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Sample records for 4d ml-em reconstruction

  1. 4D reconstruction of the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulamis, Anastasios; Ioannides, Marinos; Doulamis, Nikolaos; Hadjiprocopis, Andreas; Fritsch, Dieter; Balet, Olivier; Julien, Martine; Protopapadakis, Eftychios; Makantasis, Kostas; Weinlinger, Guenther; Johnsons, Paul S.; Klein, Michael; Fellner, Dieter; Stork, Andre; Santos, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Internet era we are living in, is the free and online availability of a huge amount of data. This data is of varied reliability and accuracy and exists in various forms and formats. Often, it is cross-referenced and linked to other data, forming a nexus of text, images, animation and audio enabled by hypertext and, recently, by the Web3.0 standard. Search engines can search text for keywords using algorithms of varied intelligence and with limited success. Searching images is a much more complex and computationally intensive task but some initial steps have already been made in this direction, mainly in face recognition. This paper aims to describe our proposed pipeline for integrating data available on Internet repositories and social media, such as photographs, animation and text to produce 3D models of archaeological monuments as well as enriching multimedia of cultural / archaeological interest with metadata and harvesting the end products to EUROPEANA. Our main goal is to enable historians, architects, archaeologists, urban planners and affiliated professionals to reconstruct views of historical monuments from thousands of images floating around the web.

  2. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty. PMID:18449363

  3. 4D reconstructions from low-count SPECT data using deformable models with smooth interior intensity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Gregory S.; Lehovich, Andre

    2000-06-01

    The Bayes Inference Engine (BIE) has been used to perform a 4D reconstruction of a first-pass radiotracer bolus distribution inside a CardioWest Total Artificial Heart, imaged with the University of Arizona's FastSPECT system. The BIE estimates parameter values that define the 3D model of the radiotracer distribution at each of 41 times spanning about two seconds. The 3D models have two components: a closed surface, composed of bi-quadratic Bezier triangular surface patches, that defines the interface between the part of the blood pool that contains radiotracer and the part that contains no radiotracer, and smooth voxel-to-voxel variations in intensity within the closed surface. Ideally, the surface estimates the ventricular wall location where the bolus is infused throughout the part of the blood pool contained by the right ventricle. The voxel-to-voxel variations are needed to model an inhomogeneously-mixed bolus. Maximum a posterior (MAP) estimates of the Bezier control points and voxel values are obtained for each time frame. We show new reconstructions using the Bezier surface models, and discuss estimates of ventricular volume as a function of time, ejection fraction, and wall motion. The computation time for our reconstruction process, which directly estimates complex 3D model parameters from the raw data, is performed in a time that is competitive with more traditional voxel-based methods (ML-EM, e.g.).

  4. 4D RECONSTRUCTIONS FROM LOW-COUNT SPECT DATA USING DEFORMABLE MODELS WITH SMOOTH INTERIOR INTENSITY VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. CUNNINGHAM; A. LEHOVICH

    2000-01-01

    The Bayes Inference Engine (BIE) has been used to perform a 4D reconstruction of a first-pass radiotracer bolus distribution inside a CardioWest Total Artificial Heart, imaged with the University of Arizona's FastSPECT system. The BIE estimates parameter values that define the 3D model of the radiotracer distribution at each of 41 times spanning about two seconds. The 3D models have two components: a closed surface, composed of hi-quadratic Bezier triangular surface patches, that defines the interface between the part of the blood pool that contains radiotracer and the part that contains no radiotracer, and smooth voxel-to-voxel variations in intensity within the closed surface. Ideally, the surface estimates the ventricular wall location where the bolus is infused throughout the part of the blood pool contained by the right ventricle. The voxel-to-voxel variations are needed to model an inhomogeneously-mixed bolus. Maximum a posterior (MAP) estimates of the Bezier control points and voxel values are obtained for each time frame. We show new reconstructions using the Bezier surface models, and discuss estimates of ventricular volume as a function of time, ejection fraction, and wall motion. The computation time for our reconstruction process, which directly estimates complex 3D model parameters from the raw data, is performed in a time that is competitive with more traditional voxel-based methods (ML-EM, e.g.).

  5. Whole-body direct 4D parametric PET imaging employing nested generalized Patlak expectation-maximization reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Casey, Michael E.; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body (WB) dynamic PET has recently demonstrated its potential in translating the quantitative benefits of parametric imaging to the clinic. Post-reconstruction standard Patlak (sPatlak) WB graphical analysis utilizes multi-bed multi-pass PET acquisition to produce quantitative WB images of the tracer influx rate K i as a complimentary metric to the semi-quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV). The resulting K i images may suffer from high noise due to the need for short acquisition frames. Meanwhile, a generalized Patlak (gPatlak) WB post-reconstruction method had been suggested to limit K i bias of sPatlak analysis at regions with non-negligible 18F-FDG uptake reversibility; however, gPatlak analysis is non-linear and thus can further amplify noise. In the present study, we implemented, within the open-source software for tomographic image reconstruction platform, a clinically adoptable 4D WB reconstruction framework enabling efficient estimation of sPatlak and gPatlak images directly from dynamic multi-bed PET raw data with substantial noise reduction. Furthermore, we employed the optimization transfer methodology to accelerate 4D expectation-maximization (EM) convergence by nesting the fast image-based estimation of Patlak parameters within each iteration cycle of the slower projection-based estimation of dynamic PET images. The novel gPatlak 4D method was initialized from an optimized set of sPatlak ML-EM iterations to facilitate EM convergence. Initially, realistic simulations were conducted utilizing published 18F-FDG kinetic parameters coupled with the XCAT phantom. Quantitative analyses illustrated enhanced K i target-to-background ratio (TBR) and especially contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) performance for the 4D versus the indirect methods and static SUV. Furthermore, considerable convergence acceleration was observed for the nested algorithms involving 10-20 sub-iterations. Moreover, systematic reduction in K i % bias and improved TBR were

  6. SU-E-T-790: Validation of 4D Measurement-Guided Dose Reconstruction (MGDR) with OCTAVIUS 4D System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V; Leung, R; Wong, M; Law, G; Lee, K; Tung, S; Chan, M; Blanck, O

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To validate the MGDR of OCTAVIUS 4D system (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for quality assurance (QA) of volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT). Methods: 4D-MGDR measurements were divided into two parts: 1) square fields from 2×2 to 25×25 cm{sup 2} at 0°, 10° and 45° gantry, and 2) 8 VMAT plans (5 nasopharyngeal and 3 prostate) collapsed to gantry 40° in QA mode in Monaco v5.0 (Elekta, CMS, Maryland Heights, MO) were delivered on the OCTAVIUS 4D phantom with the OCTAVIUS 1500 detector plane perpendicular to either the incident beam to obtain the reconstructed dose (OCTA4D) or the 0° gantry axis to obtain the raw doses (OCTA3D) in Verisoft 6.1 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Raw measurements of OCTA3D were limited to < 45° gantry to avoid >0.5% variation of detector angular response with respect to 0° gantry as determined previously. Reconstructed OCTA4D and raw OCTA3D doses for all plans were compared at the same detector plane using γ criteria of 2% (local dose)/2mm and 3%/3mm criteria. Results: At gantry 0° and 10°, the γ results for all OCTA4D on detector plane coinciding with OCTA3D were over 90% at 2%/2mm except for the largest field (25×25 cm{sup 2} ) showing >88%. For square field at 45° gantry, γ passing rate is > 90% for fields smaller than 15x 15cm2 but < 80% for field size of 20 x20 cm{sup 2} upward. For VMAT, γ results showed 94% and 99% passing rate at 2%/2mm and 3%/3mm, respectively. Conclusion: OCTAVIUS 4D system has compromised accuracy in reconstructing dose away from the central beam axis, possibly due to the off-axis softening correction and errors of the percent depth dose data necessary as input for MGDR. Good results in VMAT delivery suggested that the system is relatively reliable for VMAT with small segments.

  7. A sinogram warping strategy for pre-reconstruction 4D PET optimization.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Fontana, Giulia; Kurz, Christopher; Parodi, Katia; Baroni, Guido

    2016-03-01

    A novel strategy for 4D PET optimization in the sinogram domain is proposed, aiming at motion model application before image reconstruction ("sinogram warping" strategy). Compared to state-of-the-art 4D-MLEM reconstruction, the proposed strategy is able to optimize the image SNR, avoiding iterative direct and inverse warping procedures, which are typical of the 4D-MLEM algorithm. A full-count statistics sinogram of the motion-compensated 4D PET reference phase is generated by warping the sinograms corresponding to the different PET phases. This is achieved relying on a motion model expressed in the sinogram domain. The strategy was tested on the anthropomorphic 4D PET-CT NCAT phantom in comparison with the 4D-MLEM algorithm, with particular reference to robustness to PET-CT co-registrations artefacts. The MLEM reconstruction of the warped sinogram according to the proposed strategy exhibited better accuracy (up to +40.90 % with respect to the ideal value), whereas images reconstructed according to the 4D-MLEM reconstruction resulted in less noisy (down to -26.90 % with respect to the ideal value) but more blurred. The sinogram warping strategy demonstrates advantages with respect to 4D-MLEM algorithm. These advantages are paid back by introducing approximation of the deformation field, and further efforts are required to mitigate the impact of such an approximation in clinical 4D PET reconstruction.

  8. 4D interventional device reconstruction from biplane fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Martin; Schafer, Sebastian; Strother, Charles; Mistretta, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Biplane angiography systems provide time resolved 2D fluoroscopic images from two different angles, which can be used for the positioning of interventional devices such as guidewires and catheters. The purpose of this work is to provide a novel algorithm framework, which allows the 3D reconstruction of these curvilinear devices from the 2D projection images for each time frame. This would allow creating virtual projection images from arbitrary view angles without changing the position of the gantries, as well as virtual endoscopic 3D renderings. Methods: The first frame of each time sequence is registered to and subtracted from the following frame using an elastic grid registration technique. The images are then preprocessed by a noise reduction algorithm using directional adaptive filter kernels and a ridgeness filter that emphasizes curvilinear structures. A threshold based segmentation of the device is then performed, followed by a flux driven topology preserving thinning algorithm to extract the segments of the device centerline. The exact device path is determined using Dijkstra’s algorithm to minimize the curvature and distance between adjacent segments as well as the difference to the device path of the previous frame. The 3D device centerline is then reconstructed using epipolar geometry. Results: The accuracy of the reconstruction was measured in a vascular head phantom as well as in a cadaver head and a canine study. The device reconstructions are compared to rotational 3D acquisitions. In the phantom experiments, an average device tip accuracy of 0.35 ± 0.09 mm, a Hausdorff distance of 0.65 ± 0.32 mm, and a mean device distance of 0.54 ± 0.33 mm were achieved. In the cadaver head and canine experiments, the device tip was reconstructed with an average accuracy of 0.26 ± 0.20 mm, a Hausdorff distance of 0.62 ± 0.08 mm, and a mean device distance of 0.41 ± 0.08 mm. Additionally, retrospective reconstruction results of real patient data are

  9. Helical mode lung 4D-CT reconstruction using Bayesian model.

    PubMed

    He, Tiancheng; Xue, Zhong; Nitsch, Paige L; Teh, Bin S; Wong, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    4D computed tomography (CT) has been widely used for treatment planning of thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. Current 4D-CT lung image reconstruction methods rely on respiratory gating to rearrange the large number of axial images into different phases, which may be subject to external surrogate errors due to poor reproducibility of breathing cycles. New image-matching-based reconstruction works better for the cine mode of 4D-CT acquisition than the helical mode because the table position of each axial image is different in helical mode and image matching might suffer from bigger errors. In helical mode, not only the phases but also the un-uniform table positions of images need to be considered. We propose a Bayesian method for automated 4D-CT lung image reconstruction in helical mode 4D scans. Each axial image is assigned to a respiratory phase based on the Bayesian framework that ensures spatial and temporal smoothness of surfaces of anatomical structures. Iterative optimization is used to reconstruct a series of 3D-CT images for subjects undergoing 4D scans. In experiments, we compared visually and quantitatively the results of the proposed Bayesian 4D-CT reconstruction algorithm with the respiratory surrogate and the image matching-based method. The results showed that the proposed algorithm yielded better 4D-CT for helical scans.

  10. Fully 4D list-mode reconstruction applied to respiratory-gated PET scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotus, N; Reader, A J; Stute, S; Rosenwald, J C; Giraud, P; Buvat, I

    2009-03-01

    18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is one of the most sensitive and specific imaging modalities for the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer. A drawback of PET is that it requires several minutes of acquisition per bed position, which results in images being affected by respiratory blur. Respiratory gating techniques have been developed to deal with respiratory motion in the PET images. However, these techniques considerably increase the level of noise in the reconstructed images unless the acquisition time is increased. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a four-dimensional (4D) image reconstruction algorithm that combines the acquired events in all the gates whilst preserving the motion deblurring. This algorithm was compared to classic ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction of gated and non-gated images, and to temporal filtering of gated images reconstructed with OSEM. Two datasets were used for comparing the different reconstruction approaches: one involving the NEMA IEC/2001 body phantom in motion, the other obtained using Monte-Carlo simulations of the NCAT breathing phantom. Results show that 4D reconstruction reaches a similar performance in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as non-gated reconstruction whilst preserving the motion deblurring. In particular, 4D reconstruction improves the SNR compared to respiratory-gated images reconstructed with the OSEM algorithm. Temporal filtering of the OSEM-reconstructed images helps improve the SNR, but does not achieve the same performance as 4D reconstruction. 4D reconstruction of respiratory-gated images thus appears as a promising tool to reach the same performance in terms of the SNR as non-gated acquisitions while reducing the motion blur, without increasing the acquisition time.

  11. SU-E-T-202: Comparison of 4D-Measurement-Guided Dose Reconstructions (MGDR) with COMPASS and OCTAVIUS 4D System

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, R; Wong, M; Lee, V; Law, G; Lee, K; Tung, S; Chan, M; Blanck, O

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To cross-validate the MGDR of COMPASS (IBA dosimetry, GmbH, Germany) and OCTAVIUS 4D system (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Methods: Volumetric-modulated arc plans (5 head-and-neck and 3 prostate) collapsed to 40° gantry on the OCTAVIUS 4D phantom in QA mode on Monaco v5.0 (Elekta, CMS, Maryland Heights, MO) were delivered on a Elekta Agility linac. This study was divided into two parts: (1) error-free measurements by gantry-mounted EvolutionXX 2D array were reconstructed in COMPASS (IBA dosimetry, GmbH, Germany), and by OCTAVIUS 1500 array in Versoft v6.1 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) to obtain the 3D doses (COM4D and OCTA4D). COM4D and OCTA4D were compared to the raw measurement (OCTA3D) at the same detector plane for which OCTAVIUS 1500 was perpendicular to 0° gantry axis while the plans were delivered at gantry 40°; (2) beam steering errors of energy (Hump=-2%) and symmetry (2T=+2%) were introduced during the delivery of 5 plans to compare the MGDR doses COM4D-Hump (COM4D-2T), OCTA4D-Hump (OCTA4D-2T), with raw doses OCTA3D-Hump (OCTA3D-2T) and with OCTA3D to assess the error reconstruction and detection ability of MGDR tools. All comparisons used Υ-criteria of 2%(local dose)/2mm and 3%/3mm. Results: Averaged Υ passing rates were 85% and 96% for COM4D,and 94% and 99% for OCTA4D at 2%/2mm and 3%/3mm criteria respectively. For error reconstruction, COM4D-Hump (COM4D-2T) showed 81% (93%) at 2%/2mm and 94% (98%) at 3%/3mm, while OCTA4D-Hump (OCTA4D-2T) showed 96% (96%) at 2%/2mm and 99% (99%) at 3%/3mm. For error detection, OCTA3D doses were compared to COM4D-Hump (COM4D-2T) showing Υ passing rates of 93% (93%) at 2%/2mm and 98% (98%), and to OCTA4D-Hump (OCTA4D -2T) showing 94% (99%) at 2%/2mm and 81% (96%) at 3%/3mm, respectively. Conclusion: OCTAVIUS MGDR showed better agreement to raw measurements in both error- and error-free comparisons. COMPASS MGDR deviated from the raw measurements possibly owing to beam modeling uncertainty.

  12. Directional sinogram interpolation for motion weighted 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Kruis, Matthijs; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2017-03-01

    The image quality of respiratory sorted four-dimensional (4D) cone-beam (CB) computed tomography (CT) is often limited by streak artifacts due to insufficient projections. A motion weighted reconstruction (MWR) method is proposed to decrease streak artifacts and improve image quality. Firstly, respiratory correlated CBCT projections were interpolated by directional sinogram interpolation (DSI) to generate additional CB projections for each phase and subsequently reconstructed. Secondly, local motion was estimated by deformable image registration of the interpolated 4D CBCT. Thirdly, a regular 3D FDK CBCT was reconstructed from the non-interpolated projections. Finally, weights were assigned to each voxel, based on the local motion, and then were used to combine the 3D FDK CBCT and interpolated 4D CBCT to generate the final 4D image. MWR method was compared with regular 4D CBCT scans as well as McKinnon and Bates (MKB) based reconstructions. Comparisons were made in terms of (1) comparing the steepness of an extracted profile from the boundary of the region-of-interest (ROI), (2) contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) inside certain ROIs, and (3) the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between the planning CT and CBCT inside a homogeneous moving region. Comparisons were made for both a phantom and four patient scans. In a 4D phantom, RMSE were reduced by 24.7% and 38.7% for MKB and MWR respectively, compared to conventional 4D CBCT. Meanwhile, interpolation induced blur was minimal in static regions for MWR based reconstructions. In regions with considerable respiratory motion, image blur using MWR is less than the MKB and 3D Feldkamp (FDK) methods. In the lung cancer patients, average CNRs of MKB, DSI and MWR improved by a factor 1.7, 2.8 and 3.5 respectively relative to 4D FDK. MWR effectively reduces RMSE in 4D cone-beam CT and improves the image quality in both the static and respiratory moving regions compared to 4D FDK and MKB methods.

  13. Respiratory motion correction in 4D-PET by simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Faraz; Li, Tianfang; Jin, Mingwu; Wang, Jing

    2016-08-01

    In conventional 4D positron emission tomography (4D-PET), images from different frames are reconstructed individually and aligned by registration methods. Two issues that arise with this approach are as follows: (1) the reconstruction algorithms do not make full use of projection statistics; and (2) the registration between noisy images can result in poor alignment. In this study, we investigated the use of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) methods for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. A modified ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm coupled with total variation minimization (OSEM-TV) was used to obtain a primary motion-compensated PET (pmc-PET) from all projection data, using Demons derived deformation vector fields (DVFs) as initial motion vectors. A motion model update was performed to obtain an optimal set of DVFs in the pmc-PET and other phases, by matching the forward projection of the deformed pmc-PET with measured projections from other phases. The OSEM-TV image reconstruction was repeated using updated DVFs, and new DVFs were estimated based on updated images. A 4D-XCAT phantom with typical FDG biodistribution was generated to evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm in lung and liver tumors with different contrasts and different diameters (10-40 mm). The image quality of the 4D-PET was greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm. When all projections were used to reconstruct 3D-PET without motion compensation, motion blurring artifacts were present, leading up to 150% tumor size overestimation and significant quantitative errors, including 50% underestimation of tumor contrast and 59% underestimation of tumor uptake. Errors were reduced to less than 10% in most images by using the SMEIR algorithm, showing its potential in motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET.

  14. A hybrid reconstruction algorithm for fast and accurate 4D cone-beam CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hao; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B. E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Jia, Xun E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Zhen, Xin; Li, Yongbao; Pan, Tinsu; Cervino, Laura

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: 4D cone beam CT (4D-CBCT) has been utilized in radiation therapy to provide 4D image guidance in lung and upper abdomen area. However, clinical application of 4D-CBCT is currently limited due to the long scan time and low image quality. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new 4D-CBCT reconstruction method that restores volumetric images based on the 1-min scan data acquired with a standard 3D-CBCT protocol. Methods: The model optimizes a deformation vector field that deforms a patient-specific planning CT (p-CT), so that the calculated 4D-CBCT projections match measurements. A forward-backward splitting (FBS) method is invented to solve the optimization problem. It splits the original problem into two well-studied subproblems, i.e., image reconstruction and deformable image registration. By iteratively solving the two subproblems, FBS gradually yields correct deformation information, while maintaining high image quality. The whole workflow is implemented on a graphic-processing-unit to improve efficiency. Comprehensive evaluations have been conducted on a moving phantom and three real patient cases regarding the accuracy and quality of the reconstructed images, as well as the algorithm robustness and efficiency. Results: The proposed algorithm reconstructs 4D-CBCT images from highly under-sampled projection data acquired with 1-min scans. Regarding the anatomical structure location accuracy, 0.204 mm average differences and 0.484 mm maximum difference are found for the phantom case, and the maximum differences of 0.3–0.5 mm for patients 1–3 are observed. As for the image quality, intensity errors below 5 and 20 HU compared to the planning CT are achieved for the phantom and the patient cases, respectively. Signal-noise-ratio values are improved by 12.74 and 5.12 times compared to results from FDK algorithm using the 1-min data and 4-min data, respectively. The computation time of the algorithm on a NVIDIA GTX590 card is 1–1.5 min per phase

  15. Spatial-temporal total variation regularization (STTVR) for 4D-CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haibo; Maier, Andreas; Fahrig, Rebecca; Hornegger, Joachim

    2012-03-01

    Four dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) is very important for treatment planning in thorax or abdomen area, e.g. for guiding radiation therapy planning. The respiratory motion makes the reconstruction problem illposed. Recently, compressed sensing theory was introduced. It uses sparsity as a prior to solve the problem and improves image quality considerably. However, the images at each phase are reconstructed individually. The correlations between neighboring phases are not considered in the reconstruction process. In this paper, we propose the spatial-temporal total variation regularization (STTVR) method which not only employs the sparsity in the spatial domain but also in the temporal domain. The algorithm is validated with XCAT thorax phantom. The Euclidean norm of the reconstructed image and ground truth is calculated for evaluation. The results indicate that our method improves the reconstruction quality by more than 50% compared to standard ART.

  16. 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations.

  17. 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp–Davis–Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. PMID:26758496

  18. Detecting default mode networks in utero by integrated 4D fMRI reconstruction and analysis.

    PubMed

    Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Anna I; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Dighe, Manjiri; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-11-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest, especially for in utero imaging, in the detection of functional connectivity in subjects whose motion cannot be controlled while in the MRI scanner. These cases require two advances over current studies: (1) multiecho acquisitions and (2) post processing and reconstruction that can deal with significant between slice motion during multislice protocols to allow for the ability to detect temporal correlations introduced by spatial scattering of slices into account. This article focuses on the estimation of a spatially and temporally regular time series from motion scattered slices of multiecho fMRI datasets using a full four-dimensional (4D) iterative image reconstruction framework. The framework which includes quantitative MRI methods for artifact correction is evaluated using adult studies with and without motion to both refine parameter settings and evaluate the analysis pipeline. ICA analysis is then applied to the 4D image reconstruction of both adult and in utero fetal studies where resting state activity is perturbed by motion. Results indicate quantitative improvements in reconstruction quality when compared to the conventional 3D reconstruction approach (using simulated adult data) and demonstrate the ability to detect the default mode network in moving adults and fetuses with single-subject and group analysis. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4158-4178, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. CAVAREV—an open platform for evaluating 3D and 4D cardiac vasculature reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohkohl, Christopher; Lauritsch, Günter; Keil, Andreas; Hornegger, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The 3D reconstruction of cardiac vasculature, e.g. the coronary arteries, using C-arm CT (rotational angiography) is an active and challenging field of research. There are numerous publications on different reconstruction techniques. However, there is still a lack of comparability of achieved results for several reasons: foremost, datasets used in publications are not open to public and thus experiments are not reproducible by other researchers. Further, the results highly depend on the vasculature motion, i.e. cardiac and breathing motion patterns which are also not comparable across publications. We aim to close this gap by providing an open platform, called Cavarev (CArdiac VAsculature Reconstruction EValuation). It features two simulated dynamic projection datasets based on the 4D XCAT phantom with contrasted coronary arteries which was derived from patient data. In the first dataset, the vasculature undergoes a continuous periodic motion. The second dataset contains aperiodic heart motion by including additional breathing motion. The geometry calibration and acquisition protocol were obtained from a real-world C-arm system. For qualitative evaluation of the reconstruction results, the correlation of the morphology is used. Two segmentation-based quality measures are introduced which allow us to assess the 3D and 4D reconstruction quality. They are based on the spatial overlap of the vasculature reconstruction with the ground truth. The measures enable a comprehensive analysis and comparison of reconstruction results independent from the utilized reconstruction algorithm. An online platform (www.cavarev.com) is provided where the datasets can be downloaded, researchers can manage and publish algorithm results and download a reference C++ and Matlab implementation.

  20. VMAT QA: Measurement-guided 4D dose reconstruction on a patient

    SciTech Connect

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Opp, Daniel; Robinson, Joshua; Wolf, Theresa K.; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) tool that takes as input a time-resolved, low-density ({approx}10 mm) cylindrical surface dose map from a commercial helical diode array, and outputs a high density, volumetric, time-resolved dose matrix on an arbitrary patient dataset. This first validation study is limited to a homogeneous 'patient.'Methods: A VMAT treatment is delivered to a diode array phantom (ARCCHECK, Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL). 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear) derives the high-density volumetric dose using measurement-guided dose reconstruction (MGDR). MGDR cylindrical phantom results are then used to perturb the three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning dose on the patient dataset, producing a semiempirical volumetric dose grid. Four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction on the patient is also possible by morphing individual sub-beam doses instead of the composite. For conventional (3D) dose comparison two methods were developed, using the four plans (Multi-Target, C-shape, Mock Prostate, and Head and Neck), including their structures and objectives, from the AAPM TG-119 report. First, 3DVH and treatment planning system (TPS) cumulative point doses were compared to ion chamber in a cube water-equivalent phantom ('patient'). The shape of the phantom is different from the ARCCHECK and furthermore the targets were placed asymmetrically. Second, coronal and sagittal absolute film dose distributions in the cube were compared with 3DVH and TPS. For time-resolved (4D) comparisons, three tests were performed. First, volumetric dose differences were calculated between the 3D MGDR and cumulative time-resolved patient (4D MGDR) dose at the end of delivery, where they ideally should be identical. Second, time-resolved (10 Hz sampling rate) ion chamber doses were compared to cumulative point dose vs time curves from 4D MGDR. Finally, accelerator output was varied to assess the linearity of the 4D MGDR with

  1. Application of adaptive kinetic modelling for bias propagation reduction in direct 4D image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kotasidis, F A; Matthews, J C; Reader, A J; Angelis, G I; Zaidi, H

    2014-10-21

    Parametric imaging in thoracic and abdominal PET can provide additional parameters more relevant to the pathophysiology of the system under study. However, dynamic data in the body are noisy due to the limiting counting statistics leading to suboptimal kinetic parameter estimates. Direct 4D image reconstruction algorithms can potentially improve kinetic parameter precision and accuracy in dynamic PET body imaging. However, construction of a common kinetic model is not always feasible and in contrast to post-reconstruction kinetic analysis, errors in poorly modelled regions may spatially propagate to regions which are well modelled. To reduce error propagation from erroneous model fits, we implement and evaluate a new approach to direct parameter estimation by incorporating a recently proposed kinetic modelling strategy within a direct 4D image reconstruction framework. The algorithm uses a secondary more general model to allow a less constrained model fit in regions where the kinetic model does not accurately describe the underlying kinetics. A portion of the residuals then is adaptively included back into the image whilst preserving the primary model characteristics in other well modelled regions using a penalty term that trades off the models. Using fully 4D simulations based on dynamic [(15)O]H2O datasets, we demonstrate reduction in propagation-related bias for all kinetic parameters. Under noisy conditions, reductions in bias due to propagation are obtained at the cost of increased noise, which in turn results in increased bias and variance of the kinetic parameters. This trade-off reflects the challenge of separating the residuals arising from poor kinetic modelling fits from the residuals arising purely from noise. Nonetheless, the overall root mean square error is reduced in most regions and parameters. Using the adaptive 4D image reconstruction improved model fits can be obtained in poorly modelled regions, leading to reduced errors potentially propagating

  2. Validation of percutaneous puncture trajectory during renal access using 4D ultrasound reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Pedro L.; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Fonseca, Jaime C.; Vilaça, João. L.

    2015-03-01

    An accurate percutaneous puncture is essential for disintegration and removal of renal stones. Although this procedure has proven to be safe, some organs surrounding the renal target might be accidentally perforated. This work describes a new intraoperative framework where tracked surgical tools are superimposed within 4D ultrasound imaging for security assessment of the percutaneous puncture trajectory (PPT). A PPT is first generated from the skin puncture site towards an anatomical target, using the information retrieved by electromagnetic motion tracking sensors coupled to surgical tools. Then, 2D ultrasound images acquired with a tracked probe are used to reconstruct a 4D ultrasound around the PPT under GPU processing. Volume hole-filling was performed in different processing time intervals by a tri-linear interpolation method. At spaced time intervals, the volume of the anatomical structures was segmented to ascertain if any vital structure is in between PPT and might compromise the surgical success. To enhance the volume visualization of the reconstructed structures, different render transfer functions were used. Results: Real-time US volume reconstruction and rendering with more than 25 frames/s was only possible when rendering only three orthogonal slice views. When using the whole reconstructed volume one achieved 8-15 frames/s. 3 frames/s were reached when one introduce the segmentation and detection if some structure intersected the PPT. The proposed framework creates a virtual and intuitive platform that can be used to identify and validate a PPT to safely and accurately perform the puncture in percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  3. Comparison of spatiotemporal interpolators for 4D image reconstruction from 2D transesophageal ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haak, Alexander; van Stralen, Marijn; van Burken, Gerard; Klein, Stefan; Pluim, Josien P. W.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2012-03-01

    °For electrophysiology intervention monitoring, we intend to reconstruct 4D ultrasound (US) of structures in the beating heart from 2D transesophageal US by scanplane rotation. The image acquisition is continuous but unsynchronized to the heart rate, which results in a sparsely and irregularly sampled dataset and a spatiotemporal interpolation method is desired. Previously, we showed the potential of normalized convolution (NC) for interpolating such datasets. We explored 4D interpolation by 3 different methods: NC, nearest neighbor (NN), and temporal binning followed by linear interpolation (LTB). The test datasets were derived by slicing three 4D echocardiography datasets at random rotation angles (θ, range: 0-180) and random normalized cardiac phase (τ, range: 0-1). Four different distributions of rotated 2D images with 600, 900, 1350, and 1800 2D input images were created from all TEE sets. A 2D Gaussian kernel was used for NC and optimal kernel sizes (σθ and στ) were found by performing an exhaustive search. The RMS gray value error (RMSE) of the reconstructed images was computed for all interpolation methods. The estimated optimal kernels were in the range of σθ = 3.24 - 3.69°/ στ = 0.045 - 0.048, σθ = 2.79°/ στ = 0.031 - 0.038, σθ = 2.34°/ στ = 0.023 - 0.026, and σθ = 1.89°/ στ = 0.021 - 0.023 for 600, 900, 1350, and 1800 input images respectively. We showed that NC outperforms NN and LTB. For a small number of input images the advantage of NC is more pronounced.

  4. Temporal sparsity exploiting nonlocal regularization for 4D computed tomography reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Guo, Enyu; Kaestner, Anders; Lionheart, William R B; Bent, Julian; Withers, Philip J; Lee, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging applications in medical and material sciences are frequently limited by the number of tomographic projections collected. The inversion of the limited projection data is an ill-posed problem and needs regularization. Traditional spatial regularization is not well adapted to the dynamic nature of time-lapse tomography since it discards the redundancy of the temporal information. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm with a nonlocal regularization term to account for time-evolving datasets. The aim of the proposed nonlocal penalty is to collect the maximum relevant information in the spatial and temporal domains. With the proposed sparsity seeking approach in the temporal space, the computational complexity of the classical nonlocal regularizer is substantially reduced (at least by one order of magnitude). The presented reconstruction method can be directly applied to various big data 4D (x, y, z+time) tomographic experiments in many fields. We apply the proposed technique to modelled data and to real dynamic X-ray microtomography (XMT) data of high resolution. Compared to the classical spatio-temporal nonlocal regularization approach, the proposed method delivers reconstructed images of improved resolution and higher contrast while remaining significantly less computationally demanding.

  5. Temporal sparsity exploiting nonlocal regularization for 4D computed tomography reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kazantsev, Daniil; Guo, Enyu; Kaestner, Anders; Lionheart, William R. B.; Bent, Julian; Withers, Philip J.; Lee, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging applications in medical and material sciences are frequently limited by the number of tomographic projections collected. The inversion of the limited projection data is an ill-posed problem and needs regularization. Traditional spatial regularization is not well adapted to the dynamic nature of time-lapse tomography since it discards the redundancy of the temporal information. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm with a nonlocal regularization term to account for time-evolving datasets. The aim of the proposed nonlocal penalty is to collect the maximum relevant information in the spatial and temporal domains. With the proposed sparsity seeking approach in the temporal space, the computational complexity of the classical nonlocal regularizer is substantially reduced (at least by one order of magnitude). The presented reconstruction method can be directly applied to various big data 4D (x, y, z+time) tomographic experiments in many fields. We apply the proposed technique to modelled data and to real dynamic X-ray microtomography (XMT) data of high resolution. Compared to the classical spatio-temporal nonlocal regularization approach, the proposed method delivers reconstructed images of improved resolution and higher contrast while remaining significantly less computationally demanding. PMID:27002902

  6. SU-D-207-04: GPU-Based 4D Cone-Beam CT Reconstruction Using Adaptive Meshing Method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z; Gu, X; Iyengar, P; Mao, W; Wang, J; Guo, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Due to the limited number of projections at each phase, the image quality of a four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) is often degraded, which decreases the accuracy of subsequent motion modeling. One of the promising methods is the simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) approach. The objective of this work is to enhance the computational speed of the SMEIR algorithm using adaptive feature-based tetrahedral meshing and GPU-based parallelization. Methods: The first step is to generate the tetrahedral mesh based on the features of a reference phase 4D-CBCT, so that the deformation can be well captured and accurately diffused from the mesh vertices to voxels of the image volume. After the mesh generation, the updated motion model and other phases of 4D-CBCT can be obtained by matching the 4D-CBCT projection images at each phase with the corresponding forward projections of the deformed reference phase of 4D-CBCT. The entire process of this 4D-CBCT reconstruction method is implemented on GPU, resulting in significantly increasing the computational efficiency due to its tremendous parallel computing ability. Results: A 4D XCAT digital phantom was used to test the proposed mesh-based image reconstruction algorithm. The image Result shows both bone structures and inside of the lung are well-preserved and the tumor position can be well captured. Compared to the previous voxel-based CPU implementation of SMEIR, the proposed method is about 157 times faster for reconstructing a 10 -phase 4D-CBCT with dimension 256×256×150. Conclusion: The GPU-based parallel 4D CBCT reconstruction method uses the feature-based mesh for estimating motion model and demonstrates equivalent image Result with previous voxel-based SMEIR approach, with significantly improved computational speed.

  7. A novel method for 4D cone-beam computer-tomography reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Park, Justin C.; Chen, Yunmei; Lan, Guanghui; Lu, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Image quality of Four Dimensional Cone-Beam Computer-Tomography (4DCBCT) is severely impaired by highly insufficient amount of projection data available for each phase. Therefore, making good use of limited projection data is crucial to solve this problem. Noticing that usually only a portion of the images is affected by motion, we separate the moving part (different between phases) of the images from the static part (identical among all phases) with the help of prior image reconstructed using all projection data. Then we update the moving part and the static part of images alternatively through solving minimization problems based on a global (use full projection data) and several local (use projection data for respective phase) linear systems. In the other word, we rebuild a large over-determined linear system for static part from the original under-determined systems and we reduce the number of unknowns in the original system for each phase as well. As a result, image quality for both static part and moving part are greatly improved and reliable 4D CBCT images are then reconstructed.

  8. Reconstruction of 4D-CT data sets acquired during free breathing for the analysis of respiratory motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, Rene; Frenzel, Thorsten; Säring, Dennis; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Handels, Heinz

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory motion is a significant source of error in radiotherapy treatment planning. 4D-CT data sets can be useful to measure the impact of organ motion caused by breathing. But modern CT scanners can only scan a limited region of the body simultaneously and patients have to be scanned in segments consisting of multiple slices. For studying free breathing motion multislice CT scans can be collected simultaneously with digital spirometry over several breathing cycles. The 4D data set is assembled by sorting the free breathing multislice CT scans according to the couch position and the tidal volume. But artifacts can occur because there are no data segments for exactly the same tidal volume and all couch positions. We present an optical flow based method for the reconstruction of 4D-CT data sets from multislice CT scans, which are collected simultaneously with digital spirometry. The optical flow between the scans is estimated by a non-linear registration method. The calculated velocity field is used to reconstruct a 4D-CT data set by interpolating data at user-defined tidal volumes. By this technique, artifacts can be reduced significantly. The reconstructed 4D-CT data sets are used for studying inner organ motion during the respiratory cycle. The procedures described were applied to reconstruct 4D-CT data sets for four tumour patients who have been scanned during free breathing. The reconstructed 4D data sets were used to quantify organ displacements and to visualize the abdominothoracic organ motion.

  9. Automated 4D lung computed tomography reconstruction during free breathing for conformal radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Naqa, Issam M.; Low, Daniel A.; Christensen, Gary E.; Parikh, Parag J.; Song, Joo Hyun; Nystrom, Michelle M.; Lu, Wei; Deasy, Joseph O.; Hubenschmidt, James P.; Wahab, Sasha H.; Mutic, Sasa; Singh, Anurag K.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2004-04-01

    We are developing 4D-CT to provide breathing motion information (trajectories) for radiation therapy treatment planning of lung cancer. Potential applications include optimization of intensity-modulated beams in the presence of breathing motion and intra-fraction target volume margin determination for conformal therapy. The images are acquired using a multi-slice CT scanner while the patient undergoes simultaneous quantitative spirometry. At each couch position, the CT scanner is operated in ciné mode and acquires up to 15 scans of 12 slices each. Each CT scan is associated with the measured tidal volume for retrospective reconstruction of 3D CT scans at arbitrary tidal volumes. The specific tasks of this project involves the development of automated registration of internal organ motion (trajectories) during breathing. A modified least-squares based optical flow algorithm tracks specific features of interest by modifying the eigenvalues of gradient matrix (gradient structural tensor). Good correlations between the measured motion and spirometry-based tidal volume are observed and evidence of internal hysteresis is also detected.

  10. 4D maximum a posteriori reconstruction in dynamic SPECT using a compartmental model-based prior.

    PubMed

    Kadrmas, D J; Gullberg, G T

    2001-05-01

    A 4D ordered-subsets maximum a posteriori (OSMAP) algorithm for dynamic SPECT is described which uses a temporal prior that constrains each voxel's behaviour in time to conform to a compartmental model. No a priori limitations on kinetic parameters are applied; rather, the parameter estimates evolve as the algorithm iterates to a solution. The estimated parameters and time-activity curves are used within the reconstruction algorithm to model changes in the activity distribution as the camera rotates, avoiding artefacts due to inconsistencies of data between projection views. This potentially allows for fewer, longer-duration scans to be used and may have implications for noise reduction. The algorithm was evaluated qualitatively using dynamic 99mTc-teboroxime SPECT scans in two patients, and quantitatively using a series of simulated phantom experiments. The OSMAP algorithm resulted in images with better myocardial uniformity and definition, gave time-activity curves with reduced noise variations, and provided wash-in parameter estimates with better accuracy and lower statistical uncertainty than those obtained from conventional ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) processing followed by compartmental modelling. The new algorithm effectively removed the bias in k21 estimates due to inconsistent projections for sampling schedules as slow as 60 s per timeframe, but no improvement in wash-out parameter estimates was observed in this work. The proposed dynamic OSMAP algorithm provides a flexible framework which may benefit a variety of dynamic tomographic imaging applications.

  11. Experimental verification of a 4D MLEM reconstruction algorithm used for in-beam PET measurements in particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stützer, K.; Bert, C.; Enghardt, W.; Helmbrecht, S.; Parodi, K.; Priegnitz, M.; Saito, N.; Fiedler, F.

    2013-08-01

    In-beam positron emission tomography (PET) has been proven to be a reliable technique in ion beam radiotherapy for the in situ and non-invasive evaluation of the correct dose deposition in static tumour entities. In the presence of intra-fractional target motion an appropriate time-resolved (four-dimensional, 4D) reconstruction algorithm has to be used to avoid reconstructed activity distributions suffering from motion-related blurring artefacts and to allow for a dedicated dose monitoring. Four-dimensional reconstruction algorithms from diagnostic PET imaging that can properly handle the typically low counting statistics of in-beam PET data have been adapted and optimized for the characteristics of the double-head PET scanner BASTEI installed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum Darmstadt, Germany (GSI). Systematic investigations with moving radioactive sources demonstrate the more effective reduction of motion artefacts by applying a 4D maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm instead of the retrospective co-registration of phasewise reconstructed quasi-static activity distributions. Further 4D MLEM results are presented from in-beam PET measurements of irradiated moving phantoms which verify the accessibility of relevant parameters for the dose monitoring of intra-fractionally moving targets. From in-beam PET listmode data sets acquired together with a motion surrogate signal, valuable images can be generated by the 4D MLEM reconstruction for different motion patterns and motion-compensated beam delivery techniques.

  12. Automatic 4D Reconstruction of Patient-Specific Cardiac Mesh with 1-to-1 Vertex Correspondence from Segmented Contours Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi Wan; Su, Yi; Yeo, Si Yong; Ng, Gillian Maria; Nguyen, Vinh Tan; Zhong, Liang; Tan, Ru San; Poh, Kian Keong; Chai, Ping

    2014-01-01

    We propose an automatic algorithm for the reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac mesh models with 1-to-1 vertex correspondence. In this framework, a series of 3D meshes depicting the endocardial surface of the heart at each time step is constructed, based on a set of border delineated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the whole cardiac cycle. The key contribution in this work involves a novel reconstruction technique to generate a 4D (i.e., spatial–temporal) model of the heart with 1-to-1 vertex mapping throughout the time frames. The reconstructed 3D model from the first time step is used as a base template model and then deformed to fit the segmented contours from the subsequent time steps. A method to determine a tree-based connectivity relationship is proposed to ensure robust mapping during mesh deformation. The novel feature is the ability to handle intra- and inter-frame 2D topology changes of the contours, which manifests as a series of merging and splitting of contours when the images are viewed either in a spatial or temporal sequence. Our algorithm has been tested on five acquisitions of cardiac MRI and can successfully reconstruct the full 4D heart model in around 30 minutes per subject. The generated 4D heart model conforms very well with the input segmented contours and the mesh element shape is of reasonably good quality. The work is important in the support of downstream computational simulation activities. PMID:24743555

  13. 5D respiratory motion model based image reconstruction algorithm for 4D cone-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiulong; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhao, Hongkai; Gao, Yu; Thomas, David; Low, Daniel A.; Gao, Hao

    2015-11-01

    4D cone-beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) reconstructs a temporal sequence of CBCT images for the purpose of motion management or 4D treatment in radiotherapy. However the image reconstruction often involves the binning of projection data to each temporal phase, and therefore suffers from deteriorated image quality due to inaccurate or uneven binning in phase, e.g., under the non-periodic breathing. A 5D model has been developed as an accurate model of (periodic and non-periodic) respiratory motion. That is, given the measurements of breathing amplitude and its time derivative, the 5D model parametrizes the respiratory motion by three time-independent variables, i.e., one reference image and two vector fields. In this work we aim to develop a new 4DCBCT reconstruction method based on 5D model. Instead of reconstructing a temporal sequence of images after the projection binning, the new method reconstructs time-independent reference image and vector fields with no requirement of binning. The image reconstruction is formulated as a optimization problem with total-variation regularization on both reference image and vector fields, and the problem is solved by the proximal alternating minimization algorithm, during which the split Bregman method is used to reconstruct the reference image, and the Chambolle's duality-based algorithm is used to reconstruct the vector fields. The convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm is provided for this nonconvex problem. Validated by the simulation studies, the new method has significantly improved image reconstruction accuracy due to no binning and reduced number of unknowns via the use of the 5D model.

  14. [Free hand acquisition, reconstruction and visualization of 3D and 4D ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sakas, G; Walter, S; Grimm, M; Richtscheid, M

    2000-03-01

    3D Ultrasound will find in the next years a wide popularity under the medical imaging applications. The method expands the well-known sonography on the third dimension, therefore it becomes possible to generate spatial 3D views of internal organs. It is further possible to display static (3D) as well as dynamic organs (4D, e.g. pulsating heart). The clarity of the three-dimensional presentation supports very effectively the navigation. In this article we review the upgrading of conventional ultrasound devices on 3D and 4D capabilities, as well as the display of the datasets by corresponding visualisation and filtering approaches.

  15. Fast 4D cone-beam reconstruction using the McKinnon-Bates algorithm with truncation correction and nonlinear filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ziyi; Sun, Mingshan; Pavkovich, John; Star-Lack, Josh

    2011-03-01

    A challenge in using on-board cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to image lung tumor motion prior to radiation therapy treatment is acquiring and reconstructing high quality 4D images in a sufficiently short time for practical use. For the 1 minute rotation times typical of Linacs, severe view aliasing artifacts, including streaks, are created if a conventional phase-correlated FDK reconstruction is performed. The McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm provides an efficient means of reducing streaks from static tissue but can suffer from low SNR and other artifacts due to data truncation and noise. We have added truncation correction and bilateral nonlinear filtering to the MKB algorithm to reduce streaking and improve image quality. The modified MKB algorithm was implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU) to maximize efficiency. Results show that a nearly 4x improvement in SNR is obtained compared to the conventional FDK phase-correlated reconstruction and that high quality 4D images with 0.4 second temporal resolution and 1 mm3 isotropic spatial resolution can be reconstructed in less than 20 seconds after data acquisition completes.

  16. Super-resolution reconstruction for 4D computed tomography of the lung via the projections onto convex sets approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu E-mail: qianjinfeng08@gmail.com; Wu, Xiuxiu; Yang, Wei; Feng, Qianjin E-mail: qianjinfeng08@gmail.com; Chen, Wufan

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The use of 4D computed tomography (4D-CT) of the lung is important in lung cancer radiotherapy for tumor localization and treatment planning. Sometimes, dense sampling is not acquired along the superior–inferior direction. This disadvantage results in an interslice thickness that is much greater than in-plane voxel resolutions. Isotropic resolution is necessary for multiplanar display, but the commonly used interpolation operation blurs images. This paper presents a super-resolution (SR) reconstruction method to enhance 4D-CT resolution. Methods: The authors assume that the low-resolution images of different phases at the same position can be regarded as input “frames” to reconstruct high-resolution images. The SR technique is used to recover high-resolution images. Specifically, the Demons deformable registration algorithm is used to estimate the motion field between different “frames.” Then, the projection onto convex sets approach is implemented to reconstruct high-resolution lung images. Results: The performance of the SR algorithm is evaluated using both simulated and real datasets. Their method can generate clearer lung images and enhance image structure compared with cubic spline interpolation and back projection (BP) method. Quantitative analysis shows that the proposed algorithm decreases the root mean square error by 40.8% relative to cubic spline interpolation and 10.2% versus BP. Conclusions: A new algorithm has been developed to improve the resolution of 4D-CT. The algorithm outperforms the cubic spline interpolation and BP approaches by producing images with markedly improved structural clarity and greatly reduced artifacts.

  17. 4D Reconstruction of the Beating Embryonic Heart From Two Orthogonal Sets of Parallel Optical Coherence Tomography Slice-Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sandeep; Larina, Irina V.; Larin, Kirill V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Liebling, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Current methods to build dynamic optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes of the beating embryonic heart involve synchronization of 2D+time slice-sequences acquired over separate heartbeats. Temporal registration of these sequences is performed either through gating or postprocessing. While synchronization algorithms that exclusively rely on image-intrinsic signals allow forgoing external gating hardware, they are prone to error accumulation, require operator-supervised correction, or lead to nonisotropic resolution. Here, we propose an image-based, retrospective reconstruction technique that uses two sets of parallel 2D+T slice-sequences, acquired perpendicularly to each other, to yield accurate and automatic reconstructions with isotropic resolution. The method utilizes the similarity of the data at the slice intersections to spatio-temporally register the two sets of slice sequences and fuse them into a high-resolution 4D volume. We characterize our method by using 1) simulated heart phantom datasets and 2) OCT datasets acquired from the beating heart of live cultured E9.5 mouse and E10.5 rat embryos. We demonstrate that while our method requires greater acquisition and reconstruction time compared to methods that use slices from a single direction, it produces more accurate and self-validating reconstructions since each set of reconstructed slices acts as a reference for the slices in the perpendicular set. PMID:23221816

  18. 4D Blood Flow Reconstruction Over the Entire Ventricle From Wall Motion and Blood Velocity Derived From Ultrasound Data.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alberto; de Vecchi, Adelaide; Jantsch, Martin; Shi, Wenzhe; Pushparajah, Kuberan; Simpson, John M; Smith, Nicolas P; Rueckert, Daniel; Schaeffter, Tobias; Penney, Graeme P

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a new method to recover 4D blood flow over the entire ventricle from partial blood velocity measurements using multiple 3D+t colour Doppler images and ventricular wall motion estimated using 3D+t BMode images. We apply our approach to realistic simulated data to ascertain the ability of the method to deal with incomplete data, as typically happens in clinical practice. Experiments using synthetic data show that the use of wall motion improves velocity reconstruction, shows more accurate flow patterns and improves mean accuracy particularly when coverage of the ventricle is poor. The method was applied to patient data from 6 congenital cases, producing results consistent with the simulations. The use of wall motion produced more plausible flow patterns and reduced the reconstruction error in all patients.

  19. Marker-less reconstruction of dense 4-D surface motion fields using active laser triangulation for respiratory motion management.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sebastian; Berkels, Benjamin; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Hornegger, Joachim; Rumpf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    To manage respiratory motion in image-guided interventions a novel sparse-to-dense registration approach is presented. We apply an emerging laser-based active triangulation (AT) sensor that delivers sparse but highly accurate 3-D measurements in real-time. These sparse position measurements are registered with a dense reference surface extracted from planning data. Thereby a dense displacement field is reconstructed which describes the 4-D deformation of the complete patient body surface and recovers a multi-dimensional respiratory signal for application in respiratory motion management. The method is validated on real data from an AT prototype and synthetic data sampled from dense surface scans acquired with a structured light scanner. In a study on 16 subjects, the proposed algorithm achieved a mean reconstruction accuracy of +/- 0.22 mm w.r.t. ground truth data.

  20. Investigation of undersampling and reconstruction algorithm dependence on respiratory correlated 4D-MRI for online MR-guided radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickevicius, Nikolai J.; Paulson, Eric S.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of undersampling and reconstruction algorithm on the total processing time and image quality of respiratory phase-resolved 4D MRI data. Specifically, the goal is to obtain quality 4D-MRI data with a combined acquisition and reconstruction time of five minutes or less, which we reasoned would be satisfactory for pre-treatment 4D-MRI in online MRI-gRT. A 3D stack-of-stars, self-navigated, 4D-MRI acquisition was used to scan three healthy volunteers at three image resolutions and two scan durations. The NUFFT, CG-SENSE, SPIRiT, and XD-GRASP reconstruction algorithms were used to reconstruct each dataset on a high performance reconstruction computer. The overall image quality, reconstruction time, artifact prevalence, and motion estimates were compared. The CG-SENSE and XD-GRASP reconstructions provided superior image quality over the other algorithms. The combination of a 3D SoS sequence and parallelized reconstruction algorithms using computing hardware more advanced than those typically seen on product MRI scanners, can result in acquisition and reconstruction of high quality respiratory correlated 4D-MRI images in less than five minutes.

  1. Common-mask guided image reconstruction (c-MGIR) for enhanced 4D cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Park, Justin C; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yunmei; Fan, Qiyong; Li, Jonathan G; Liu, Chihray; Lu, Bo

    2015-12-07

    Compared to 3D cone beam computed tomography (3D CBCT), the image quality of commercially available four-dimensional (4D) CBCT is severely impaired due to the insufficient amount of projection data available for each phase. Since the traditional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK)-based algorithm is infeasible for reconstructing high quality 4D CBCT images with limited projections, investigators had developed several compress-sensing (CS) based algorithms to improve image quality. The aim of this study is to develop a novel algorithm which can provide better image quality than the FDK and other CS based algorithms with limited projections. We named this algorithm 'the common mask guided image reconstruction' (c-MGIR).In c-MGIR, the unknown CBCT volume is mathematically modeled as a combination of phase-specific motion vectors and phase-independent static vectors. The common-mask matrix, which is the key concept behind the c-MGIR algorithm, separates the common static part across all phase images from the possible moving part in each phase image. The moving part and the static part of the volumes were then alternatively updated by solving two sub-minimization problems iteratively. As the novel mathematical transformation allows the static volume and moving volumes to be updated (during each iteration) with global projections and 'well' solved static volume respectively, the algorithm was able to reduce the noise and under-sampling artifact (an issue faced by other algorithms) to the maximum extent. To evaluate the performance of our proposed c-MGIR, we utilized imaging data from both numerical phantoms and a lung cancer patient. The qualities of the images reconstructed with c-MGIR were compared with (1) standard FDK algorithm, (2) conventional total variation (CTV) based algorithm, (3) prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm, and (4) motion-map constrained image reconstruction (MCIR) algorithm, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the algorithm

  2. Online 4d Reconstruction Using Multi-Images Available Under Open Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannides, M.; Hadjiprocopi, A.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Protopapadakis, E.; Makantasis, K.; Santos, P.; Fellner, D.; Stork, A.; Balet, O.; Julien, M.; Weinlinger, G.; Johnson, P. S.; Klein, M.; Fritsch, D.

    2013-07-01

    The advent of technology in digital cameras and their incorporation into virtually any smart mobile device has led to an explosion of the number of photographs taken every day. Today, the number of images stored online and available freely has reached unprecedented levels. It is estimated that in 2011, there were over 100 billion photographs stored in just one of the major social media sites. This number is growing exponentially. Moreover, advances in the fields of Photogrammetry and Computer Vision have led to significant breakthroughs such as the Structure from Motion algorithm which creates 3D models of objects using their twodimensional photographs. The existence of powerful and affordable computational machinery not only the reconstruction of complex structures but also entire cities. This paper illustrates an overview of our methodology for producing 3D models of Cultural Heritage structures such as monuments and artefacts from 2D data (pictures, video), available on Internet repositories, social media, Google Maps, Bing, etc. We also present new approaches to semantic enrichment of the end results and their subsequent export to Europeana, the European digital library, for integrated, interactive 3D visualisation within regular web browsers using WebGl and X3D. Our main goal is to enable historians, architects, archaeologists, urban planners and affiliated professionals to reconstruct views of historical structures from millions of images floating around the web and interact with them.

  3. Learning distance function for regression-based 4D pulmonary trunk model reconstruction estimated from sparse MRI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanovski, Dime; Tsymbal, Alexey; Ionasec, Razvan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2011-03-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common birth defect and a frequent cause of death for children. Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is the most often occurring CHD which affects in particular the pulmonary valve and trunk. Emerging interventional methods enable percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation, which constitute an alternative to open heart surgery. While minimal invasive methods become common practice, imaging and non-invasive assessment tools become crucial components in the clinical setting. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) are techniques with complementary properties and ability to acquire multiple non-invasive and accurate scans required for advance evaluation and therapy planning. In contrary to CT which covers the full 4D information over the cardiac cycle, cMRI often acquires partial information, for example only one 3D scan of the whole heart in the end-diastolic phase and two 2D planes (long and short axes) over the whole cardiac cycle. The data acquired in this way is called sparse cMRI. In this paper, we propose a regression-based approach for the reconstruction of the full 4D pulmonary trunk model from sparse MRI. The reconstruction approach is based on learning a distance function between the sparse MRI which needs to be completed and the 4D CT data with the full information used as the training set. The distance is based on the intrinsic Random Forest similarity which is learnt for the corresponding regression problem of predicting coordinates of unseen mesh points. Extensive experiments performed on 80 cardiac CT and MR sequences demonstrated the average speed of 10 seconds and accuracy of 0.1053mm mean absolute error for the proposed approach. Using the case retrieval workflow and local nearest neighbour regression with the learnt distance function appears to be competitive with respect to "black box" regression with immediate prediction of coordinates, while providing transparency to the

  4. Common-mask guided image reconstruction (c-MGIR) for enhanced 4D cone-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Justin C.; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yunmei; Fan, Qiyong; Li, Jonathan G.; Liu, Chihray; Lu, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Compared to 3D cone beam computed tomography (3D CBCT), the image quality of commercially available four-dimensional (4D) CBCT is severely impaired due to the insufficient amount of projection data available for each phase. Since the traditional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK)-based algorithm is infeasible for reconstructing high quality 4D CBCT images with limited projections, investigators had developed several compress-sensing (CS) based algorithms to improve image quality. The aim of this study is to develop a novel algorithm which can provide better image quality than the FDK and other CS based algorithms with limited projections. We named this algorithm ‘the common mask guided image reconstruction’ (c-MGIR). In c-MGIR, the unknown CBCT volume is mathematically modeled as a combination of phase-specific motion vectors and phase-independent static vectors. The common-mask matrix, which is the key concept behind the c-MGIR algorithm, separates the common static part across all phase images from the possible moving part in each phase image. The moving part and the static part of the volumes were then alternatively updated by solving two sub-minimization problems iteratively. As the novel mathematical transformation allows the static volume and moving volumes to be updated (during each iteration) with global projections and ‘well’ solved static volume respectively, the algorithm was able to reduce the noise and under-sampling artifact (an issue faced by other algorithms) to the maximum extent. To evaluate the performance of our proposed c-MGIR, we utilized imaging data from both numerical phantoms and a lung cancer patient. The qualities of the images reconstructed with c-MGIR were compared with (1) standard FDK algorithm, (2) conventional total variation (CTV) based algorithm, (3) prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm, and (4) motion-map constrained image reconstruction (MCIR) algorithm, respectively. To improve the efficiency of the

  5. 4D reconstruction of the past: the image retrieval and 3D model construction pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiprocopis, Andreas; Ioannides, Marinos; Wenzel, Konrad; Rothermel, Mathias; Johnsons, Paul S.; Fritsch, Dieter; Doulamis, Anastasios; Protopapadakis, Eftychios; Kyriakaki, Georgia; Makantasis, Kostas; Weinlinger, Guenther; Klein, Michael; Fellner, Dieter; Stork, Andre; Santos, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    One of the main characteristics of the Internet era we are living in, is the free and online availability of a huge amount of data. This data is of varied reliability and accuracy and exists in various forms and formats. Often, it is cross-referenced and linked to other data, forming a nexus of text, images, animation and audio enabled by hypertext and, recently, by the Web3.0 standard. Our main goal is to enable historians, architects, archaeolo- gists, urban planners and affiliated professionals to reconstruct views of historical monuments from thousands of images floating around the web. This paper aims to provide an update of our progress in designing and imple- menting a pipeline for searching, filtering and retrieving photographs from Open Access Image Repositories and social media sites and using these images to build accurate 3D models of archaeological monuments as well as enriching multimedia of cultural / archaeological interest with metadata and harvesting the end products to EU- ROPEANA. We provide details of how our implemented software searches and retrieves images of archaeological sites from Flickr and Picasa repositories as well as strategies on how to filter the results, on two levels; a) based on their built-in metadata including geo-location information and b) based on image processing and clustering techniques. We also describe our implementation of a Structure from Motion pipeline designed for producing 3D models using the large collection of 2D input images (>1000) retrieved from Internet Repositories.

  6. Three-channel dynamic photometric stereo: a new method for 4D surface reconstruction and volume recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Walter; Schulze, Wolfram; Wetter, Thomas; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2008-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) body surface reconstruction is an important field in health care. A popular method for this purpose is laser scanning. However, using Photometric Stereo (PS) to record lumbar lordosis and the surface contour of the back poses a viable alternative due to its lower costs and higher flexibility compared to laser techniques and other methods of three-dimensional body surface reconstruction. In this work, we extended the traditional PS method and proposed a new method for obtaining surface and volume data of a moving object. The principle of traditional Photometric Stereo uses at least three images of a static object taken under different light sources to obtain 3D information of the object. Instead of using normal light, the light sources in the proposed method consist of the RGB-Color-Model's three colors: red, green and blue. A series of pictures taken with a video camera can now be separated into the different color channels. Each set of the three images can then be used to calculate the surface normals as a traditional PS. This method waives the requirement that the object imaged must be kept still as in almost all the other body surface reconstruction methods. By putting two cameras opposite to a moving object and lighting the object with the colored light, the time-varying surface (4D) data can easily be calculated. The obtained information can be used in many medical fields such as rehabilitation, diabetes screening or orthopedics.

  7. Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Diffusion-Weighted Images using 4D Low-Rank and Total Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Li; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides invaluable information in white matter microstructure and is widely applied in neurological applications. However, DWI is largely limited by its relatively low spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose an image post-processing method, referred to as super-resolution reconstruction, to estimate a high spatial resolution DWI from the input low-resolution DWI, e.g., at a factor of 2. Instead of requiring specially designed DWI acquisition of multiple shifted or orthogonal scans, our method needs only a single DWI scan. To do that, we propose to model both the blurring and downsampling effects in the image degradation process where the low-resolution image is observed from the latent high-resolution image, and recover the latent high-resolution image with the help of two regularizations. The first regularization is 4-dimensional (4D) low-rank, proposed to gather self-similarity information from both the spatial domain and the diffusion domain of 4D DWI. The second regularization is total variation, proposed to depress noise and preserve local structures such as edges in the image recovery process. Extensive experiments were performed on 20 subjects, and results show that the proposed method is able to recover the fine details of white matter structures, and outperform other approaches such as interpolation methods, non-local means based upsampling, and total variation based upsampling. PMID:27845833

  8. SU-E-J-153: Reconstructing 4D Cone Beam CT Images for Clinical QA of Lung SABR Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, J; Bergman, A; Cropp, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To verify that the planned Primary Target Volume (PTV) and Internal Gross Tumor Volume (IGTV) fully enclose a moving lung tumor volume as visualized on a pre-SABR treatment verification 4D Cone Beam CT. Methods: Daily 3DCBCT image sets were acquired immediately prior to treatment for 10 SABR lung patients using the on-board imaging system integrated into a Varian TrueBeam (v1.6: no 4DCBCT module available). Respiratory information was acquired during the scan using the Varian RPM system. The CBCT projections were sorted into 8 bins offline, both by breathing phase and amplitude, using in-house software. An iterative algorithm based on total variation minimization, implemented in the open source reconstruction toolkit (RTK), was used to reconstruct the binned projections into 4DCBCT images. The relative tumor motion was quantified by tracking the centroid of the tumor volume from each 4DCBCT image. Following CT-CBCT registration, the planning CT volumes were compared to the location of the CBCT tumor volume as it moves along its breathing trajectory. An overlap metric quantified the ability of the planned PTV and IGTV to contain the tumor volume at treatment. Results: The 4DCBCT reconstructed images visibly show the tumor motion. The mean overlap between the planned PTV (IGTV) and the 4DCBCT tumor volumes was 100% (94%), with an uncertainty of 5% from the 4DCBCT tumor volume contours. Examination of the tumor motion and overlap metric verify that the IGTV drawn at the planning stage is a good representation of the tumor location at treatment. Conclusion: It is difficult to compare GTV volumes from a 4DCBCT and a planning CT due to image quality differences. However, it was possible to conclude the GTV remained within the PTV 100% of the time thus giving the treatment staff confidence that SABR lung treatements are being delivered accurately.

  9. SU-E-J-02: 4D Digital Tomosynthesis Based On Algebraic Image Reconstruction and Total-Variation Minimization for the Improvement of Image Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, T; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In this paper, we implemented the four-dimensional (4D) digital tomosynthesis (DTS) imaging based on algebraic image reconstruction technique and total-variation minimization method in order to compensate the undersampled projection data and improve the image quality. Methods: The projection data were acquired as supposed the cone-beam computed tomography system in linear accelerator by the Monte Carlo simulation and the in-house 4D digital phantom generation program. We performed 4D DTS based upon simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) among the iterative image reconstruction technique and total-variation minimization method (TVMM). To verify the effectiveness of this reconstruction algorithm, we performed systematic simulation studies to investigate the imaging performance. Results: The 4D DTS algorithm based upon the SART and TVMM seems to give better results than that based upon the existing method, or filtered-backprojection. Conclusion: The advanced image reconstruction algorithm for the 4D DTS would be useful to validate each intra-fraction motion during radiation therapy. In addition, it will be possible to give advantage to real-time imaging for the adaptive radiation therapy. This research was supported by Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program (Grant No.2009-00420) and Basic Atomic Energy Research Institute (BAERI); (Grant No. 2009-0078390) through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP)

  10. 4D ML reconstruction as a tool for volumetric PET-based treatment verification in ion beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardi, E.; Ricotti, R.; Riboldi, M.; Baroni, G.; Parodi, K.; Gianoli, C.

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: An innovative strategy to improve the sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET)-based treatment verification in ion beam radiotherapy is proposed. Methods: Low counting statistics PET images acquired during or shortly after the treatment (Measured PET) and a Monte Carlo estimate of the same PET images derived from the treatment plan (Expected PET) are considered as two frames of a 4D dataset. A 4D maximum likelihood reconstruction strategy was adapted to iteratively estimate the annihilation events distribution in a reference frame and the deformation motion fields that map it in the Expected PET and Measured PET frames. The outputs generated by the proposed strategy are as follows: (1) an estimate of the Measured PET with an image quality comparable to the Expected PET and (2) an estimate of the motion field mapping Expected PET to Measured PET. The details of the algorithm are presented and the strategy is preliminarily tested on analytically simulated datasets. Results: The algorithm demonstrates (1) robustness against noise, even in the worst conditions where 1.5 × 10{sup 4} true coincidences and a random fraction of 73% are simulated; (2) a proper sensitivity to different kind and grade of mismatches ranging between 1 and 10 mm; (3) robustness against bias due to incorrect washout modeling in the Monte Carlo simulation up to 1/3 of the original signal amplitude; and (4) an ability to describe the mismatch even in presence of complex annihilation distributions such as those induced by two perpendicular superimposed ion fields. Conclusions: The promising results obtained in this work suggest the applicability of the method as a quantification tool for PET-based treatment verification in ion beam radiotherapy. An extensive assessment of the proposed strategy on real treatment verification data is planned.

  11. SU-E-J-246: A Deformation-Field Map Based Liver 4D CBCT Reconstruction Method Using Gold Nanoparticles as Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W; Zhang, Y; Ren, L; Yin, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using nanoparticle markers to validate liver tumor motion together with a deformation field map-based four dimensional (4D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction method. Methods: A technique for lung 4D-CBCT reconstruction has been previously developed using a deformation field map (DFM)-based strategy. In this method, each phase of the 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation of a prior CT volume. The DFM is solved by a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique, using a data fidelity constraint and the deformation energy minimization. For liver imaging, there is low contrast of a liver tumor in on-board projections. A validation of liver tumor motion using implanted gold nanoparticles, along with the MM-FD deformation technique is implemented to reconstruct onboard 4D CBCT liver radiotherapy images. These nanoparticles were placed around the liver tumor to reflect the tumor positions in both CT simulation and on-board image acquisition. When reconstructing each phase of the 4D-CBCT, the migrations of the gold nanoparticles act as a constraint to regularize the deformation field, along with the data fidelity and the energy minimization constraints. In this study, multiple tumor diameters and positions were simulated within the liver for on-board 4D-CBCT imaging. The on-board 4D-CBCT reconstructed by the proposed method was compared with the “ground truth” image. Results: The preliminary data, which uses reconstruction for lung radiotherapy suggests that the advanced reconstruction algorithm including the gold nanoparticle constraint will Resultin volume percentage differences (VPD) between lesions in reconstructed images by MM-FD and “ground truth” on-board images of 11.5% (± 9.4%) and a center of mass shift of 1.3 mm (± 1.3 mm) for liver radiotherapy. Conclusion: The advanced MM-FD technique enforcing the additional constraints from gold nanoparticles, results in improved accuracy

  12. Determination of optimal collimation parameters for a rotating slat collimator system: a system matrix method using ML-EM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, F.; Bekaert, V.; Brasse, D.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, Single Photon imaging has become an essential part of molecular imaging and nuclear medicine. Whether to establish a diagnosis or in the therapeutic monitoring, this modality presents performance that continues to improve. For over 50 years, several collimators have been proposed. Mainly governed by collimation parameters, the resolution-sensitivity trade-off is the factor determining the collimator the most suitable for an intended study. One alternative to the common approaches is the rotating slat collimator (RSC). In the present study, we are aiming at developing a preclinical system equipped with a RSC dedicated to mice and rats imaging, which requires both high sensitivity and spatial resolution. We investigated the resolution-sensitivity trade-offs obtained by varying different collimation parameters: (i) the slats height (H), and (ii) the gap between two consecutive slats (g), considering different intrinsic spatial resolutions. One system matrix was generated for each set of collimation parameters (H,g). Spatial resolutions, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and sensitivity obtained for all the set of collimation parameters (H,g) were measured in the 2D projections reconstructed with ML-EM. According to our results, 20 mm high slats and a 1 mm gap were chosen as a good RSC candidate for a preclinical detection module. This collimator will ensure a sensitivity greater than 0.2% and a system spatial resolution below 1 mm, considering an intrinsic spatial resolution below 0.8 mm.

  13. WE-AB-204-09: Respiratory Motion Correction in 4D-PET by Simultaneous Motion Estimation and Image Reconstruction (SMEIR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantari, F; Wang, J; Li, T; Jin, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In conventional 4D-PET, images from different frames are reconstructed individually and aligned by registration methods. Two issues with these approaches are: 1) Reconstruction algorithms do not make full use of all projections statistics; and 2) Image registration between noisy images can Result in poor alignment. In this study we investigated the use of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) method for cone beam CT for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. Methods: Modified ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm coupled with total variation minimization (OSEM- TV) is used to obtain a primary motion-compensated PET (pmc-PET) from all projection data using Demons derived deformation vector fields (DVFs) as initial. Motion model update is done to obtain an optimal set of DVFs between the pmc-PET and other phases by matching the forward projection of the deformed pmc-PET and measured projections of other phases. Using updated DVFs, OSEM- TV image reconstruction is repeated and new DVFs are estimated based on updated images. 4D XCAT phantom with typical FDG biodistribution and a 10mm diameter tumor was used to evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm. Results: Image quality of 4D-PET is greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm. When all projections are used to reconstruct a 3D-PET, motion blurring artifacts are present, leading to a more than 5 times overestimation of the tumor size and 54% tumor to lung contrast ratio underestimation. This error reduced to 37% and 20% for post reconstruction registration methods and SMEIR respectively. Conclusion: SMEIR method can be used for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. The statistics is greatly improved since all projection data are combined together to update the image. The performance of the SMEIR algorithm for 4D-PET is sensitive to smoothness control parameters in the DVF estimation step.

  14. Reconstruction of 4D-CT from a Single Free-Breathing 3D-CT by Spatial-Temporal Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Lian, Jun; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    In the radiation therapy of lung cancer, a free-breathing 3D-CT image is usually acquired in the treatment day for image-guided patient setup, by registering with the free-breathing 3D-CT image acquired in the planning day. In this way, the optimal dose plan computed in the planning day can be transferred onto the treatment day for cancer radiotherapy. However, patient setup based on the simple registration of the free-breathing 3D-CT images of the planning and the treatment days may mislead the radiotherapy, since the free-breathing 3D-CT is actually the mixed-phase image, with different slices often acquired from different respiratory phases. Moreover, a 4D-CT that is generally acquired in the planning day for improvement of dose planning is often ignored for guiding patient setup in the treatment day. To overcome these limitations, we present a novel two-step method to reconstruct the 4D-CT from a single free-breathing 3D-CT of the treatment day, by utilizing the 4D-CT model built in the planning day. Specifically, in the first step, we proposed a new spatial-temporal registration algorithm to align all phase images of the 4D-CT acquired in the planning day, for building a 4D-CT model with temporal correspondences established among all respiratory phases. In the second step, we first determine the optimal phase for each slice of the free-breathing (mixed-phase) 3D-CT of the treatment day by comparing with the 4D-CT of the planning day and thus obtain a sequence of partial 3D-CT images for the treatment day, each with only the incomplete image information in certain slices; and then we reconstruct a complete 4D-CT for the treatment day by warping the 4D-CT of the planning day (with complete information) to the sequence of partial 3D-CT images of the treatment day, under the guidance of the 4D-CT model built in the planning day. We have comprehensively evaluated our 4D-CT model building algorithm on a public lung image database, achieving the best registration

  15. SU-D-17A-01: Geometric and Dosimetric Evaluation of a 4D-CBCT Reconstruction Technique Using Prior Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a 4D-CBCT reconstruction technique both geometrically and dosimetrically Methods: A prior-knowledge guided 4DC-BCT reconstruction method named the motion-modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) has been developed. MM-FD views each phase of the 4D-CBCT as a deformation of a prior CT volume. The deformation field is first solved by principal component analysis based motion modeling, followed by constrained free-form deformation.The 4D digital extended-cardiac- torso (XCAT) phantom was used for comprehensive evaluation. Based on a simulated 4D planning CT of a lung patient, 8 different scenarios were simulated to cover the typical on-board anatomical and respiratory variations: (1) synchronized and (2) unsynchronized motion amplitude change for body and tumor; tumor (3) shrinkage and (4) expansion; tumor average position shift in (5) superior-inferior (SI) direction, (6) anterior-posterior (AP) direction and (7) SI, AP and lateral directions altogether; and (8) tumor phase shift relative to the respiratory cycle of the body. Orthogonal-view 30° projections were simulated based on the eight patient scenarios to reconstruct on-board 4D-CBCTs. For geometric evaluation, the volume-percentage-difference (VPD) was calculated to assess the volumetric differences between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumor.For dosimetric evaluation, a gated treatment plan was designed for the prior 4D-CT. The dose distributions were calculated on the reconstructed 4D-CBCTs and the ground-truth images for comparison. The MM-FD technique was compared with MM-only and FD-only techniques. Results: The average (±s.d.) VPD values of reconstructed tumors for MM-only, FDonly and MM-FD methods were 59.16%(± 26.66%), 75.98%(± 27.21%) and 5.22%(± 2.12%), respectively. The average min/max/mean dose (normalized to prescription) of the reconstructed tumors by MM-only, FD-only, MM-FD methods and ground-truth tumors were 78.0%/122.2%/108.2%, 13%/117.7%/86%, 58

  16. Metal-ceramic interfaces: Overlayer-induced reconstruction and magnetism of 4d transition-metal monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.; Freeman, A.J.

    1995-02-15

    Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of metal-ceramic interfaces, M/MgO(001) (M=Pd, Rh, and Ru), have been investigated using the full potential linearized augmented-plane-wave method. Ru and Rh monolayers are found to be able to retain large spin magnetic moments on MgO(001) (1.95 {mu}{sub B} and 1.21 {mu}{sub B} for Ru and Ph; respectively) -- indicating, in principle, the potential application of MgO(001) as a benign substrate for 4d monolayer magnetism. Significantly, according to our atomic-force determinations, the metal overlayers induce a sizable buckling reconstruction in the interfacial MgO layer, which enhances the M-MgO binding energy by 0.1 eV. The weak M-0 interaction is mainly via tail effects; however, it affects the density of states at the Fermi level for Pd/Mg0(001) significantly and completely eliminates the small magnetic moment of the free Pd monolaver (0.34{mu}{sub B}).

  17. Task-based evaluation of a 4D MAP-RBI-EM image reconstruction method for gated myocardial perfusion SPECT using a human observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lautamäki, Riikka; Bengel, Frank M.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the performance of a new 4D image reconstruction method for improved 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT using a task-based human observer study. We used a realistic 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that models cardiac beating motion. Half of the population was normal; the other half had a regional hypokinetic wall motion abnormality. Noise-free and noisy projection data with 16 gates/cardiac cycle were generated using an analytical projector that included the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter (ADS), and were reconstructed using the 3D FBP without and 3D OS-EM with ADS corrections followed by different cut-off frequencies of a 4D linear post-filter. A 4D iterative maximum a posteriori rescaled-block (MAP-RBI)-EM image reconstruction method with ADS corrections was also used to reconstruct the projection data using various values of the weighting factor for its prior. The trade-offs between bias and noise were represented by the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and averaged normalized standard deviation (NSDav), respectively. They were used to select reasonable ranges of the reconstructed images for use in a human observer study. The observers were trained with the simulated cine images and were instructed to rate their confidence on the absence or presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. We then applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and used the area under the ROC curve (AUC) index. The results showed that significant differences in detection performance among the different NMSE-NSDav combinations were found and the optimal trade-off from optimized reconstruction parameters corresponded to a maximum AUC value. The 4D MAP-RBI-EM with ADS correction, which had the best trade-off among the tested reconstruction methods, also had the highest AUC value, resulting in significantly better human observer detection performance when detecting regional myocardial wall motion

  18. Task-Based Evaluation of a 4D MAP-RBI-EM Image Reconstruction Method for Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT using a Human Observer Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lautamäki, Riikka; Bengel, Frank M.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of a new 4D image reconstruction method for improved 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT using a task-based human observer study. We used a realistic 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom that models cardiac beating motion. Half of the population was normal; the other half had a regional hypokinetic wall motion abnormality. Noise-free and noisy projection data with 16 gates/cardiac cycle were generated using an analytical projector that included the effects of attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter (ADS), and were reconstructed using the 3D FBP without and 3D OS-EM with ADS corrections followed by different cut-off frequencies of a 4D linear post-filter. A 4D iterative maximum a posteriori rescaled-block (MAP-RBI)-EM image reconstruction method with ADS corrections was also used to reconstruct the projection data using various values of the weighting factor for its prior. The trade-offs between bias and noise were represented by the normalized mean squared error (NMSE) and averaged normalized standard deviation (NSDav), respectively. They were used to select reasonable ranges of the reconstructed images for use in a human observer study. The observers were trained with the simulated cine images and were instructed to rate their confidence on the absence or presence of a motion defect on a continuous scale. We then applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and used the area under the ROC curve (AUC) index. The results showed that significant differences in detection performance among the different NMSE-NSDav combinations were found and the optimal trade-off from optimized reconstruction parameters corresponded to a maximum AUC value. The 4D MAP-RBI-EM with ADS correction, which had the best trade-off among the tested reconstruction methods, also had the highest AUC value, resulting in significantly better human observer detection performance when detecting regional myocardial wall motion

  19. Impact of scanning parameters and breathing patterns on image quality and accuracy of tumor motion reconstruction in 4D CBCT: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoung; Yan, Guanghua; Lu, Bo; Kahler, Darren; Li, Jonathan G; Sanjiv, Samat S

    2015-11-08

    Four-dimensional, cone-beam CT (4D CBCT) substantially reduces respiration-induced motion blurring artifacts in three-dimension (3D) CBCT. However, the image quality of 4D CBCT is significantly degraded which may affect its accuracy in localizing a mobile tumor for high-precision, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of scanning parameters hereinafter collectively referred to as scanning sequence) and breathing patterns on the image quality and the accuracy of computed tumor trajectory for a commercial 4D CBCT system, in preparation for its clinical implementation. We simulated a series of periodic and aperiodic sinusoidal breathing patterns with a respiratory motion phantom. The aperiodic pattern was created by varying the period or amplitude of individual sinusoidal breathing cycles. 4D CBCT scans of the phantom were acquired with a manufacturer-supplied scanning sequence (4D-S-slow) and two in-house modified scanning sequences (4D-M-slow and 4D-M-fast). While 4D-S-slow used small field of view (FOV), partial rotation (200°), and no imaging filter, 4D-M-slow and 4D-M-fast used medium FOV, full rotation, and the F1 filter. The scanning speed was doubled in 4D-M-fast (100°/min gantry rotation). The image quality of the 4D CBCT scans was evaluated using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and motion blurring ratio (MBR). The trajectory of the moving target was reconstructed by registering each phase of the 4D CBCT with a reference CT. The root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) analysis was used to quantify its accuracy. Significant decrease in CNR and SNR from 3D CBCT to 4D CBCT was observed. The 4D-S-slow and 4D-M-fast scans had comparable image quality, while the 4D-M-slow scans had better performance due to doubled projections. Both CNR and SNR decreased slightly as the breathing period increased, while no dependence on the amplitude was observed. The difference of both CNR and SNR

  20. SU-E-T-428: Feasibility Study of 4D Image Reconstruction by Organ Motion Vector Extension Based On Portal Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, J; Jung, J; Yeo, I; Kim, J; Yi, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and to test a method to generate a new 4D CT images of the treatment day from the old 4D CT and the portal images of the day when the motion extent exceeded from that represented by plan CTs. Methods: A motion vector of a moving tumor in a patient may be extended to reconstruct the tumor position when the motion extent exceeded from that represented by plan CTs. To test this, 1. a phantom that consists of a polystyrene cylinder (tumor) embedded in cork (lung) was placed on a moving platform with 4 sec/cycle and amplitudes of 1 cm and 2 cm, and was 4D-scanned. 2. A 6MV photon beam was irradiated on the moving phantoms and cineEPID images were obtained. 3. A motion vector of the tumor was acquired from 4D CT images of the phantom with 1 cm amplitude. 4. From cine EPID images of the phantom with the 2 cm amplitude, various motion extents (0.3 cm, 0.5 cm, etc) were acquired and programmed into the motion vector, producing CT images at each position. 5. The reconstructed CT images were then compared with pre-acquired “reference” 4D CT images at each position (i.e. phase). Results: The CT image was reconstructed and compared with the reference image, showing a slight mismatch in the transition direction limited by voxel size (slice thickness) in CT image. Due to the rigid nature of the phantom studied, the modeling the displacement of the center of object was sufficient. When deformable tumors are to be modeled, more complex scheme is necessary, which utilize cine EPID and 4D CT images. Conclusion: The new idea of CT image reconstruction was demonstrated. Deformable tumor movements need to be considered in the future.

  1. Image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT: A sensitivity analysis of respiratory signal, binning method, reconstruction algorithm, and projection angular spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Kipritidis, John; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Keall, Paul J.; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory signal, binning method, and reconstruction algorithm are three major controllable factors affecting image quality in thoracic 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT), which is widely used in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Previous studies have investigated each of these factors individually, but no integrated sensitivity analysis has been performed. In addition, projection angular spacing is also a key factor in reconstruction, but how it affects image quality is not obvious. An investigation of the impacts of these four factors on image quality can help determine the most effective strategy in improving 4D-CBCT for IGRT. Methods: Fourteen 4D-CBCT patient projection datasets with various respiratory motion features were reconstructed with the following controllable factors: (i) respiratory signal (real-time position management, projection image intensity analysis, or fiducial marker tracking), (ii) binning method (phase, displacement, or equal-projection-density displacement binning), and (iii) reconstruction algorithm [Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK), McKinnon–Bates (MKB), or adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS)]. The image quality was quantified using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio, and edge-response width in order to assess noise/streaking and blur. The SNR values were also analyzed with respect to the maximum, mean, and root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) projection angular spacing to investigate how projection angular spacing affects image quality. Results: The choice of respiratory signals was found to have no significant impact on image quality. Displacement-based binning was found to be less prone to motion artifacts compared to phase binning in more than half of the cases, but was shown to suffer from large interbin image quality variation and large projection angular gaps. Both MKB and ASD-POCS resulted in noticeably improved image quality almost 100% of the time relative to FDK. In addition, SNR

  2. Hepatitis C virus genotype 4d in Southern Italy: reconstruction of its origin and spread by a phylodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Equestre, Michele; Costantino, Angela; Marascio, Nadia; Quirino, Angela; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Bruni, Roberto; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo; Pisani, Giulio; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2012-10-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotype 4 predominates in Middle East and Central Africa countries. Recently, it has become also prevalent in Southern European countries where it is thought to have been introduced through immigration and the movement of intravenous drug users. In Italy, the prevalence of genotype 4 is particularly high (4.5%) in Southern regions, such as Calabria, and reaches values of 8.4% in specific areas where there appears to be endemic circulation of this genotype. In the present study, the phylogeny of HCV subtype 4d isolated from 19 Italian patients in Calabria was investigated by analysing a fragment of the NS5B viral genomic region. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate origin and spread of the HCV 4d in this area. The mean evolutionary rate HCV 4d NS5B sequences was estimated using a dataset of sequences sampled at known times and a relaxed clock constant model that best fitted the data. By using a Bayesian coalescent method, the Italian 4d isolates collected in Calabria were found to share a common ancestor with reference 4d isolates whose origin was traced back to 1940s. The genotype 4d epidemic in Southern Italy was maintained in a steady non-expanding phase until the late 1970s after that it grew exponentially up to 1990s probably sustained by the vast increase of unsafe blood transfusions and the spread of illicit intravenous drug users.

  3. SU-D-17A-03: 5D Respiratory Motion Model Based Iterative Reconstruction Method for 4D Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Y; Thomas, D; Low, D; Gao, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a new iterative reconstruction method for 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) based on a published time-independent 5D respiratory motion model. The proposed method will offer a single high-resolution image at a user-selected breathing phase and the 5D motion model parameters, which could be used to generate the breathing pattern during the CT acquisition. Methods: 5D respiratory motion model was proposed for accurately modeling the motion of lung and lung tumor tissues. 4D images are then parameterized by a reference image, measured breathing amplitude, breathing rate, two time-independent vector fields that describe the 5D model parameters, and a scalar field that describes the change in HU as a function of breathing amplitude. In contrast with the traditional method of reconstructing multiple temporal image phases to reduce respiratory artifact, 5D model based method simplify the problem into the reconstruction of a single reference image and the 5D motion model parameters. The reconstruction formulation of the reference image and scalar and vector fields is a nonlinear least-square optimization problem that consists of solving the reference image and fields alternately, in which the reference image is regularized with the total variation sparsity transform and the vector fields are solved through linearizations regularized by the H1 norm. 2D lung simulations were performed in this proof-of-concept study. Results: The breathing amplitude, its rate, and the corresponding scalar and vector fields were generated from a patient case. Compared with filtered backprojection method and sparsity regularized iterative method for the phase-by-phase reconstruction, the proposed 5D motion model based method yielded improved image quality. Conclusion: Based on 5D respiratory motion model, we have developed a new iterative reconstruction method for 4D CBCT that has the potential for improving image quality while providing needed on

  4. SU-E-J-74: Impact of Respiration-Correlated Image Quality On Tumor Motion Reconstruction in 4D-CBCT: A Phantom Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Lu, B; Samant, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of scanning parameters and respiratory patterns on the image quality for 4-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography(4D-CBCT) imaging, and assess the accuracy of computed tumor trajectory for lung imaging using registration of phased 4D-CBCT imaging with treatment planning-CT. Methods: We simulated a periodic and non-sinusoidal respirations with various breathing periods and amplitudes using a respiratory phantom(Quasar, Modus Medical Devices Inc) to acquire respiration-correlated 4D-CBCT images. 4D-CBCT scans(Elekta Oncology Systems Ltd) were performed with different scanning parameters for collimation size(e.g., small and medium field-of-views) and scanning speed(e.g., slow 50°·min{sup −1}, fast 100°·min{sup −1}). Using a standard CBCT-QA phantom(Catphan500, The Phantom Laboratory), the image qualities of all phases in 4D-CBCT were evaluated with contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR) for lung tissue and uniformity in each module. Using a respiratory phantom, the target imaging in 4D-CBCT was compared to 3D-CBCT target image. The target trajectory from 10-respiratory phases in 4D-CBCT was extracted using an automatic image registration and subsequently assessed the accuracy by comparing with actual motion of the target. Results: Image analysis indicated that a short respiration with a small amplitude resulted in superior CNR and uniformity. Smaller variation of CNR and uniformity was present amongst different respiratory phases. The small field-of-view with a partial scan using slow scan can improve CNR, but degraded uniformity. Large amplitude of respiration can degrade image quality. RMS of voxel densities in tumor area of 4D-CBCT images between sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal motion exhibited no significant difference. The maximum displacement errors of motion trajectories were less than 1.0 mm and 13.5 mm, for sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal breathings, respectively. The accuracy of motion reconstruction showed good overall

  5. Direct 4D PET MLEM reconstruction of parametric images using the simplified reference tissue model with the basis function method for [¹¹C]raclopride.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Paul; Reader, Andrew J

    2015-06-07

    This work assesses the one-step late maximum likelihood expectation maximization (OSL-MLEM) 4D PET reconstruction algorithm for direct estimation of parametric images from raw PET data when using the simplified reference tissue model with the basis function method (SRTM-BFM) for the kinetic analysis. To date, the OSL-MLEM method has been evaluated using kinetic models based on two-tissue compartments with an irreversible component. We extend the evaluation of this method for two-tissue compartments with a reversible component, using SRTM-BFM on simulated 3D + time data sets (with use of [(11)C]raclopride time-activity curves from real data) and on real data sets acquired with the high resolution research tomograph. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing voxel-level binding potential (BPND) estimates with those obtained from conventional post-reconstruction kinetic parameter estimation. For the commonly chosen number of iterations used in practice, our results show that for the 3D + time simulation, the direct method delivers results with lower (%)RMSE at the normal count level (decreases of 9-10 percentage points, corresponding to a 38-44% reduction), and also at low count levels (decreases of 17-21 percentage points, corresponding to a 26-36% reduction). As for the real 3D data set, the results obtained follow a similar trend, with the direct reconstruction method offering a 21% decrease in (%)CV compared to the post reconstruction method at low count levels. Thus, based on the results presented herein, using the SRTM-BFM kinetic model in conjunction with the OSL-MLEM direct 4D PET MLEM reconstruction method offers an improvement in performance when compared to conventional post reconstruction methods.

  6. Joint surface reconstruction and 4D deformation estimation from sparse data and prior knowledge for marker-less Respiratory motion tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Berkels, Benjamin; Rumpf, Martin; Bauer, Sebastian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Hornegger, Joachim

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The intraprocedural tracking of respiratory motion has the potential to substantially improve image-guided diagnosis and interventions. The authors have developed a sparse-to-dense registration approach that is capable of recovering the patient's external 3D body surface and estimating a 4D (3D + time) surface motion field from sparse sampling data and patient-specific prior shape knowledge.Methods: The system utilizes an emerging marker-less and laser-based active triangulation (AT) sensor that delivers sparse but highly accurate 3D measurements in real-time. These sparse position measurements are registered with a dense reference surface extracted from planning data. Thereby a dense displacement field is recovered, which describes the spatio-temporal 4D deformation of the complete patient body surface, depending on the type and state of respiration. It yields both a reconstruction of the instantaneous patient shape and a high-dimensional respiratory surrogate for respiratory motion tracking. The method is validated on a 4D CT respiration phantom and evaluated on both real data from an AT prototype and synthetic data sampled from dense surface scans acquired with a structured-light scanner.Results: In the experiments, the authors estimated surface motion fields with the proposed algorithm on 256 datasets from 16 subjects and in different respiration states, achieving a mean surface reconstruction accuracy of ±0.23 mm with respect to ground truth data—down from a mean initial surface mismatch of 5.66 mm. The 95th percentile of the local residual mesh-to-mesh distance after registration did not exceed 1.17 mm for any subject. On average, the total runtime of our proof of concept CPU implementation is 2.3 s per frame, outperforming related work substantially.Conclusions: In external beam radiation therapy, the approach holds potential for patient monitoring during treatment using the reconstructed surface, and for motion-compensated dose delivery using

  7. 3D-Reconstructions and Virtual 4D-Visualization to Study Metamorphic Brain Development in the Sphinx Moth Manduca Sexta.

    PubMed

    Huetteroth, Wolf; El Jundi, Basil; El Jundi, Sirri; Schachtner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    DURING METAMORPHOSIS, THE TRANSITION FROM THE LARVA TO THE ADULT, THE INSECT BRAIN UNDERGOES CONSIDERABLE REMODELING: new neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. One well acknowledged model to study metamorphic brain development is the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. To further understand mechanisms involved in the metamorphic transition of the brain we generated a 3D standard brain based on selected brain areas of adult females and 3D reconstructed the same areas during defined stages of pupal development. Selected brain areas include for example mushroom bodies, central complex, antennal- and optic lobes. With this approach we eventually want to quantify developmental changes in neuropilar architecture, but also quantify changes in the neuronal complement and monitor the development of selected neuronal populations. Furthermore, we used a modeling software (Cinema 4D) to create a virtual 4D brain, morphing through its developmental stages. Thus the didactical advantages of 3D visualization are expanded to better comprehend complex processes of neuropil formation and remodeling during development. To obtain datasets of the M. sexta brain areas, we stained whole brains with an antiserum against the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin. Such labeled brains were then scanned with a confocal laser scanning microscope and selected neuropils were reconstructed with the 3D software AMIRA 4.1.

  8. Model-based image reconstruction for four-dimensional PET

    SciTech Connect

    Li Tianfang; Thorndyke, Brian; Schreibmann, Eduard; Yang Yong; Xing Lei

    2006-05-15

    Positron emission tonography (PET) is useful in diagnosis and radiation treatment planning for a variety of cancers. For patients with cancers in thoracic or upper abdominal region, the respiratory motion produces large distortions in the tumor shape and size, affecting the accuracy in both diagnosis and treatment. Four-dimensional (4D) (gated) PET aims to reduce the motion artifacts and to provide accurate measurement of the tumor volume and the tracer concentration. A major issue in 4D PET is the lack of statistics. Since the collected photons are divided into several frames in the 4D PET scan, the quality of each reconstructed frame degrades as the number of frames increases. The increased noise in each frame heavily degrades the quantitative accuracy of the PET imaging. In this work, we propose a method to enhance the performance of 4D PET by developing a new technique of 4D PET reconstruction with incorporation of an organ motion model derived from 4D-CT images. The method is based on the well-known maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm. During the processes of forward- and backward-projection in the ML-EM iterations, all projection data acquired at different phases are combined together to update the emission map with the aid of deformable model, the statistics is therefore greatly improved. The proposed algorithm was first evaluated with computer simulations using a mathematical dynamic phantom. Experiment with a moving physical phantom was then carried out to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method and the increase of signal-to-noise ratio over three-dimensional PET. Finally, the 4D PET reconstruction was applied to a patient case.

  9. SU-E-T-05: 4D Measurement-Guided Dose Reconstruction (4D-MGDR) in End-End Quality Assurance (E2E QA) for Assessing Safety Margin in Radiosurgery (SRS) From Clinical Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M; Leung, R; Wong, M; Lee, V; Law, G; Lee, K; Tung, S; Blanck, O

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the plan robustness and safety margin in SRS from 4DMGDR in E2E QA based on clinical objectives. Methods: OCTAVIUS SRS 1000 detector array and 4D phantom (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were used to measure 5 coplanar SRS plans with 1 and 2 mm planning target volume (PTV). 3 targets were clinical, and 2 were virtual simulated to be 1mm from the brainstem (BS), and between chiasm (CS) and optic nerve (ON). Planning was done on Monaco v5.0 (Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO) to achieve 95–99% PTV and 100% gross tumor volume (GTV) prescription dose coverage. CBCT setup of the 4D phantom by 6D robotic couch was performed as for real patient. 4D-MGDR in patient CT and dosimetric analysis were performed in PTW Verisoft v6.1. The safety margin that achieved 100% GTV coverage was determined, and doses to 2% (D2%) of BS, ON and CS were assessed from E2E QA. Results: 100% GTV coverage was achieved with 1mm margin for 2 plans and 2mm margin for all plans. 98.3% and 99.4% GTV coverage were found in E2E QA for 1mm PTVs that either had sharp changing contour, or was nearby CS and ON or BS, and had either low planned minimum GTV dose (∼101% of the prescribed dose vs.∼106%) or compromised PTV coverage (95% vs. 99%). D2% to CS obtained with 4D-MGDR for one virtual target were 18.8Gy for 1mm PTV and 19.2Gy for 2mm PTV, exceeding the planned tolerance of 18Gy/3 fractions for prescription dose of 24Gy. Conclusion: 1mm margin is generally sufficient for dose planning and machine delivery errors. Irregular GTV with just enough dose coverage to spare critical organs may need 2mm margin at the costs of possible higher organ doses. 4D MGDR in an E2E QA approach can put the treatment plan evaluation in clinical perspectives.

  10. Advances in 4D radiation therapy for managing respiration: part I - 4D imaging.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Geoffrey D; Rosu, Mihaela

    2012-12-01

    Techniques for managing respiration during imaging and planning of radiation therapy are reviewed, concentrating on free-breathing (4D) approaches. First, we focus on detailing the historical development and basic operational principles of currently-available "first generation" 4D imaging modalities: 4D computed tomography, 4D cone beam computed tomography, 4D magnetic resonance imaging, and 4D positron emission tomography. Features and limitations of these first generation systems are described, including necessity of breathing surrogates for 4D image reconstruction, assumptions made in acquisition and reconstruction about the breathing pattern, and commonly-observed artifacts. Both established and developmental methods to deal with these limitations are detailed. Finally, strategies to construct 4D targets and images and, alternatively, to compress 4D information into static targets and images for radiation therapy planning are described.

  11. 4-D photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy.

  12. 4-D Photoacoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy.

  13. SU-E-T-634: Pre-Verification of FFF Prostate VMAT Plans with Gamma Method and DVHs Reconstructed Based On Measurements with 2D-ARRAY (PTW 1500) and OCTAVIUS 4D

    SciTech Connect

    Kruszyna, M; Adamczyk, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to characterize the clinical correctness of FFF prostate treatment VMAT plans based on analysis of DVHs reconstructed from pre-verification 2D-arrays measurements. Methods: The new 2D ion chamber array 1500 with rotational phantom cylindrical Octavius 4D and Verisoft 6.1 software with DVH option (PTW, Freiburg) were used to determine the clinical usefulness of the treatment plans. Ten patients treated with VMAT high-fractionated (2 fraction x 7,5 Gy) FFF prostate plans (TrueBeam, Varian) were analyzed using the 3D gamma analysis by local dose method with a 5% threshold for various tolerance parameters DTA [mm] and DD [%] were 1%/1, 2%/2, 3%/3. Additional, based on the measurements of irradiation dose distributions and patients’ CT scans with contoured structures of organs, the DVHs were reconstructed using a software. The obtained DVHs were compared to planned dose distributions and the deviations were analysed with parameters: for CTV D50, D98, D2, and D25, D50, Dmax for OARs — rectum, bladder and left/right femoral heads. Results: The analyzed treatment plans passed gamma criteria (3/3%; 95%), the results obtained were as follow: mean value and standard deviation of gamma score for criteria (DTA[mm]/DD[%]): 1/1% (L53.3±3.2); 2/2% (L87.0±2.2); 3/3% (L97.5±0.9). In the DVH analysis, the highest differences were observed for OARs (especially for bladder): the mean percentage differences values for rectum, bladder and left/right femoral heads were: D25 (1.67; 6.83)%, D50 (0.18; 7.18; 1.53; 0.30)%, Dmax (−0.84; −1.64; 0.37; −4.63)%, respectively. For the CTV mean relative deviations for proper parameters were in good agreement with TPS: D98 (0.95±2.21)%, D50 (1.93±0.67)%, D2 (1.76±0.76)%. Conclusion: The gamma method is recommended tool for pre-verification analysis of correctness of treatment plans. Moreover, the scrutiny checking with reconstructed DVH gives additional, clinical information about quality of plan

  14. Interactive animation of 4D performance capture.

    PubMed

    Casas, Dan; Tejera, Margara; Guillemaut, Jean-Yves; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    A 4D parametric motion graph representation is presented for interactive animation from actor performance capture in a multiple camera studio. The representation is based on a 4D model database of temporally aligned mesh sequence reconstructions for multiple motions. High-level movement controls such as speed and direction are achieved by blending multiple mesh sequences of related motions. A real-time mesh sequence blending approach is introduced, which combines the realistic deformation of previous nonlinear solutions with efficient online computation. Transitions between different parametric motion spaces are evaluated in real time based on surface shape and motion similarity. Four-dimensional parametric motion graphs allow real-time interactive character animation while preserving the natural dynamics of the captured performance.

  15. WE-G-207-03: Mask Guided Image Reconstruction (MGIR): A Novel Method for Ultra-Low-Dose 3D and Enhanced 4D Cone-Beam Computer-Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C; Zhang, H; Chen, Y; Fan, Q; Kahler, D; Li, J; Liu, C; Lu, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, compressed sensing (CS) based iterative reconstruction (IR) method is receiving attentions to reconstruct high quality cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images using sparsely sampled or noisy projections. The aim of this study is to develop a novel baseline algorithm called Mask Guided Image Reconstruction (MGIR), which can provide superior image quality for both low-dose 3DCBCT and 4DCBCT under single mathematical framework. Methods: In MGIR, the unknown CBCT volume was mathematically modeled as a combination of two regions where anatomical structures are 1) within the priori-defined mask and 2) outside the mask. Then we update each part of images alternatively thorough solving minimization problems based on CS type IR. For low-dose 3DCBCT, the former region is defined as the anatomically complex region where it is focused to preserve edge information while latter region is defined as contrast uniform, and hence aggressively updated to remove noise/artifact. In 4DCBCT, the regions are separated as the common static part and moving part. Then, static volume and moving volumes were updated with global and phase sorted projection respectively, to optimize the image quality of both moving and static part simultaneously. Results: Examination of MGIR algorithm showed that high quality of both low-dose 3DCBCT and 4DCBCT images can be reconstructed without compromising the image resolution and imaging dose or scanning time respectively. For low-dose 3DCBCT, a clinical viable and high resolution head-and-neck image can be obtained while cutting the dose by 83%. In 4DCBCT, excellent quality 4DCBCT images could be reconstructed while requiring no more projection data and imaging dose than a typical clinical 3DCBCT scan. Conclusion: The results shown that the image quality of MGIR was superior compared to other published CS based IR algorithms for both 4DCBCT and low-dose 3DCBCT. This makes our MGIR algorithm potentially useful in various on

  16. Soft Route to 4D Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillandier-Thomas, Thibault; Roux, Stéphane; Hild, François

    2016-07-01

    Based on the assumption that the time evolution of a sample observed by computed tomography requires many less parameters than the definition of the microstructure itself, it is proposed to reconstruct these changes based on the initial state (using computed tomography) and very few radiographs acquired at fixed intervals of time. This Letter presents a proof of concept that for a fatigue cracked sample its kinematics can be tracked from no more than two radiographs in situations where a complete 3D view would require several hundreds of radiographs. This 2 order of magnitude gain opens the way to a "computed" 4D tomography, which complements the recent progress achieved in fast or ultrafast computed tomography, which is based on beam brightness, detector sensitivity, and signal acquisition technologies.

  17. Spatiotemporal directional analysis of 4D echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini-Casadevall, Elsa D.; Laine, Andrew F.; Takuma, Shin; Homma, Shunichi

    2000-12-01

    Speckle noise corrupts ultrasonic data by introducing sharp changes in an echocardiographic image intensity profile, while attenuation alters the intensity of equally significant cardiac structures. These properties introduce inhomogeneity in the spatial domain and suggests that measures based on phase information rather than intensity are more appropriate for denoising and cardiac border detection. The present analysis method relies on the expansion of temporal ultrasonic volume data on complex exponential wavelet-like basis functions called Brushlets. These basis functions decompose a signal into distinct patterns of oriented textures. Projected coefficients are associated with distinct 'brush strokes' of a particular size and orientation. 4D overcomplete brushlet analysis is applied to temporal echocardiographic values. We show that adding the time dimension in the analysis dramatically improves the quality and robustness of the method without adding complexity in the design of a segmentation tool. We have investigated mathematical and empirical methods for identifying the most 'efficient' brush stroke sizes and orientations for decomposition and reconstruction on both phantom and clinical data. In order to determine the 'best tiling' or equivalently, the 'best brushlet basis', we use an entorpy-based information cost metric function. Quantitative validation and clinical applications of this new spatio-temporal analysis tool are reported for balloon phantoms and clinical data sets.

  18. Respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography: A novel method to reduce imaging dose

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Benjamin J.; O'Brien, Ricky T.; Keall, Paul J.; Balik, Salim; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: A novel method called respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography (RT 4D CBCT) is described whereby imaging dose can be reduced without degrading image quality. RT 4D CBCT utilizes a respiratory signal to trigger projections such that only a single projection is assigned to a given respiratory bin for each breathing cycle. In contrast, commercial 4D CBCT does not actively use the respiratory signal to minimize image dose. Methods: To compare RT 4D CBCT with conventional 4D CBCT, 3600 CBCT projections of a thorax phantom were gathered and reconstructed to generate a ground truth CBCT dataset. Simulation pairs of conventional 4D CBCT acquisitions and RT 4D CBCT acquisitions were developed assuming a sinusoidal respiratory signal which governs the selection of projections from the pool of 3600 original projections. The RT 4D CBCT acquisition triggers a single projection when the respiratory signal enters a desired acquisition bin; the conventional acquisition does not use a respiratory trigger and projections are acquired at a constant frequency. Acquisition parameters studied were breathing period, acquisition time, and imager frequency. The performance of RT 4D CBCT using phase based and displacement based sorting was also studied. Image quality was quantified by calculating difference images of the test dataset from the ground truth dataset. Imaging dose was calculated by counting projections. Results: Using phase based sorting RT 4D CBCT results in 47% less imaging dose on average compared to conventional 4D CBCT. Image quality differences were less than 4% at worst. Using displacement based sorting RT 4D CBCT results in 57% less imaging dose on average, than conventional 4D CBCT methods; however, image quality was 26% worse with RT 4D CBCT. Conclusions: Simulation studies have shown that RT 4D CBCT reduces imaging dose while maintaining comparable image quality for phase based 4D CBCT; image quality is degraded for displacement based RT 4D

  19. Clinical evaluation of 4D PET motion compensation strategies for treatment verification in ion beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianoli, Chiara; Kurz, Christopher; Riboldi, Marco; Bauer, Julia; Fontana, Giulia; Baroni, Guido; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia

    2016-06-01

    A clinical trial named PROMETHEUS is currently ongoing for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT, Germany). In this framework, 4D PET-CT datasets are acquired shortly after the therapeutic treatment to compare the irradiation induced PET image with a Monte Carlo PET prediction resulting from the simulation of treatment delivery. The extremely low count statistics of this measured PET image represents a major limitation of this technique, especially in presence of target motion. The purpose of the study is to investigate two different 4D PET motion compensation strategies towards the recovery of the whole count statistics for improved image quality of the 4D PET-CT datasets for PET-based treatment verification. The well-known 4D-MLEM reconstruction algorithm, embedding the motion compensation in the reconstruction process of 4D PET sinograms, was compared to a recently proposed pre-reconstruction motion compensation strategy, which operates in sinogram domain by applying the motion compensation to the 4D PET sinograms. With reference to phantom and patient datasets, advantages and drawbacks of the two 4D PET motion compensation strategies were identified. The 4D-MLEM algorithm was strongly affected by inverse inconsistency of the motion model but demonstrated the capability to mitigate the noise-break-up effects. Conversely, the pre-reconstruction warping showed less sensitivity to inverse inconsistency but also more noise in the reconstructed images. The comparison was performed by relying on quantification of PET activity and ion range difference, typically yielding similar results. The study demonstrated that treatment verification of moving targets could be accomplished by relying on the whole count statistics image quality, as obtained from the application of 4D PET motion compensation strategies. In particular, the pre-reconstruction warping was shown to represent a promising choice when combined with intra-reconstruction

  20. Clinical evaluation of 4D PET motion compensation strategies for treatment verification in ion beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Chiara; Kurz, Christopher; Riboldi, Marco; Bauer, Julia; Fontana, Giulia; Baroni, Guido; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia

    2016-06-07

    A clinical trial named PROMETHEUS is currently ongoing for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT, Germany). In this framework, 4D PET-CT datasets are acquired shortly after the therapeutic treatment to compare the irradiation induced PET image with a Monte Carlo PET prediction resulting from the simulation of treatment delivery. The extremely low count statistics of this measured PET image represents a major limitation of this technique, especially in presence of target motion. The purpose of the study is to investigate two different 4D PET motion compensation strategies towards the recovery of the whole count statistics for improved image quality of the 4D PET-CT datasets for PET-based treatment verification. The well-known 4D-MLEM reconstruction algorithm, embedding the motion compensation in the reconstruction process of 4D PET sinograms, was compared to a recently proposed pre-reconstruction motion compensation strategy, which operates in sinogram domain by applying the motion compensation to the 4D PET sinograms. With reference to phantom and patient datasets, advantages and drawbacks of the two 4D PET motion compensation strategies were identified. The 4D-MLEM algorithm was strongly affected by inverse inconsistency of the motion model but demonstrated the capability to mitigate the noise-break-up effects. Conversely, the pre-reconstruction warping showed less sensitivity to inverse inconsistency but also more noise in the reconstructed images. The comparison was performed by relying on quantification of PET activity and ion range difference, typically yielding similar results. The study demonstrated that treatment verification of moving targets could be accomplished by relying on the whole count statistics image quality, as obtained from the application of 4D PET motion compensation strategies. In particular, the pre-reconstruction warping was shown to represent a promising choice when combined with intra-reconstruction

  1. 4-D OCT in Developmental Cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    Although strong evidence exists to suggest that altered cardiac function can lead to CHDs, few studies have investigated the influential role of cardiac function and biophysical forces on the development of the cardiovascular system due to a lack of proper in vivo imaging tools. 4-D imaging is needed to decipher the complex spatial and temporal patterns of biomechanical forces acting upon the heart. Numerous solutions over the past several years have demonstrated 4-D OCT imaging of the developing cardiovascular system. This chapter will focus on these solutions and explain their context in the evolution of 4-D OCT imaging. The first sections describe the relevant techniques (prospective gating, direct 4-D imaging, retrospective gating), while later sections focus on 4-D Doppler imaging and measurements of force implementing 4-D OCT Doppler. Finally, the techniques are summarized, and some possible future directions are discussed.

  2. The technology and performance of 4D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Obruchkov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in 4D ultrasound imaging technology allow clinicians to obtain not only rich visual information but also quantitative data that can be used for diagnosis and treatment. Some argue that the extension of 2D ultrasound is unnecessary and does not offer any benefits to diagnosis, while others argue that it is possible to better assess an abnormality in 3D than 2D. Anatomy can be reconstructed in perspectives that were never seen with conventional 2D US imaging. Advanced rendering techniques in three dimensions can be customized to be sensitive to specific pathology, thus making diagnosis more accurate. Volume and function of certain anatomical components can be measured with greater accuracy. This article reviews physical principles behind the ultrasound technology, how they are applied to advance the field of ultrasound imaging, and maybe reach its limits. Advances in ultrasound technology make 4D ultrasound imaging faster and less dependent on the operator's expertise, thus opening up more research possibilities in the fields of data processing and visualization. Currently, 4D ultrasound is extensively used in the field of obstetrics and interven-tional radiology. The goal of 4D ultrasound is to overcome the limitations posed by its predecessor technology and to be more clinically useful as an imaging tool.

  3. Brain tissue segmentation in 4D CT using voxel classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boom, R.; Oei, M. T. H.; Lafebre, S.; Oostveen, L. J.; Meijer, F. J. A.; Steens, S. C. A.; Prokop, M.; van Ginneken, B.; Manniesing, R.

    2012-02-01

    A method is proposed to segment anatomical regions of the brain from 4D computer tomography (CT) patient data. The method consists of a three step voxel classification scheme, each step focusing on structures that are increasingly difficult to segment. The first step classifies air and bone, the second step classifies vessels and the third step classifies white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid. As features the time averaged intensity value and the temporal intensity change value were used. In each step, a k-Nearest-Neighbor classifier was used to classify the voxels. Training data was obtained by placing regions of interest in reconstructed 3D image data. The method has been applied to ten 4D CT cerebral patient data. A leave-one-out experiment showed consistent and accurate segmentation results.

  4. Optimized PET imaging for 4D treatment planning in radiotherapy: the virtual 4D PET strategy.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Fontana, Giulia; Giri, Maria G; Grigolato, Daniela; Ferdeghini, Marco; Cavedon, Carlo; Baroni, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the performance of a novel strategy, referred to as "virtual 4D PET", aiming at the optimization of hybrid 4D CT-PET scan for radiotherapy treatment planning. The virtual 4D PET strategy applies 4D CT motion modeling to avoid time-resolved PET image acquisition. This leads to a reduction of radioactive tracer administered to the patient and to a total acquisition time comparable to free-breathing PET studies. The proposed method exploits a motion model derived from 4D CT, which is applied to the free-breathing PET to recover respiratory motion and motion blur. The free-breathing PET is warped according to the motion model, in order to generate the virtual 4D PET. The virtual 4D PET strategy was tested on images obtained from a 4D computational anthropomorphic phantom. The performance was compared to conventional motion compensated 4D PET. Tests were also carried out on clinical 4D CT-PET scans coming from seven lung and liver cancer patients. The virtual 4D PET strategy was able to recover lesion motion, with comparable performance with respect to the motion compensated 4D PET. The compensation of the activity blurring due to motion was successfully achieved in terms of spill out removal. Specific limitations were highlighted in terms of partial volume compensation. Results on clinical 4D CT-PET scans confirmed the efficacy in 4D PET count statistics optimization, as equal to the free-breathing PET, and recovery of lesion motion. Compared to conventional motion compensation strategies that explicitly require 4D PET imaging, the virtual 4D PET strategy reduces clinical workload and computational costs, resulting in significant advantages for radiotherapy treatment planning.

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory 4D Database

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-02

    4D is an integrated development platform - a single product comprised of the components you need to create and distribute professional applications. You get a graphical design environment, SQL database, a programming language, integrated PHP execution, HTTP server, application server, executable generator, and much more. 4D offers multi-platform development and deployment, meaning whatever you create on a Mac can be used on Windows, and vice-versa. Beyond productive development, 4D is renowned for its great flexibility in maintenance and modification of existing applications, and its extreme ease of implementation in its numerous deployment options. Your professional application can be put into production more quickly, at a lower cost, and will always be instantly scalable. 4D makes it easy, whether you're looking to create a classic desktop application, a client-server system, a distributed solution for Web or mobile clients - or all of the above!

  6. Founding Gravitation in 4D Euclidean Space-Time Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Franz-Guenter

    2010-11-24

    The Euclidean interpretation of special relativity which has been suggested by the author is a formulation of special relativity in ordinary 4D Euclidean space-time geometry. The natural and geometrically intuitive generalization of this view involves variations of the speed of light (depending on location and direction) and a Euclidean principle of general covariance. In this article, a gravitation model by Jan Broekaert, which implements a view of relativity theory in the spirit of Lorentz and Poincare, is reconstructed and shown to fulfill the principles of the Euclidean approach after an appropriate reinterpretation.

  7. 4D flow mri post-processing strategies for neuropathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrauben, Eric Mathew

    double-gated flow acquisition and reconstruction scheme demonstrates respiratory-induced changes in internal jugular vein flow. Finally, a semi-automated intracranial vessel segmentation and flow parameter measurement software tool for fast and consistent 4D flow post-processing analysis is developed, validated, and exhibited an in-vivo.

  8. 4D flow imaging with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Zoran; Allen, Bradley D.; Garcia, Julio; Jarvis, Kelly B.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with cardiovascular disease. Since its introduction in the late 1980s, 2-dimensional phase contrast MRI (2D PC-MRI) has become a routine part of standard-of-care cardiac MRI for the assessment of regional blood flow in the heart and great vessels. More recently, time-resolved PC-MRI with velocity encoding along all three flow directions and three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage (also termed ‘4D flow MRI’) has been developed and applied for the evaluation of cardiovascular hemodynamics in multiple regions of the human body. 4D flow MRI allows for the comprehensive evaluation of complex blood flow patterns by 3D blood flow visualization and flexible retrospective quantification of flow parameters. Recent technical developments, including the utilization of advanced parallel imaging techniques such as k-t GRAPPA, have resulted in reasonable overall scan times, e.g., 8-12 minutes for 4D flow MRI of the aorta and 10-20 minutes for whole heart coverage. As a result, the application of 4D flow MRI in a clinical setting has become more feasible, as documented by an increased number of recent reports on the utility of the technique for the assessment of cardiac and vascular hemodynamics in patient studies. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential of 4D flow MRI to provide an improved assessment of hemodynamics which might aid in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe the methods used for 4D flow MRI acquisition, post-processing and data analysis. In addition, the article provides an overview of the clinical applications of 4D flow MRI and includes a review of applications in the heart, thoracic aorta and hepatic system. PMID:24834414

  9. GL4D: a GPU-based architecture for interactive 4D visualization.

    PubMed

    Chu, Alan; Fu, Chi-Wing; Hanson, Andrew J; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes GL4D, an interactive system for visualizing 2-manifolds and 3-manifolds embedded in four Euclidean dimensions and illuminated by 4D light sources. It is a tetrahedron-based rendering pipeline that projects geometry into volume images, an exact parallel to the conventional triangle-based rendering pipeline for 3D graphics. Novel features include GPU-based algorithms for real-time 4D occlusion handling and transparency compositing; we thus enable a previously impossible level of quality and interactivity for exploring lit 4D objects. The 4D tetrahedrons are stored in GPU memory as vertex buffer objects, and the vertex shader is used to perform per-vertex 4D modelview transformations and 4D-to-3D projection. The geometry shader extension is utilized to slice the projected tetrahedrons and rasterize the slices into individual 2D layers of voxel fragments. Finally, the fragment shader performs per-voxel operations such as lighting and alpha blending with previously computed layers. We account for 4D voxel occlusion along the 4D-to-3D projection ray by supporting a multi-pass back-to-front fragment composition along the projection ray; to accomplish this, we exploit a new adaptation of the dual depth peeling technique to produce correct volume image data and to simultaneously render the resulting volume data using 3D transfer functions into the final 2D image. Previous CPU implementations of the rendering of 4D-embedded 3-manifolds could not perform either the 4D depth-buffered projection or manipulation of the volume-rendered image in real-time; in particular, the dual depth peeling algorithm is a novel GPU-based solution to the real-time 4D depth-buffering problem. GL4D is implemented as an integrated OpenGL-style API library, so that the underlying shader operations are as transparent as possible to the user.

  10. Actively triggered 4d cone-beam CT acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Martin F.; Wisotzky, Eric; Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 4d cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are usually reconstructed by extracting the motion information from the 2d projections or an external surrogate signal, and binning the individual projections into multiple respiratory phases. In this “after-the-fact” binning approach, however, projections are unevenly distributed over respiratory phases resulting in inefficient utilization of imaging dose. To avoid excess dose in certain respiratory phases, and poor image quality due to a lack of projections in others, the authors have developed a novel 4d CBCT acquisition framework which actively triggers 2d projections based on the forward-predicted position of the tumor.Methods: The forward-prediction of the tumor position was independently established using either (i) an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system based on implanted EM-transponders which act as a surrogate for the tumor position, or (ii) an external motion sensor measuring the chest-wall displacement and correlating this external motion to the phase-shifted diaphragm motion derived from the acquired images. In order to avoid EM-induced artifacts in the imaging detector, the authors devised a simple but effective “Faraday” shielding cage. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of their acquisition strategy by scanning an anthropomorphic lung phantom moving on 1d or 2d sinusoidal trajectories.Results: With both tumor position devices, the authors were able to acquire 4d CBCTs free of motion blurring. For scans based on the EM tracking system, reconstruction artifacts stemming from the presence of the EM-array and the EM-transponders were greatly reduced using newly developed correction algorithms. By tuning the imaging frequency independently for each respiratory phase prior to acquisition, it was possible to harmonize the number of projections over respiratory phases. Depending on the breathing period (3.5 or 5 s) and the gantry rotation time (4 or 5 min), between ∼90 and 145

  11. Shadow-driven 4D haptic visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Hanson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Just as we can work with two-dimensional floor plans to communicate 3D architectural design, we can exploit reduced-dimension shadows to manipulate the higher-dimensional objects generating the shadows. In particular, by taking advantage of physically reactive 3D shadow-space controllers, we can transform the task of interacting with 4D objects to a new level of physical reality. We begin with a teaching tool that uses 2D knot diagrams to manipulate the geometry of 3D mathematical knots via their projections; our unique 2D haptic interface allows the user to become familiar with sketching, editing, exploration, and manipulation of 3D knots rendered as projected imageson a 2D shadow space. By combining graphics and collision-sensing haptics, we can enhance the 2D shadow-driven editing protocol to successfully leverage 2D pen-and-paper or blackboard skills. Building on the reduced-dimension 2D editing tool for manipulating 3D shapes, we develop the natural analogy to produce a reduced-dimension 3D tool for manipulating 4D shapes. By physically modeling the correct properties of 4D surfaces, their bending forces, and their collisions in the 3D haptic controller interface, we can support full-featured physical exploration of 4D mathematical objects in a manner that is otherwise far beyond the experience accessible to human beings. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first interactive system with force-feedback that provides "4D haptic visualization" permitting the user to model and interact with 4D cloth-like objects.

  12. 3D and 4D atlas system of living human body structure.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Takatsu, A; Hattori, A; Ezumi, T; Oda, S; Yanai, T; Tominaga, H

    1998-01-01

    A reference system for accessing anatomical information from a complete 3D structure of the whole body "living human", including 4D cardiac dynamics, was reconstructed with 3D and 4D data sets obtained from normal volunteers. With this system, we were able to produce a human atlas in which sectional images can be accessed from any part of the human body interactively by real-time image generation.

  13. 4D CT sorting based on patient internal anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Cerviño, Laura I.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-08-01

    Respiratory motion during free-breathing computed tomography (CT) scan may cause significant errors in target definition for tumors in the thorax and upper abdomen. A four-dimensional (4D) CT technique has been widely used for treatment simulation of thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. The current 4D CT techniques require retrospective sorting of the reconstructed CT slices oversampled at the same couch position. Most sorting methods depend on external surrogates of respiratory motion recorded by extra instruments. However, respiratory signals obtained from these external surrogates may not always accurately represent the internal target motion, especially when irregular breathing patterns occur. We have proposed a new sorting method based on multiple internal anatomical features for multi-slice CT scan acquired in the cine mode. Four features are analyzed in this study, including the air content, lung area, lung density and body area. We use a measure called spatial coherence to select the optimal internal feature at each couch position and to generate the respiratory signals for 4D CT sorting. The proposed method has been evaluated for ten cancer patients (eight with thoracic cancer and two with abdominal cancer). For nine patients, the respiratory signals generated from the combined internal features are well correlated to those from external surrogates recorded by the real-time position management (RPM) system (average correlation: 0.95 ± 0.02), which is better than any individual internal measures at 95% confidence level. For these nine patients, the 4D CT images sorted by the combined internal features are almost identical to those sorted by the RPM signal. For one patient with an irregular breathing pattern, the respiratory signals given by the combined internal features do not correlate well with those from RPM (correlation: 0.68 ± 0.42). In this case, the 4D CT image sorted by our method presents fewer artifacts than that from the RPM signal. Our

  14. 2D/4D marker-free tumor tracking using 4D CBCT as the reference image.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjiao; Sharp, Gregory C; Rit, Simon; Delmon, Vivien; Wang, Guangzhi

    2014-05-07

    Tumor motion caused by respiration is an important issue in image-guided radiotherapy. A 2D/4D matching method between 4D volumes derived from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 2D fluoroscopic images was implemented to track the tumor motion without the use of implanted markers. In this method, firstly, 3DCBCT and phase-rebinned 4DCBCT are reconstructed from cone beam acquisition. Secondly, 4DCBCT volumes and a streak-free 3DCBCT volume are combined to improve the image quality of the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Finally, the 2D/4D matching problem is converted into a 2D/2D matching between incoming projections and DRR images from each phase of the 4DCBCT. The diaphragm is used as a target surrogate for matching instead of using the tumor position directly. This relies on the assumption that if a patient has the same breathing phase and diaphragm position as the reference 4DCBCT, then the tumor position is the same. From the matching results, the phase information, diaphragm position and tumor position at the time of each incoming projection acquisition can be derived. The accuracy of this method was verified using 16 candidate datasets, representing lung and liver applications and one-minute and two-minute acquisitions. The criteria for the eligibility of datasets were described: 11 eligible datasets were selected to verify the accuracy of diaphragm tracking, and one eligible dataset was chosen to verify the accuracy of tumor tracking. The diaphragm matching accuracy was 1.88 ± 1.35 mm in the isocenter plane and the 2D tumor tracking accuracy was 2.13 ± 1.26 mm in the isocenter plane. These features make this method feasible for real-time marker-free tumor motion tracking purposes.

  15. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  16. 4D Cellular Automaton Track Finder in the CBM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishina, Valentina; Kisel, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    The CBM experiment (FAIR/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) will focus on the measurement of rare probes at interaction rates up to 10MHz with data flow of up to 1 TB/s. It requires a novel read-out and data-acquisition concept with self-triggered electronics and free-streaming data. In this case resolving different collisions is a non-trivial task and event building must be performed in software online. That requires full online event reconstruction and selection not only in space, but also in time, so-called 4D event building and selection. This is a task of the First-Level Event Selection (FLES). The FLES reconstruction and selection package consists of several modules: track finding, track fitting, short-lived particles finding, event building and event selection. The Cellular Automaton (CA) track finder algorithm was adapted towards time-based reconstruction. In this article, we describe in detail the modification done to the algorithm, as well as the performance of the developed time-based CA approach.

  17. Respiratory gating and 4-D tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Tiezhi

    2004-12-01

    Helical tomotherapy is a new intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery process developed at the University of Wisconsin and TomoTherapy Inc. Tomotherapy may be of advantage in lung cancer treatment due to its rotational delivery mode. As with conventional IMRT delivery, however, intrafraction respiratory motion during a tomotherapy treatment causes unnecessary radiation to the healthy tissue. Possible solutions to these problems associated with intrafraction motion have been studied in this thesis. A spirometer is useful for monitoring breathing because of its direct correlation with lung volume changes. However, its inherent drift prevents its application in long-term breathing monitoring. With calibration and stabilization algorithms, a spirometer is able to provide accurate, long-term lung volume change measurements. Such a spirometer system is most suited for deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) treatments. An improved laser-spirometer combined system has also been developed for target tracking in 4-D treatment. Spirometer signals are used to calibrate the displacement measurements into lung volume changes, thereby eliminating scaling errors from daily setup variations. The laser displacement signals may also be used to correct spirometer drifts during operation. A new 4-D treatment technique has been developed to account for intrafraction motion in treatment planning. The patient's breathing and the beam delivery are synchronized, and the target motion/deformation is incorporated into treatment plan optimization. Results show that this new 4D treatment technique significantly reduces motion effects and provides improved patient tolerance.

  18. 4D fast tracking for experiments at high luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, N.; Cardini, A.; Calabrese, R.; Fiorini, M.; Luppi, E.; Marconi, U.; Petruzzo, M.

    2016-11-01

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of the high luminosity LHC is a big challenge that requires new instrumentation and innovative solutions. We present here a conceptual design and simulation studies of a fast timing pixel detector with embedded real-time tracking capabilities. The system is conceived to operate at 40 MHz event rate and to reconstruct tracks in real-time, using precise space and time 4D information of the hit, for fast trigger decisions. This work is part of an R&D project aimed at building an innovative tracking detector with superior time (10 ps) and position (10 μm) resolutions to be used in very harsh radiation environments, for the ultimate flavour physics experiment at the high luminosity phase of the LHC.

  19. Exploration of 4D MRI blood flow using stylistic visualization.

    PubMed

    van Pelt, Roy; Oliván Bescós, Javier; Breeuwer, Marcel; Clough, Rachel E; Gröller, M Eduard; ter Haar Romenij, Bart; Vilanova, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Insight into the dynamics of blood-flow considerably improves the understanding of the complex cardiovascular system and its pathologies. Advances in MRI technology enable acquisition of 4D blood-flow data, providing quantitative blood-flow velocities over time. The currently typical slice-by-slice analysis requires a full mental reconstruction of the unsteady blood-flow field, which is a tedious and highly challenging task, even for skilled physicians. We endeavor to alleviate this task by means of comprehensive visualization and interaction techniques. In this paper we present a framework for pre-clinical cardiovascular research, providing tools to both interactively explore the 4D blood-flow data and depict the essential blood-flow characteristics. The framework encompasses a variety of visualization styles, comprising illustrative techniques as well as improved methods from the established field of flow visualization. Each of the incorporated styles, including exploded planar reformats, flow-direction highlights, and arrow-trails, locally captures the blood-flow dynamics and may be initiated by an interactively probed vessel cross-section. Additionally, we present the results of an evaluation with domain experts, measuring the value of each of the visualization styles and related rendering parameters.

  20. Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yong; Fan, Zhaoyang; Yang, Wensha; Pang, Jianing; Deng, Zixin; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Tuli, Richard; Wallace, Robert; Li, Debiao; Fraass, Benedick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: MRI is increasingly being used for radiotherapy planning, simulation, and in-treatment-room motion monitoring. To provide more detailed temporal and spatial MR data for these tasks, we have recently developed a novel self-gated (SG) MRI technique with advantage of k-space phase sorting, high isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution. The current work describes the validation of this 4D-MRI technique using a MRI- and CT-compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: The 4D-MRI sequence is based on a spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection reconstruction sequence with self-gating for 4D-MRI at 3 T. Respiratory phase is resolved by using SG k-space lines as the motion surrogate. 4D-MRI images are reconstructed into ten temporal bins with spatial resolution 1.56 × 1.56 × 1.56 mm3. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed to validate the performance of the 4D-MRI sequence and 4D-CT imaging. A spherical target (diameter 23 mm, volume 6.37 ml) filled with high-concentration gadolinium (Gd) gel is embedded into a plastic box (35 × 40 × 63 mm3) and stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The phantom, driven by an air pump, is able to produce human-type breathing patterns between 4 and 30 respiratory cycles/min. 4D-CT of the phantom has been acquired in cine mode, and reconstructed into ten phases with slice thickness 1.25 mm. The 4D images sets were imported into a treatment planning software for target contouring. The geometrical accuracy of the 4D MRI and CT images has been quantified using target volume, flattening, and eccentricity. The target motion was measured by tracking the centroids of the spheres in each individual phase. Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Results: The dynamic phantom has been operated in four respiratory rate (RR) settings, 6, 10, 15, and 20/min, and was scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT. 4D-CT images have target-stretching, partial

  1. Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yong Yang, Wensha; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Tuli, Richard; Wallace, Robert; Fraass, Benedick; Fan, Zhaoyang; Pang, Jianing; Deng, Zixin; Li, Debiao

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: MRI is increasingly being used for radiotherapy planning, simulation, and in-treatment-room motion monitoring. To provide more detailed temporal and spatial MR data for these tasks, we have recently developed a novel self-gated (SG) MRI technique with advantage of k-space phase sorting, high isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution. The current work describes the validation of this 4D-MRI technique using a MRI- and CT-compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: The 4D-MRI sequence is based on a spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection reconstruction sequence with self-gating for 4D-MRI at 3 T. Respiratory phase is resolved by using SG k-space lines as the motion surrogate. 4D-MRI images are reconstructed into ten temporal bins with spatial resolution 1.56 × 1.56 × 1.56 mm{sup 3}. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed to validate the performance of the 4D-MRI sequence and 4D-CT imaging. A spherical target (diameter 23 mm, volume 6.37 ml) filled with high-concentration gadolinium (Gd) gel is embedded into a plastic box (35 × 40 × 63 mm{sup 3}) and stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The phantom, driven by an air pump, is able to produce human-type breathing patterns between 4 and 30 respiratory cycles/min. 4D-CT of the phantom has been acquired in cine mode, and reconstructed into ten phases with slice thickness 1.25 mm. The 4D images sets were imported into a treatment planning software for target contouring. The geometrical accuracy of the 4D MRI and CT images has been quantified using target volume, flattening, and eccentricity. The target motion was measured by tracking the centroids of the spheres in each individual phase. Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Results: The dynamic phantom has been operated in four respiratory rate (RR) settings, 6, 10, 15, and 20/min, and was scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT. 4D-CT images have target

  2. Active origami by 4D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qi; Dunn, Conner K.; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in three dimensional (3D) printing technology that allow multiple materials to be printed within each layer enable the creation of materials and components with precisely controlled heterogeneous microstructures. In addition, active materials, such as shape memory polymers, can be printed to create an active microstructure within a solid. These active materials can subsequently be activated in a controlled manner to change the shape or configuration of the solid in response to an environmental stimulus. This has been termed 4D printing, with the 4th dimension being the time-dependent shape change after the printing. In this paper, we advance the 4D printing concept to the design and fabrication of active origami, where a flat sheet automatically folds into a complicated 3D component. Here we print active composites with shape memory polymer fibers precisely printed in an elastomeric matrix and use them as intelligent active hinges to enable origami folding patterns. We develop a theoretical model to provide guidance in selecting design parameters such as fiber dimensions, hinge length, and programming strains and temperature. Using the model, we design and fabricate several active origami components that assemble from flat polymer sheets, including a box, a pyramid, and two origami airplanes. In addition, we directly print a 3D box with active composite hinges and program it to assume a temporary flat shape that subsequently recovers to the 3D box shape on demand.

  3. 4d Spectra from BPS Quiver Dualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espahbodi, Sam

    We attack the question of BPS occupancy in a wide class of 4d N = 2 quantum field theories. We first review the Seiberg-Witten approach to finding the low energy Wilsonian effective action actions of such theories. In particular, we analyze the case of Gaiotto theories, which provide a large number of non-trivial examples in a unified framework. We then turn to understanding the massive BPS spectrum of such theories, and in particular their relation to BPS quivers. We present a purely 4d characterization of BPS quivers, and explain how a quiver's representation theory encodes the solution to the BPS occupancy problem. Next, we derive a so called mutation method, based on exploiting quiver dualities, to solve the quiver's representation theory. This method makes previously intractable calculations nearly trivial in many examples. As a particular highlight, we apply our methods to understand strongly coupled chambers in ADE SYM gauge theories with matter. Following this, we turn to the general story of quivers for theories of the Gaiotto class. We present a geometric approach to attaining quivers for the rank 2 theories, leading to a very elegant solution which includes a specification of quiver superpotentials. Finally, we solve these theories by an unrelated method based on gauging flavor symmetries in their various dual weakly coupled Lagrangian descriptions. After seeing that this method agrees in the rank 2 case, we will apply our new approach to the case of rank n.

  4. Realistic CT simulation using the 4D XCAT phantom.

    PubMed

    Segars, W P; Mahesh, M; Beck, T J; Frey, E C; Tsui, B M W

    2008-08-01

    The authors develop a unique CT simulation tool based on the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom, a whole-body computer model of the human anatomy and physiology based on NURBS surfaces. Unlike current phantoms in CT based on simple mathematical primitives, the 4D XCAT provides an accurate representation of the complex human anatomy and has the advantage, due to its design, that its organ shapes can be changed to realistically model anatomical variations and patient motion. A disadvantage to the NURBS basis of the XCAT, however, is that the mathematical complexity of the surfaces makes the calculation of line integrals through the phantom difficult. They have to be calculated using iterative procedures; therefore, the calculation of CT projections is much slower than for simpler mathematical phantoms. To overcome this limitation, the authors used efficient ray tracing techniques from computer graphics, to develop a fast analytic projection algorithm to accurately calculate CT projections directly from the surface definition of the XCAT phantom given parameters defining the CT scanner and geometry. Using this tool, realistic high-resolution 3D and 4D projection images can be simulated and reconstructed from the XCAT within a reasonable amount of time. In comparison with other simulators with geometrically defined organs, the XCAT-based algorithm was found to be only three times slower in generating a projection data set of the same anatomical structures using a single 3.2 GHz processor. To overcome this decrease in speed would, therefore, only require running the projection algorithm in parallel over three processors. With the ever decreasing cost of computers and the rise of faster processors and multi-processor systems and clusters, this slowdown is basically inconsequential, especially given the vast improvement the XCAT offers in terms of realism and the ability to generate 3D and 4D data from anatomically diverse patients. As such, the authors conclude

  5. Noise reduction in computed tomography using a multiplicative continuous-time image reconstruction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yusaku; Kojima, Takeshi; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    In clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT), filtered back-projection as a transform method and iterative reconstruction such as the maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) method are known methods to reconstruct tomographic images. As the other reconstruction method, we have presented a continuous-time image reconstruction (CIR) system described by a nonlinear dynamical system, based on the idea of continuous methods for solving tomographic inverse problems. Recently, we have also proposed a multiplicative CIR system described by differential equations based on the minimization of a weighted Kullback-Leibler divergence. We prove theoretically that the divergence measure decreases along the solution to the CIR system, for consistent inverse problems. In consideration of the noisy nature of projections in clinical CT, the inverse problem belongs to the category of ill-posed problems. The performance of a noise-reduction scheme for a new (previously developed) CIR system was investigated by means of numerical experiments using a circular phantom image. Compared to the conventional CIR and the ML-EM methods, the proposed CIR method has an advantage on noisy projection with lower signal-to-noise ratios in terms of the divergence measure on the actual image under the same common measure observed via the projection data. The results lead to the conclusion that the multiplicative CIR method is more effective and robust for noise reduction in CT compared to the ML-EM as well as conventional CIR methods.

  6. Single-cell volume estimation by applying three-dimensional reconstruction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi, Siamak; Allansson, Louise; Gustavsson, Tomas; Blomstrand, Fredrik; Hansson, Elisabeth; Olsson, Torsten

    1999-05-01

    We have studied three-dimensional reconstruction methods to estimate the cell volume of astroglial cells in primary culture. The studies are based on fluorescence imaging and optical sectioning. An automated image-acquisition system was developed to collect two-dimensional microscopic images. Images were reconstructed by the Linear Maximum a Posteriori method and the non-linear Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (ML-EM) method. In addition, because of the high computational demand of the ML-EM algorithm, we have developed a fast variant of this method. (1) Advanced image analysis techniques were applied for accurate and automated cell volume determination. (2) The sensitivity and accuracy of the reconstruction methods were evaluated by using fluorescent micro-beads with known diameter. The algorithms were applied to fura-2-labeled astroglial cells in primary culture exposed to hypo- or hyper-osmotic stress. The results showed that the ML-EM reconstructed images are adequate for the determination of volume changes in cells or parts thereof.

  7. Advances in 4D radiation therapy for managing respiration: part II - 4D treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Rosu, Mihaela; Hugo, Geoffrey D

    2012-12-01

    The development of 4D CT imaging technology made possible the creation of patient models that are reflective of respiration-induced anatomical changes by adding a temporal dimension to the conventional 3D, spatial-only, patient description. This had opened a new venue for treatment planning and radiation delivery, aimed at creating a comprehensive 4D radiation therapy process for moving targets. Unlike other breathing motion compensation strategies (e.g. breath-hold and gating techniques), 4D radiotherapy assumes treatment delivery over the entire respiratory cycle - an added bonus for both patient comfort and treatment time efficiency. The time-dependent positional and volumetric information holds the promise for optimal, highly conformal, radiotherapy for targets experiencing movements caused by respiration, with potentially elevated dose prescriptions and therefore higher cure rates, while avoiding the uninvolved nearby structures. In this paper, the current state of the 4D treatment planning is reviewed, from theory to the established practical routine. While the fundamental principles of 4D radiotherapy are well defined, the development of a complete, robust and clinically feasible process still remains a challenge, imposed by limitations in the available treatment planning and radiation delivery systems.

  8. Controlled Source 4D Seismic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Morency, C.; Tromp, J.

    2009-12-01

    Earth's material properties may change after significant tectonic events, e.g., volcanic eruptions, earthquake ruptures, landslides, and hydrocarbon migration. While many studies focus on how to interpret observations in terms of changes in wavespeeds and attenuation, the oil industry is more interested in how we can identify and locate such temporal changes using seismic waves generated by controlled sources. 4D seismic analysis is indeed an important tool to monitor fluid movement in hydrocarbon reservoirs during production, improving fields management. Classic 4D seismic imaging involves comparing images obtained from two subsequent seismic surveys. Differences between the two images tell us where temporal changes occurred. However, when the temporal changes are small, it may be quite hard to reliably identify and characterize the differences between the two images. We propose to back-project residual seismograms between two subsequent surveys using adjoint methods, which results in images highlighting temporal changes. We use the SEG/EAGE salt dome model to illustrate our approach. In two subsequent surveys, the wavespeeds and density within a target region are changed, mimicking possible fluid migration. Due to changes in material properties induced by fluid migration, seismograms recorded in the two surveys differ. By back propagating these residuals, the adjoint images identify the location of the affected region. An important issue involves the nature of model. For instance, are we characterizing only changes in wavespeed, or do we also consider density and attenuation? How many model parameters characterize the model, e.g., is our model isotropic or anisotropic? Is acoustic wave propagation accurate enough or do we need to consider elastic or poroelastic effects? We will investigate how imaging strategies based upon acoustic, elastic and poroelastic simulations affect our imaging capabilities.

  9. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Larry Joe; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Morris, Christopher; Orum, John Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Sossong, Michael James; Hengartner, Nicolas W

    2013-10-08

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  10. Opening the Black Box of ICT4D: Advancing Our Understanding of ICT4D Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    The term, Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), pertains to programs or projects that strategically use ICTs (e.g. mobile phones, computers, and the internet) as a means toward the socio-economic betterment for the poor in developing contexts. Gaining the political and financial support of the international community…

  11. Four-dimensional (4D) tracking of high-temperature microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Liu, Q.; Waganaar, W.; Fontanese, J.; James, D.; Munsat, T.

    2016-11-01

    High-speed tracking of hot and molten microparticles in motion provides rich information about burning plasmas in magnetic fusion. An exploding-wire apparatus is used to produce moving high-temperature metallic microparticles and to develop four-dimensional (4D) or time-resolved 3D particle tracking techniques. The pinhole camera model and algorithms developed for computer vision are used for scene calibration and 4D reconstructions. 3D positions and velocities are then derived for different microparticles. Velocity resolution approaches 0.1 m/s by using the local constant velocity approximation.

  12. Four-dimensional (4D) tracking of high-temperature microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Liu, Qiuguang; Waganaar, Bill; Fontanese, John; James, David; Munsat, Tobin

    2016-07-08

    High-speed tracking of hot and molten microparticles in motion provides rich information about burning plasmas in magnetic fusion. An exploding-wire apparatus is used to produce moving high-temperature metallic microparticles and to develop four-dimensional (4D) or time-resolved 3D particle tracking techniques. The pinhole camera model and algorithms developed for computer vision are used for scene calibration and 4D reconstructions. 3D positions and velocities are then derived for different microparticles. As a result, velocity resolution approaches 0.1 m/s by using the local constant velocity approximation.

  13. 4D motion animation of coronary arteries from rotational angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, Wolfgang; Rohkohl, Christopher; Schuldhaus, Dominik; Prümmer, Marcus; Lauritsch, Günter; Hornegger, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    Time-resolved 3-D imaging of the heart is a major research topic in the medical imaging community. Recent advances in the interventional cardiac 3-D imaging from rotational angiography (C-arm CT) are now also making 4-D imaging feasible during procedures in the catheter laboratory. State-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms try to estimate the cardiac motion and utilize the motion field to enhance the reconstruction of a stable cardiac phase (diastole). The available data offers a handful of opportunities during interventional procedures, e.g. the ECG-synchronized dynamic roadmapping or the computation and analysis of functional parameters. In this paper we will demonstrate that the motion vector field (MVF) that is output by motion compensated image reconstruction algorithms is in general not directly usable for animation and motion analysis. Dependent on the algorithm different defects are investigated. A primary issue is that the MVF needs to be inverted, i.e. the wrong direction of motion is provided. A second major issue is the non-periodicity of cardiac motion. In algorithms which compute a non-periodic motion field from a single rotation the in depth motion information along viewing direction is missing, since this cannot be measured in the projections. As a result, while the MVF improves reconstruction quality, it is insufficient for motion animation and analysis. We propose an algorithm to solve both problems, i.e. inversion and missing in-depth information in a unified framework. A periodic version of the MVF is approximated. The task is formulated as a linear optimization problem where a parametric smooth motion model based on B-splines is estimated from the MVF. It is shown that the problem can be solved using a sparse QR factorization within a clinical feasible time of less than one minute. In a phantom experiment using the publicly available CAVAREV platform, the average quality of a non-periodic animation could be increased by 39% by applying the

  14. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a)...

  15. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a)...

  16. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2000-04-01 2000-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a) Each application for an order under section 304(d)...

  17. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2005-04-01 2005-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a)...

  18. From Wheatstone to Cameron and beyond: overview in 3-D and 4-D imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbreath, G. Charmaine

    2012-02-01

    This paper reviews three-dimensional (3-D) and four-dimensional (4-D) imaging technology, from Wheatstone through today, with some prognostications for near future applications. This field is rich in variety, subject specialty, and applications. A major trend, multi-view stereoscopy, is moving the field forward to real-time wide-angle 3-D reconstruction as breakthroughs in parallel processing and multi-processor computers enable very fast processing. Real-time holography meets 4-D imaging reconstruction at the goal of achieving real-time, interactive, 3-D imaging. Applications to telesurgery and telemedicine as well as to the needs of the defense and intelligence communities are also discussed.

  19. Development and applications of 4-D ultrasound (dynamic 3-D) in neurosonology.

    PubMed

    Delcker, A; Schürks, M; Polz, H

    1999-10-01

    The development and application of color-coded data in three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction or four-dimensional (4-D) imaging (equal to dynamic 3-D) are demonstrated. In 4-D imaging, electrocardiography-triggered data acquisition of consecutive phases during the heart cycle are stored to form a multiphase 3-D data set. The option of color-coded data gives a new insight into such hemodynamic information. In the past, 3-D reconstructions were simple unicolor images, as in power mode, and the color-coded hemodynamic information was lost. These new options are presented here, along with color-coded data in examples of angiographically controlled pathologic results in extracranial and intracranial vessels.

  20. Analysis of 4D Modeling for Use by the Naval Facilities Engineering Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Use Today Today, 4D modeling is being used to build Space Mountain at the new Hong Kong Disneyland theme park. Additionally, the technology is being...also noticed limitations of construction scheduling software on the market today. Professors at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the Tsinghua...used for the reconstruction of the 26-year-old Space Mountain at the Disneyland in Anaheim. Muller explains: Among the hassles: Contractors must

  1. 4D electron microscopy: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, David J; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2012-10-16

    achievable with short intense pulses containing a large number of electrons, however, are limited to tens of nanometers and nanoseconds, respectively. This is because Coulomb repulsion is significant in such a pulse, and the electrons spread in space and time, thus limiting the beam coherence. It is therefore not possible to image the ultrafast elementary dynamics of complex transformations. The challenge was to retain the high spatial resolution of a conventional TEM while simultaneously enabling the temporal resolution required to visualize atomic-scale motions. In this Account, we discuss the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D UEM) and summarize techniques and applications that illustrate the power of the approach. In UEM, images are obtained either stroboscopically with coherent single-electron packets or with a single electron bunch. Coulomb repulsion is absent under the single-electron condition, thus permitting imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy, all with high spatiotemporal resolution, the atomic scale (sub-nanometer and femtosecond). The time resolution is limited only by the laser pulse duration and energy carried by the electron packets; the CCD camera has no bearing on the temporal resolution. In the regime of single pulses of electrons, the temporal resolution of picoseconds can be attained when hundreds of electrons are in the bunch. The applications given here are selected to highlight phenomena of different length and time scales, from atomic motions during structural dynamics to phase transitions and nanomechanical oscillations. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging methods, which include scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM), scanning transmission ultrafast electron microscopy (ST-UEM) with convergent beams, and time-resolved imaging of biological structures at ambient conditions with environmental cells.

  2. Quantitative PET image reconstruction employing nested expectation-maximization deconvolution for motion compensation.

    PubMed

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-11-16

    Bulk body motion may randomly occur during PET acquisitions introducing blurring, attenuation-emission mismatches and, in dynamic PET, discontinuities in the measured time activity curves between consecutive frames. Meanwhile, dynamic PET scans are longer, thus increasing the probability of bulk motion. In this study, we propose a streamlined 3D PET motion-compensated image reconstruction (3D-MCIR) framework, capable of robustly deconvolving intra-frame motion from a static or dynamic 3D sinogram. The presented 3D-MCIR methods need not partition the data into multiple gates, such as 4D MCIR algorithms, or access list-mode (LM) data, such as LM MCIR methods, both associated with increased computation or memory resources. The proposed algorithms can support compensation for any periodic and non-periodic motion, such as cardio-respiratory or bulk motion, the latter including rolling, twisting or drifting. Inspired from the widely adopted point-spread function (PSF) deconvolution 3D PET reconstruction techniques, here we introduce an image-based 3D generalized motion deconvolution method within the standard 3D maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) reconstruction framework. In particular, we initially integrate a motion blurring kernel, accounting for every tracked motion within a frame, as an additional MLEM modeling component in the image space (integrated 3D-MCIR). Subsequently, we replaced the integrated model component with a nested iterative Richardson-Lucy (RL) image-based deconvolution method to accelerate the MLEM algorithm convergence rate (RL-3D-MCIR). The final method was evaluated with realistic simulations of whole-body dynamic PET data employing the XCAT phantom and real human bulk motion profiles, the latter estimated from volunteer dynamic MRI scans. In addition, metabolic uptake rate Ki parametric images were generated with the standard Patlak method. Our results demonstrate significant improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and

  3. Motion4D-library extended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    The new version of the Motion4D-library now also includes the integration of a Sachs basis and the Jacobi equation to determine gravitational lensing of pointlike sources for arbitrary spacetimes.New version program summaryProgram title: Motion4D-libraryCatalogue identifier: AEEX_v3_0Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEX_v3_0.htmlProgram obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. IrelandLicensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.htmlNo. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 219 441No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 968 223Distribution format: tar.gzProgramming language: C++Computer: All platforms with a C++ compilerOperating system: Linux, WindowsRAM: 61 MbytesClassification: 1.5External routines: Gnu Scientic Library (GSL) (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/)Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEX_v2_0Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 703Does the new version supersede the previous version?: YesNature of problem: Solve geodesic equation, parallel and Fermi-Walker transport in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Determine gravitational lensing by integration of Jacobi equation and parallel transport of Sachs basis.Solution method: Integration of ordinary differential equations.Reasons for new version: The main novelty of the current version is the extension to integrate the Jacobi equation and the parallel transport of the Sachs basis along null geodesics. In combination, the change of the cross section of a light bundle and thus the gravitational lensing effect of a spacetime can be determined. Furthermore, we have implemented several new metrics.Summary of revisions: The main novelty of the current version is the integration of the Jacobi equation and the parallel transport of the Sachs basis along null geodesics. The corresponding set of equations readd2xμdλ2=-Γρ

  4. Volumetric limiting spatial resolution analysis of four dimensional digital subtraction angiography (4D-DSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Brian; Oberstar, Erick; Royalty, Kevin; Schafer, Sebastian; Strother, Charles; Mistretta, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Static C-Arm CT 3D FDK baseline reconstructions (3D-DSA) are unable to provide temporal information to radiologists. 4D-DSA provides a time series of 3D volumes implementing a constrained image, thresholded 3D-DSA, reconstruction utilizing temporal dynamics in the 2D projections. Volumetric limiting spatial resolution (VLSR) of 4DDSA is quantified and compared to a 3D-DSA reconstruction using the same 3D-DSA parameters. Investigated were the effects of varying over significant ranges the 4D-DSA parameters of 2D blurring kernel size applied to the projection and threshold applied to the 3D-DSA when generating the constraining image of a scanned phantom (SPH) and an electronic phantom (EPH). The SPH consisted of a 76 micron tungsten wire encased in a 47 mm O.D. plastic radially concentric thin walled support structure. An 8-second/248-frame/198° scan protocol acquired the raw projection data. VLSR was determined from averaged MTF curves generated from each 2D transverse slice of every (248) 4D temporal frame (3D). 4D results for SPH and EPH were compared to the 3D-DSA. Analysis of the 3D-DSA resulted in a VLSR of 2.28 and 1.69 lp/mm for the EPH and SPH respectively. Kernel (2D) sizes of either 10x10 or 20x20 pixels with a threshold of 10% of the 3D-DSA as a constraining image provided 4D-DSA VLSR nearest to the 3D-DSA. 4D-DSA algorithms yielded 2.21 and 1.67 lp/mm with a percent error of 3.1% and 1.2% for the EPH and SPH respectively as compared to the 3D-DSA. This research indicates 4D-DSA is capable of retaining the resolution of the 3D-DSA.

  5. TH-E-17A-04: Geometric Validation of K-Space Self-Gated 4D-MRI Vs. 4D-CT Using A Respiratory Motion Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Y; Fan, Z; Yang, W; Pang, J; McKenzie, E; Deng, Z; Tuli, R; Sandler, H; Li, D; Fraass, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: 4D-CT is often limited by motion artifacts, low temporal resolution, and poor phase-based target definition. We recently developed a novel k-space self-gated 4D-MRI technique with high spatial and temporal resolution. The goal here is to geometrically validate 4D-MRI using a MRI-CT compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: 4D-MRI was acquired using 3T spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection sequences. Respiratory phases were resolved using self-gated k-space lines as the motion surrogate. Images were reconstructed into 10 temporal bins with 1.56×1.56×1.56mm3. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed with a 23mm diameter ball target filled with highconcentration gadolinium(Gd) gel embedded in a 35×40×63mm3 plastic box stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The whole phantom was driven by an air pump. Human respiratory motion was mimicked using the controller from a commercial dynamic phantom (RSD). Four breathing settings (rates/depths: 10s/20mm, 6s/15mm, 4s/10mm, 3s/7mm) were scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT (slice thickness 1.25mm). Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Reconstructed images were imported into Eclipse(Varian) for target contouring. Volumes and target positions were compared with ground-truth. Initial human study was investigated on a liver patient. Results: 4D-MRI and 4D-CT scans for the different breathing cycles were reconstructed with 10 phases. Target volume in each phase was measured for both 4D-CT and 4D-MRI. Volume percentage difference for the 6.37ml target ranged from 6.67±5.33 to 11.63±5.57 for 4D-CT and from 1.47±0.52 to 2.12±1.60 for 4D-MRI. The Mann-Whitney U-test shows the 4D-MRI is significantly superior to 4D-CT (p=0.021) for phase-based target definition. Centroid motion error ranges were 1.35–1.25mm (4D-CT), and 0.31–0.12mm (4D-MRI). Conclusion: The k-space self-gated 4D-MRI we recently developed can accurately determine phase

  6. 4D micro-CT for cardiac and perfusion applications with view under sampling.

    PubMed

    Badea, Cristian T; Johnston, Samuel M; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G Allan

    2011-06-07

    Micro-CT is commonly used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. There is growing interest in obtaining functional measurements from 4D micro-CT. We report here strategies for 4D micro-CT with a focus on two applications: (i) cardiac imaging based on retrospective gating and (ii) pulmonary perfusion using multiple contrast injections/rotations paradigm. A dual source micro-CT system is used for image acquisition with a sampling rate of 20 projections per second. The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent. Fast scanning of free breathing mice is achieved using retrospective gating. The ECG and respiratory signals are used to sort projections into ten cardiac phases. The pulmonary perfusion protocol uses a conventional contrast agent (Isovue 370) delivered by a micro-injector in four injections separated by 2 min intervals to allow for clearance. Each injection is synchronized with the rotation of the animal, and each of the four rotations is started with an angular offset of 22.5 from the starting angle of the previous rotation. Both cardiac and perfusion protocols result in an irregular angular distribution of projections that causes significant streaking artifacts in reconstructions when using traditional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms. The reconstruction involves the use of the point spread function of the micro-CT system for each time point, and the analysis of the distribution of the reconstructed data in the Fourier domain. This enables us to correct for angular inconsistencies via deconvolution and identify regions where data is missing. The missing regions are filled with data from a high quality but temporally averaged prior image reconstructed with all available projections. Simulations indicate that deconvolution successfully removes the streaking artifacts while preserving temporal information. 4D cardiac micro-CT in a mouse was performed with adequate image quality at isotropic

  7. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a) Each application for an order under section 304(d)...

  8. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a) Each application for an order under section 304(d)...

  9. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a) Each application for an order under section 304(d)...

  10. Killing Weeds with 2,4-D. Extension Bulletin 389.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Oliver C.

    Discussed is the use of the herbicide 2,4-D. Though written for farmers and agricultural workers, the pamphlet considers turf weed control and use of 2,4-D near ornamental plants. Aspects of the use of this herbicide covered are: (1) the common forms of 2,4-D; (2) plant responses and tolerances to the herbicide; (3) dilution and concentration of…

  11. In-treatment 4D cone-beam CT with image-based respiratory phase recognition.

    PubMed

    Kida, Satoshi; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Hideomi; Imae, Toshikazu; Matsuura, Taeko; Saotome, Naoya; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Haga, Akihiro

    2012-07-01

    The use of respiration-correlated cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) appears to be crucial for implementing precise radiation therapy of lung cancer patients. The reconstruction of 4D-CBCT images requires a respiratory phase. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on an image-based phase recognition technique using normalized cross correlation (NCC). We constructed the respiratory phase by searching for a region in an adjacent projection that achieves the maximum correlation with a region in a reference projection along the cranio-caudal direction. The data on 12 lung cancer patients acquired just prior to treatment and on 3 lung cancer patients acquired during volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment were analyzed in the search for the effective area of cone-beam projection images for performing NCC with 12 combinations of registration area and segment size. The evaluation was done by a "recognition rate" defined as the ratio of the number of peak inhales detected with our method to that detected by eye (manual tracking). The average recognition rate of peak inhale with the most efficient area in the present method was 96.4%. The present method was feasible even when the diaphragm was outside the field of view. With the most efficient area, we reconstructed in-treatment 4D-CBCT by dividing the breathing signal into four phase bins; peak exhale, peak inhale, and two intermediate phases. With in-treatment 4D-CBCT images, it was possible to identify the tumor position and the tumor size in moments of inspiration and expiration, in contrast to in-treatment CBCT reconstructed with all projections.

  12. Motion-aware temporal regularization for improved 4D cone-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mory, Cyril; Janssens, Guillaume; Rit, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) of the free-breathing thorax is a valuable tool in image-guided radiation therapy of the thorax and the upper abdomen. It allows the determination of the position of a tumor throughout the breathing cycle, while only its mean position can be extracted from three-dimensional CBCT. The classical approaches are not fully satisfactory: respiration-correlated methods allow one to accurately locate high-contrast structures in any frame, but contain strong streak artifacts unless the acquisition is significantly slowed down. Motion-compensated methods can yield streak-free, but static, reconstructions. This work proposes a 4D-CBCT method that can be seen as a trade-off between respiration-correlated and motion-compensated reconstruction. It builds upon the existing reconstruction using spatial and temporal regularization (ROOSTER) and is called motion-aware ROOSTER (MA-ROOSTER). It performs temporal regularization along curved trajectories, following the motion estimated on a prior 4D CT scan. MA-ROOSTER does not involve motion-compensated forward and back projections: the input motion is used only during temporal regularization. MA-ROOSTER is compared to ROOSTER, motion-compensated Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (MC-FDK), and two respiration-correlated methods, on CBCT acquisitions of one physical phantom and two patients. It yields streak-free reconstructions, visually similar to MC-FDK, and robust information on tumor location throughout the breathing cycle. MA-ROOSTER also allows a variation of the lung tissue density during the breathing cycle, similar to that of planning CT, which is required for quantitative post-processing.

  13. SU-E-J-148: Tools for Development of 4D Proton CT

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, T; Ramos-Mendez, J; Piersimoni, P; Giacometti, V; Penfold, S; Censor, Y; Faddegon, B; Low, D; Schulte, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop tools for performing 4D proton computed tomography (CT). Methods: A suitable patient with a tumor in the right lower lobe was selected from a set of 4D CT scans. The volumetric CT images formed the basis for calculating the parameters of a breathing model that allows reconstruction of a static reference CT and CT images in each breathing phase. The images were imported into the TOPAS Monte Carlo simulation platform for simulating an experimental proton CT scan with 45 projections spaced by 4 degree intervals. Each projection acquired data for 2 seconds followed by a gantry rotation for 2 seconds without acquisition. The scan covered 180 degrees with individual protons passing through a 9-cm slab of the patient’s lung covering the moving tumor. An initial proton energy sufficient for penetrating the patient from all directions was determined. Performing the proton CT simulation, TOPAS provided output of the proton energy and coordinates registered in two planes before and after the patient, respectively. The set of projection data was then used with an iterative reconstruction algorithm to generate a volumetric proton CT image set of the static reference image and the image obtained under breathing motion, respectively. Results: An initial proton energy of 230 MeV was found to be sufficient, while for an initial energy of 200 MeV a substantial number of protons did not penetrate the patient. The reconstruction of the static reference image set provided sufficient detail for treatment planning. Conclusion: We have developed tools to perform studies of proton CT in the presence of lung motion based on the TOPAS simulation toolkit. This will allow to optimize 4D reconstruction algorithms by synchronizing the acquired proton CT data with a breathing signal and utilizing a breathing model obtained prior to the proton CT scan. This research has been supported by the National Institute Of Biomedical Imaging And Bioengineering of the National

  14. Non-local means resolution enhancement of lung 4D-CT data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wu, Guorong; Yap, Pew-Thian; Feng, Qianjin; Lian, Jun; Chen, Wufan; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-01-01

    Image resolution in 4D-CT is a crucial bottleneck that needs to be overcome for improved dose planning in radiotherapy for lung cancer. In this paper, we propose a novel patch-based algorithm to enhance the image quality of 4D-CT data. Our premise is that anatomical information missing in one phase can be recovered from complementary information embedded in other phases. We employ a patch-based mechanism to propagate information across phases for reconstruction of intermediate slices in the axial direction, where resolution is normally the lowest. Specifically, structurally-matching and spatially-nearby patches are combined for reconstruction of each patch. For greater sensitivity to anatomical nuances, we further employ a quad-tree technique to adaptively partition each slice of the image in each phase for more fine-grained refinement. Our evaluation based on a public 4D-CT lung data indicates that our algorithm gives very promising results with significantly enhanced image structures.

  15. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed...

  16. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed...

  17. 4D Printing with Mechanically Robust, Thermally Actuating Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bakarich, Shannon E; Gorkin, Robert; in het Panhuis, Marc; Spinks, Geoffrey M

    2015-06-01

    A smart valve is created by 4D printing of hydrogels that are both mechanically robust and thermally actuating. The printed hydrogels are made up of an interpenetrating network of alginate and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). 4D structures are created by printing the "dynamic" hydrogel ink alongside other static materials.

  18. Experimental investigation of irregular motion impact on 4D PET-based particle therapy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Stützer, K.; Enghardt, W.; Priegnitz, M.; Helmbrecht, S.; Bert, C.; Fiedler, F.

    2016-01-01

    Particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) is an in vivo and non-invasive imaging technique to monitor treatment delivery in particle therapy. The inevitable patient respiratory motion during irradiation causes artefacts and inaccurate activity distribution in PET images. Four-dimensional (4D) maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (4D MLEM) allows for a compensation of these effects, but has up to now been restricted to regular motion for PT-PET investigations. However, intra-fractional motion during treatment might differ from that during acquisition of the 4D-planning CT (e.g. amplitude variation, baseline drift) and therefore might induce inaccurate 4D PET reconstruction results. This study investigates the impact of different irregular analytical one-dimensional (1D) motion patterns on PT-PET imaging by means of experiments with a radioactive source and irradiated moving phantoms. Three sorting methods, namely phase sorting, equal amplitude sorting and event-based amplitude sorting, were applied to manage the PET list-mode data. The influence of these sorting methods on the motion compensating algorithm has been analysed. The event-based amplitude sorting showed a superior performance and it is applicable for irregular motions with  ⩽4 mm amplitude elongation and drift. For motion with 10 mm baseline drift, the normalised root mean square error was as high as 10.5% and a 10 mm range deviation was observed.

  19. Four-dimensional volume-of-interest reconstruction for cone-beam computed tomography-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Moiz; Balter, Peter; Pan, Tinsu

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Data sufficiency are a major problem in four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) on linear accelerator-integrated scanners for image-guided radiotherapy. Scan times must be in the range of 4-6 min to avoid undersampling artifacts. Various image reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to accommodate undersampled data acquisitions, but these algorithms are computationally expensive, may require long reconstruction times, and may require algorithm parameters to be optimized. The authors present a novel reconstruction method, 4D volume-of-interest (4D-VOI) reconstruction which suppresses undersampling artifacts and resolves lung tumor motion for undersampled 1-min scans. The 4D-VOI reconstruction is much less computationally expensive than other 4D-CBCT algorithms. Methods: The 4D-VOI method uses respiration-correlated projection data to reconstruct a four-dimensional (4D) image inside a VOI containing the moving tumor, and uncorrelated projection data to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) image outside the VOI. Anatomical motion is resolved inside the VOI and blurred outside the VOI. The authors acquired a 1-min. scan of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing a moving water-filled sphere. The authors also used previously acquired 1-min scans for two lung cancer patients who had received CBCT-guided radiation therapy. The same raw data were used to test and compare the 4D-VOI reconstruction with the standard 4D reconstruction and the McKinnon-Bates (MB) reconstruction algorithms. Results: Both the 4D-VOI and the MB reconstructions suppress nearly all the streak artifacts compared with the standard 4D reconstruction, but the 4D-VOI has 3-8 times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than the MB reconstruction. In the dynamic chest phantom study, the 4D-VOI and the standard 4D reconstructions both resolved a moving sphere with an 18 mm displacement. The 4D-VOI reconstruction shows a motion blur of only 3 mm, whereas the MB reconstruction

  20. Experimental validation of a 4D elastic registration algorithm.

    PubMed

    Leung, Corina; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Foroughi, Pezhman; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive validation study of an elastic registration algorithm for dynamic 3D ultrasound images (also known as a 4D image). The registration algorithm uses attribute vectors from both a fixed and previous moving images to perform feature-based alignment of a series of images. The 4D method reduces computational requirements and increases the effective search space for the location of corresponding features, resulting in enhanced registration speed when compared to a static 3D registration technique. Experimental analysis revealed up to 32% improvement in speed when using the 4D method, which makes the algorithm attractive for real-time applications.

  1. Predicting lower mantle heterogeneity from 4-D Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flament, Nicolas; Williams, Simon; Müller, Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Bower, Dan J.

    2016-04-01

    basal layer ˜ 4% denser than ambient mantle. Increasing convective vigour (Ra ≈ 5 x 108) or decreasing the density of the basal layer decreases both the accuracy and sensitivity of the predicted lower mantle structure. References: D. J. Bower, M. Gurnis, N. Flament, Assimilating lithosphere and slab history in 4-D Earth models. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 238, 8-22 (2015). V. Lekic, S. Cottaar, A. Dziewonski, B. Romanowicz, Cluster analysis of global lower mantle tomography: A new class of structure and implications for chemical heterogeneity. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 357, 68-77 (2012).

  2. 3D and 4D magnetic susceptibility tomography based on complex MR images

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-11-11

    Magnetic susceptibility is the physical property for T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2*MRI). The invention relates to methods for reconstructing an internal distribution (3D map) of magnetic susceptibility values, .chi. (x,y,z), of an object, from 3D T2*MRI phase images, by using Computed Inverse Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CIMRI) tomography. The CIMRI technique solves the inverse problem of the 3D convolution by executing a 3D Total Variation (TV) regularized iterative convolution scheme, using a split Bregman iteration algorithm. The reconstruction of .chi. (x,y,z) can be designed for low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass features by using a convolution kernel that is modified from the standard dipole kernel. Multiple reconstructions can be implemented in parallel, and averaging the reconstructions can suppress noise. 4D dynamic magnetic susceptibility tomography can be implemented by reconstructing a 3D susceptibility volume from a 3D phase volume by performing 3D CIMRI magnetic susceptibility tomography at each snapshot time.

  3. Graph-based retrospective 4D image construction from free-breathing MRI slice acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Ciesielski, Krzysztof C.; McDonough, Joseph M.; Mong, Andrew; Campbell, Robert M.

    2014-03-01

    4D or dynamic imaging of the thorax has many potential applications [1, 2]. CT and MRI offer sufficient speed to acquire motion information via 4D imaging. However they have different constraints and requirements. For both modalities both prospective and retrospective respiratory gating and tracking techniques have been developed [3, 4]. For pediatric imaging, x-ray radiation becomes a primary concern and MRI remains as the de facto choice. The pediatric subjects we deal with often suffer from extreme malformations of their chest wall, diaphragm, and/or spine, as such patient cooperation needed by some of the gating and tracking techniques are difficult to realize without causing patient discomfort. Moreover, we are interested in the mechanical function of their thorax in its natural form in tidal breathing. Therefore free-breathing MRI acquisition is the ideal modality of imaging for these patients. In our set up, for each coronal (or sagittal) slice position, slice images are acquired at a rate of about 200-300 ms/slice over several natural breathing cycles. This produces typically several thousands of slices which contain both the anatomic and dynamic information. However, it is not trivial to form a consistent and well defined 4D volume from these data. In this paper, we present a novel graph-based combinatorial optimization solution for constructing the best possible 4D scene from such data entirely in the digital domain. Our proposed method is purely image-based and does not need breath holding or any external surrogates or instruments to record respiratory motion or tidal volume. Both adult and children patients' data are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the reconstructed 4D scenes are smooth and consistent spatially and temporally, agreeing with known shape and motion of the lungs.

  4. Development of 4D mathematical observer models for the task-based evaluation of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Frey, Eric C.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents two 4D mathematical observer models for the detection of motion defects in 4D gated medical images. Their performance was compared with results from human observers in detecting a regional motion abnormality in simulated 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT images. The first 4D mathematical observer model extends the conventional channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) based on a set of 2D spatial channels and the second is a proposed model that uses a set of 4D space-time channels. Simulated projection data were generated using the 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom with 16 gates/cardiac cycle. The activity distribution modelled uptake of 99mTc MIBI with normal perfusion and a regional wall motion defect. An analytical projector was used in the simulation and the filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm was used in image reconstruction followed by spatial and temporal low-pass filtering with various cut-off frequencies. Then, we extracted 2D image slices from each time frame and reorganized them into a set of cine images. For the first model, we applied 2D spatial channels to the cine images and generated a set of feature vectors that were stacked for the images from different slices of the heart. The process was repeated for each of the 1,024 noise realizations, and CHO and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis methodologies were applied to the ensemble of the feature vectors to compute areas under the ROC curves (AUCs). For the second model, a set of 4D space-time channels was developed and applied to the sets of cine images to produce space-time feature vectors to which the CHO methodology was applied. The AUC values of the second model showed better agreement (Spearman’s rank correlation (SRC) coefficient = 0.8) to human observer results than those from the first model (SRC coefficient = 0.4). The agreement with human observers indicates the proposed 4D mathematical observer model provides a good predictor of the

  5. Development of 4D mathematical observer models for the task-based evaluation of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek-Soo; Frey, Eric C; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2015-04-07

    This paper presents two 4D mathematical observer models for the detection of motion defects in 4D gated medical images. Their performance was compared with results from human observers in detecting a regional motion abnormality in simulated 4D gated myocardial perfusion (MP) SPECT images. The first 4D mathematical observer model extends the conventional channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) based on a set of 2D spatial channels and the second is a proposed model that uses a set of 4D space-time channels. Simulated projection data were generated using the 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom with 16 gates/cardiac cycle. The activity distribution modelled uptake of (99m)Tc MIBI with normal perfusion and a regional wall motion defect. An analytical projector was used in the simulation and the filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm was used in image reconstruction followed by spatial and temporal low-pass filtering with various cut-off frequencies. Then, we extracted 2D image slices from each time frame and reorganized them into a set of cine images. For the first model, we applied 2D spatial channels to the cine images and generated a set of feature vectors that were stacked for the images from different slices of the heart. The process was repeated for each of the 1,024 noise realizations, and CHO and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis methodologies were applied to the ensemble of the feature vectors to compute areas under the ROC curves (AUCs). For the second model, a set of 4D space-time channels was developed and applied to the sets of cine images to produce space-time feature vectors to which the CHO methodology was applied. The AUC values of the second model showed better agreement (Spearman's rank correlation (SRC) coefficient = 0.8) to human observer results than those from the first model (SRC coefficient = 0.4). The agreement with human observers indicates the proposed 4D mathematical observer model provides a good predictor of the

  6. SU-E-J-06: A Feasibility Study On Clinical Implementation of 4D-CBCT in Lung Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y; Stanford, J; Duggar, W; Ruan, C; He, R; Yang, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) is a novel imaging technique to setup patients with pulmonary lesions in radiation therapy. This paper is to perform a feasibility study on the implementation of 4D-CBCT as image guidance for (1) SBRT and (2) Low Modulation (Low-Mod) IMRT in lung cancer treatment. Methods: Image artifacts and observers variability are evaluated by analyzing the 4D-CT QA phantom and patient 4D image data. There are two 4D-CBCT image artifacts: (1) Spatial artifact caused by the patient irregular breathing pattern will generate blurring and anatomy gap/overlap; (2) Cone beam scattering and hardening artifact will affect the image spatial and contrast resolution. The couch shift varies between 1mm to 3mm from different observers during the 4D-CBCT registration. Breath training is highly recommended to improve the respiratory regularity during CT simulation and treatment, especially for SBRT. Elekta XVI 4.5 Symmetry protocol is adopted in the patient 4DCBCT scanning and intensity-based registration. Physician adjustments on the auto-registration are involved prior to the treatment. Physician peer review on 4D-CBCT image acquisition and registration is also recommended to reduce the inter-observer variability. The average 4D-CT in reference volume coordinates is exported to MIM Vista 5.6.2 to manually fuse to the planning CT for further evaluation. Results: (1) SBRT: 4DCBCT is performed in dry-run and in each treatment fraction. Image registration and couch shift are reviewed by another physician on the 1st fraction before the treatment starts. (2) Low-Mod IMRT: 4D-CBCT is performed and peer reviewed on weekly basis. Conclusion: 4D-CBCT in SBRT dry-run can discover the ITV discrepancies caused by the low quality 4D-CT simulation. 4D-CBCT during SBRT and Low-Mod IMRT treatment provides physicians more confidence to target lung tumor and capability to evaluate inter-fractional ITV changes. More advanced 4D-CBCT scan protocol and

  7. Substitutional 4d and 5d impurities in graphene.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Lanza, Tomás; Ayuela, Andrés; Aguilera-Granja, Faustino

    2016-08-21

    We describe the structural and electronic properties of graphene doped with substitutional impurities of 4d and 5d transition metals. The adsorption energies and distances for 4d and 5d metals in graphene show similar trends for the later groups in the periodic table, which are also well-known characteristics of 3d elements. However, along earlier groups the 4d impurities in graphene show very similar adsorption energies, distances and magnetic moments to the 5d ones, which can be related to the influence of the 4d and 5d lanthanide contraction. Surprisingly, within the manganese group, the total magnetic moment of 3 μB for manganese is reduced to 1 μB for technetium and rhenium. We find that compared with 3d elements, the larger size of the 4d and 5d elements causes a high degree of hybridization with the neighbouring carbon atoms, reducing spin splitting in the d levels. It seems that the magnetic adjustment of graphene could be significantly different if 4d or 5d impurities are used instead of 3d impurities.

  8. Oscillator strengths and branching fractions of 4d75p-4d75s Rh II transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2017-01-01

    This work reports semi-empirical determination of oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and branching fractions for Rh II 4d75p-4d75s transitions in a wide wavelength range. The angular coefficients of the transition matrix, beforehand obtained in pure SL coupling with help of Racah algebra are transformed into intermediate coupling using eigenvector amplitudes of these two configuration levels determined for this purpose; The transition integral was treated as free parameter in the least squares fit to experimental oscillator strength (gf) values found in literature. The extracted value: <4d75s|r1|4d75p> =2.7426 ± 0.0007 is slightly smaller than that computed by means of ab-initio method. Subsequently to oscillator strength evaluations, transition probabilities and branching fractions were deduced and compared to those obtained experimentally or through another approach like pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock model including core-polarization effects.

  9. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Buhamrah, Asma; Schneider, Abraham; Lin, Yi-Ling; Zhou, Hua; Bugshan, Amr; Basile, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects. PMID:26910109

  10. Soil matrix and macropore biodegradation of 2,4-D

    SciTech Connect

    Pivetz, B.E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    1995-07-01

    Preferential flow of pesticides in macropores can lead to decreased travel times through the vadose zone and increased groundwater contamination. Macropores, however, may present a favorable environment for biodegradation because of greater oxygen, nutrient, and substrate supply, and higher microbial populations in earthworm burrows, compared to the soil matrix. The biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was measured in macropores and soil matrix of packed soil columns (7.0-cm diam., 10-cm length) and undisturbed cores contained as well-defined artificial macropore and the undisturbed cores contained earthworm-burrow macropores. A 50 {mu}g/L 2,4-D solution was continuously applied to the unsaturated soil surface and breakthrough curves (BTCs) indicating pesticide loss in the effluent were obtained from the soil matrix and macropore flow paths. Biodegradation rates were calculated separately for each flow path by comparing the BTCs to BTCs representing abiotic conditions, and dividing the 2,4-D loss by the travel time through each flow path. The biodegradation rates increased with time in both flow paths, and the final biodegradation rate in the macropore region surpassed that of the matrix, presumably because of increased microbial populations in the macropore. Complete loss of the 2,4-D in both flow paths was observed after continuous application of 2,4-D for 400 h, with maximum column-averaged 2,4-D loss rates of 0.879 {mu}g/(L h) in the matrix and 1.073 {mu}g/(L h) in the macropore. Biodegradation of 2,4-D was also observed in the macropore and matrix regions of the undisturbed soil cores. 19 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Buhamrah, Asma; Schneider, Abraham; Lin, Yi-Ling; Zhou, Hua; Bugshan, Amr; Basile, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects.

  12. Accuracy of respiratory motion measurement of 4D-MRI: A comparison between cine and sequential acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Rhee, DongJoo; Cai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors have recently developed a cine-mode T2*/T1-weighted 4D-MRI technique and a sequential-mode T2-weighted 4D-MRI technique for imaging respiratory motion. This study aims at investigating which 4D-MRI image acquisition mode, cine or sequential, provides more accurate measurement of organ motion during respiration. Methods: A 4D digital extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) human phantom with a hypothesized tumor was used to simulate the image acquisition and the 4D-MRI reconstruction. The respiratory motion was controlled by the given breathing signal profiles. The tumor was manipulated to move continuously with the surrounding tissue. The motion trajectories were measured from both sequential- and cine-mode 4D-MRI images. The measured trajectories were compared with the average trajectory calculated from the input profiles, which was used as references. The error in 4D-MRI tumor motion trajectory (E) was determined. In addition, the corresponding respiratory motion amplitudes of all the selected 2D images for 4D reconstruction were recorded. Each of the amplitude was compared with the amplitude of its associated bin on the average breathing curve. The mean differences from the average breathing curve across all slice positions (D) were calculated. A total of 500 simulated respiratory profiles with a wide range of irregularity (Ir) were used to investigate the relationship between D and Ir. Furthermore, statistical analysis of E and D using XCAT controlled by 20 cancer patients’ breathing profiles was conducted. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was conducted to compare two modes. Results: D increased faster for cine-mode (D = 1.17 × Ir + 0.23) than sequential-mode (D = 0.47 × Ir + 0.23) as irregularity increased. For the XCAT study using 20 cancer patients’ breathing profiles, the median E values were significantly different: 0.12 and 0.10 cm for cine- and sequential-modes, respectively, with a p-value of 0.02. The median D values were significantly

  13. True 4D Image Denoising on the GPU.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Anders; Andersson, Mats; Knutsson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The use of image denoising techniques is an important part of many medical imaging applications. One common application is to improve the image quality of low-dose (noisy) computed tomography (CT) data. While 3D image denoising previously has been applied to several volumes independently, there has not been much work done on true 4D image denoising, where the algorithm considers several volumes at the same time. The problem with 4D image denoising, compared to 2D and 3D denoising, is that the computational complexity increases exponentially. In this paper we describe a novel algorithm for true 4D image denoising, based on local adaptive filtering, and how to implement it on the graphics processing unit (GPU). The algorithm was applied to a 4D CT heart dataset of the resolution 512  × 512  × 445  × 20. The result is that the GPU can complete the denoising in about 25 minutes if spatial filtering is used and in about 8 minutes if FFT-based filtering is used. The CPU implementation requires several days of processing time for spatial filtering and about 50 minutes for FFT-based filtering. The short processing time increases the clinical value of true 4D image denoising significantly.

  14. 4D rotational x-ray imaging of wrist joint dynamic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Carelsen, Bart; Bakker, Niels H.; Strackee, Simon D.; Boon, Sjirk N.; Maas, Mario; Sabczynski, Joerg; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.; Streekstra, Geert J.

    2005-09-15

    Current methods for imaging joint motion are limited to either two-dimensional (2D) video fluoroscopy, or to animated motions from a series of static three-dimensional (3D) images. 3D movement patterns can be detected from biplane fluoroscopy images matched with computed tomography images. This involves several x-ray modalities and sophisticated 2D to 3D matching for the complex wrist joint. We present a method for the acquisition of dynamic 3D images of a moving joint. In our method a 3D-rotational x-ray (3D-RX) system is used to image a cyclically moving joint. The cyclic motion is synchronized to the x-ray acquisition to yield multiple sets of projection images, which are reconstructed to a series of time resolved 3D images, i.e., four-dimensional rotational x ray (4D-RX). To investigate the obtained image quality parameters the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function (PSF) via the edge spread function and the contrast to noise ratio between air and phantom were determined on reconstructions of a bullet and rod phantom, using 4D-RX as well as stationary 3D-RX images. The CNR in volume reconstructions based on 251 projection images in the static situation and on 41 and 34 projection images of a moving phantom were 6.9, 3.0, and 2.9, respectively. The average FWHM of the PSF of these same images was, respectively, 1.1, 1.7, and 2.2 mm orthogonal to the motion and parallel to direction of motion 0.6, 0.7, and 1.0 mm. The main deterioration of 4D-RX images compared to 3D-RX images is due to the low number of projection images used and not to the motion of the object. Using 41 projection images seems the best setting for the current system. Experiments on a postmortem wrist show the feasibility of the method for imaging 3D dynamic joint motion. We expect that 4D-RX will pave the way to improved assessment of joint disorders by detection of 3D dynamic motion patterns in joints.

  15. Motion management with phase-adapted 4D-optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohadani, Omid; Seco, Joao; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Cancer treatment with ionizing radiation is often compromised by organ motion, in particular for lung cases. Motion uncertainties can significantly degrade an otherwise optimized treatment plan. We present a spatiotemporal optimization method, which takes into account all phases of breathing via the corresponding 4D-CTs and provides a 4D-optimal plan that can be delivered throughout all breathing phases. Monte Carlo dose calculations are employed to warrant for highest dosimetric accuracy, as pertinent to study motion effects in lung. We demonstrate the performance of this optimization method with clinical lung cancer cases and compare the outcomes to conventional gating techniques. We report significant improvements in target coverage and in healthy tissue sparing at a comparable computational expense. Furthermore, we show that the phase-adapted 4D-optimized plans are robust against irregular breathing, as opposed to gating. This technique has the potential to yield a higher delivery efficiency and a decisively shorter delivery time.

  16. 3D/4D sonography - any safety problem.

    PubMed

    Pooh, Ritsuko K; Maeda, Kazuo; Kurjak, Asim; Sen, Cihat; Ebrashy, Alaa; Adra, Abdallah; Dayyabu, Aliyu Labaran; Wataganara, Tuangsit; de Sá, Renato Augusto Moreira; Stanojevic, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Gray-scale image data are processed in 3D ultrasound by repeated scans of multiple planes within a few seconds to achieve one surface rendering image and three perpendicular plane images. The 4D image is achieved by repeating 3D images in short intervals, i.e. 3D and 4D ultrasound are based on simple B-mode images. During 3D/4D acquisition, a fetus in utero is exposed by ultrasound beam for only a few seconds, and it is as short as real-time B-mode scanning. Therefore, simple 3D imaging is as safe as a simple B-mode scan. The 4D ultrasound is also as safe as a simple B-mode scan, but the ultrasound exposure should be shorter than 30 min. The thermal index (TI) and mechanical index (MI) should both be lower than 1.0, and the ultrasound study is regulated by the Doppler ultrasound if it is combined with simple 3D or 4D ultrasound. Recently, some articles have reported the functional changes of animal fetal brain neuronal cells and liver cell apoptosis with Doppler ultrasound. We discuss cell apoptosis by ultrasound in this report. Diagnostic ultrasound safety is achieved by controlling the output pulse and continuous ultrasound waves using thermal and mechanical indices, which should be <1.0 in abdominal and transvaginal scan, pulsed Doppler, as well as 3D and 4D ultrasound. The lowest spatial peak temporal average (SPTA) intensity of the ultrasound to suppress cultured cell growth is 240 mW/cm2, below which no ultrasound effect has been reported. An ultrasound user must be trained to recognize the ultrasound bioeffects; thermal and mechanical indices, and how to reduce these when they are higher than 1.0 on the monitor display; and guide the proper use of the ultrasound under the ALARA principle, because the user is responsible for ensuring ultrasound safety.

  17. 4D micro-CT for cardiac and perfusion applications with view under sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, Cristian T.; Johnston, Samuel M.; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan

    2011-06-01

    Micro-CT is commonly used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. There is growing interest in obtaining functional measurements from 4D micro-CT. We report here strategies for 4D micro-CT with a focus on two applications: (i) cardiac imaging based on retrospective gating and (ii) pulmonary perfusion using multiple contrast injections/rotations paradigm. A dual source micro-CT system is used for image acquisition with a sampling rate of 20 projections per second. The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent. Fast scanning of free breathing mice is achieved using retrospective gating. The ECG and respiratory signals are used to sort projections into ten cardiac phases. The pulmonary perfusion protocol uses a conventional contrast agent (Isovue 370) delivered by a micro-injector in four injections separated by 2 min intervals to allow for clearance. Each injection is synchronized with the rotation of the animal, and each of the four rotations is started with an angular offset of 22.5 from the starting angle of the previous rotation. Both cardiac and perfusion protocols result in an irregular angular distribution of projections that causes significant streaking artifacts in reconstructions when using traditional filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms. The reconstruction involves the use of the point spread function of the micro-CT system for each time point, and the analysis of the distribution of the reconstructed data in the Fourier domain. This enables us to correct for angular inconsistencies via deconvolution and identify regions where data is missing. The missing regions are filled with data from a high quality but temporally averaged prior image reconstructed with all available projections. Simulations indicate that deconvolution successfully removes the streaking artifacts while preserving temporal information. 4D cardiac micro-CT in a mouse was performed with adequate image quality at isotropic

  18. The 4-D approach to visual control of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1994-01-01

    Development of a 4-D approach to dynamic machine vision is described. Core elements of this method are spatio-temporal models oriented towards objects and laws of perspective projection in a foward mode. Integration of multi-sensory measurement data was achieved through spatio-temporal models as invariants for object recognition. Situation assessment and long term predictions were allowed through maintenance of a symbolic 4-D image of processes involving objects. Behavioral capabilities were easily realized by state feedback and feed-foward control.

  19. 4D ultrasound imaging - ethically justifiable in India?

    PubMed

    Indiran, Venkatraman

    2017-01-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound (real-time volume sonography), which has been used in the West since the last decade for the determination of gender as well as for bonding and entertainment of the parents, has become widely available in India in this decade. Here, I would like to discuss the ethical issues associated with 4D ultrasonography in India. These are self-referral, the use of the technology for non-medical indications, a higher possibility of the disclosure of the foetus' gender and safety concerns.

  20. Emerging Applications of Abdominal 4D Flow MRI

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Francois, Christopher J.; Wieben, Oliver; Reeder, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Comprehensive assessment of abdominal hemodynamics is crucial for many clinical diagnoses but is challenged by a tremendous complexity of anatomy, normal physiology, and a wide variety of pathologic abnormalities. This article introduces 4D flow MRI as a powerful technique for noninvasive assessment of the hemodynamics of abdominal vascular territories. CONCLUSION Four-dimensional flow MRI provides clinicians with a more extensive and straightforward approach to evaluate disorders that affect blood flow in the abdomen. This review presents a series of clinical cases to illustrate the utility of 4D flow MRI in the comprehensive assessment of the abdominal circulation. PMID:27187681

  1. Accurate visualization and quantification of coronary vasculature by 3D/4D fusion from biplane angiography and intravascular ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Andreas; Mitchell, Steven C.; Olszewski, Mark E.; Long, Ryan M.; Sonka, Milan

    2001-01-01

    In the rapidly evolving field of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for tissue characterization and visualization, the assessment of vessel morphology still lacks a geometrically correct 3D reconstruction. The IVUS frames are usually stacked up to form a straight vessel, neglecting curvature and the axial twisting of the catheter during the pullback. This paper presents a comprehensive system for geometrically correct reconstruction of IVUS images by fusion with biplane angiography, thus combining the advantages of both modalities. Vessel cross-section and tissue characteristics are obtained form IVUS, while the 3D locations are derived by geometrical reconstruction from the angiographic projections. ECG-based timing ensures a proper match of the image data with the respective heart phase. The fusion is performed for each heart phase individually, thus yielding the 4-D data as a set of 3-D reconstructions.

  2. Scatter correction of vessel dropout behind highly attenuating structures in 4D-DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermus, James; Mistretta, Charles; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.

    2015-03-01

    In Computed Tomographic (CT) image reconstruction for 4 dimensional digital subtraction angiography (4D-DSA), loss of vessel contrast has been observed behind highly attenuating anatomy, such as large contrast filled aneurysms. Although this typically occurs only in a limited range of projection angles, the observed contrast time course can be altered. In this work we propose an algorithm to correct for highly attenuating anatomy within the fill projection data, i.e. aneurysms. The algorithm uses a 3D-SA volume to create a correction volume that is multiplied by the 4D-DSA volume in order to correct for signal dropout within the 4D-DSA volume. The algorithm was designed to correct for highly attenuating material in the fill volume only, however with alterations to a single step of the algorithm, artifacts due to highly attenuating materials in the mask volume (i.e. dental implants) can be mitigated as well. We successfully applied our algorithm to a case of vessel dropout due to the presence of a large attenuating aneurysm. The performance was qualified visually as the affected vessel no longer dropped out on corrected 4D-DSA time frames. The correction was quantified by plotting the signal intensity along the vessel. Our analysis demonstrated our correction does not alter vessel signal values outside of the vessel dropout region but does increase the vessel values within the dropout region as expected. We have demonstrated that this correction algorithm acts to correct vessel dropout in areas with highly attenuating materials.

  3. Resolution enhancement of lung 4D-CT via group-sparsity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, Arnav; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang; Lian, Jun

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: 4D-CT typically delivers more accurate information about anatomical structures in the lung, over 3D-CT, due to its ability to capture visual information of the lung motion across different respiratory phases. This helps to better determine the dose during radiation therapy for lung cancer. However, a critical concern with 4D-CT that substantially compromises this advantage is the low superior-inferior resolution due to less number of acquired slices, in order to control the CT radiation dose. To address this limitation, the authors propose an approach to reconstruct missing intermediate slices, so as to improve the superior-inferior resolution.Methods: In this method the authors exploit the observation that sampling information across respiratory phases in 4D-CT can be complimentary due to lung motion. The authors’ approach uses this locally complimentary information across phases in a patch-based sparse-representation framework. Moreover, unlike some recent approaches that treat local patches independently, the authors’ approach employs the group-sparsity framework that imposes neighborhood and similarity constraints between patches. This helps in mitigating the trade-off between noise robustness and structure preservation, which is an important consideration in resolution enhancement. The authors discuss the regularizing ability of group-sparsity, which helps in reducing the effect of noise and enables better structural localization and enhancement.Results: The authors perform extensive experiments on the publicly available DIR-Lab Lung 4D-CT dataset [R. Castillo, E. Castillo, R. Guerra, V. Johnson, T. McPhail, A. Garg, and T. Guerrero, “A framework for evaluation of deformable image registration spatial accuracy using large landmark point sets,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 1849–1870 (2009)]. First, the authors carry out empirical parametric analysis of some important parameters in their approach. The authors then demonstrate, qualitatively as well as

  4. A phantom for testing of 4D-CT for radiotherapy of small lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, L.; Kron, T.; Taylor, M. L.; Callahan, J.; Franich, R. D.

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: The use of time-resolved four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) in radiotherapy requires strict quality assurance to ensure the accuracy of motion management protocols. The aim of this work was to design and test a phantom capable of large amplitude motion for use in 4D-CT, with particular interest in small lesions typical for stereotactic body radiotherapy. Methods: The phantom of 'see-saw' design is light weight, capable of including various sample materials and compatible with several surrogate marker signal acquisition systems. It is constructed of polymethylmethacrylate (Perspex) and its movement is controlled via a dc motor and drive wheel. It was tested using two CT scanners with different 4D acquisition methods: the Philips Brilliance Big Bore CT (helical scan, pressure belt) and a General Electric Discovery STE PET/CT (axial scan, infrared marker). Amplitudes ranging from 1.5 to 6.0 cm and frequencies of up to 40 cycles per minute were used to study the effect of motion on image quality. Maximum intensity projections (MIPs), as well as average intensity projections (AIPs) of moving objects were investigated and their quality dependence on the number of phase reconstruction bins assessed. Results: CT number discrepancies between moving and stationary objects were found to have no systematic dependence on amplitude, frequency, or specific interphase variability. MIP-delineated amplitudes of motion were found to match physical phantom amplitudes to within 2 mm for all motion scenarios tested. Objects undergoing large amplitude motions (>3.0 cm) were shown to cause artefacts in MIP and AIP projections when ten phase bins were assigned. This problem can be mitigated by increasing the number of phase bins in a 4D-CT scan. Conclusions: The phantom was found to be a suitable tool for evaluating the image quality of 4D-CT motion management technology, as well as providing a quality assurance tool for intercenter/intervendor testing of commercial 4D

  5. SU-D-18C-01: A Novel 4D-MRI Technology Based On K-Space Retrospective Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Current 4D-MRI techniques lack sufficient temporal/spatial resolution and consistent tumor contrast. To overcome these limitations, this study presents the development and initial evaluation of an entirely new framework of 4D-MRI based on k-space retrospective sorting. Methods: An important challenge of the proposed technique is to determine the number of repeated scans(NR) required to obtain sufficient k-space data for 4D-MRI. To do that, simulations using 29 cancer patients' respiratory profiles were performed to derive the relationship between data acquisition completeness(Cp) and NR, also relationship between NR(Cp=95%) and the following factors: total slice(NS), respiratory phase bin length(Lb), frame rate(fr), resolution(R) and image acquisition starting-phase(P0). To evaluate our technique, a computer simulation study on a 4D digital human phantom (XCAT) were conducted with regular breathing (fr=0.5Hz; R=256×256). A 2D echo planer imaging(EPI) MRI sequence were assumed to acquire raw k-space data, with respiratory signal and acquisition time for each k-space data line recorded simultaneously. K-space data was re-sorted based on respiratory phases. To evaluate 4D-MRI image quality, tumor trajectories were measured and compared with the input signal. Mean relative amplitude difference(D) and cross-correlation coefficient(CC) are calculated. Finally, phase-sharing sliding window technique was applied to investigate the feasibility of generating ultra-fast 4D-MRI. Result: Cp increased with NR(Cp=100*[1-exp(-0.19*NR)], when NS=30, Lb=100%/6). NR(Cp=95%) was inversely-proportional to Lb (r=0.97), but independent of other factors. 4D-MRI on XCAT demonstrated highly accurate motion information (D=0.67%, CC=0.996) with much less artifacts than those on image-based sorting 4D-MRI. Ultra-fast 4D-MRI with an apparent temporal resolution of 10 frames/second was reconstructed using the phase-sharing sliding window technique. Conclusions: A novel 4D

  6. 4D numerical observer for lesion detection in respiratory-gated PET

    SciTech Connect

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Li, Quanzheng; Ouyang, Jinsong; El Fakhri, Georges; Trott, Cathryn M.; Hoog, Christopher; Petibon, Yoann; Laine, Andrew F.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography protocols reduce lesion smearing and improve lesion detection through a synchronized acquisition of emission data. However, an objective assessment of image quality of the improvement gained from respiratory-gated PET is mainly limited to a three-dimensional (3D) approach. This work proposes a 4D numerical observer that incorporates both spatial and temporal informations for detection tasks in pulmonary oncology. Methods: The authors propose a 4D numerical observer constructed with a 3D channelized Hotelling observer for the spatial domain followed by a Hotelling observer for the temporal domain. Realistic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose activity distributions were simulated using a 4D extended cardiac torso anthropomorphic phantom including 12 spherical lesions at different anatomical locations (lower, upper, anterior, and posterior) within the lungs. Simulated data based on Monte Carlo simulation were obtained using GEANT4 application for tomographic emission (GATE). Fifty noise realizations of six respiratory-gated PET frames were simulated by GATE using a model of the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner geometry. PET sinograms of the thorax background and pulmonary lesions that were simulated separately were merged to generate different conditions of the lesions to the background (e.g., lesion contrast and motion). A conventional ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction (5 iterations and 6 subsets) was used to obtain: (1) gated, (2) nongated, and (3) motion-corrected image volumes (a total of 3200 subimage volumes: 2400 gated, 400 nongated, and 400 motion-corrected). Lesion-detection signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured in different lesion-to-background contrast levels (3.5, 8.0, 9.0, and 20.0), lesion diameters (10.0, 13.0, and 16.0 mm), and respiratory motion displacements (17.6–31.3 mm). The proposed 4D numerical observer applied on multiple-gated images was

  7. Enterococcus faecalis promotes osteoclastogenesis and semaphorin 4D expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Deng, Zuhui; Seneviratne, Chaminda J; Cheung, Gary S P; Jin, Lijian; Zhao, Baohong; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-10-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is considered a major bacterial pathogen implicated in endodontic infections and contributes considerably to periapical periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms by which E. faecalis accounts for the bone destruction in periapical periodontitis in vitro. Osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells were treated with E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and a wild strain of E. faecalis derived clinically from an infected root canal. The results showed that, to some extent, E. faecalis induced the RAW264.7 cells to form tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated osteoclast-like cells. This pathogen markedly stimulated RAW264.7 cells to express semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), which inhibits bone formation. Once RAW264.7 cells were primed by low-dose receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), E. faecalis could significantly increase the production of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and up-regulate the expression of osteoclast-specific markers, including NFATc1, TRAP and cathepsin K. Both p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways were activated by E. faecalis in RANKL-primed RAW264.7 cells, and meanwhile the expression of Sema4D was highly increased. In conclusion, E. faecalis may greatly contribute to the bone resorption in periapical periodontitis by promoting RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis and expression of Sema4D through activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways.

  8. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4 - D ) ; CASRN 94 - 75 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  9. 4D MR imaging using robust internal respiratory signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, CheukKai; Wen, Zhifei; Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, R. H. N.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Beddar, Sam

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using internal respiratory (IR) surrogates to sort four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance (MR) images. The 4D MR images were constructed by acquiring fast 2D cine MR images sequentially, with each slice scanned for more than one breathing cycle. The 4D volume was then sorted retrospectively using the IR signal. In this study, we propose to use multiple low-frequency components in the Fourier space as well as the anterior body boundary as potential IR surrogates. From these potential IR surrogates, we used a clustering algorithm to identify those that best represented the respiratory pattern to derive the IR signal. A study with healthy volunteers was performed to assess the feasibility of the proposed IR signal. We compared this proposed IR signal with the respiratory signal obtained using respiratory bellows. Overall, 99% of the IR signals matched the bellows signals. The average difference between the end inspiration times in the IR signal and bellows signal was 0.18 s in this cohort of matching signals. For the acquired images corresponding to the other 1% of non-matching signal pairs, the respiratory motion shown in the images was coherent with the respiratory phases determined by the IR signal, but not the bellows signal. This suggested that the IR signal determined by the proposed method could potentially correct the faulty bellows signal. The sorted 4D images showed minimal mismatched artefacts and potential clinical applicability. The proposed IR signal therefore provides a feasible alternative to effectively sort MR images in 4D.

  10. Combined convective and diffusive simulations: VERB-4D comparison with 17 March 2013 Van Allen Probes observations: VERB-4D

    SciTech Connect

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Kellerman, Adam C.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; Spence, Harlan E.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Baker, Daniel N.

    2015-11-19

    Our study focused on understanding the coupling between different electron populations in the inner magnetosphere and the various physical processes that determine evolution of electron fluxes at different energies. Observations during the 17 March 2013 storm and simulations with a newly developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt-4D (VERB-4D) are presented. This analysis of the drift trajectories of the energetic and relativistic electrons shows that electron trajectories at transitional energies with a first invariant on the scale of ~100 MeV/G may resemble ring current or relativistic electron trajectories depending on the level of geomagnetic activity. Simulations with the VERB-4D code including convection, radial diffusion, and energy diffusion are presented. Sensitivity simulations including various physical processes show how different acceleration mechanisms contribute to the energization of energetic electrons at transitional energies. In particular, the range of energies where inward transport is strongly influenced by both convection and radial diffusion are studied. Our results of the 4-D simulations are compared to Van Allen Probes observations at a range of energies including source, seed, and core populations of the energetic and relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere.

  11. Combined convective and diffusive simulations: VERB-4D comparison with 17 March 2013 Van Allen Probes observations: VERB-4D

    DOE PAGES

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Kellerman, Adam C.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; ...

    2015-11-19

    Our study focused on understanding the coupling between different electron populations in the inner magnetosphere and the various physical processes that determine evolution of electron fluxes at different energies. Observations during the 17 March 2013 storm and simulations with a newly developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt-4D (VERB-4D) are presented. This analysis of the drift trajectories of the energetic and relativistic electrons shows that electron trajectories at transitional energies with a first invariant on the scale of ~100 MeV/G may resemble ring current or relativistic electron trajectories depending on the level of geomagnetic activity. Simulations with the VERB-4D code including convection,more » radial diffusion, and energy diffusion are presented. Sensitivity simulations including various physical processes show how different acceleration mechanisms contribute to the energization of energetic electrons at transitional energies. In particular, the range of energies where inward transport is strongly influenced by both convection and radial diffusion are studied. Our results of the 4-D simulations are compared to Van Allen Probes observations at a range of energies including source, seed, and core populations of the energetic and relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere.« less

  12. Improved Respiratory Navigator Gating for Thoracic 4D flow MRI

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, Pim; Semaan, Edouard; Schnell, Susanne; Giri, Shivraman; Stankovic, Zoran; Carr, James; Barker, Alex J.; Markl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Thoracic and abdominal 4D flow MRI is typically acquired in combination with navigator respiration control which can result in highly variable scan efficiency (Seff) and thus total scan time due to inter-individual variability in breathing patterns. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of an improved respiratory control strategy based on diaphragm navigator gating with fixed Seff, respiratory driven phase encoding, and a navigator training phase. Methods 4D flow MRI of the thoracic aorta was performed in 10 healthy subjects at 1.5T and 3T systems for the in-vivo assessment of aortic time-resolved 3D blood flow velocities. For each subject, four 4D flow scans (1: conventional navigator gating, 2–4: new implementation with fixed Seff =60%, 80% and 100%) were acquired. Data analysis included semi-quantitative evaluation of image quality of the 4D flow magnitude images (image quality grading on a four point scale), 3D segmentation of the thoracic aorta, and voxel-by-voxel comparisons of systolic 3D flow velocity vector fields between scans. Results Conventional navigator gating resulted in variable Seff = 74±13% (range = 56% – 100%) due to inter-individual variability of respiration patterns. For scans 2–4, the the new navigator implementation was able to achieve predictable total scan times with stable Seff, only depending on heart rate. Semi- and fully quantitative analysis of image quality in 4D flow magnitude images was similar for the new navigator scheme compared to conventional navigator gating. For aortic systolic 3D velocities, good agreement was found between all new navigator settings (scan 2–4) with the conventional navigator gating (scan 1) with best performance for Seff = 80% (mean difference = −0.01; limits od agreement = 0.23, Pearson’s ρ=0.89, p <0.001). No significant differences for image quality or 3D systolic velocities were found for 1.5T compared to 3T. Conclusions The findings of this study demonstrate the

  13. SU-C-9A-06: The Impact of CT Image Used for Attenuation Correction in 4D-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Y; Bowsher, J; Yan, S; Cai, J; Das, S; Yin, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the appropriateness of using 3D non-gated CT image for attenuation correction (AC) in a 4D-PET (gated PET) imaging protocol used in radiotherapy treatment planning simulation. Methods: The 4D-PET imaging protocol in a Siemens PET/CT simulator (Biograph mCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Hoffman Estates, IL) was evaluated. CIRS Dynamic Thorax Phantom (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA) with a moving glass sphere (8 mL) in the middle of its thorax portion was used in the experiments. The glass was filled with {sup 18}F-FDG and was in a longitudinal motion derived from a real patient breathing pattern. Varian RPM system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was used for respiratory gating. Both phase-gating and amplitude-gating methods were tested. The clinical imaging protocol was modified to use three different CT images for AC in 4D-PET reconstruction: first is to use a single-phase CT image to mimic actual clinical protocol (single-CT-PET); second is to use the average intensity projection CT (AveIP-CT) derived from 4D-CT scanning (AveIP-CT-PET); third is to use 4D-CT image to do the phase-matched AC (phase-matching- PET). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) and volume of the moving target (glass sphere) with threshold of 40% SUVmax were calculated for comparison between 4D-PET images derived with different AC methods. Results: The SUVmax varied 7.3%±6.9% over the breathing cycle in single-CT-PET, compared to 2.5%±2.8% in AveIP-CT-PET and 1.3%±1.2% in phasematching PET. The SUVmax in single-CT-PET differed by up to 15% from those in phase-matching-PET. The target volumes measured from single- CT-PET images also presented variations up to 10% among different phases of 4D PET in both phase-gating and amplitude-gating experiments. Conclusion: Attenuation correction using non-gated CT in 4D-PET imaging is not optimal process for quantitative analysis. Clinical 4D-PET imaging protocols should consider phase-matched 4D-CT image if available to achieve better accuracy.

  14. SU-E-T-222: Computational Optimization of Monte Carlo Simulation On 4D Treatment Planning Using the Cloud Computing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study evaluated the efficiency of 4D lung radiation treatment planning using Monte Carlo simulation on the cloud. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code was used in dose calculation on the 4D-CT image set. Methods: 4D lung radiation treatment plan was created by the DOSCTP linked to the cloud, based on the Amazon elastic compute cloud platform. Dose calculation was carried out by Monte Carlo simulation on the 4D-CT image set on the cloud, and results were sent to the FFD4D image deformation program for dose reconstruction. The dependence of computing time for treatment plan on the number of compute node was optimized with variations of the number of CT image set in the breathing cycle and dose reconstruction time of the FFD4D. Results: It is found that the dependence of computing time on the number of compute node was affected by the diminishing return of the number of node used in Monte Carlo simulation. Moreover, the performance of the 4D treatment planning could be optimized by using smaller than 10 compute nodes on the cloud. The effects of the number of image set and dose reconstruction time on the dependence of computing time on the number of node were not significant, as more than 15 compute nodes were used in Monte Carlo simulations. Conclusion: The issue of long computing time in 4D treatment plan, requiring Monte Carlo dose calculations in all CT image sets in the breathing cycle, can be solved using the cloud computing technology. It is concluded that the optimized number of compute node selected in simulation should be between 5 and 15, as the dependence of computing time on the number of node is significant.

  15. A new spin foam model for 4D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Krasnov, Kirill

    2008-06-01

    Starting from Plebanski formulation of gravity as a constrained BF theory we propose a new spin foam model for 4D Riemannian quantum gravity that generalizes the well-known Barrett Crane model and resolves the inherent to it ultra-locality problem. The BF formulation of 4D gravity possesses two sectors: gravitational and topological ones. The model presented here is shown to give a quantization of the gravitational sector, and is dual to the recently proposed spin foam model of Engle et al which, we show, corresponds to the topological sector. Our methods allow us to introduce the Immirzi parameter into the framework of spin foam quantization. We generalize some of our considerations to the Lorentzian setting and obtain a new spin foam model in that context as well.

  16. 4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, M. W.; Rothenberg, F.; Roy, D.; Nikolski, V. P.; Hu, Z.; Watanabe, M.; Wilson, D. L.; Efimov, I. R.; Rollins, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous imaging of very early embryonic heart structure and function has technical limitations of spatial and temporal resolution. We have developed a gated technique using optical coherence tomography (OCT) that can rapidly image beating embryonic hearts in four-dimensions (4D), at high spatial resolution (10-15 μm), and with a depth penetration of 1.5 - 2.0 mm that is suitable for the study of early embryonic hearts. We acquired data from paced, excised, embryonic chicken and mouse hearts using gated sampling and employed image processing techniques to visualize the hearts in 4D and measure physiologic parameters such as cardiac volume, ejection fraction, and wall thickness. This technique is being developed to longitudinally investigate the physiology of intact embryonic hearts and events that lead to congenital heart defects.

  17. Intelligent Vehicle Systems: A 4D/RCS Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, Raj

    2007-04-01

    This book presents new research on autonomous mobility capabilities and shows how technological advances can be anticipated in the coming two decades. An in-depth description is presented on the theoretical foundations and engineering approaches that enable these capabilities. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the 4D/RCS reference model architecture and design methodology that has proven successful in guiding the development of autonomous mobility systems. Chapters 2 through 7 provide more detailed descriptions of research that has been conducted and algorithms that have been developed to implement the various aspects of the 4D/RCS reference model architecture and design methodology. Chapters 8 and 9 discuss applications, performance measures, and standards. Chapter 10 provides a history of Army and DARPA research in autonomous ground mobility. Chapter 11 provides a perspective on the potential future developments in autonomous mobility.

  18. 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Dyverfeldt, Petter; Bissell, Malenka; Barker, Alex J; Bolger, Ann F; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino; Francios, Christopher J; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Geiger, Julia; Giese, Daniel; Hope, Michael D; Kilner, Philip J; Kozerke, Sebastian; Myerson, Saul; Neubauer, Stefan; Wieben, Oliver; Markl, Michael

    2015-08-10

    Pulsatile blood flow through the cavities of the heart and great vessels is time-varying and multidirectional. Access to all regions, phases and directions of cardiovascular flows has formerly been limited. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has enabled more comprehensive access to such flows, with typical spatial resolution of 1.5×1.5×1.5 - 3×3×3 mm(3), typical temporal resolution of 30-40 ms, and acquisition times in the order of 5 to 25 min. This consensus paper is the work of physicists, physicians and biomedical engineers, active in the development and implementation of 4D Flow CMR, who have repeatedly met to share experience and ideas. The paper aims to assist understanding of acquisition and analysis methods, and their potential clinical applications with a focus on the heart and greater vessels. We describe that 4D Flow CMR can be clinically advantageous because placement of a single acquisition volume is straightforward and enables flow through any plane across it to be calculated retrospectively and with good accuracy. We also specify research and development goals that have yet to be satisfactorily achieved. Derived flow parameters, generally needing further development or validation for clinical use, include measurements of wall shear stress, pressure difference, turbulent kinetic energy, and intracardiac flow components. The dependence of measurement accuracy on acquisition parameters is considered, as are the uses of different visualization strategies for appropriate representation of time-varying multidirectional flow fields. Finally, we offer suggestions for more consistent, user-friendly implementation of 4D Flow CMR acquisition and data handling with a view to multicenter studies and more widespread adoption of the approach in routine clinical investigations.

  19. Repairing Stevenson's step in the 4d Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, Janos; Niedermayer, Ferenc; Weisz, Peter

    2006-05-01

    In a recent paper Stevenson claimed that analysis of the data on the wave function renormalization constant near the critical point of the 4d Ising model is not consistent with analytical expectations. Here we present data with improved statistics and show that the results are indeed consistent with conventional wisdom once one takes into account the uncertainty of lattice artifacts in the analytical computations.

  20. Phosphodiesterase 4D gene polymorphisms in sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chen-Yu; Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Hsi, Edward; Chang, Ning-Chia; Wang, Hsun-Mo; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Kuen-Yao

    2016-09-01

    The phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene has been reported as a risk gene for ischemic stroke. The vascular factors are between the hypothesized etiologies of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), and this genetic effect might be attributed for its role in SSNHL. We hypothesized that genetic variants of the PDE4D gene are associated with susceptibility to SSNHL. We conducted a case-control study with 362 SSNHL cases and 209 controls. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected. The genotypes were determined using TaqMan technology. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested for each SNP, and genetic effects were evaluated according to three inheritance modes. We carried out sex-specific analysis to analyze the overall data. All three SNPs were in HWE. When subjects were stratified by sex, the genetic effect was only evident in females but not in males. The TT genotype of rs702553 exhibited an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.83 (95 % confidence interval = 1.46-11.18) (p = 0.006) in female SSNHL. The TT genotype of SNP rs702553 was associated with female SSNHL under the recessive model (p = 0.004, OR 3.70). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, TT genotype of rs702553 was significantly associated with female SSNHL (p = 0.0043, OR 3.70). These results suggest that PDE4D gene polymorphisms influence the susceptibility for the development of SSNHL in the southern Taiwanese female population.

  1. Real-time 4D ultrasound mosaicing and visualization.

    PubMed

    Brattain, Laura J; Howe, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Intra-cardiac 3D ultrasound imaging has enabled new minimally invasive procedures. Its narrow field of view, however, limits its efficacy in guiding beating heart procedures where geometrically complex and spatially extended moving anatomic structures are often involved. In this paper, we present a system that performs electrocardiograph gated 4D mosaicing and visualization of 3DUS volumes. Real-time operation is enabled by GPU implementation. The method is validated on phantom and porcine heart data.

  2. 2D:4D Ratio and its Implications in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jeevanandam, Saravanakumar

    2016-01-01

    Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females. Prenatal androgen exposure and therefore, digit ratios have been reported to be associated with numerical competencies, spatial skills, handedness, cognitive abilities, academic performance, sperm counts, personalities and prevalence of obesity, migraine, eating disorders, depression, myopia, autism etc. The authors have attempted to write a brief account on the digit ratios and the dimorphism observed in various physiological, psychological and behavioural traits. Also, the authors have discussed the relevant molecular basics and the methods of measurement of digit ratios. PMID:28208851

  3. 4D-Flow validation, numerical and experimental framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Kurt; Liu, Haining; Canton, Gador; Aliseda, Alberto; Yuan, Chun

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a group of assessment metrics of new 4D MRI flow sequences, an imaging modality that allows for visualization of three-dimensional pulsatile flow in the cardiovascular anatomy through time-resolved three-dimensional blood velocity measurements from cardiac-cycle synchronized MRI acquisition. This is a promising tool for clinical assessment but lacks a robust validation framework. First, 4D-MRI flow in a subject's stenotic carotid bifurcation is compared with a patient-specific CFD model using two different boundary condition methods. Second, Particle Image Velocimetry in a patient-specific phantom is used as a benchmark to compare the 4D-MRI in vivo measurements and CFD simulations under the same conditions. Comparison of estimated and measureable flow parameters such as wall shear stress, fluctuating velocity rms, Lagrangian particle residence time, will be discussed, with justification for their biomechanics relevance and the insights they can provide on the pathophysiology of arterial disease: atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. Lastly, the framework is applied to a new sequence to provide a quantitative assessment. A parametric analysis on the carotid bifurcation pulsatile flow conditions will be presented and an accuracy assessment provided.

  4. Development of 4D jaw movement visualization system for dental diagnosis support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Terajima, Masahiko; Nakasima, Akihiko

    2004-10-01

    A person with an asymmetric morphology of maxillofacial skeleton reportedly possesses an asymmetric jaw function and the risk to express temporomandibular disorder is high. A comprehensive analysis from the point of view of both the morphology and the function such as maxillofacial or temporomandibular joint morphology, dental occlusion, and features of mandibular movement pathways is essential. In this study, the 4D jaw movement visualization system was developed to visually understand the characteristic jaw movement, 3D maxillofacial skeleton structure, and the alignment of the upper and lower teeth of a patient. For this purpose, the 3D reconstructed images of the cranial and mandibular bones, obtained by computed tomography, were measured using a non-contact 3D measuring device, and the obtained morphological images of teeth model were integrated and activated on the 6 DOF jaw movement data. This system was experimentally applied and visualized in a jaw deformity patient and its usability as a clinical diagnostic support system was verified.

  5. Selective 4D modelling framework for spatial-temporal land information management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulamis, Anastasios; Soile, Sofia; Doulamis, Nikolaos; Chrisouli, Christina; Grammalidis, Nikos; Dimitropoulos, Kosmas; Manesis, Charalambos; Potsiou, Chryssy; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces a predictive (selective) 4D modelling framework where only the spatial 3D differences are modelled at the forthcoming time instances, while regions of no significant spatial-temporal alterations remain intact. To accomplish this, initially spatial-temporal analysis is applied between 3D digital models captured at different time instances. So, the creation of dynamic change history maps is made. Change history maps indicate spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Thus, change history maps are good examples for a predictive assessment, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 4D Land Information Management System (LIMS) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework. CityGML allows the description of the semantic metadata information and the rights of the land resources. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 4D LIMS digital parcels and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCityDB incorporating a PostgreSQL geo-database is used to manage and manipulate 3D data and their semantics. An application is made to detect the change through time of a 3D block of plots in an urban area of Athens, Greece. Starting with an accurate 3D model of the buildings in 1983, a change history map is created using automated dense image matching on aerial photos of 2010. For both time instances meshes are created and through their comparison the changes are detected.

  6. 4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Feng; Peng, Su-Ping

    2014-06-01

    In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions.

  7. Digit ratio (2D:4D), salivary testosterone, and handedness.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Alan A; Rudling, Nick; Kissling, Christian; Taurines, Regine; Thome, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    The length of the index finger relative to that of the ring finger, the 2D:4D ratio, has been taken to be a marker of the amount of testosterone (T) that was present in the foetal environment (Manning, Scutt, Wilson, & Lewis-Jones, 1998). It has also been suggested (Geschwind & Galaburda, 1987) that elevated levels of foetal T are associated with left-handedness and that adult levels of circulating T might relate to foetal levels (Jamison, Meier, & Campbell, 1993). We used multiple regression analyses to investigate whether there is any relationship between either left or right hand 2D:4D ratio and handedness. We also examined whether adult levels of salivary T (or cortisol, used as a control hormone) predict digit ratio and/or handedness. Although the 2D:4D ratio of neither the left nor the right hand was related to handedness, the difference between the digit ratios of the right and left hands, D(R-L), was a significant predictor of handedness and of the performance difference between the hands on a peg-moving task, supporting previous findings (Manning & Peters, 2009; Manning et al., 1998; Manning, Trivers, Thornhill, & Singh, 2000; Stoyanov, Marinov, & Pashalieva, 2009). Adult circulating T levels did not predict the digit ratio of the left or right hand; nor was there a significant relationship between concentrations of salivary T (or cortisol) and either hand preference or asymmetry in manual skill. We suggest that the association between D(R-L) and hand preference arises because D(R-L) is a correlate of sensitivity to T in the developing foetus.

  8. Efficient acquisition of high-resolution 4-D diagonal-suppressed methyl-methyl NOESY for large proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jie; Zhou, Pei; Wu, Jihui

    2012-05-01

    The methyl-methyl NOESY experiment plays an important role in determining the global folds of large proteins. Despite the high sensitivity of this experiment, the analysis of methyl-methyl NOEs is frequently hindered by the limited chemical shift dispersion of methyl groups, particularly methyl protons. This makes it difficult to unambiguously assign all of the methyl-methyl NOE crosspeaks using 3-D spectroscopy. The recent development of sparse sampling methods enables highly efficient acquisition of high-resolution 4-D spectra, which provides an excellent solution to resolving the degeneracy of methyl signals. However, many reconstruction algorithms for processing sparsely-sampled NMR data do not provide adequate suppression of aliasing artifacts in the presence of strong NOE diagonal signals. In order to overcome this limitation, we present a 4-D diagonal-suppressed methyl-methyl NOESY experiment specifically optimized for ultrasparse sampling and evaluate it using a deuterated, ILV methyl-protonated sample of the 42 kDa Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP). Suppression of diagonal signals removes the dynamic range barrier of the methyl-methyl NOESY experiment such that residual aliasing artifacts in the CLEAN-reconstructed high-resolution 4-D spectrum can be further reduced. At an ultrasparse sampling rate of less than 1%, we were able to identify and unambiguously assign the vast majority of expected NOE crosspeaks between methyl groups separated by less than 5 Å and to detect very weak NOE crosspeaks from methyl groups that are over 7 Å apart.

  9. CMT4D (NDRG1 mutation): genotype-phenotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Emilie; Mathis, Stéphane; Magdelaine, Corinne; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Magy, Laurent; Funalot, Benoît; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2013-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous condition with a large number of clinical, electrophysiological and pathological phenotypes. More than 40 genes are involved. We report a child of gypsy origin with an autosomal recessive demyelinating phenotype. Clinical data, familial history, and electrophysiological studies were in favor of a CMT4 sub-type. The characteristic N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) mutation responsible for this CMT4D phenotype was confirmed: p.R148X. The exact molecular function of the NDRG1 protein has yet to be elucidated.

  10. 4D micro-CT using fast prospective gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaolian; Johnston, Samuel M.; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-CT is currently used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. But, there is also significant interest in using this technology to obtain functional information. We report here a new sampling strategy for 4D micro-CT for functional cardiac and pulmonary imaging. Rapid scanning of free-breathing mice is achieved with fast prospective gating (FPG) implemented on a field programmable gate array. The method entails on-the-fly computation of delays from the R peaks of the ECG signals or the peaks of the respiratory signals for the triggering pulses. Projection images are acquired for all cardiac or respiratory phases at each angle before rotating to the next angle. FPG can deliver the faster scan time of retrospective gating (RG) with the regular angular distribution of conventional prospective gating for cardiac or respiratory gating. Simultaneous cardio-respiratory gating is also possible with FPG in a hybrid retrospective/prospective approach. We have performed phantom experiments to validate the new sampling protocol and compared the results from FPG and RG in cardiac imaging of a mouse. Additionally, we have evaluated the utility of incorporating respiratory information in 4D cardiac micro-CT studies with FPG. A dual-source micro-CT system was used for image acquisition with pulsed x-ray exposures (80 kVp, 100 mA, 10 ms). The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent containing 123 mg I ml-1 delivered via a tail vein catheter in a dose of 0.01 ml g-1 body weight. The phantom experiment demonstrates that FPG can distinguish the successive phases of phantom motion with minimal motion blur, and the animal study demonstrates that respiratory FPG can distinguish inspiration and expiration. 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging with FPG provides image quality superior to RG at an isotropic voxel size of 88 µm and 10 ms temporal resolution. The acquisition time for either sampling approach is less than 5 min. The

  11. 4D micro-CT using fast prospective gating.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaolian; Johnston, Samuel M; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G Allan; Badea, Cristian T

    2012-01-07

    Micro-CT is currently used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. But, there is also significant interest in using this technology to obtain functional information. We report here a new sampling strategy for 4D micro-CT for functional cardiac and pulmonary imaging. Rapid scanning of free-breathing mice is achieved with fast prospective gating (FPG) implemented on a field programmable gate array. The method entails on-the-fly computation of delays from the R peaks of the ECG signals or the peaks of the respiratory signals for the triggering pulses. Projection images are acquired for all cardiac or respiratory phases at each angle before rotating to the next angle. FPG can deliver the faster scan time of retrospective gating (RG) with the regular angular distribution of conventional prospective gating for cardiac or respiratory gating. Simultaneous cardio-respiratory gating is also possible with FPG in a hybrid retrospective/prospective approach. We have performed phantom experiments to validate the new sampling protocol and compared the results from FPG and RG in cardiac imaging of a mouse. Additionally, we have evaluated the utility of incorporating respiratory information in 4D cardiac micro-CT studies with FPG. A dual-source micro-CT system was used for image acquisition with pulsed x-ray exposures (80 kVp, 100 mA, 10 ms). The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent containing 123 mg I ml(-1) delivered via a tail vein catheter in a dose of 0.01 ml g(-1) body weight. The phantom experiment demonstrates that FPG can distinguish the successive phases of phantom motion with minimal motion blur, and the animal study demonstrates that respiratory FPG can distinguish inspiration and expiration. 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging with FPG provides image quality superior to RG at an isotropic voxel size of 88 μm and 10 ms temporal resolution. The acquisition time for either sampling approach is less than 5 min. The

  12. 4D Flow MRI in Neuroradiology: Techniques and Applications.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Delattre, Benedicte; Brina, Olivier; Bouillot, Pierre; Vargas, Maria Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of the intracranial flow is important for the understanding and management of cerebral vascular diseases. From brain aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations lesions to intracranial and cervical stenosis, the appraisal of the blood flow can be crucial and influence positively on patients' management. The determination of the intracranial hemodynamics and the collateral pattern seems to play to a major role in the management of these lesions. 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive phase contrast derived method that has been developed and applied in neurovascular diseases. It has a great potential if followed by further technical improvements and comprehensive and systematic clinical studies.

  13. Oblique sounding using the DPS-4D stations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosna, Zbysek; Kouba, Daniel; Koucka Knizova, Petra; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan; Gok, Gokhan; Rejfek, Lubos

    2016-07-01

    The DPS-4D Digisondes are capable of detection of echoes from neighbouring European stations. Currently, a campaign with high-temporal resolution of 5 min is being run. Further, ionograms from regular vertical sounding with 15 min resolution provide us with oblique reflections together with vertical reflections. We analyzed profiles of electron concentration and basic ionospheric parameters derived from the ionograms. We compared results derived from reflections from the ionosphere above the stations (vertical sounding) with information derived from oblique reflections between the stations. This study is supported by the Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  14. 4D Simulation of Explosive Eruption Dynamics at Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, A.; Esposti Ongaro, T.; Menconi, G.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Cavazzoni, C.; Erbacci, G.; Baxter, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    We applied, using a supercomputer, a new simulation model based on fundamental transport laws to describe the 4D (3D spatial co-ordinates plus time) multiphase flow dynamics of explosive eruptions. The model solves the fundamental transport equations for a multiphase mixture formed by a continuous multi-component gas phase and n solid particulate phases representative of magma fragments (such as ash, crystals, and lapilli). Numerical simulations describe the collapse of the volcanic eruption column and the propagation of pyroclastic density currents, for selected medium scale (sub-Plinian) eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius, Italy. The study shows that 4D multiphase numerical models can illuminate the non-intuitive and internal dynamics of explosive eruptions that cannot otherwise be studied by direct observation or using previous models. In particular, simulations provide crucial insights into the effects of the generation mechanism of the flows - partial collapse vs boiling-over - on their hazard potential, the complex dynamics of the collapsing column, and the influence of Mount Somma on the propagation of PDCs into the circum-Vesuvian area, one of the world's most hazardous volcanic settings.

  15. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  16. Atlas construction for dynamic (4D) PET using diffeomorphic transformations.

    PubMed

    Bieth, Marie; Lombaert, Hervé; Reader, Andrew J; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    A novel dynamic (4D) PET to PET image registration procedure is proposed and applied to multiple PET scans acquired with the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT), the highest resolution human brain PET scanner available in the world. By extending the recent diffeomorphic log-demons (DLD) method and applying it to multiple dynamic [11C]raclopride scans from the HRRT, an important step towards construction of a PET atlas of unprecedented quality for [11C]raclopride imaging of the human brain has been achieved. Accounting for the temporal dimension in PET data improves registration accuracy when compared to registration of 3D to 3D time-averaged PET images. The DLD approach was chosen for its ease in providing both an intensity and shape template, through iterative sequential pair-wise registrations with fast convergence. The proposed method is applicable to any PET radiotracer, providing 4D atlases with useful applications in high accuracy PET data simulations and automated PET image analysis.

  17. Positive Energy Conditions in 4D Conformal Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, Kara; Luty, Markus; Prilepina, Valentina

    2016-03-01

    We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality avgT00 >= - C /L4 , where L is the size of the smearing region, and C is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the ``conformal collider'' constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. We speculate that there may be theories that violate the Hofman-Maldacena bounds, but satisfy our bounds. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarkably simple functions of momenta, and may be of interest in their own right.

  18. Positive energy conditions in 4D conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, Kara; Luty, Markus A.; Prilepina, Valentina

    2016-10-01

    We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality < T 00> ≥ - C/L 4, where L is the size of the smearing region, and C is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the "conformal collider" constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarkably simple functions of momenta, and may be of interest in their own right.

  19. 4D Dynamic Required Navigation Performance Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelsztein, Daniel M.; Sturdy, James L.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Hochwarth, Joachim K.

    2011-01-01

    New advanced four dimensional trajectory (4DT) procedures under consideration for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) require an aircraft to precisely navigate relative to a moving reference such as another aircraft. Examples are Self-Separation for enroute operations and Interval Management for in-trail and merging operations. The current construct of Required Navigation Performance (RNP), defined for fixed-reference-frame navigation, is not sufficiently specified to be applicable to defining performance levels of such air-to-air procedures. An extension of RNP to air-to-air navigation would enable these advanced procedures to be implemented with a specified level of performance. The objective of this research effort was to propose new 4D Dynamic RNP constructs that account for the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of Interval Management and Self-Separation, develop mathematical models of the Dynamic RNP constructs, "Required Self-Separation Performance" and "Required Interval Management Performance," and to analyze the performance characteristics of these air-to-air procedures using the newly developed models. This final report summarizes the activities led by Raytheon, in collaboration with GE Aviation and SAIC, and presents the results from this research effort to expand the RNP concept to a dynamic 4D frame of reference.

  20. A technique for estimating 4D-CBCT using prior knowledge and limited-angle projections

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, You; Yin, Fang-Fang; Ren, Lei; Segars, W. Paul

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to estimate onboard 4D-CBCT using prior information and limited-angle projections for potential 4D target verification of lung radiotherapy.Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation from one selected phase (prior volume) of the planning 4D-CT. The deformation field maps (DFMs) are solved using a motion modeling and free-form deformation (MM-FD) technique. In the MM-FD technique, the DFMs are estimated using a motion model which is extracted from planning 4D-CT based on principal component analysis (PCA). The motion model parameters are optimized by matching the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the deformed volumes to the limited-angle onboard projections (data fidelity constraint). Afterward, the estimated DFMs are fine-tuned using a FD model based on data fidelity constraint and deformation energy minimization. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso phantom was used to evaluate the MM-FD technique. A lung patient with a 30 mm diameter lesion was simulated with various anatomical and respirational changes from planning 4D-CT to onboard volume, including changes of respiration amplitude, lesion size and lesion average-position, and phase shift between lesion and body respiratory cycle. The lesions were contoured in both the estimated and “ground-truth” onboard 4D-CBCT for comparison. 3D volume percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass shift (COMS) were calculated to evaluate the estimation accuracy of three techniques: MM-FD, MM-only, and FD-only. Different onboard projection acquisition scenarios and projection noise levels were simulated to investigate their effects on the estimation accuracy.Results: For all simulated patient and projection acquisition scenarios, the mean VPD (±S.D.)/COMS (±S.D.) between lesions in prior images and “ground-truth” onboard images were 136.11% (±42.76%)/15.5 mm (±3.9 mm). Using orthogonal-view 15°-each scan angle, the mean VPD/COMS between the lesion

  1. 4D Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry in a 3D printed brain aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amili, Omid; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Coletti, Filippo

    2016-11-01

    Cerebral aneurysms are of great clinical importance. It is believed that hemodynamics play a critical role in the development, growth, and rupture of brain arteries with such condition. The flow structure in the aneurysm sac is complex, unsteady, and three-dimensional. Therefore the time-resolved measurement of the three-dimensional three-component velocity field is crucial to predict the clinical outcome. In this study magnetic resonance velocimetry is used to assess the fluid dynamics inside a 3D printed model of a giant intracranial aneurysm. We reach sub-millimeter resolution while resolving sixteen instances within the cardiac cycle. The physiological flow waveform is imposed using an in-house built pump in a flow circuit where the cardiovascular impedance is matched. The flow evolution over time is reconstructed in detail. The complex flow structure is characterized by vortical and helical motions that reside in the aneurysm for most part of the cycle. The 4D pressured distribution is also reconstructed from the velocity field. The present case study was used in a previous CFD challenge, therefore these results may provide useful experimental comparison for simulations performed by other research groups.

  2. Comparison of an alternative and existing binning methods to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT

    SciTech Connect

    Didierlaurent, David Ribes, Sophie; Caselles, Olivier; Jaudet, Cyril; Dierickx, Lawrence O.; Zerdoud, Slimane; Brillouet, Severine; Weits, Kathleen; Batatia, Hadj; Courbon, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    than three bins were necessary for a more accurate measurement of the maximum amplitude of the tumor motion. However, the current 4D-CT technology limits the increase of the number of bins in 4D PET/CT because of missing CT slices. One can reconstruct 4D PET images with more bins but without attenuation/scatter correction.

  3. 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P.; Sturgeon, G.; Mendonca, S.; Grimes, Jason; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The authors develop the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. Methods: Highly detailed whole-body anatomies for the adult male and female were defined in the XCAT using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and subdivision surfaces based on segmentation of the Visible Male and Female anatomical datasets from the National Library of Medicine as well as patient datasets. Using the flexibility of these surfaces, the Visible Human anatomies were transformed to match body measurements and organ volumes for a 50th percentile (height and weight) male and female. The desired body measurements for the models were obtained using the PEOPLESIZE program that contains anthropometric dimensions categorized from 1st to the 99th percentile for US adults. The desired organ volumes were determined from ICRP Publication 89 [ICRP, ''Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values,'' ICRP Publication 89 (International Commission on Radiological Protection, New York, NY, 2002)]. The male and female anatomies serve as standard templates upon which anatomical variations may be modeled in the XCAT through user-defined parameters. Parametrized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions were also incorporated into the XCAT based on high-resolution cardiac- and respiratory-gated multislice CT data. To demonstrate the usefulness of the phantom, the authors show example simulation studies in PET, SPECT, and CT using publicly available simulation packages. Results: As demonstrated in the pilot studies, the 4D XCAT (which includes thousands of anatomical structures) can produce realistic imaging data when combined with accurate models of the imaging process. With the flexibility of the NURBS surface primitives, any number of different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, and spatial resolutions can be simulated to perform imaging research. Conclusions: With the ability to produce

  4. 4D Light Field Imaging System Using Programmable Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam

    2012-01-01

    Complete depth information can be extracted from analyzing all angles of light rays emanated from a source. However, this angular information is lost in a typical 2D imaging system. In order to record this information, a standard stereo imaging system uses two cameras to obtain information from two view angles. Sometimes, more cameras are used to obtain information from more angles. However, a 4D light field imaging technique can achieve this multiple-camera effect through a single-lens camera. Two methods are available for this: one using a microlens array, and the other using a moving aperture. The moving-aperture method can obtain more complete stereo information. The existing literature suggests a modified liquid crystal panel [LC (liquid crystal) panel, similar to ones commonly used in the display industry] to achieve a moving aperture. However, LC panels cannot withstand harsh environments and are not qualified for spaceflight. In this regard, different hardware is proposed for the moving aperture. A digital micromirror device (DMD) will replace the liquid crystal. This will be qualified for harsh environments for the 4D light field imaging. This will enable an imager to record near-complete stereo information. The approach to building a proof-ofconcept is using existing, or slightly modified, off-the-shelf components. An SLR (single-lens reflex) lens system, which typically has a large aperture for fast imaging, will be modified. The lens system will be arranged so that DMD can be integrated. The shape of aperture will be programmed for single-viewpoint imaging, multiple-viewpoint imaging, and coded aperture imaging. The novelty lies in using a DMD instead of a LC panel to move the apertures for 4D light field imaging. The DMD uses reflecting mirrors, so any light transmission lost (which would be expected from the LC panel) will be minimal. Also, the MEMS-based DMD can withstand higher temperature and pressure fluctuation than a LC panel can. Robotics need

  5. Evaluation of intrinsic respiratory signal determination methods for 4D CBCT adapted for mice

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Rachael; Pan, Tinsu; Rubinstein, Ashley; Court, Laurence; Ahmad, Moiz

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: 4D CT imaging in mice is important in a variety of areas including studies of lung function and tumor motion. A necessary step in 4D imaging is obtaining a respiratory signal, which can be done through an external system or intrinsically through the projection images. A number of methods have been developed that can successfully determine the respiratory signal from cone-beam projection images of humans, however only a few have been utilized in a preclinical setting and most of these rely on step-and-shoot style imaging. The purpose of this work is to assess and make adaptions of several successful methods developed for humans for an image-guided preclinical radiation therapy system. Methods: Respiratory signals were determined from the projection images of free-breathing mice scanned on the X-RAD system using four methods: the so-called Amsterdam shroud method, a method based on the phase of the Fourier transform, a pixel intensity method, and a center of mass method. The Amsterdam shroud method was modified so the sharp inspiration peaks associated with anesthetized mouse breathing could be detected. Respiratory signals were used to sort projections into phase bins and 4D images were reconstructed. Error and standard deviation in the assignment of phase bins for the four methods compared to a manual method considered to be ground truth were calculated for a range of region of interest (ROI) sizes. Qualitative comparisons were additionally made between the 4D images obtained using each of the methods and the manual method. Results: 4D images were successfully created for all mice with each of the respiratory signal extraction methods. Only minimal qualitative differences were noted between each of the methods and the manual method. The average error (and standard deviation) in phase bin assignment was 0.24 ± 0.08 (0.49 ± 0.11) phase bins for the Fourier transform method, 0.09 ± 0.03 (0.31 ± 0.08) phase bins for the modified Amsterdam shroud method, 0

  6. 4D phase-space multiplexing for fluorescent microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsiou-Yuan; Zhong, Jingshan; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Phase-space measurements enable characterization of second-order spatial coherence properties and can be used for digital aberration removal or 3D position reconstruction. Previous methods use a scanning aperture to measure the phase space spectrogram, which is slow and light inefficient, while also attenuating information about higher-order correlations. We demonstrate a significant improvement of speed and light throughput by incorporating multiplexing techniques into our phase-space imaging system. The scheme implements 2D coded aperture patterning in the Fourier (pupil) plane of a microscope using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), while capturing multiple intensity images in real space. We compare various multiplexing schemes to scanning apertures and show that our phase-space reconstructions are accurate for experimental data with biological samples containing many 3D fluorophores.

  7. 4D simulation of explosive eruption dynamics at Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Augusto; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Menconi, Gianluca; De'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Erbacci, Giovanni; Baxter, Peter J.

    2007-02-01

    We applied a new simulation model, based on multiphase transport laws, to describe the 4D (3D spatial coordinates plus time) dynamics of explosive eruptions. Numerical experiments, carried out on a parallel supercomputer, describe the collapse of the volcanic eruption column and the propagation of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), for selected medium scale (sub-Plinian) eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius, Italy. Simulations provide crucial insights into the effects of the generation mechanism of the flows - partial collapse vs boiling-over - on their evolution and hazard potential, the unstable dynamics of the fountain, and the influence of Mount Somma on the propagation of PDCs into the circum-Vesuvian area, one of the world's most hazardous volcanic settings. Results also show that it is possible to characterize the volcanic column behavior in terms of percentage of the mass of pyroclasts collapsed to the ground and how this parameter strongly influences the dynamics and hazard of the associated PDCs.

  8. Chaos in a 4D dissipative nonlinear fermionic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogmus, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    Gursey Model is the only possible 4D conformally invariant pure fermionic model with a nonlinear self-coupled spinor term. It has been assumed to be similar to the Heisenberg's nonlinear generalization of Dirac's equation, as a possible basis for a unitary description of elementary particles. Gursey Model admits particle-like solutions for the derived classical field equations and these solutions are instantonic in character. In this paper, the dynamical nature of damped and forced Gursey Nonlinear Differential Equations System (GNDES) are studied in order to get more information on spinor type instantons. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are observed by constructing the bifurcation diagrams and Poincaré sections. Lyapunov exponent and power spectrum graphs of GNDES are also constructed to characterize the chaotic behavior.

  9. Deformable registration of 4D computed tomography data.

    PubMed

    Rietzel, Eike; Chen, George T Y

    2006-11-01

    Four-dimensional radiotherapy requires deformable registration to track delivered dose across varying anatomical states. Deformable registration based on B-splines was implemented to register 4D computed tomography data to a reference respiratory phase. To assess registration performance, anatomical landmarks were selected across ten respiratory phases in five patients. These point landmarks were transformed according to global registration parameters between different respiratory phases. Registration uncertainties were computed by subtraction of transformed and reference landmark positions. The selection of appropriate registration masks to separate independently moving anatomical subunits is crucial to registration performance. The average registration error for five landmarks for each of five patients was 2.1 mm. This level of accuracy is acceptable for most radiotherapy applications.

  10. Probabilistic 4D blood flow tracking and uncertainty estimation.

    PubMed

    Friman, Ola; Hennemuth, Anja; Harloff, Andreas; Bock, Jelena; Markl, Michael; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2011-10-01

    Phase-Contrast (PC) MRI utilizes signal phase shifts resulting from moving spins to measure tissue motion and blood flow. Time-resolved 4D vector fields representing the motion or flow can be derived from the acquired PC MRI images. In cardiovascular PC MRI applications, visualization techniques such as vector glyphs, streamlines, and particle traces are commonly employed for depicting the blood flow. Whereas these techniques indeed provide useful diagnostic information, uncertainty due to noise in the PC-MRI measurements is ignored, which may lend the results a false sense of precision. In this work, the statistical properties of PC MRI flow measurements are investigated and a probabilistic flow tracking method based on sequential Monte Carlo sampling is devised to calculate flow uncertainty maps. The theoretical derivations are validated using simulated data and a number of real PC MRI data sets of the aorta and carotid arteries are used to demonstrate the flow uncertainty mapping technique.

  11. Biomechanics of DNA structures visualized by 4D electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Ulrich J.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique for in situ visualization of the biomechanics of DNA structural networks using 4D electron microscopy. Vibrational oscillations of the DNA structure are excited mechanically through a short burst of substrate vibrations triggered by a laser pulse. Subsequently, the motion is probed with electron pulses to observe the impulse response of the specimen in space and time. From the frequency and amplitude of the observed oscillations, we determine the normal modes and eigenfrequencies of the structures involved. Moreover, by selective “nano-cutting” at a given point in the network, it was possible to obtain Young’s modulus, and hence the stiffness, of the DNA filament at that position. This experimental approach enables nanoscale mechanics studies of macromolecules and should find applications in other domains of biological networks such as origamis. PMID:23382239

  12. 4D GPR Experiments--Towards the Virtual Lysimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmueck, M.; Viggiano, D. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Drasdis, J. B.; Kruse, S. E.; Or, D.

    2006-05-01

    In-situ monitoring of infiltration, water flow and retention in the vadose zone currently rely primarily on invasive methods, which irreversibly disturb original soil structure and alter its hydrologic behavior in the vicinity of the measurement. For example, use of lysimeters requires extraction and repacking of soil samples, and time- domain reflectometry (TDR) requires insertion of probes into the soil profile. This study investigates the use of repeated high-density 3D ground penetrating radar surveys (also known as 4D GPR) as a non-invasive alternative for detailed visualization and quantification of water flow in the vadose zone. Evaluation of the 4D GPR method was based on a series of controlled point-source water injection experiments into undisturbed beach sand deposits at Crandon Park in Miami, Florida. The goal of the GPR surveys was to image the shape and evolution of a wet-bulb as it propagates from the injection points (~0.5 m) towards the water table at 2.2 m depth. The experimental design was guided by predictive modeling using Hydrus 2D and finite-difference GPR waveform codes. Input parameters for the modeling were derived from hydrologic and electromagnetic characterization of representative sand samples. Guided by modeling results, we injected 30 to 40 liters of tap water through plastic-cased boreholes with slotted bottom sections (0.1 m) located 0.4 to 0.6 m below the surface. During and after injection, an area of 25 m2 was surveyed every 20 minutes using 250 and 500 MHz antennas with a grid spacing of 0.05 x 0.025 m. A total of 20 3D GPR surveys were completed over 3 infiltration sites. To confirm wet-bulb shapes measured by GPR, we injected 2 liters of "brilliant blue" dye (~100 mg/l) along with a saline water tracer towards the end of one experiment. After completion of GPR scanning, a trench was excavated to examine the distribution of the saltwater and dye using TDR and visual inspection, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the 4D GPR

  13. Parallel Wavefront Analysis for a 4D Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti R.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a programming interface for automating data collection with a PhaseCam interferometer from 4D Technology, and distributing the image-processing algorithm across a cluster of general-purpose computers. Multiple instances of 4Sight (4D Technology s proprietary software) run on a networked cluster of computers. Each connects to a single server (the controller) and waits for instructions. The controller directs the interferometer to several images, then assigns each image to a different computer for processing. When the image processing is finished, the server directs one of the computers to collate and combine the processed images, saving the resulting measurement in a file on a disk. The available software captures approximately 100 images and analyzes them immediately. This software separates the capture and analysis processes, so that analysis can be done at a different time and faster by running the algorithm in parallel across several processors. The PhaseCam family of interferometers can measure an optical system in milliseconds, but it takes many seconds to process the data so that it is usable. In characterizing an adaptive optics system, like the next generation of astronomical observatories, thousands of measurements are required, and the processing time quickly becomes excessive. A programming interface distributes data processing for a PhaseCam interferometer across a Windows computing cluster. A scriptable controller program coordinates data acquisition from the interferometer, storage on networked hard disks, and parallel processing. Idle time of the interferometer is minimized. This architecture is implemented in Python and JavaScript, and may be altered to fit a customer s needs.

  14. An updated version of the Motion4D-library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Grave, Frank

    2010-03-01

    We present an updated version of the Motion4D-library that can be used for the newly developed GeodesicViewer application. New version program summaryProgram title: Motion4D-library Catalogue identifier: AEEX_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEX_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 153 757 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5 178 439 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: All platforms with a C++ compiler Operating system: Linux, Unix, Windows RAM: 31 MBytes Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEX_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2355 Classification: 1.5 External routines: Gnu Scientific Library (GSL) ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Solve geodesic equation, parallel and Fermi-Walker transport in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Solution method: Integration of ordinary differential equations. Reasons for new version: To be applicable for the GeodesicViewer (accepted for publication in Comput. Phys. Comm. (COMPHY) 3941, doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2009.10.010 [program AEFP_v1_0]), there were several minor adjustments to be done. Summary of revisions:Calculation of embedding diagrams are improved. Physical units can be used for some metrics. Tests for the constraint equation within the metric classes are slightly modified. New metrics: AlcubierreWarp, GoedelScaled, GoedelScaledCart, Kasner. Running time: The test runs provided with the distribution require only a few seconds to run.

  15. Mapping motion from 4D-MRI to 3D-CT for use in 4D dose calculations: A technical feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Tony; Knopf, Antje

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Target sites affected by organ motion require a time resolved (4D) dose calculation. Typical 4D dose calculations use 4D-CT as a basis. Unfortunately, 4D-CT images have the disadvantage of being a 'snap-shot' of the motion during acquisition and of assuming regularity of breathing. In addition, 4D-CT acquisitions involve a substantial additional dose burden to the patient making many, repeated 4D-CT acquisitions undesirable. Here the authors test the feasibility of an alternative approach to generate patient specific 4D-CT data sets. Methods: In this approach motion information is extracted from 4D-MRI. Simulated 4D-CT data sets [which the authors call 4D-CT(MRI)] are created by warping extracted deformation fields to a static 3D-CT data set. The employment of 4D-MRI sequences for this has the advantage that no assumptions on breathing regularity are made, irregularities in breathing can be studied and, if necessary, many repeat imaging studies (and consequently simulated 4D-CT data sets) can be performed on patients and/or volunteers. The accuracy of 4D-CT(MRI)s has been validated by 4D proton dose calculations. Our 4D dose algorithm takes into account displacements as well as deformations on the originating 4D-CT/4D-CT(MRI) by calculating the dose of each pencil beam based on an individual time stamp of when that pencil beam is applied. According to corresponding displacement and density-variation-maps the position and the water equivalent range of the dose grid points is adjusted at each time instance. Results: 4D dose distributions, using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets as input were compared to results based on a reference conventional 4D-CT data set capturing similar motion characteristics. Almost identical 4D dose distributions could be achieved, even though scanned proton beams are very sensitive to small differences in the patient geometry. In addition, 4D dose calculations have been performed on the same patient, but using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets based on

  16. Toward time resolved 4D cardiac CT imaging with patient dose reduction: estimating the global heart motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Segars, W. Paul; Fung, George S. K.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2006-03-01

    Coronary artery imaging with multi-slice helical computed tomography is a promising noninvasive imaging technique. The current major issues include the insufficient temporal resolution and large patient dose. We propose an image reconstruction method which provides a solution to both of the problems. The method uses an iterative approach repeating the following four steps until the difference between the two projection data sets falls below a certain criteria in step-4: 1) estimating or updating the cardiac motion vectors, 2) reconstructing the time-resolved 4D dynamic volume images using the motion vectors, 3) calculating the projection data from the current 4D images, 4) comparing them with the measured ones. In this study, we obtain the first estimate of the motion vector. We use the 4D NCAT phantom, a realistic computer model for the human anatomy and cardiac motions, to generate the dynamic fan-beam projection data sets as well to provide a known truth for the motion. Then, the halfscan reconstruction with the sliding time-window technique is used to generate cine images: f(t, r r). Here, we use one heart beat for each position r so that the time information is retained. Next, the magnitude of the first derivative of f(t, r r) with respect to time, i.e., |df/dt|, is calculated and summed over a region-of-interest (ROI), which is called the mean-absolute difference (MAD). The initial estimation of the vector field are obtained using MAD for each ROI. Results of the preliminary study are presented.

  17. A proposed framework for consensus-based lung tumour volume auto-segmentation in 4D computed tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Spencer; Brophy, Mark; Palma, David; Louie, Alexander V.; Yu, Edward; Yaremko, Brian; Ahmad, Belal; Barron, John L.; Beauchemin, Steven S.; Rodrigues, George; Gaede, Stewart

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to propose and validate a framework for tumour volume auto-segmentation based on ground-truth estimates derived from multi-physician input contours to expedite 4D-CT based lung tumour volume delineation. 4D-CT datasets of ten non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were manually segmented by 6 physicians. Multi-expert ground truth (GT) estimates were constructed using the STAPLE algorithm for the gross tumour volume (GTV) on all respiratory phases. Next, using a deformable model-based method, multi-expert GT on each individual phase of the 4D-CT dataset was propagated to all other phases providing auto-segmented GTVs and motion encompassing internal gross target volumes (IGTVs) based on GT estimates (STAPLE) from each respiratory phase of the 4D-CT dataset. Accuracy assessment of auto-segmentation employed graph cuts for 3D-shape reconstruction and point-set registration-based analysis yielding volumetric and distance-based measures. STAPLE-based auto-segmented GTV accuracy ranged from (81.51  ±  1.92) to (97.27  ±  0.28)% volumetric overlap of the estimated ground truth. IGTV auto-segmentation showed significantly improved accuracies with reduced variance for all patients ranging from 90.87 to 98.57% volumetric overlap of the ground truth volume. Additional metrics supported these observations with statistical significance. Accuracy of auto-segmentation was shown to be largely independent of selection of the initial propagation phase. IGTV construction based on auto-segmented GTVs within the 4D-CT dataset provided accurate and reliable target volumes compared to manual segmentation-based GT estimates. While inter-/intra-observer effects were largely mitigated, the proposed segmentation workflow is more complex than that of current clinical practice and requires further development.

  18. Effect of heart rate on CT angiography using the enhanced cardiac model of the 4D NCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segars, W. P.; Taguchi, K.; Fung, G. S. K.; Fishman, E. K.; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the effect of heart rate on the quality and artifact generation in coronary artery images obtained using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) with the purpose of finding the optimal time resolution for data acquisition. To perform the study, we used the 4D NCAT phantom, a computer model of the normal human anatomy and cardiac and respiratory motions developed in our laboratory. Although capable of being far more realistic, the 4D NCAT cardiac model was originally designed for low-resolution imaging research, and lacked the anatomical detail to be applicable to high-resolution CT. In this work, we updated the cardiac model to include a more detailed anatomy and physiology based on high-resolution clinical gated MSCT data. To demonstrate its utility in high-resolution dynamic CT imaging research, the enhanced 4D NCAT was then used in a pilot simulation study to investigate the effect of heart rate on CT angiography. The 4D NCAT was used to simulate patients with different heart rates (60-120 beats/minute) and with various cardiac plaques of known size and location within the coronary arteries. For each simulated patient, MSCT projection data was generated with data acquisition windows ranging from 100 to 250 ms centered within the quiet phase (mid-diastole) of the heart using an analytical CT projection algorithm. CT images were reconstructed from the projection data, and the contrast of the plaques was then measured to assess the effect of heart rate and to determine the optimal time resolution required for each case. The 4D NCAT phantom with its realistic model for the cardiac motion was found to provide a valuable tool from which to optimize CT cardiac applications. Our results indicate the importance of optimizing the time resolution with regard to heart rate and plaque location for improved CT images at a reduced patient dose.

  19. 4D Dynamic RNP Annual Interim Report-Year 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelsztein, Daniel M.; Sturdy, James L.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Chung, William W.; Salvano, Daniel; Klooster, Joel; Hochwarth, Joachim K.

    2010-01-01

    This Annual Interim Report summarizes the activities led by Raytheon, in collaboration with GE Aviation and SAIC, and presents the results obtained during the first year of this research effort to expand the RNP concept to 4 dimensions relative to a dynamic frame of reference. Joint Program Development Office (JPDO)Concepts of Operations for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) considers 4 Dimension Trajectory (4DT) procedures a key enabler to Trajectory Based Operations (TBO). The JPDO defines 4DT as a precise description of an aircraft path in space and time . While NextGen assumes that this path is defined within an Earth-reference frame, many 4DT procedure implementations will require an aircraft to precisely navigate relative to a moving reference such as another aircraft to form aggregate flows or a weather cell to allow for flows to shift. Current methods of implementing routes and flight paths rely on aircraft meeting a Required Navigation Performance (RNP) specification and being equipped with a monitoring and alerting capability to annunciate when the aircraft system is unable to meet the performance specification required for the operation. Since all aircraft today operate within the NAS relative to fixed reference points, the current RNP definition is deemed satisfactory. However, it is not well understood how the current RNP construct will support NextGen 4DT procedures where aircraft operate relative to each other or to other dynamic frames of reference. The objective of this research effort is to analyze candidate 4DT procedures from both an Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) and aircraft perspective, to identify their specific navigational requirements, assess the shortcomings of the current RNP construct to meet these requirements, to propose an extended 4 Dimensional Dynamic RNP (4D Dynamic RNP) construct that accounts for the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of the selected 4DT procedures, and finally, to design an

  20. Parallel Infrastructure Modeling and Inversion Module for E4D

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-09

    Electrical resistivity tomography ERT is a method of imaging the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. Electrical conductivity is a useful metric for understanding the subsurface because it is governed by geomechanical and geochemical properties that drive subsurface systems. ERT works by injecting current into the subsurface across a pair of electrodes, and measuring the corresponding electrical potential response across another pair of electrodes. Many such measurements are strategically taken across an array of electrodes to produce an ERT data set. These data are then processed through a computationally demanding process known as inversion to produce an image of the subsurface conductivity structure that gave rise to the measurements. Data can be inverted to provide 2D images, 3D images, or in the case of time-lapse 3D imaging, 4D images. ERT is generally not well suited for environments with buried electrically conductive infrastructure such as pipes, tanks, or well casings, because these features tend to dominate and degrade ERT images. This reduces or eliminates the utility of ERT imaging where it would otherwise be highly useful for, for example, imaging fluid migration from leaking pipes, imaging soil contamination beneath leaking subusurface tanks, and monitoring contaminant migration in locations with dense network of metal cased monitoring wells. The location and dimension of buried metallic infrastructure is often known. If so, then the effects of the infrastructure can be explicitly modeled within the ERT imaging algorithm, and thereby removed from the corresponding ERT image. However,there are a number of obstacles limiting this application. 1) Metallic infrastructure cannot be accurately modeled with standard codes because of the large contrast in conductivity between the metal and host material. 2) Modeling infrastructure in true dimension requires the computational mesh to be highly refined near the metal inclusions, which increases

  1. TU-F-12A-05: Sensitivity of Textural Features to 3D Vs. 4D FDG-PET/CT Imaging in NSCLC Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F; Nyflot, M; Bowen, S; Kinahan, P; Sandison, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Neighborhood Gray-level difference matrices (NGLDM) based texture parameters extracted from conventional (3D) 18F-FDG PET scans in patients with NSCLC have been previously shown to associate with response to chemoradiation and poorer patient outcome. However, the change in these parameters when utilizing respiratory-correlated (4D) FDG-PET scans has not yet been characterized for NSCLC. The Objectives: of this study was to assess the extent to which NGLDM-based texture parameters on 4D PET images vary with reference to values derived from 3D scans in NSCLC. Methods: Eight patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. 4D PET scans were reconstructed with OSEM-IR in 5 respiratory phase-binned images and corresponding CT data of each phase were employed for attenuation correction. NGLDM-based texture features, consisting of coarseness, contrast, busyness, complexity and strength, were evaluated for gross tumor volumes defined on 3D/4D PET scans by radiation oncologists. Variation of the obtained texture parameters over the respiratory cycle were examined with respect to values extracted from 3D scans. Results: Differences between texture parameters derived from 4D scans at different respiratory phases and those extracted from 3D scans ranged from −30% to 13% for coarseness, −12% to 40% for contrast, −5% to 50% for busyness, −7% to 38% for complexity, and −43% to 20% for strength. Furthermore, no evident correlations were observed between respiratory phase and 4D scan texture parameters. Conclusion: Results of the current study showed that NGLDM-based texture parameters varied considerably based on choice of 3D PET and 4D PET reconstruction of NSCLC patient images, indicating that standardized image acquisition and analysis protocols need to be established for clinical studies, especially multicenter clinical trials, intending to validate prognostic values of texture features for NSCLC.

  2. Multimaterial 4D Printing with Tailorable Shape Memory Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Qi; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Lee, Howon; Dunn, Conner K.; Fang, Nicholas X.; Dunn, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new 4D printing approach that can create high resolution (up to a few microns), multimaterial shape memory polymer (SMP) architectures. The approach is based on high resolution projection microstereolithography (PμSL) and uses a family of photo-curable methacrylate based copolymer networks. We designed the constituents and compositions to exhibit desired thermomechanical behavior (including rubbery modulus, glass transition temperature and failure strain which is more than 300% and larger than any existing printable materials) to enable controlled shape memory behavior. We used a high resolution, high contrast digital micro display to ensure high resolution of photo-curing methacrylate based SMPs that requires higher exposure energy than more common acrylate based polymers. An automated material exchange process enables the manufacture of 3D composite architectures from multiple photo-curable SMPs. In order to understand the behavior of the 3D composite microarchitectures, we carry out high fidelity computational simulations of their complex nonlinear, time-dependent behavior and study important design considerations including local deformation, shape fixity and free recovery rate. Simulations are in good agreement with experiments for a series of single and multimaterial components and can be used to facilitate the design of SMP 3D structures. PMID:27499417

  3. Multimaterial 4D Printing with Tailorable Shape Memory Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qi; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Lee, Howon; Dunn, Conner K.; Fang, Nicholas X.; Dunn, Martin L.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new 4D printing approach that can create high resolution (up to a few microns), multimaterial shape memory polymer (SMP) architectures. The approach is based on high resolution projection microstereolithography (PμSL) and uses a family of photo-curable methacrylate based copolymer networks. We designed the constituents and compositions to exhibit desired thermomechanical behavior (including rubbery modulus, glass transition temperature and failure strain which is more than 300% and larger than any existing printable materials) to enable controlled shape memory behavior. We used a high resolution, high contrast digital micro display to ensure high resolution of photo-curing methacrylate based SMPs that requires higher exposure energy than more common acrylate based polymers. An automated material exchange process enables the manufacture of 3D composite architectures from multiple photo-curable SMPs. In order to understand the behavior of the 3D composite microarchitectures, we carry out high fidelity computational simulations of their complex nonlinear, time-dependent behavior and study important design considerations including local deformation, shape fixity and free recovery rate. Simulations are in good agreement with experiments for a series of single and multimaterial components and can be used to facilitate the design of SMP 3D structures.

  4. Multimaterial 4D Printing with Tailorable Shape Memory Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qi; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Lee, Howon; Dunn, Conner K; Fang, Nicholas X; Dunn, Martin L

    2016-08-08

    We present a new 4D printing approach that can create high resolution (up to a few microns), multimaterial shape memory polymer (SMP) architectures. The approach is based on high resolution projection microstereolithography (PμSL) and uses a family of photo-curable methacrylate based copolymer networks. We designed the constituents and compositions to exhibit desired thermomechanical behavior (including rubbery modulus, glass transition temperature and failure strain which is more than 300% and larger than any existing printable materials) to enable controlled shape memory behavior. We used a high resolution, high contrast digital micro display to ensure high resolution of photo-curing methacrylate based SMPs that requires higher exposure energy than more common acrylate based polymers. An automated material exchange process enables the manufacture of 3D composite architectures from multiple photo-curable SMPs. In order to understand the behavior of the 3D composite microarchitectures, we carry out high fidelity computational simulations of their complex nonlinear, time-dependent behavior and study important design considerations including local deformation, shape fixity and free recovery rate. Simulations are in good agreement with experiments for a series of single and multimaterial components and can be used to facilitate the design of SMP 3D structures.

  5. Denoising and 4D visualization of OCT images

    PubMed Central

    Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Wilson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We are using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to image structure and function of the developing embryonic heart in avian models. Fast OCT imaging produces very large 3D (2D + time) and 4D (3D volumes + time) data sets, which greatly challenge ones ability to visualize results. Noise in OCT images poses additional challenges. We created an algorithm with a quick, data set specific optimization for reduction of both shot and speckle noise and applied it to 3D visualization and image segmentation in OCT. When compared to baseline algorithms (median, Wiener, orthogonal wavelet, basic non-orthogonal wavelet), a panel of experts judged the new algorithm to give much improved volume renderings concerning both noise and 3D visualization. Specifically, the algorithm provided a better visualization of the myocardial and endocardial surfaces, and the interaction of the embryonic heart tube with surrounding tissue. Quantitative evaluation using an image quality figure of merit also indicated superiority of the new algorithm. Noise reduction aided semi-automatic 2D image segmentation, as quantitatively evaluated using a contour distance measure with respect to an expert segmented contour. In conclusion, the noise reduction algorithm should be quite useful for visualization and quantitative measurements (e.g., heart volume, stroke volume, contraction velocity, etc.) in OCT embryo images. With its semi-automatic, data set specific optimization, we believe that the algorithm can be applied to OCT images from other applications. PMID:18679509

  6. "4D Biology for health and disease" workshop report.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Jan-Pieter; Apweiler, Rolf; Balling, Rudi; Bertero, Michela G; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Chayen, Naomi E; Chène, Patrick; Corthals, Gary L; Dyląg, Tomasz; Förster, Friedrich; Heck, Albert J R; Henderson, Peter J F; Herwig, Ralf; Jehenson, Philippe; Kokalj, Sasa Jenko; Laue, Ernest; Legrain, Pierre; Martens, Lennart; Migliorini, Cristiano; Musacchio, Andrea; Podobnik, Marjetka; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Schreiber, Gideon; Sixma, Titia K; Smit, August B; Stuart, David; Svergun, Dmitri I; Taussig, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    The "4D Biology Workshop for Health and Disease", held on 16-17th of March 2010 in Brussels, aimed at finding the best organising principles for large-scale proteomics, interactomics and structural genomics/biology initiatives, and setting the vision for future high-throughput research and large-scale data gathering in biological and medical science. Major conclusions of the workshop include the following. (i) Development of new technologies and approaches to data analysis is crucial. Biophysical methods should be developed that span a broad range of time/spatial resolution and characterise structures and kinetics of interactions. Mathematics, physics, computational and engineering tools need to be used more in biology and new tools need to be developed. (ii) Database efforts need to focus on improved definitions of ontologies and standards so that system-scale data and associated metadata can be understood and shared efficiently. (iii) Research infrastructures should play a key role in fostering multidisciplinary research, maximising knowledge exchange between disciplines and facilitating access to diverse technologies. (iv) Understanding disease on a molecular level is crucial. System approaches may represent a new paradigm in the search for biomarkers and new targets in human disease. (v) Appropriate education and training should be provided to help efficient exchange of knowledge between theoreticians, experimental biologists and clinicians. These conclusions provide a strong basis for creating major possibilities in advancing research and clinical applications towards personalised medicine.

  7. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and hand preference for writing in the BBC Internet Study.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Peters, M

    2009-09-01

    The ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) may be negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone. Hand preference has been linked with prenatal testosterone and 2D:4D. Here we show that 2D:4D is associated with hand preference for writing in a large internet sample (n>170,000) in which participants self-reported their finger lengths. We replicated a significant association between right 2D:4D and writing hand preference (low right 2D:4D associated with left hand preference) as well as a significant correlation between writing hand preference and the difference between left and right 2D:4D or Dr-l (low Dr-l associated with left hand preference). A new significant correlation between left 2D:4D and writing hand preference was also shown (high left 2D:4D associated with left hand preference). There was a clear interaction between writing hand preference and 2D:4D: The left 2D:4D was significantly larger than the right 2D:4D in male and female left-handed writers, and the right hand 2D:4D was significantly larger than the left hand 2D:4D in male and female right-handed writers.

  8. 2,4-D and IAA Amino Acid Conjugates Show Distinct Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Eyer, Luděk; Vain, Thomas; Pařízková, Barbora; Oklestkova, Jana; Barbez, Elke; Kozubíková, Hana; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Wierzbicka, Roksana; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Fránek, Milan; Strnad, Miroslav; Robert, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-D exhibits an auxinic activity and therefore can be used as a synthetic and traceable analog to study auxin-related responses. Here we identified that not only exogenous 2,4-D but also its amide-linked metabolite 2,4-D-Glu displayed an inhibitory effect on plant growth via the TIR1/AFB auxin-mediated signaling pathway. To further investigate 2,4-D metabolite conversion, identity and activity, we have developed a novel purification procedure based on the combination of ion exchange and immuno-specific sorbents combined with a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. In 2,4-D treated samples, 2,4-D-Glu and 2,4-D-Asp were detected at 100-fold lower concentrations compared to 2,4-D levels, showing that 2,4-D can be metabolized in the plant. Moreover, 2,4-D-Asp and 2,4-D-Glu were identified as reversible forms of 2,4-D homeostasis that can be converted to free 2,4-D. This work paves the way to new studies of auxin action in plant development. PMID:27434212

  9. GRAM 88 - 4D GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE MODEL-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    the Jacchia values. Below 25km the atmospheric parameters are computed by the 4-D worldwide atmospheric model of Spiegler and Fowler (1972). This data set is not included. GRAM-88 incorporates a hydrostatic/gas law check in the 0-30 km altitude range to flag and change any bad data points. Between 5km and 30km, an interpolation scheme is used between the 4-D results and the modified Groves values. The output parameters consist of components for: (1) latitude, longitude, and altitude dependent monthly and annual means, (2) quasi-biennial oscillations (QBO), and (3) random perturbations to partially simulate the variability due to synoptic, diurnal, planetary wave, and gravity wave variations. Quasi-biennial and random variation perturbations are computed from parameters determined by various empirical studies and are added to the monthly mean values. The GRAM-88 program is for batch execution on the IBM 3084. It is written in STANDARD FORTRAN 77 under the MVS/XA operating system. The IBM DISPLA graphics routines are necessary for graphical output. The program was developed in 1988.

  10. 4D Imaging of Protein Aggregation in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaganovich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    proteins that are not ubiquitinated are diverted to the IPOD, where they are actively aggregated in a protective compartment. Up until this point, the methodological paradigm of live-cell fluorescence microscopy has largely been to label proteins and track their locations in the cell at specific time-points and usually in two dimensions. As new technologies have begun to grant experimenters unprecedented access to the submicron scale in living cells, the dynamic architecture of the cytosol has come into view as a challenging new frontier for experimental characterization. We present a method for rapidly monitoring the 3D spatial distributions of multiple fluorescently labeled proteins in the yeast cytosol over time. 3D timelapse (4D imaging) is not merely a technical challenge; rather, it also facilitates a dramatic shift in the conceptual framework used to analyze cellular structure. We utilize a cytosolic folding sensor protein in live yeast to visualize distinct fates for misfolded proteins in cellular aggregation quality control, using rapid 4D fluorescent imaging. The temperature sensitive mutant of the Ubc9 protein10-12 (Ubc9ts) is extremely effective both as a sensor of cellular proteostasis, and a physiological model for tracking aggregation quality control. As with most ts proteins, Ubc9ts is fully folded and functional at permissive temperatures due to active cellular chaperones. Above 30 °C, or when the cell faces misfolding stress, Ubc9ts misfolds and follows the fate of a native globular protein that has been misfolded due to mutation, heat denaturation, or oxidative damage. By fusing it to GFP or other fluorophores, it can be tracked in 3D as it forms Stress Foci, or is directed to JUNQ or IPOD. PMID:23608881

  11. SU-E-J-26: A Novel Technique for Markerless Self-Sorted 4D-CBCT Using Patient Motion Modeling: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Harris, W; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an automatic markerless 4D-CBCT projection sorting technique by using a patient respiratory motion model extracted from the planning 4D-CT images. Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation of one phase of the prior planning 4D-CT. The deformation field map (DFM) is represented as a linear combination of three major deformation patterns extracted from the planning 4D-CT using principle component analysis (PCA). The coefficients of the PCA deformation patterns are solved by matching the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the deformed volume to the onboard projection acquired. The PCA coefficients are solved for each single projection, and are used for phase sorting. Projections at the peaks of the Z direction coefficient are sorted as phase 1 and other projections are assigned into 10 phase bins by dividing phases equally between peaks. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the proposed technique. Three scenarios were simulated, with different tumor motion amplitude (3cm to 2cm), tumor spatial shift (8mm SI), and tumor body motion phase shift (2 phases) from prior to on-board images. Projections were simulated over 180 degree scan-angle for the 4D-XCAT. The percentage of accurately binned projections across entire dataset was calculated to represent the phase sorting accuracy. Results: With a changed tumor motion amplitude from 3cm to 2cm, markerless phase sorting accuracy was 100%. With a tumor phase shift of 2 phases w.r.t. body motion, the phase sorting accuracy was 100%. With a tumor spatial shift of 8mm in SI direction, phase sorting accuracy was 86.1%. Conclusion: The XCAT phantom simulation results demonstrated that it is feasible to use prior knowledge and motion modeling technique to achieve markerless 4D-CBCT phase sorting. National Institutes of Health Grant No. R01-CA184173 Varian Medical System.

  12. Evaluation of a novel 4D in vivo dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Cherpak, A.; Ding, W.; Hallil, A.; Cygler, J. E.

    2009-05-15

    A prototype of a new 4D in vivo dosimetry system capable of simultaneous real-time position monitoring and dose measurement has been developed. The radiation positioning system (RADPOS) is controlled by a computer and combines two technologies: MOSFET radiation detector coupled with an electromagnetic positioning device. Special software has been developed that allows sampling position and dose either manually or automatically in user-defined time intervals. Preliminary tests of the new device include a dosimetric evaluation of the detector in {sup 60}Co, 6 MV, and 18 MV beams and measurements of spatial position stability and accuracy. In addition, the effect of metals and other materials on the performance of the positioning system has been investigated. Results show that the RADPOS system can measure in-air dose profiles that agree, on average, within 3%-5% of diode measurements for the energies tested. The response of the detector is isotropic within 1.6% (1 SD) with a maximum deviation of {+-}4.0% over 360 deg. The maximum variation in the calibration coefficient over field sizes from 6x6 to 25x25 cm{sup 2} was 2.3% for RADPOS probe with the high sensitivity MOSFET and 4.6% for the probe with the standard sensitivity MOSFET. Of the materials tested, only aluminum, lead, and brass caused shifts in the RADPOS read position. The magnitude of the shift varied between materials and size of the material sample. Nonmagnetic stainless steel (Grade 304) caused a distortion of less than 2 mm when placed within 10 mm of the detector; therefore, it can provide a reasonable alternative to other metals if required. The results of the preliminary tests indicate that the device can be used for in vivo dosimetry in {sup 60}Co and high-energy beams from linear accelerators.

  13. Binary 4D seismic history matching, a metric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassagne, Romain; Obidegwu, Dennis; Dambrine, Julien; MacBeth, Colin

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores 4D seismic history matching and it specifically focuses on the objective function used during the optimisation with seismic data. The objective function is calculated by using binary maps, where one map is obtained from the observed seismic data and the other is from one realisation of the optimisation algorithm from the simulation model. In order to decide which set of parameters is a relevant update for the simulation model, an efficient way is required to measure how similar these two binary images are, during their evaluation within the objective function. Behind this aspect of quantification of the similarities or dissimilarities lies the metric notion, or the art of measuring distances. Four metrics are proposed with this study, the well-known Hamming distance, two widely used metrics, the Hausdorff distance and Mutual Information and a recent metric, called the Current Measure Metric. These metrics will be tested and compared on different case scenarios, designed in accordance to a real field case (gas exsolution) before being used in the second part of the paper. Despite its simplicity, the Hamming distance gives positive results, but the Current Measure Metric appears to be a more efficient choice to cover a wider range of scenarios, these conclusions remain true when tested on synthetic and real dataset in a history matching exercise. Some practical aspects of binary map processes will be examined through the paper, as it is shown that it is more proper to use a derivative free optimisation algorithm and a proper metric should be more inclined to capture global features than local features.

  14. Infrared PINEM developed by diffraction in 4D UEM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haihua; Baskin, John Spencer; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2016-02-23

    The development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D UEM) has enabled not only observations of the ultrafast dynamics of photon-matter interactions at the atomic scale with ultrafast resolution in image, diffraction, and energy space, but photon-electron interactions in the field of nanoplasmonics and nanophotonics also have been captured by the related technique of photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM) in image and energy space. Here we report a further extension in the ongoing development of PINEM using a focused, nanometer-scale, electron beam in diffraction space for measurements of infrared-light-induced PINEM. The energy resolution in diffraction mode is unprecedented, reaching 0.63 eV under the 200-keV electron beam illumination, and separated peaks of the PINEM electron-energy spectrum induced by infrared light of wavelength 1,038 nm (photon energy 1.2 eV) have been well resolved for the first time, to our knowledge. In a comparison with excitation by green (519-nm) pulses, similar first-order PINEM peak amplitudes were obtained for optical fluence differing by a factor of more than 60 at the interface of copper metal and vacuum. Under high fluence, the nonlinear regime of IR PINEM was observed, and its spatial dependence was studied. In combination with PINEM temporal gating and low-fluence infrared excitation, the PINEM diffraction method paves the way for studies of structural dynamics in reciprocal space and energy space with high temporal resolution.

  15. Fast interactive exploration of 4D MRI flow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennemuth, A.; Friman, O.; Schumann, C.; Bock, J.; Drexl, J.; Huellebrand, M.; Markl, M.; Peitgen, H.-O.

    2011-03-01

    1- or 2-directional MRI blood flow mapping sequences are an integral part of standard MR protocols for diagnosis and therapy control in heart diseases. Recent progress in rapid MRI has made it possible to acquire volumetric, 3-directional cine images in reasonable scan time. In addition to flow and velocity measurements relative to arbitrarily oriented image planes, the analysis of 3-dimensional trajectories enables the visualization of flow patterns, local features of flow trajectories or possible paths into specific regions. The anatomical and functional information allows for advanced hemodynamic analysis in different application areas like stroke risk assessment, congenital and acquired heart disease, aneurysms or abdominal collaterals and cranial blood flow. The complexity of the 4D MRI flow datasets and the flow related image analysis tasks makes the development of fast comprehensive data exploration software for advanced flow analysis a challenging task. Most existing tools address only individual aspects of the analysis pipeline such as pre-processing, quantification or visualization, or are difficult to use for clinicians. The goal of the presented work is to provide a software solution that supports the whole image analysis pipeline and enables data exploration with fast intuitive interaction and visualization methods. The implemented methods facilitate the segmentation and inspection of different vascular systems. Arbitrary 2- or 3-dimensional regions for quantitative analysis and particle tracing can be defined interactively. Synchronized views of animated 3D path lines, 2D velocity or flow overlays and flow curves offer a detailed insight into local hemodynamics. The application of the analysis pipeline is shown for 6 cases from clinical practice, illustrating the usefulness for different clinical questions. Initial user tests show that the software is intuitive to learn and even inexperienced users achieve good results within reasonable processing

  16. Infrared PINEM developed by diffraction in 4D UEM

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haihua; Baskin, John Spencer; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2016-01-01

    The development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D UEM) has enabled not only observations of the ultrafast dynamics of photon–matter interactions at the atomic scale with ultrafast resolution in image, diffraction, and energy space, but photon–electron interactions in the field of nanoplasmonics and nanophotonics also have been captured by the related technique of photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM) in image and energy space. Here we report a further extension in the ongoing development of PINEM using a focused, nanometer-scale, electron beam in diffraction space for measurements of infrared-light-induced PINEM. The energy resolution in diffraction mode is unprecedented, reaching 0.63 eV under the 200-keV electron beam illumination, and separated peaks of the PINEM electron-energy spectrum induced by infrared light of wavelength 1,038 nm (photon energy 1.2 eV) have been well resolved for the first time, to our knowledge. In a comparison with excitation by green (519-nm) pulses, similar first-order PINEM peak amplitudes were obtained for optical fluence differing by a factor of more than 60 at the interface of copper metal and vacuum. Under high fluence, the nonlinear regime of IR PINEM was observed, and its spatial dependence was studied. In combination with PINEM temporal gating and low-fluence infrared excitation, the PINEM diffraction method paves the way for studies of structural dynamics in reciprocal space and energy space with high temporal resolution. PMID:26848135

  17. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intact bacteriophage T4D particles.

    PubMed Central

    Childs, J D; Birnboim, H C

    1975-01-01

    A method for the electrophoresis of intact bacteriophage T4D particles through polyacrylamide gels has been developed. It was found that phage particles will migrate through dilute polyacrylamide gels (less than 2.1%) in the presence of a low concentration of MgCl2. As few as 5 x 10(9) phage particles can be seen directly as a light-scattering band during the course of electrophoresis. The band can also be detected by scanning gels at 260 to 265 nm or by eluting viable phage particles from gel slices. A new mutant (eph1) has been identified on the basis of its decreased electrophoretic mobility compared with that of the wild type; mutant particles migrated 14% slower than the wild type particles at pH 8.3 and 35% slower at pH 5.0. The isoelectric points of both the wild type and eph1 mutant were found to be between pH 4.0 and 5.0. Particles of T4 with different head lengths were also studied. Petite particles (heads 20% shorter than normal) migrated at the same rate as normal-size particles. Giant particles, heterogenous with respect to head length (two to nine times normal), migrated faster than normal-size particles as a diffuse band. This diffuseness was due to separation within the band of particles having mobilities ranging from 8 to 35% faster than those of normal-size particles. These observations extend the useful range of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to include much larger particles than have previously been studied, including most viruses. Images PMID:240037

  18. 4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Kowalski, Marcin; Haex, Bart; Mooshake, Sven

    2006-04-01

    Orthopedics and neurosciences are fields of medicine where the analysis of objective movement parameters is extremely important for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, as there are significant differences between static and dynamic parameters, there is a strong need of analyzing the anatomical structures under functional conditions. In clinical gait analysis the benefits of kinematical methods are undoubted. In this paper we present a 4D (3D + time) measurement system capable of automatic location of selected anatomical structures by locating and tracing the structures' position and orientation in time. The presented system is designed to help a general practitioner in diagnosing selected lower limbs' dysfunctions (e.g. knee injuries) and also determine if a patient should be directed for further examination (e.g. x-ray or MRI). The measurement system components are hardware and software. For the hardware part we adapt the laser triangulation method. In this way we can evaluate functional and dynamic movements in a contact-free, non-invasive way, without the use of potentially harmful radiation. Furthermore, opposite to marker-based video-tracking systems, no preparation time is required. The software part consists of a data acquisition module, an image processing and point clouds (point cloud, set of points described by coordinates (x, y, z)) calculation module, a preliminary processing module, a feature-searching module and an external biomechanical module. The paper briefly presents the modules mentioned above with the focus on the feature-searching module. Also we present some measurement and analysis results. These include: parameters maps, landmarks trajectories in time sequence and animation of a simplified model of lower limbs.

  19. Enhancing ejection fraction measurement through 4D respiratory motion compensation in cardiac PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Xinhui; Gao, Xiangzhen; Segars, Paul; Lodge, Martin; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-03-02

    ECG gated cardiac PET imaging measures functional parameters such as left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF), providing diagnostic and prognostic information for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Respiratory motion degrades spatial resolution and affects the accuracy in measuring the LV volumes for EF calculation. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the effect of respiratory motion correction on the estimation of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and EF, especially on the separation of normal and abnormal EFs. We developed a respiratory motion incorporated 4D PET image reconstruction technique which uses all gated-frame data to acquire a motion-suppressed image. Using the standard XCAT phantom and two individual-specific volunteer XCAT phantoms, we simulated dual-gated myocardial perfusion imaging data for normally and abnormally beating hearts. With and without respiratory motion correction, we measured the EDV, ESV, and EF from the cardiac gated reconstructed images. For all the phantoms, the estimated volumes increased and the biases significantly reduced with motion correction compared with those without. Furthermore, the improvement of ESV measurement in the abnormally beating heart led to better separation of normal and abnormal EFs. The simulation study demonstrated the significant effect of respiratory motion correction on cardiac imaging data with motion amplitude as small as 0.7 cm. The larger the motion amplitude the more improvement respiratory motion correction brought about on the measurement of EF. Using data-driven respiratory gating, we also demonstrated the effect of respiratory motion correction on estimation of the above functional parameters from list mode patient data. Respiratory motion correction is shown to improve the accuracy of EF measurement in clinical cardiac PET imaging.

  20. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section... CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D who is a: (a) Duly ordained minister of religion; or (b)...

  1. 49 CFR 178.53 - Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.53 Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere...

  2. 49 CFR 178.53 - Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.53 Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere...

  3. 49 CFR 178.53 - Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.53 Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere...

  4. 49 CFR 178.53 - Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.53 Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere...

  5. 40 CFR 180.142 - 2,4-D; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...,4-D; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... § 180.1(l), are established for residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D (2,4... established for indirect or inadvertent residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D...

  6. 40 CFR 180.142 - 2,4-D; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,4-D; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... § 180.1(m), are established for residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D (2,4... established for indirect or inadvertent residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D...

  7. 2,4-D removal via denitrification using volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    He, X; Wareham, D G

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have waters contaminated with both herbicides and nitrates; however, information is limited with respect to removal rates for combined nitrate and herbicide elimination. This research investigates the removal of 2,4-D via denitrification, with a particular emphasis on the effect of adding naturally generated volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The acids were produced from an acid-phase anaerobic digester with a mean VFA concentration of 3153±801 mg/L (as acetic acid). Initially, 2,4-D degrading bacteria were developed in an SBR fed with both sewage and 2,4-D (30-100 mg/L). Subsequent denitrification batch tests demonstrated that the specific denitrification rate increased from 0.0119±0.0039 using 2,4-D alone to 0.0192±0.0079 g NO₃-N/g VSS per day, when 2,4-D was combined with natural VFAs from the digester. Similarly, the specific 2,4-D consumption rate increased from 0.0016±0.0009 using 2,4-D alone to 0.0055±0.0021 g 2,4-D/g VSS per day, when using 2,4-D plus natural VFAs. Finally, a parallel increase in the percent 2,4-D removal was observed, rising from 28.33±11.88 using 2,4-D alone to 54.17±21.89 using 2,4-D plus natural VFAs.

  8. 4D radial contrast-enhanced MR angiography with sliding subtraction.

    PubMed

    Cashen, Ty A; Jeong, Hyun; Shah, Maulin K; Bhatt, Hem M; Shin, Wanyong; Carr, James C; Walker, Matthew T; Batjer, H Hunt; Carroll, Timothy J

    2007-11-01

    A method is presented for high spatial and temporal resolution 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. The overall technique involves a set of interrelated components suited to high-frame-rate angiography, including 3D cylindrical k-space sampling, angular undersampling, asymmetric sampling, sliding window reconstruction, pseudorandom view ordering, and a sliding subtraction mask. Computer simulations and volunteer studies demonstrated the utility of each component of the technique. Angiograms of one hemisphere of the intracranial vasculature were acquired with a pixel size of 1.1 x 1.1 x 2.8 mm and a frame rate of 0.35 sec based on a temporal resolution of 3.5 sec. Such a 3D time-resolved, or "4D," technique has the potential to noninvasively acquire diagnostic quality images of certain anatomic regions with a frame rate fast enough to not only ensure the capture of an uncontaminated arterial phase, but even demonstrate contrast bolus flow dynamics. Clinical applications include noninvasive imaging of arteriovenous shunting, which is demonstrated with a patient study.

  9. Event-Based 3D Motion Flow Estimation Using 4D Spatio Temporal Subspaces Properties.

    PubMed

    Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Carneiro, João; Benosman, Ryad B

    2016-01-01

    State of the art scene flow estimation techniques are based on projections of the 3D motion on image using luminance-sampled at the frame rate of the cameras-as the principal source of information. We introduce in this paper a pure time based approach to estimate the flow from 3D point clouds primarily output by neuromorphic event-based stereo camera rigs, or by any existing 3D depth sensor even if it does not provide nor use luminance. This method formulates the scene flow problem by applying a local piecewise regularization of the scene flow. The formulation provides a unifying framework to estimate scene flow from synchronous and asynchronous 3D point clouds. It relies on the properties of 4D space time using a decomposition into its subspaces. This method naturally exploits the properties of the neuromorphic asynchronous event based vision sensors that allows continuous time 3D point clouds reconstruction. The approach can also handle the motion of deformable object. Experiments using different 3D sensors are presented.

  10. Event-Based 3D Motion Flow Estimation Using 4D Spatio Temporal Subspaces Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ieng, Sio-Hoi; Carneiro, João; Benosman, Ryad B.

    2017-01-01

    State of the art scene flow estimation techniques are based on projections of the 3D motion on image using luminance—sampled at the frame rate of the cameras—as the principal source of information. We introduce in this paper a pure time based approach to estimate the flow from 3D point clouds primarily output by neuromorphic event-based stereo camera rigs, or by any existing 3D depth sensor even if it does not provide nor use luminance. This method formulates the scene flow problem by applying a local piecewise regularization of the scene flow. The formulation provides a unifying framework to estimate scene flow from synchronous and asynchronous 3D point clouds. It relies on the properties of 4D space time using a decomposition into its subspaces. This method naturally exploits the properties of the neuromorphic asynchronous event based vision sensors that allows continuous time 3D point clouds reconstruction. The approach can also handle the motion of deformable object. Experiments using different 3D sensors are presented. PMID:28220057

  11. A dose error evaluation study for 4D dose calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milz, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J.; Ullrich, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that respiration induced motion is not negligible for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. The intrafractional breathing induced motion influences the delivered dose distribution on the underlying patient geometry such as the lung or the abdomen. If a static geometry is used, a planning process for these indications does not represent the entire dynamic process. The quality of a full 4D dose calculation approach depends on the dose coordinate transformation process between deformable geometries. This article provides an evaluation study that introduces an advanced method to verify the quality of numerical dose transformation generated by four different algorithms. The used transformation metric value is based on the deviation of the dose mass histogram (DMH) and the mean dose throughout dose transformation. The study compares the results of four algorithms. In general, two elementary approaches are used: dose mapping and energy transformation. Dose interpolation (DIM) and an advanced concept, so called divergent dose mapping model (dDMM), are used for dose mapping. The algorithms are compared to the basic energy transformation model (bETM) and the energy mass congruent mapping (EMCM). For evaluation 900 small sample regions of interest (ROI) are generated inside an exemplary lung geometry (4DCT). A homogeneous fluence distribution is assumed for dose calculation inside the ROIs. The dose transformations are performed with the four different algorithms. The study investigates the DMH-metric and the mean dose metric for different scenarios (voxel sizes: 8 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm 9 different breathing phases). dDMM achieves the best transformation accuracy in all measured test cases with 3-5% lower errors than the other models. The results of dDMM are reasonable and most efficient in this study, although the model is simple and easy to implement. The EMCM model also achieved suitable results, but the approach requires a more complex

  12. Experimenting with the GMAO 4D Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, R.; El Akkraoui, A.; Errico, R. M.; Guo, J.; Kim, J.; Kliest, D.; Parrish, D. F.; Suarez, M.; Trayanov, A.; Tremolet, Yannick; Whitaker, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) has been working to promote its prototype four-dimensional variational (4DVAR) system to a version that can be exercised at operationally desirable configurations. Beyond a general circulation model (GeM) and an analysis system, traditional 4DV AR requires availability of tangent linear (TL) and adjoint (AD) models of the corresponding GeM. The GMAO prototype 4DVAR uses the finite-volume-based GEOS GeM and the Grid-point Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system for the first two, and TL and AD models derived ITom an early version of the finite-volume hydrodynamics that is scientifically equivalent to the present GEOS nonlinear GeM but computationally rather outdated. Specifically, the TL and AD models hydrodynamics uses a simple (I-dimensional) latitudinal MPI domain decomposition, which has consequent low scalability and prevents the prototype 4DV AR ITom being used in realistic applications. In the near future, GMAO will be upgrading its operational GEOS GCM (and assimilation system) to use a cubed-sphere-based hydrodynamics. This versions of the dynamics scales to thousands of processes and has led to a decision to re-derive the TL and AD models for this more modern dynamics, thus taking advantage of a two-dimensional MPI decomposition and improved scalability properties. With the aid of the Transformation of Algorithms in FORTRAN (l'AF) automatic adjoint generation tool and some hand-coding, a version of the cubed-sphere-based TL and AD models, with a simplified vertical diffusion scheme, is now available, enabling multiple configurations of standard implementations of 4DV AR in GEOS. Concurrent to this development, collaboration with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) has allowed GMAO to implement a hybrid-ensemble capability within the GEOS data assimilation system. Both 3Dand 4D-ensemble capabilities are presently available thus allowing

  13. Interactive 4D Visualization of Sediment Transport Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkiewicz, T.; Englert, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal sediment transport models simulate the effects that waves, currents, and tides have on near-shore bathymetry and features such as beaches and barrier islands. Understanding these dynamic processes is integral to the study of coastline stability, beach erosion, and environmental contamination. Furthermore, analyzing the results of these simulations is a critical task in the design, placement, and engineering of coastal structures such as seawalls, jetties, support pilings for wind turbines, etc. Despite the importance of these models, there is a lack of available visualization software that allows users to explore and perform analysis on these datasets in an intuitive and effective manner. Existing visualization interfaces for these datasets often present only one variable at a time, using two dimensional plan or cross-sectional views. These visual restrictions limit the ability to observe the contents in the proper overall context, both in spatial and multi-dimensional terms. To improve upon these limitations, we use 3D rendering and particle system based illustration techniques to show water column/flow data across all depths simultaneously. We can also encode multiple variables across different perceptual channels (color, texture, motion, etc.) to enrich surfaces with multi-dimensional information. Interactive tools are provided, which can be used to explore the dataset and find regions-of-interest for further investigation. Our visualization package provides an intuitive 4D (3D, time-varying) visualization of sediment transport model output. In addition, we are also integrating real world observations with the simulated data to support analysis of the impact from major sediment transport events. In particular, we have been focusing on the effects of Superstorm Sandy on the Redbird Artificial Reef Site, offshore of Delaware Bay. Based on our pre- and post-storm high-resolution sonar surveys, there has significant scour and bedform migration around the

  14. SU-D-17A-04: The Impact of Audiovisual Biofeedback On Image Quality During 4D Functional and Anatomic Imaging: Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, P; Pollock, S; Yang, J; Diehn, M; Berger, J; Graves, E; Loo, B; Yamamoto, T

    2014-06-01

    comprehension and capability. Supported by NIH/NCI R01 CA 093626, Stanford BioX Interdisciplinary Initiatives Program, NHMRC Australia Fellowship, and Kwanjeong Educational Foundation. GE Healthcare provided the Respiratory Gating Toolbox for 4D-PET image reconstruction. Stanford University owns US patent #E7955270 which is unlicensed to any commercial entity.

  15. Estrogen-dependent proteolytic cleavage of semaphorin 4D and plexin-B1 enhances semaphorin 4D-induced apoptosis during postnatal vaginal remodeling in pubescent mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Around the fifth week after birth, the vaginal cavity in female mouse pups opens to the overlaying skin. This postnatal tissue remodeling of the genital tract occurs during puberty, and it largely depends upon hormonally induced apoptosis that mainly occurs in the epithelium at the lower part of the mouse vaginal cavity. Previously, we showed that most BALB/c mice lacking the class IV Semaphorin (Sema4D) develop imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos; therefore, we reasoned that the absence of Sema4D-induced apoptosis in vaginal epithelial cells may cause the imperforate vagina. Sema4D signals via the Plexin-B1 receptor; nevertheless detailed mechanisms mediating this hormonally triggered apoptosis are not fully documented. To investigate the estrogen-dependent control of Sema4D signaling during the apoptosis responsible for mouse vaginal opening, we examined structural and functional modulation of Sema4D, Plexin-B1, and signaling molecules by analyzing both wild-type and Sema4D-/- mice with or without ovariectomy. Both the release of soluble Sema4D and the conversion of Plexin-B1 by proteolytic processing in vaginal tissue peaked 5 weeks after birth of wild-type BALB/c mice at the time of vaginal opening. Estrogen supplementation of ovariectomized wild-type mice revealed that both the release of soluble Sema4D and the conversion of Plexin-B1 into an active form were estrogen-dependent and concordant with apoptosis. Estrogen supplementation of ovariectomized Sema4D-/- mice did not induce massive vaginal apoptosis in 5-week-old mice; therefore, Sema4D may be an essential apoptosis-inducing ligand that acts downstream of estrogen action in vaginal epithelium during this postnatal tissue remodeling. Analysis of ovariectomized mice also indicated that Sema4D contributed to estrogen-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt and ERK at the time of vaginal opening. Based on our results, we propose that apoptosis in vaginal epithelium during postnatal vaginal opening is induced

  16. SU-F-303-13: Initial Evaluation of Four Dimensional Diffusion- Weighted MRI (4D-DWI) and Its Effect On Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y; Yin, F; Czito, B; Bashir, M; Palta, M; Cai, J; Zhong, X; Dale, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) has been shown to have superior tumor-to-tissue contrast for cancer detection.This study aims at developing and evaluating a four dimensional DWI(4D-DWI) technique using retrospective sorting method for imaging respiratory motion for radiotherapy planning,and evaluate its effect on Apparent Diffusion Coefficient(ADC) measurement. Materials/Methods: Image acquisition was performed by repeatedly imaging a volume of interest using a multi-slice single-shot 2D-DWI sequence in the axial planes and cine MRI(served as reference) using FIESTA sequence.Each 2D-DWI image were acquired in xyz-diffusion-directions with a high b-value(b=500s/mm2).The respiratory motion was simultaneously recorded using bellows.Retrospective sorting was applied in each direction to reconstruct 4D-DWI.The technique was evaluated using a computer simulated 4D-digital human phantom(XCAT),a motion phantom and a healthy volunteer under an IRB-approved study.Motion trajectories of regions-of-interests(ROI) were extracted from 4D-DWI and compared with reference.The mean motion trajectory amplitude differences(D) between the two was calculated.To quantitatively analyze the motion artifacts,XCAT were controlled to simulate regular motion and the motions of 10 liver cancer patients.4D-DWI,free-breathing DWI(FB- DWI) were reconstructed.Tumor volume difference(VD) of each phase of 4D-DWI and FB-DWI from the input static tumor were calculated.Furthermore, ADC was measured for each phase of 4D-DWI and FB-DWI data,and mean tumor ADC values(M-ADC) were calculated.Mean M-ADC over all 4D-DWI phases was compared with M-ADC calculated from FB-DWI. Results: 4D-DWI of XCAT,the motion phantom and the healthy volunteer demonstrated the respiratory motion clearly.ROI D values were 1.9mm,1.7mm and 2.0mm,respectively.For motion artifacts analysis,XCAT 4D-DWI images show much less motion artifacts compare to FB-DWI.Mean VD for 4D-WDI and FB-DWI were 8.5±1.4% and 108±15

  17. SEMA4D compromises blood-brain barrier, activates microglia, and inhibits remyelination in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ernest S; Jonason, Alan; Reilly, Christine; Veeraraghavan, Janaki; Fisher, Terrence; Doherty, Michael; Klimatcheva, Ekaterina; Mallow, Crystal; Cornelius, Chad; Leonard, John E; Marchi, Nicola; Janigro, Damir; Argaw, Azeb Tadesse; Pham, Trinh; Seils, Jennifer; Bussler, Holm; Torno, Sebold; Kirk, Renee; Howell, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth E; Paris, Mark; Bowers, William J; John, Gareth; Zauderer, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease characterized by immune cell infiltration of CNS, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, localized myelin destruction, and progressive neuronal degeneration. There exists a significant need to identify novel therapeutic targets and strategies that effectively and safely disrupt and even reverse disease pathophysiology. Signaling cascades initiated by semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) induce glial activation, neuronal process collapse, inhibit migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and disrupt endothelial tight junctions forming the BBB. To target SEMA4D, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognizes mouse, rat, monkey and human SEMA4D with high affinity and blocks interaction between SEMA4D and its cognate receptors. In vitro, anti-SEMA4D reverses the inhibitory effects of recombinant SEMA4D on OPC survival and differentiation. In vivo, anti-SEMA4D significantly attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in multiple rodent models by preserving BBB integrity and axonal myelination and can be shown to promote migration of OPC to the site of lesions and improve myelin status following chemically-induced demyelination. Our study underscores SEMA4D as a key factor in CNS disease and supports the further development of antibody-based inhibition of SEMA4D as a novel therapeutic strategy for MS and other neurologic diseases with evidence of demyelination and/or compromise to the neurovascular unit.

  18. Regulation of semaphorin 4D expression and cell proliferation of ovarian cancer by ERalpha and ERbeta

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Hou, Y.; Ma, L.; Sun, C.; Pan, J.; Yang, Y.; Zhou, H.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Semaphorin 4D (sema 4D) is involved in the progress of multiple cancers. In the presence of estrogen-like ligands, estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) participate in the progress of breast and ovarian cancers by transcriptional regulation. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of sema 4D and elucidate the regulatory pattern of ERα and ERβ on sema 4D expression in ovarian cancers. Sema 4D levels were up-regulated in ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. Patients with malignant ovarian cancers had significantly higher sema 4D levels than controls, suggesting an oncogene role of sema 4D in ovarian cancer. ERα expressions were up-regulated in SKOV-3 cells compared with normal ovarian IOSE80 epithelial cells. Conversely, down-regulation of ERβ was observed in SKOV-3 cells. Forced over-expression of ERα and ERβ in SKOV-3 cells was manipulated to establish ERα+ and ERβ+ SKOV-3 cell lines. Incubation of ERα+ SKOV-3 cells with ERs agonist 17β-estradiol (E2) significantly enhanced sema 4D expression and rate of cell proliferation. Incubated with E2, ERβ+ SKOV-3 cells showed lower sema 4D expression and cell proliferation. Blocking ERα and ERβ activities with ICI182-780 inhibitor, sema 4D expressions and cell proliferation of ERα+ and ERβ+ SKOV-3 cells were recovered to control levels. Taken together, the data showed that sema 4D expression was positively correlated with the progress of ovarian cancer. ERα positively regulated sema 4D expression and accelerated cell proliferation. ERβ negatively regulated sema 4D expression and inhibited cell multiplication. PMID:28225892

  19. Penile Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Harvey; Tang, Jennifer C.; Monstrey, Stan J.; Mardini, Samir

    2011-01-01

    A variety of surgical options exists for penile reconstruction. The key to success of therapy is holistic management of the patient, with attention to the psychological aspects of treatment. In this article, we review reconstructive modalities for various types of penile defects inclusive of partial and total defects as well as the buried penis, and also describe recent basic science advances, which may promise new options for penile reconstruction. PMID:22851914

  20. The role of semaphorin 4D in tumor development and angiogenesis in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongchao; Chen, Ceshi; Sun, Qiangming; Wu, Jing; Qiu, Lijuan; Gao, Change; Liu, Weiqing; Yang, Jun; Jun, Nie; Dong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) is highly expressed in certain types of tumors and functions in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and growth. However, it is still not clear regarding the roles of Sema4D in breast cancer. This study was designed to explore the effects of Sema4D on proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, invasion, migration, tumor growth, and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Materials and methods The expression level of Sema4D was investigated in MCF10A, 184A1, HCC1937, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, BT474, MCF-7, and T47D breast cancer cell lines by Western blotting analysis. Sema4D downregulation or overexpression was established by infection with lentiviruses-encoding Sema4D short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or Sema4D. To evaluate the effects of Sema4D on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, invasion, and migration of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, methods including MTT assay, flow cytometry, wound healing assay, and transwell experiments were applied. BALB/c nude mice were injected with MDA-MB-231 cells, which were respectively infected with lentiviruses-encoding Sema4D, Sema4D shRNA, and GFP, followed by tumor angiogenesis assay. Results Sema4D was expressed at higher levels in breast cancer cell lines compared with the normal human breast epithelial cell lines, especially in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Cell proliferation ability was remarkably inhibited in Sema4D downregulated condition, whereas the proportions of cells in the G0/G1 phase and apoptosis increased in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. In addition, the invasion and migration abilities of these cells were obviously reduced. Xenograft growth as well as angiogenesis was inhibited when infected with lentiviruses-encoding Sema4D shRNA in vivo. Conclusion Downregulation of Sema4D had notable influence on cell proliferation ability, invasion, migration, and apoptosis of both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Furthermore, infection with lentiviruses

  1. IMRT treatment planning on 4D geometries for the era of dynamic MLC tracking.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yelin; Murray, Walter; Keall, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    The problem addressed here was to obtain optimal and deliverable dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequences from four-dimensional (4D) geometries for dynamic MLC tracking delivery. The envisaged scenario was where respiratory phase and position information of the target was available during treatment, from which the optimal treatment plan could be further adapted in real time. A tool for 4D treatment plan optimization was developed that integrates a commercially available treatment planning system and a general-purpose optimization system. The 4D planning method was applied to the 4D computed tomography planning scans of three lung cancer patients. The optimization variables were MLC leaf positions as a function of monitor units and respiratory phase. The objective function was the deformable dose-summed 4D treatment plan score. MLC leaf motion was constrained by the maximum leaf velocity between control points in terms of monitor units for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction and between phases for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction. For comparison and a starting point for the 4D optimization, three-dimensional (3D) optimization was performed on each of the phases. The output of the 4D IMRT planning process is a leaf sequence which is a function of both monitor unit and phase, which can be delivered to a patient whose breathing may vary between the imaging and treatment sessions. The 4D treatment plan score improved during 4D optimization by 34%, 4%, and 50% for Patients A, B, and C, respectively, indicating 4D optimization generated a better 4D treatment plan than the deformable sum of individually optimized phase plans. The dose-volume histograms for each phase remained similar, indicating robustness of the 4D treatment plan to respiratory variations expected during treatment delivery. In summary, 4D optimization for respiratory phase-dependent treatment planning with dynamic MLC motion tracking improved the 4D treatment plan

  2. 4D MRI for the Localization of Parathyroid Adenoma: A Novel Method in Evolution.

    PubMed

    Merchavy, Shlomo; Luckman, Judith; Guindy, Michal; Segev, Yoram; Khafif, Avi

    2016-03-01

    The sestamibi scan (MIBI) and ultrasound (US) are used for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma (PTA), with sensitivity as high as 90%. We developed 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D MRI) as a novel tool for identifying PTAs. Eleven patients with PTA were enrolled. 4D MRI from the mandible to the aortic arch was used. Optimization of the timing of image acquisition was obtained by changing dynamic and static sequences. PTAs were identified in all except 1 patient. In 9 patients, there was a complete match between the 4D MRI and the US and MIBI, as well as with the operative finding. In 1 patient, the adenoma was correctly localized by 4D MRI, in contrast to the US and MIBI scan. The sensitivity of the 4D MRI was 90% and after optimization, 100%. Specificity was 100%. We concluded that 4D MRI is a reliable technique for identification of PTAs, although more studies are needed.

  3. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section 1630.43 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D...

  4. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section 1630.43 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D...

  5. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section 1630.43 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D...

  6. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section 1630.43 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D...

  7. Immunomodulation of the tumor microenvironment by neutralization of Semaphorin 4D

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth E; Paris, Mark; Smith, Ernest S; Zauderer, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Semaphorin 4D is highly expressed at the invasive tumor margin and acts as a guidance molecule, restricting movement of tumoricidal immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. We recently showed that antibody neutralization of SEMA4D augmented activated monocyte and anticancer T-cell tumor penetration and that anti-SEMA4D antibody potentiated other immunomodulatory therapies in murine tumor models. PMID:26587332

  8. Mitotic activation of the DISC1-inducible cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4D9 (PDE4D9), through multi-site phosphorylation, influences cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Catherine L; Lee, Louisa C Y; Hill, Elaine V; Henderson, David J P; Anthony, Diana F; Houslay, Daniel M; Yalla, Krishna C; Cairns, Lynne S; Dunlop, Allan J; Baillie, George S; Huston, Elaine; Houslay, Miles D

    2014-09-01

    In Rat-1 cells, the dramatic decrease in the levels of both intracellular cyclic 3'5' adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP; cAMP) and in the activity of cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) observed in mitosis was paralleled by a profound increase in cAMP hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) activity. The decrease in PKA activity, which occurs during mitosis, was attributable to PDE4 activation as the PDE4 selective inhibitor, rolipram, but not the phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE3) inhibitor, cilostamide, specifically ablated this cell cycle-dependent effect. PDE4 inhibition caused Rat-1 cells to move from S phase into G2/M more rapidly, to transit through G2/M more quickly and to remain in G1 for a longer period. Inhibition of PDE3 elicited no observable effects on cell cycle dynamics. Selective immunopurification of each of the four PDE4 sub-families identified PDE4D as being selectively activated in mitosis. Subsequent analysis uncovered PDE4D9, an isoform whose expression can be regulated by Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) complex, as the sole PDE4 species activated during mitosis in Rat-1 cells. PDE4D9 becomes activated in mitosis through dual phosphorylation at Ser585 and Ser245, involving the combined action of ERK and an unidentified 'switch' kinase that has previously been shown to be activated by H2O2. Additionally, in mitosis, PDE4D9 also becomes phosphorylated at Ser67 and Ser81, through the action of MK2 (MAPKAPK2) and AMP kinase (AMPK), respectively. The multisite phosphorylation of PDE4D9 by all four of these protein kinases leads to decreased mobility (band-shift) of PDE4D9 on SDS-PAGE. PDE4D9 is predominantly concentrated in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but with a fraction distributed asymmetrically at the cell margins. Our investigations demonstrate that the diminished levels of cAMP and PKA activity that characterise mitosis are due to enhanced cAMP degradation by PDE4D9. PDE4D9, was found to

  9. The Relationship Between Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Sexual Orientation in Men from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2016-04-01

    We examined the relationship between 2D:4D digit ratio and sexual orientation in men from China and analyzed the influences of the components used to assess sexual orientation and the criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A total of 309 male and 110 female participants took part in a web-based survey. Our results showed that heterosexual men had a significantly lower 2D:4D than heterosexual women and exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher left 2D:4D than heterosexual men whereas only exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher right 2D:4D than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. The left 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, and the right 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual attraction. The effect sizes for differences in 2D:4D between homosexual and heterosexual men varied according to criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual and sexual orientation components; the more stringent the criteria (scores closer to the homosexual category), the larger the effect sizes; further, sexual attraction yielded the largest effect size. There were no significant effects of age and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. This study contributes to the current understanding of the relationship between 2D:4D and male sexual orientation.

  10. 4D VMAT, gated VMAT, and 3D VMAT for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, E.; Loewen, S. K.; Nichol, A.; Otto, K.

    2013-02-01

    Four-dimensional volumetric modulated arc therapy (4D VMAT) is a treatment strategy for lung cancers that aims to exploit relative target and tissue motion to improve organ at risk (OAR) sparing. The algorithm incorporates the entire patient respiratory cycle using 4D CT data into the optimization process. Resulting treatment plans synchronize the delivery of each beam aperture to a specific phase of target motion. Stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans for 4D VMAT, gated VMAT, and 3D VMAT were generated on three patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Tumour motion ranged from 1.4-3.4 cm. The dose and fractionation scheme was 48 Gy in four fractions. A B-spline transformation model registered the 4D CT images. 4D dose volume histograms (4D DVH) were calculated from total dose accumulated at the maximum exhalation. For the majority of OARs, gated VMAT achieved the most radiation sparing but treatment times were 77-148% longer than 3D VMAT. 4D VMAT plan qualities were comparable to gated VMAT, but treatment times were only 11-25% longer than 3D VMAT. 4D VMAT's improvement of healthy tissue sparing can allow for further dose escalation. Future study could potentially adapt 4D VMAT to irregular patient breathing patterns.

  11. Penile reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Garaffa, Giulio; Sansalone, Salvatore; Ralph, David J

    2013-01-01

    During the most recent years, a variety of new techniques of penile reconstruction have been described in the literature. This paper focuses on the most recent advances in male genital reconstruction after trauma, excision of benign and malignant disease, in gender reassignment surgery and aphallia with emphasis on surgical technique, cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:22426595

  12. Noninvasive 4D pressure difference mapping derived from 4D flow MRI in patients with repaired aortic coarctation: comparison with young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rengier, Fabian; Delles, Michael; Eichhorn, Joachim; Azad, Yoo-Jin; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Ley, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    To assess spatial and temporal pressure characteristics in patients with repaired aortic coarctation compared to young healthy volunteers using time-resolved velocity-encoded three-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow MRI) and derived 4D pressure difference maps. After in vitro validation against invasive catheterization as gold standard, 4D flow MRI of the thoracic aorta was performed at 1.5T in 13 consecutive patients after aortic coarctation repair without recoarctation and 13 healthy volunteers. Using in-house developed processing software, 4D pressure difference maps were computed based on the Navier-Stokes equation. Pressure difference amplitudes, maximum slope of pressure amplitudes and spatial pressure range at mid systole were retrospectively measured by three readers, and twice by one reader to assess inter- and intraobserver agreement. In vitro, pressure differences derived from 4D flow MRI showed excellent agreement to invasive catheter measurements. In vivo, pressure difference amplitudes, maximum slope of pressure difference amplitudes and spatial pressure range at mid systole were significantly increased in patients compared to volunteers in the aortic arch, the proximal descending and the distal descending thoracic aorta (p < 0.05). Greatest differences occurred in the proximal descending aorta with values of the three parameters for patients versus volunteers being 19.7 ± 7.5 versus 10.0 ± 2.0 (p < 0.001), 10.9 ± 10.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.4 (p = 0.002), and 8.7 ± 6.3 versus 1.6 ± 0.9 (p < 0.001). Inter- and intraobserver agreements were excellent (p < 0.001). Noninvasive 4D pressure difference mapping derived from 4D flow MRI enables detection of altered intraluminal aortic pressures and showed significant spatial and temporal changes in patients with repaired aortic coarctation.

  13. Validation of the 4D NCAT simulation tools for use in high-resolution x-ray CT research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segars, W. P.; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Beck, T.; Frey, E. C.; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2005-04-01

    We validate the computer-based simulation tools developed in our laboratory for use in high-resolution CT research. The 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom was developed to provide a realistic and flexible model of the human anatomy and physiology. Unlike current phantoms in CT, the 4D NCAT has the advantage, due to its design, that its organ shapes can be changed to realistically model anatomical variations and patient motion. To efficiently simulate high-resolution CT images, we developed a unique analytic projection algorithm (including scatter and quantum noise) to accurately calculate projections directly from the surface definition of the phantom given parameters defining the CT scanner and geometry. The projection data are reconstructed into CT images using algorithms developed in our laboratory. The 4D NCAT phantom contains a level of detail that is close to impossible to produce in a physical test object. We, therefore, validate our CT simulation tools and methods through a series of direct comparisons with data obtained experimentally using existing, simple physical phantoms at different doses and using different x-ray energy spectra. In each case, the first-order simulations were found to produce comparable results (<12%). We reason that since the simulations produced equivalent results using simple test objects, they should be able to do the same in more anatomically realistic conditions. We conclude that, with the ability to provide realistic simulated CT image data close to that from actual patients, the simulation tools developed in this work will have applications in a broad range of CT imaging research.

  14. Comparison of two respiration monitoring systems for 4D imaging with a Siemens CT using a new dynamic breathing phantom.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, A C; Runz, A; Echner, G; Sroka-Perez, G; Karger, C P

    2012-05-07

    Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) requires breathing information from the patient, and for this, several systems are available. Testing of these systems, under realistic conditions, requires a phantom with a moving target and an expandable outer contour. An anthropomorphic phantom was developed to simulate patient breathing as well as lung tumor motion. Using the phantom, an optical camera system (GateCT) and a pressure sensor (AZ-733V) were simultaneously operated, and 4D-CTs were reconstructed with a Siemens CT using the provided local-amplitude-based sorting algorithm. The comparison of the tumor trajectories of both systems revealed discrepancies up to 9.7 mm. Breathing signal differences, such as baseline drift, temporal resolution and noise level were shown not to be the reason for this. Instead, the variability of the sampling interval and the accuracy of the sampling rate value written on the header of the GateCT-signal file were identified as the cause. Interpolation to regular sampling intervals and correction of the sampling rate to the actual value removed the observed discrepancies. Consistently, the introduction of sampling interval variability and inaccurate sampling rate values into the header of the AZ-733V file distorted the tumor trajectory for this system. These results underline the importance of testing new equipment thoroughly, especially if components of different manufacturers are combined.

  15. SU-E-J-157: Improving the Quality of T2-Weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Clinical Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, D; Mutic, S; Hu, Y; Caruthers, S; Glide-Hurst, C; Low, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop an imaging technique that enables us to acquire T2- weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (4DMRI) with sufficient spatial coverage, temporal resolution and spatial resolution for clinical evaluation. Methods: T2-weighed 4DMRI images were acquired from a healthy volunteer using a respiratory amplitude triggered T2-weighted Turbo Spin Echo sequence. 10 respiratory states were used to equally sample the respiratory range based on amplitude (0%, 20%i, 40%i, 60%i, 80%i, 100%, 80%e, 60%e, 40%e and 20%e). To avoid frequent scanning halts, a methodology was devised that split 10 respiratory states into two packages in an interleaved manner and packages were acquired separately. Sixty 3mm sagittal slices at 1.5mm in-plane spatial resolution were acquired to offer good spatial coverage and reasonable spatial resolution. The in-plane field of view was 375mm × 260mm with nominal scan time of 3 minutes 42 seconds. Acquired 2D images at the same respiratory state were combined to form the 3D image set corresponding to that respiratory state and reconstructed in the coronal view to evaluate whether all slices were at the same respiratory state. 3D image sets of 10 respiratory states represented a complete 4D MRI image set. Results: T2-weighted 4DMRI image were acquired in 10 minutes which was within clinical acceptable range. Qualitatively, the acquired MRI images had good image quality for delineation purposes. There were no abrupt position changes in reconstructed coronal images which confirmed that all sagittal slices were in the same respiratory state. Conclusion: We demonstrated it was feasible to acquire T2-weighted 4DMRI image set within a practical amount of time (10 minutes) that had good temporal resolution (10 respiratory states), spatial resolution (1.5mm × 1.5mm × 3.0mm) and spatial coverage (60 slices) for future clinical evaluation.

  16. Presentation and Outcomes of C4d-Negative Antibody-Mediated Rejection After Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Orandi, B J; Alachkar, N; Kraus, E S; Naqvi, F; Lonze, B E; Lees, L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wickliffe, C; Bagnasco, S M; Zachary, A A; Segev, D L; Montgomery, R A

    2016-01-01

    The updated Banff classification allows for the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in the absence of peritubular capillary C4d staining. Our objective was to quantify allograft loss risk in patients with consistently C4d-negative AMR (n = 51) compared with C4d-positive AMR patients (n = 156) and matched control subjects without AMR. All first-year posttransplant biopsy results from January 2004 through June 2014 were reviewed and correlated with the presence of donor-specific antibody (DSA). C4d-negative AMR patients were not different from C4d-positive AMR patients on any baseline characteristics, including immunologic risk factors (panel reactive antibody, prior transplant, HLA mismatch, donor type, DSA class, and anti-HLA/ABO-incompatibility). C4d-positive AMR patients were significantly more likely to have a clinical presentation (85.3% vs. 54.9%, p < 0.001), and those patients presented substantially earlier posttransplantation (median 14 [interquartile range 8-32] days vs. 46 [interquartile range 20-191], p < 0.001) and were three times more common (7.8% vs 2.5%). One- and 2-year post-AMR-defining biopsy graft survival in C4d-negative AMR patients was 93.4% and 90.2% versus 86.8% and 82.6% in C4d-positive AMR patients, respectively (p = 0.4). C4d-negative AMR was associated with a 2.56-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.05, p = 0.033) increased risk of graft loss compared with AMR-free matched controls. No clinical characteristics were identified that reliably distinguished C4d-negative from C4d-positive AMR. However, both phenotypes are associated with increased graft loss and thus warrant consideration for intervention.

  17. Evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the phosphodiesterase 4D gene (PDE4D) and their association with ischaemic stroke in a large German cohort.

    PubMed

    Kuhlenbäumer, G; Berger, K; Huge, A; Lange, E; Kessler, C; John, U; Funke, H; Nabavi, D G; Stögbauer, F; Ringelstein, E B; Stoll, M

    2006-04-01

    Genetic fine mapping of the first locus identified for genetically complex forms of stroke, STRK1 (which has been mapped to chromosome 5q12 in Icelandic families), has identified the phosphodiesterase 4D gene (PDE4D) gene as a good candidate gene. Association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PDE4D gene in an Icelandic stroke cohort demonstrated genetic association between six SNPs in the 5' region of PDE4D and ischaemic stroke. The present study aimed to test whether the same six SNPs in PDE4D were also associated with stroke in a large stroke cohort from northern Germany (stroke patients with acute completed ischaemic stroke: n = 1181; population based controls: n = 1569). None of the six SNPs showed significant association with ischaemic stroke in the whole stroke sample before and after adjustment for conventional stroke risk factors (age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolaemia). Haplotype analysis did also not reveal any significant association. Marginally positive statistical measures of association in the subgroup with cardioembolic stroke did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, this study was unable to demonstrate an association between the six SNPs which had showed significant single marker association with stroke in the Icelandic stroke cohort and ischaemic stroke in a large German cohort.

  18. Impact of CT attenuation correction method on quantitative respiratory-correlated (4D) PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nyflot, Matthew J.; Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Wollenweber, Scott D.; Stearns, Charles W.; Bowen, Stephen R.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-correlated positron emission tomography (PET/CT) 4D PET/CT is used to mitigate errors from respiratory motion; however, the optimal CT attenuation correction (CTAC) method for 4D PET/CT is unknown. The authors performed a phantom study to evaluate the quantitative performance of CTAC methods for 4D PET/CT in the ground truth setting. Methods: A programmable respiratory motion phantom with a custom movable insert designed to emulate a lung lesion and lung tissue was used for this study. The insert was driven by one of five waveforms: two sinusoidal waveforms or three patient-specific respiratory waveforms. 3DPET and 4DPET images of the phantom under motion were acquired and reconstructed with six CTAC methods: helical breath-hold (3DHEL), helical free-breathing (3DMOT), 4D phase-averaged (4DAVG), 4D maximum intensity projection (4DMIP), 4D phase-matched (4DMATCH), and 4D end-exhale (4DEXH) CTAC. Recovery of SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, SUV{sub peak}, and segmented tumor volume was evaluated as RC{sub max}, RC{sub mean}, RC{sub peak}, and RC{sub vol}, representing percent difference relative to the static ground truth case. Paired Wilcoxon tests and Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA were used to test for significant differences. Results: For 4DPET imaging, the maximum intensity projection CTAC produced significantly more accurate recovery coefficients than all other CTAC methods (p < 0.0001 over all metrics). Over all motion waveforms, ratios of 4DMIP CTAC recovery were 0.2 ± 5.4, −1.8 ± 6.5, −3.2 ± 5.0, and 3.0 ± 5.9 for RC{sub max}, RC{sub peak}, RC{sub mean}, and RC{sub vol}. In comparison, recovery coefficients for phase-matched CTAC were −8.4 ± 5.3, −10.5 ± 6.2, −7.6 ± 5.0, and −13.0 ± 7.7 for RC{sub max}, RC{sub peak}, RC{sub mean}, and RC{sub vol}. When testing differences between phases over all CTAC methods and waveforms, end-exhale phases were significantly more accurate (p = 0.005). However, these differences were driven by

  19. Teaching Tip: Managing Software Engineering Student Teams Using Pellerin's 4-D System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doman, Marguerite; Besmer, Andrew; Olsen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the use of Pellerin's Four Dimension Leadership System (4-D) as a way to manage teams in a classroom setting. Over a 5-year period, we used a modified version of the 4-D model to manage teams within a senior level Software Engineering capstone course. We found that this approach for team management in a classroom…

  20. Practical implementation of tetrahedral mesh reconstruction in emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutchko, R.; Sitek, A.; Gullberg, G. T.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a practical implementation of image reconstruction on tetrahedral meshes optimized for emission computed tomography with parallel beam geometry. Tetrahedral mesh built on a point cloud is a convenient image representation method, intrinsically three-dimensional and with a multi-level resolution property. Image intensities are defined at the mesh nodes and linearly interpolated inside each tetrahedron. For the given mesh geometry, the intensities can be computed directly from tomographic projections using iterative reconstruction algorithms with a system matrix calculated using an exact analytical formula. The mesh geometry is optimized for a specific patient using a two stage process. First, a noisy image is reconstructed on a finely-spaced uniform cloud. Then, the geometry of the representation is adaptively transformed through boundary-preserving node motion and elimination. Nodes are removed in constant intensity regions, merged along the boundaries, and moved in the direction of the mean local intensity gradient in order to provide higher node density in the boundary regions. Attenuation correction and detector geometric response are included in the system matrix. Once the mesh geometry is optimized, it is used to generate the final system matrix for ML-EM reconstruction of node intensities and for visualization of the reconstructed images. In dynamic PET or SPECT imaging, the system matrix generation procedure is performed using a quasi-static sinogram, generated by summing projection data from multiple time frames. This system matrix is then used to reconstruct the individual time frame projections. Performance of the new method is evaluated by reconstructing simulated projections of the NCAT phantom and the method is then applied to dynamic SPECT phantom and patient studies and to a dynamic microPET rat study. Tetrahedral mesh-based images are compared to the standard voxel-based reconstruction for both high and low signal-to-noise ratio

  1. Practical implementation of tetrahedral mesh reconstruction in emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Boutchko, R; Sitek, A; Gullberg, G T

    2013-05-07

    This paper presents a practical implementation of image reconstruction on tetrahedral meshes optimized for emission computed tomography with parallel beam geometry. Tetrahedral mesh built on a point cloud is a convenient image representation method, intrinsically three-dimensional and with a multi-level resolution property. Image intensities are defined at the mesh nodes and linearly interpolated inside each tetrahedron. For the given mesh geometry, the intensities can be computed directly from tomographic projections using iterative reconstruction algorithms with a system matrix calculated using an exact analytical formula. The mesh geometry is optimized for a specific patient using a two stage process. First, a noisy image is reconstructed on a finely-spaced uniform cloud. Then, the geometry of the representation is adaptively transformed through boundary-preserving node motion and elimination. Nodes are removed in constant intensity regions, merged along the boundaries, and moved in the direction of the mean local intensity gradient in order to provide higher node density in the boundary regions. Attenuation correction and detector geometric response are included in the system matrix. Once the mesh geometry is optimized, it is used to generate the final system matrix for ML-EM reconstruction of node intensities and for visualization of the reconstructed images. In dynamic PET or SPECT imaging, the system matrix generation procedure is performed using a quasi-static sinogram, generated by summing projection data from multiple time frames. This system matrix is then used to reconstruct the individual time frame projections. Performance of the new method is evaluated by reconstructing simulated projections of the NCAT phantom and the method is then applied to dynamic SPECT phantom and patient studies and to a dynamic microPET rat study. Tetrahedral mesh-based images are compared to the standard voxel-based reconstruction for both high and low signal-to-noise ratio

  2. Ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Glickel, Steven Z; Gupta, Salil

    2006-05-01

    Volar ligament reconstruction is an effective technique for treating symptomatic laxity of the CMC joint of the thumb. The laxity may bea manifestation of generalized ligament laxity,post-traumatic, or metabolic (Ehler-Danlos). There construction reduces the shear forces on the joint that contribute to the development and persistence of inflammation. Although there have been only a few reports of the results of volar ligament reconstruction, the use of the procedure to treat Stage I and Stage II disease gives good to excellent results consistently. More advanced stages of disease are best treated by trapeziectomy, with or without ligament reconstruction.

  3. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance. PMID:26600255

  4. TU-C-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT I: Multi-Modality 4D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, J; Mageras, G; Pan, T

    2014-06-15

    Motion management is one of the critical technical challenges for radiation therapy. 4D imaging has been rapidly adopted as essential tool to assess organ motion associated with respiratory breathing. A variety of 4D imaging techniques have been developed and are currently under development based on different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, PET, and CBCT. Each modality provides specific and complementary information about organ and tumor respiratory motion. Effective use of each different technique or combined use of different techniques can introduce a comprehensive management of tumor motion. Specifically, these techniques have afforded tremendous opportunities to better define and delineate tumor volumes, more accurately perform patient positioning, and effectively apply highly conformal therapy techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Successful implementation requires good understanding of not only each technique, including unique features, limitations, artifacts, imaging acquisition and process, but also how to systematically apply the information obtained from different imaging modalities using proper tools such as deformable image registration. Furthermore, it is important to understand the differences in the effects of breathing variation between different imaging modalities. A comprehensive motion management strategy using multi-modality 4D imaging has shown promise in improving patient care, but at the same time faces significant challenges. This session will focuses on the current status and advances in imaging respiration-induced organ motion with different imaging modalities: 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, 4D-PET, and 4D-CBCT/DTS. Learning Objectives: Understand the need and role of multimodality 4D imaging in radiation therapy. Understand the underlying physics behind each 4D imaging technique. Recognize the advantages and limitations of each 4D imaging technique.

  5. Weight of the evidence on the human carcinogenicity of 2,4-D*

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, M. A.; Bond, G. G.; Burke, T. A.; Cole, P.; Dost, F. N.; Enterline, P. E.; Gough, M.; Greenberg, R. S.; Halperin, W. E.; McConnell, E.; Munro, I. C.; Swenberg, J. A.; Zahm, S. H.; Graham, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The phenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is widely used to control the growth of weeds and broadleaf plants. We convened a panel of 13 scientists to weigh the evidence on the human carcinogenicity of 2,4-D. The panel based its findings on a review of the toxicological and epidemiological literature on 2,4-D and related phenoxy herbicides. The toxicological data do not provide a strong basis for predicting that 2,4-D is a human carcinogen. Although a cause–effect relationship is far from being established, the epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to 2,4-D and non–Hodgkin's lymphoma is suggestive and requires further investigation. There is little evidence of an association between use of 2,4-D and soft-tissue sarcoma or Hodgkin's disease, and no evidence of an association between 2,4-D use and any other form of cancer. Scientists on the panel were asked to categorize 2,4-D as a “known,” “probable,” “possible,” or “unlikely” carcinogen or as a noncarcinogen in humans. The predominant opinion among the panel members was that the weight of the evidence indicates that it is possible that exposure to 2,4-D can cause cancer in humans, although not all of the panelists believed the possibility was equally likely: one thought the possibility was strong, leaning toward probable, and five thought the possibility was remote, leaning toward unlikely. Two panelists believed it unlikely that 2,4-D can cause cancer in humans. PMID:1820267

  6. Scientometric analysis and bibliography of digit ratio (2D:4D) research, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella

    2009-06-01

    A scientometric analysis of modern research on the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a widely studied putative marker for prenatal androgen action, is presented. In early 2009, this literature totalled more than 300 publications and, since its initiation in 1998, has grown at a rate slightly faster than linear. Key findings included evidence of publication bias and citation bias, incomplete coverage and outdatedness of existing reviews, and a dearth of meta-analyses in this field. 2D:4D research clusters noticeably in terms of researchers, institutions, countries, and journals involved. Although 2D:4D is an anthropometric trait, most of the research has been conducted at psychology departments, not anthropology departments. However, 2D:4D research has not been predominantly published in core and specialized journals of psychology, but rather in more broadly scoped journals of the behavioral sciences, biomedical social sciences, and neurosciences. Total citation numbers of 2D:4D papers for the most part were not larger than their citation counts within 2D:4D research, indicating that until now, only a few 2D:4D studies have attained broader interest outside this specific field. Comparative citation analyses show that 2D:4D research presently is commensurate in size and importance to evolutionary psychological jealousy research, but has grown faster than the latter field. In contrast, it is much smaller and has spread more slowly than research about the Implicit Association Test Fifteen conjectures about anticipated trends in 2D:4D research are outlined, appendixed by a first-time bibliography of the entirety of the published 2D:4D literature.

  7. ACL reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... This increases the chance you may have a meniscus tear. ACL reconstruction may be used for these ... When other ligaments are also injured When your meniscus is torn Before surgery, talk to your health ...

  8. 4D dose simulation in volumetric arc therapy: Accuracy and affecting parameters.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, Thilo; Gauer, Tobias; Werner, René

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy of lung and liver lesions has changed from normofractioned 3D-CRT to stereotactic treatment in a single or few fractions, often employing volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-based techniques. Potential unintended interference of respiratory target motion and dynamically changing beam parameters during VMAT dose delivery motivates establishing 4D quality assurance (4D QA) procedures to assess appropriateness of generated VMAT treatment plans when taking into account patient-specific motion characteristics. Current approaches are motion phantom-based 4D QA and image-based 4D VMAT dose simulation. Whereas phantom-based 4D QA is usually restricted to a small number of measurements, the computational approaches allow simulating many motion scenarios. However, 4D VMAT dose simulation depends on various input parameters, influencing estimated doses along with mitigating simulation reliability. Thus, aiming at routine use of simulation-based 4D VMAT QA, the impact of such parameters as well as the overall accuracy of the 4D VMAT dose simulation has to be studied in detail-which is the topic of the present work. In detail, we introduce the principles of 4D VMAT dose simulation, identify influencing parameters and assess their impact on 4D dose simulation accuracy by comparison of simulated motion-affected dose distributions to corresponding dosimetric motion phantom measurements. Exploiting an ITV-based treatment planning approach, VMAT treatment plans were generated for a motion phantom and different motion scenarios (sinusoidal motion of different period/direction; regular/irregular motion). 4D VMAT dose simulation results and dose measurements were compared by local 3% / 3 mm γ-evaluation, with the measured dose distributions serving as ground truth. Overall γ-passing rates of simulations and dynamic measurements ranged from 97% to 100% (mean across all motion scenarios: 98% ± 1%); corresponding values for comparison of different day repeat measurements were

  9. 4D dose simulation in volumetric arc therapy: Accuracy and affecting parameters

    PubMed Central

    Werner, René

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy of lung and liver lesions has changed from normofractioned 3D-CRT to stereotactic treatment in a single or few fractions, often employing volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-based techniques. Potential unintended interference of respiratory target motion and dynamically changing beam parameters during VMAT dose delivery motivates establishing 4D quality assurance (4D QA) procedures to assess appropriateness of generated VMAT treatment plans when taking into account patient-specific motion characteristics. Current approaches are motion phantom-based 4D QA and image-based 4D VMAT dose simulation. Whereas phantom-based 4D QA is usually restricted to a small number of measurements, the computational approaches allow simulating many motion scenarios. However, 4D VMAT dose simulation depends on various input parameters, influencing estimated doses along with mitigating simulation reliability. Thus, aiming at routine use of simulation-based 4D VMAT QA, the impact of such parameters as well as the overall accuracy of the 4D VMAT dose simulation has to be studied in detail–which is the topic of the present work. In detail, we introduce the principles of 4D VMAT dose simulation, identify influencing parameters and assess their impact on 4D dose simulation accuracy by comparison of simulated motion-affected dose distributions to corresponding dosimetric motion phantom measurements. Exploiting an ITV-based treatment planning approach, VMAT treatment plans were generated for a motion phantom and different motion scenarios (sinusoidal motion of different period/direction; regular/irregular motion). 4D VMAT dose simulation results and dose measurements were compared by local 3% / 3 mm γ-evaluation, with the measured dose distributions serving as ground truth. Overall γ-passing rates of simulations and dynamic measurements ranged from 97% to 100% (mean across all motion scenarios: 98% ± 1%); corresponding values for comparison of different day repeat measurements were

  10. Assessing cardiac function from total-variation-regularized 4D C-arm CT in the presence of angular undersampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubmann, O.; Haase, V.; Lauritsch, G.; Zheng, Y.; Krings, G.; Hornegger, J.; Maier, A.

    2017-04-01

    Time-resolved tomographic cardiac imaging using an angiographic C-arm device may support clinicians during minimally invasive therapy by enabling a thorough analysis of the heart function directly in the catheter laboratory. However, clinically feasible acquisition protocols entail a highly challenging reconstruction problem which suffers from sparse angular sampling of the trajectory. Compressed sensing theory promises that useful images can be recovered despite massive undersampling by means of sparsity-based regularization. For a multitude of reasons—most notably the desired reduction of scan time, dose and contrast agent required—it is of great interest to know just how little data is actually sufficient for a certain task. In this work, we apply a convex optimization approach based on primal-dual splitting to 4D cardiac C-arm computed tomography. We examine how the quality of spatially and temporally total-variation-regularized reconstruction degrades when using as few as 6.9+/- 1.2 projection views per heart phase. First, feasible regularization weights are determined in a numerical phantom study, demonstrating the individual benefits of both regularizers. Secondly, a task-based evaluation is performed in eight clinical patients. Semi-automatic segmentation-based volume measurements of the left ventricular blood pool performed on strongly undersampled images show a correlation of close to 99% with measurements obtained from less sparsely sampled data.

  11. Assessing cardiac function from total-variation-regularized 4-D C-arm CT in the presence of angular undersampling.

    PubMed

    Taubmann, Oliver; Haase, Viktor; Lauritsch, Guenter; Zheng, Yefeng; Krings, Gregor; Hornegger, Joachim; Maier, Andreas

    2017-02-22

    Time-resolved tomographic cardiac imaging using an angiographic C-arm device may support clinicians during minimally invasive therapy by enabling a thorough analysis of the heart function directly in the catheter laboratory. However, clinically feasible acquisition protocols entail a highly challenging reconstruction problem which suffers from sparse angular sampling of the trajectory. Compressed sensing theory promises that useful images can be recovered despite massive undersampling by means of sparsity-based regularization. For a multitude of reasons-most notably the desired reduction of scan time, dose and contrast agent required-it is of great interest to know just how little data is actually sufficient for a certain task. In this work, we apply a convex optimization approach based on primal-dual splitting to 4-D cardiac C-arm computed tomography. We examine how the quality of spatially and temporally total-variation-regularized reconstruction degrades when using as few as 6.9 ± 1.2 projection views per heart phase. First, feasible regularization weights are determined in a numerical phantom study, demonstrating the individual benefits of both regularizers. Secondly, a task-based evaluation is performed in eight clinical patients. Semi-automatic segmentation-based volume measurements of the left ventricular blood pool performed on strongly undersampled images show a correlation of close to 99% with measurements obtained from less sparsely sampled data.

  12. Development of Dynamic Spatial Video Camera (DSVC) for 4D observation, analysis and modeling of human body locomotion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Otake, Yoshito

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an imaging system for free and quantitative observation of human locomotion in a time-spatial domain by way of real time imaging. The system is equipped with 60 computer controlled video cameras to film human locomotion from all angles simultaneously. Images are installed into the main graphic workstation and translated into a 2D image matrix. Observation of the subject from optional directions is able to be performed by selecting the view point from the optimum image sequence in this image matrix. This system also possesses a function to reconstruct 4D models of the subject's moving human body by using 60 images taken from all directions at one particular time. And this system also has the capability to visualize inner structures such as the skeletal or muscular systems of the subject by compositing computer graphics reconstructed from the MRI data set. We are planning to apply this imaging system to clinical observation in the area of orthopedics, rehabilitation and sports science.

  13. A comparison between amplitude sorting and phase-angle sorting using external respiratory measurement for 4D CT

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Wei; Parikh, Parag J.; Hubenschmidt, James P.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Low, Daniel A.

    2006-08-15

    Respiratory motion can cause significant dose delivery errors in conformal radiation therapy for thoracic and upper abdominal tumors. Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) has been proposed to provide the image data necessary to model tumor motion and consequently reduce these errors. The purpose of this work was to compare 4D CT reconstruction methods using amplitude sorting and phase angle sorting. A 16-slice CT scanner was operated in cine mode to acquire 25 scans consecutively at each couch position through the thorax. The patient underwent synchronized external respiratory measurements. The scans were sorted into 12 phases based, respectively, on the amplitude and direction (inhalation or exhalation) or on the phase angle (0-360 deg.) of the external respiratory signal. With the assumption that lung motion is largely proportional to the measured respiratory amplitude, the variation in amplitude corresponds to the variation in motion for each phase. A smaller variation in amplitude would associate with an improved reconstructed image. Air content, defined as the amount of air within the lungs, bronchi, and trachea in a 16-slice CT segment and used by our group as a surrogate for internal motion, was correlated to the respiratory amplitude and phase angle throughout the lungs. For the 35 patients who underwent quiet breathing, images (similar to those used for treatment planning) and animations (used to display respiratory motion) generated using amplitude sorting displayed fewer reconstruction artifacts than those generated using phase angle sorting. The variations in respiratory amplitude were significantly smaller (P<0.001) with amplitude sorting than those with phase angle sorting. The subdivision of the breathing cycle into more (finer) phases improved the consistency in respiratory amplitude for amplitude sorting, but not for phase angle sorting. For 33 of the 35 patients, the air content showed significantly improved (P<0.001) correlation with the

  14. Mineralization of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) and Mixtures of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, J. S.; Reddy, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is presented for mineralization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in nutrient-rich media (high-nitrogen and malt extract media) by wild-type Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by a peroxidase-negative mutant of this organism. Mass balance analysis of [U-ring-14C]2,4-D mineralization in malt extract cultures showed 82.7% recovery of radioactivity. Of this, 38.6% was released as 14CO2 and 27.0, 11.2, and 5.9% were present in the aqueous, methylene chloride, and mycelial fractions, respectively. 2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) were simultaneously mineralized when presented as a mixture, and mutual inhibition of degradation was not observed. In contrast, a relatively higher rate of mineralization of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T was observed when these compounds were tested as mixtures than when they were tested alone. PMID:16349039

  15. 2,4-D resistance in wild radish: reduced herbicide translocation via inhibition of cellular transport

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Cawthray, Gregory R.; Powles, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to auxinic herbicides is increasing in a range of dicotyledonous weed species, but in most cases the biochemical mechanism of resistance is unknown. Using 14C-labelled herbicide, the mechanism of resistance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in two wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations was identified as an inability to translocate 2,4-D out of the treated leaf. Although 2,4-D was metabolized in wild radish, and in a different manner to the well-characterized crop species wheat and bean, there was no difference in metabolism between the susceptible and resistant populations. Reduced translocation of 2,4-D in the latter was also not due to sequestration of the herbicide, or to reduced uptake by the leaf epidermis or mesophyll cells. Application of auxin efflux or ABCB transporter inhibitors to 2,4-D-susceptible plants caused a mimicking of the reduced-translocation resistance phenotype, suggesting that 2,4-D resistance in the populations under investigation could be due to an alteration in the activity of a plasma membrane ABCB-type auxin transporter responsible for facilitating long-distance transport of 2,4-D. PMID:26994475

  16. Comparing Dislodgeable 2,4-D Residues across Athletic Field Turfgrass Species and Time

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, James T.; Breeden, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    2,4-dimethylamine salt (2,4-D) is an herbicide commonly applied on athletic fields for broadleaf weed control that can dislodge from treated turfgrass. Dislodge potential is affected by numerous factors, including turfgrass canopy conditions. Building on previous research confirming herbicide-turfgrass dynamics can vary widely between species, field research was initiated in 2014 and 2015 in Raleigh, NC, USA to quantify dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from dormant hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) and hybrid bermudagrass overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), which are common athletic field playing surfaces in subtropical climates. Additionally, dislodgeable 2,4-D was compared at AM (7:00 eastern standard time) and PM (14:00) sample timings within a day. Samples collected from perennial ryegrass consistently resulted in greater 2,4-D dislodgment immediately after application (9.4 to 9.9% of applied) compared to dormant hybrid bermudagrass (2.3 to 2.9%), as well as at all AM compared to PM timings from 1 to 3 d after treatment (DAT; 0.4 to 6.3% compared to 0.1 to 0.8%). Dislodgeable 2,4-D did not differ across turfgrass species at PM sample collections, with ≤ 0.1% of the 2,4-D applied dislodged from 1 to 6 DAT, and 2,4-D detection did not occur at 12 and 24 DAT. In conclusion, dislodgeable 2,4-D from treated turfgrass can vary between species and over short time-scales within a day. This information should be taken into account in human exposure risk assessments, as well as by turfgrass managers and athletic field event coordinators to minimize 2,4-D exposure. PMID:27936174

  17. Measurement and Structural Model Class Separation in Mixture CFA: ML/EM versus MCMC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaoli, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Parameter recovery was assessed within mixture confirmatory factor analysis across multiple estimator conditions under different simulated levels of mixture class separation. Mixture class separation was defined in the measurement model (through factor loadings) and the structural model (through factor variances). Maximum likelihood (ML) via the…

  18. SU-E-J-241: Creation of Ventilation CT From Daily 4D CTs Or 4D Conebeam CTs Acquired During IGRT for Thoracic Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, A; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to create ventilation CTs from daily 4D CTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs (4DCBCT) acquired during image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for thoracic tumors, and to explore the potential for using the ventilation CTs as a means for early detection of lung injury during radiation treatment. Methods: 4DCT acquired using an in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) and 4DCBCT acquired using the X-ray Volume Imaging (XVI) system (Infinity, Elekta) for representative lung cancer patients were analyzed. These 4D data sets were sorted into 10 phase images. A newly-available deformable image registration tool (ADMIRE, Elekta) is used to deform the phase images at the end of exhale (EE) to the phase images at the end of inhale (EI). The lung volumes at EI and EE were carefully contoured using an intensity-based auto-contour tool and then manually edited. The ventilation images were calculated from the variations of CT numbers of those voxels masked by the lung contour at EI between the registered phase images. The deformable image registration is also performed between the daily 4D images and planning 4DCT, and the resulting deformable field vector (DFV) is used to deform the planning doses to the daily images by an in-house Matlab program. Results: The ventilation images were successfully created. The tide volumes calculated using the ventilation images agree with those measured through volume difference of contours at EE and EI, indicating the accuracy of ventilation images. The association between the delivered doses and the change of lung ventilation from the daily ventilation CTs is identified. Conclusions: A method to create the ventilation CT using daily 4DCTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs was developed and demonstrated.

  19. Reducing the 4d index to the S 3 partition function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Yan, Wenbin

    2012-12-01

    The superconformal index of a 4 d gauge theory is computed by a matrix integral arising from localization of the supersymmetric path integral on S 3 × S 1. As the radius of the circle goes to zero, it is natural to expect that the 4 d path integral becomes the partition function of dimensionally reduced gauge theory on S 3. We show that this is indeed the case and recover the matrix integral of Kapustin, Willett and Yaakov from the matrix integral that computes the superconformal index. Remarkably, the superconformal index of the "parent" 4 d theory can be thought of as the q-deformation of the 3 d partition function.

  20. Inheritance of 2,4-D resistance traits in multiple herbicide- resistant Raphanus raphanistrum populations.

    PubMed

    Busi, Roberto; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-04-01

    A relatively low number of weed species have evolved resistance to auxinic herbicides despite their use for almost 70 years. This inheritance study with two Raphanus raphanistrum populations multiple-resistant 2,4-D and the ALS-inhibiting herbicide chlorsulfuron determined the number of genes and genetic dominance of 2,4-D resistance and investigated the association between traits conferring resistance to the two herbicide modes of action. Levels of 2,4-D phenotypic resistance and resistance segregation patterns were assessed in parental populations, F1 and F2 families.

  1. Bacterial degradation of phenoxy herbicide mixtures 2,4-D and MCPP

    SciTech Connect

    Kyeheon Oh; Tuovinen, O.H. )

    1991-08-01

    The phenoxy herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (MCPP) have auxin-like growth regulating properties and are extensively used for the control of broad-leaf angiosperm weeds. The microbiological degradation of 2,4-D by pure and mixed cultures has been examined in a number of studies. The authors have previously evaluated the concurrent microbiological degradation of 2,4-D and MCPP in stirred tank reactors. For the present paper, they examined the utilization of the two substrates by three mixed cultures that had a previous history of growth with the respective single phenoxy herbicide.

  2. SU-E-J-240: Development of a Novel 4D MRI Sequence for Real-Time Liver Tumor Tracking During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, L; Burmeister, J; Ye, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a Novel 4D MRI Technique that is feasible for realtime liver tumor tracking during radiotherapy. Methods: A volunteer underwent an abdominal 2D fast EPI coronal scan on a 3.0T MRI scanner (Siemens Inc., Germany). An optimal set of parameters was determined based on image quality and scan time. A total of 23 slices were scanned to cover the whole liver in the test scan. For each scan position, the 2D images were retrospectively sorted into multiple phases based on breathing signal extracted from the images. Consequently the 2D slices with same phase numbers were stacked to form one 3D image. Multiple phases of 3D images formed the 4D MRI sequence representing one breathing cycle. Results: The optimal set of scan parameters were: TR= 57ms, TE= 19ms, FOV read= 320mm and flip angle= 30°, which resulted in a total scan time of 14s for 200 frames (FMs) per slice and image resolution of (2.5mm,2.5mm,5.0mm) in three directions. Ten phases of 3D images were generated, each of which had 23 slices. Based on our test scan, only 100FMs were necessary for the phase sorting process which may lower the scan time to 7s/100FMs/slice. For example, only 5 slices/35s are necessary for a 4D MRI scan to cover liver tumor size ≤ 2cm leading to the possibility of tumor trajectory tracking every 35s during treatment. Conclusion: The novel 4D MRI technique we developed can reconstruct a 4D liver MRI sequence representing one breathing cycle (7s/ slice) without an external monitor. This technique can potentially be used for real-time liver tumor tracking during radiotherapy.

  3. Low 2D:4D Values Are Associated with Video Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Zenses, Eva-Maria; Lenz, Bernd; Stoessel, Christina; Bouna-Pyrrou, Polyxeni; Rehbein, Florian; Kliem, Sören; Mößle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Androgen-dependent signaling regulates the growth of the fingers on the human hand during embryogenesis. A higher androgen load results in lower 2D:4D (second digit to fourth digit) ratio values. Prenatal androgen exposure also impacts brain development. 2D:4D values are usually lower in males and are viewed as a proxy of male brain organization. Here, we quantified video gaming behavior in young males. We found lower mean 2D:4D values in subjects who were classified according to the CSAS-II as having at-risk/addicted behavior (n = 27) compared with individuals with unproblematic video gaming behavior (n = 27). Thus, prenatal androgen exposure and a hyper-male brain organization, as represented by low 2D:4D values, are associated with problematic video gaming behavior. These results may be used to improve the diagnosis, prediction, and prevention of video game addiction. PMID:24236143

  4. Dissipation and residue of 2,4-D in citrus under field condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Sun, Dali

    2015-05-01

    The dissipation, residues, and risks of 2,4-dicholrophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in citrus under field condition were investigated based on a simple ultra-performance LC (UPLC)-MS/MS method. The results indicated that the residue level of 2,4-D in citrus did not degrade gradually with sampling time under field condition. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 20-40 days, 2,4-D residues were 0.021-0.269 mg/kg in citrus flesh, 0.028-0.337 mg/kg in whole citrus, and 0.028-0.376 mg/kg in citrus peel, all bellow the China maximum residue limit in citrus (1 mg/kg). Risks of 2,4-D were assessed by calculation of risk quotient, and the results revealed no significant health risks after consumption of citrus.

  5. Low 2D:4D values are associated with video game addiction.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Zenses, Eva-Maria; Lenz, Bernd; Stoessel, Christina; Bouna-Pyrrou, Polyxeni; Rehbein, Florian; Kliem, Sören; Mößle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Androgen-dependent signaling regulates the growth of the fingers on the human hand during embryogenesis. A higher androgen load results in lower 2D:4D (second digit to fourth digit) ratio values. Prenatal androgen exposure also impacts brain development. 2D:4D values are usually lower in males and are viewed as a proxy of male brain organization. Here, we quantified video gaming behavior in young males. We found lower mean 2D:4D values in subjects who were classified according to the CSAS-II as having at-risk/addicted behavior (n = 27) compared with individuals with unproblematic video gaming behavior (n = 27). Thus, prenatal androgen exposure and a hyper-male brain organization, as represented by low 2D:4D values, are associated with problematic video gaming behavior. These results may be used to improve the diagnosis, prediction, and prevention of video game addiction.

  6. Planning 4D intensity-modulated arc therapy for tumor tracking with a multileaf collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ying; Betzel, Gregory T.; Yang, Xiaocheng; Gui, Minzhi; Parke, William C.; Yi, Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X.

    2017-02-01

    This study introduces a practical four-dimensional (4D) planning scheme of IMAT using 4D computed tomography (4D CT) for planning tumor tracking with dynamic multileaf beam collimation. We assume that patients can breathe regularly, i.e. the same way as during 4D CT with an unchanged period and amplitude, and that the start of 4D-IMAT delivery can be synchronized with a designated respiratory phase. Each control point of the IMAT-delivery process can be associated with an image set of 4D CT at a specified respiratory phase. Target is contoured at each respiratory phase without a motion-induced margin. A 3D-IMAT plan is first optimized on a reference-phase image set of 4D CT. Then, based on the projections of the planning target volume in the beam’s eye view at different respiratory phases, a 4D-IMAT plan is generated by transforming the segments of the optimized 3D plan by using a direct aperture deformation method. Compensation for both translational and deformable tumor motion is accomplished, and the smooth delivery of the transformed plan is ensured by forcing connectivity between adjacent angles (control points). It is envisioned that the resultant plans can be delivered accurately using the dose rate regulated tracking method which handles breathing irregularities (Yi et al 2008 Med. Phys. 35 3955–62).This planning process is straightforward and only adds a small step to current clinical 3D planning practice. Our 4D planning scheme was tested on three cases to evaluate dosimetric benefits. The created 4D-IMAT plans showed similar dose distributions as compared with the 3D-IMAT plans on a single static phase, indicating that our method is capable of eliminating the dosimetric effects of breathing induced target motion. Compared to the 3D-IMAT plans with large treatment margins encompassing respiratory motion, our 4D-IMAT plans reduced radiation doses to surrounding normal organs and tissues.

  7. Pregnancy monitoring in dogs and cats using 3D and 4D ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T B; Drews, B; Kurz, J; Hermes, R; Yang, S; Göritz, F

    2009-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D)/four-dimensional (4D) volume ultrasound is an established method in human medicine that offers various options for analysing and presenting ultrasound volume data. However, the successful application of the different 3D/4D imaging modalities in pregnant dogs and cats has not yet been reported in the literature. The main reasons for this are: (1) the high costs of 3D/4D ultrasound systems, (2) operation difficulties due to high breathing frequency in non-sedated animals and (3) the missing specific knowledge in veterinary medicine concerning how to perform high-quality volume scans. Automatically acquired ultrasound volume data sets were generated with two different ultrasound systems: the portable Voluson i and the stationary Voluson Expert 730. Different 3D/4D imaging modalities were tested in regard of their practicability in pregnancy monitoring in dogs and cats. Nine different volume imaging modalities were applied using the saved files. For the presentation of the static 3D volume data sets, we used the multiplanar, niche, surface, transparency, glass body, inversion, volume calculation and tomographic ultrasound imaging modes. For the dynamic 4D data, the surface and glass body modes were applied. By changing the human standard settings to the requirements of small animal anatomy, it was found that 3D/4D ultrasound has great potential for the characterization of pregnancy in queens and bitches. The 3D/4D technology offered advanced information about pregnancy status and birth prediction and improved the diagnostic confidence. By using standardized examination protocols, 3D/4D ultrasound will allow a reduction in examination time by generating even more relevant information. These benefits, combined with possible future cost reduction of commercial ultrasound systems, might lead to frequent utilization in routine pregnancy diagnostic and birth management in small animal practice.

  8. A standardized method for 4D ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade and catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Clendenen, N J; Robards, C B; Clendenen, S R

    2014-01-01

    We present a standardized method for using four-dimensional ultrasound (4D US) guidance for peripheral nerve blocks. 4D US allows for needle tracking in multiple planes simultaneously and accurate measurement of the local anesthetic volume surrounding the nerve following injection. Additionally, the morphology and proximity of local anesthetic spread around the target nerve is clearly seen with the described technique. This method provides additional spatial information in real time compared to standard two-dimensional ultrasound.

  9. Digit ratio (2D:4D), lateral preferences, and performance in fencing.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Reimer, Barbara; Ertl, Clara; Dressler, Stefan G

    2006-10-01

    The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait (men tend to have lower values than women) and a likely biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain and body. Prenatal testosterone, as reflected by 2D:4D, has many extragenital effects, including its relevance for the formation of an efficient cardiovascular system. Previous research, reviewed here, has therefore investigated possible associations of 2D:4D with sport performance. Several studies found more masculinized digit ratio patterns (low 2D:4D values or a negative right-minus-left difference in 2D:4D) to be related to high performance in running, soccer, and skiing. The present research tested this hypothesis in a sample of 54 tournament fencers, predominantly from Austria. For men, negative right-left differences in 2D:4D corresponded significantly to better current as well as highest national fencing rankings, independent of training intensity and fencing experience. The mean 2D:4D values of these fencers were significantly lower and the proportion of left-handers was elevated relative to the local general population. For the right hand, the ratio was somewhat lower in male sabre fencers than in male epée and foil fencers combined and significantly lower in left-handed compared to right-handed fencers. Although nonsignificant due to low statistical power, effect sizes suggested that crossed versus congruent hand-eye and hand-foot preferences might also be related to fencing performance. The present findings add to the evidence that 2D:4D might be a performance indicator for men across a variety of sports.

  10. Evaluation of 2, 4-D Ester and Triclopyr Amine Against Waterlily and Spatterdock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    cause un-intended damage to non-target, floating-leaved plant stands. Both 2,4-D and triclopyr are auxin -type herbicides effective on dicotyledons...stem, petioles and leaves) typical of auxin -type herbicides. Both herbicides are rapidly translocated in plant tissues via the symplastic pathway...curling and petiole elongation are common to auxin -type herbicides such as 2,4-D and triclopyr (WSSA 2002). These symptoms are indicators of herbicide

  11. Low Digit Ratio 2D∶4D in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Bernd; Kraus, Thomas; Sperling, Wolfgang; Bayerlein, Kristina; Biermann, Teresa; Stoessel, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth finger (2D∶4D) has been described as reflecting the degree of prenatal androgen exposure in humans. 2D∶4D is smaller for males than females and is associated with traits such as left-handedness, physical aggression, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and a genetic polymorphism of the androgen receptor. All of these traits are known to be correlated to the vulnerability for alcohol dependency. We therefore hypothesized low 2D∶4D in patients with alcohol dependency. In the present study on 131 patients suffering from alcohol dependency and 185 healthy volunteers, we found that alcohol dependent patients had smaller 2D∶4D ratios compared to controls with preserved sexual dimorphism but with reduced right-left differences. The detection of alcohol dependency based on 2D∶4D ratios was most accurate using the right hand of males (ROC-analysis: AUC 0.725, sensitivity 0.667, specificity 0.723). These findings provide novel insights into the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of alcohol dependency and for the use of 2D∶4D as a possible trait marker in identifying patients with alcohol dependency. PMID:21547078

  12. A hybrid space approach for ensemble-based 4-D variational data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Aimei; Xi, Shuang; Qiu, Chongjian; Xu, Qin

    2009-09-01

    A new scheme is developed to improve the ensemble-based 4-D variational data assimilation (En4DVar). In this scheme, leading singular vectors are extracted from 4-D ensemble perturbations in a hybrid space and then used to construct the analysis increment to fit the 4-D innovation (observation minus background) data. The hybrid space combines the 4-D observation space with only a gridded 3-D subspace at the end of each assimilation cycle, so its dimension can be much smaller than the dimension of the fully gridded 4-D space used in the original En4DVar. This improves the computational efficiency. With this hybrid space approach, the analysis increment can fit the 4-D innovation data in the observation space directly and also provide the necessary initial condition in the gridded 3-D subspace exclusively for the model integration into the next assimilation cycle, so the background covariance matrix can be and only needs to be constructed by the ensemble perturbations in the 3-D subspace. This reduces the rank deficiency of the ensemble-constructed covariance matrix and improves analysis accuracy as long as the observations are not too sparse. The potential merits of the new scheme are demonstrated by assimilation experiments performed with an imperfect shallow-water equation model and simulated observations.

  13. 4D MR and attenuation map generation in PET/MR imaging using 4D PET derived deformation matrices: a feasibility study for lung cancer applications.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Hadi; Schmidt, Holger; Kuestner, Thomas; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-10-13

    Respiratory motion may reduce accuracy in fusion of functional and anatomical images using combined Positron emission tomography / Magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems. Methodologies for the correction of respiratory motion in PET acquisitions using such systems are mostly based on the use of respiratory synchronized MR acquisitions to derive motion fields. Existing approaches based on tagging acquisitions may introduce artifacts in the MR images, while motion model approaches require the acquisition of training datasets. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of generating 4D MR images and associated attenuation maps (AMs) from a single static MR image combined with motion fields obtained from simultaneously acquired 4D non-attenuation corrected (NAC) PET images.

  14. Assessment of regional ventilation and deformation using 4D-CT imaging for healthy human lungs during tidal breathing.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Nariman; Choi, Sanghun; Choi, Jiwoong; Iyer, Krishna; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-11-15

    This study aims to assess regional ventilation, nonlinearity, and hysteresis of human lungs during dynamic breathing via image registration of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) scans. Six healthy adult humans were studied by spiral multidetector-row CT during controlled tidal breathing as well as during total lung capacity and functional residual capacity breath holds. Static images were utilized to contrast static vs. dynamic (deep vs. tidal) breathing. A rolling-seal piston system was employed to maintain consistent tidal breathing during 4D-CT spiral image acquisition, providing required between-breath consistency for physiologically meaningful reconstructed respiratory motion. Registration-derived variables including local air volume and anisotropic deformation index (ADI, an indicator of preferential deformation in response to local force) were employed to assess regional ventilation and lung deformation. Lobar distributions of air volume change during tidal breathing were correlated with those of deep breathing (R(2) ≈ 0.84). Small discrepancies between tidal and deep breathing were shown to be likely due to different distributions of air volume change in the left and the right lungs. We also demonstrated an asymmetric characteristic of flow rate between inhalation and exhalation. With ADI, we were able to quantify nonlinearity and hysteresis of lung deformation that can only be captured in dynamic images. Nonlinearity quantified by ADI is greater during inhalation, and it is stronger in the lower lobes (P < 0.05). Lung hysteresis estimated by the difference of ADI between inhalation and exhalation is more significant in the right lungs than that in the left lungs.

  15. Assessment of regional ventilation and deformation using 4D-CT imaging for healthy human lungs during tidal breathing

    PubMed Central

    Jahani, Nariman; Choi, Jiwoong; Iyer, Krishna; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess regional ventilation, nonlinearity, and hysteresis of human lungs during dynamic breathing via image registration of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) scans. Six healthy adult humans were studied by spiral multidetector-row CT during controlled tidal breathing as well as during total lung capacity and functional residual capacity breath holds. Static images were utilized to contrast static vs. dynamic (deep vs. tidal) breathing. A rolling-seal piston system was employed to maintain consistent tidal breathing during 4D-CT spiral image acquisition, providing required between-breath consistency for physiologically meaningful reconstructed respiratory motion. Registration-derived variables including local air volume and anisotropic deformation index (ADI, an indicator of preferential deformation in response to local force) were employed to assess regional ventilation and lung deformation. Lobar distributions of air volume change during tidal breathing were correlated with those of deep breathing (R2 ≈ 0.84). Small discrepancies between tidal and deep breathing were shown to be likely due to different distributions of air volume change in the left and the right lungs. We also demonstrated an asymmetric characteristic of flow rate between inhalation and exhalation. With ADI, we were able to quantify nonlinearity and hysteresis of lung deformation that can only be captured in dynamic images. Nonlinearity quantified by ADI is greater during inhalation, and it is stronger in the lower lobes (P < 0.05). Lung hysteresis estimated by the difference of ADI between inhalation and exhalation is more significant in the right lungs than that in the left lungs. PMID:26316512

  16. The development of a population of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms for CT imaging research and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Hannah; Zhang, Yakun; Frush, Jack; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Minhas, Anum; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Miller, M. I.; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul

    2014-03-01

    With the increased use of CT examinations, the associated radiation dose has become a large concern, especially for pediatrics. Much research has focused on reducing radiation dose through new scanning and reconstruction methods. Computational phantoms provide an effective and efficient means for evaluating image quality, patient-specific dose, and organ-specific dose in CT. We previously developed a set of highly-detailed 4D reference pediatric XCAT phantoms at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years with organ and tissues masses matched to ICRP Publication 89 values. We now extend this reference set to a series of 64 pediatric phantoms of a variety of ages and height and weight percentiles, representative of the public at large. High resolution PET-CT data was reviewed by a practicing experienced radiologist for anatomic regularity and was then segmented with manual and semi-automatic methods to form a target model. A Multi-Channel Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (MC-LDDMM) algorithm was used to calculate the transform from the best age matching pediatric reference phantom to the patient target. The transform was used to complete the target, filling in the non-segmented structures and defining models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. The complete phantoms, consisting of thousands of structures, were then manually inspected for anatomical accuracy. 3D CT data was simulated from the phantoms to demonstrate their ability to generate realistic, patient quality imaging data. The population of pediatric phantoms developed in this work provides a vital tool to investigate dose reduction techniques in 3D and 4D pediatric CT.

  17. Project Reconstruct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  18. Low external pH replaces 2,4-D in maintaining and multiplying 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A mixed culture comprised of both embryonic globules and nonembryogenic callus was derived from seedling hypocotyls of Daucus carota cv. Scarlet Nantes on 2,4-D- containing medium using well-established methods. Then the mixed cultures were transferred to, and serially subcultured on, a hormone-free medium near pH 4. The medium contained 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. When cultured in this way, embryonic globules were able to multiply without development into later embryo stages. Nonembryogenic callus did not survive. Continuous culture of embryonic globules on this low pH hormone-free medium yielded cultures consisting entirely of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). PGSP cultures have been maintained as such with continuous multiplication for nearly 2 years without loss of embryogenic potential. These hormone-free-maintained PGSPs continue their development to later embryo stages when cultured on the same hormone-free medium buffered at pH 5.8. We show that hormone-free medium near pH 4 can replace 2,4-D in its ability to sustain multiplication of 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot at an acceptable growth rate without their development into later embryo stages. This procedure provides selective conditions that do not permit the growth of non-embryogenic cells while providing an adequate environment for embryogenic cell proliferation and should prove invaluable in studying habituation.

  19. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference

  20. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  1. Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy and C4d deposition; correlation and its implication.

    PubMed

    Rath, Ashutosh; Tewari, Rohit; Mendonca, Satish; Badwal, Sonia; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is well known to be the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis throughout the world. The histopathological changes are wide and varied as brought out by the various classification systems like the Haas and Oxford systems. C4d is a well-known biomarker of the complement cascade and has recently been implicated in certain native renal diseases. We attempted to characterize C4d deposition in IgAN and correlate this with histopathology by the Oxford classification system. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included renal biopsies of 15 cases of IgAN diagnosed on histopathology and immunofluorescence over a period of 2 years. Demographic parameters of age and sex were reviewed. The Oxford classification system was applied to score the cases and immunohistochemistry for C4d was done on all cases to characterize staining pattern and intensity and was correlated with Oxford classification. Results: On histological examination, the cases showed various combinations of lesions ranging from M0E0S0T0 to M1E1S1T1. C4d deposition was found to be occurring mainly in mesangial location (12/15 cases, 80%). Forty percent cases showed C4d deposition in the glomerular capillary walls in a segmental fashion and 26.67% showed global pattern. Other patterns of deposition were arteriolar (53.33%), in peritubular capillaries (26.67%) and in tubular epithelium (20%). Conclusion: On comparing the various patterns of deposition of C4d with the four variables of the Oxford classification system, we found that segmental and global deposition of C4d correlated best with endocapillary proliferation.

  2. Evaluation of 4D CT acquisition methods designed to reduce artifacts.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Sarah J; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Pan, Tinsu; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Balter, Peter; Hobbs, Brian; Guerrero, Thomas

    2015-03-08

    Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) is used to account for respiratory motion in radiation treatment planning, but artifacts resulting from the acquisition and postprocessing limit its accuracy. We investigated the efficacy of three experimental 4D CT acquisition methods to reduce artifacts in a prospective institutional review board approved study. Eighteen thoracic patients scheduled to undergo radiation therapy received standard clinical 4D CT scans followed by each of the alternative 4D CT acquisitions: 1) data oversampling, 2) beam gating with breathing irregularities, and 3) rescanning the clinical acquisition acquired during irregular breathing. Relative values of a validated correlation-based artifact metric (CM) determined the best acquisition method per patient. Each 4D CT was processed by an extended phase sorting approach that optimizes the quantitative artifact metric (CM sorting). The clinical acquisitions were also postprocessed by phase sorting for artifact comparison of our current clinical implementation with the experimental methods. The oversampling acquisition achieved the lowest artifact presence among all acquisitions, achieving a 27% reduction from the current clinical 4D CT implementation (95% confidence interval = 34-20). The rescan method presented a significantly higher artifact presence from the clinical acquisition (37%; p < 0.002), the gating acquisition (26%; p < 0.005), and the oversampling acquisition (31%; p < 0.001), while the data lacked evidence of a significant difference between the clinical, gating, and oversampling methods. The oversampling acquisition reduced artifact presence from the current clinical 4D CT implementation to the largest degree and provided the simplest and most reproducible implementation. The rescan acquisition increased artifact presence significantly, compared to all acquisitions, and suffered from combination of data from independent scans over which large internal anatomic shifts occurred.

  3. 4D scattering amplitudes and asymptotic symmetries from 2D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; de la Fuente, Anton; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-01-01

    We reformulate the scattering amplitudes of 4D flat space gauge theory and gravity in the language of a 2D CFT on the celestial sphere. The resulting CFT structure exhibits an OPE constructed from 4D collinear singularities, as well as infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody and Virasoro algebras encoding the asymptotic symmetries of 4D flat space. We derive these results by recasting 4D dynamics in terms of a convenient foliation of flat space into 3D Euclidean AdS and Lorentzian dS geometries. Tree-level scattering amplitudes take the form of Witten diagrams for a continuum of (A)dS modes, which are in turn equivalent to CFT correlators via the (A)dS/CFT dictionary. The Ward identities for the 2D conserved currents are dual to 4D soft theorems, while the bulk-boundary propagators of massless (A)dS modes are superpositions of the leading and subleading Weinberg soft factors of gauge theory and gravity. In general, the massless (A)dS modes are 3D Chern-Simons gauge fields describing the soft, single helicity sectors of 4D gauge theory and gravity. Consistent with the topological nature of Chern-Simons theory, Aharonov-Bohm effects record the "tracks" of hard particles in the soft radiation, leading to a simple characterization of gauge and gravitational memories. Soft particle exchanges between hard processes define the Kac-Moody level and Virasoro central charge, which are thereby related to the 4D gauge coupling and gravitational strength in units of an infrared cutoff. Finally, we discuss a toy model for black hole horizons via a restriction to the Rindler region.

  4. Advanced reconstruction of attenuation maps using SPECT emission data only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, André; Goedicke, Andreas; Aach, Til

    2009-02-01

    Today, attenuation corrected SPECT, typically performed using CT or Gadolinium line source based transmission scans, is more and more becoming standard in many medical applications. Moreover, the information about the material density distribution provided by these scans is key for other artifact compensation approaches in advanced SPECT reconstruction. Major drawbacks of these approaches are the additional patient radiation and hardware/maintenance costs as well as the additional workflow effort, e.g. if the CT scans are not performed on a hybrid scanner. It has been investigated in the past, whether it is possible to recover this structural information solely from the SPECT scan data. However, the investigated methods often result in noticeable image artifacts due to cross-dependences between attenuation and activity distribution estimation. With the simultaneous reconstruction method presented in this paper, we aim to effectively prevent these typical cross-talk artifacts using a-priori known atlas information of a human body. At first, an initial 3D shape model is coarsely registered to the SPECT data using anatomical landmarks and each organ structure within the model is identified with its typical attenuation coefficient. During the iterative reconstruction based on a modified ML-EM scheme, the algorithm simultaneously adapts both, the local activity estimation and the 3D shape model in order to improve the overall consistency between measured and estimated sinogram data. By explicitly avoiding topology modifications resulting in a non-anatomical state, we ensure that the estimated attenuation map remains realistic. Several tests with simulated as well as real patient SPECT data were performed to test the proposed algorithm, which demonstrated reliable convergence behaviour in both cases. Comparing the achieved results with available reference data, an overall good agreement for both cold as well as hot activity regions could be observed (mean deviation: -5.98%).

  5. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2015-02-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild‑type (WT) mice. Administration of β‑estradiol to infant Sema4D‑deficient (Sema4D‑/‑) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β‑estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin‑B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five‑week‑old WT and Sema4D‑/‑ mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin‑B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase‑3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five‑week‑old Sema4D‑/‑ mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D‑/‑ vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis‑inducing activity of Sema4D. The

  6. First Steps Toward Ultrasound-Based Motion Compensation for Imaging and Therapy: Calibration with an Optical System and 4D PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schwaab, Julia; Kurz, Christopher; Sarti, Cristina; Bongers, André; Schoenahl, Frédéric; Bert, Christoph; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia; Jenne, Jürgen Walter

    2015-01-01

    Target motion, particularly in the abdomen, due to respiration or patient movement is still a challenge in many diagnostic and therapeutic processes. Hence, methods to detect and compensate this motion are required. Diagnostic ultrasound (US) represents a non-invasive and dose-free alternative to fluoroscopy, providing more information about internal target motion than respiration belt or optical tracking. The goal of this project is to develop an US-based motion tracking for real-time motion correction in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging, notably in 4D positron emission tomography (PET). In this work, a workflow is established to enable the transformation of US tracking data to the coordinates of the treatment delivery or imaging system – even if the US probe is moving due to respiration. It is shown that the US tracking signal is equally adequate for 4D PET image reconstruction as the clinically used respiration belt and provides additional opportunities in this concern. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the US probe being within the PET field of view generally has no relevant influence on the image quality. The accuracy and precision of all the steps in the calibration workflow for US tracking-based 4D PET imaging are found to be in an acceptable range for clinical implementation. Eventually, we show in vitro that an US-based motion tracking in absolute room coordinates with a moving US transducer is feasible. PMID:26649277

  7. First Steps Toward Ultrasound-Based Motion Compensation for Imaging and Therapy: Calibration with an Optical System and 4D PET Imaging.

    PubMed

    Schwaab, Julia; Kurz, Christopher; Sarti, Cristina; Bongers, André; Schoenahl, Frédéric; Bert, Christoph; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia; Jenne, Jürgen Walter

    2015-01-01

    Target motion, particularly in the abdomen, due to respiration or patient movement is still a challenge in many diagnostic and therapeutic processes. Hence, methods to detect and compensate this motion are required. Diagnostic ultrasound (US) represents a non-invasive and dose-free alternative to fluoroscopy, providing more information about internal target motion than respiration belt or optical tracking. The goal of this project is to develop an US-based motion tracking for real-time motion correction in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging, notably in 4D positron emission tomography (PET). In this work, a workflow is established to enable the transformation of US tracking data to the coordinates of the treatment delivery or imaging system - even if the US probe is moving due to respiration. It is shown that the US tracking signal is equally adequate for 4D PET image reconstruction as the clinically used respiration belt and provides additional opportunities in this concern. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the US probe being within the PET field of view generally has no relevant influence on the image quality. The accuracy and precision of all the steps in the calibration workflow for US tracking-based 4D PET imaging are found to be in an acceptable range for clinical implementation. Eventually, we show in vitro that an US-based motion tracking in absolute room coordinates with a moving US transducer is feasible.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of a patent urachus cyst with the use of 2D, 3D, 4D ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Picone, O; Levaillant, J M; Mabille, M; Mas, A E; Frydman, R; Senat, M V

    2008-01-01

    Patent urachus cyst is a rare umbilical anomaly, which is poorly detected prenatally and frequently confounded with pseudo bladder exstrophy or omphalocele. A 27-year-old woman was referred to our prenatal diagnosis centre at 18 weeks of gestation after diagnosis of a megabladder and 2 umbilical cord cysts. Subsequent 2D, 3D and 4D ultrasound examinations and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a typical umbilical cyst and an extra-abdominal cyst, communicating with the vertex of the fetal bladder through a small channel that increased in size when the fetus voided urine. Termination of pregnancy occured at 31 weeks because of associated cerebral septal agenesis, and autopsy confirmed the prenatal diagnosis of urachus cyst. Few cases of urachus cyst diagnosed prenatally are reported in literature, but none were associated with other extra-abdominal disorders and none used 3D, 4D and fetal MRI. Our case illustrated the efficiency in prenatal diagnosis of 3D and 4D ultrasound examinations. This could help pediatrician surgeons to explain to a couple about neonatal surgical repair and plastic reconstruction in the prenatal period.

  9. Hydrophobic metabolites of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in cultured coconut tissue.

    PubMed

    López-Villalobos, Arturo; Hornung, Roland; Dodds, Peter F

    2004-10-01

    Cultures of inflorescence and plumular tissues of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) were maintained in the presence of the auxin, [14C]2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), so that its metabolic fate could be studied. Thin layer chromatography of methanol extracts of the plumular tissue showed that four classes of metabolites, as well as the unchanged acid, were recovered in the extract. In inflorescence tissue, only the unchanged acid and the most polar class of metabolites (metabolite I) were recovered. Metabolite I was shown to consist mostly of a mixture of sugar conjugates and metabolite II (the next most polar) was an unidentified basic metabolite. Metabolites III and IV were both novel triacylglycerol analogues in which one of the natural fatty acids was replaced with a chain-elongated form of 2,4-D. Reversed-phase thin layer chromatography was used to identify the 2,4-D-derived acids and it was found that metabolite III contained the 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-moiety attached to a chain-length of between 2 and 12 carbons, whereas metabolite IV contained 12, 14 and 16 carbon chain lengths. In inflorescence tissue, and in plumular tissue at low sucrose or 2,4-D concentrations and after short periods in culture, metabolite I predominated. The other metabolites increased as a percentage when plumular culture was prolonged or when sucrose or 2,4-D concentrations were raised. These changes correlated with better development of the explant.

  10. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness: exploring the 4-D model.

    PubMed

    Frewen, Paul A; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion. The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma. The aim of the present research was to begin to evaluate these 4 predictions of the 4-D model. Within a sample of 74 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) primarily due to histories of childhood trauma, as well as within a 2nd sample of 504 undergraduates (384 females), the 1st 2 hypotheses of the 4-D model were supported. In addition, within the PTSD sample, the 3rd hypothesis was supported. However, inconsistent with the 4th hypothesis, severity of childhood trauma history was not strongly associated with TRASC. We conclude that the hypotheses articulated by the 4-D model were generally supported, although further research in different trauma-related disorders is needed, and the role of childhood trauma history in the etiology of TRASC requires further research.

  11. Inter- and Intrarater Reliability Using Different Software Versions of E4D Compare in Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Callan, Richard S; Cooper, Jeril R; Young, Nancy B; Mollica, Anthony G; Furness, Alan R; Looney, Stephen W

    2015-06-01

    The problems associated with intra- and interexaminer reliability when assessing preclinical performance continue to hinder dental educators' ability to provide accurate and meaningful feedback to students. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate the validity of utilizing various technologies to assist educators in achieving that goal. The purpose of this study was to compare two different versions of E4D Compare software to determine if either could be expected to deliver consistent and reliable comparative results, independent of the individual utilizing the technology. Five faculty members obtained E4D digital images of students' attempts (sample model) at ideal gold crown preparations for tooth #30 performed on typodont teeth. These images were compared to an ideal (master model) preparation utilizing two versions of E4D Compare software. The percent correlations between and within these faculty members were recorded and averaged. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure both inter- and intrarater agreement among the examiners. The study found that using the older version of E4D Compare did not result in acceptable intra- or interrater agreement among the examiners. However, the newer version of E4D Compare, when combined with the Nevo scanner, resulted in a remarkable degree of agreement both between and within the examiners. These results suggest that consistent and reliable results can be expected when utilizing this technology under the protocol described in this study.

  12. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  13. Review of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biomonitoring and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; Swaen, Gerard M. H.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative review of the epidemiological literature on the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and health after 2001 is presented. In order to compare the exposure of the general population, bystanders and occupational groups, their urinary levels were also reviewed. In the general population, 2,4-D exposure is at or near the level of detection (LOD). Among individuals with indirect exposure, i.e. bystanders, the urinary 2,4-D levels were also very low except in individuals with opportunity for direct contact with the herbicide. Occupational exposure, where exposure was highest, was positively correlated with behaviors related to the mixing, loading and applying process and use of personal protection. Information from biomonitoring studies increases our understanding of the validity of the exposure estimates used in epidemiology studies. The 2,4-D epidemiology literature after 2001 is broad and includes studies of cancer, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. In general, a few publications have reported statistically significant associations. However, most lack precision and the results are not replicated in other independent studies. In the context of biomonitoring, the epidemiology data give no convincing or consistent evidence for any chronic adverse effect of 2,4-D in humans. PMID:22876750

  14. The epidemic dynamics of hepatitis C virus subtypes 4a and 4d in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A.; Baele, Guy; Khalaf , Nisreen; Suchard, Marc A.; Al-Anazi, Mashael R.; Abdo, Ayman A.; Sanai, Faisal M.; Al-Ashgar, Hamad I.; Khan, Mohammed Q.; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N.; Lemey, Philippe; Vrancken, Bram

    2017-01-01

    The relatedness between viral variants sampled at different locations through time can provide information pertinent to public health that cannot readily be obtained through standard surveillance methods. Here, we use virus genetic data to identify the transmission dynamics that drive the hepatitis C virus subtypes 4a (HCV4a) and 4d (HCV4d) epidemics in Saudi Arabia. We use a comprehensive dataset of newly generated and publicly available sequence data to infer the HCV4a and HCV4d evolutionary histories in a Bayesian statistical framework. We also introduce a novel analytical method for an objective assessment of the migration intensity between locations. We find that international host mobility patterns dominate over within country spread in shaping the Saudi Arabia HCV4a epidemic, while this may be different for the HCV4d epidemic. This indicates that the subtypes 4a and 4d burden can be most effectively reduced by combining the prioritized screening and treatment of Egyptian immigrants with domestic prevention campaigns. Our results highlight that the joint investigation of evolutionary and epidemiological processes can provide valuable public health information, even in the absence of extensive metadata information. PMID:28322313

  15. Semaphorin 4D cooperates with VEGF to promote angiogenesis and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Binmadi, Nada O.; Yang, Ying-Hua; Proia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    The semaphorins and plexins comprise a family of cysteine-rich proteins implicated in control of nerve growth and development and regulation of the immune response. Our group and others have found that Semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) and its receptor, Plexin-B1, play an important role in tumor-induced angiogenesis, with some neoplasms producing SEMA4D in a manner analogous to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in order to attract Plexin-B1-expressing endothelial cells into the tumor for the purpose of promoting growth and vascularity. While anti-VEGF strategies have been the focus of most angiogenesis inhibition research, such treatment can lead to upregulation of pro-angiogenic factors that can compensate for the loss of VEGF, eventually leading to failure of therapy. Here, we demonstrate that SEMA4D cooperates with VEGF to promote angiogenesis in malignancies and can perform the same function in a setting of VEGF blockade. We also show the potential value of inhibiting SEMA4D/Plexin-B1 signaling as a complementary mechanism to anti-VEGF treatment, particularly in VEGF inhibitor–resistant tumors, suggesting that this may represent a novel treatment for some cancers. PMID:22476930

  16. Phosphodiesterase 4D and 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Meschia, James F.; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.; Crook, Richard; Worrall, Bradford B.; Kissela, Brett; Brown, W. Mark; Rich, Stephen S.; Case, L. Douglas; Evans, E. Whitney; Hague, Stephen; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John

    2006-01-01

    Risk for ischemic stroke is mediated by both environmental and genetic factors. Although several environmental exposures have been implicated, relatively little is known about the genetic basis of predisposition to this disease. Recent studies in Iceland identified risk polymorphisms in two putative candidate genes for ischemic stroke: phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP). A collection of North American sibling pairs concordant for ischemic stroke and two cohorts of prospectively ascertained North American ischemic stroke cases and control subjects were used for evaluation of PDE4D and ALOX5AP. Although no evidence supported linkage of ischemic stroke with either of the two candidate genes, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypic associations were observed between PDE4D and ischemic stroke. There was no evidence of association between variants of ALOX5AP and ischemic stroke. These data suggest that common variants in PDE4D may contribute to the genetic risk for ischemic stroke in multiple populations. PMID:16130105

  17. Chlorinated pesticides (2,4-D and DDT) biodegradation at high concentrations using immobilized Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Germán; Bandala, Erick R; Torres, Luis G

    2005-01-01

    Degradation of two chlorinated pesticides (2,4-D and DDT) using a 54-mL glass column packed with tezontle (a low-cost basaltic scoria) was tested. Bacteria were cultured in YPG (yeast, peptone, and glucose) liquid medium at 32 degrees C. The rich medium was pumped during 24 h through the column to inoculate it. Later, the wasted medium was discharged and the pesticide added. Optical densities, TOC, and pesticide concentration were determined. Pesticide removals for 2,4-D (with initial concentration between 100 and 500 mg/L) were about 99%. DDT removal (at initial concentration of up to 150 mg/L) was as high as 55-99%. TOC removals for 2,4-D was in the 36-87% interval, whereas for DDT they were as high as 36-78%.

  18. Live 4D optical coherence tomography for early embryonic mouse cardiac phenotyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Andrew L.; Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Studying embryonic mouse development is important for our understanding of normal human embryogenesis and the underlying causes of congenital defects. Our research focuses on imaging early development in the mouse embryo to specifically understand cardiovascular development using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We have previously developed imaging approaches that combine static embryo culture, OCT imaging and advanced image processing to visualize the whole live mouse embryos and obtain 4D (3D+time) cardiodynamic datasets with cellular resolution. Here, we present the study of using 4D OCT for dynamic imaging of early embryonic heart in live mouse embryos to assess mutant cardiac phenotypes during development, including a cardiac looping defect. Our results indicate that the live 4D OCT imaging approach is an efficient phenotyping tool that can reveal structural and functional cardiac defects at very early stages. Further studies integrating live embryonic cardiodynamic phenotyping with molecular and genetic approaches in mouse mutants will help to elucidate the underlying signaling defects.

  19. A practical introduction to the hemodynamic analysis of the cardiovascular system with 4D Flow MRI.

    PubMed

    Pineda Zapata, J A; Delgado de Bedout, J A; Rascovsky Ramírez, S; Bustamante, C; Mesa, S; Calvo Betancur, V D

    2014-01-01

    The 4D Flow MRI technique provides a three-dimensional representation of blood flow over time, making it possible to evaluate the hemodynamics of the cardiovascular system both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this article, we describe the application of the 4D Flow technique in a 3T scanner; in addition to the technical parameters, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the technique and its possible clinical applications. We used 4D Flow MRI to study different body areas (chest, abdomen, neck, and head) in 10 volunteers. We obtained 3D representations of the patterns of flow and quantitative hemodynamic measurements. The technique makes it possible to evaluate the pattern of blood flow in large and midsize vessels without the need for exogenous contrast agents.

  20. Proximal femoral focal deficiency of the fetus - early 3D/4D prenatal ultrasound diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kudla, Marek J; Beczkowska-Kielek, Aleksandra; Kutta, Katarzyna; Partyka-Lasota, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital syndrome of unknown etiology. Additional disorders can be present up to 70% of PFFD cases. Management (including termination) depends on the severity of the malformation. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman referred for routine ultrasound examination in the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed 3D/4D evaluation revealed asymmetry of lower limbs and diagnosis of isolated PFFD was established. Parents were fully informed and decided to continue the pregnancy. We stress here the importance of early 3D/4D ultrasound diagnosis. Our paper presents the earliest case where the diagnosis of PFFD was established with 3D/4D ultrasound.

  1. X-ray emissions in 3d, 4d, and 5d ranges for uranium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnelle, C.; Jonnard, P.; Barre, C.; Giorgi, G.; Bruneau, J.

    1997-05-01

    Radiative decay of nd{sup {minus}1}5f{sup m+1} excited states in UO{sub 2} induced by electron collisions is studied theoretically and experimentally. Energies, transition probabilities, and photoexcitation cross sections for the relevant configurations of U{sup 4+} are calculated by using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. Experimental observations are made in the 4d range. Direct recombination of the excited 5f electron to the 4d hole and 4d-6p emission in the presence of the spectator excited 5f electron are observed. From the theoretical results, the spectra are simulated and compared to the observed spectra in the three nd regions. The agreement is correct and describes the evolution of the coupling scheme in the nd{sup {minus}1}5f{sup 3} excited states from n=3 to n=5. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Magnetic dipole transitions in 4d{sup N} configurations of tungsten ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jonauskas, V.; Kisielius, R.; Kyniene, A.; Kucas, S.; Norrington, P. H.

    2010-01-15

    Magnetic dipole transitions between the levels of ground 4d{sup N} configurations of tungsten ions were analyzed by employing a large basis of interacting configurations. Previously introduced configuration interaction strength between two configurations was used to determine the configurations with the largest contribution to wave functions of atomic states for the considered configurations. Collisional-radiative modeling was performed for the levels of the ground configuration coupled through electric dipole transitions with 4p{sup 5}4d{sup N+1} and 4d{sup N-1}4f configurations. New identification of some lines observed in the electron-beam ion trap plasma was proposed based on calculations in which wavelength convergence was reached.

  3. Synthesis, biological activities and pharmacokinetic properties of new fluorinated derivatives of selective PDE4D inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brullo, Chiara; Massa, Matteo; Villa, Carla; Ricciarelli, Roberta; Rivera, Daniela; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Fedele, Ernesto; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Bertoni, Simona; Flammini, Lisa; Bruno, Olga

    2015-07-01

    A new series of selective PDE4D inhibitors has been designed and synthesized by replacing 3-methoxy group with 3-difluoromethoxy isoster moiety in our previously reported cathecolic structures. All compounds showed a good PDE4D3 inhibitory activity, most of them being inactive toward other PDE4 isoforms (PDE4A4, PDE4B2 and PDE4C2). Compound 3b, chosen among the synthesized compounds as the most promising in terms of inhibitory activity, selectivity and safety, showed an improved pharmacokinetic profile compared to its non fluorinated analogue. Spontaneous locomotor activity, assessed in an open field apparatus, showed that, differently from rolipram and diazepam, selective PDE4D inhibitors, such as compounds 3b, 5b and 7b, did not affect locomotion, whereas compound 1b showed a tendency to reduce the distance traveled and to prolong the immobility period, possibly due to a poor selectivity.

  4. SU-E-T-300: Dosimetric Comparision of 4D Radiation Therapy and 3D Radiation Therapy for the Liver Tumor Based On 4D Medical Image

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine the dosimetric benefit to normal tissues by tracking liver tumor dose in four dimensional radiation therapy (4DRT) on ten phases of four dimensional computer tomagraphy(4DCT) images. Methods: Target tracking each phase with the beam aperture for ten liver cancer patients were converted to cumulative plan and compared to the 3D plan with a merged target volume based on 4DCT image in radiation treatment planning system (TPS). The change in normal tissue dose was evaluated in the plan by using the parameters V5, V10, V15, V20,V25, V30, V35 and V40 (volumes receiving 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40Gy, respectively) in the dose-volume histogram for the liver; mean dose for the following structures: liver, left kidney and right kidney; and maximum dose for the following structures: bowel, duodenum, esophagus, stomach and heart. Results: There was significant difference between 4D PTV(average 115.71cm3 )and ITV(169.86 cm3). When the planning objective is 95% volume of PTV covered by the prescription dose, the mean dose for the liver, left kidney and right kidney have an average decrease 23.13%, 49.51%, and 54.38%, respectively. The maximum dose for bowel, duodenum,esophagus, stomach and heart have an average decrease 16.77%, 28.07%, 24.28%, 4.89%, and 4.45%, respectively. Compared to 3D RT, radiation volume for the liver V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35 and V40 by using the 4D plans have a significant decrease(P≤0.05). Conclusion: The 4D plan method creates plans that permit better sparing of the normal structures than the commonly used ITV method, which delivers the same dosimetric effects to the target.

  5. TOPO-EUROPE: Studying Continental Topography and Deep Earth - Surface Processes in 4D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, S.; Team, T.

    2008-12-01

    Topography influences various aspects of society, not only in terms of the slow process of landscape evolution but also through climate (e.g. mountain building). Topographic evolution (changes in land, water and sea level) can seriously affect human life, as well as terrestrial geo-ecosystems. When fresh water or sea-water levels rise, or when land subsides, the risk of flooding increases. This directly affects local geo- ecosystems and human settlements. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of erosion and even desertification. Similar examples could be given for groundwater, early life and climate change. Studying these aspects in an integrated way is essential to forward solid Earth Sciences in response to the needs of society (see http://www.yearofplanetearth.org/). To quantify topography evolution in space and time, understanding of the coupled deep Earth and surface processes is a requisite. The TOPO-EUROPE initiative of the International Lithophere Program (ILP) addresses the 4-D topography of the orogens and intra-plate regions of Europe through a multidisciplinary approach linking geology, geophysics, geodesy and geotechnology. TOPO-EUROPE integrates monitoring, imaging, reconstruction and modelling of the interplay between processes controlling continental topography and related natural hazards. Until now, research on neotectonics and related topography development of orogens and intra-plate regions has received little attention. TOPO-EUROPE initiates a number of novel studies on the quantification of rates of vertical motions, related tectonically controlled river evolution and land subsidence in carefully selected natural laboratories in Europe. From orogen through platform to continental margin, these natural laboratories include the Alps/Carpathians-Pannonian Basin System, the West and Central European Platform, the Apennines-Tyrrhenian-Maghrebian and the Aegean-Anatolian regions, the Iberian Peninsula and the

  6. TOPO-EUROPE: Studying Continental Topography and Deep Earth - Surface Processes in 4D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, S.; Topo-Europe Science Community, The

    2009-04-01

    Topography influences various aspects of society, not only in terms of the slow process of landscape evolution but also through climate (e.g. mountain building). Topographic evolution (changes in land, water and sea level) can seriously affect human life, as well as terrestrial geo-ecosystems. When fresh water or sea-water levels rise, or when land subsides, the risk of flooding increases. This directly affects local geo- ecosystems and human settlements. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of erosion and even desertification. Similar examples could be given for groundwater, early life and climate change. Studying these aspects in an integrated way is essential to forward solid Earth Sciences in response to the needs of society (see http://www.yearofplanetearth.org/). To quantify topography evolution in space and time, understanding of the coupled deep Earth and surface processes is a requisite. The TOPO-EUROPE initiative of the International Lithophere Program (ILP) addresses the 4-D topography of the orogens and intra-plate regions of Europe through a multidisciplinary approach linking geology, geophysics, geodesy and geotechnology. TOPO-EUROPE integrates monitoring, imaging, reconstruction and modelling of the interplay between processes controlling continental topography and related natural hazards. Until now, research on neotectonics and related topography development of orogens and intra-plate regions has received little attention. TOPO-EUROPE initiates a number of novel studies on the quantification of rates of vertical motions, related tectonically controlled river evolution and land subsidence in carefully selected natural laboratories in Europe. From orogen through platform to continental margin, these natural laboratories include the Alps/Carpathians-Pannonian Basin System, the West and Central European Platform, the Apennines-Tyrrhenian-Maghrebian and the Aegean-Anatolian regions, the Iberian Peninsula and the

  7. The 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism Revisited: Empirical Evidence from Germany and China

    PubMed Central

    Sindermann, Cornelia; Li, Mei; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Duke, Éilish; Cooper, Andrew; Warneck, Lidia; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 2D:4D-Ratio, as an indirect measure of the fetal testosterone to estradiol ratio, is potentially very important for understanding and explaining different personality traits. It was the aim of the present study to replicate the findings from Fink et al. (2004) about the relation between individual differences in 2D:4D-Ratios and the Five Factor Model in different cultural groups. Therefore a sample of n = 78 Chinese and n = 370 German participants was recruited. Every participant provided hand scans of both hands, from which 2D:4D-Ratios were computed. Moreover, all participants filled in the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Significant sex differences were found for ratios of both hands in the expected direction, with females showing higher ratios than males. With respect to links between personality and the digit ratio, a positive association was observed between 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism in females, as shown in the earlier study. These findings were observed in both female subsamples from China and Germany, as well as in the full sample of participants. But in contrast to the results for the whole and the German female sample, where 2D:4D-Ratio of both hands were related to Neuroticism, in the Chinese female sample only left hand 2D:4D-Ratio was significantly and positively related to Neuroticism. There were no significant correlations found in any of the male samples. Thus, prenatal exposure to sex steroids appears to influence the personality factor Neuroticism in females specifically. This finding potentially has implications for mental health, as Neuroticism has been shown to be a risk factor for various forms of psychopathology. PMID:27375513

  8. Advances in 4D Treatment Planning for Scanned Particle Beam Therapy — Report of Dedicated Workshops

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Christoph; Graeff, Christian; Riboldi, Marco; Nill, Simeon; Baroni, Guido; Knopf, Antje-Christin

    2014-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the field of mobile tumor treatment with scanned particle beams, as discussed in the latest editions of the 4D treatment planning workshop. The workshop series started in 2009, with about 20 people from 4 research institutes involved, all actively working on particle therapy delivery and development. The first workshop resulted in a summary of recommendations for the treatment of mobile targets, along with a list of requirements to apply these guidelines clinically. The increased interest in the treatment of mobile tumors led to a continuously growing number of attendees: the 2012 edition counted more than 60 participants from 20 institutions and commercial vendors. The focus of research discussions among workshop participants progressively moved from 4D treatment planning to complete 4D treatments, aiming at effective and safe treatment delivery. Current research perspectives on 4D treatments include all critical aspects of time resolved delivery, such as in-room imaging, motion detection, beam application, and quality assurance techniques. This was motivated by the start of first clinical treatments of hepato cellular tumors with a scanned particle beam, relying on gating or abdominal compression for motion mitigation. Up to date research activities emphasize significant efforts in investigating advanced motion mitigation techniques, with a specific interest in the development of dedicated tools for experimental validation. Potential improvements will be made possible in the near future through 4D optimized treatment plans that require upgrades of the currently established therapy control systems for time resolved delivery. But since also these novel optimization techniques rely on the validity of the 4DCT, research focusing on alternative 4D imaging technique, such as MRI based 4DCT generation will continue. PMID:24354749

  9. The 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism Revisited: Empirical Evidence from Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Sindermann, Cornelia; Li, Mei; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Duke, Éilish; Cooper, Andrew; Warneck, Lidia; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 2D:4D-Ratio, as an indirect measure of the fetal testosterone to estradiol ratio, is potentially very important for understanding and explaining different personality traits. It was the aim of the present study to replicate the findings from Fink et al. (2004) about the relation between individual differences in 2D:4D-Ratios and the Five Factor Model in different cultural groups. Therefore a sample of n = 78 Chinese and n = 370 German participants was recruited. Every participant provided hand scans of both hands, from which 2D:4D-Ratios were computed. Moreover, all participants filled in the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Significant sex differences were found for ratios of both hands in the expected direction, with females showing higher ratios than males. With respect to links between personality and the digit ratio, a positive association was observed between 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism in females, as shown in the earlier study. These findings were observed in both female subsamples from China and Germany, as well as in the full sample of participants. But in contrast to the results for the whole and the German female sample, where 2D:4D-Ratio of both hands were related to Neuroticism, in the Chinese female sample only left hand 2D:4D-Ratio was significantly and positively related to Neuroticism. There were no significant correlations found in any of the male samples. Thus, prenatal exposure to sex steroids appears to influence the personality factor Neuroticism in females specifically. This finding potentially has implications for mental health, as Neuroticism has been shown to be a risk factor for various forms of psychopathology.

  10. Prevention of alveolar bone loss in an osteoporotic animal model via interference of semaphorin 4d.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Wei, L; Miron, R J; Zhang, Q; Bian, Z

    2014-11-01

    Semaphorin 4d (Sema4d) has been proposed as a novel target gene for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recently, we fabricated a site-specific bone-targeting system from polymeric nanoparticles that demonstrates an ability to prevent bone loss in an osteoporotic model by interfering with Sema4d gene expression using small interference RNA (siRNA) molecules. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effects of this targeting system on the periodontium, an area of high bone turnover. We demonstrated, by single photon emission computed tomography, that intravenous injection of this molecule in ovariectomized Balb/C mice is able to target alveolar bone peaking 4 hr post-injection. We then compared, by histological analysis, the bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), alveolar bone height loss, immunohistochemical expression of Sema4d, and total number of osteoclasts in mandibular alveolar bone. Four treatment modalities were compared as follows: (1) sham-operated, (2) OVX-operated, (3) OVX+estrogen replacement therapy, and (4) OVX+siRNA-Sema4d animals. The results from the present study demonstrate that an osteoporotic condition significantly increases alveolar bone height loss, and that the therapeutic effects via bone-targeting systems featuring interference of Sema4d are able to partly counteract alveolar bone loss caused by osteoporosis. While the future therapeutic demand for the large number of patients suffering from osteoporosis faces many challenges, we demonstrate within the present study an effective drug-delivery moiety with anabolic effects on the bone remodeling cycle able to locate and target alveolar bone regeneration.

  11. Genome-wide Association Analysis Identifies PDE4D as an Asthma-Susceptibility Gene

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Blanca E.; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Baurley, James W.; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Sleiman, Patrick; Strachan, David P.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Willis-Owen, Saffron A.G.; Klanderman, Barbara; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Lazarus, Ross; Murphy, Amy J.; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E.; Avila, Lydiana; Beaty, Terri; Mathias, Rasika A.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Celedón, Juan C.; Cookson, William O.C.; Gauderman, W. James; Gilliland, Frank D.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Lange, Christoph; Moffatt, Miriam F.; O'Connor, George T.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Weiss, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma, a chronic airway disease with known heritability, affects more than 300 million people around the world. A genome-wide association (GWA) study of asthma with 359 cases from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) and 846 genetically matched controls from the Illumina ICONdb public resource was performed. The strongest region of association seen was on chromosome 5q12 in PDE4D. The phosphodiesterase 4D, cAMP-specific (phosphodiesterase E3 dunce homolog, Drosophila) gene (PDE4D) is a regulator of airway smooth-muscle contractility, and PDE4 inhibitors have been developed as medications for asthma. Allelic p values for top SNPs in this region were 4.3 × 10−07 for rs1588265 and 9.7 × 10−07 for rs1544791. Replications were investigated in ten independent populations with different ethnicities, study designs, and definitions of asthma. In seven white and Hispanic replication populations, two PDE4D SNPs had significant results with p values less than 0.05, and five had results in the same direction as the original population but had p values greater than 0.05. Combined p values for 18,891 white and Hispanic individuals (4,342 cases) in our replication populations were 4.1 × 10−04 for rs1588265 and 9.2 × 10−04 for rs1544791. In three black replication populations, which had different linkage disequilibrium patterns than the other populations, original findings were not replicated. Further study of PDE4D variants might lead to improved understanding of the role of PDE4D in asthma pathophysiology and the efficacy of PDE4 inhibitor medications. PMID:19426955

  12. Clinical Utility of 4D FDG-PET/CT Scans in Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Sher, David J.; Allen, Aaron M.; Larson, Elysia; Chen, Aileen B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The potential role of four-dimensional (4D) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in radiation treatment planning, relative to standard three-dimensional (3D) PET/CT, was examined. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with non-small-cell lung cancer had sequential 3D and 4D [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scans in the treatment position prior to radiation therapy. The gross tumor volume and involved lymph nodes were contoured on the PET scan by use of three different techniques: manual contouring by an experienced radiation oncologist using a predetermined protocol; a technique with a constant threshold of standardized uptake value (SUV) greater than 2.5; and an automatic segmentation technique. For each technique, the tumor volume was defined on the 3D scan (VOL3D) and on the 4D scan (VOL4D) by combining the volume defined on each of the five breathing phases individually. The range of tumor motion and the location of each lesion were also recorded, and their influence on the differences observed between VOL3D and VOL4D was investigated. Results: We identified and analyzed 22 distinct lesions, including 9 primary tumors and 13 mediastinal lymph nodes. Mean VOL4D was larger than mean VOL3D with all three techniques, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The range of tumor motion and the location of the tumor affected the magnitude of the difference. For one case, all three tumor definition techniques identified volume of moderate uptake of approximately 1 mL in the hilar region on the 4D scan (SUV maximum, 3.3) but not on the 3D scan (SUV maximum, 2.3). Conclusions: In comparison to 3D PET, 4D PET may better define the full physiologic extent of moving tumors and improve radiation treatment planning for lung tumors. In addition, reduction of blurring from free-breathing images may reveal additional information regarding regional disease.

  13. Impact of Petrophysical Experiments on Quantitative Interpretation of 4D Seismic Data at Ketzin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A.; Lueth, S.

    2015-12-01

    Petrophysical investigations for CCS concern relationships between physical properties of rocks and geophysical observations for understanding behavior of injected CO2 in a geological formation. In turn 4D seismic surveying is a proven tool for CO2 monitoring. At the Ketzin pilot site (Germany) 4D seismic data have been acquired by means of a baseline (pre-injection) survey in 2005 and monitor surveys in 2009 and 2012. At Ketzin CO2 was injected in supercritical state from 2008 to 2013 in a sandstone saline aquifer (Stuttgart Formation) at a depth of about 650 m. The 4D seismic data from Ketzin reflected a pronounced effect of this injection. Seismic forward modeling using results of petrophysical experiments on two core samples fromthe target reservoir confirmed that effects of the injected CO2 on the 4D seismic data are significant. The petrophysical data were used in that modeling in order to reflect changes due to the CO2 injection in acoustic parameters of the reservoir. These petrophysical data were further used for a successful quantitative interpretation of the 4D seismic data at Ketzin. Now logs from a well (drilled in 2012) penetrating the reservoir containing information about changes in the acoustic parameters of the reservoir due to the CO2 injection are available. These logs were used to estimate impact of the petrophysical data on the qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the 4D seismic data at Ketzin. New synthetic seismograms were computed using the same software and the same wavelet as the old ones apart from the only difference and namely the changes in the input acoustic parameters would not be affected with any petrophysical experiments anymore. Now these changes were put in computing directly from the logs. In turn the new modelled changes due to the injection in the newly computed seismograms do not include any effects of the petrophysical data anymore. Key steps of the quantitative and qualitative interpretation of the 4D seismic

  14. Use of 4-D atmospheric models in the simulation of radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D. T.; Fowler, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture data contained in the Global 4-D Atmospheric Models developed in previous studies were analyzed to establish regional differences. The regional values of precipitable water along latitudinal belts were compared with values derived from the corresponding atmospheric models defined in the U.S Standard Atmosphere Supplement. The effects of the differences between the 4-D Models and the Standard Atmosphere Models on radiometric computations in the infrared window and water vapor absorption band regions were evaluated using a standard computation model of radiation transfer through a cloudless atmosphere. The significance of these differences in simulation is discussed.

  15. Fast X-ray micro-CT for real-time 4D observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, H.; Yoshida, K.; Tsuji, T.; Koyama, T.; Tsusaka, Y.; Kagoshima, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Fast X-ray computed tomography (CT) system with sub-second order measurement for single CT acquisition has been developed. The system, consisting of a high-speed sample rotation stage and a high-speed X-ray camera, is constructed at synchrotron radiation beamline in order to utilize fully intense X-rays. A time-resolving CT movie (i.e. 4D CT) can be available by operating the fast CT system continuously. Real-time observation of water absorbing process of super-absorbent polymer (SAP) has been successfully performed with the 4D CT operation.

  16. Exploring the relation between 4D and 5D BPS solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrndt, Klaus; Lopes Cardoso, Gabriel; Mahapatra, Swapna

    2006-01-01

    Based on recent proposals linking four and five-dimensional BPS solutions, we discuss the explicit dictionary between general stationary 4D and 5D supersymmetric solutions in N=2 supergravity theories with cubic prepotentials. All these solutions are completely determined in terms of the same set of harmonic functions and the same set of attractor equations. As an example, we discuss black holes and black rings in Gödel-Taub-NUT spacetime. Then we consider corrections to the 4D solutions associated with more general prepotentials and comment on analogous corrections on the 5D side.

  17. Biomarker correlations of urinary 2,4-D levels in foresters: genomic instability and endocrine disruption.

    PubMed Central

    Garry, V F; Tarone, R E; Kirsch, I R; Abdallah, J M; Lombardi, D P; Long, L K; Burroughs, B L; Barr, D B; Kesner, J S

    2001-01-01

    Forest pesticide applicators constitute a unique pesticide use group. Aerial, mechanical-ground, and focal weed control by application of herbicides, in particular chlorophenoxy herbicides, yield diverse exposure scenarios. In the present work, we analyzed aberrations in G-banded chromosomes, reproductive hormone levels, and polymerase chain reaction-based V(D)J rearrangement frequencies in applicators whose exposures were mostly limited to chlorophenoxy herbicides. Data from appliers where chlorophenoxy use was less frequent were also examined. The biomarker outcome data were compared to urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) obtained at the time of maximum 2,4-D use. Further comparisons of outcome data were made to the total volume of herbicides applied during the entire pesticide-use season.Twenty-four applicators and 15 minimally exposed foresters (control) subjects were studied. Categorized by applicator method, men who used a hand-held, backpack sprayer in their applications showed the highest average level (453.6 ppb) of 2,4-D in urine. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) values were correlated with urinary 2,4-D levels, but follicle-stimulating hormone and free and total testosterone were not. At the height of the application season; 6/7 backpack sprayers, 3/4 applicators who used multinozzle mechanical (boom) sprayers, 4/8 aerial applicators, and 2/5 skidder-radiarc (closed cab) appliers had two or more V(D)J region rearrangements per microgram of DNA. Only 5 of 15 minimally exposed (control) foresters had two or more rearrangements, and 3 of these 5 subjects demonstrated detectable levels of 2,4-D in the urine. Only 8/24 DNA samples obtained from the exposed group 10 months or more after their last chlorophenoxy use had two rearrangements per microgram of DNA, suggesting that the exposure-related effects observed were reversible and temporary. Although urinary 2,4-D levels were not correlated with chromosome aberration frequency, chromosome

  18. Solid-State NMR Structure Determination from Diagonal-Compensated, Sparsely Nonuniform-Sampled 4D Proton–Proton Restraints

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report acquisition of diagonal-compensated protein structural restraints from four-dimensional solid-state NMR spectra on extensively deuterated and 1H back-exchanged proteins. To achieve this, we use homonuclear 1H–1H correlations with diagonal suppression and nonuniform sampling (NUS). Suppression of the diagonal allows the accurate identification of cross-peaks which are otherwise obscured by the strong autocorrelation or whose intensity is biased due to partial overlap with the diagonal. The approach results in unambiguous spectral interpretation and relatively few but reliable restraints for structure calculation. In addition, the diagonal suppression produces a spectrum with low dynamic range for which ultrasparse NUS data sets can be readily reconstructed, allowing straightforward application of NUS with only 2% sampling density with the advantage of more heavily sampling time-domain regions of high signal intensity. The method is demonstrated here for two proteins, α-spectrin SH3 microcrystals and hydrophobin functional amyloids. For the case of SH3, suppression of the diagonal results in facilitated identification of unambiguous restraints and improvement of the quality of the calculated structural ensemble compared to nondiagonal-suppressed 4D spectra. For the only partly assigned hydrophobin rodlets, the structure is yet unknown. Applied to this protein of biological significance with large inhomogeneous broadening, the method allows identification of unambiguous crosspeaks that are otherwise obscured by the diagonal. PMID:24988008

  19. 4D-computerized visualisation of human craniofacial skeletal growth and of the development of the dentition.

    PubMed

    Radlanski, R J; van der Linden, F P; Ohnesorge, I

    1999-01-01

    The understanding of growth and developmental changes can be improved when shapes and changes in size, proportion, and relationships are visualized in 3 dimensions and at different stages. This applies particularly to craniofacial skeletal growth and the development of the dentition. For that purpose 3D-data were collected from prenatal human heads ranging from 18 up to 275 mm CRL and from a collection of macerated fetal and postnatal skulls. Computer-aided graphical reconstructions were obtained from histological serial sections of embryonic and early fetal specimens. Proportional changes in the growing skull were recorded by means of radiological and cephalometric evaluation. In addition, computed tomography was applied to fetal and postnatal skulls. Furthermore, the prenatal and postnatal development of the dentition was digitized. To that end 3D-polygone sets of these data were read into a workstation computer and animated by means of the software Soft Image (Microsoft). This comprehensive 4D insight into growth facilitates the understanding and teaching of normal and abnormal development.

  20. Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungwoo; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Taeho; Yoon, Jonghee; Hong, Kihyun; Park, Jinah; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) is an interferometric microscopy technique capable of measuring 3-D refractive index (RI) distribution of transparent samples. Multiple 2-D holograms of a sample illuminated with various angles are measured, from which 3-D RI map of the sample is reconstructed via the diffraction theory. ODT has been proved as a powerful tool for the study of biological cells, due to its non-invasiveness, label-free and quantitative imaging capability. Recently, our group has demonstrated that a digital micromirror device (DMD) can be exploited for fast and precise control of illumination beams for ODT. In this work, we systematically study the precision and stability of the ODT system equipped with a DMD and present measurements of 3-D and 4-D RI maps of various types of live cells including human red blood cells, white blood cells, hepatocytes, and HeLa cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the effective visualization of 3-D RI maps of live cells utilizing the measured information about the values and gradient of RI tomograms.

  1. SU-C-BRF-04: Delivered 4D Dose Calculation for Lung-VMAT Patients Using In- Treatment CBCT and LINAC Log Data

    SciTech Connect

    Saotome, N; Haga, A; Imae, T; Kida, S; Nakano, M; Yamashita, H; Nakagawa, K; Ohtomo, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To verify the delivered four-dimensional (4D) dose distribution for the lung VMAT using in-treatment 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) and LINAC log data. Methods: Three patients for lung stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) were treated by single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) created by SmartArc in Pinnacle v9.2 (Philips, USA).Kilovoltage (kV) projection images were acquired during VMAT delivery using the x-ray volumetric imager, XVI (Elekta, UK). LINAC log data were also recorded via iCom interface (Elekta, UK). Subsequently, the iCom data format was converted to Pinnacle data format, thereby allowing Pinnacle to read actual MLC positions, jaw positions, gantry angles and MUs. These parameters were categorized into four groups according to patient's respiratory phase. The patient respiratory phase was determined from kV-projection images by in-house phase recognizing software. By exporting these data back to Pinnacle, in-treatment dose distributions for each respiratory phase were obtained by combining calculated dose having a particular phase. The 4D CBCT were reconstructed by in-house program. The density in the structures on the CBCT was overridden by the average density in the corresponding structures on the planning CT for the dose calculation. The dose indexes, such as maximum, minimum, mean dose in the target were compared among the plan, in-treatment 3D calculation, and in-treatment 4D calculation. Results: The day-to-day variation of the delivered dose was observed for all three patients. The maximum difference was 5.9% for the minimum dose in the target. Difference for the mean dose was found to be small (1.1% at maximum). Conclusion: We have obtained in-treatment dose distribution for each of the different respiratory phases using in-treatment 4D CBCT and LINAC log data during lung VMAT delivery. Our result indicate a small but significant dose difference between the 3D and 4D calculations for the case of large target traveling.

  2. A method for deriving a 4D-interpolated balanced planning target for mobile tumor radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Roland, Teboh; Hales, Russell; McNutt, Todd; Wong, John; Simari, Patricio; Tryggestad, Erik

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Tumor control and normal tissue toxicity are strongly correlated to the tumor and normal tissue volumes receiving high prescribed dose levels in the course of radiotherapy. Planning target definition is, therefore, crucial to ensure favorable clinical outcomes. This is especially important for stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung cancers, characterized by high fractional doses and steep dose gradients. The shift in recent years from population-based to patient-specific treatment margins, as facilitated by the emergence of 4D medical imaging capabilities, is a major improvement. The commonly used motion-encompassing, or internal-target volume (ITV), target definition approach provides a high likelihood of coverage for the mobile tumor but inevitably exposes healthy tissue to high prescribed dose levels. The goal of this work was to generate an interpolated balanced planning target that takes into account both tumor coverage and normal tissue sparing from high prescribed dose levels, thereby improving on the ITV approach. Methods: For each 4DCT dataset, 4D deformable image registration was used to derive two bounding targets, namely, a 4D-intersection and a 4D-composite target which minimized normal tissue exposure to high prescribed dose levels and maximized tumor coverage, respectively. Through definition of an ''effective overlap volume histogram'' the authors derived an ''interpolated balanced planning target'' intended to balance normal tissue sparing from prescribed doses with tumor coverage. To demonstrate the dosimetric efficacy of the interpolated balanced planning target, the authors performed 4D treatment planning based on deformable image registration of 4D-CT data for five previously treated lung cancer patients. Two 4D plans were generated per patient, one based on the interpolated balanced planning target and the other based on the conventional ITV target. Plans were compared for tumor coverage and the degree of normal tissue sparing

  3. 16 CFR 300.35 - Hearings under section 4(d) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearings under section 4(d) of the act. 300.35 Section 300.35 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 General § 300.35 Hearings...

  4. Preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands with 4D-CT.

    PubMed

    Lundstroem, Anke Katrin; Trolle, Waldemar; Soerensen, Christian Hjort; Myschetzky, Peter Sand

    2016-05-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is almost exclusively the result of a solitary parathyroid adenoma. In most cases, the affected gland can be surgically removed, but precise preoperative imaging is essential for adenoma localization prior to surgical intervention. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) as a preoperative imaging tool in relation to the localization of pathologic parathyroid glands in patients with pHPT and negative sestamibi scans. This study included 43 consecutive patients with pHPT referred for parathyroidectomy at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet in 2011 and 2012. All patients had a 4D-CT performed prior to parathyroidectomy. CT localization of the suspected adenoma was correlated to the actual surgical findings and subsequent histological diagnosis was also available as references for the accuracy of this imaging tool. Hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands were found in 40 patients. 4D-CT identified 32 solitary hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands located on the correct side of the neck (PPV 76 %) and 21 located within the correct quadrant (PPV 49 %). Unilateral resection was performed in 72 % of patients due to the localization findings of preoperative imaging. 4D-CT can, therefore, be considered an effective method for the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas and is an important tool in surgical intervention for patients referred to parathyroidectomy.

  5. Interaction between integrin α5 and PDE4D regulates endothelial inflammatory signalling

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sanguk; Budatha, Madhusudhan; Dahlman, James E.; Coon, Brian G.; Cameron, Ryan T.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Baillie, George; Schwartz, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is primarily a disease of lipid metabolism and inflammation; however, it is also closely associated with endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, with fibronectin accumulating in the laminin–collagen basement membrane. To investigate how fibronectin modulates inflammation in arteries, we replaced the cytoplasmic tail of the fibronectin receptor integrin α5 with that of the collagen/laminin receptor integrin α2. This chimaera suppressed inflammatory signalling in endothelial cells on fibronectin and in knock-in mice. Fibronectin promoted inflammation by suppressing anti-inflammatory cAMP. cAMP was activated through endothelial prostacyclin secretion; however, this was ECM-independent. Instead, cells on fibronectin suppressed cAMP via enhanced phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, through direct binding of integrin α5 to phosphodiesterase-4D5 (PDE4D5), which induced PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation of PDE4D5 on the inhibitory site Ser651. In vivo knockdown of PDE4D5 inhibited inflammation at athero-prone sites. These data elucidate a molecular mechanism linking ECM remodelling and inflammation, thereby identifying a new class of therapeutic targets. PMID:27595237

  6. A design of a DICOM-RT-based tool box for nonrigid 4D dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Victy Y W; Baker, Colin R; Leung, T W; Tung, Stewart Y

    2016-03-08

    The study was aimed to introduce a design of a DICOM-RT-based tool box to facilitate 4D dose calculation based on deformable voxel-dose registration. The computational structure and the calculation algorithm of the tool box were explicitly discussed in the study. The tool box was written in MATLAB in conjunction with CERR. It consists of five main functions which allow a) importation of DICOM-RT-based 3D dose plan, b) deformable image registration, c) tracking voxel doses along breathing cycle, d) presentation of temporal dose distribution at different time phase, and e) derivation of 4D dose. The efficacy of using the tool box for clinical application had been verified with nine clinical cases on retrospective-study basis. The logistic and the robustness of the tool box were tested with 27 applications and the results were shown successful with no computational errors encountered. In the study, the accumulated dose coverage as a function of planning CT taken at end-inhale, end-exhale, and mean tumor position were assessed. The results indicated that the majority of the cases (67%) achieved maximum target coverage, while the planning CT was taken at the temporal mean tumor position and 56% at the end-exhale position. The comparable results to the literature imply that the studied tool box can be reliable for 4D dose calculation. The authors suggest that, with proper application, 4D dose calculation using deformable registration can provide better dose evaluation for treatment with moving target.

  7. ADULT AND CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO 2,4-D FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES AND PATHWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigated the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide exposures of 135 preschool-aged children and their adult caregivers at 135 homes in North Carolina (NC) and Ohio (OH). Participants were randomly recruited from six NC and six OH counties. Monito...

  8. Statistical 4D graphs for multi-organ abdominal segmentation from multiphase CT.

    PubMed

    Linguraru, Marius George; Pura, John A; Pamulapati, Vivek; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-05-01

    The interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer-aided diagnosis applications. Diagnosis also relies on the comprehensive analysis of multiple organs and quantitative measures of soft tissue. An automated method optimized for medical image data is presented for the simultaneous segmentation of four abdominal organs from 4D CT data using graph cuts. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained at two phases: non-contrast and portal venous. Intra-patient data were spatially normalized by non-linear registration. Then 4D convolution using population training information of contrast-enhanced liver, spleen and kidneys was applied to multiphase data to initialize the 4D graph and adapt to patient-specific data. CT enhancement information and constraints on shape, from Parzen windows, and location, from a probabilistic atlas, were input into a new formulation of a 4D graph. Comparative results demonstrate the effects of appearance, enhancement, shape and location on organ segmentation. All four abdominal organs were segmented robustly and accurately with volume overlaps over 93.6% and average surface distances below 1.1mm.

  9. 4D Ultrasound Tracking of Liver and its Verification for TIPS Guidance.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Klink, Camiel; Niessen, Wiro J; Moelker, Adriaan; van Walsum, Theo

    2016-01-01

    In this work we describe a 4D registration method for on the fly stabilization of ultrasound volumes for improving image guidance for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) interventions. The purpose of the method is to enable a continuous visualization of the relevant anatomical planes (determined in a planning stage) in a free breathing patient during the intervention. This requires registration of the planning information to the interventional images, which is achieved in two steps. In the first step tracking is performed across the streaming input. An approximate transformation between the reference image and the incoming image is estimated by composing the intermediate transformations obtained from the tracking. In the second step a subsequent registration is performed between the reference image and the approximately transformed incoming image to account for the accumulation of error. The two step approach helps in reducing the search range and is robust under rotation. We additionally present an approach to initialize and verify the registration. Verification is required when the reference image (containing planning information) is acquired in the past and is not part of the (interventional) 4D ultrasound sequence. The verification score will help in invalidating the registration outcome, for instance, in the case of insufficient overlap or information between the registering images due to probe motion or loss of contact, respectively. We evaluate the method over thirteen 4D US sequences acquired from eight subjects. A graphics processing unit implementation runs the 4D tracking at 9 Hz with a mean registration error of 1.7 mm.

  10. Can exposure to prenatal sex hormones (2D:4D) predict cognitive reflection?

    PubMed

    Bosch-Domènech, Antoni; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M

    2014-05-01

    The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a test introduced by Frederick (2005). The task is designed to measure the tendency to override an intuitive response that is incorrect and to engage in further reflection that leads to the correct response. The consistent sex differences in CRT performance may suggest a role for prenatal sex hormones. A now widely studied putative marker for relative prenatal testosterone is the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D). This paper tests to what extent 2D:4D, as a proxy for the prenatal ratio of testosterone/estrogens, can predict CRT scores in a sample of 623 students. After controlling for sex, we observe that a lower 2D:4D (reflecting a relative higher exposure to testosterone) is significantly associated with a higher number of correct answers. The result holds for both hands' 2D:4Ds. In addition, the effect appears to be stronger for females than for males. We also control for patience and math proficiency, which are significantly related to performance in the CRT. But the effect of 2D:4D on performance in CRT is not reduced with these controls, implying that these variables are not mediating the relationship between digit ratio and CRT.

  11. Five cycles of selection for 2,4-D resistance in red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    2,4-D and other auxin-like mode of action herbicides are used to control broadleaf weeds in pastures. Unfortunately such herbicides also kill beneficial forage legumes in pastures. Although transgene-conferred herbicide-resistance is utilized in some crops, it is unlikely that transgenic breeding ap...

  12. 4-D Cardiac MR Image Analysis: Left and Right Ventricular Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wahle, Andreas; Johnson, Ryan K.; Scholz, Thomas D.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a combination of active shape model (ASM) and active appearance model (AAM) was used to segment the left and right ventricles of normal and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) hearts on 4-D (3-D+time) MR images. For each ventricle, a 4-D model was first used to achieve robust preliminary segmentation on all cardiac phases simultaneously and a 3-D model was then applied to each phase to improve local accuracy while maintaining the overall robustness of the 4-D segmentation. On 25 normal and 25 TOF hearts, in comparison to the expert traced independent standard, our comprehensive performance assessment showed subvoxel segmentation accuracy, high overlap ratios, good ventricular volume correlations, and small percent volume differences. Following 4-D segmentation, novel quantitative shape and motion features were extracted using shape information, volume-time and dV/dt curves, analyzed and used for disease status classification. Automated discrimination between normal/TOF subjects achieved 90%–100% sensitivity and specificity. The features obtained from TOF hearts show higher variability compared to normal subjects, suggesting their potential use as disease progression indicators. The abnormal shape and motion variations of the TOF hearts were accurately captured by both the segmentation and feature characterization. PMID:19709962

  13. Evaluation of the Elekta Symmetry ™ 4D IGRT system by using a moving lung phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hun-Joo; Kim, Shin-Wook; Kay, Chul Seung; Seo, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Gi-Woong; Kang, Ki-Mun; Jang, Hong Seok; Kang, Young-nam

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: 4D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a beneficial tool for the treatment of movable tumors because it can help us to understand where the tumors are actually located and it has a precise treatment plan. However, general CBCT images have a limitation in that they cannot perfectly perform a sophisticated registration. On the other hand, the Symmetry TM 4D image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system of Elekta offers a 4D CBCT registration option. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of Symmetry TM . Method and Materials: Planning CT images of the CIRS moving lung phantom were acquired 4D multi-detector CT (MDCT), and the images were sorted as 10 phases from 0% phase to 90% phase. The thickness of the CT images was 1 mm. Acquired MDCT images were transferred to the contouring software, and a virtual target was generated. A one-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan was performed by using the treatment planning system on the virtual target. Finally, the movement of the phantom was verified by using the XVI Symmetry TM system. Results: The physical movement of the CIRS moving lung phantom was ±10.0 mm in the superiorinferior direction, ±1.0 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. The movement of the phantom was measured from the 4D MDCT registration as ±10.2 mm in the superior-inferior direction, ±0.9 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.45 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. The movement of the phantom was measured from the SymmetryTM registration as ±10.1 mm in the superior-inferior direction, ±0.9 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.4 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. Conclusion: We confirmed that 4D CBCT is a beneficial tool for the treatment of movable tumors, and that the 4D registration of SymmetryTM can increase the precision of the registration when a movable tumor is the target of radiation treatment.

  14. Erythrocyte C3d and C4d for Monitoring Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Amy H.; Navratil, Jeannine S.; Ruffing, Margie J.; Liu, Chau-Ching; Hawkins, Douglas; McKinnon, Kathleen M.; Danchenko, Natalya; Ahearn, Joseph M.; Manzi, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Objective Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is typically monitored by measuring serum C3 and C4. However, these proteins have limited utility as lupus biomarkers, because they are substrates rather than products of complement activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of measuring the erythrocyte-bound complement activation products, erythrocyte-bound C3d (E-C3d) and E-C4d, compared with that of serum C3 and C4 for monitoring disease activity in patients with SLE. Methods The levels of E-C3d and E-C4d were measured by flow cytometry in 157 patients with SLE, 290 patients with other diseases, and 256 healthy individuals. The patients with SLE were followed up longitudinally. Disease activity was measured at each visit, using the validated Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment (SELENA) version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Results At baseline, patients with SLE had higher median levels of E-C3d and E-C4d (P < 0.0001) in addition to higher within-patient and between-patient variability in both E-C3d and E-C4d when compared with the 2 non-SLE groups. In a longitudinal analysis of patients with SLE, E-C3d, E-C4d, serum C3, and anti–double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies were each significantly associated with the SLAM and SELENA–SLEDAI. In a multivariable analysis, E-C4d remained significantly associated with these SLE activity measures after adjusting for serum C3, C4, and anti-dsDNA antibodies; however, E-C3d was associated with the SLAM but not with the SELENA–SLEDAI. Conclusion Determining the levels of the erythrocyte-bound complement activation products, especially E-C4d, is an informative measure of SLE disease activity as compared with assessing serum C4 levels and should be considered for monitoring disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:20187154

  15. Evaluation of corrective reconstruction methods using a 3D cardiac-torso phantom and bull's-eye plots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.D.; Tsui, B.M.W.; Gregoriou, G.K.; Lalush, D.S.; Li, J. ); Eisner, R.L. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the investigation was to study the effectiveness of the corrective reconstruction methods in cardiac SPECT using a realistic phantom and to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the reconstructed images using bull's-eye plots. A 3D mathematical phantom which realistically models the anatomical structures of the cardiac-torso region of patients was used. The phantom allows simulation of both the attenuation distribution and the uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. Also, the phantom can be easily modified to simulate different genders and variations in patient anatomy. Two-dimensional projection data were generated from the phantom and included the effects of attenuation and detector response blurring. The reconstruction methods used in the study included the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) with no attenuation compensation, and the first-order Chang algorithm, an iterative filtered backprojection algorithm (IFBP), the weighted least square conjugate gradient algorithm and the ML-EM algorithm with non-uniform attenuation compensation. The transaxial reconstructed images were rearranged into short-axis slices from which bull's-eye plots of the count density distribution in the myocardium were generated.

  16. Formation of 2,4-D bound residues in soils: New insights into microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Botero, Liliana Rocío; Mougin, Chistian; Peñuela, Gustavo; Barriuso, Enrique

    2017-04-15

    The microbial contribution to the formation of bound residues in soils is studied by characterizing the metabolic activity of three microorganisms (Trametes versicolor, Fusarium solani and Ralstonia eutropha) on (14)C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) during incubation in synthetic liquid media and soil. A fractionation protocol was applied to quantify the (14)C-2,4-D that was incorporated into the biomass among biomolecular-like fractions. Successive fractionation of microbial biomass was implemented to break up and quantify the methanol/dichloromethane fraction (corresponding to the (14)C-lipid-like fraction), the trichloroacetic acid fraction (or hydrolysed (14)C-polysaccharide-like fraction) and the acid hydrolysable fraction (or the hydrolysed (14)C-protein-like fraction). Relevant differences in the 2,4-D degradation and biomass radioactivity distribution among the three microorganisms were found. The (14)C-protein-like fraction was the most consistent biomass fraction for reflecting the pesticide use capacity of the microorganisms under liquid and soil conditions. 2,4-D and its metabolite 4-chlorophenol were detected in methanol/dichloromethane and trichloroacetic acid fractions of the biomass of microorganisms exhibiting a low capacity to mineralize 2,4-D, thus proving that the microbial participation in the formation of bound residues while conserving the initial pesticide structure under natural soil conditions may be intimately associated with the lipid- and polysaccharide-like constituents. The fractionation protocol differentiates between (14)C that is incorporated into biomass as a biomolecular constituent and the pesticide or its metabolites that accumulate in the biomass and thus correspond to the stricto sensu definition of bound residues.

  17. Phosphodiesterase 4D polymorphisms associate with the short-term outcome in ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan-li; Wang, Chun-juan; Wu, Yi-ping; Lin, Jie; Wang, Peng-lian; Du, Wan-liang; Liu, Li; Lin, Jin-xi; Wang, Yi-long; Wang, Yong-jun; Liu, Gai-fen

    2017-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) genetic polymorphism is associated with ischemic stroke. However, the association between PDE4D gene and prognosis after ischemic stroke remains unknown. We consecutively enrolled ischemic stroke patients admitted to Beijing Tiantan Hospital from October 2009 to December 2013. Clinical, laboratory and imaging data upon admission were collected. All patients were followed up 3 months after stroke onset. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the associations of genetic polymorphisms with 3-month outcome after ischemic stroke and different subtypes, under various genetic models. A total of 1447 patients were enrolled, and 3-month follow-up data were obtained from 1388 (95.92%). Multivariate regression analysis showed that SNP87 of PDE4D gene was associated with increased risk of unfavorable outcome after total ischemic stroke (OR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.12–1.93), as well as stroke due to large-artery atherosclerosis (OR = 1.49, 95%CI 1.04–2.11) and small-artery occlusion (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.05–2.96) under a recessive model. No association between SNP83 genotype and poor outcome was found. Overall, this study demonstrated that the TT genotype of SNP87 in PDE4D was associated with increased risk of poor outcome after total ischemic stroke, large-artery atherosclerosis and small-artery occlusion, in a Chinese population. PMID:28225001

  18. Constructing 4D infant cortical surface atlases based on dynamic developmental trajectories of the cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Cortical surface atlases play an increasingly important role for analysis, visualization, and comparison of results across different neuroimaging studies. As the first two years of life is the most dynamic period of postnatal structural and functional development of the highly-folded cerebral cortex, longitudinal (4D) cortical surface atlases for the infant brains during this period is highly desired yet still lacking for early brain development studies. In this paper, we construct the first longitudinal (4D) cortical surface atlases for the dynamic developing infant cortical structures at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age, based on 202 serial MRI scans from 35 healthy infants. To ensure longitudinal consistency and unbiasedness of the 4D infant cortical surface atlases, we first compute the within-subject mean cortical folding geometries by groupwise registration of longitudinal surfaces of each infant. Then we establish intersubject cortical correspondences by groupwise registration of the within-subject mean cortical folding geometries of all infants. More importantly, for the first time, we further parcellate the 4D infant surface atlases into developmentally and functionally distinctive regions based solely on the dynamic developmental trajectories of the cortical thickness, by using the spectral clustering method. Specifically, to deal with the problem that each infant has different number of scans, we first compute the within-subject affinity matrix of vertices' cortical thickness trajectories of each infant, and then we use the averaged affinity matrix of all infants for parcellation. Our constructed 4D infant cortical surface atlases with developmental trajectories based parcellation will greatly facilitate the surface-based analysis of dynamic brain development in infants.

  19. Radiolucent 4D Ultrasound Imaging: System Design and Application to Radiotherapy Guidance.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Hristov, Dimitre

    2016-04-27

    Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound (US) is an attractive modality for image guidance due to its real-time, non-ionizing, volumetric imaging capability with high soft tissue contrast. However, existing 4D US imaging systems contain large volumes of metal which interfere with diagnostic and therapeutic ionizing radiation in procedures such as CT imaging and radiation therapy. This study aimed to design and characterize a novel 4D Radiolucent Remotely-Actuated UltraSound Scanning (RRUSS) device that overcomes this limitation. In a phantom, we evaluated the imaging performance of the RRUSS device including frame rate, resolution, spatial integrity, and motion tracking accuracy. To evaluate compatibility with radiation therapy workflow, we evaluated device-induced CT imaging artifacts, US tracking performance during beam delivery, and device compatibility with commercial radiotherapy planning software. The RRUSS device produced 4D volumes at 0.1-3.0 Hz with 60⁰ lateral field of view (FOV), 50⁰ maximum elevational FOV, and 200 mm maximum depth. Imaging resolution (-3 dB point spread width) was 1.2-7.9 mm at depths up to 100 mm and motion tracking accuracy was ≤0.3±0.5 mm. No significant effect of the RRUSS device on CT image integrity was found, and RRUSS device performance was not affected by radiotherapy beam exposure. Agreement within ±3.0% / 2.0 mm was achieved between computed and measured radiotherapy dose delivered directly through the RRUSS device at 6 MV and 15 MV. In-vivo liver, kidney, and prostate images were successfully acquired. Our investigations suggest that a RRUSS device can offer non-interfering 4D guidance for radiation therapy and other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  20. Radiolucent 4D Ultrasound Imaging: System Design and Application to Radiotherapy Guidance.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Hristov, Dimitre

    2016-10-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound (US) is an attractive modality for image guidance due to its real-time, non-ionizing, volumetric imaging capability with high soft tissue contrast. However, existing 4D US imaging systems contain large volumes of metal which interfere with diagnostic and therapeutic ionizing radiation in procedures such as CT imaging and radiation therapy. This study aimed to design and characterize a novel 4D Radiolucent Remotely-Actuated UltraSound Scanning (RRUSS) device that overcomes this limitation. In a phantom, we evaluated the imaging performance of the RRUSS device including frame rate, resolution, spatial integrity, and motion tracking accuracy. To evaluate compatibility with radiation therapy workflow, we evaluated device-induced CT imaging artifacts, US tracking performance during beam delivery, and device compatibility with commercial radiotherapy planning software. The RRUSS device produced 4D volumes at 0.1-3.0 Hz with 60° lateral field of view (FOV), 50° maximum elevational FOV, and 200 mm maximum depth. Imaging resolution (-3 dB point spread width) was 1.2-7.9 mm at depths up to 100 mm and motion tracking accuracy was ≤ 0.3±0.5 mm. No significant effect of the RRUSS device on CT image integrity was found, and RRUSS device performance was not affected by radiotherapy beam exposure. Agreement within ±3.0% / 2.0 mm was achieved between computed and measured radiotherapy dose delivered directly through the RRUSS device at 6 MV and 15 MV. In vivo liver, kidney, and prostate images were successfully acquired. Our investigations suggest that a RRUSS device can offer non-interfering 4D guidance for radiation therapy and other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  1. [Effects of EDTA on the Reductive Dechlorination of 2,4-D by Pd/Fe].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-yi; Nie, Ya-zhong; Chen, Yong; Lei, Shuang-jian

    2016-02-15

    In Pd/Fe system, zero-valent iron (ZVI) passivation layer is easily formed on the particle surface during the catalytic reductive dechlorination of chlorinated organics, hindering further dechlorination of target contaminants. In this paper, the passivation layer on the Pd/Fe particle surfaces could be eliminated by the chelation of disodium edetate (EDTA) with Fe2+, Fe3+, making the reductive dechlorination continue. The experiment investigated the effects of EDTA addition manner and dosage, pH, Pd loading and temperature on dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) by Pd/Fe. The conclusions can be summarized as follows: (1) Phenoxyacetic acid (PA) generation ratio reached 90. 7% within 20 min with EDTA concentration of 25.0 mmol x L(-1) and flow rate of 20 mL x h(-1), while it was only 74.5% after 210 min in the system without EDTA. (2) The EDTA could chelate the Fe2+ and Fe3+ generated from the process of 2,4-D dechlorination by Pd/Fe, preventing or slowing down the formation of passivation layer, and accelerating the reduction efficiency. (3) The appropriate experimental parameters for 2,4-D removal were as follows: EDTA flow rate of 20 mL x h(-1), CEDTA of 25.0 mmol x L(-1), Pd loading of 0.050%, 200 r x min(-1), pH 4.2 and 30.0 degrees C. The removal percentage of 20.0 mg x L(-1) 2,4-D reached nearly up to 100% within 210 min under these conditions. (4) The intermediates of 2, 4-D catalytic dechlorination included 2-chlorophenoxvacetic acid (2-CPA) and trace 4-chloronhenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), and the end product was PA.

  2. Influence of preformed donor-specific antibodies and C4d on early liver allograft function.

    PubMed

    Perera, M T; Silva, M A; Murphy, N; Briggs, D; Mirza, D F; Neil, D A H

    2013-12-01

    INTRODUCTION. The impact of preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSA) is incompletely understood in liver transplantation. The incidence and impact of preformed DSA on early post liver transplant were assessed and these were correlated with compliment fragment C4d on allograft biopsy. METHODS. Pretransplant serum from 41 consecutive liver transplant recipients (brain dead donors; DBD = 27 and cardiac death donors; DCD = 14) were tested for class-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and compared against donor HLA types. Liver biopsies were taken during cold storage (t-1) and post-reperfusion (t0) stained with C4d and graded for preservation-reperfusion injury (PRI). RESULTS. Of the 41 recipients, 8 (20%) had anti-HLA class I/II antibodies pretransplant, 3 (7%) were confirmed preformed DSA; classes I and II (n=1) and class I only (n=2). No biopsies showed definite evidence of antibody-mediated rejection. Graft biopsies in overall showed only mild PRI with ischemic hepatocyte C4d pattern similar in both positive and negative DSA patients. One DSA-positive (33%) compared with four DSA-negative patients (10%) had significant early graft dysfunction; severe PRI causing graft loss from primary nonfunction was seen only in DSA-negative group. Allograft biopsy of preformed DSA-positive patient demonstrated only minimal PRI; however, no identifiable cause could be attributed to graft dysfunction other than preformed DSA. CONCLUSION. Preformed DSA are present in 5-10% liver transplant recipients. There is no association between anti-HLA DSA and PRI and C4d, but preformed DSA may cause early morbidity. Larger studies on the impact of DSA with optimization of C4d techniques are required.

  3. Combining C(4) D and MS as a dual detection approach for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Beutner, Andrea; Cunha, Rafael Rodrigues; Richter, Eduardo Mathias; Matysik, Frank-Michael

    2016-04-01

    The hyphenation of two detectors in combination with separation techniques is a powerful tool to enhance the analytical information. In this work, we present for the first time the coupling of two important detectors for capillary electrophoresis (CE), namely capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). The elaborated experimental protocol took into account the requirements of separation aspects and the compatibility with both detectors. ESI-TOF-MS requires background electrolytes (BGE) containing only volatile components such as ammonium acetate or formate. These, however, exhibit a rather high conductivity, which is disadvantageous for C(4) D. Thus, the selection of the BGE in an appropriate concentration was undertaken for the determination of various phenolic compounds serving as a model system. The chosen BGE was a 10 mM ammonium acetate/ammonia buffer with a pH of 9. This BGE was a compromise concerning the detection performance of both detectors. The LODs for m-cresol, m- and p-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol were 3.1 μM (C(4) D), 0.8 μM (MS), 0.8 μM (MS), and 1.5 μM (MS), respectively. Moreover, the overall separation efficiency was excellent illustrating that detector-induced band broadening can be neglected in the CE-C(4) D/MS system. The analytical characteristics for the determination of phenolic compounds show the suitability of this dual detection approach and demonstrate the complementary use of C(4) D and MS detection.

  4. Trauma-Related Altered States of Consciousness: Exploring the 4-D Model

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul A.; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion. The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma. The aim of the present research was to begin to evaluate these 4 predictions of the 4-D model. Within a sample of 74 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) primarily due to histories of childhood trauma, as well as within a 2nd sample of 504 undergraduates (384 females), the 1st 2 hypotheses of the 4-D model were supported. In addition, within the PTSD sample, the 3rd hypothesis was supported. However, inconsistent with the 4th hypothesis, severity of childhood trauma history was not strongly associated with TRASC. We conclude that the hypotheses articulated by the 4-D model were generally supported, although further research in different trauma-related disorders is needed, and the role of childhood trauma history in the etiology of TRASC requires further research. PMID:24650122

  5. Development of an immunoassay for determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) based upon the recombinant Fab fragment of 2,4-D specific antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van C.; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Dau, Hung A.; Tham, Thu N.; Quyen, Dinh T.; Bachmman, Till; Schmid, Rolf D.

    2001-09-01

    To develop an immunoassay and further an immunosensor for 2,4-D based upon recombinant antibody, the Fab fragments of 2,4-D specific antibody were expressed in E. coli. Western blotting analysis of the periplasmic cell fractions shown that under the non-reducing condition only a single protein band at a molecular mass of 45-kDa, corresponding to the whole Fab fragment was detected. Antigen binding activity for 2,4-D was found only in the extract of cells bearing the 2,4-D plasmid. An immunoassay based on the competitive reaction of 2,4-D and enzyme tracer with 2,4-D Fab fragments immobilized on micro titer plates via rabbit anti-mouse IgC was developed. Using this assay, 2,4-D could be detected at concentration range of 0.5 (mu) g/1 to 10(mu) g/1. The center point of the 2,4-D test was found at a concentration of 5 (mu) g/l. The assay was applied for detection of 2,4-D in spiked orange samples, resulting in recovery rate of 90 percent. The immunoassay could be applied to monitor human exposure to 2,4-D from contamination in fruit samples.

  6. 4D Near Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Using Highly Temporal LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Canli, Ekrem; Schmitz, Evelyn; Crommelinck, Sophie; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed extensive applications of 3D environmental monitoring with the LiDAR technology, also referred to as laser scanning. Although several automatic methods were developed to extract environmental parameters from LiDAR point clouds, only little research has focused on highly multitemporal near real-time LiDAR (4D-LiDAR) for environmental monitoring. Large potential of applying 4D-LiDAR is given for landscape objects with high and varying rates of change (e.g. plant growth) and also for phenomena with sudden unpredictable changes (e.g. geomorphological processes). In this presentation we will report on the most recent findings of the research projects 4DEMON (http://uni-heidelberg.de/4demon) and NoeSLIDE (https://geomorph.univie.ac.at/forschung/projekte/aktuell/noeslide/). The method development in both projects is based on two real-world use cases: i) Surface parameter derivation of agricultural crops (e.g. crop height) and ii) change detection of landslides. Both projects exploit the "full history" contained in the LiDAR point cloud time series. One crucial initial step of 4D-LiDAR analysis is the co-registration over time, 3D-georeferencing and time-dependent quality assessment of the LiDAR point cloud time series. Due to the high amount of datasets (e.g. one full LiDAR scan per day), the procedure needs to be performed fully automatically. Furthermore, the online near real-time 4D monitoring system requires to set triggers that can detect removal or moving of tie reflectors (used for co-registration) or the scanner itself. This guarantees long-term data acquisition with high quality. We will present results from a georeferencing experiment for 4D-LiDAR monitoring, which performs benchmarking of co-registration, 3D-georeferencing and also fully automatic detection of events (e.g. removal/moving of reflectors or scanner). Secondly, we will show our empirical findings of an ongoing permanent LiDAR observation of a landslide (Gresten

  7. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E.; Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D.; Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve

  8. Chern-Simons actions and their gaugings in 4D, N =1 superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Linch, William D.; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We gauge the abelian hierarchy of tensor fields in 4D by a Lie algebra mathfrak{g} . The resulting non-abelian tensor hierarchy can be interpreted via a mathfrak{g} -equivariant chain complex. We lift this structure to N = 1 superspace by constructing superfield analogs for the tensor fields, along with covariant superfield strengths. Next we construct Chern-Simons actions, for both the bosonic and N = 1 cases, and note that the condition of gauge invariance can be presented cohomologically. Finally, we provide an explicit realization of these structures by dimensional reduction, for example by reducing the three-form of eleven-dimensional supergravity into a superspace with manifest 4D, N = 1 supersymmetry.

  9. Unusual molecular material formed through irreversible transformation and revealed by 4D electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Renske M; Tissot, Antoine; Hauser, Andreas; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2013-05-28

    Four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy (EM) uniquely combines the high spatial resolution to pinpoint individual nano-objects, with the high temporal resolution necessary to address the dynamics of their laser-induced transformation. Here, using 4D-EM, we demonstrate the in situ irreversible transformation of individual nanoparticles of the molecular framework Fe(pyrazine)Pt(CN)4. The newly formed material exhibits an unusually large negative thermal expansion (i.e. contraction), which is revealed by time-resolved imaging and diffraction. Negative thermal expansion is a unique property exhibited by only few materials. Here we show that the increased flexibility of the metal-cyanide framework after the removal of the bridging pyrazine ligands is responsible for the negative thermal expansion behavior of the new material. This in situ visualization of single nanostructures during reactions should be extendable to other classes of reactive systems.

  10. Imaging rotational dynamics of nanoparticles in liquid by 4D electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuewen; Chen, Bin; Tang, Jau; Hassan, Mohammed Th.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2017-02-01

    In real time and space, four-dimensional electron microscopy (4D EM) has enabled observation of transient structures and morphologies of inorganic and organic materials. We have extended 4D EM to include liquid cells without the time resolution being limited by the response of the detector. Our approach permits the imaging of the motion and morphological dynamics of a single, same particle on nanometer and ultrashort time scales. As a first application, we studied the rotational dynamics of gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution. A full transition from the conventional diffusive rotation to superdiffusive rotation and further to a ballistic rotation was observed with increasing asymmetry of the nanoparticle morphology. We explored the underlying physics both experimentally and theoretically according to the morphological asymmetry of the nanoparticles.

  11. Is digit ratio (2D:4D) a reliable pointer to speech laterality?

    PubMed

    Hudson, John M; Hodgson, Jessica C

    2016-03-15

    The relative length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D ratio) is sexually dimorphic and a retrospective biomarker of prenatal hormonal exposure. Low ratios indicate higher prenatal testosterone (pT) and lower estrogen exposure, whereas the reverse pattern is associated with high ratios. Elevated levels of pT exposure have long been thought to modulate hemispheric specialisation; subsequently many studies use the 2D:4D ratio as a proxy index for pT to examine the effects of prenatal hormonal exposure on lateralised cognitive abilities. Here we used Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and digit ratio to investigate whether pT has an influence on speech laterality. We tested 34 right and 14 left handed adults. Our results indicate that speech representation is unrelated to digit characteristics and therefore purportedly pT. We discuss these findings in relation to androgen theories of lateralisation.

  12. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere 4D-Var: Formulation and Sensitivity Analysis Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngodock, Hans; Carrier, Matthew; Xu, Liang; Amerault, Clark; Campbell, Tim; Rowley, Clark

    2016-04-01

    The US Navy is currently developing the first coupled ocean-atmosphere four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to be used for short-term regional forecasting. This project merges the 4D-Var capabilities of the atmospheric component of the Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS©) with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). This will provide the coupled ocean-atmosphere forecast with a fully balanced analysis that accounts for all combined observations in both primary fluids (i.e. ocean and atmosphere). In this present work, the formulation of the system is presented in detail along with a series of adjoint sensitivity analysis results using the coupled ocean-atmosphere adjoint model. The sensitivity of the atmosphere (ocean) to each ocean (atmosphere) model variable is analyzed in detail in order to illustrate the usefulness of this approach in the coupled data assimilation system.

  13. SU-E-J-187: Individually Optimized Contrast-Enhancement 4D-CT for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Radiotherapy Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, M; Patel, K; Regine, W; Lane, B; D'Souza, W; Lu, W; Klahr, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of individually optimized contrastenhancement (CE) 4D-CT for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA) in radiotherapy simulation. To evaluate the image quality and contrast enhancement of tumor in the CE 4D-CT, compared to the clinical standard of CE 3D-CT and 4D-CT. Methods: In this IRB-approved study, each of the 7 PDA patients enrolled underwent 3 CT scans: a free-breathing 3D-CT with contrast (CE 3D-CT) followed by a 4D-CT without contrast (4D-CT) in the first study session, and a 4D-CT with individually synchronized contrast injection (CE 4D-CT) in the second study session. In CE 4D-CT, the time of full contrast injection was determined based on the time of peak enhancement for the test injection, injection rate, table speed, and longitudinal location and span of the pancreatic region. Physicians contoured both the tumor (T) and the normal pancreatic parenchyma (P) on the three CTs (end-of-exhalation for 4D-CT). The contrast between the tumor and normal pancreatic tissue was computed as the difference of the mean enhancement level of three 1 cm3 regions of interests in T and P, respectively. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to statistically compare the scores and contrasts. Results: In qualitative evaluations, both CE 3D-CT and CE 4D-CT scored significantly better than 4D-CT (4.0 and 3.6 vs. 2.6). There was no significant difference between CE 3D-CT and CE 4D-CT. In quantitative evaluations, the contrasts between the tumor and the normal pancreatic parenchyma were 0.6±23.4, −2.1±8.0, and −19.6±28.8 HU, in CE 3D-CT, 4D-CT, and CE 4D-CT, respectively. Although not statistically significant, CE 4D-CT achieved better contrast enhancement between the tumor and the normal pancreatic parenchyma than both CE 3D-CT and 4DCT. Conclusion: CE 4D-CT achieved equivalent image quality and better contrast enhancement between tumor and normal pancreatic parenchyma than the clinical standard of CE 3D-CT and 4D-CT. This study was supported in part

  14. 4D atlas of the mouse embryo for precise morphological staging.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael D; van Eede, Matthijs C; Spring, Shoshana; Jevtic, Stefan; Boughner, Julia C; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark

    2015-10-15

    After more than a century of research, the mouse remains the gold-standard model system, for it recapitulates human development and disease and is quickly and highly tractable to genetic manipulations. Fundamental to the power and success of using a mouse model is the ability to stage embryonic mouse development accurately. Past staging systems were limited by the technologies of the day, such that only surface features, visible with a light microscope, could be recognized and used to define stages. With the advent of high-throughput 3D imaging tools that capture embryo morphology in microscopic detail, we now present the first 4D atlas staging system for mouse embryonic development using optical projection tomography and image registration methods. By tracking 3D trajectories of every anatomical point in the mouse embryo from E11.5 to E14.0, we established the first 4D atlas compiled from ex vivo 3D mouse embryo reference images. The resulting 4D atlas comprises 51 interpolated 3D images in this gestational range, resulting in a temporal resolution of 72 min. From this 4D atlas, any mouse embryo image can be subsequently compared and staged at the global, voxel and/or structural level. Assigning an embryonic stage to each point in anatomy allows for unprecedented quantitative analysis of developmental asynchrony among different anatomical structures in the same mouse embryo. This comprehensive developmental data set offers developmental biologists a new, powerful staging system that can identify and compare differences in developmental timing in wild-type embryos and shows promise for localizing deviations in mutant development.

  15. Combined C4d and CD3 immunostaining predicts immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy progression

    PubMed Central

    Faria, B; Henriques, C; Matos, A C; Daha, M R; Pestana, M; Seelen, M

    2015-01-01

    A number of molecules have been shown recently to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN). Among these, we have selected C4d (complement lectin pathway involvement), CD3 (T cell marker, traducing interstitial inflammation), transglutaminase 2 (TGase-2, involved in tissue fibrosis development) and p-extracelluar-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 (protein kinase intracellular signaling molecule) to perform a panel of immunohistological biomarkers and assess its predictive value for disease progression. Immunohistochemical staining of these biomarkers was performed in paraffin sections from 74 renal biopsy cases with the clinical diagnosis of IgAN. Association between score analysis of these parameters and disease course was assessed through univariate and multivariate analysis, including baseline clinical and histological data. Univariate analysis showed that glomerular C4d, tubulointerstitial TGase2 and CD3 scores were associated with baseline proteinuria and disease progression. Multivariate analysis showed that only baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), C4d and CD3 were associated independently with progressive kidney disease (decline of at least 50% in the eGFR or progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during the follow-up period). Establishing an accurate prediction model for IgAN progression is still a matter of research in clinical nephrology. The complement system, particularly lectin pathway activation, and T cell activation, have been shown previously to be potential modifiers of the disease course. Here we show that the combination of two histological biomarkers (C4d and CD3) can be a powerful predictor of IgAN progression and a potential useful tool for the clinical approach of this disease. PMID:25267249

  16. Model-driven physiological assessment of the mitral valve from 4D TEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Ingmar; Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Houle, Helene; Huber, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2009-02-01

    Disorders of the mitral valve are second most frequent, cumulating 14 percent of total number of deaths caused by Valvular Heart Disease each year in the United States and require elaborate clinical management. Visual and quantitative evaluation of the valve is an important step in the clinical workflow according to experts as knowledge about mitral morphology and dynamics is crucial for interventional planning. Traditionally this involves examination and metric analysis of 2D images comprising potential errors being intrinsic to the method. Recent commercial solutions are limited to specific anatomic components, pathologies and a single phase of cardiac 4D acquisitions only. This paper introduces a novel approach for morphological and functional quantification of the mitral valve based on a 4D model estimated from ultrasound data. A physiological model of the mitral valve, covering the complete anatomy and eventual shape variations, is generated utilizing parametric spline surfaces constrained by topological and geometrical prior knowledge. The 4D model's parameters are estimated for each patient using the latest discriminative learning and incremental searching techniques. Precise evaluation of the anatomy using model-based dynamic measurements and advanced visualization are enabled through the proposed approach in a reliable, repeatable and reproducible manner. The efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated through experiments and an initial validation based on clinical research results. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time such a patient specific 4D mitral valve model is proposed, covering all of the relevant anatomies and enabling to model the common pathologies at once.

  17. 4D Traction Force Microscopy Reveals Asymmetric Cortical Forces in Migrating Dictyostelium Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delanoë-Ayari, H.; Rieu, J. P.; Sano, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present a 4D (x; y; z; t) force map of Dictyostelium cells crawling on a soft gel substrate. Vertical forces are of the same order as the tangential ones. The cells pull the substratum upward along the cell, medium, or substratum contact line and push it downward under the cell except for the pseudopods. We demonstrate quantitatively that the variations in the asymmetry in cortical forces correlates with the variations of the direction and speed of cell displacement.

  18. A design of a DICOM-RT-based tool box for nonrigid 4D dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Victy Y W; Baker, Colin R; Leung, T W; Tung, Stewart Y

    2016-03-01

    The study was aimed to introduce a design of a DICOM-RT-based tool box to facilitate 4D dose calculation based on deformable voxel-dose registration. The computational structure and the calculation algorithm of the tool box were explicitly discussed in the study. The tool box was written in MATLAB in conjunction with CERR. It consists of five main functions which allow a) importation of DICOM-RT-based 3D dose plan, b) deformable image registration, c) tracking voxel doses along breathing cycle, d) presentation of temporal dose distribution at different time phase, and e) derivation of 4D dose. The efficacy of using the tool box for clinical application had been verified with nine clinical cases on retrospective-study basis. The logistic and the robustness of the tool box were tested with 27 applications and the results were shown successful with no computational errors encountered. In the study, the accumulated dose coverage as a function of planning CT taken at end-inhale, end-exhale, and mean tumor position were assessed. The results indicated that the majority of the cases (67%) achieved maximum target coverage, while the planning CT was taken at the temporal mean tumor position and 56% at the end-exhale position. The comparable results to the literature imply that the studied tool box can be reliable for 4D dose calculation. The authors suggest that, with proper application, 4D dose calculation using deformable registration can provide better dose evaluation for treatment with moving target. PACS number(s): 87.55.kh.

  19. 4D microscope-integrated OCT improves accuracy of ophthalmic surgical maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Shen, Liangbo; Todorich, Bozho; Shieh, Christine; Kuo, Anthony; Toth, Cynthia; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic surgeons manipulate micron-scale tissues using stereopsis through an operating microscope and instrument shadowing for depth perception. While ophthalmic microsurgery has benefitted from rapid advances in instrumentation and techniques, the basic principles of the stereo operating microscope have not changed since the 1930's. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmic imaging and is now the gold standard for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of most retinal and many corneal procedures. We and others have developed initial microscope-integrated OCT (MIOCT) systems for concurrent OCT and operating microscope imaging, but these are limited to 2D real-time imaging and require offline post-processing for 3D rendering and visualization. Our previously presented 4D MIOCT system can record and display the 3D surgical field stereoscopically through the microscope oculars using a dual-channel heads-up display (HUD) at up to 10 micron-scale volumes per second. In this work, we show that 4D MIOCT guidance improves the accuracy of depth-based microsurgical maneuvers (with statistical significance) in mock surgery trials in a wet lab environment. Additionally, 4D MIOCT was successfully performed in 38/45 (84%) posterior and 14/14 (100%) anterior eye human surgeries, and revealed previously unrecognized lesions that were invisible through the operating microscope. These lesions, such as residual and potentially damaging retinal deformation during pathologic membrane peeling, were visualized in real-time by the surgeon. Our integrated system provides an enhanced 4D surgical visualization platform that can improve current ophthalmic surgical practice and may help develop and refine future microsurgical techniques.

  20. Real time image-based tracking of 4D ultrasound data.

    PubMed

    Øye, Ola Kristoffer; Wein, Wolfgang; Ulvang, Dag Magne; Matre, Knut; Viola, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a methodology to perform real time image-based tracking on streaming 4D ultrasound data, using image registration to deduce the positioning of each ultrasound frame in a global coordinate system. Our method provides an alternative approach to traditional external tracking devices used for tracking probe movements. We compare the performance of our method against magnetic tracking on phantom and liver data, and show that our method is able to provide results in agreement with magnetic tracking.

  1. Unintended effects of the herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba on lady beetles.

    PubMed

    Freydier, Laurène; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2016-08-01

    Weed resistance to glyphosate and development of new GM crops tolerant to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and dicamba is expected to lead to increased use of these herbicides in cropland. The lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata is an important beneficial insect in cropland that is commonly used as an indicator species in safety evaluations of pesticides. Here, we examined the lethal and non-lethal effects of 2,4-D and dicamba active ingredients and commercial formulations to this lady beetle species, and tested for synergistic effects of the herbicides. Second instars of lady beetles were exposed to an experimental treatment, and their mortality, development, weight, sex ratio, fecundity, and mobility was evaluated. Using similar methods, a dose-response study was conducted on 2,4-D with and without dicamba. The commercial formulation of 2,4-D was highly lethal to lady beetle larvae; the LC90 of this herbicide was 13 % of the label rate. In this case, the "inactive" ingredients were a key driver of the toxicity. Dicamba active ingredient significantly increased lady beetle mortality and reduced their body weight. The commercial formulations of both herbicides reduced the proportion of males in the lady beetle population. The herbicides when used together did not act synergistically in their toxicity toward lady beetles versus when the chemistries were used independently. Our work shows that herbicide formulations can cause both lethal and sublethal effects on non-target, beneficial insects, and these effects are sometimes driven by the "inactive" ingredients. The field-level implications of shifts in weed management practices on insect management programs should receive further attention.

  2. Optimizing 4D cone-beam CT acquisition protocol for external beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Tianfang; Xing Lei . E-mail: lei@reyes.stanford.edu

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) imaging is sensitive to parameters such as gantry rotation speed, number of gantry rotations, X-ray pulse rate, and tube current, as well as a patient's breathing pattern. The aim of this study is to optimize the image acquisition on a patient-specific basis while minimizing the scan time and the radiation dose. Methods and Materials: More than 60 sets of 4D-CBCT images, each with a temporal resolution of 10 phases, were acquired using multiple-gantry rotation and slow-gantry rotation techniques. The image quality was quantified with a relative root mean-square error (RE) and correlated with various acquisition settings; specifically, varying gantry rotation speed, varying both the rotation speed and the number of rotations, and varying both the rotation speed and tube current to keep the radiation exposure constant. These experiments were repeated for three different respiratory periods. Results: With similar radiation dose, 4D-CBCT images acquired with low current and low rotation speed have better quality over images obtained with high current and high rotation speed. In general, a one-rotation low-speed scan is superior to a two-rotation double-speed scan, even though they provide the same number of projections. Furthermore, it is found that the image quality behaves monotonically with the relative speed as defined by the gantry rotation speed and the patient respiratory period. Conclusions: The RE curves established in this work can be used to predict the 4D-CBCT image quality before a scan. This allows the acquisition protocol to be optimized individually to balance the desired quality with the associated scanning time and patient radiation dose.

  3. Vertical D4-D2-D0 Bound States on K3 Fibrations and Modularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Vincent; Creutzig, Thomas; Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; Doran, Charles; Quigley, Callum; Sheshmani, Artan

    2017-03-01

    An explicit formula is derived for the generating function of vertical D4-D2-D0 bound states on smooth K3 fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds, generalizing previous results of Gholampour and Sheshmani. It is also shown that this formula satisfies strong modularity properties, as predicted by string theory. This leads to a new construction of vector valued modular forms which exhibit some of the features of a generalized Hecke transform.

  4. Utility of 4D Flow mapping in Eisenmenger syndrome with pulmonary atresia.

    PubMed

    Romeih, Soha; Aguib, Heba; Yacoub, Magdi

    2016-12-01

    Management of patients with Eisenmenger syndrome with pulmonary atresia is challenging because of the complexity of the structure-function relationship of the components of the syndrome. Multi-modality imaging including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) 4D Flow offers unprecedented opportunities to unravel, at least in part, some of these components, and thus help in the management of these patients. In this study, we describe the use of these integrated methods with particular reference to CMR 4D Flow in a patient with Eisenmenger syndrome and pulmonary atresia and outline both the utility and the limitations. A comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) 4D Flow analysis was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, during peak systole, late systole, early diastole, and late diastole. The focus of the present study was to investigate the pattern of flow and dynamic changes at different levels of the aorta, as well as in the duct and the pulmonary arteries. Preoperatively, a right-handed helix and a vortex were observed in the dilated ascending aorta, and the duct flow was mainly dependent on reverse, upstream flow from the descending aorta, distal to the duct, during diastole, denoting low pulmonary vascular capacitance. Following repair, the flow in the ascending aorta and the descending aorta changed markedly. These changes included both timing and intensity of the right-handed helix, as well as the vortex in the ascending aorta. The significance of the observed changes in flow pattern and their influence on wall structure and function are discussed. Our study demonstrates the extremely powerful potential of CMR 4D Flow in the management of complex congenital anomalies.

  5. Combinations of Endothall With 2,4-D and Triclopyr for Eurasian Watermilfoil Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    K. D. Getsinger2, and J. G. Skogerboe2 PURPOSE: This study evaluates combinations of a contact herbicide (endothall) and two systemic auxin -type...plant and typically require two to four weeks for plant mortality to occur. The chemical 2,4-D is a systemic, auxin -type herbicide that is...transported through plants via the symplastic pathway and accumulates in the growing points of shoots and roots (Senseman 2007). The herbicide mimics the auxin

  6. Automated contour mapping using sparse volume sampling for 4D radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chao Ming; Schreibmann, Eduard; Li Tianfang; Wink, Nicole; Xing Lei

    2007-10-15

    The purpose of this work is to develop a novel strategy to automatically map organ contours from one phase of respiration to all other phases on a four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT). A region of interest (ROI) was manually delineated by a physician on one phase specific image set of a 4D CT. A number of cubic control volumes of the size of {approx}1 cm were automatically placed along the contours. The control volumes were then collectively mapped to the next phase using a rigid transformation. To accommodate organ deformation, a model-based adaptation of the control volume positions was followed after the rigid mapping procedure. This further adjustment of control volume positions was performed by minimizing an energy function which balances the tendency for the control volumes to move to their correspondences with the desire to maintain similar image features and shape integrity of the contour. The mapped ROI surface was then constructed based on the central positions of the control volumes using a triangulated surface construction technique. The proposed technique was assessed using a digital phantom and 4D CT images of three lung patients. Our digital phantom study data indicated that a spatial accuracy better than 2.5 mm is achievable using the proposed technique. The patient study showed a similar level of accuracy. In addition, the computational speed of our algorithm was significantly improved as compared with a conventional deformable registration-based contour mapping technique. The robustness and accuracy of this approach make it a valuable tool for the efficient use of the available spatial-tempo information for 4D simulation and treatment.

  7. 4D offline PET-based treatment verification in scanned ion beam therapy: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Christopher; Bauer, Julia; Unholtz, Daniel; Richter, Daniel; Stützer, Kristin; Bert, Christoph; Parodi, Katia

    2015-08-01

    At the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, patient irradiation with scanned proton and carbon ion beams is verified by offline positron emission tomography (PET) imaging: the {β+} -activity measured within the patient is compared to a prediction calculated on the basis of the treatment planning data in order to identify potential delivery errors. Currently, this monitoring technique is limited to the treatment of static target structures. However, intra-fractional organ motion imposes considerable additional challenges to scanned ion beam radiotherapy. In this work, the feasibility and potential of time-resolved (4D) offline PET-based treatment verification with a commercial full-ring PET/CT (x-ray computed tomography) device are investigated for the first time, based on an experimental campaign with moving phantoms. Motion was monitored during the gated beam delivery as well as the subsequent PET acquisition and was taken into account in the corresponding 4D Monte-Carlo simulations and data evaluation. Under the given experimental conditions, millimeter agreement between the prediction and measurement was found. Dosimetric consequences due to the phantom motion could be reliably identified. The agreement between PET measurement and prediction in the presence of motion was found to be similar as in static reference measurements, thus demonstrating the potential of 4D PET-based treatment verification for future clinical applications.

  8. Dental students' opinions of preparation assessment with E4D compare software versus traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Hamil, Lindsey M; Mennito, Anthony S; Renné, Walter G; Vuthiganon, Jompobe

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dental students' opinions regarding the utilization of a new grading software program for student self-assessment and a faculty-grading tool in a preclinical course. Using surface mapping technology, this program, called E4D Compare, yields a digital model of a student's preparation that is color-coded to show deficient areas. The program has now been used for two years at the James B. Edwards College of Dental Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina, and the students previously assessed with E4D Compare have now entered into the dental clinics. For this study, students were asked to complete an anonymous survey for the investigators to evaluate students' attitudes and opinions on the effectiveness of this software in their preclinical courses to determine if this type of feedback helped them develop clinical skills. The survey also sought to collect students' opinions on the traditional objective criteria-based grading system. The survey was distributed to all members of the Classes of 2014 and 2015; it yielded a 59 percent response rate for the two classes, with a total of eighty-one students responding. Overall, the majority of students preferred the E4D Compare grading system over traditional hand-grading methods. The grading system provided instant, objective, and visual feedback that allowed students to easily see where their deficiencies were and encouraged them to work towards an ideal final product.

  9. Comparison of PIV with 4D-Flow in a physiological accurate flow phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Kurt; Balu, Niranjan; Liu, Haining; Aliseda, Alberto; Yuan, Chun; Canton, Maria De Gador

    2016-11-01

    Validation of 4D MRI flow sequences with planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) is performed in a physiologically-accurate flow phantom. A patient-specific phantom of a carotid artery is connected to a pulsatile flow loop to simulate the 3D unsteady flow in the cardiovascular anatomy. Cardiac-cycle synchronized MRI provides time-resolved 3D blood velocity measurements in clinical tool that is promising but lacks a robust validation framework. PIV at three different Reynolds numbers (540, 680, and 815, chosen based on +/- 20 % of the average velocity from the patient-specific CCA waveform) and four different Womersley numbers (3.30, 3.68, 4.03, and 4.35, chosen to reflect a physiological range of heart rates) are compared to 4D-MRI measurements. An accuracy assessment of raw velocity measurements and a comparison of estimated and measureable flow parameters such as wall shear stress, fluctuating velocity rms, and Lagrangian particle residence time, will be presented, with justification for their biomechanics relevance to the pathophysiology of arterial disease: atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. Lastly, the framework is applied to a new 4D-Flow MRI sequence and post processing techniques to provide a quantitative assessment with the benchmarked data. Department of Education GAANN Fellowship.

  10. Real-time volume rendering of 4D image using 3D texture mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, June-Sic; Kim, Jae Seok; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun Il

    2001-05-01

    Four dimensional image is 3D volume data that varies with time. It is used to express deforming or moving object in virtual surgery of 4D ultrasound. It is difficult to render 4D image by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering time or pre-processing stage whenever the volume data are changed. Even 3D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is also time-consuming in 4D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real time rendering based on 3D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one which was already loaded in memory. If the brick passed the test, it is defined as 3D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Continuously deforming fifty volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Real-time volume rendering based on 3D texture mapping is currently available on PC.

  11. White Matter and Gray Matter Segmentation in 4D Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Manniesing, Rashindra; Oei, Marcel T H; Oostveen, Luuk J; Melendez, Jaime; Smit, Ewoud J; Platel, Bram; Sánchez, Clara I; Meijer, Frederick J A; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-12-01

    Modern Computed Tomography (CT) scanners are capable of acquiring contrast dynamics of the whole brain, adding functional to anatomical information. Soft tissue segmentation is important for subsequent applications such as tissue dependent perfusion analysis and automated detection and quantification of cerebral pathology. In this work a method is presented to automatically segment white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in contrast- enhanced 4D CT images of the brain. The method starts with intracranial segmentation via atlas registration, followed by a refinement using a geodesic active contour with dominating advection term steered by image gradient information, from a 3D temporal average image optimally weighted according to the exposures of the individual time points of the 4D CT acquisition. Next, three groups of voxel features are extracted: intensity, contextual, and temporal. These are used to segment WM and GM with a support vector machine. Performance was assessed using cross validation in a leave-one-patient-out manner on 22 patients. Dice coefficients were 0.81 ± 0.04 and 0.79 ± 0.05, 95% Hausdorff distances were 3.86 ± 1.43 and 3.07 ± 1.72 mm, for WM and GM, respectively. Thus, WM and GM segmentation is feasible in 4D CT with good accuracy.

  12. Improvement of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines pharmacokinetic properties: nanosystem approaches for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vignaroli, Giulia; Calandro, Pierpaolo; Zamperini, Claudio; Coniglio, Federica; Iovenitti, Giulia; Tavanti, Matteo; Colecchia, David; Dreassi, Elena; Valoti, Massimo; Schenone, Silvia; Chiariello, Mario; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines are a class of compounds with a good activity against several cancer cell lines. Despite the promising anticancer activity, these molecules showed a poor aqueous solubility. This issue could threat the future development of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines as clinical drug candidates. With the aim of improving their solubility profile and consequently their pharmacokinetic properties, we have chosen four compounds (1–4) on the base of their anti-neuroblastoma activity and we have developed albumin nanoparticles and liposomes for the selected candidates. Albumin nanoparticles and liposomes were prepared and characterized regarding size and ζ-potential distribution, polidispersity index, entrapment efficiency and activity against SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. The most promising nanosystem, namely LP-2, was chosen to perform further studies: confocal microscopy, stability and drug release in physiological conditions, and biodistribution. Altogether, the obtained data strongly indicate that the encapsulation of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines in liposomes represent an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility. PMID:26898318

  13. 4D flow MRI for intracranial hemodynamics assessment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Rivera, Leonardo A; Turski, Patrick; Johnson, Kevin M; Hoffman, Carson; Berman, Sara E; Kilgas, Phillip; Rowley, Howard A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Johnson, Sterling C; Wieben, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    Cerebral blood flow, arterial pulsation, and vasomotion play important roles in the transport of waste metabolites out of the brain. Impaired vasomotion results in reduced driving force for the perivascular/glymphatic clearance of beta-amyloid. Noninvasive cerebrovascular characteristic features that potentially assess these transport mechanisms are mean blood flow (MBF) and pulsatility index (PI). In this study, 4D flow MRI was used to measure intra-cranial flow features, particularly MBF, PI, resistive index (RI) and cross-sectional area in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment and in age matched and younger cognitively healthy controls. Three-hundred fourteen subjects participated in this study. Volumetric, time-resolved phase contrast (PC) MRI data were used to quantify hemodynamic parameters from 11 vessel segments. Anatomical variants of the Circle of Willis were also cataloged. The AD population reported a statistically significant decrease in MBF and cross-sectional area, and also an increase in PI and RI compared to age matched cognitively healthy control subjects. The 4D flow MRI technique used in this study provides quantitative measurements of intracranial vessel geometry and the velocity of flow. Cerebrovascular characteristics features of vascular health such as pulsatility index can be extracted from the 4D flow MRI data.

  14. Criminality and the 2D:4D ratio: testing the prenatal androgen hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lee; Hoskin, Anthony W

    2015-03-01

    A decade old theory hypothesizes that brain exposure to androgens promotes involvement in criminal behavior. General support for this hypothesis has been provided by studies of postpubertal circulating levels of testosterone, at least among males. However, the theory also predicts that for both genders, prenatal androgens will be positively correlated with persistent offending, an idea for which no evidence currently exists. The present study used an indirect measure of prenatal androgen exposure-the relative length of the second and fourth fingers of the right hand (r2D:4D)-to test the hypothesis that elevated prenatal androgens promote criminal tendencies later in life for males and females. Questionnaires were administered to 2,059 college students in Malaysia and 1,291 college students in the United States. Respondents reported their r2D:4D relative finger lengths along with involvement in 13 categories of delinquent and criminal acts. Statistically significant correlations between the commission of most types of offenses and r2D:4D ratios were found for males and females even after controlling for age. It is concluded that high exposure to androgens during prenatal development contributes to most forms of offending following the onset of puberty.

  15. Single-Cell Tracking with PET using a Novel Trajectory Reconstruction Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keum Sil; Kim, Tae Jin

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all biomedical applications of positron emission tomography (PET) use images to represent the distribution of a radiotracer. However, PET is increasingly used in cell tracking applications, for which the “imaging” paradigm may not be optimal. Here we investigate an alternative approach, which consists in reconstructing the time-varying position of individual radiolabeled cells directly from PET measurements. As a proof of concept, we formulate a new algorithm for reconstructing the trajectory of one single moving cell directly from list-mode PET data. We model the trajectory as a 3D B-spline function of the temporal variable and use non-linear optimization to minimize the mean-square distance between the trajectory and the recorded list-mode coincidence events. Using Monte Carlo simulations (GATE), we show that this new algorithm can track a single source moving within a small-animal PET system with <3 mm accuracy provided that the activity of the cell [Bq] is greater than four times its velocity [mm/s]. The algorithm outperforms conventional ML-EM as well as the “minimum distance” method used for positron emission particle tracking (PEPT). The new method was also successfully validated using experimentally acquired PET data. In conclusion, we demonstrated the feasibility of a new method for tracking a single moving cell directly from PET list-mode data, at the whole-body level, for physiologically relevant activities and velocities. PMID:25423651

  16. SPECT reconstruction of combined cone beam and parallel hole collimation with experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianying; Jaszczak, Ronald J.; Turkington, Timothy G.; Greer, Kim L.; Coleman, R. Edward

    1993-06-01

    We have developed three methods to combine parallel and cone beam (P & CB) SPECT data using modified Maximum Likelihood-Expectation Maximization (ML-EM) algorithms. The first combination method applies both parallel and cone beam data sets to reconstruct a single intermediate image after each iteration using the ML-EL algorithm. The other two iterative methods combine the intermediate beam (PB) and cone (CB) source estimates to enhance the uniformity of images. These two methods are ad hoc methods. In earlier studies using computer Monte Carlo simulation, we suggested that improved images might be obtained by reconstructing combined P & CB SPECT data. These combined collimation methods are qualitatively evaluated using experimental data. An attenuation compensation is performed by including the effects of attenuation in the transition matrix as a multiplicative factor. The combined P&CB images are compared with CB-only images and the results indicate that the combined P&CB approaches suppress artifacts caused by truncated projections and correct for the distortions of the CB-only images.

  17. Sema4d is required for the development of the hindbrain boundary and skeletal muscle in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jie; Zeng, Zhen; Wei, Juncheng; Jiang, Lijun; Ma, Quanfu; Wu, Mingfu; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Ye, Shuangmei; Li, Ye; Ma, Ding; Gao, Qinglei

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: ► Sema4d was expressed at all developmental stages of zebrafish. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos resulted in defects in the hindbrain and the trunk structure. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos upregulated the expression of three hindbrain rhombomere markers. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos increased the expression of myogenic regulatory factors. ► Knockdown of sema4d in embryos resulted in an obvious increase of cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: Semaphorin4d (SEMA4D), also known as CD100, an oligodendrocyte secreted R-Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), affecting axonal growth is involved in a range of processes including cell adhesion, motility, angiogenesis, immune responses and tumour progression. However, its actual physiological mechanisms and its role in development remain unclear. This study has focused on the role of sema4d in the development and expression patterns in zebrafish embryos and the effect of its suppression on development using sema4d-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides. In this study the knockdown of sema4d, expressed at all developmental stages, lead to defects in the hindbrain and trunk structure of zebrafish embryos. In addition, these phenotypes appeared to be associated with the abnormal expression of three hindbrain rhombomere boundary markers, wnt1, epha4a and foxb1.2, and two myogenic regulatory factors, myod and myog. Further, a notable increase of cell apoptosis appeared in the sema4d knockdown embryos, while no obvious reduction in cell proliferation was observed. Collectively, these data suggest that sema4d plays an important role in the development of the hindbrain and skeletal muscle.

  18. Factors Influencing Dislodgeable 2, 4-D Plant Residues from Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) Athletic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalied A.; Breeden, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has confirmed 2,4-D residues may dislodge from turfgrass; however, experiments have not been conducted on hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis), the most common athletic field turfgrass in subtropical climates. More specifically, previous research has not investigated the effect of post-application irrigation on dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from hybrid bermudagrass and across turfgrass species, research has been nondescript regarding sample time within a d (TWD) or conducted in the afternoon when the turfgrass canopy is dry, possibly underestimating potential for dislodgement. The effect of irrigation and TWD on 2,4-D dislodgeability was investigated. Dislodgeable 2,4-D amine was reduced > 300% following irrigation. From 2 to 7 d after treatment (DAT), ≤ 0.5% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged from irrigated turfgrass, while ≤ 2.3% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged when not irrigated. 2,4-D dislodgeability decreased as TWD increased. Dislodgeable 2,4-D residues declined to < 0.1% of the applied at 1 DAT– 13:00, and increased to 1 to 3% of the applied 2 DAT– 5:00, suggesting 2,4-D re-suspended on treated turfgrass vegetation overnight. In conclusion, irrigating treated turfgrass reduced dislodgeable 2,4-D. 2,4-D dislodgeability increased as TWD decreased, which was attributed to non-precipitation climatic conditions favoring turfgrass canopy wetness. This research will improve turfgrass management practices and research designed to minimize human 2,4-D exposure. PMID:26863005

  19. Statistical modeling of 4D respiratory lung motion using diffeomorphic image registration.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, René; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Handels, Heinz

    2011-02-01

    Modeling of respiratory motion has become increasingly important in various applications of medical imaging (e.g., radiation therapy of lung cancer). Current modeling approaches are usually confined to intra-patient registration of 3D image data representing the individual patient's anatomy at different breathing phases. We propose an approach to generate a mean motion model of the lung based on thoracic 4D computed tomography (CT) data of different patients to extend the motion modeling capabilities. Our modeling process consists of three steps: an intra-subject registration to generate subject-specific motion models, the generation of an average shape and intensity atlas of the lung as anatomical reference frame, and the registration of the subject-specific motion models to the atlas in order to build a statistical 4D mean motion model (4D-MMM). Furthermore, we present methods to adapt the 4D mean motion model to a patient-specific lung geometry. In all steps, a symmetric diffeomorphic nonlinear intensity-based registration method was employed. The Log-Euclidean framework was used to compute statistics on the diffeomorphic transformations. The presented methods are then used to build a mean motion model of respiratory lung motion using thoracic 4D CT data sets of 17 patients. We evaluate the model by applying it for estimating respiratory motion of ten lung cancer patients. The prediction is evaluated with respect to landmark and tumor motion, and the quantitative analysis results in a mean target registration error (TRE) of 3.3 ±1.6 mm if lung dynamics are not impaired by large lung tumors or other lung disorders (e.g., emphysema). With regard to lung tumor motion, we show that prediction accuracy is independent of tumor size and tumor motion amplitude in the considered data set. However, tumors adhering to non-lung structures degrade local lung dynamics significantly and the model-based prediction accuracy is lower in these cases. The statistical respiratory

  20. [Current status of 3D/4D volume ultrasound of the breast].

    PubMed

    Weismann, C; Hergan, K

    2007-06-01

    3D/4D volume ultrasound is an established method that offers various options for analyzing and presenting ultrasound volume data. The following imaging techniques are based on automatically acquired ultrasound volumes. The multiplanar view is the typical mode of 3D ultrasound data presentation. The niche mode view is a cut open view of the volume data set. The surface mode is a rendering technique that represents the data within a volume of interest (VOI) with different slice thicknesses (typically 1-4 mm) with a contrast-enhanced surface algorithm. Related to the diagnostic target, the transparency mode helps to present echopoor or echorich structures and their spatial relationships within the ultrasound volume. Glass body rendering is a special type of transparency mode that makes the grayscale data transparent and shows the color flow data in a surface render mode. The inversion mode offers a three-dimensional surface presentation of echopoor lesions. Volume Contrast Imaging (VCI) works with static 3D volume data and is able to be used with 4D for dynamic scanning. Volume calculation of a lesion and virtual computer-assisted organ analysis of the same lesion is performed with VoCal software. Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging (TUI) is the perfect tool to document static 3D ultrasound volumes. 3D/4D volume ultrasound of the breast provides diagnostic information of the coronal plane. In this plane benign lesions show the compression pattern sign, while malignant lesions show the retraction pattern or star pattern sign. The indeterminate pattern of a lesion combines signs of compression and retraction or star pattern in the coronal plane. Glass body rendering in combination with Power-Doppler, Color-Doppler or High-Definition Flow Imaging presents the intra- and peritumoral three-dimensional vascular architecture. 3D targeting shows correct or incorrect needle placement in all three planes after 2D or 4D needle guidance. In conclusion, it is safe to say that 3D/4D

  1. Carbaryl, 2,4-D, and Triclopyr adsorption in thatch-soil ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Raturi, S; Islam, K R; Caroll, M J; Hill, R L

    2005-01-01

    Thatch development in intensively managed turf sites may cause environmental concerns for greater sorption or leaching of applied chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems. To determine the adsorption potential of Carbaryl (1-Napthyl N-methylcarbamate), 2,4-D (2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid), and Triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) in turf ecosystems, composite thatch and underlying soil samples from three-and six-year-old stands of cool-season Southshore creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) and warm-season Meyer zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) were collected. The samples were processed and analyzed for total organic carbon (COrg); extractable (CExt), humic (CHA) and fulvic acid (CFA); anthrone reactive nonhumic carbon (ARC) fractions; and CHA and CFA associated iron (Fe) contents. Pesticide adsorption capacity (Kf) and intensity (1/n), organic carbon partition coefficient (KOC) and Gibbs free energy change (deltaG) were calculated for thatch materials and the underlying soils using a modified batch/flow technique. Both bentgrass (BT) and zoysiagrass thatch (ZT) contained a greater concentration of CExt, CFA, CHA, and ARC than the respective soils (BS and ZS). The CExt, CFA, CHA, and ARC concentration was higher in BT compared with ZT. The BT contained a greater concentration of bound Fe in both CFA and CHA fractions than in BS, whereas ZT had more bound Fe in CHA fraction than in ZS. On average, the BT had a greater concentration of bound Fe in CExt, CFA, and CHA fractions than in the ZT. Among the pesticides, Carbaryl had higher Kf and 1/n values than 2,4-D and Triclopyr for both thatch and soil. Although the KOC and deltaG values of Carbaryl were higher in both BT and ZT than in the underlying soils, the KOC and deltaG values of 2,4-D were significantly higher in BS and ZS than in the overlying thatch materials. The 2,4-D and Triclopyr had higher leaching indices (LI) than Carbaryl for both BT and ZT materials than the respective soils

  2. Optimizing 4D cone beam computed tomography acquisition by varying the gantry velocity and projection time interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Ricky T.; Cooper, Benjamin J.; Keall, Paul J.

    2013-03-01

    Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging clinical image guidance strategy for tumour sites affected by respiratory motion. In current generation 4DCBCT techniques, both the gantry rotation speed and imaging frequency are constant and independent of the patient’s breathing which can lead to projection clustering. We present a mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) model for respiratory motion guided-4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT) which regulates the gantry velocity and projection time interval, in response to the patient’s respiratory signal, so that a full set of evenly spaced projections can be taken in a number of phase, or displacement, bins during the respiratory cycle. In each respiratory bin, an image can be reconstructed from the projections to give a 4D view of the patient’s anatomy so that the motion of the lungs, and tumour, can be observed during the breathing cycle. A solution to the full MIQP model in a practical amount of time, 10 s, is not possible with the leading commercial MIQP solvers, so a heuristic method is presented. Using parameter settings typically used on current generation 4DCBCT systems (4 min image acquisition, 1200 projections, 10 respiratory bins) and a sinusoidal breathing trace with a 4 s period, we show that the root mean square (RMS) of the angular separation between projections with displacement binning is 2.7° using existing constant gantry speed systems and 0.6° using RMG-4DCBCT. For phase based binning the RMS is 2.7° using constant gantry speed systems and 2.5° using RMG-4DCBCT. The optimization algorithm presented is a critical step on the path to developing a system for RMG-4DCBCT.

  3. Optimizing 4D cone beam computed tomography acquisition by varying the gantry velocity and projection time interval.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ricky T; Cooper, Benjamin J; Keall, Paul J

    2013-03-21

    Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging clinical image guidance strategy for tumour sites affected by respiratory motion. In current generation 4DCBCT techniques, both the gantry rotation speed and imaging frequency are constant and independent of the patient's breathing which can lead to projection clustering. We present a mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) model for respiratory motion guided-4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT) which regulates the gantry velocity and projection time interval, in response to the patient's respiratory signal, so that a full set of evenly spaced projections can be taken in a number of phase, or displacement, bins during the respiratory cycle. In each respiratory bin, an image can be reconstructed from the projections to give a 4D view of the patient's anatomy so that the motion of the lungs, and tumour, can be observed during the breathing cycle. A solution to the full MIQP model in a practical amount of time, 10 s, is not possible with the leading commercial MIQP solvers, so a heuristic method is presented. Using parameter settings typically used on current generation 4DCBCT systems (4 min image acquisition, 1200 projections, 10 respiratory bins) and a sinusoidal breathing trace with a 4 s period, we show that the root mean square (RMS) of the angular separation between projections with displacement binning is 2.7° using existing constant gantry speed systems and 0.6° using RMG-4DCBCT. For phase based binning the RMS is 2.7° using constant gantry speed systems and 2.5° using RMG-4DCBCT. The optimization algorithm presented is a critical step on the path to developing a system for RMG-4DCBCT.

  4. Toward 4D Nanoprinting with Tip-Induced Organic Surface Reactions.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Carlos; Braunschweig, Adam B

    2017-02-21

    Future nanomanufacturing tools will prepare organic materials with complex four-dimensional (4D) structure, where the position (x, y, z) and chemical composition within a volume is controlled with sub-1 μm spatial resolution. Such tools could produce substrates that mimic biological interfaces, like the cell surface or the extracellular matrix, whose topology and chemical complexity combine to direct some of the most sophisticated biological events. The control of organic materials at the nanoscale-level of spatial resolution could revolutionize the assembly of next generation optical and electronic devices or substrates for tissue engineering or enable fundamental biological or material science investigations. Organic chemistry provides the requisite control over the orientation and position of matter within a nanoscale reference frame through the formation of new covalent bonds. Several challenges however preclude the integration of organic chemistry with conventional nanomanufacturing approaches, namely most nanolithography platforms would denature or destroy delicate organic and biologically active matter, confirming covalent bond formation at interfaces remains difficult, and finally, only a small handful of the reactions used to transform molecules in solution have been validated on surfaces. Thus, entirely new approaches, where organic transformations and spatial control are considered equally important contributors, are needed to create 4D organic nanoprinting platforms. This Account describes efforts from our group to reconcile nanolithography, and specifically massively parallel scanning probe lithography (SPL), with organic chemistry to further the goal of 4D organic nanoprinting. Massively parallel SPL involves arrays of elastomeric pyramids mounted onto piezoelectric actuators, and creates patterns with feature diameters below 50 nm by using the pyramidal tips for either the direct deposition of ink or the localized delivery of energy to a surface

  5. Investigating digit ratio (2D:4D) in a highly male-dominated occupation: the case of firefighters.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Pum, Ulrike; Dressler, Stefan G

    2010-04-01

    Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a widely studied putative marker for masculinization through prenatal androgen exposure, is lower (more masculinized) in athletes than in general population controls, and athletes with lower 2D:4D have higher sporting success. Occupations differ markedly in perceived masculinity and actual maleness (sex ratios), but these givens have not yet been picked up and utilized in 2D:4D research. Accordingly, this study extended existing accounts on 2D:4D in athletes to a novel approach: 2D:4D and possible relationships to a variety of candidate variables (demographic, fertility-related, psychological, and other) were investigated in firefighters, a highly male-dominated occupation. Contrary to expectation, 2D:4D in firefighters (N = 134) was not lower than in local male population controls. Lower 2D:4D corresponded to lower service ranks. Replicating previous findings either unequivocally or partly, lower 2D:4D was associated with larger family size, later sibling position, left-handedness, and higher scores in the disinhibition component of sensation seeking. Not replicating prior evidence, 2D:4D was unrelated to body-mass index, offspring sex ratio, and sporting performance level. Novel findings included low 2D:4D in those with low relationship satisfaction and in cigarette smokers, especially among heavy smokers. Absolute finger length, a positive correlate of pubertal-adolescent androgen levels, was also considered. This marker showed negative associations with relationship consensus and satisfaction and positive ones with perceived quality of relationship alternatives and the experience seeking component of sensation seeking. The merits of this additional marker, relative to 2D:4D, for supplementing studies of possible sex-hormonal effects on personality and directions for future inquiry along these lines are discussed.

  6. Placental C4d deposition is a feature of defective placentation: observations in cases of preeclampsia and miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Na; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Lee, Joong Yeup; Hwang, Doyeong; Kim, Ki Chul; Lee, JoonHo; Shim, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Chong Jai

    2015-06-01

    Placental C4d deposition is frequent in preeclampsia, and shallow placentation is a characteristic of both preeclampsia and miscarriage. This study was conducted to determine the relationship among placental C4d, maternal human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, and placental pathology in preeclampsia and miscarriage cases. The patient population (N = 104) included those with (1) preterm preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction (PE-FGR; n = 21), (2) preterm preeclampsia (PE; n = 20), (3) spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD; n = 39), and (4) miscarriage (n = 24). C4d immunohistochemistry was performed, and the presence of maternal plasma HLA antibodies was examined. C4d staining of the syncytiotrophoblast was more frequent in PE-FGR patients (76.2 %) than in PE (10.0 %; p < 0.001) and sPTD (2.6 %; p < 0.001) patients. Maternal HLA antibody-positive rate was not different among the study groups. There was a significant correlation between C4d immunoreactivity and placental pathology consistent with maternal vascular underperfusion (p < 0.001) but not with maternal HLA antibody status. In miscarriages, the positive rates of C4d, HLA class I, and HLA class II antibodies were 58.3, 25.0, and 12.5 %, respectively. There was no correlation between the presence of maternal HLA class I or II antibodies and placental C4d immunoreactivity. This study confirms frequent placental C4d deposition in preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction and miscarriage. The association between placental C4d deposition and pathological findings of maternal vascular underperfusion suggests that C4d staining of the syncytiotrophoblast is a consequence of defective placentation rather than of a specific maternal immune response against fetal HLA. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of C4d as a biomarker of placentas at risk.

  7. Hyper-Fractal Analysis: A visual tool for estimating the fractal dimension of 4D objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossu, I. V.; Grossu, I.; Felea, D.; Besliu, C.; Jipa, Al.; Esanu, T.; Bordeianu, C. C.; Stan, E.

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a new version of a Visual Basic 6.0 application for estimating the fractal dimension of images and 3D objects (Grossu et al. (2010) [1]). The program was extended for working with four-dimensional objects stored in comma separated values files. This might be of interest in biomedicine, for analyzing the evolution in time of three-dimensional images. New version program summaryProgram title: Hyper-Fractal Analysis (Fractal Analysis v03) Catalogue identifier: AEEG_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEG_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 745761 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12544491 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MS Visual Basic 6.0 Computer: PC Operating system: MS Windows 98 or later RAM: 100M Classification: 14 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEG_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 831-832 Does the new version supersede the previous version? Yes Nature of problem: Estimating the fractal dimension of 4D images. Solution method: Optimized implementation of the 4D box-counting algorithm. Reasons for new version: Inspired by existing applications of 3D fractals in biomedicine [3], we extended the optimized version of the box-counting algorithm [1, 2] to the four-dimensional case. This might be of interest in analyzing the evolution in time of 3D images. The box-counting algorithm was extended in order to support 4D objects, stored in comma separated values files. A new form was added for generating 2D, 3D, and 4D test data. The application was