostate patients with daily kilovoltage CBCT had their original planning CT and 9 CBCTs contoured by the same physician. These physician contours for the planning CT and each prior CBCT are deformed to match the current CBCT anatomy, producing multiple contour sets. These sets are then combined using STAPLE into one optimal set (e.g. for day 3 CBCT, combine contours produced using the plan plus day 1 and 2 CBCTs). STAPLE computes a probabilistic estimate of the true contour from this collection of contours by maximizing sensitivity and specificity. The deformation field from planning CT to CBCT registration is then refined by matching its deformed contours to the STAPLE contours. ADMIRE (Elekta Inc.) was used for this. The refinement does not force perfect agreement of the contours, typically Dice’s Coefficient (DC) of > 0.9 is obtained, and the image difference metric remains in the optimization of the deformable registration. Results: The average DC between physician delineated CBCT contours and deformed planning CT contours for the bladder, rectum and prostate was 0.80, 0.79 and 0.75, respectively. The accuracy significantly improved to 0.89, 0.84 and 0.84 (P<0.001 for all) when using the refined deformation field. The average time to run STAPLE with five scans and refine the planning CT deformation was 66 seconds on a Telsa K20c GPU. Conclusion: Accurate contours generated from multiple CBCTs provided guidance for CT to CBCT deformable registration, significantly improving registration accuracy as measured by contour DC. A more accurate deformation field is now available for transferring dose or electron density to the CBCT for adaptive planning. Research grant from Elekta.

  10. Improving 4D plan quality for PBS-based liver tumour treatments by combining online image guided beam gating with rescanning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Knopf, Antje-Christin; Weber, Damien Charles; Lomax, Antony John

    2015-10-21

    Pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton therapy has many advantages over conventional radiotherapy, but its effectiveness for treating mobile tumours remains questionable. Gating dose delivery to the breathing pattern is a well-developed method in conventional radiotherapy for mitigating tumour-motion, but its clinical efficiency for PBS proton therapy is not yet well documented. In this study, the dosimetric benefits and the treatment efficiency of beam gating for PBS proton therapy has been comprehensively evaluated. A series of dedicated 4D dose calculations (4DDC) have been performed on 9 different 4DCT(MRI) liver data sets, which give realistic 4DCT extracting motion information from 4DMRI. The value of 4DCT(MRI) is its capability of providing not only patient geometries and deformable breathing characteristics, but also includes variations in the breathing patterns between breathing cycles. In order to monitor target motion and derive a gating signal, we simulate time-resolved beams' eye view (BEV) x-ray images as an online motion surrogate. 4DDCs have been performed using three amplitude-based gating window sizes (10/5/3 mm) with motion surrogates derived from either pre-implanted fiducial markers or the diaphragm. In addition, gating has also been simulated in combination with up to 19 times rescanning using either volumetric or layered approaches. The quality of the resulting 4DDC plans has been quantified in terms of the plan homogeneity index (HI), total treatment time and duty cycle. Results show that neither beam gating nor rescanning alone can fully retrieve the plan homogeneity of the static reference plan. Especially for variable breathing patterns, reductions of the effective duty cycle to as low as 10% have been observed with the smallest gating rescanning window (3 mm), implying that gating on its own for such cases would result in much longer treatment times. In addition, when rescanning is applied on its own, large differences between volumetric

  11. Improving 4D plan quality for PBS-based liver tumour treatments by combining online image guided beam gating with rescanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Knopf, Antje-Christin; Weber, Damien Charles; Lomax, Antony John

    2015-10-01

    Pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton therapy has many advantages over conventional radiotherapy, but its effectiveness for treating mobile tumours remains questionable. Gating dose delivery to the breathing pattern is a well-developed method in conventional radiotherapy for mitigating tumour-motion, but its clinical efficiency for PBS proton therapy is not yet well documented. In this study, the dosimetric benefits and the treatment efficiency of beam gating for PBS proton therapy has been comprehensively evaluated. A series of dedicated 4D dose calculations (4DDC) have been performed on 9 different 4DCT(MRI) liver data sets, which give realistic 4DCT extracting motion information from 4DMRI. The value of 4DCT(MRI) is its capability of providing not only patient geometries and deformable breathing characteristics, but also includes variations in the breathing patterns between breathing cycles. In order to monitor target motion and derive a gating signal, we simulate time-resolved beams’ eye view (BEV) x-ray images as an online motion surrogate. 4DDCs have been performed using three amplitude-based gating window sizes (10/5/3 mm) with motion surrogates derived from either pre-implanted fiducial markers or the diaphragm. In addition, gating has also been simulated in combination with up to 19 times rescanning using either volumetric or layered approaches. The quality of the resulting 4DDC plans has been quantified in terms of the plan homogeneity index (HI), total treatment time and duty cycle. Results show that neither beam gating nor rescanning alone can fully retrieve the plan homogeneity of the static reference plan. Especially for variable breathing patterns, reductions of the effective duty cycle to as low as 10% have been observed with the smallest gating rescanning window (3 mm), implying that gating on its own for such cases would result in much longer treatment times. In addition, when rescanning is applied on its own, large differences between volumetric

  12. Comparison of manual, digital and lateral CBCT cephalometric analyses

    PubMed Central

    NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; FERNANDES, Thais Maria Freire; de OLIVEIRA, Giovani Fidelis; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of three different methods of cephalometric analysis. Material and Methods: Conventional pretreatment lateral cephalograms and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans from 50 subjects from a radiological clinic were selected in order to test the three methods: manual tracings (MT), digitized lateral cephalograms (DLC), and lateral cephalograms from CBCT (LC-CBCT). The lateral cephalograms were manually analyzed through the Dolphin Imaging 11.0(tm) software. Twenty measurements were performed under the same conditions, and retraced after a 30-day period. Paired t tests and the Dahlberg formula were used to evaluate the intra-examiner errors. The Pearson's correlation coefficient and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to compare the differences between the methods. Results: Intra-examiner reliability occurred for all methods for most of the measurements. Only six measurements were different between the methods and an agreement was observed in the analyses among the 3 methods. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that all evaluated methodologies are reliable and valid for scientific research, however, the method used in the lateral cephalograms from the CBCT proved the most reliable. PMID:23739848

  13. SU-E-J-123: Targeting Accuracy of Image-Guided Radiosurgery for Intracranial Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y; Wen, N; Zhao, B; Kim, J; Gordon, J; Chetty, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracies of image-guided intracranial radiosurgery across several different linear accelerator platforms. Methods: A CT scan with a slice thickness of 1.0 mm was acquired of a Rando head phantom (The Phantom Laboratory) in a U-frame mask (BrainLAB AG). The phantom had three embedded BBs, simulating a central, left, and anterior lesion. The phantom was setup with each BB placed at the radiation isocenter under image guidance. Four different setup procedures were investigated: (1) NTX-ExacTrac: 6 degree-of-freedom (6D) correction on a Novalis Tx (BrainLAB AG) with ExacTrac localization (BrainLAB AG); (2) NTX-CBCT: 4D correction on the Novalis Tx with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT); (3) TrueBeam-CBCT: 4D correction on a TrueBeam (Varian) with CBCT; (4) Edge-CBCT: 6D correction on an Edge (Varian) with CBCT. The experiment was repeated 5 times with different initial setup error at each BB location on each platform, and the mean (μ) and one standard deviation (σ) of the residual error was compared.The congruence between radiation and imaging isocenters on each platform was evaluated by acquiring Winston Lutz (WL) images of a WL jig followed by imaging using ExacTrac or CBCT. The difference in coordinates of the jig relative to radiation and imaging isocenters was then recorded. Results: Averaged over all three BB locations, the residual vector setup errors (μ±σ) of the phantom in mm were 0.6±0.2, 1.0±0.5, 0.2±0.1, and 0.3±0.1 on NTX-ExacTrac, NTX-CBCT, TrueBeam-CBCT, and Edge-CBCT, with their ranges in mm being 0.4∼1.1, 0.4∼1.9, 0.1∼0.5, and 0.2∼0.6, respectively. And imaging isocenter was found stable relative to radiation isocenter, with the congruence to radiation isocenter in mm being 0.6±0.1, 0.7±0.1, 0.3±0.1, 0.2±0.1, respectively, on the four systems in the same order. Conclusion: Millimeter accuracy can be achieved with image-guided radiosurgery for intracranial lesions based on this set of experiments.

  14. Is a Clinical Target Volume (CTV) Necessary in the Treatment of Lung Cancer in the Modern Era Combining 4-D Imaging and Image-guided Radiotherapy (IGRT)?

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Jeremy M; Lucas, John T; Soike, Michael H; Ayala-Peacock, Diandra N; Blackstock, Arthur W; Hinson, William H; Munley, Michael T; Petty, William J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that omission of clinical target volumes (CTV) in lung cancer radiotherapy would not compromise control by determining retrospectively if the addition of a CTV would encompass the site of failure. Methods: Stage II-III patients were treated from 2009-2012 with daily cone-beam imaging and a 5 mm planning target volume (PTV) without a CTV. PTVs were expanded 1 cm and termed CTVretro. Recurrences were scored as 1) within the PTV, 2) within CTVretro, or 3) outside the PTV. Locoregional control (LRC), distant control (DC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were estimated. Result: Among 110 patients, Stage IIIA 57%, IIIB 32%, IIA 4%, and IIB 7%. Eighty-six percent of Stage III patients received chemotherapy. Median dose was 70 Gy (45-74 Gy) and fraction size ranged from 1.5-2.7 Gy. Median follow-up was 12 months, median OS was 22 months (95% CI 19-30 months), and LRC at two years was 69%. Fourteen local and eight regional events were scored with two CTVretro failures equating to a two-year CTV failure-free survival of 98%. Conclusion: Omission of a 1 cm CTV expansion appears feasible based on only two events among 110 patients and should be considered in radiation planning. PMID:26929893

  15. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.N.; Boulanger, A.; Bagdonas, E.P.; Xu, L.; He, W.

    1996-12-17

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells. 22 figs.

  16. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Roger N.; Boulanger, Albert; Bagdonas, Edward P.; Xu, Liqing; He, Wei

    1996-01-01

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells.

  17. Radiological Protection in Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). ICRP Publication 129.

    PubMed

    Rehani, M M; Gupta, R; Bartling, S; Sharp, G C; Pauwels, R; Berris, T; Boone, J M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide guidance on radiological protection in the new technology of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Publications 87 and 102 dealt with patient dose management in computed tomography (CT) and multi-detector CT. The new applications of CBCT and the associated radiological protection issues are substantially different from those of conventional CT. The perception that CBCT involves lower doses was only true in initial applications. CBCT is now used widely by specialists who have little or no training in radiological protection. This publication provides recommendations on radiation dose management directed at different stakeholders, and covers principles of radiological protection, training, and quality assurance aspects. Advice on appropriate use of CBCT needs to be made widely available. Advice on optimisation of protection when using CBCT equipment needs to be strengthened, particularly with respect to the use of newer features of the equipment. Manufacturers should standardise radiation dose displays on CBCT equipment to assist users in optimisation of protection and comparisons of performance. Additional challenges to radiological protection are introduced when CBCT-capable equipment is used for both fluoroscopy and tomography during the same procedure. Standardised methods need to be established for tracking and reporting of patient radiation doses from these procedures. The recommendations provided in this publication may evolve in the future as CBCT equipment and applications evolve. As with previous ICRP publications, the Commission hopes that imaging professionals, medical physicists, and manufacturers will use the guidelines and recommendations provided in this publication for implementation of the Commission's principle of optimisation of protection of patients and medical workers, with the objective of keeping exposures as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account economic and societal factors, and

  18. Measurement accuracy and reliability of tooth length on conventional and CBCT reconstructed panoramic radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Rosenblatt, Mark R; Major, Paul W.; Carey, Jason P.; Heo, Giseon

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This in vivo study assessed accuracy and reliability of tooth length measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs and CBCT panoramic reconstructions to that of a digital caliper (gold standard). METHODS: The sample consisted of subjects who had CBCT and conventional panoramic radiographic imaging and who required maxillary premolar extraction for routine orthodontic treatment. A total of 48 teeth extracted from 26 subjects were measured directly with digital calipers. Radiographic images were scanned and digitally measured in Dolphin 3D software. Accuracy of tooth length measurements made by CBCT panoramic reconstructions, conventional panoramic radiographs and digital caliper (gold standard) were compared to each other by repeated measures one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni correction and by single measures intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Repeated root length measures with digital calipers, panoramic radiographs and CBCT constructed panoramic-like images were all individually highly reliable. Compared to the caliper (gold standard), tooth measurements obtained from conventional panoramic radiographs were on average 6.3 mm (SD = 2.0 mm) longer, while tooth measurements from CBCT panoramic reconstructions were an average of 1.7 mm (SD = 1.2 mm) shorter. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to actual tooth lengths, conventional panoramic radiographs were relatively inaccurate, overestimating the lengths by 29%, while CBCT panoramic reconstructions underestimated the lengths by 4%. PMID:25715716

  19. Constrained reconstructions for 4D intervention guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, J.; Flach, B.; Kueres, R.; Semmler, W.; Kachelrieß, M.; Bartling, S.

    2013-05-01

    Image-guided interventions are an increasingly important part of clinical minimally invasive procedures. However, up to now they cannot be performed under 4D (3D + time) guidance due to the exceedingly high x-ray dose. In this work we investigate the applicability of compressed sensing reconstructions for highly undersampled CT datasets combined with the incorporation of prior images in order to yield low dose 4D intervention guidance. We present a new reconstruction scheme prior image dynamic interventional CT (PrIDICT) that accounts for specific image features in intervention guidance and compare it to PICCS and ASD-POCS. The optimal parameters for the dose per projection and the numbers of projections per reconstruction are determined in phantom simulations and measurements. In vivo experiments in six pigs are performed in a cone-beam CT; measured doses are compared to current gold-standard intervention guidance represented by a clinical fluoroscopy system. Phantom studies show maximum image quality for identical overall doses in the range of 14 to 21 projections per reconstruction. In vivo studies reveal that interventional materials can be followed in 4D visualization and that PrIDICT, compared to PICCS and ASD-POCS, shows superior reconstruction results and fewer artifacts in the periphery with dose in the order of biplane fluoroscopy. These results suggest that 4D intervention guidance can be realized with today’s flat detector and gantry systems using the herein presented reconstruction scheme.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 10: Partial kV CBCT, complete kV CBCT and EPID in breast treatment: a dose comparison study for skin, breasts, heart and lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Roussin, E; Archambault, L K; Wierzbicki, W

    2014-08-15

    The advantages of kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV CBCT) imaging over electronic portal imaging device (EPID) such as accurate 3D anatomy, soft tissue visualization, fast rigid registration and enhanced precision on patient positioning has lead to its increasing use in clinics. The benefits of this imaging technique are at the cost of increasing the dose to healthy surrounding organs. Our center has moved toward the use of daily partial rotation kV CBCT to restrict the dose to healthy tissues. This study aims to better quantify radiation doses from different image-guidance techniques such as tangential EPID, complete and partial kV CBCT for breast treatments. Cross-calibrated ionization chambers and kV calibrated Gafchromic films were used to measure the dose to the heart, lungs, breasts and skin. It was found that performing partial kV CBCT decreases the heart dose by about 36%, the lungs dose by 31%, the contralateral breast dose by 41% and the ipsilateral breast dose by 43% when compared to a full rotation CBCT. The skin dose measured for a full rotation CBCT was about 0.8 cGy for the contralateral breast and about 0.3 cGy for the ipsilateral breast. The study is still ongoing and results on skin doses for partial rotation kV CBCT as well as for tangential EPID images are upcoming.

  1. Spatial resolution in CBCT machines for dental/maxillofacial applications—what do we know today?

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, R K W

    2015-01-01

    Spatial resolution is one of the most important parameters objectively defining image quality, particularly in dental imaging, where fine details often have to be depicted. Here, we review the current status on assessment parameters for spatial resolution and on published data regarding spatial resolution in CBCT images. The current concepts of visual [line-pair (lp) measurements] and automated [modulation transfer function (MTF)] assessment of spatial resolution in CBCT images are summarized and reviewed. Published measurement data on spatial resolution in CBCT are evaluated and analysed. Effective (i.e. actual) spatial resolution available in CBCT images is being influenced by the two-dimensional detector, the three-dimensional reconstruction process, patient movement during the scan and various other parameters. In the literature, the values range between 0.6 and 2.8 lp mm−1 (visual assessment; median, 1.7 lp mm−1) vs MTF (range, 0.5–2.3 cycles per mm; median, 2.1 lp mm−1). Spatial resolution of CBCT images is approximately one order of magnitude lower than that of intraoral radiographs. Considering movement, scatter effects and other influences in real-world scans of living patients, a realistic spatial resolution of just above 1 lp mm−1 could be expected. PMID:25168812

  2. Imaging a moving lung tumor with megavoltage cone beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Gayou, Olivier Colonias, Athanasios

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Respiratory motion may affect the accuracy of image guidance of radiation treatment of lung cancer. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image spans several breathing cycles, resulting in a blurred object with a theoretical size equal to the sum of tumor size and breathing motion. However, several factors may affect this theoretical relationship. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of tumor motion on megavoltage (MV)-CBCT images, by comparing target sizes on simulation and pretreatment images of a large cohort of lung cancer patients. Methods: Ninety-three MV-CBCT images from 17 patients were analyzed. Internal target volumes were contoured on each MV-CBCT dataset [internal target volume (ITV{sub CB})]. Their extent in each dimension was compared to that of two volumes contoured on simulation 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) images: the combination of the tumor contours of each phase of the 4D-CT (ITV{sub 4D}) and the volume contoured on the average CT calculated from the 4D-CT phases (ITV{sub ave}). Tumor size and breathing amplitude were assessed by contouring the tumor on each CBCT raw projection where it could be unambiguously identified. The effect of breathing amplitude on the quality of the MV-CBCT image reconstruction was analyzed. Results: The mean differences between the sizes of ITV{sub CB} and ITV{sub 4D} were −1.6 ± 3.3 mm (p < 0.001), −2.4 ± 3.1 mm (p < 0.001), and −7.2 ± 5.3 mm (p < 0.001) in the anterior/posterior (AP), left/right (LR), and superior/inferior (SI) directions, respectively, showing that MV-CBCT underestimates the full target size. The corresponding mean differences between ITV{sub CB} and ITV{sub ave} were 0.3 ± 2.6 mm (p = 0.307), 0.0 ± 2.4 mm (p = 0.86), and −4.0 ± 4.3 mm (p < 0.001), indicating that the average CT image is more representative of what is visible on MV-CBCT in the AP and LR directions. In the SI directions, differences between ITV{sub CB} and ITV{sub ave} could be

  3. TU-F-17A-09: Four-Dimensional Cone Beam CT Ventilation Imaging Can Detect Interfraction Lung Function Variations for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kipritidis, J; Keall, P; Hugo, G; Weiss, E; Williamson, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI) is a novel functional lung imaging modality requiring validation. We hypothesize that 4D-CBCT VI satisfies a necessary condition for validity: that intrafraction variations (e.g. due to poor 4D-CBCT image quality) are substantially different to interfraction variations (e.g. due to changes in underlying function). We perform the first comparison of intrafraction (pre/post fraction) and interfraction (week-to-week) 4D-CBCT VIs for locally advanced non small cell lung cancer (LA NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: A total of 215 4D-CBCT scans were acquired for 19 LA NSCLC patients over 4-6 weeks of radiation therapy, including 75 pairs of pre-/post-fraction scans on the same day. 4D-CBCT VIs were obtained by applying state-of-the-art, B-spline deformable image registration to obtain the Jacobian determinant of deformation between the end-exhale and end-inhale phases. All VIs were deformably registered to the corresponding first day scan, normalized between the 10th and 90th percentile values and cropped to the ipsilateral lung only. Intrafraction variations were assessed by computing the mean and standard deviation of voxel-wise differences between all same-day pairs of pre-/post-fraction VIs. Interfraction differences were computed between first-day VIs and treatment weeks 2, 4 and 6 for all 19 patients. We tested the hypothesis by comparing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of intrafraction and interfraction ventilation differences using two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests. Results: The (mean ± std. dev.) of intrafraction differences was (−0.007 ± 0.079). Interfraction differences for weeks 2, 4 and 6 were (−0.035 ± 0.103), (−0.006 ± 0.094) and (−0.019 ± 0.127) respectively. For week 2, the changes in CDFs for intrafraction and interfraction differences approached statistical significance (p=0.099). Conclusion: We have shown that 4D-CBCT VI

  4. SU-E-I-01: Iterative CBCT Reconstruction with a Feature-Preserving Penalty

    SciTech Connect

    Lyu, Q; Li, B; Ma, J; Wang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Low-dose CBCT is desired in various clinical applications. Iterative image reconstruction algorithms have shown advantages in suppressing noise in low-dose CBCT. However, due to the smoothness constraint enforced during the reconstruction process, edges may be blurred and image features may lose in the reconstructed image. In this work, we proposed a new penalty design to preserve image features in the image reconstructed by iterative algorithms. Methods: Low-dose CBCT is reconstructed by minimizing the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) objective function. Binary Robust Independent Elementary Features (BRIEF) of the image were integrated into the penalty of PWLS. BRIEF is a general purpose point descriptor that can be used to identify important features of an image. In this work, BRIEF distance of two neighboring pixels was used to weigh the smoothing parameter in PWLS. For pixels of large BRIEF distance, weaker smooth constraint will be enforced. Image features will be better preserved through such a design. The performance of the PWLS algorithm with BRIEF penalty was evaluated by a CatPhan 600 phantom. Results: The image quality reconstructed by the proposed PWLS-BRIEF algorithm is superior to that by the conventional PWLS method and the standard FDK method. At matched noise level, edges in PWLS-BRIEF reconstructed image are better preserved. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the proposed PWLS-BRIEF algorithm has great potential on preserving image features in low-dose CBCT.

  5. CBCT in orthodontics: assessment of treatment outcomes and indications for its use

    PubMed Central

    Nervina, J M

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction into dentistry in 1998, CBCT has become increasingly utilized for orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning and research. The utilization of CBCT for these purposes has been facilitated by the relative advantages of three-dimensional (3D) over two-dimensional radiography. Despite many suggested indications of CBCT, scientific evidence that its utilization improves diagnosis and treatment plans or outcomes has only recently begun to emerge for some of these applications. This article provides a comprehensive and current review of key studies on the applications of CBCT in orthodontic therapy and for research to decipher treatment outcomes and 3D craniofacial anatomy. The current diagnostic and treatment planning indications for CBCT include impacted teeth, cleft lip and palate and skeletal discrepancies requiring surgical intervention. The use of CBCT in these and other situations such as root resorption, supernumerary teeth, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology, asymmetries and alveolar boundary conditions should be justified on the basis of the merits relative to risks of imaging. CBCT has also been used to assess 3D craniofacial anatomy in health and disease and of treatment outcomes including that of root morphology and angulation; alveolar boundary conditions; maxillary transverse dimensions and maxillary expansion; airway morphology, vertical malocclusion and obstructive sleep apnoea; TMJ morphology and pathology contributing to malocclusion; and temporary anchorage devices. Finally, this article utilizes findings of these studies and current voids in knowledge to provide ideas for future research that could be beneficial for further optimizing the use of CBCT in research and the clinical practice of orthodontics. PMID:25358833

  6. Reliability of CBCT as an assessment tool for mandibular molars furcation defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinescu, Adrian George; Boariu, Marius; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Ogodescu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In numerous clinical situations it is not possible to have an exact clinical evaluation of the furcation defects. Recently the use of CBCT in periodontology has led to an increased precision in diagnostic. Aim. To determine the accuracy of CBCT as diagnostic tool of the furcation defects. Material and method. 19 patients with generalised advanced chronic periodontitis were included in this study, presenting a total of 25 lower molars with different degrees of furcation defects. Clinical and digital measurements (in mm) were performed on all the molars involved. The data obtained has been compared and statistically analysed. Results. The analysis of primary data has demonstrated that all the furcation grade II and III defects were revealed using the CBCT technique. Regarding the incipient defects (grade I Hamp < 3mm), the dimensions measured on CBCT images were slightly bigger. The results have shown that 84% of the defects detected by CBCT have been confirmed by clinical measurements. These data are similar to those revealed by other studies1. Conclusions. The use of CBCT technique in evaluation and diagnosis of human mandibular furcation defects can provide many important information regarding the size and aspect of the interradicular defect, efficiently and noninvasively. CBCT technique is used more effectively in detection of advanced furcation degree compared to incipient ones. However, the CBCT examination cannot replace, at least in this stage of development, the clinical measurements, especially the intraoperative ones, which are considered to represent the „golden standard" in this domain.

  7. Feasibility of MV CBCT-based treatment planning for urgent radiation therapy: dosimetric accuracy of MV CBCT-based dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Held, Mareike; Sneed, Penny K; Fogh, Shannon E; Pouliot, Jean; Morin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Unlike scheduled radiotherapy treatments, treatment planning time and resources are limited for emergency treatments. Consequently, plans are often simple 2D image-based treatments that lag behind technical capabilities available for nonurgent radiotherapy. We have developed a novel integrated urgent workflow that uses onboard MV CBCT imaging for patient simulation to improve planning accuracy and reduce the total time for urgent treatments. This study evaluates both MV CBCT dose planning accuracy and novel urgent workflow feasibility for a variety of anatomic sites. We sought to limit local mean dose differences to less than 5% compared to conventional CT simulation. To improve dose calculation accuracy, we created separate Hounsfield unit-to-density calibration curves for regular and extended field-of-view (FOV) MV CBCTs. We evaluated dose calculation accuracy on phantoms and four clinical anatomical sites (brain, thorax/spine, pelvis, and extremities). Plans were created for each case and dose was calculated on both the CT and MV CBCT. All steps (simulation, planning, setup verification, QA, and dose delivery) were performed in one 30 min session using phantoms. The monitor units (MU) for each plan were compared and dose distribution agreement was evaluated using mean dose difference over the entire volume and gamma index on the central 2D axial plane. All whole-brain dose distributions gave gamma passing rates higher than 95% for 2%/2 mm criteria, and pelvic sites ranged between 90% and 98% for 3%/3 mm criteria. However, thoracic spine treatments produced gamma passing rates as low as 47% for 3%/3 mm criteria. Our novel MV CBCT-based dose planning and delivery approach was feasible and time-efficient for the majority of cases. Limited MV CBCT FOV precluded workflow use for pelvic sites of larger patients and resulted in image clearance issues when tumor position was far off midline. The agreement of calculated MU on CT and MV CBCT was acceptable for all

  8. Deformable registration of CT and cone-beam CT by local CBCT intensity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seyoun; Plishker, William; Shekhar, Raj; Quon, Harry; Wong, John; Lee, Junghoon

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to accurately register CT to cone-beam CT (CBCT) by iteratively correcting local CBCT intensity. CBCT is a widely used intra-operative imaging modality in image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. A short scan followed by a filtered-backprojection is typically used for CBCT reconstruction. While data on the mid-plane (plane of source-detector rotation) is complete, off-mid-planes undergo different information deficiency and the computed reconstructions are approximate. This causes different reconstruction artifacts at off-mid-planes depending on slice locations, and therefore impedes accurate registration between CT and CBCT. To address this issue, we correct CBCT intensities by matching local intensity histograms slice by slice in conjunction with intensity-based deformable registration. This correction-registration step is repeated until the result image converges. We tested the proposed method on eight head-and-neck cancer cases and compared its performance with state-of-the-art registration methods, Bspline, demons, and optical flow, which are widely used for CT-CBCT registration. Normalized mutual-information (NMI), normalized cross-correlation (NCC), and structural similarity (SSIM) were computed as similarity measures for the performance evaluation. Our method produced overall NMI of 0.59, NCC of 0.96, and SSIM of 0.93, outperforming existing methods by 3.6%, 2.4%, and 2.8% in terms of NMI, NCC, and SSIM scores, respectively. Experimental results show that our method is more consistent and roust than existing algorithms, and also computationally efficient with faster convergence.

  9. FluoRender: An Application of 2D Image Space Methods for 3D and 4D Confocal Microscopy Data Visualization in Neurobiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yong; Otsuna, Hideo; Chien, Chi-Bin; Hansen, Charles

    2013-01-01

    2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists’ demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. PMID:23584131

  10. SU-E-J-133: Autosegmentation of Linac CBCT: Improved Accuracy Via Penalized Likelihood Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the quality of kV X-ray cone beam CT (CBCT) for use in radiotherapy delivery assessment and re-planning by using penalized likelihood (PL) iterative reconstruction and auto-segmentation accuracy of the resulting CBCTs as an image quality metric. Methods: Present filtered backprojection (FBP) CBCT reconstructions can be improved upon by PL reconstruction with image formation models and appropriate regularization constraints. We use two constraints: 1) image smoothing via an edge preserving filter, and 2) a constraint minimizing the differences between the reconstruction and a registered prior image. Reconstructions of prostate therapy CBCTs were computed with constraint 1 alone and with both constraints. The prior images were planning CTs(pCT) deformable-registered to the FBP reconstructions. Anatomy segmentations were done using atlas-based auto-segmentation (Elekta ADMIRE). Results: We observed small but consistent improvements in the Dice similarity coefficients of PL reconstructions over the FBP results, and additional small improvements with the added prior image constraint. For a CBCT with anatomy very similar in appearance to the pCT, we observed these changes in the Dice metric: +2.9% (prostate), +8.6% (rectum), −1.9% (bladder). For a second CBCT with a very different rectum configuration, we observed +0.8% (prostate), +8.9% (rectum), −1.2% (bladder). For a third case with significant lateral truncation of the field of view, we observed: +0.8% (prostate), +8.9% (rectum), −1.2% (bladder). Adding the prior image constraint raised Dice measures by about 1%. Conclusion: Efficient and practical adaptive radiotherapy requires accurate deformable registration and accurate anatomy delineation. We show here small and consistent patterns of improved contour accuracy using PL iterative reconstruction compared with FBP reconstruction. However, the modest extent of these results and the pattern of differences across CBCT cases suggest that

  11. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in the Field of Interventional Oncology of the Liver.

    PubMed

    Bapst, Blanche; Lagadec, Matthieu; Breguet, Romain; Vilgrain, Valérie; Ronot, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an imaging modality that provides computed tomographic images using a rotational C-arm equipped with a flat panel detector as part of the Angiography suite. The aim of this technique is to provide additional information to conventional 2D imaging to improve the performance of interventional liver oncology procedures (intraarterial treatments such as chemoembolization or selective internal radiation therapy, and percutaneous tumor ablation). CBCT provides accurate tumor detection and targeting, periprocedural guidance, and post-procedural evaluation of treatment success. This technique can be performed during intraarterial or intravenous contrast agent administration with various acquisition protocols to highlight liver tumors, liver vessels, or the liver parenchyma. The purpose of this review is to present an extensive overview of published data on CBCT in interventional oncology of the liver, for both percutaneous ablation and intraarterial procedures. PMID:26178776

  12. Demons deformable registration for CBCT-guided procedures in the head and neck: Convergence and accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Nithiananthan, S.; Brock, K. K.; Daly, M. J.; Chan, H.; Irish, J. C.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The accuracy and convergence behavior of a variant of the Demons deformable registration algorithm were investigated for use in cone-beam CT (CBCT)-guided procedures of the head and neck. Online use of deformable registration for guidance of therapeutic procedures such as image-guided surgery or radiation therapy places trade-offs on accuracy and computational expense. This work describes a convergence criterion for Demons registration developed to balance these demands; the accuracy of a multiscale Demons implementation using this convergence criterion is quantified in CBCT images of the head and neck. Methods: Using an open-source ''symmetric'' Demons registration algorithm, a convergence criterion based on the change in the deformation field between iterations was developed to advance among multiple levels of a multiscale image pyramid in a manner that optimized accuracy and computation time. The convergence criterion was optimized in cadaver studies involving CBCT images acquired using a surgical C-arm prototype modified for 3D intraoperative imaging. CBCT-to-CBCT registration was performed and accuracy was quantified in terms of the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) and target registration error (TRE). The accuracy and robustness of the algorithm were then tested in clinical CBCT images of ten patients undergoing radiation therapy of the head and neck. Results: The cadaver model allowed optimization of the convergence factor and initial measurements of registration accuracy: Demons registration exhibited TRE=(0.8{+-}0.3) mm and NCC=0.99 in the cadaveric head compared to TRE=(2.6{+-}1.0) mm and NCC=0.93 with rigid registration. Similarly for the patient data, Demons registration gave mean TRE=(1.6{+-}0.9) mm compared to rigid registration TRE=(3.6{+-}1.9) mm, suggesting registration accuracy at or near the voxel size of the patient images (1x1x2 mm{sup 3}). The multiscale implementation based on optimal convergence criteria completed registration in

  13. 4D (x-y-z-t) imaging of thick biological samples by means of Two-Photon inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (2PE-iSPIM)

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Zeno; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; d’Amora, Marta; Follert, Philipp; De Pietri Tonelli, Davide; Diaspro, Alberto; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques, such as selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), has become a well established method for developmental biology. However, conventional SPIM architectures hardly permit imaging of certain tissues since the common sample mounting procedure, based on gel embedding, could interfere with the sample morphology. In this work we propose an inverted selective plane microscopy system (iSPIM), based on non-linear excitation, suitable for 3D tissue imaging. First, the iSPIM architecture provides flexibility on the sample mounting, getting rid of the gel-based mounting typical of conventional SPIM, permitting 3D imaging of hippocampal slices from mouse brain. Moreover, all the advantages brought by two photon excitation (2PE) in terms of reduction of scattering effects and contrast improvement are exploited, demonstrating an improved image quality and contrast compared to single photon excitation. The system proposed represents an optimal platform for tissue imaging and it smooths the way to the applicability of light sheet microscopy to a wider range of samples including those that have to be mounted on non-transparent surfaces. PMID:27033347

  14. 4D (x-y-z-t) imaging of thick biological samples by means of Two-Photon inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (2PE-iSPIM).

    PubMed

    Lavagnino, Zeno; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; d'Amora, Marta; Follert, Philipp; De Pietri Tonelli, Davide; Diaspro, Alberto; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques, such as selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), has become a well established method for developmental biology. However, conventional SPIM architectures hardly permit imaging of certain tissues since the common sample mounting procedure, based on gel embedding, could interfere with the sample morphology. In this work we propose an inverted selective plane microscopy system (iSPIM), based on non-linear excitation, suitable for 3D tissue imaging. First, the iSPIM architecture provides flexibility on the sample mounting, getting rid of the gel-based mounting typical of conventional SPIM, permitting 3D imaging of hippocampal slices from mouse brain. Moreover, all the advantages brought by two photon excitation (2PE) in terms of reduction of scattering effects and contrast improvement are exploited, demonstrating an improved image quality and contrast compared to single photon excitation. The system proposed represents an optimal platform for tissue imaging and it smooths the way to the applicability of light sheet microscopy to a wider range of samples including those that have to be mounted on non-transparent surfaces. PMID:27033347

  15. 4D (x-y-z-t) imaging of thick biological samples by means of Two-Photon inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (2PE-iSPIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagnino, Zeno; Sancataldo, Giuseppe; D’Amora, Marta; Follert, Philipp; de Pietri Tonelli, Davide; Diaspro, Alberto; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade light sheet fluorescence microscopy techniques, such as selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), has become a well established method for developmental biology. However, conventional SPIM architectures hardly permit imaging of certain tissues since the common sample mounting procedure, based on gel embedding, could interfere with the sample morphology. In this work we propose an inverted selective plane microscopy system (iSPIM), based on non-linear excitation, suitable for 3D tissue imaging. First, the iSPIM architecture provides flexibility on the sample mounting, getting rid of the gel-based mounting typical of conventional SPIM, permitting 3D imaging of hippocampal slices from mouse brain. Moreover, all the advantages brought by two photon excitation (2PE) in terms of reduction of scattering effects and contrast improvement are exploited, demonstrating an improved image quality and contrast compared to single photon excitation. The system proposed represents an optimal platform for tissue imaging and it smooths the way to the applicability of light sheet microscopy to a wider range of samples including those that have to be mounted on non-transparent surfaces.

  16. Abdominal and pancreatic motion correlation using 4D CT, 4D transponders, and a gating belt.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Ricardo; Zou, Wei; Plastaras, John P; Metz, James M; Teo, Boon-Keng; Kassaee, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between the pancreatic and external abdominal motion due to respiration was investigated on two patients. These studies utilized four dimensional computer tomography (4D CT), a four dimensional (4D) electromagnetic transponder system, and a gating belt system. One 4D CT study was performed during simulation to quantify the pancreatic motion using computer tomography images at eight breathing phases. The motion under free breathing and breath-hold were analyzed for the 4D electromagnetic transponder system and the gating belt system during treatment. A linear curve was fitted for all data sets and correlation factors were evaluated between the 4D electromagnetic transponder system and the gating belt system data. The 4D CT study demonstrated a modest correlation between the external marker and the pancreatic motion with R-square values larger than 0.8 for the inferior-superior (inf-sup). Then, the relative pressure from the belt gating system correlated well with the 4D electromagnetic transponder system's motion in the anterior-posterior (ant-post) and the inf-post directions. These directions have a correlation value of -0.93 and 0.76, while the lateral only had a 0.03 correlation coefficient. Based on our limited study, external surrogates can be used as predictors of the pancreatic motion in the inf-sup and the ant-post directions. Although there is a low correlation on the lateral direction, its motion is significantly shorter. In conclusion, an appropriate treatment delivery can be used for pancreatic cancer when an internal tracking system, such as the 4D electromagnetic transponder system, is unavailable. PMID:23652242

  17. 4D imaging of velocity variation of the underground by single ultra-stable seismic source and multi-receivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, J.; Hasada, Y.; Tsuruga, K.; Fujii, N.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a seismological method to construct images of any time-variable zone(s) in the underground such as earthquake focal zone, volcanic magma intruding zone, oil-gas reservoirs and CO2 sequestration zone. If fluid flow controls earthquake generation, sudden change of physical state due to fluid migration may suggest a high possibility of future earthquake events. Increasing of magma body in volcano may also cause any change of seismic reflections from volcanic zone. Injection of CO2 to the ground may also cause decrease of injected zone. We use an extremely stable seismic system (ACROSS: Accurately Controlled and Routinely Operated Signal System) to perform continuous monitor of them. The seismic ACROSS source is non-destructive seismic source, which can be used to continuously monitor a change of target zone. If we assume the seismic source signature does not change during a certain time frame, we can compare the waveforms between any observation periods. Using single seismic source and multi-receivers, we made back-propagate the differential waveforms of multi-receivers between before and after the Vp and Vs change. We carried out simulation by subduction zone and small-scale examples such as CO2 sequestration zone. In this talk, we present the change of image with time of CO2 sequestration zone. Assuming we know the velocity structure of the target zone and no or very small velocity change of near surface zone, we may image the place of time-variable zone by use of appropriate location of seismic source(s). Multi-seismic sources can improve the image. The result may apply to earthquake forecasting in the suducting plate, forecasting of volcanic eruption and oil and gas reservoir EOR.

  18. Accuracy and Utility of Deformable Image Registration in {sup 68}Ga 4D PET/CT Assessment of Pulmonary Perfusion Changes During and After Lung Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J.; Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; MacManus, Michael P.; Ball, David L.; Jackson, Price; Siva, Shankar

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: Measuring changes in lung perfusion resulting from radiation therapy dose requires registration of the functional imaging to the radiation therapy treatment planning scan. This study investigates registration accuracy and utility for positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging in radiation therapy for non–small cell lung cancer. Methods: {sup 68}Ga 4-dimensional PET/CT ventilation-perfusion imaging was performed before, during, and after radiation therapy for 5 patients. Rigid registration and deformable image registration (DIR) using B-splines and Demons algorithms was performed with the CT data to obtain a deformation map between the functional images and planning CT. Contour propagation accuracy and correspondence of anatomic features were used to assess registration accuracy. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine statistical significance. Changes in lung perfusion resulting from radiation therapy dose were calculated for each registration method for each patient and averaged over all patients. Results: With B-splines/Demons DIR, median distance to agreement between lung contours reduced modestly by 0.9/1.1 mm, 1.3/1.6 mm, and 1.3/1.6 mm for pretreatment, midtreatment, and posttreatment (P<.01 for all), and median Dice score between lung contours improved by 0.04/0.04, 0.05/0.05, and 0.05/0.05 for pretreatment, midtreatment, and posttreatment (P<.001 for all). Distance between anatomic features reduced with DIR by median 2.5 mm and 2.8 for pretreatment and midtreatment time points, respectively (P=.001) and 1.4 mm for posttreatment (P>.2). Poorer posttreatment results were likely caused by posttreatment pneumonitis and tumor regression. Up to 80% standardized uptake value loss in perfusion scans was observed. There was limited change in the loss in lung perfusion between registration methods; however, Demons resulted in larger interpatient variation compared with rigid and B-splines registration

  19. ASTER and USGS EROS emergency imaging for hurricane disasters: Chapter 4D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Satellite images have been extremely useful in a variety of emergency response activities, including hurricane disasters. This article discusses the collaborative efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Joint United States-Japan Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in responding to crisis situations by tasking the ASTER instrument and rapidly providing information to initial responders. Insight is provided on the characteristics of the ASTER systems, and specific details are presented regarding Hurricane Katrina support.

  20. Nanowires: Enhanced Optoelectronic Performance of a Passivated Nanowire-Based Device: Key Information from Real-Space Imaging Using 4D Electron Microscopy (Small 17/2016).

    PubMed

    Khan, Jafar I; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Sun, Jingya; Priante, Davide; Bose, Riya; Shaheen, Basamat S; Ng, Tien Khee; Zhao, Chao; Bakr, Osman M; Ooi, Boon S; Mohammed, Omar F

    2016-05-01

    Selective mapping of surface charge carrier dynamics of InGaN nanowires before and after surface passivation with octadecylthiol (ODT) is reported by O. F. Mohammed and co-workers on page 2313, using scanning ultrafast electron microscopy. In a typical experiment, the 343 nm output of the laser beam is used to excite the microscope tip to generate pulsed electrons for probing, and the 515 nm output is used as a clocking excitation pulse to initiate dynamics. Time-resolved images demonstrate clearly that carrier recombination is significantly slowed after ODT treatment, which supports the efficient removal of surface trap states. PMID:27124006

  1. 4D analysis of the microstructural evolution of Si-based electrodes during lithiation: Time-lapse X-ray imaging and digital volume correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Garcia, J. M.; Taiwo, O. O.; Tudisco, E.; Finegan, D. P.; Shearing, P. R.; Brett, D. J. L.; Hall, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Silicon is a promising candidate to substitute or complement graphite as anode material in Li-ion batteries due, mainly, to its high energy density. However, the lithiation/delithiation processes of silicon particles are inherently related to drastic volume changes which, within a battery's physically constrained case, can induce significant deformation of the fundamental components of the battery that can eventually cause it to fail. In this work, we use non-destructive time-lapse X-ray imaging techniques to study the coupled electrochemo-mechanical phenomena in Li-ion batteries. We present X-ray computed tomography data acquired at different times during the first lithiation of custom-built silicon-lithium battery cells. Microstructural volume changes have been quantified using full 3D strain field measurements from digital volume correlation analysis. Furthermore, the extent of lithiation of silicon particles has been quantified in 3D from the grey-scale of the tomography images. Correlation of the volume expansion and grey-scale changes over the silicon-based electrode volume indicates that the process of lithiation is kinetically affected by the reaction at the Si/LixSi interface.

  2. R4D on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    This Photograph taken in 1956 shows the first of three R4D Skytrain aircraft on the ramp behind the NACA High-Speed Flight Station. Note the designation 'United States NACA' on the side of the aircraft. NACA stood for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, which evolved into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958. The R4D Skytrain was one of the early workhorses for NACA and NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from 1952 to 1984. Designated the R4D by the U.S. Navy, the aircraft was called the C-47 by the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force and the DC-3 by its builder, Douglas Aircraft. Nearly everyone called it the 'Gooney Bird.' In 1962, Congress consolidated the military-service designations and called all of them the C-47. After that date, the R4D at NASA's Flight Research Center (itself redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1976) was properly called a C-47. Over the 32 years it was used at Edwards, three different R4D/C-47s were used to shuttle personnel and equipment between NACA/NASA Centers and test locations throughout the country and for other purposes. One purpose was landing on 'dry' lakebeds used as alternate landing sites for the X-15, to determine whether their surfaces were hard (dry) enough for the X-15 to land on in case an emergency occurred after its launch and before it could reach Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base. The R4D/C-47 served a variety of needs, including serving as the first air-tow vehicle for the M2-F1 lifting body (which was built of mahogany plywood). The C-47 (as it was then called) was used for 77 tows before the M2-F1 was retired for more advanced lifting bodies that were dropped from the NASA B-52 'Mothership.' The R4D also served as a research aircraft. It was used to conduct early research on wing-tip-vortex flow visualization as well as checking out the NASA Uplink Control System. The first Gooney Bird was at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station (now the Dryden

  3. Artifact reduction in short-scan CBCT by use of optimization-based reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Han, Xiao; Pearson, Erik; Pelizzari, Charles; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-05-01

    Increasing interest in optimization-based reconstruction in research on, and applications of, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) exists because it has been shown to have to potential to reduce artifacts observed in reconstructions obtained with the Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK) algorithm (or its variants), which is used extensively for image reconstruction in current CBCT applications. In this work, we carried out a study on optimization-based reconstruction for possible reduction of artifacts in FDK reconstruction specifically from short-scan CBCT data. The investigation includes a set of optimization programs such as the image-total-variation (TV)-constrained data-divergency minimization, data-weighting matrices such as the Parker weighting matrix, and objects of practical interest for demonstrating and assessing the degree of artifact reduction. Results of investigative work reveal that appropriately designed optimization-based reconstruction, including the image-TV-constrained reconstruction, can reduce significant artifacts observed in FDK reconstruction in CBCT with a short-scan configuration.

  4. SU-E-J-145: Geometric Uncertainty in CBCT Extrapolation for Head and Neck Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C; Kumarasiri, A; Chetvertkov, M; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Siddiqui, F; Kim, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: One primary limitation of using CBCT images for H'N adaptive radiotherapy (ART) is the limited field of view (FOV) range. We propose a method to extrapolate the CBCT by using a deformed planning CT for the dose of the day calculations. The aim was to estimate the geometric uncertainty of our extrapolation method. Methods: Ten H'N patients, each with a planning CT (CT1) and a subsequent CT (CT2) taken, were selected. Furthermore, a small FOV CBCT (CT2short) was synthetically created by cropping CT2 to the size of a CBCT image. Then, an extrapolated CBCT (CBCTextrp) was generated by deformably registering CT1 to CT2short and resampling with a wider FOV (42mm more from the CT2short borders), where CT1 is deformed through translation, rigid, affine, and b-spline transformations in order. The geometric error is measured as the distance map ||DVF|| produced by a deformable registration between CBCTextrp and CT2. Mean errors were calculated as a function of the distance away from the CBCT borders. The quality of all the registrations was visually verified. Results: Results were collected based on the average numbers from 10 patients. The extrapolation error increased linearly as a function of the distance (at a rate of 0.7mm per 1 cm) away from the CBCT borders in the S/I direction. The errors (μ±σ) at the superior and inferior boarders were 0.8 ± 0.5mm and 3.0 ± 1.5mm respectively, and increased to 2.7 ± 2.2mm and 5.9 ± 1.9mm at 4.2cm away. The mean error within CBCT borders was 1.16 ± 0.54mm . The overall errors within 4.2cm error expansion were 2.0 ± 1.2mm (sup) and 4.5 ± 1.6mm (inf). Conclusion: The overall error in inf direction is larger due to more large unpredictable deformations in the chest. The error introduced by extrapolation is plan dependent. The mean error in the expanded region can be large, and must be considered during implementation. This work is supported in part by Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA.

  5. Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) System: Comparison with Intraoral Periapical Radiography in Proximal Caries Detection

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Tavakkoli, Mohammad Amin; Karimi Vasigh, Homaoun; Azizi, Zeynab; Zarrabian, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims With the introduction of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in dentistry, a question has been raised whether the technique significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other techniques or not. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of CBCT modality in detecting proximal carious lesions as compared to conventional periapical radiographs. Materials and methods This diagnostic study was carried out on 84 human extracted molars and premolars. The teeth were mounted and divided in 28 blocks of 3 teeth. Periapical and CBCT images of teeth were obtained. Five observers scored the images for the detection of proximal carious lesions using a 2-point scale (caries, present; caries, absent). The gold standard was determined by histopathologic sections. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and receiver operating charac-teristics (ROC) curves were traced for observers in both systems. The results were analyzed by paired t-test. Results The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of CBCT images were 0.568, 0.835, 0.637, 0.714, 0.598 and 0.856, respectively. These parameters were 0.432, 0.837, 0.722, 0.77, 0.687 and 0.858 for the periapical conventional technique, respectively. Conclusion The CBCT images did not enhance detection of proximal caries in comparison with periapical images. PMID:22991626

  6. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy and dimensional measurements by using CBCT in mandibular first molars

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Nikneshan, Sima; Akbarzadeh-Bagheban, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and quantitatively evaluate the morphology of mandibular first molars using CBCT. Material and Methods Twenty-four double-rooted mandibular first molars were evaluated by NewTom VGi CBCT. The distance from the furcation and apex to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), diameter and thickness of canal walls, the buccolingual (BL) to mesiodistal (MD) ratio (ΔD), prevalence of oval canals at different sections and taper of the canals were all determined. In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CBCT, distance from the furcation and apex to the CEJ and thickness of canal walls at the CEJ and apex were compared with the gold standard values (caliper and stereomicroscope). Statistical analyses were carried out using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results A high correlation existed between the CBCT and gold standard measurements (P<0.001). In dimensional measurements, length of mesial root was higher than the distal root and lingual furcation was farther from the CEJ than the buccal furcation (P<0.001). An important finding of this study was the mesiodistal taper of the mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) canals; which was equal to 0.02. Conclusions CBCT has acceptable diagnostic accuracy for measurement of canal wall thickness. Cleaning and shaping of the canals should be performed based on the unique anatomy of the respective canal; which necessitates the use of advanced imaging techniques for thorough assessment of root canal anatomy in a clinical setting. Key words:Permanent mandibular first molar, accuracy, cone-beam computed tomography, dimensional measurement. PMID:26855697

  7. Validation of MTF measurement for CBCT system using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ting; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhou, Zhongxing

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the spatial resolution performance of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system, accurate measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF) is required. This accuracy depends on the MTF measurement method and CBCT reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the accuracy of MTF measurement of CBCT system using wire phantom is validated by Monte Carlo simulation. A Monte Carlo simulation software tool BEAMnrc/EGSnrc was employed to model X-ray radiation beams and transport. Tungsten wires were simulated with different diameters and radial distances from the axis of rotation. We adopted filtered back projection technique to reconstruct images from 360° acquisition. The MTFs for four reconstruction kernels were measured from corresponding reconstructed wire images, while the ram-lak kernel increased the MTF relative to the cosine, hamming and hann kernel. The results demonstrated that the MTF degraded radially from the axis of rotation. This study suggested that an increase in the MTF for the CBCT system is possible by optimizing scanning settings and reconstruction parameters.

  8. Effective dose of cone beam CT (CBCT) of the facial skeleton: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Al-Okshi, A; Salé, H; Gunnarsson, M; Rohlin, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate effective dose of cone beam CT (CBCT) of the facial skeleton with focus on measurement methods and scanning protocols. Methods: A systematic review, which adhered to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews (PRISMA) Statement, of the literature up to April 2014 was conducted. Data sources included MEDLINE®, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. A model was developed to underpin data extraction from 38 included studies. Results: Technical specifications of the CBCT units were insufficiently described. Heterogeneity in measurement methods and scanning protocols between studies made comparisons of effective doses of different CBCT units and scanning protocols difficult. Few studies related doses to image quality. Reported effective dose varied across studies, ranging between 9.7 and 197.0 μSv for field of views (FOVs) with height ≤5 cm, between 3.9 and 674.0 μSv for FOVs of heights 5.1–10.0 cm and between 8.8 and 1073.0 μSv for FOVs >10 cm. There was an inconsistency regarding reported effective dose of studies of the same CBCT unit with the same FOV dimensions. Conclusion: The review reveals a need for studies on radiation dosages related to image quality. Reporting quality of future studies has to be improved to facilitate comparison of effective doses obtained from examinations with different CBCT units and scanning protocols. A model with minimum data set on important parameters based on this observation is proposed. Advances in knowledge: Data important when estimating effective dose were insufficiently reported in most studies. A model with minimum data based on this observation is proposed. Few studies related effective dose to image quality. PMID:25486387

  9. Optimizing cone beam CT scatter estimation in egs-cbct for a clinical and virtual chest phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Thing, Rune Slot; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image quality suffers from contamination from scattered photons in the projection images. Monte Carlo simulations are a powerful tool to investigate the properties of scattered photons.egs-cbct, a recent EGSnrc user code, provides the ability of performing fast scatter calculations in CBCT projection images. This paper investigates how optimization of user inputs can provide the most efficient scatter calculations. Methods: Two simulation geometries with two different x-ray sources were simulated, while the user input parameters for the efficiency improving techniques (EITs) implemented inegs-cbct were varied. Simulation efficiencies were compared to analog simulations performed without using any EITs. Resulting scatter distributions were confirmed unbiased against the analog simulations. Results: The optimal EIT parameter selection depends on the simulation geometry and x-ray source. Forced detection improved the scatter calculation efficiency by 80%. Delta transport improved calculation efficiency by a further 34%, while particle splitting combined with Russian roulette improved the efficiency by a factor of 45 or more. Combining these variance reduction techniques with a built-in denoising algorithm, efficiency improvements of 4 orders of magnitude were achieved. Conclusions: Using the built-in EITs inegs-cbct can improve scatter calculation efficiencies by more than 4 orders of magnitude. To achieve this, the user must optimize the input parameters to the specific simulation geometry. Realizing the full potential of the denoising algorithm requires keeping the statistical uncertainty below a threshold value above which the efficiency drops exponentially.

  10. Optimization-based reconstruction for reduction of CBCT artifact in IGRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dan; Zhang, Zheng; Paysan, Pascal; Seghers, Dieter; Brehm, Marcus; Munro, Peter; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pelizzari, Charles; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-04-01

    Kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) plays an important role in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) by providing 3D spatial information of tumor potentially useful for optimizing treatment planning. In current IGRT CBCT system, reconstructed images obtained with analytic algorithms, such as FDK algorithm and its variants, may contain artifacts. In an attempt to compensate for the artifacts, we investigate optimization-based reconstruction algorithms such as the ASD-POCS algorithm for potentially reducing arti- facts in IGRT CBCT images. In this study, using data acquired with a physical phantom and a patient subject, we demonstrate that the ASD-POCS reconstruction can significantly reduce artifacts observed in clinical re- constructions. Moreover, patient images reconstructed by use of the ASD-POCS algorithm indicate a contrast level of soft-tissue improved over that of the clinical reconstruction. We have also performed reconstructions from sparse-view data, and observe that, for current clinical imaging conditions, ASD-POCS reconstructions from data collected at one half of the current clinical projection views appear to show image quality, in terms of spatial and soft-tissue-contrast resolution, higher than that of the corresponding clinical reconstructions.

  11. SU-E-E-11: Novel Matching Module for Respiration-Gated Motion Tumor of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) to 4DCT

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P; Tsai, Y; Nien, H; Chiu, Y; Chang, H; Lin, C; Fu, P; Chang, C; Wu, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans reliably record whole respiratory phase and generate internal target volumes (ITV) for radiotherapy planning. However, image guiding with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) cannot acquire all or specific respiratory phases. This study was designed to investigate the correlation between average CT and Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) from 4DCT and CBCT. Methods: Retrospective respiratory gating were performed by GE Discovery CT590 RT. 4DCT and CBCT data from CRIS Dynamic Thorax Phantom with simulated breathing mode were analyzed. The lung tissue equivalent material encompassed 3 cm sphere tissue equivalent material. Simulated breathing cycle period was set as 4 seconds, 5 seconds and 6 seconds for representing variation of patient breathing cycle time, and the sphere material moved toward inferior and superior direction with 1 cm amplitude simulating lung tumor motion during respiration. Results: Under lung window, the volume ratio of CBCT scans to ITVs derived from 10 phases average scans was 1.00 ± 0.02, and 1.03 ± 0.03 for ratio of CBCT scans to MIP scans. Under abdomen window, the ratio of CBCT scans to ITVs derived from 10 phases average scans was 0.39 ± 0.06, and 0.06 ± 0.00 for ratio of CBCT scans to MIP scans. There was a significant difference between lung window Result and abdomen window Result. For reducing image guiding uncertainty, CBCT window was set with width 500 and level-250. The ratio of CBCT scans to ITVs derived from 4 phases average scans with abdomen window was 1.19 ± 0.02, and 1.06 ± 0.01 for ratio of CBCT to MIP scans. Conclusion: CBCT images with suitable window width and level can efficiently reduce image guiding uncertainty for patient with mobile tumor. By our setting, we can match motion tumor to gating tumor location on planning CT more accurately neglecting other motion artifacts during CBCT scans.

  12. WE-E-18A-11: Fluoro-Tomographic Images From Projections of On-Board Imager (OBI) While Gantry Is Moving

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, B; Hu, E; Yu, C; Lasio, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A method to generate a series of fluoro-tomographic images (FTI) of the slice of interest (SOI) from the projection images of the On-board imager (OBI) while gantry is moving is developed and tested. Methods: Tomographic image via background subtraction, TIBS has been published by our group. TIBS uses a priori anatomical information from a previous CT scan to isolate a SOI from a planar kV image by factoring out the attenuations by tissues outside the SOI (background). We extended the idea to 4D TIBS, which enables to generate from the projection of different gantry angles. A set of background images for different angles are prepared. A background image at a given gantry angle is subtracted from the projection image at the same angle to generate a TIBS image. Then the TIBS image is converted to a reference angle. The 4D TIBS is the set of TIBS that originated from gantry angles other than the reference angle. Projection images of lung patients for CBCT acquisition are used to test the 4D TIBS. Results: Fluoroscopic images of a coronal plane of lung patients are acquired from the CBCT projections at different gantry angles and times. Change of morphology of hilar vessels due to breathing and heart beating are visible in the coronal plane, which are generated from the set of the projection images at gantry angles other than antero-posterior. Breathing surrogate or sorting process is not needed. Unlike tomosynthesis, FTI from 4D TIBS maintains the independence of each of the projections thereby reveals temporal variations within the SOI. Conclusion: FTI, fluoroscopic imaging of a SOI with x-ray projections, directly generated from the x-ray projection images at different gantry angles is tested with a lung case and proven feasible. This technique can be used for on-line imaging of moving targets. NIH Grant R01CA133539.

  13. Efficacy of CBCT for assessment of impacted mandibular third molars: a review – based on a hierarchical model of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, A

    2015-01-01

    A radiographic examination of mandibular third molars is meant to support the surgeon in establishing a treatment plan. For years panoramic (PAN) imaging has been the first choice method; however, where an overprojection is observed between the third molar and the mandibular canal and when specific signs suggest a close contact between the molar and the canal, CBCT may be indicated. The present review provides an evaluation of the efficacy of CBCT for assessment of mandibular third molars using a six-tiered hierarchical model by Fryback and Thornbury in 1991. Levels 1–3 include studies on low evidence levels mainly regarding the technical capabilities of a radiographic method and the diagnostic accuracy of the related images. Levels 4–6 include studies on a higher level of evidence and assess the diagnostic impact of a radiographic method on the treatment of the patient in addition to the outcome for the patient and society including cost calculations. Only very few high-evidence studies on the efficacy of CBCT for radiographic examination of mandibular third molars exist and, in conclusion, periapical or PAN examination is sufficient in most cases before removal of mandibular third molars. However, CBCT may be suggested when one or more signs for a close contact between the tooth and the canal are present in the two-dimensional image—if it is believed that CBCT will change the treatment or the treatment outcome for the patient. Further research on high-evidence levels is needed. PMID:25135317

  14. Fast 4D segmentation of large datasets using graph cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombaert, Herve; Sun, Yiyong; Cheriet, Farida

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we propose to use 4D graph cuts for the segmentation of large spatio-temporal (4D) datasets. Indeed, as 4D datasets grow in popularity in many clinical areas, so will the demand for efficient general segmentation algorithms. The graph cuts method1 has become a leading method for complex 2D and 3D image segmentation in many applications. Despite a few attempts2-5 in 4D, the use of graph cuts on typical medical volume quickly exceeds today's computer capacities. Among all existing graph cuts based methods6-10 the multilevel banded graph cuts9 is the fastest and uses the least amount of memory. Nevertheless, this method has its limitation. Memory becomes an issue when using large 4D volume sequences, and small structures become hardly recoverable when using narrow bands. We thus improve the boundary refinement efficiency by using a 4D competitive region growing. First, we construct a coarse graph at a low resolution with strong temporal links to prevent the shrink bias inherent to the graph cuts method. Second, we use a competitive region growing using a priority queue to capture all fine details. Leaks are prevented by constraining the competitive region growing within a banded region and by adding a viscosity term. This strategy yields results comparable to the multilevel banded graph cuts but is faster and allows its application to large 4D datasets. We applied our method on both cardiac 4D MRI and 4D CT datasets with promising results.

  15. Measuring absorbed dose for i-CAT CBCT examinations in child, adolescent and adult phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Design and construct child and adolescent head phantoms to measure the absorbed doses imparted during dental CBCT and compare with the absorbed dose measured in an adult phantom. Methods: A child phantom was developed to represent the smallest patients receiving CBCT, usually for craniofacial developmental concerns, and an adolescent phantom was developed to represent healthy orthodontic patients. Absorbed doses were measured using a thimble ionization chamber for the custom-built child and adolescent phantoms and compared with measurements using a commercially available adult phantom. Imaging was performed with an i-CAT Next Generation (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA) CBCT using two different fields of view covering the craniofacial complex (130 mm high) or maxilla/mandible (60 mm high). Results: Measured absorbed doses varied depending on the location of the ionization chamber within the phantoms. For CBCT images obtained using the same protocol for all phantoms, the highest absorbed dose was measured in all locations of the small child phantom. The lowest absorbed dose was measured in the adult phantom. Conclusions: Images were obtained with the same protocol for the adult, adolescent and child phantoms. A consistent trend was observed with the highest absorbed dose being measured in the smallest phantom (child), while the lowest absorbed dose was measured in the largest phantom (adult). This study demonstrates the importance of child-sizing the dose by using dedicated paediatric protocols optimized for the imaging task, which is critical as children are more sensitive to harmful effects of radiation and have a longer life-span post-irradiation for radiation-induced symptoms to develop than do adults. PMID:25785822

  16. Trabecular bone histomorphometric measurements and contrast-to-noise ratio in CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Smedby, Ö; Brismar, T B; Moreno, R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate how imaging parameters at clinical dental CBCT affect the accuracy in quantifying trabecular bone structures, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and radiation dose. Methods: 15 radius samples were examined using CBCT (Accuitomo FPD; J. Morita Mfg., Kyoto, Japan). Nine imaging protocols were used, differing in current, voltage, rotation degree, voxel size, imaging area and rotation time. Radiation doses were measured using a kerma area product-meter. After segmentation, six bone structure parameters and CNRs were quantified. Micro-CT (μCT) images with an isotropic resolution of 20 μm were used as a gold standard. Results: Structure parameters obtained by CBCT were strongly correlated to those by μCT, with correlation coefficients >0.90 for all studied parameters. Bone volume and trabecular thickness were not affected by changes in imaging parameters. Increased tube current from 5 to 8 mA, decreased isotropic voxel size from 125 to 80 μm and decreased rotation angle from 360° to 180° affected correlations for trabecular termini negatively. Decreasing rotation degree also weakened correlations for trabecular separation and trabecular number at 80 μm voxel size. Changes in the rotation degree and tube current affected CNR significantly. The radiation dose varied between 269 and 1153 mGy cm2. Conclusions: Trabecular bone structure can be accurately quantified by clinical dental CBCT in vitro, and the obtained structure parameters are strongly related to those obtained by μCT. A fair CNR and strong correlations can be obtained with a low radiation dose, indicating the possibility for monitoring trabecular bone structure also in vivo. PMID:25168811

  17. 4D-DSA and 4D fluoroscopy: preliminary implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistretta, C. A.; Oberstar, E.; Davis, B.; Brodsky, E.; Strother, C. M.

    2010-04-01

    We have described methods that allow highly accelerated MRI using under-sampled acquisitions and constrained reconstruction. One is a hybrid acquisition involving the constrained reconstruction of time dependent information obtained from a separate scan of longer duration. We have developed reconstruction algorithms for DSA that allow use of a single injection to provide the temporal data required for flow visualization and the steady state data required for construction of a 3D-DSA vascular volume. The result is time resolved 3D volumes with typical resolution of 5123 at frame rates of 20-30 fps. Full manipulation of these images is possible during each stage of vascular filling thereby allowing for simplified interpretation of vascular dynamics. For intravenous angiography this time resolved 3D capability overcomes the vessel overlap problem that greatly limited the use of conventional intravenous 2D-DSA. Following further hardware development, it will be also be possible to rotate fluoroscopic volumes for use as roadmaps that can be viewed at arbitrary angles without a need for gantry rotation. The most precise implementation of this capability requires availability of biplane fluoroscopy data. Since the reconstruction of 3D volumes presently suppresses the contrast in the soft tissue, the possibility of using these techniques to derive complete indications of perfusion deficits based on cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) parameters requires further investigation. Using MATLAB post-processing, successful studies in animals and humans done in conjunction with both intravenous and intra-arterial injections have been completed. Real time implementation is in progress.

  18. Assessment of effective radiation dose of an extremity CBCT, MSCT and conventional X ray for knee area using MOSFET dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, Juha; Kiljunen, Timo; Wolff, Jan; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the organ and effective doses in the knee area resulting from different commercially available multislice computed tomography devices (MSCT), one cone beam computed tomography device (CBCT) and one conventional X-ray radiography device using MOSFET dosemeters and an anthropomorphic RANDO knee phantom. Measurements of the MSCT devices resulted in effective doses ranging between 27 and 48 µSv. The CBCT measurements resulted in an effective dose of 12.6 µSv. The effective doses attained using the conventional radiography device were 1.8 µSv for lateral and 1.2 µSv for anterior-posterior projections. The effective dose resulting from conventional radiography was considerably lower than those recorded for the CBCT and MSCT devices. The MSCT effective dose results were two to four times higher than those measured on the CBCT device. This study demonstrates that CBCT can be regarded as a potential low-dose 3D imaging technique for knee examinations. PMID:23825221

  19. SU-E-J-167: Improvement of Time-Ordered Four Dimensional Cone-Beam CT; Image Mosaicing with Real and Virtual Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M; Kida, S; Masutani, Y; Shiraki, T; Yamamoto, K; Shiraishi, K; Nakagawa, K; Haga, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In the previous study, we developed time-ordered fourdimensional (4D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) technique to visualize nonperiodic organ motion, such as peristaltic motion of gastrointestinal organs and adjacent area, using half-scan reconstruction method. One important obstacle was that truncation of projection was caused by asymmetric location of flat-panel detector (FPD) in order to cover whole abdomen or pelvis in one rotation. In this study, we propose image mosaicing to extend projection data to make possible to reconstruct full field-of-view (FOV) image using half-scan reconstruction. Methods: The projections of prostate cancer patients were acquired using the X-ray Volume Imaging system (XVI, version 4.5) on Synergy linear accelerator system (Elekta, UK). The XVI system has three options of FOV, S, M and L, and M FOV was chosen for pelvic CBCT acquisition, with a FPD panel 11.5 cm offset. The method to produce extended projections consists of three main steps: First, normal three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction which contains whole pelvis was implemented using real projections. Second, virtual projections were produced by reprojection process of the reconstructed 3D image. Third, real and virtual projections in each angle were combined into one extended mosaic projection. Then, 4D CBCT images were reconstructed using our inhouse reconstruction software based on Feldkamp, Davis and Kress algorithm. The angular range of each reconstruction phase in the 4D reconstruction was 180 degrees, and the range moved as time progressed. Results: Projection data were successfully extended without discontinuous boundary between real and virtual projections. Using mosaic projections, 4D CBCT image sets were reconstructed without artifacts caused by the truncation, and thus, whole pelvis was clearly visible. Conclusion: The present method provides extended projections which contain whole pelvis. The presented reconstruction method also enables time-ordered 4D CBCT

  20. Accurate tracking of tumor volume change during radiotherapy by CT-CBCT registration with intensity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seyoun; Robinson, Adam; Quon, Harry; Kiess, Ana P.; Shen, Colette; Wong, John; Plishker, William; Shekhar, Raj; Lee, Junghoon

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a CT-CBCT registration method to accurately predict the tumor volume change based on daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) during radiotherapy. CBCT is commonly used to reduce patient setup error during radiotherapy, but its poor image quality impedes accurate monitoring of anatomical changes. Although physician's contours drawn on the planning CT can be automatically propagated to daily CBCTs by deformable image registration (DIR), artifacts in CBCT often cause undesirable errors. To improve the accuracy of the registration-based segmentation, we developed a DIR method that iteratively corrects CBCT intensities by local histogram matching. Three popular DIR algorithms (B-spline, demons, and optical flow) with the intensity correction were implemented on a graphics processing unit for efficient computation. We evaluated their performances on six head and neck (HN) cancer cases. For each case, four trained scientists manually contoured the nodal gross tumor volume (GTV) on the planning CT and every other fraction CBCTs to which the propagated GTV contours by DIR were compared. The performance was also compared with commercial image registration software based on conventional mutual information (MI), VelocityAI (Varian Medical Systems Inc.). The volume differences (mean±std in cc) between the average of the manual segmentations and automatic segmentations are 3.70+/-2.30 (B-spline), 1.25+/-1.78 (demons), 0.93+/-1.14 (optical flow), and 4.39+/-3.86 (VelocityAI). The proposed method significantly reduced the estimation error by 9% (B-spline), 38% (demons), and 51% (optical flow) over the results using VelocityAI. Although demonstrated only on HN nodal GTVs, the results imply that the proposed method can produce improved segmentation of other critical structures over conventional methods.

  1. SU-E-J-214: Comparative Assessment On IGRT On Partial Bladder Cancer Treatment Between CT-On-Rails (CTOR) and KV Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Image-Guided radiation therapy(IGRT) depends on reliable online patient-specific anatomy information to address random and progressive anatomy changes. Large margins have been suggested to bladder cancer treatment due to large daily bladder anatomy variation. KV Cone beam CT(CBCT) has been used in IGRT localization prevalently; however, its lack of soft tissue contrast makes clinicians hesitate to perform daily soft tissue alignment with CBCT for partial bladder cancer treatment. This study compares the localization uncertainties of bladder cancer IGRT using CTon- Rails(CTOR) and CBCT. Methods: Three T2N0M0 bladder cancer patients (total of 66 Gy to partial bladder alone) were localized daily with either CTOR or CBCT for their entire treatment course. A total of 71 sets of CTOR and 22 sets of CBCT images were acquired and registered with original planning CT scans by radiation therapists and approved by radiation oncologists for the daily treatment. CTOR scanning entailed 2mm slice thickness, 0.98mm axial voxel size, 120kVp and 240mAs. CBCT used a half fan pelvis protocol from Varian OBI system with 2mm slice thickness, 0.98axial voxel size, 125kVp, and 680mAs. Daily localization distribution was compared. Accuracy of CTOR and CBCT on partial bladder alignment was also evaluated by comparing bladder PTV coverage. Results: 1cm all around PTV margins were used in every patient except target superior limit margin to 0mm due to bowel constraint. Daily shifts on CTOR averaged to 0.48, 0.24, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions); CBCT averaged to 0.43, 0.09, 0.19 mms(SI,Lat,AP directions). The CTOR daily localization showed superior results of V100% of PTV(102% CTOR vs. 89% CBCT) and bowel(Dmax 69.5Gy vs. 78Gy CBCT). CTOR images showed much higher contrast on bladder PTV alignment. Conclusion: CTOR daily localization for IGRT is more dosimetrically beneficial for partial bladder cancer treatment than kV CBCT localization and provided better soft tissue PTV

  2. The 4-D approach to visual control of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1994-01-01

    Development of a 4-D approach to dynamic machine vision is described. Core elements of this method are spatio-temporal models oriented towards objects and laws of perspective projection in a foward mode. Integration of multi-sensory measurement data was achieved through spatio-temporal models as invariants for object recognition. Situation assessment and long term predictions were allowed through maintenance of a symbolic 4-D image of processes involving objects. Behavioral capabilities were easily realized by state feedback and feed-foward control.

  3. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-05: Internal Dosimetric Calculations for Several Imaging Radiopharmaceuticals in Preclinical Studies and Quantitative Assessment of the Mouse Size Impact On Them. Realistic Monte Carlo Simulations Based On the 4D-MOBY Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kostou, T; Papadimitroulas, P; Kagadis, GC; Loudos, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Commonly used radiopharmaceuticals were tested to define the most important dosimetric factors in preclinical studies. Dosimetric calculations were applied in two different whole-body mouse models, with varying organ size, so as to determine their impact on absorbed doses and S-values. Organ mass influence was evaluated with computational models and Monte Carlo(MC) simulations. Methods: MC simulations were executed on GATE to determine dose distribution in the 4D digital MOBY mouse phantom. Two mouse models, 28 and 34 g respectively, were constructed based on realistic preclinical exams to calculate the absorbed doses and S-values of five commonly used radionuclides in SPECT/PET studies (18F, 68Ga, 177Lu, 111In and 99mTc).Radionuclide biodistributions were obtained from literature. Realistic statistics (uncertainty lower than 4.5%) were acquired using the standard physical model in Geant4. Comparisons of the dosimetric calculations on the two different phantoms for each radiopharmaceutical are presented. Results: Dose per organ in mGy was calculated for all radiopharmaceuticals. The two models introduced a difference of 0.69% in their brain masses, while the largest differences were observed in the marrow 18.98% and in the thyroid 18.65% masses.Furthermore, S-values of the most important target-organs were calculated for each isotope. Source-organ was selected to be the whole mouse body.Differences on the S-factors were observed in the 6.0–30.0% range. Tables with all the calculations as reference dosimetric data were developed. Conclusion: Accurate dose per organ and the most appropriate S-values are derived for specific preclinical studies. The impact of the mouse model size is rather high (up to 30% for a 17.65% difference in the total mass), and thus accurate definition of the organ mass is a crucial parameter for self-absorbed S values calculation.Our goal is to extent the study for accurate estimations in small animal imaging, whereas it is known

  4. Evaluation of non-rigid constrained CT/CBCT registration algorithms for delineation propagation in the context of prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubeaux, Mathieu; Simon, Antoine; Gnep, Khemara; Colliaux, Jérémy; Acosta, Oscar; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Haigron, Pascal

    2013-03-01

    Image-Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) aims at increasing the precision of radiation dose delivery. In the context of prostate cancer, a planning Computed Tomography (CT) image with manually defined prostate and organs at risk (OAR) delineations is usually associated with daily Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) follow-up images. The CBCT images allow to visualize the prostate position and to reposition the patient accordingly. They also should be used to evaluate the dose received by the organs at each fraction of the treatment. To do so, the first step is a prostate and OAR segmentation on the daily CBCTs, which is very timeconsuming. To simplify this task, CT to CBCT non-rigid registration could be used in order to propagate the original CT delineations in the CBCT images. For this aim, we compared several non-rigid registration methods. They are all based on the Mutual Information (MI) similarity measure, and use a BSpline transformation model. But we add different constraints to this global scheme in order to evaluate their impact on the final results. These algorithms are investigated on two real datasets, representing a total of 70 CBCT on which a reference delineation has been realized. The evaluation is led using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) as a quality criteria. The experiments show that a rigid penalty term on the bones improves the final registration result, providing high quality propagated delineations.

  5. Mapping motion from 4D-MRI to 3D-CT for use in 4D dose calculations: A technical feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Tony; Knopf, Antje

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Target sites affected by organ motion require a time resolved (4D) dose calculation. Typical 4D dose calculations use 4D-CT as a basis. Unfortunately, 4D-CT images have the disadvantage of being a 'snap-shot' of the motion during acquisition and of assuming regularity of breathing. In addition, 4D-CT acquisitions involve a substantial additional dose burden to the patient making many, repeated 4D-CT acquisitions undesirable. Here the authors test the feasibility of an alternative approach to generate patient specific 4D-CT data sets. Methods: In this approach motion information is extracted from 4D-MRI. Simulated 4D-CT data sets [which the authors call 4D-CT(MRI)] are created by warping extracted deformation fields to a static 3D-CT data set. The employment of 4D-MRI sequences for this has the advantage that no assumptions on breathing regularity are made, irregularities in breathing can be studied and, if necessary, many repeat imaging studies (and consequently simulated 4D-CT data sets) can be performed on patients and/or volunteers. The accuracy of 4D-CT(MRI)s has been validated by 4D proton dose calculations. Our 4D dose algorithm takes into account displacements as well as deformations on the originating 4D-CT/4D-CT(MRI) by calculating the dose of each pencil beam based on an individual time stamp of when that pencil beam is applied. According to corresponding displacement and density-variation-maps the position and the water equivalent range of the dose grid points is adjusted at each time instance. Results: 4D dose distributions, using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets as input were compared to results based on a reference conventional 4D-CT data set capturing similar motion characteristics. Almost identical 4D dose distributions could be achieved, even though scanned proton beams are very sensitive to small differences in the patient geometry. In addition, 4D dose calculations have been performed on the same patient, but using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets based on

  6. Quantication and analysis of respiratory motion from 4D MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizzuddin Abd Rahni, Ashrani; Lewis, Emma; Wells, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that respiratory motion affects image acquisition and also external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) treatment planning and delivery. However often the existing approaches for respiratory motion management are based on a generic view of respiratory motion such as the general movement of organ, tissue or fiducials. This paper thus aims to present a more in depth analysis of respiratory motion based on 4D MRI for further integration into motion correction in image acquisition or image based EBRT. Internal and external motion was first analysed separately, on a per-organ basis for internal motion. Principal component analysis (PCA) was then performed on the internal and external motion vectors separately and the relationship between the two PCA spaces was analysed. The motion extracted from 4D MRI on general was found to be consistent with what has been reported in literature.

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory 4D Database

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-02

    4D is an integrated development platform - a single product comprised of the components you need to create and distribute professional applications. You get a graphical design environment, SQL database, a programming language, integrated PHP execution, HTTP server, application server, executable generator, and much more. 4D offers multi-platform development and deployment, meaning whatever you create on a Mac can be used on Windows, and vice-versa. Beyond productive development, 4D is renowned for its great flexibility in maintenance and modification of existing applications, and its extreme ease of implementation in its numerous deployment options. Your professional application can be put into production more quickly, at a lower cost, and will always be instantly scalable. 4D makes it easy, whether you're looking to create a classic desktop application, a client-server system, a distributed solution for Web or mobile clients - or all of the above!

  8. Computing Myocardial Motion in 4D Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Ryan; Sprouse, Chad; Pinheiro, Aurélio; Abraham, Theodore; Burlina, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    4D (3D spatial+time) echocardiography is gaining widespread acceptance at clinical institutions for its high temporal resolution and relatively low cost. We describe a novel method for computing dense 3D myocardial motion with high accuracy. The method is based on a classical variational optical flow technique, but exploits modern developments in optical flow research to utilize the full capabilities of 4D echocardiography. Using a variety of metrics, we present an in-depth performance evaluation of the method on synthetic, phantom, and intraoperative 4D Transesophageal Echocardiographic (TEE) data. When compared with state-of-the-art optical flow and speckle tracking techniques currently found in 4D echocardiography, the method we present shows notable improvements in error. We believe the performance improvements shown can have a positive impact when the method is used as input for various applications, such as strain computation, biomechanical modeling, or automated diagnostics. PMID:22677256

  9. SU-E-T-160: Evaluation of Accuracy for Target Margin Size Obtained From CBCT On Lung SBRT Based On Film Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Lee, M; Kim, M; Suh, T; Park, J; Park, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To analysis delivered dose on target using gafchromic films for evaluating accuracy of target margin size obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) Methods: The phantom consists of measurement part and driving part. The motor of Quasar motion phantom (Modus Medical Devices Inc, London, ON, Canada) was used for driving part and we developed measurement part which consist of cork cylindrical body and acrylic target with radiochromic film inserted into central and both ends of acrylic target. In this study lung SBRT cases through both four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and CBCT were selected. Target contouring including margin based on 4DCT is defined with a 1 cm margin around gross tumor volume (GTV) in all directions except for inferior direction. The moving range in inferior direction was larger than other directions thus, including 2 cm margin. In case of CBCT, the margin means blurring of target on CBCT images. This study was compared margin size determined through 4DCT and that of based on CBCT and we also evaluated dose profile and the length of margin in superior-inferior direction on CBCT compared with 4DCT. Results: The length of target including margin was 2.48 cm (based on CBCT) and 2.66 cm (based on 4DCT), respectively in superior-inferior direction. The difference of delivered dose on target between two margins was only within 1%. Conclusions: This study has shown the feasibility of determining target margin using CBCT for delivering more accurate prescription dose to lung cancer.

  10. On "new massive" 4D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.

    2012-04-01

    We construct a four-dimensional (4D) gauge theory that propagates, unitarily, the five polarization modes of a massive spin-2 particle. These modes are described by a "dual" graviton gauge potential and the Lagrangian is 4th-order in derivatives. As the construction mimics that of 3D "new massive gravity", we call this 4D model (linearized) "new massive dual gravity". We analyse its massless limit, and discuss similarities to the Eddington-Schrödinger model.

  11. Is there a consensus for CBCT use in Orthodontics?

    PubMed Central

    Garib, Daniela G.; Calil, Louise Resti; Leal, Claudia Resende; Janson, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to discuss current evidence and recommendations for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Orthodontics. In comparison to conventional radiograph, CBCT has higher radiation doses and, for this reason, is not a standard method of diagnosis in Orthodontics. Routine use of CBCT in substitution to conventional radiograph is considered an unaccepted practice. CBCT should be indicated with criteria only after clinical examination has been performed and when the benefits for diagnosis and treatment planning exceed the risks of a greater radiation dose. It should be requested only when there is a potential to provide new information not demonstrated by conventional scans, when it modifies treatment plan or favors treatment execution. The most frequent indication of CBCT in Orthodontics, with some evidence on its clinical efficacy, includes retained/impacted permanent teeth; severe craniofacial anomalies; severe facial discrepancies with indication of orthodontic-surgical treatment; and bone irregularities or malformation of TMJ accompanied by signs and symptoms. In exceptional cases of adult patients when critical tooth movement are planned in regions with deficient buccolingual thickness of the alveolar ridge, CBCT can be indicated provided that there is a perspective of changes in orthodontic treatment planning. PMID:25715727

  12. Effectiveness of thyroid gland shielding in dental CBCT using a paediatric anthropomorphic phantom

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J; Horner, K; Theodorakou, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of thyroid shielding in dental CBCT examinations using a paediatric anthropomorphic phantom. Methods: An ATOM® 706-C anthropomorphic phantom (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems Inc., Norfolk, VA) representing a 10-year-old child was loaded with six thermoluminescent dosemeters positioned at the level of the thyroid gland. Absorbed doses to the thyroid were measured for five commercially available thyroid shields using a large field of view (FOV). Results: A statistically significant thyroid gland dose reduction was found using thyroid shielding for paediatric CBCT examinations for a large FOV. In addition, a statistically significant difference in thyroid gland doses was found depending on the position of the thyroid gland. There was little difference in the effectiveness of thyroid shielding when using a lead vs a lead-equivalent thyroid shield. Similar dose reduction was found using 0.25- and 0.50-mm lead-equivalent thyroid shields. Conclusions: Thyroid shields are to be recommended when undertaking large FOV CBCT examinations on young patients. PMID:25411710

  13. Evaluation of the validity of the Bolton Index using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)

    PubMed Central

    Llamas, José M.; Cibrián, Rosa; Gandía, José L.; Paredes, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of calculating the Bolton Index using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and to compare this with measurements obtained using the 2D Digital Method. Material and Methods: Traditional study models were obtained from 50 patients, which were then digitized in order to be able to measure them using the Digital Method. Likewise, CBCTs of those same patients were undertaken using the Dental Picasso Master 3D® and the images obtained were then analysed using the InVivoDental programme. Results: By determining the regression lines for both measurement methods, as well as the difference between both of their values, the two methods are shown to be comparable, despite the fact that the measurements analysed presented statistically significant differences. Conclusions: The three-dimensional models obtained from the CBCT are as accurate and reproducible as the digital models obtained from the plaster study casts for calculating the Bolton Index. The differences existing between both methods were clinically acceptable. Key words:Tooth-size, digital models, bolton index, CBCT. PMID:22549690

  14. Is ExacTrac x-ray system an alternative to CBCT for positioning patients with head and neck cancers?

    SciTech Connect

    Clemente, Stefania; Chiumento, Costanza; Fiorentino, Alba; Cozzolino, Mariella; Oliviero, Caterina; Califano, Giorgia; Caivano, Rocchina; Fusco, Vincenzo; Simeon, Vittorio

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of a six-degrees-of freedom (6D) correction using ExacTrac robotics system in patients with head-and-neck (HN) cancer receiving radiation therapy.Methods: Local setup accuracy was analyzed for 12 patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patient position was imaged daily upon two different protocols, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and ExacTrac (ET) images correction. Setup data from either approach were compared in terms of both residual errors after correction and punctual displacement of selected regions of interest (Mandible, C2, and C6 vertebral bodies).Results: On average, both protocols achieved reasonably low residual errors after initial correction. The observed differences in shift vectors between the two protocols showed that CBCT tends to weight more C2 and C6 at the expense of the mandible, while ET tends to average more differences among the different ROIs.Conclusions: CBCT, even without 6D correction capabilities, seems preferable to ET for better consistent alignment and the capability to see soft tissues. Therefore, in our experience, CBCT represents a benchmark for positioning head and neck cancer patients.

  15. Dose calculation accuracy using cone-beam CT (CBCT) for pelvic adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Huaiqun; Dong, Hang

    2009-10-01

    This study is to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy using Varian's cone-beam CT (CBCT) for pelvic adaptive radiotherapy. We first calibrated the Hounsfield Unit (HU) to electron density (ED) for CBCT using a mini CT QC phantom embedded into an IMRT QA phantom. We then used a Catphan 500 with an annulus around it to check the calibration. The combined CT QC and IMRT phantom provided correct HU calibration, but not Catphan with an annulus. For the latter, not only was the Teflon an incorrect substitute for bone, but the inserts were also too small to provide correct HUs for air and bone. For the former, three different scan ranges (6 cm, 12 cm and 20.8 cm) were used to investigate the HU dependence on the amount of scatter. To evaluate the dose calculation accuracy, CBCT and plan-CT for a pelvic phantom were acquired and registered. The single field plan, 3D conformal and IMRT plans were created on both CT sets. Without inhomogeneity correction, the two CT generated nearly the same plan. With inhomogeneity correction, the dosimetric difference between the two CT was mainly from the HU calibration difference. The dosimetric difference for 6 MV was found to be the largest for the single lateral field plan (maximum 6.7%), less for the 3D conformal plan (maximum 3.3%) and the least for the IMRT plan (maximum 2.5%). Differences for 18 MV were generally 1-2% less. For a single lateral field, calibration with 20.8 cm achieved the minimum dosimetric difference. For 3D and IMRT plans, calibration with a 12 cm range resulted in better accuracy. Because Catphan is the standard QA phantom for the on-board imager (OBI) device, we specifically recommend not using it for the HU calibration of CBCT.

  16. 4D MRI for the Localization of Parathyroid Adenoma: A Novel Method in Evolution.

    PubMed

    Merchavy, Shlomo; Luckman, Judith; Guindy, Michal; Segev, Yoram; Khafif, Avi

    2016-03-01

    The sestamibi scan (MIBI) and ultrasound (US) are used for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma (PTA), with sensitivity as high as 90%. We developed 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D MRI) as a novel tool for identifying PTAs. Eleven patients with PTA were enrolled. 4D MRI from the mandible to the aortic arch was used. Optimization of the timing of image acquisition was obtained by changing dynamic and static sequences. PTAs were identified in all except 1 patient. In 9 patients, there was a complete match between the 4D MRI and the US and MIBI, as well as with the operative finding. In 1 patient, the adenoma was correctly localized by 4D MRI, in contrast to the US and MIBI scan. The sensitivity of the 4D MRI was 90% and after optimization, 100%. Specificity was 100%. We concluded that 4D MRI is a reliable technique for identification of PTAs, although more studies are needed. PMID:26598499

  17. A new method to standardize CBCT for quantitative evaluation of alveolar ridge preservation in the mandible: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Xie, Lizhe; Zhou, Yi; Song, Tianxi; Zhang, Feimin; Gu, Ning

    2015-12-01

    Cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) is an effective technique for assessment of changes to the alveolar ridge (AR). However, its accuracy and reliability could be improved by standardization of imaging positions to remain unchanged during measurements. In this study, an alveolar ridge preservation procedure was performed on a left third molar (38) socket by filling it with a radiotransparent synthetic bone graft, mineralized collagen (MC). Photographic, X-ray and CBCT images were captured before and 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. A new method was developed to standardize CBCT for quantitative evaluation. Obtained CBCT images showed good comparability. The post-extraction alveolar width and height were both over 95% of the original values, but some resorption of the lingual bone wall (>50%) and inter-crestal bone (>30%). It is concluded that an effective positional standardization method was developed for CBCT assessment of AR dimensional changes in the posterior mandible. The use of MC in combination with a collagen membrane improved dimensional preservation of the AR. PMID:26816648

  18. A new method to standardize CBCT for quantitative evaluation of alveolar ridge preservation in the mandible: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Xie, Lizhe; Zhou, Yi; Song, Tianxi; Zhang, Feimin; Gu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) is an effective technique for assessment of changes to the alveolar ridge (AR). However, its accuracy and reliability could be improved by standardization of imaging positions to remain unchanged during measurements. In this study, an alveolar ridge preservation procedure was performed on a left third molar (38) socket by filling it with a radiotransparent synthetic bone graft, mineralized collagen (MC). Photographic, X-ray and CBCT images were captured before and 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. A new method was developed to standardize CBCT for quantitative evaluation. Obtained CBCT images showed good comparability. The post-extraction alveolar width and height were both over 95% of the original values, but some resorption of the lingual bone wall (>50%) and inter-crestal bone (>30%). It is concluded that an effective positional standardization method was developed for CBCT assessment of AR dimensional changes in the posterior mandible. The use of MC in combination with a collagen membrane improved dimensional preservation of the AR. PMID:26816648

  19. Impact of incorporating visual biofeedback in 4D MRI.

    PubMed

    To, David T; Kim, Joshua P; Price, Ryan G; Chetty, Indrin J; Glide-Hurst, Carri K

    2016-01-01

    Precise radiation therapy (RT) for abdominal lesions is complicated by respiratory motion and suboptimal soft tissue contrast in 4D CT. 4D MRI offers improved con-trast although long scan times and irregular breathing patterns can be limiting. To address this, visual biofeedback (VBF) was introduced into 4D MRI. Ten volunteers were consented to an IRB-approved protocol. Prospective respiratory-triggered, T2-weighted, coronal 4D MRIs were acquired on an open 1.0T MR-SIM. VBF was integrated using an MR-compatible interactive breath-hold control system. Subjects visually monitored their breathing patterns to stay within predetermined tolerances. 4D MRIs were acquired with and without VBF for 2- and 8-phase acquisitions. Normalized respiratory waveforms were evaluated for scan time, duty cycle (programmed/acquisition time), breathing period, and breathing regularity (end-inhale coefficient of variation, EI-COV). Three reviewers performed image quality assessment to compare artifacts with and without VBF. Respiration-induced liver motion was calculated via centroid difference analysis of end-exhale (EE) and EI liver contours. Incorporating VBF reduced 2-phase acquisition time (4.7 ± 1.0 and 5.4 ± 1.5 min with and without VBF, respectively) while reducing EI-COV by 43.8% ± 16.6%. For 8-phase acquisitions, VBF reduced acquisition time by 1.9 ± 1.6 min and EI-COVs by 38.8% ± 25.7% despite breathing rate remaining similar (11.1 ± 3.8 breaths/min with vs. 10.5 ± 2.9 without). Using VBF yielded higher duty cycles than unguided free breathing (34.4% ± 5.8% vs. 28.1% ± 6.6%, respectively). Image grading showed that out of 40 paired evaluations, 20 cases had equivalent and 17 had improved image quality scores with VBF, particularly for mid-exhale and EI. Increased liver excursion was observed with VBF, where superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and left-right EE-EI displacements were 14.1± 5.8, 4.9 ± 2.1, and 1.5 ± 1.0 mm, respectively, with VBF compared to 11.9

  20. 4D Bioprinting for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Yang, Qingzhen; Zhao, Xin; Jin, Guorui; Ma, Yufei; Xu, Feng

    2016-09-01

    3D bioprinting has been developed to effectively and rapidly pattern living cells and biomaterials, aiming to create complex bioconstructs. However, placing biocompatible materials or cells into direct contact via bioprinting is necessary but insufficient for creating these constructs. Therefore, '4D bioprinting' has emerged recently, where 'time' is integrated with 3D bioprinting as the fourth dimension, and the printed objects can change their shapes or functionalities when an external stimulus is imposed or when cell fusion or postprinting self-assembly occurs. In this review, we highlight recent developments in 4D bioprinting technology. Additionally, we review the uses of 4D bioprinting in tissue engineering and drug delivery. Finally, we discuss the major roadblocks to this approach, together with possible solutions, to provide future perspectives on this technology. PMID:27056447

  1. Voxel-based registration of simulated and real patient CBCT data for accurate dental implant pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, António H. J.; Queirós, Sandro; Morais, Pedro; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Correia, André Ricardo; Fernandes, Valter; Pinho, A. C. M.; Fonseca, Jaime C.; Vilaça, João. L.

    2015-03-01

    The success of dental implant-supported prosthesis is directly linked to the accuracy obtained during implant's pose estimation (position and orientation). Although traditional impression techniques and recent digital acquisition methods are acceptably accurate, a simultaneously fast, accurate and operator-independent methodology is still lacking. Hereto, an image-based framework is proposed to estimate the patient-specific implant's pose using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and prior knowledge of implanted model. The pose estimation is accomplished in a threestep approach: (1) a region-of-interest is extracted from the CBCT data using 2 operator-defined points at the implant's main axis; (2) a simulated CBCT volume of the known implanted model is generated through Feldkamp-Davis-Kress reconstruction and coarsely aligned to the defined axis; and (3) a voxel-based rigid registration is performed to optimally align both patient and simulated CBCT data, extracting the implant's pose from the optimal transformation. Three experiments were performed to evaluate the framework: (1) an in silico study using 48 implants distributed through 12 tridimensional synthetic mandibular models; (2) an in vitro study using an artificial mandible with 2 dental implants acquired with an i-CAT system; and (3) two clinical case studies. The results shown positional errors of 67+/-34μm and 108μm, and angular misfits of 0.15+/-0.08° and 1.4°, for experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, in experiment 3, visual assessment of clinical data results shown a coherent alignment of the reference implant. Overall, a novel image-based framework for implants' pose estimation from CBCT data was proposed, showing accurate results in agreement with dental prosthesis modelling requirements.

  2. A sinogram warping strategy for pre-reconstruction 4D PET optimization.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Fontana, Giulia; Kurz, Christopher; Parodi, Katia; Baroni, Guido

    2016-03-01

    A novel strategy for 4D PET optimization in the sinogram domain is proposed, aiming at motion model application before image reconstruction ("sinogram warping" strategy). Compared to state-of-the-art 4D-MLEM reconstruction, the proposed strategy is able to optimize the image SNR, avoiding iterative direct and inverse warping procedures, which are typical of the 4D-MLEM algorithm. A full-count statistics sinogram of the motion-compensated 4D PET reference phase is generated by warping the sinograms corresponding to the different PET phases. This is achieved relying on a motion model expressed in the sinogram domain. The strategy was tested on the anthropomorphic 4D PET-CT NCAT phantom in comparison with the 4D-MLEM algorithm, with particular reference to robustness to PET-CT co-registrations artefacts. The MLEM reconstruction of the warped sinogram according to the proposed strategy exhibited better accuracy (up to +40.90 % with respect to the ideal value), whereas images reconstructed according to the 4D-MLEM reconstruction resulted in less noisy (down to -26.90 % with respect to the ideal value) but more blurred. The sinogram warping strategy demonstrates advantages with respect to 4D-MLEM algorithm. These advantages are paid back by introducing approximation of the deformation field, and further efforts are required to mitigate the impact of such an approximation in clinical 4D PET reconstruction. PMID:26126871

  3. Lung Segmentation in 4D CT Volumes Based on Robust Active Shape Model Matching

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Gurman; Beichel, Reinhard R.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic and longitudinal lung CT imaging produce 4D lung image data sets, enabling applications like radiation treatment planning or assessment of response to treatment of lung diseases. In this paper, we present a 4D lung segmentation method that mutually utilizes all individual CT volumes to derive segmentations for each CT data set. Our approach is based on a 3D robust active shape model and extends it to fully utilize 4D lung image data sets. This yields an initial segmentation for the 4D volume, which is then refined by using a 4D optimal surface finding algorithm. The approach was evaluated on a diverse set of 152 CT scans of normal and diseased lungs, consisting of total lung capacity and functional residual capacity scan pairs. In addition, a comparison to a 3D segmentation method and a registration based 4D lung segmentation approach was performed. The proposed 4D method obtained an average Dice coefficient of 0.9773 ± 0.0254, which was statistically significantly better (p value ≪0.001) than the 3D method (0.9659 ± 0.0517). Compared to the registration based 4D method, our method obtained better or similar performance, but was 58.6% faster. Also, the method can be easily expanded to process 4D CT data sets consisting of several volumes. PMID:26557844

  4. Assessing the anatomical variations of lingual foramen and its bony canals with CBCT taken from 102 patients in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Mosavat, Farzaneh; Ahmadi, Ahura

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have been performed on assessing the anatomical variations of lingual foramen and its bony canals, in many different countries but no study has been performed in Iran yet. The purpose of this study is to assess the anatomical variations of lingual foramen and its bony canals with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which CBCT images taken from 102 patients referred to the Radiology Department of Head and Neck in Esfahan (Iran) University between 2010 and 2011. The presence of the lingual foramen and its bony canals, the locations, sizes, and length were assessed. The distances between the terminal end of lingual canal at the buccal and lingual side from the inferior border of the mandible and alveolar crest were measured. We also evaluated the effect of patient age and gender on the dimensional measurements of the anatomical landmark mentioned above t test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and pearson's correlation were used for statistical analysis and P value lower than 0.05 was considered significant. Result: All of the CBCT images taken showed the presence of lingual foramen. Of all the participants, 52% of them had two foramens in their images. The mean diameters of the upper and lower lingual foramen were 1.12 and 0.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: These anatomical landmarks in Isfahan population vary from previous studies. All of the images had at least one lingual foramen which demonstrates high prevalence of this anatomy among Isfehanian population. Therefore, it is recommended to use CBCT imaging for preoperative evaluation prior to installing dental implants. PMID:23814561

  5. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  6. Multicolor 4D Fluorescence Microscopy using Ultrathin Bessel Light Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Teng; Lau, Sze Cheung; Wang, Ying; Su, Yumian; Wang, Hao; Cheng, Aifang; Herrup, Karl; Ip, Nancy Y.; Du, Shengwang; Loy, M. M. T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple and efficient method for producing ultrathin Bessel (‘non-diffracting’) light sheets of any color using a line-shaped beam and an annulus filter. With this robust and cost-effective technology, we obtained two-color, 3D images of biological samples with lateral/axial resolution of 250 nm/400 nm, and high-speed, 4D volume imaging of 20 μm sized live sample at 1 Hz temporal resolution. PMID:27189786

  7. 4D micro-CT using fast prospective gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaolian; Johnston, Samuel M.; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-CT is currently used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. But, there is also significant interest in using this technology to obtain functional information. We report here a new sampling strategy for 4D micro-CT for functional cardiac and pulmonary imaging. Rapid scanning of free-breathing mice is achieved with fast prospective gating (FPG) implemented on a field programmable gate array. The method entails on-the-fly computation of delays from the R peaks of the ECG signals or the peaks of the respiratory signals for the triggering pulses. Projection images are acquired for all cardiac or respiratory phases at each angle before rotating to the next angle. FPG can deliver the faster scan time of retrospective gating (RG) with the regular angular distribution of conventional prospective gating for cardiac or respiratory gating. Simultaneous cardio-respiratory gating is also possible with FPG in a hybrid retrospective/prospective approach. We have performed phantom experiments to validate the new sampling protocol and compared the results from FPG and RG in cardiac imaging of a mouse. Additionally, we have evaluated the utility of incorporating respiratory information in 4D cardiac micro-CT studies with FPG. A dual-source micro-CT system was used for image acquisition with pulsed x-ray exposures (80 kVp, 100 mA, 10 ms). The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent containing 123 mg I ml-1 delivered via a tail vein catheter in a dose of 0.01 ml g-1 body weight. The phantom experiment demonstrates that FPG can distinguish the successive phases of phantom motion with minimal motion blur, and the animal study demonstrates that respiratory FPG can distinguish inspiration and expiration. 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging with FPG provides image quality superior to RG at an isotropic voxel size of 88 µm and 10 ms temporal resolution. The acquisition time for either sampling approach is less than 5 min. The

  8. Multicolor 4D Fluorescence Microscopy using Ultrathin Bessel Light Sheets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Teng; Lau, Sze Cheung; Wang, Ying; Su, Yumian; Wang, Hao; Cheng, Aifang; Herrup, Karl; Ip, Nancy Y; Du, Shengwang; Loy, M M T

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple and efficient method for producing ultrathin Bessel ('non-diffracting') light sheets of any color using a line-shaped beam and an annulus filter. With this robust and cost-effective technology, we obtained two-color, 3D images of biological samples with lateral/axial resolution of 250 nm/400 nm, and high-speed, 4D volume imaging of 20 μm sized live sample at 1 Hz temporal resolution. PMID:27189786

  9. Measuring interfraction and intrafraction lung function changes during radiation therapy using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kipritidis, John Keall, Paul J.; Hugo, Geoffrey; Weiss, Elisabeth; Williamson, Jeffrey

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Adaptive ventilation guided radiation therapy could minimize the irradiation of healthy lung based on repeat lung ventilation imaging (VI) during treatment. However the efficacy of adaptive ventilation guidance requires that interfraction (e.g., week-to-week), ventilation changes are not washed out by intrafraction (e.g., pre- and postfraction) changes, for example, due to patient breathing variability. The authors hypothesize that patients undergoing lung cancer radiation therapy exhibit larger interfraction ventilation changes compared to intrafraction function changes. To test this, the authors perform the first comparison of interfraction and intrafraction lung VI pairs using four-dimensional cone beam CT ventilation imaging (4D-CBCT VI), a novel technique for functional lung imaging. Methods: The authors analyzed a total of 215 4D-CBCT scans acquired for 19 locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients over 4–6 weeks of radiation therapy. This set of 215 scans was sorted into 56 interfraction pairs (including first day scans and each of treatment weeks 2, 4, and 6) and 78 intrafraction pairs (including pre/postfraction scans on the same-day), with some scans appearing in both sets. VIs were obtained from the Jacobian determinant of the transform between the 4D-CBCT end-exhale and end-inhale images after deformable image registration. All VIs were deformably registered to their corresponding planning CT and normalized to account for differences in breathing effort, thus facilitating image comparison in terms of (i) voxelwise Spearman correlations, (ii) mean image differences, and (iii) gamma pass rates for all interfraction and intrafraction VI pairs. For the side of the lung ipsilateral to the tumor, we applied two-sided t-tests to determine whether interfraction VI pairs were more different than intrafraction VI pairs. Results: The (mean ± standard deviation) Spearman correlation for interfraction VI pairs was r{sup -}{sub Inter

  10. 4D-Flow validation, numerical and experimental framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Kurt; Liu, Haining; Canton, Gador; Aliseda, Alberto; Yuan, Chun

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a group of assessment metrics of new 4D MRI flow sequences, an imaging modality that allows for visualization of three-dimensional pulsatile flow in the cardiovascular anatomy through time-resolved three-dimensional blood velocity measurements from cardiac-cycle synchronized MRI acquisition. This is a promising tool for clinical assessment but lacks a robust validation framework. First, 4D-MRI flow in a subject's stenotic carotid bifurcation is compared with a patient-specific CFD model using two different boundary condition methods. Second, Particle Image Velocimetry in a patient-specific phantom is used as a benchmark to compare the 4D-MRI in vivo measurements and CFD simulations under the same conditions. Comparison of estimated and measureable flow parameters such as wall shear stress, fluctuating velocity rms, Lagrangian particle residence time, will be discussed, with justification for their biomechanics relevance and the insights they can provide on the pathophysiology of arterial disease: atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. Lastly, the framework is applied to a new sequence to provide a quantitative assessment. A parametric analysis on the carotid bifurcation pulsatile flow conditions will be presented and an accuracy assessment provided.

  11. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Hepatic Arteriography in Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Performance Depicting Tumors and Tumor Feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, In Joon; Chung, Jin Wook Yin, Yong Hu; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Kim, Young Il; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to analyze retrospectively the performance of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) hepatic arteriography in depicting tumors and their feeders and to investigate the related determining factors in chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MethodsEighty-six patients with 142 tumors satisfying the imaging diagnosis criteria of HCC were included in this study. The performance of CBCT hepatic arteriography for chemoembolization per tumor and per patient was evaluated using maximum intensity projection images alone (MIP analysis) or MIP combined with multiplanar reformation images (MIP + MPR analysis) regarding the following three aspects: tumor depiction, confidence of tumor feeder detection, and trackability of tumor feeders. Tumor size, tumor enhancement, tumor location, number of feeders, diaphragmatic motion, portal vein enhancement, and hepatic artery to parenchyma enhancement ratio were regarded as potential determining factors.ResultsTumors were depicted in 125 (88.0 %) and 142 tumors (100 %) on MIP and MIP + MPR analysis, respectively. Imaging performances on MIP and MIP + MPR analysis were good enough to perform subsegmental chemoembolization without additional angiographic investigation in 88 (62.0 %) and 128 tumors (90.1 %) on per-tumor basis and in 43 (50 %) and 73 (84.9 %) on per-patient basis, respectively. Significant determining factors for performance in MIP + MPR analysis on per tumor basis were tumor size (p = 0.030), tumor enhancement (0.005), tumor location (p = 0.001), and diaphragmatic motion (p < 0.001).ConclusionsCBCT hepatic arteriography provided sufficient information for subsegmental chemoembolization by depicting tumors and their feeders in the vast majority of patients. Combined analysis of MIP and MPR images was essential to enhance the performance of CBCT hepatic arteriography.

  12. Assessment of endodontically treated teeth by using different radiographic methods: an ex vivo comparison between CBCT and other radiographic techniques

    PubMed Central

    Demiralp, Kemal Özgür; Güngör, Kahraman; Yüksel, Selcen; Demiralp, Gokcen; Üçok, Özlem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare different radiographic methods for assessing endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods Root canal treatments were applied in 120 extracted mandibular teeth, which were divided into four groups: (1) ideal root canal treatment (60 teeth), (2) insufficient lateral condensation (20 teeth), (3) root canals filled short of the apex (20 teeth), (4) overfilled root canal treatment (20 teeth). The teeth were imaged using intraoral film, panoramic film, digital intraoral systems (CCD and PSP), CCD obtained with portable X-ray source, digital panoramic, and CBCT images obtained at 0.3 mm3 and 0.2 mm3 voxel size. Images were evaluated separately by three observers, twice. Kappa coefficients were calculated. The percentage of correct readings obtained from each modality was calculated and compared using a t-test (p<0.05). Results The intra-observer kappa for each observer ranged between 0.327 and 0.849. The inter-observer kappa for each observer for both readings ranged between 0.312 and 0.749. For the ideal root canal treatment group, CBCT with 0.2 mm3 voxel images revealed the best results. For insufficient lateral condensation, the best readings were found with periapical film followed by CCD and PSP. The assessment of teeth with root canals filled short of the apex showed the highest percentage of correct readings by CBCT and CCD. For the overfilled canal treatment group, PSP images and conventional periapical film radiographs had the best scores. Conclusion CBCT was found to be successful in the assessment of teeth with ideal root canal treatment and teeth with canals filled short of the apex. PMID:23071962

  13. R4D Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    This Photograph taken in 1956 shows the first of three R4D Skytrain aircraft on the ramp behind the NACA High-Speed Flight Station. NACA stood for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, which evolved into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958. The R4D Skytrain was one of the early workhorses for NACA and NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from 1952 to 1984. Designated the R4D by the U.S. Navy, the aircraft was called the C-47 by the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force and the DC-3 by its builder, Douglas Aircraft. Nearly everyone called it the 'Gooney Bird.' In 1962, Congress consolidated the military-service designations and called all of them the C-47. After that date, the R4D at NASA's Flight Research Center (itself redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1976) was properly called a C-47. Over the 32 years it was used at Edwards, three different R4D/C-47s were used to shuttle personnel and equipment between NACA/NASA Centers and test locations throughout the country and for other purposes. One purpose was landing on 'dry' lakebeds used as alternate landing sites for the X-15, to determine whether their surfaces were hard (dry) enough for the X-15 to land on in case an emergency occurred after its launch and before it could reach Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base. The R4D/C-47 served a variety of needs, including serving as the first air-tow vehicle for the M2-F1 lifting body (which was built of mahogany plywood). The C-47 (as it was then called) was used for 77 tows before the M2-F1 was retired for more advanced lifting bodies that were dropped from the NASA B-52 'Mothership.' The R4D also served as a research aircraft. It was used to conduct early research on wing-tip-vortex flow visualization as well as checking out the NASA Uplink Control System. The first Gooney Bird was at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) from 1952 to 1956 and flew at least one cross

  14. Brain tissue segmentation in 4D CT using voxel classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boom, R.; Oei, M. T. H.; Lafebre, S.; Oostveen, L. J.; Meijer, F. J. A.; Steens, S. C. A.; Prokop, M.; van Ginneken, B.; Manniesing, R.

    2012-02-01

    A method is proposed to segment anatomical regions of the brain from 4D computer tomography (CT) patient data. The method consists of a three step voxel classification scheme, each step focusing on structures that are increasingly difficult to segment. The first step classifies air and bone, the second step classifies vessels and the third step classifies white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid. As features the time averaged intensity value and the temporal intensity change value were used. In each step, a k-Nearest-Neighbor classifier was used to classify the voxels. Training data was obtained by placing regions of interest in reconstructed 3D image data. The method has been applied to ten 4D CT cerebral patient data. A leave-one-out experiment showed consistent and accurate segmentation results.

  15. Analysis of vector models in quantification of artifacts produced by standard prosthetic inlays in Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Różyło-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Miechowicz, Sławomir; Sarna-Boś, Katarzyna; Borowicz, Janusz; Kalinowski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a relatively new, but highly efficient imaging method applied first in dentistry in 1998. However, the quality of the obtained slices depends among other things on artifacts generated by dental restorations as well as orthodontic and prosthetic appliances. The aim of the study was to quantify the artifacts produced by standard prosthetic inlays in CBCT images. The material consisted of 17 standard prosthetic inlays mounted in dental roots embedded in resin. The samples were examined by means of a large field of view CBCT unit, Galileos (Sirona, Germany), at 85 kV and 14 mAs. The analysis was performed using Able 3DDoctor software for data in the CT raster space as well as by means of Materialise Magics software for generated vector models (STL). The masks generated in the raster space included the area of the inlays together with image artifacts. The region of interest (ROI) of the raster space is a set of voxels from a selected range of Hounsfield units (109-3071). Ceramic inlay with zirconium dioxide (Cera Post) as well as epoxy resin inlay including silica fibers enriched with zirconium (Easy Post) produced the most intense artifacts. The smallest image distortions were created by titanium inlays, both passive (Harald Nordin) and active (Flexi Flange). Inlays containing zirconium generated the strongest artifacts, thus leading to the greatest distortions in the CBCT images. Carbon fiber inlay did not considerably affect the image quality. PMID:25404623

  16. SU-E-T-20: A Novel Hybrid CBCT, Bioluminescence and Fluorescence Tomography System for Preclinical Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, B; Eslami, S; Iordachita, I; Yang, Y; Patterson, M; Wong, J; Wang, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel standalone bioluminescence and fluorescence tomography (BLT and FT) system equipped with high resolution CBCT has been built in our group. In this work, we present the system calibration method and validate our system in both phantom and in vivo environment. Methods: The CBCT is acquired by rotating the animal stage while keeping the x-ray source and detector panel static. The optical signal is reflected by the 3-mirror system to a multispectral filter set and then delivered to the CCD camera with f/1.4 lens mounted. Nine fibers passing through the stage and in contact with the mouse skin serve as the light sources for diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and FT. The anatomical information and optical properties acquired from the CBCT and DOT, respectively, are used as the priori information to improve the BLT/FT reconstruction accuracy. Flat field correction for the optical system was acquired at multiple wavelengths. A home-built phantom is used to register the optical and CBCT coordinates. An absolute calibration relating the CCD photon counts rate to the light fluence rate emitted at animal surface was developed to quantify the bioluminescence power or fluorophore concentration. Results: An optical inhomogeneous phantom with 2 light sources (3mm separation) imbedded is used to test the system. The optical signal is mapped onto the mesh generated from CBCT for optical reconstruction. Our preliminary results show that the center of mass can be reconstructed within 2.8mm accuracy. A live mouse with the light source imbedded is also used to validate our system. Liver or lung metastatic luminescence tumor model will be used for further testing. Conclusion: This hybrid system transforms preclinical research to a level that even sub-palpable volume of cells can be imaged rapidly and non-invasively, which largely extends the scope of radiobiological research. The research is supported by the NCI grant R01CA158100-01.

  17. CBCT-Aided Multidisciplinary Approach to Salvaging an Intruded Tooth.

    PubMed

    Pamboo, Jaya; Hans, Manoj Kumar; Chander, Subhash; Kumar, Santosh; Chinna, Harleen

    2016-03-01

    Among the most severe types of traumatic dental injuries is intrusive luxation, which displaces the affected tooth deeper into the alveolus, causing significant damage to the pulp and all of the supporting structures. This article describes a unique case of intrusive luxation of the mature left maxillary central incisor in an 18-year-old male patient. The diagnosis was confirmed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), after which the intruded tooth was successfully repositioned by endodontic and orthodontic management. This was followed by prosthodontic rehabilitation. This case report also discusses the role of CBCT in effectively diagnosing this type of injury. PMID:26977899

  18. SU-E-I-08: Investigation of Deconvolution Methods for Blocker-Based CBCT Scatter Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C; Jin, M; Ouyang, L; Wang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether deconvolution methods can improve the scatter estimation under different blurring and noise conditions for blocker-based scatter correction methods for cone-beam X-ray computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: An “ideal” projection image with scatter was first simulated for blocker-based CBCT data acquisition by assuming no blurring effect and no noise. The ideal image was then convolved with long-tail point spread functions (PSF) with different widths to mimic the blurring effect from the finite focal spot and detector response. Different levels of noise were also added. Three deconvolution Methods: 1) inverse filtering; 2) Wiener; and 3) Richardson-Lucy, were used to recover the scatter signal in the blocked region. The root mean square error (RMSE) of estimated scatter serves as a quantitative measure for the performance of different methods under different blurring and noise conditions. Results: Due to the blurring effect, the scatter signal in the blocked region is contaminated by the primary signal in the unblocked region. The direct use of the signal in the blocked region to estimate scatter (“direct method”) leads to large RMSE values, which increase with the increased width of PSF and increased noise. The inverse filtering is very sensitive to noise and practically useless. The Wiener and Richardson-Lucy deconvolution methods significantly improve scatter estimation compared to the direct method. For a typical medium PSF and medium noise condition, both methods (∼20 RMSE) can achieve 4-fold improvement over the direct method (∼80 RMSE). The Wiener method deals better with large noise and Richardson-Lucy works better on wide PSF. Conclusion: We investigated several deconvolution methods to recover the scatter signal in the blocked region for blocker-based scatter correction for CBCT. Our simulation results demonstrate that Wiener and Richardson-Lucy deconvolution can significantly improve the scatter estimation

  19. Region-of-interest cone beam computed tomography (ROI CBCT) with a high resolution CMOS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A.; Takemoto, H.; Silver, M. D.; Nagesh, S. V. S.; Ionita, C. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2015-03-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems with rotational gantries that have standard flat panel detectors (FPD) are widely used for the 3D rendering of vascular structures using Feldkamp cone beam reconstruction algorithms. One of the inherent limitations of these systems is limited resolution (<3 lp/mm). There are systems available with higher resolution but their small FOV limits them to small animal imaging only. In this work, we report on region-of-interest (ROI) CBCT with a high resolution CMOS detector (75 μm pixels, 600 μm HR-CsI) mounted with motorized detector changer on a commercial FPD-based C-arm angiography gantry (194 μm pixels, 600 μm HL-CsI). A cylindrical CT phantom and neuro stents were imaged with both detectors. For each detector a total of 209 images were acquired in a rotational protocol. The technique parameters chosen for the FPD by the imaging system were used for the CMOS detector. The anti-scatter grid was removed and the incident scatter was kept the same for both detectors with identical collimator settings. The FPD images were reconstructed for the 10 cm x10 cm FOV and the CMOS images were reconstructed for a 3.84 cm x 3.84 cm FOV. Although the reconstructed images from the CMOS detector demonstrated comparable contrast to the FPD images, the reconstructed 3D images of the neuro stent clearly showed that the CMOS detector improved delineation of smaller objects such as the stent struts (~70 μm) compared to the FPD. Further development and the potential for substantial clinical impact are suggested.

  20. SU-E-J-241: Creation of Ventilation CT From Daily 4D CTs Or 4D Conebeam CTs Acquired During IGRT for Thoracic Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, A; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to create ventilation CTs from daily 4D CTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs (4DCBCT) acquired during image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for thoracic tumors, and to explore the potential for using the ventilation CTs as a means for early detection of lung injury during radiation treatment. Methods: 4DCT acquired using an in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) and 4DCBCT acquired using the X-ray Volume Imaging (XVI) system (Infinity, Elekta) for representative lung cancer patients were analyzed. These 4D data sets were sorted into 10 phase images. A newly-available deformable image registration tool (ADMIRE, Elekta) is used to deform the phase images at the end of exhale (EE) to the phase images at the end of inhale (EI). The lung volumes at EI and EE were carefully contoured using an intensity-based auto-contour tool and then manually edited. The ventilation images were calculated from the variations of CT numbers of those voxels masked by the lung contour at EI between the registered phase images. The deformable image registration is also performed between the daily 4D images and planning 4DCT, and the resulting deformable field vector (DFV) is used to deform the planning doses to the daily images by an in-house Matlab program. Results: The ventilation images were successfully created. The tide volumes calculated using the ventilation images agree with those measured through volume difference of contours at EE and EI, indicating the accuracy of ventilation images. The association between the delivered doses and the change of lung ventilation from the daily ventilation CTs is identified. Conclusions: A method to create the ventilation CT using daily 4DCTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs was developed and demonstrated.

  1. Generation of virtual monochromatic CBCT from dual kV/MV beam projections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hao; Liu, Bo; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel on-board imaging technique which allows generation of virtual monochromatic (VM) cone-beam CT (CBCT) with a selected energy from combined kilovoltage (kV)/megavoltage (MV) beam projections. Methods: With the current orthogonal kV/MV imaging hardware equipped in modern linear accelerators, both MV projections (from gantry angle of 0°–100°) and kV projections (90°–200°) were acquired as gantry rotated a total of 110°. A selected range of overlap projections between 90° to 100° were then decomposed into two material projections using experimentally determined parameters from orthogonally stacked aluminum and acrylic step-wedges. Given attenuation coefficients of aluminum and acrylic at a predetermined energy, one set of VM projections could be synthesized from two corresponding sets of decomposed projections. Two linear functions were generated using projection information at overlap angles to convert kV and MV projections at nonoverlap angles to approximate VM projections for CBCT reconstruction. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated for different inserts in VM CBCTs of a CatPhan phantom with various selected energies and compared with those in kV and MV CBCTs. The effect of overlap projection number on CNR was evaluated. Additionally, the effect of beam orientation was studied by scanning the CatPhan sandwiched with two 5 cm solid-water phantoms on both lateral sides and an electronic density phantom with two metal bolt inserts. Results: Proper selection of VM energy [30 and 40 keV for low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polymethylpentene, 2 MeV for Delrin] provided comparable or even better CNR results as compared with kV or MV CBCT. An increased number of overlap kV and MV projection demonstrated only marginal improvements of CNR for different inserts (with the exception of LDPE) and therefore one projection overlap was found to be sufficient for the CatPhan study. It was also evident that the optimal CBCT image

  2. Interactive animation of 4D performance capture.

    PubMed

    Casas, Dan; Tejera, Margara; Guillemaut, Jean-Yves; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    A 4D parametric motion graph representation is presented for interactive animation from actor performance capture in a multiple camera studio. The representation is based on a 4D model database of temporally aligned mesh sequence reconstructions for multiple motions. High-level movement controls such as speed and direction are achieved by blending multiple mesh sequences of related motions. A real-time mesh sequence blending approach is introduced, which combines the realistic deformation of previous nonlinear solutions with efficient online computation. Transitions between different parametric motion spaces are evaluated in real time based on surface shape and motion similarity. Four-dimensional parametric motion graphs allow real-time interactive character animation while preserving the natural dynamics of the captured performance. PMID:23492379

  3. Nondipole Effects in Xe 4d Photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmers, O; Guillemin, R; Wolska, A; Lindle, D W; Rolles, D; Cheng, K T; Johnson, W R; Zhou, H L; Manson, S T

    2004-07-14

    We measured the nondipole parameters for the spin-orbit doublets Xe 4d{sub 5/2} and Xe 4d{sub 3/2} over a photon-energy range from 100 eV to 250 eV at beamline 8.0.1.3 of the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Significant nondipole effects are found at relatively low energies as a result of Cooper minima in dipole channels and interchannel coupling in quadrupole channels. Most importantly, sharp disagreement between experiment and theory, when otherwise excellent agreement was expected, has provided the first evidence of satellite two-electron quadrupole photoionization transitions, along with their crucial importance for a quantitatively accurate theory.

  4. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Bone: Radiological Pattern and the Potential Role of CBCT in Early Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Agbaje, Jimoh Olubanwo; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Verhaeghe, Vicky; Velde, Filip Vande; Vinckier, Frans

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To systematize the clinico-radiological symptoms and course of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw bone and toevaluate the diagnostic potential of various radiological techniques to detect mild osteonecrosis in each stage of the disease. Material and Methods The sample consisted of 22 patients previously diagnosed with extraoral malignant disease. Diagnosis was based on a clinical examination in conjunction to digital panoramic radiography and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Two dentomaxillofacial radiologists reviewed all images. Results Twenty patients showed mandibular involvement clinically, while two others had a maxillary involvement. Four stages of the disease were proposed based on the clinico-radiological findings. Subclinical cortical and lamina dura thickening was detected with only three-dimensional CBCT and periapical images, while ulceration and cortical bone thickening was detected only by three-dimensional CBCT. Mixed sclerotic, lytic bone destruction involving alveolar and basal bone with or without encroachment on the mandibular canal, pathological mandibular fractures were detected by two-dimensional panoramic and three-dimensional CBCT images. Other findings are non healing extraction sockets, periapical radiolucencies, osteolysis, sequestra, oroantral fistula, and periosteal new bone formation. Conclusions The present study showed that bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw bone occurs in four distinct clinico-radiological stages. For mild cases, panoramic image diagnosis was much less obvious, whereas cone beam computed tomography was able to fully characterise the bony lesions and describe their extent and involvement of neighbouring structures in all cases. Thus cone beam computed tomography might better contribute to the prevention of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw bone as well to the disease management. PMID:24421968

  5. Abdominal organ motion measured using 4D CT

    SciTech Connect

    Brandner, Edward D.; Wu, Andrew . E-mail: andrew.wu@jefferson.edu; Chen, Hungcheng; Heron, Dwight; Kalnicki, Shalom; Komanduri, Krishna; Gerszten, Kristina; Burton, Steve; Ahmed, Irfan; Shou, Zhenyu

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To measure respiration-induced abdominal organ motion using four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) scanning and to examine the organ paths. Methods and Materials: During 4D CT scanning, consecutive CT images are acquired of the patient at each couch position. Simultaneously, the patient's respiratory pattern is recorded using an external marker block taped to the patient's abdomen. This pattern is used to retrospectively organize the CT images into multiple three-dimensional images, each representing one breathing phase. These images are analyzed to measure organ motion between each phase. The displacement from end expiration is compared to a displacement limit that represents acceptable dosimetric results (5 mm). Results: The organs measured in 13 patients were the liver, spleen, and left and right kidneys. Their average superior to inferior absolute displacements were 1.3 cm for the liver, 1.3 cm for the spleen, 1.1 cm for the left kidney, and 1.3 cm for the right kidney. Although the organ paths varied among patients, 5 mm of superior to inferior displacement from end expiration resulted in less than 5 mm of displacement in the other directions for 41 of 43 organs measured. Conclusions: Four-dimensional CT scanning can accurately measure abdominal organ motion throughout respiration. This information may result in greater organ sparing and planning target volume coverage.

  6. Accuracy of CBCT, Digital Radiography and Cross-Sectioning for the Evaluation of Mandibular Incisor Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Assadian, Hadi; Dabbaghi, Arash; Gooran, Morteza; Eftekhar, Behrouz; Sharifi, Sanaz; Shams, Nassim; Dehghani Najvani, Ali; Tabesh, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), digital radiography and tooth sectioning in evaluating root canal morphology of mandibular incisors in an in vitro setting. Methods and Materials: A total of 76 samples were imaged using CBCT, and digital radiography in straight and angled views. The samples were then sectioned at different distances from the apex for further visualization under stereomicroscope. The agreement between the observers was statistically analyzed by kappa correlation coefficient and the chi-square test. Results: The results showed that the majority of the samples had a single canal (Vertucci’s Type I). CBCT analysis reported more frequent multi-canal roots in comparison with the other techniques. In pairwise comparisons, the highest agreement was found between digital radiographic imaging and microscopic cross-sectioning both in terms of canal configuration and the number of root canals. Conclusion: None of the used imaging techniques per se could adequately show the exact internal anatomical configuration in accordance with the gold standard. PMID:27141217

  7. Automatic bone removal for 3D TACE planning with C-arm CBCT: Evaluation of technical feasibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijun; Hansis, Eberhard; Chen, Rongxin; Duran, Rafael; Chapiro, Julius; Sheu, Yun Robert; Kobeiter, Hicham; Grass, Michael; Geschwind, Jean-François; Lin, MingDe

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To evaluate the technical feasibility of automatically removing the ribs and spine from C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images acquired during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Material and methods Fifty-eight patients (45.8 ± 5.0 years) with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) underwent transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and had intraprocedural CBCT imaging. Automatic bone removal was performed using model-based segmentation of the ventral cavity. Two interventional radiologists independently evaluated the performance of bone removal, remaining soft tissue retention, and general usability (where both the bone is appropriately removed while retaining soft tissue) for 3D TACE planning on a four-level (complete/excellent, adequate/good, incomplete/questionable, insufficient/bad) score. The proportion of inter-reader agreement was calculated. Results For ribs and spine removal, 98.3-100% and 100% of cases showed complete or adequate performance, respectively. In 96.6% of the cases, soft tissue was at least adequately retained. 91.3-93.1% of the cases demonstrated good or excellent general usability for TACE planning. Satisfactory inter-reader agreement proportion was achieved in ribs (93.1%) and spine removal (89.7%), soft tissue retention (84.5%), and general usability for TACE planning (72.4%). Conclusion Intraprocedural automatic bone removal on CBCT images is technically feasible and offers good removal of ribs and spine while preserving soft tissue. Its clinical value needs further assessment. PMID:26923140

  8. Automatic bone removal for 3D TACE planning with C-arm CBCT: Evaluation of technical feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijun; Hansis, Eberhard; Chen, Rongxin; Duran, Rafael; Chapiro, Julius; Sheu, Yun Robert; Kobeiter, Hicham; Grass, Michael; Geschwind, Jean-François; Lin, MingDe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the technical feasibility of automatically removing the ribs and spine from C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images acquired during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Material and methods Fifty-eight patients (45.8 ± 5.0 years) with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) underwent transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and had intraprocedural CBCT imaging. Automatic bone removal was performed using model-based segmentation of the ventral cavity. Two interventional radiologists independently evaluated the performance of bone removal, remaining soft tissue retention, and general usability (where both the bone is appropriately removed while retaining soft tissue) for 3D TACE planning on a four-level (complete/excellent, adequate/good, incomplete/questionable, insufficient/bad) score. The proportion of inter-reader agreement was calculated. Results For ribs and spine removal, 98.3–100% and 100% of cases showed complete or adequate performance, respectively. In 96.6% of the cases, soft tissue was at least adequately retained. 91.3–93.1% of the cases demonstrated good or excellent general usability for TACE planning. Satisfactory inter-reader agreement proportion was achieved in ribs (93.1%) and spine removal (89.7%), soft tissue retention (84.5%), and general usability for TACE planning (72.4%). Conclusion Intraprocedural automatic bone removal on CBCT images is technically feasible and offers good removal of ribs and spine while preserving soft tissue. Its clinical value needs further assessment. PMID:26923140

  9. A 4D Hyperspherical Interpretation of q-Space

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinbor, A. Pasha; Chung, Moo K.; Wu, Yu-Chien; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    3D q-space can be viewed as the surface of a 4D hypersphere. In this paper, we seek to develop a 4D hyperspherical interpretation of q-space by projecting it onto a hypersphere and subsequently modeling the q-space signal via 4D hyperspherical harmonics (HSH). Using this orthonormal basis, we derive several well-established q-space indices and numerically estimate the diffusion orientation distribution function (dODF). We also derive the integral transform describing the relationship between the diffusion signal and propagator on a hypersphere. Most importantly, we will demonstrate that for hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) acquisitions low order linear expansion of the HSH basis is sufficient to characterize diffusion in neural tissue. In fact, the HSH basis achieves comparable signal and better dODF reconstructions than other well-established methods, such as Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction (BFOR), using fewer fitting parameters. All in all, this work provides a new way of looking at q-space. PMID:25624043

  10. Spatial frequency spectrum of the x-ray scatter distribution in CBCT projections

    SciTech Connect

    Bootsma, G. J.; Verhaegen, F.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: X-ray scatter is a source of significant image quality loss in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The use of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations separating primary and scattered photons has allowed the structure and nature of the scatter distribution in CBCT to become better elucidated. This work seeks to quantify the structure and determine a suitable basis function for the scatter distribution by examining its spectral components using Fourier analysis.Methods: The scatter distribution projection data were simulated using a CBCT MC model based on the EGSnrc code. CBCT projection data, with separated primary and scatter signal, were generated for a 30.6 cm diameter water cylinder [single angle projection with varying axis-to-detector distance (ADD) and bowtie filters] and two anthropomorphic phantoms (head and pelvis, 360 projections sampled every 1°, with and without a compensator). The Fourier transform of the resulting scatter distributions was computed and analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. A novel metric called the scatter frequency width (SFW) is introduced to determine the scatter distribution's frequency content. The frequency content results are used to determine a set basis functions, consisting of low-frequency sine and cosine functions, to fit and denoise the scatter distribution generated from MC simulations using a reduced number of photons and projections. The signal recovery is implemented using Fourier filtering (low-pass Butterworth filter) and interpolation. Estimates of the scatter distribution are used to correct and reconstruct simulated projections.Results: The spatial and angular frequencies are contained within a maximum frequency of 0.1 cm{sup −1} and 7/(2π) rad{sup −1} for the imaging scenarios examined, with these values varying depending on the object and imaging setup (e.g., ADD and compensator). These data indicate spatial and angular sampling every 5 cm and π/7 rad (∼25°) can be used to properly capture

  11. Compressed sensing with gradient total variation for low-dose CBCT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Chang-Woo; Cha, Bo Kyung; Jeon, Seongchae; Huh, Young; Park, Justin C.; Lee, Byeonghun; Baek, Junghee; Kim, Eunyoung

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the improvement of convergence speed with gradient total variation (GTV) in compressed sensing (CS) for low-dose cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction. We derive a fast algorithm for the constrained total variation (TV)-based a minimum number of noisy projections. To achieve this task we combine the GTV with a TV-norm regularization term to promote an accelerated sparsity in the X-ray attenuation characteristics of the human body. The GTV is derived from a TV and enforces more efficient computationally and faster in convergence until a desired solution is achieved. The numerical algorithm is simple and derives relatively fast convergence. We apply a gradient projection algorithm that seeks a solution iteratively in the direction of the projected gradient while enforcing a non-negatively of the found solution. In comparison with the Feldkamp, Davis, and Kress (FDK) and conventional TV algorithms, the proposed GTV algorithm showed convergence in ≤18 iterations, whereas the original TV algorithm needs at least 34 iterations in reducing 50% of the projections compared with the FDK algorithm in order to reconstruct the chest phantom images. Future investigation includes improving imaging quality, particularly regarding X-ray cone-beam scatter, and motion artifacts of CBCT reconstruction.

  12. In Vitro Detection of Dental Root Fractures with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT)

    PubMed Central

    Fisekcioglu, Erdogan; Dolekoglu, Semanur; Ilguy, Mehmet; Ersan, Nilufer; Ilguy, Dilhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the diagnosis of non-displaced longitudinal fractures present difficulties for the dentist, three-dimensional evaluation is necessary. Objectives: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting dental root fractures in vitro. Materials and Methods: An in vitro model consisting of 210 recently extracted human mandibular teeth was used. Root fractures were created by mechanical force. The teeth were placed randomly in the empty dental alveoli of a dry human mandible and 15 different dental arcs were created. Images were taken with a unit Iluma ultra cone-beam CT scanner (Imtec Corporation, Germany). Three dental radiologists separately evaluated the images. Results: According to the fracture types and fracture presence, there was an overall statistically significant agreement between the key and readings. Kappa values for intra observer agreement ranged between 0.705 and 0.804 indicating that each observer gave acceptable ratings for the type and presence of fractures. Conclusions: Detailed information about root fractures may be obtained using CBCT. PMID:24693295

  13. Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yong Yang, Wensha; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Tuli, Richard; Wallace, Robert; Fraass, Benedick; Fan, Zhaoyang; Pang, Jianing; Deng, Zixin; Li, Debiao

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: MRI is increasingly being used for radiotherapy planning, simulation, and in-treatment-room motion monitoring. To provide more detailed temporal and spatial MR data for these tasks, we have recently developed a novel self-gated (SG) MRI technique with advantage of k-space phase sorting, high isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution. The current work describes the validation of this 4D-MRI technique using a MRI- and CT-compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: The 4D-MRI sequence is based on a spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection reconstruction sequence with self-gating for 4D-MRI at 3 T. Respiratory phase is resolved by using SG k-space lines as the motion surrogate. 4D-MRI images are reconstructed into ten temporal bins with spatial resolution 1.56 × 1.56 × 1.56 mm{sup 3}. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed to validate the performance of the 4D-MRI sequence and 4D-CT imaging. A spherical target (diameter 23 mm, volume 6.37 ml) filled with high-concentration gadolinium (Gd) gel is embedded into a plastic box (35 × 40 × 63 mm{sup 3}) and stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The phantom, driven by an air pump, is able to produce human-type breathing patterns between 4 and 30 respiratory cycles/min. 4D-CT of the phantom has been acquired in cine mode, and reconstructed into ten phases with slice thickness 1.25 mm. The 4D images sets were imported into a treatment planning software for target contouring. The geometrical accuracy of the 4D MRI and CT images has been quantified using target volume, flattening, and eccentricity. The target motion was measured by tracking the centroids of the spheres in each individual phase. Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Results: The dynamic phantom has been operated in four respiratory rate (RR) settings, 6, 10, 15, and 20/min, and was scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT. 4D-CT images have target

  14. Markerless tumor tracking using short kilovoltage imaging arcs for lung image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J.; Kuncic, Zdenka; Huang, Chen-Yu; Feain, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    The ability to monitor tumor motion without implanted markers is clinically advantageous for lung image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Existing markerless tracking methods often suffer from overlapping structures and low visibility of tumors on kV projection images. We introduce the short arc tumor tracking (SATT) method to overcome these issues. The proposed method utilizes multiple kV projection images selected from a nine-degree imaging arc to improve tumor localization, and respiratory-correlated 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) prior knowledge to minimize the effects of overlapping anatomies. The 3D tumor position is solved as an optimization problem with prior knowledge incorporated via regularization. We retrospectively validated SATT on 11 clinical scans from four patients with central tumors. These patients represent challenging scenarios for markerless tumor tracking due to the inferior adjacent contrast. The 3D trajectories of implanted fiducial markers were used as the ground truth for tracking accuracy evaluation. In all cases, the tumors were successfully tracked at all gantry angles. Compared to standard pre-treatment CBCT guidance alone, trajectory errors were significantly smaller with tracking in all cases, and the improvements were the most prominent in the superior-inferior direction. The mean 3D tracking error ranged from 2.2-9.9 mm, which was 0.4-2.6 mm smaller compared to pre-treatment CBCT. In conclusion, we were able to directly track tumors with inferior visibility on kV projection images using SATT. Tumor localization accuracies are significantly better with tracking compared to the current standard of care of lung IGRT. Future work involves the prospective evaluation and clinical implementation of SATT.

  15. SU-E-T-556: Dosimetric Comparison of the Bladder and Rectum Based On Daily CBCT for Prostate IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, S; Pearson, D; Dalhart, A; Reddy, K; Chen, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: With the use of CBCT, delivered dose can be calculated by transferring the planned beams onto the CBCT. Bladder and rectum volumetric doses were calculated and correlated to the daily bladder and rectum fullness. Methods: Patients for this study underwent hypofractionated prostate IMRT to 70 Gy in 28 fr