Science.gov

Sample records for 4d series workstations

  1. Computer animation of NASTRAN displacements on IRIS 4D-series workstations: CANDI/ANIMATE postprocessing of NASHUA results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fales, Janine L.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities of the postprocessing program CANDI (Color Animation of Nastran DIsplacements) were expanded to accept results from axisymmetric analysis. An auxiliary program, ANIMATE, was developed to allow color display of CANDI output on the IRIS 4D-series workstations. The user can interactively manipulate the graphics display by three-dimensional rotations, translations, and scaling through the use of the keyboard and/or dials box. The user can also specify what portion of the model is displayed. These developments are limited to the display of complex displacements calculated with the NASHUA/NASTRAN procedure for structural acoustics analysis.

  2. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  3. Telescience workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert L.; Doyle, Dee; Haines, Richard F.; Slocum, Michael

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Telescience Testbed Pilot Program, the Universities Space Research Association/ Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (USRA/RIACS) proposed to support remote communication by providing a network of human/machine interfaces, computer resources, and experimental equipment which allows: remote science, collaboration, technical exchange, and multimedia communication. The telescience workstation is intended to provide a local computing environment for telescience. The purpose of the program are as follows: (1) to provide a suitable environment to integrate existing and new software for a telescience workstation; (2) to provide a suitable environment to develop new software in support of telescience activities; (3) to provide an interoperable environment so that a wide variety of workstations may be used in the telescience program; (4) to provide a supportive infrastructure and a common software base; and (5) to advance, apply, and evaluate the telescience technolgy base. A prototype telescience computing environment designed to bring practicing scientists in domains other than their computer science into a modern style of doing their computing was created and deployed. This environment, the Telescience Windowing Environment, Phase 1 (TeleWEn-1), met some, but not all of the goals stated above. The TeleWEn-1 provided a window-based workstation environment and a set of tools for text editing, document preparation, electronic mail, multimedia mail, raster manipulation, and system management.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a series of chiral alkoxymethyl morpholine analogs as dopamine receptor 4 (D4R) antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Jonathan O.; McCollum, Andrea L.; Hurtado, Miguel A.; Huseman, Eric D.; Jeffries, Daniel E.; Temple, Kayla J.; Plumley, Hyekyung C.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hopkins, Corey R.

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis and structure–activity relationship of a series of chiral alkoxymethyl morpholine analogs. Our efforts have culminated in the identification of (S)-2-(((6-chloropyridin-2-yl) oxy)methyl)-4-((6-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)morpholine as a novel potent and selective dopamine D4 receptor antagonist with selectivity against the other dopamine receptors tested (<10% inhibition at 1 µM against D1, D2L, D2S, D3, and D5). PMID:27080176

  5. 4D map of the Kilauea summit shallow magmatic system constrained by InSAR time series and geometry-free inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, G.; Shirzaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Kilauea volcano, Hawaii Island, is one of the most active volcanoes worldwide. Its complex system, including magma reservoirs and rift zones, provides a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of magma transport and supply. The models explaining the system are yet limited to the first order analytical solutions with fixed geometry. To obtain a 4D map of the volume changes at the Kilauea summit magmatic system (KSMS), we implement a novel geometry-free time-dependent inverse modeling scheme, using a distribution of point center of dilatations (PCDs). The model is constrained using high resolution surface deformation data, which are obtained through InSAR time series analysis of well populated SAR data sets acquired at two overlapping tracks of Envisat satellite during 2003 and 2011. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the 4D maps of volume change identifies five major active reservoir beneath Kilauea caldera. The southern caldera reservoir (SCR) gains volume slowly till 2006 before its rapid inflation during 2006 - mid-2007, followed by deflation until the start of re-inflation in mid-2010. Other reservoirs show episodic temporal correlation and anti-correlation with SCR. We found that the top-down relation between reservoirs at the Kilauea summit is not necessarily valid at all time scales. Identifying statistically significant PCDs through Chi-square test, we develop and apply a boundary element modeling scheme to solve for the volume change time series and complex geometry of the summit magmatic system. Availability of such models allows realistic estimates of volume change and associated seismic hazard and enhance the forecast models.

  6. Computational Control Workstation: Users' perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Straube, Timothy M.; Tave, Jeffrey S.

    1993-01-01

    A Workstation has been designed and constructed for rapidly simulating motions of rigid and elastic multibody systems. We examine the Workstation from the point of view of analysts who use the machine in an industrial setting. Two aspects of the device distinguish it from other simulation programs. First, one uses a series of windows and menus on a computer terminal, together with a keyboard and mouse, to provide a mathematical and geometrical description of the system under consideration. The second hallmark is a facility for animating simulation results. An assessment of the amount of effort required to numerically describe a system to the Workstation is made by comparing the process to that used with other multibody software. The apparatus for displaying results as a motion picture is critiqued as well. In an effort to establish confidence in the algorithms that derive, encode, and solve equations of motion, simulation results from the Workstation are compared to answers obtained with other multibody programs. Our study includes measurements of computational speed.

  7. Introduction to RTM Workstation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    Several successful experiments were run using different types of resins and fibers for both RTM and VARTM processes. 3. According to DSC measures...INTRODUCTION TO RTM WORKSTATION Jeffrey M. Lawrence Mathieu Devillard Peter Friede Dr. Suresh G. Advani Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction To RTM Workstation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  8. Engineering workstation: Sensor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M; Sweet, B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the engineering workstation is to provide an environment for rapid prototyping and evaluation of fusion and image processing algorithms. Ideally, the algorithms are designed to optimize the extraction of information that is useful to a pilot for all phases of flight operations. Successful design of effective fusion algorithms depends on the ability to characterize both the information available from the sensors and the information useful to a pilot. The workstation is comprised of subsystems for simulation of sensor-generated images, image processing, image enhancement, and fusion algorithms. As such, the workstation can be used to implement and evaluate both short-term solutions and long-term solutions. The short-term solutions are being developed to enhance a pilot's situational awareness by providing information in addition to his direct vision. The long term solutions are aimed at the development of complete synthetic vision systems. One of the important functions of the engineering workstation is to simulate the images that would be generated by the sensors. The simulation system is designed to use the graphics modeling and rendering capabilities of various workstations manufactured by Silicon Graphics Inc. The workstation simulates various aspects of the sensor-generated images arising from phenomenology of the sensors. In addition, the workstation can be used to simulate a variety of impairments due to mechanical limitations of the sensor placement and due to the motion of the airplane. Although the simulation is currently not performed in real-time, sequences of individual frames can be processed, stored, and recorded in a video format. In that way, it is possible to examine the appearance of different dynamic sensor-generated and fused images.

  9. An innovative workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James

    1987-01-01

    A workstation was developed which uses the operator's eye movements and position to determine the placement of the cursor on a computer screen. A brainwave sensing technology overview and an introduction to the known rhythms or signals generated by the brain are given. This is followed by a descriptive explanation of the Ocular Attention Interface System (OASIS) and its intended integration into the proposed testbed.

  10. Virtual interface environment workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  11. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  12. 4-D photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy.

  13. 4-D Photoacoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy.

  14. Automated Analysis Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Information from NASA Tech Briefs of work done at Langley Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory assisted DiaSys Corporation in manufacturing their first product, the R/S 2000. Since then, the R/S 2000 and R/S 2003 have followed. Recently, DiaSys released their fourth workstation, the FE-2, which automates the process of making and manipulating wet-mount preparation of fecal concentrates. The time needed to read the sample is decreased, permitting technologists to rapidly spot parasites, ova and cysts, sometimes carried in the lower intestinal tract of humans and animals. Employing the FE-2 is non-invasive, can be performed on an out-patient basis, and quickly provides confirmatory results.

  15. Telerobotic workstation design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Hudlicka, E.; Young, D.; Cramer, N.

    1989-01-01

    Telerobot systems are being developed to support a number of space mission applications. In low earth orbit, telerobots and teleoperated manipulators will be used in shuttle operations and space station construction/maintenance. Free flying telerobotic service vehicles will be used at low and geosynchronous orbital operations. Rovers and autonomous vehicles will be equipped with telerobotic devices in planetary exploration. In all of these systems, human operators will interact with the robot system at varied levels during the scheduled operations. The human operators may be in either orbital or ground-based control systems. To assure integrated system development and maximum utility across these systems, designers must be sensitive to the constraints and capabilities that the human brings to system operation and must be assisted in applying these human factors to system development. The simulation and analysis system is intended to serve the needs of system analysis/designers as an integrated workstation in support of telerobotic design.

  16. Voice control of complex workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scruggs, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a speaker-dependent connected word recognition system to control an Air Traffic Control (ATC) demonstration workstation is described, also the work that went into developing that speech system. The workstation with speech recognition was demonstrated live at an Air Traffic Controller's Association convention in 1987. The purpose of the demonstration workstation is discussed, with the development of the speech interface highlighted. Included are: a brief description of the speech hardware and software, and overview of the speech driven workstation functions, a description of the speech vocabulary/grammer, and details that the enrollment and training procedures used in preparing the controllers for the demonstrations. Although no quantitative results are available, the potential benefits of using voice as an interface to this type of workstation are discussed and limitations of current speech technology and areas where more work is required are highlighted.

  17. Zero-G Workstation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundersen, R. T.; Bond, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Zero-g workstations were designed throughout manned spaceflight, based on different criteria and requirements for different programs. The history of design of these workstations is presented along with a thorough evaluation of selected Skylab workstations (the best zero-g experience available on the subject). The results were applied to on-going and future programs, with special emphasis on the correlation of neutral body posture in zero-g to workstation design. Where selected samples of shuttle orbiter workstations are shown as currently designed and compared to experience gained during prior programs in terms of man machine interface design, the evaluations were done in a generic sense to show the methods of applying evaluative techniques.

  18. Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A next-generation telemetry workstation has been developed to replace the one currently used to test and control Range Safety systems. Improving upon the performance of the original system, the new telemetry workstation uses dual-channel telemetry boards for better synchronization of the two uplink telemetry streams. The new workstation also includes an Interrange Instrumentation Group/Global Positioning System (IRIG/GPS) time code receiver board for independent, local time stamping of return-link data. The next-generation system will also record and play back return-link data for postlaunch analysis.

  19. Workshop on NASA workstation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    RIACS hosted a workshop which was designed to foster communication among those people within NASA working on workstation related technology, to share technology, and to learn about new developments and futures in the larger university and industrial workstation communities. Herein, the workshop is documented along with its conclusions. It was learned that there is both a large amount of commonality of requirements and a wide variation in the modernness of in-use technology among the represented NASA centers.

  20. Ergonomic Evaluations of Microgravity Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea H.; Byerly, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Various gloveboxes (GBXs) have been used aboard the Shuttle and ISS. Though the overall technical specifications are similar, each GBX's crew interface is unique. JSC conducted a series of ergonomic evaluations of the various glovebox designs to identify human factors requirements for new designs to provide operator commonality across different designs. We conducted 2 0g evaluations aboard the Shuttle to evaluate the material sciences GBX and the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS), and a KC-135 evaluation to compare combinations of arm hole interfaces and foot restraints (flexible arm holes were better than rigid ports for repetitive fine manipulation tasks). Posture analysis revealed that the smallest and tallest subjects assumed similar postures at all four configurations, suggesting that problematic postures are not necessarily a function of the operator s height but a function of the task characteristics. There was concern that the subjects were using the restrictive nature of the GBX s cuffs as an upper-body restraint to achieve such high forces, which might lead to neck/shoulder discomfort. EMG data revealed more consistent muscle performance at the GBX; the variability in the EMG profiles observed at the GPWS was attributed to the subjects attempts to provide more stabilization for themselves in the loose, flexible gauntlets. Tests revealed that the GBX should be designed for a 95 percentile American male to accommodate a neutral working posture. In addition, the foot restraint with knee support appeared beneficial for GBX operations. Crew comments were to provide 2 foot restraint mechanical modes, loose and lock-down, to accommodate a wide range of tasks without egressing the restraint system. Thus far, we have developed preliminary design guidelines for GBXs and foot.

  1. Arusha Rover Deployable Medical Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boswell, Tyrone; Hopson, Sonya; Marzette, Russell; Monroe, Gilena; Mustafa, Ruqayyah

    2014-01-01

    The NSBE Arusha rover concept offers a means of human transport and habitation during long-term exploration missions on the moon. This conceptual rover calls for the availability of medical supplies and equipment for crew members in order to aid in mission success. This paper addresses the need for a dedicated medical work station aboard the Arusha rover. The project team investigated multiple options for implementing a feasible deployable station to address both the medical and workstation layout needs of the rover and crew. Based on layout specifications and medical workstation requirements, the team has proposed a deployable workstation concept that can be accommodated within the volumetric constraints of the Arusha rover spacecraft

  2. The Modern Integrated Anaesthesia Workstation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijaya P; Shetmahajan, Madhavi G; Divatia, Jigeeshu V

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the conventional anaesthesia machine has evolved into an advanced carestation. The new machines use advanced electronics, software and technology to offer extensive capabilities for ventilation, monitoring, inhaled agent delivery, low-flow anaesthesia and closed-loop anaesthesia. They offer integrated monitoring and recording facilities and seamless integration with anaesthesia information systems. It is possible to deliver tidal volumes accurately and eliminate several hazards associated with the low pressure system and oxygen flush. Appropriate use can result in enhanced safety and ergonomy of anaesthetic delivery and monitoring. However, these workstations have brought in a new set of limitations and potential drawbacks. There are differences in technology and operational principles amongst the new workstations. Understand the principles of operation of these workstations and have a thorough knowledge of the operating manual of the individual machines. PMID:24249877

  3. EVA crew workstation provisions for Skylab and Space Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.; Saenger, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A synopsis of scheduled extravehicular activities (EVA) for a nominal Skylab mission is presented with an overview of EV workstation equipment developed for the program. Also included are the unprogrammed extravehicular activities and supporting equipment that was quickly developed and retrofitted in a series of successful operations to salvage the crippled Skylab Cluster during the Skylab 1 Mission. Because EVA appears to be a requirement for the Space Shuttle Program, candidate EV workstations are discussed in terms of effective and economical Shuttle payload servicing and maintenance. Several such concepts, which could provide a versatile, portable EV support system, are presented.

  4. Earthbound applications for NASA's physician workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, R.; Yu, F. S.; Li, B.; Iddings, E.; Fiorentino, R.; Shao, S.; Wang, L.; Broughton, H.

    1993-01-01

    The dream of a space probe to Mars or an astronaut colony on the moon persists. Despite years of setbacks and delays, NASA continues to lay the foundation for a new frontier in space. The necessity of a self contained health maintenance facility is an integral part of this stellar venture. As a subsystem of this health maintenance facility, the physician or astronaut workstation was envisioned as the vehicle of interface between the computer resources of the space station and the care provider. Our efforts to define and build this interface have resulted in a series of programs which can now be tested and refined using earth-based applications. The modules which have dual-use application from the NASA workstation include: patient scheduling and master patient index, pharmacy, laboratory, medical library, problem list/progress notes, and digital medical records. Our current plan is to develop these tools as objects that can be assembled in a variety of configurations. This will allow the technology to be used by the private sector where each doctor can select the starting point of his outpatient office system and add modules as he makes progress in system integration and training.

  5. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  6. Tactical Planning Workstation Software Description

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Tactical Planning Workstation Software Description 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Packard, Bruce R. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year...3-7 3-2. Unit type codes....................................3-7 3-3. Battle function codes ................................ 3-8 3-4...3-9 3-7. Control measure types ...............................3-11 3-8. Product description files

  7. New trends in radiology workstation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moise, Adrian; Atkins, M. Stella

    2002-05-01

    In the radiology workstation design, the race for adding more features is now morphing into an iterative user centric design with the focus on ergonomics and usability. The extent of the list of features for the radiology workstation used to be one of the most significant factors for a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) vendor's ability to sell the radiology workstation. Not anymore is now very much the same between the major players in the PACS market. How these features work together distinguishes different radiology workstations. Integration (with the PACS/Radiology Information System (RIS) systems, with the 3D tool, Reporting Tool etc.), usability (user specific preferences, advanced display protocols, smart activation of tools etc.) and efficiency (what is the output a radiologist can generate with the workstation) are now core factors for selecting a workstation. This paper discusses these new trends in radiology workstation design. We demonstrate the importance of the interaction between the PACS vendor (software engineers) and the customer (radiologists) during the radiology workstation design. We focus on iterative aspects of the workstation development, such as the presentation of early prototypes to as many representative users as possible during the software development cycle and present the results of a survey of 8 radiologists on designing a radiology workstation.

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Workstation Test Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriquez, David A.; Canham, Timothy K.; Chang, Johnny T.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the Workstation TestSet (WSTS) is a computer program that enables flight software development on virtual MSL avionics. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC.

  9. Assessment of a cooperative workstation.

    PubMed

    Beuscart, R J; Molenda, S; Souf, N; Foucher, C; Beuscart-Zephir, M C

    1996-01-01

    Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by using local ETHERNET or public ISDN Networks. A detailed ergonomic task analysis studies the cognitive functioning of the physicians involved, compares their behaviour in the normal and the mediatized situations, and leads to an interpretation of the likely causes for success or failure of CSCW tools.

  10. Office ergonomics: deficiencies in computer workstation design.

    PubMed

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and identify ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design in typical offices. Physical measurements and a questionnaire were used to study 40 workstations. Major ergonomic deficiencies were found in physical design and layout of the workstations, employee postures, work practices, and training. The consequences in terms of user health and other problems were significant. Forty-five percent of the employees used nonadjustable chairs, 48% of computers faced windows, 90% of the employees used computers more than 4 hrs/day, 45% of the employees adopted bent and unsupported back postures, and 20% used office tables for computers. Major problems reported were eyestrain (58%), shoulder pain (45%), back pain (43%), arm pain (35%), wrist pain (30%), and neck pain (30%). These results indicated serious ergonomic deficiencies in office computer workstation design, layout, and usage. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design were suggested.

  11. Evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Dean G.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on evolving technologies for Space Station Freedom computer-based workstations are presented. The human-computer computer software environment modules are described. The following topics are addressed: command and control workstation concept; cupola workstation concept; Japanese experiment module RMS workstation concept; remote devices controlled from workstations; orbital maneuvering vehicle free flyer; remote manipulator system; Japanese experiment module exposed facility; Japanese experiment module small fine arm; flight telerobotic servicer; human-computer interaction; and workstation/robotics related activities.

  12. Flow visualization of CFD using graphics workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasinski, Thomas; Buning, Pieter; Choi, Diana; Rogers, Stuart; Bancroft, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    High performance graphics workstations are used to visualize the fluid flow dynamics obtained from supercomputer solutions of computational fluid dynamic programs. The visualizations can be done independently on the workstation or while the workstation is connected to the supercomputer in a distributed computing mode. In the distributed mode, the supercomputer interactively performs the computationally intensive graphics rendering tasks while the workstation performs the viewing tasks. A major advantage of the workstations is that the viewers can interactively change their viewing position while watching the dynamics of the flow fields. An overview of the computer hardware and software required to create these displays is presented. For complex scenes the workstation cannot create the displays fast enough for good motion analysis. For these cases, the animation sequences are recorded on video tape or 16 mm film a frame at a time and played back at the desired speed. The additional software and hardware required to create these video tapes or 16 mm movies are also described. Photographs illustrating current visualization techniques are discussed. Examples of the use of the workstations for flow visualization through animation are available on video tape.

  13. Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Parseghian, Zareh; Hogue, Jeffrey R.

    1988-01-01

    This project was devoted to the development of a software package, called the Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation, for working with the OFQ Archives which are specially selected sets of space shuttle entry flight data relevant to flight control and flying qualities. The basic approach to creation of the workstation software was to federate and extend commercial software products to create a low cost package that operates on personal computers. Provision was made to link the workstation to large computers, but the OFQ Archive files were also converted to personal computer diskettes and can be stored on workstation hard disk drives. The primary element of the workstation developed in the project is the Interactive Data Handler (IDH) which allows the user to select data subsets from the archives and pass them to specialized analysis programs. The IDH was developed as an application in a relational database management system product. The specialized analysis programs linked to the workstation include a spreadsheet program, FREDA for spectral analysis, MFP for frequency domain system identification, and NIPIP for pilot-vehicle system parameter identification. The workstation also includes capability for ensemble analysis over groups of missions.

  14. The human factors of workstation telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Smith, Karl U.

    1990-01-01

    The term workstation telepresence has been introduced to describe human-telerobot compliance, which enables the human operator to effectively project his/her body image and behavioral skills to control of the telerobot itself. Major human-factors considerations for establishing high fidelity workstation telepresence during human-telerobot operation are discussed. Telerobot workstation telepresence is defined by the proficiency and skill with which the operator is able to control sensory feedback from direct interaction with the workstation itself, and from workstation-mediated interaction with the telerobot. Numerous conditions influencing such control have been identified. This raises the question as to what specific factors most critically influence the realization of high fidelity workstation telepresence. The thesis advanced here is that perturbations in sensory feedback represent a major source of variability in human performance during interactive telerobot operation. Perturbed sensory feedback research over the past three decades has established that spatial transformations or temporal delays in sensory feedback engender substantial decrements in interactive task performance, which training does not completely overcome. A recently developed social cybernetic model of human-computer interaction can be used to guide this approach, based on computer-mediated tracking and control of sensory feedback. How the social cybernetic model can be employed for evaluating the various modes, patterns, and integrations of interpersonal, team, and human-computer interactions which play a central role is workstation telepresence are discussed.

  15. Advanced Software Development Workstation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation Project, funded by Johnson Space Center, is investigating knowledge-based techniques for software reuse in NASA software development projects. Two prototypes have been demonstrated and a third is now in development. The approach is to build a foundation that provides passive reuse support, add a layer that uses domain-independent programming knowledge, add a layer that supports the acquisition of domain-specific programming knowledge to provide active support, and enhance maintainability and modifiability through an object-oriented approach. The development of new application software would use specification-by-reformulation, based on a cognitive theory of retrieval from very long-term memory in humans, and using an Ada code library and an object base. Current tasks include enhancements to the knowledge representation of Ada packages and abstract data types, extensions to support Ada package instantiation knowledge acquisition, integration with Ada compilers and relational databases, enhancements to the graphical user interface, and demonstration of the system with a NASA contractor-developed trajectory simulation package. Future work will focus on investigating issues involving scale-up and integration.

  16. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  17. Experimental validation of a 4D elastic registration algorithm.

    PubMed

    Leung, Corina; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Foroughi, Pezhman; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive validation study of an elastic registration algorithm for dynamic 3D ultrasound images (also known as a 4D image). The registration algorithm uses attribute vectors from both a fixed and previous moving images to perform feature-based alignment of a series of images. The 4D method reduces computational requirements and increases the effective search space for the location of corresponding features, resulting in enhanced registration speed when compared to a static 3D registration technique. Experimental analysis revealed up to 32% improvement in speed when using the 4D method, which makes the algorithm attractive for real-time applications.

  18. Colour hard-copy from workstation screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, C. A.

    It is possible to produce a colour print on the DEC LJ250 inkjet printer of either the entire screen or a portion of the screen from VAXstations, DECstations, SUN workstations and the IKON image display. This document describes how to achieve this with each of the above workstations. The IKONPAINT software which is used to produce colour hard-copy from the IKON screen on the inkjet printer is fully documented in SUN/71 and is not described here.

  19. Conversion of the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riveras, Nykkita L.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I am working in the Educational Programs Office. My task is to convert the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation from a Macintosh (Mac) platform to a Personal Computer (PC) platform. The Aeronautics Interactive Workstation is a workstation in the Aerospace Educational Laboratory (AEL), which is one of the three components of the Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA). The AEL is a state-of-the-art, electronically enhanced, computerized classroom that puts cutting-edge technology at the fingertips of participating students. It provides a unique learning experience regarding aerospace technology that features activities equipped with aerospace hardware and software that model real-world challenges. The Aeronautics Interactive Workstation, in particular, offers a variety of activities pertaining to the history of aeronautics. When the Aeronautics Interactive Workstation was first implemented into the AEL it was designed with Macromedia Director 4 for a Mac. Today it is being converted to Macromedia DirectorMX2004 for a PC. Macromedia Director is the proven multimedia tool for building rich content and applications for CDs, DVDs, kiosks, and the Internet. It handles the widest variety of media and offers powerful features for building rich content that delivers red results, integrating interactive audio, video, bitmaps, vectors, text, fonts, and more. Macromedia Director currently offers two programmingkripting languages: Lingo, which is Director's own programmingkripting language and JavaScript. In the workstation, Lingo is used in the programming/scripting since it was the only language in use when the workstation was created. Since the workstation was created with an older version of Macromedia Director it hosted significantly different programming/scripting protocols. In order to successfully accomplish my task, the final product required correction of Xtra and programming/scripting errors. I also had to convert the Mac platform

  20. Semiconductor device modeling on a workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, C.

    1985-09-01

    We choose to move from large mainframe computers to workstations to gain the interactive graphics we need to prepare and to analyze semiconductor device modeling problems. Given this much on a workstation, it is convenient to attempt to solve the entire problem there. We find that a top-of-the-line Apollo 660 workstation, with bit-slice processor, pipelined arithmetic processor, and 4 megabytes of real memory, is surprisingly effective in finding solutions when running the Pisces II device modeling code. In our experiment we find where the workstation bogs down when running these problems. We both analyze the Pisces CPU time log and we sample the executing program to accumulate a histogram of execution time as distributed over the source code. Results suggest how Pisces could be adapted to solve somewhat larger problems entirely on the workstation. Evolution of a trusted derivative of Pisces, to be used on supercomputers without interactivity, is suggested to complement our success with Pisces on workstations. 4 refs.

  1. Multifunction Habitat Workstation/OLED Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, Shawn; Salazar, George; Schmidt, Oron

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a general outline of both a multifunction habitat workstation and the research put into an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) device. It first covers the tests that the OLED device will go through to become flight ready along with reasoning. Guidelines for building an apparatus to house the display and its components are given next, with the build of such following. The three tests the OLED goes through are presented (EMI, Thermal/Vac, Radiation) along with the data recovered. The second project of a multifunction workstation is then discussed in the same pattern. Reasoning for building such a workstation with telepresence in mind is offered. Build guidelines are presented first, with the build timeline following. Building the workstation will then be shown in great detail along with accompanying photos. Once the workstation has been discussed, the versatility of its functions are given. The paper concludes with future views and concepts that can added when the time or technology presents itself.

  2. Computational Controls Workstation: Algorithms and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venugopal, R.; Kumar, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Computational Controls Workstation provides an integrated environment for the modeling, simulation, and analysis of Space Station dynamics and control. Using highly efficient computational algorithms combined with a fast parallel processing architecture, the workstation makes real-time simulation of flexible body models of the Space Station possible. A consistent, user-friendly interface and state-of-the-art post-processing options are combined with powerful analysis tools and model databases to provide users with a complete environment for Space Station dynamics and control analysis. The software tools available include a solid modeler, graphical data entry tool, O(n) algorithm-based multi-flexible body simulation, and 2D/3D post-processors. This paper describes the architecture of the workstation while a companion paper describes performance and user perspectives.

  3. Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Graham; Carberry, David M.; Whyte, Graeme; Leach, Jonathan; Courtial, Johannes; Jackson, Joseph C.; Robert, Daniel; Miles, Mervyn; Padgett, Miles

    2008-04-01

    We report a holographic assembler workstation for optical trapping and micro-manipulation. The workstation is based on a titanium sapphire laser, making it particularly suited for biomaterials and incorporates a choice of user interfaces for different applications. The system is designed around a commercial inverted microscope and is configured such that it can be easily used by the non-specialist. We demonstrate the bio-capabilities of our system by manipulating a group of yeast cells, a single red blood cell and a single cell of the green algae colony Volvox.

  4. A workstation based simulator for teaching compressible aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    A workstation-based interactive flow simulator has been developed to aid in the teaching of undergraduate compressible aerodynamics. By solving the equations found in NACA 1135, the simulator models three basic fluids problems encountered in supersonic flow: flow past a compression corner, flow past two wedges in series, and flow past two opposed wedges. The study can vary the geometry or flow conditions through a graphical user interface and the new conditions are calculated immediately. Various graphical formats present the results of the flow calculations to the student. The simulator includes interactive questions and answers to aid in both the use of the tool and to develop an understanding of some of the complexities of compressible aerodynamics. A series of help screens make the simulator easy to learn and use.

  5. Advanced Free Flight Planner and Dispatcher's Workstation: Preliminary Design Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J.; Wright, C.; Couluris, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has implemented the Advanced Air Transportation Technology (AATT) program to investigate future improvements to the national and international air traffic management systems. This research, as part of the AATT program, developed preliminary design requirements for an advanced Airline Operations Control (AOC) dispatcher's workstation, with emphasis on flight planning. This design will support the implementation of an experimental workstation in NASA laboratories that would emulate AOC dispatch operations. The work developed an airline flight plan data base and specified requirements for: a computer tool for generation and evaluation of free flight, user preferred trajectories (UPT); the kernel of an advanced flight planning system to be incorporated into the UPT-generation tool; and an AOC workstation to house the UPT-generation tool and to provide a real-time testing environment. A prototype for the advanced flight plan optimization kernel was developed and demonstrated. The flight planner uses dynamic programming to search a four-dimensional wind and temperature grid to identify the optimal route, altitude and speed for successive segments of a flight. An iterative process is employed in which a series of trajectories are successively refined until the LTPT is identified. The flight planner is designed to function in the current operational environment as well as in free flight. The free flight environment would enable greater flexibility in UPT selection based on alleviation of current procedural constraints. The prototype also takes advantage of advanced computer processing capabilities to implement more powerful optimization routines than would be possible with older computer systems.

  6. Architecture for a PACS primary diagnosis workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Kaushal; Moran, Byron

    1990-08-01

    A major factor in determining the overall utility of a medical Picture Archiving and Communications (PACS) system is the functionality of the diagnostic workstation. Meyer-Ebrecht and Wendler [1] have proposed a modular picture computer architecture with high throughput and Perry et.al [2] have defined performance requirements for radiology workstations. In order to be clinically useful, a primary diagnosis workstation must not only provide functions of current viewing systems (e.g. mechanical alternators [3,4]) such as acceptable image quality, simultaneous viewing of multiple images, and rapid switching of image banks; but must also provide a diagnostic advantage over the current systems. This includes window-level functions on any image, simultaneous display of multi-modality images, rapid image manipulation, image processing, dynamic image display (cine), electronic image archival, hardcopy generation, image acquisition, network support, and an easy user interface. Implementation of such a workstation requires an underlying hardware architecture which provides high speed image transfer channels, local storage facilities, and image processing functions. This paper describes the hardware architecture of the Siemens Diagnostic Reporting Console (DRC) which meets these requirements.

  7. The Acquisitions Workstation--Collection Development Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how collection-development librarians can customize their workstations by building a Web page to cover public service and outreach efforts to constituencies, links to tools to enable selectors to use the Web and work more efficiently, and selection of Web resources. Describes Web sites in the three categories of communication with…

  8. Space Station Workstation Technology Workshop Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Emerson, C. M.; Eike, D. R.; Malone, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the results of a workshop conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to identify current and anticipated trends in human-computer interface technology that may influence the design or operation of a space station workstation. The workshop was attended by approximately 40 persons from government and academia who were selected for their expertise in some aspect of human-machine interaction research. The focus of the workshop was a 1 1/2 brainstorming/forecasting session in which the attendees were assigned to interdisciplinary working groups and instructed to develop predictions for each of the following technology areas: (1) user interface, (2) resource management, (3) control language, (4) data base systems, (5) automatic software development, (6) communications, (7) training, and (8) simulation. This report is significant in that it provides a unique perspective on workstation design for the space station. This perspective, which is characterized by a major emphasis on user requirements, should be most valuable to Phase B contractors involved in design development of the space station workstation. One of the more compelling results of the workshop is the recognition that no major technological breakthroughs are required to implement the current workstation concept. What is required is the creative application of existing knowledge and technology.

  9. Technical Services Workstations. SPEC Kit 213.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brugger, Judith M., Comp.; And Others

    Technical services workstations (TSWs) are personal computers that have been customized for use in technical services departments. To gather information on their use and prevalence in research libraries, the Program for Cooperative Cataloging Standing Committee on Automation surveyed the 119 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL)…

  10. Planning and Implementing Technical Services Workstations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Michael, Ed.

    The job of the library cataloger has grown increasingly complex. Catalogers must draw from a vast pool of dynamic information as they handle traditional and new forms of media. Technical Services Workstations (TSWs) provide catalogers the network data, application programs, and standard hardware required to catalog all types of media quickly and…

  11. The Microcomputer as an Educational Laboratory Workstation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciociolo, James M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory workstations which provide direct connection for monitoring and control of analytical instruments such as pH meters, spectrophotometers, temperature, and chromatographic instruments. This is accomplished through analog/digital and digital/analog converters for analog signals and input/output devices for on/off signals.…

  12. Introduction of a virtual workstation into radiology medical student education.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Colin D; Lowry, Peter A; Petersen, Brian D; Jesse, Mary K

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. This article describes the creation of a virtual workstation for use by medical students and implementation of that workstation in the reading room. CONCLUSION. A radiology virtual workstation for medical students was created using OsiriX imaging software to authentically simulate the experience of interacting with cases selected to cover important musculoskeletal imaging diagnoses. A workstation that allows the manipulation and interpretation of complete anonymized DICOM images may enhance the educational experience of medical students.

  13. Emerging Applications of Abdominal 4D Flow MRI

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Francois, Christopher J.; Wieben, Oliver; Reeder, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Comprehensive assessment of abdominal hemodynamics is crucial for many clinical diagnoses but is challenged by a tremendous complexity of anatomy, normal physiology, and a wide variety of pathologic abnormalities. This article introduces 4D flow MRI as a powerful technique for noninvasive assessment of the hemodynamics of abdominal vascular territories. CONCLUSION Four-dimensional flow MRI provides clinicians with a more extensive and straightforward approach to evaluate disorders that affect blood flow in the abdomen. This review presents a series of clinical cases to illustrate the utility of 4D flow MRI in the comprehensive assessment of the abdominal circulation. PMID:27187681

  14. 4-D OCT in Developmental Cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    Although strong evidence exists to suggest that altered cardiac function can lead to CHDs, few studies have investigated the influential role of cardiac function and biophysical forces on the development of the cardiovascular system due to a lack of proper in vivo imaging tools. 4-D imaging is needed to decipher the complex spatial and temporal patterns of biomechanical forces acting upon the heart. Numerous solutions over the past several years have demonstrated 4-D OCT imaging of the developing cardiovascular system. This chapter will focus on these solutions and explain their context in the evolution of 4-D OCT imaging. The first sections describe the relevant techniques (prospective gating, direct 4-D imaging, retrospective gating), while later sections focus on 4-D Doppler imaging and measurements of force implementing 4-D OCT Doppler. Finally, the techniques are summarized, and some possible future directions are discussed.

  15. Advances in 4D radiation therapy for managing respiration: part I - 4D imaging.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Geoffrey D; Rosu, Mihaela

    2012-12-01

    Techniques for managing respiration during imaging and planning of radiation therapy are reviewed, concentrating on free-breathing (4D) approaches. First, we focus on detailing the historical development and basic operational principles of currently-available "first generation" 4D imaging modalities: 4D computed tomography, 4D cone beam computed tomography, 4D magnetic resonance imaging, and 4D positron emission tomography. Features and limitations of these first generation systems are described, including necessity of breathing surrogates for 4D image reconstruction, assumptions made in acquisition and reconstruction about the breathing pattern, and commonly-observed artifacts. Both established and developmental methods to deal with these limitations are detailed. Finally, strategies to construct 4D targets and images and, alternatively, to compress 4D information into static targets and images for radiation therapy planning are described.

  16. Integrated Design of a Telerobotic Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Clarke, John-Paul

    2001-01-01

    The experiments described in this paper are part of a larger joint MIT/NASA research effort that focuses on the development of a methodology for designing and evaluating integrated interfaces for highly dexterous and multi-functional telerobots. Specifically, a telerobotic workstation is being designed for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) anthropomorphic space station telerobot. Previous researchers have designed telerobotic workstations based upon performance of discrete subsets of tasks (for example, peg-in-hole, tracking, etc.) without regard for transitions that operators go through between tasks performed sequentially in the context of larger integrated tasks. The exploratory research experiments presented here took an integrated approach and assessed how subjects operating a full-immersion telerobot perform during the transitions between sub-tasks of two common EVA tasks. Preliminary results show that up to 30% of total task time is spent gaining and maintaining Situation Awareness (SA) of their task space and environment during transitions. Although task performance improves over the two trial days, the percentage of time spent on SA remains the same. This method identifies areas where workstation displays and feedback mechanisms are most needed to increase operator performance and decrease operator workload - areas that previous research methods have not been able to address.

  17. Optimized PET imaging for 4D treatment planning in radiotherapy: the virtual 4D PET strategy.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Fontana, Giulia; Giri, Maria G; Grigolato, Daniela; Ferdeghini, Marco; Cavedon, Carlo; Baroni, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the performance of a novel strategy, referred to as "virtual 4D PET", aiming at the optimization of hybrid 4D CT-PET scan for radiotherapy treatment planning. The virtual 4D PET strategy applies 4D CT motion modeling to avoid time-resolved PET image acquisition. This leads to a reduction of radioactive tracer administered to the patient and to a total acquisition time comparable to free-breathing PET studies. The proposed method exploits a motion model derived from 4D CT, which is applied to the free-breathing PET to recover respiratory motion and motion blur. The free-breathing PET is warped according to the motion model, in order to generate the virtual 4D PET. The virtual 4D PET strategy was tested on images obtained from a 4D computational anthropomorphic phantom. The performance was compared to conventional motion compensated 4D PET. Tests were also carried out on clinical 4D CT-PET scans coming from seven lung and liver cancer patients. The virtual 4D PET strategy was able to recover lesion motion, with comparable performance with respect to the motion compensated 4D PET. The compensation of the activity blurring due to motion was successfully achieved in terms of spill out removal. Specific limitations were highlighted in terms of partial volume compensation. Results on clinical 4D CT-PET scans confirmed the efficacy in 4D PET count statistics optimization, as equal to the free-breathing PET, and recovery of lesion motion. Compared to conventional motion compensation strategies that explicitly require 4D PET imaging, the virtual 4D PET strategy reduces clinical workload and computational costs, resulting in significant advantages for radiotherapy treatment planning.

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory 4D Database

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-02

    4D is an integrated development platform - a single product comprised of the components you need to create and distribute professional applications. You get a graphical design environment, SQL database, a programming language, integrated PHP execution, HTTP server, application server, executable generator, and much more. 4D offers multi-platform development and deployment, meaning whatever you create on a Mac can be used on Windows, and vice-versa. Beyond productive development, 4D is renowned for its great flexibility in maintenance and modification of existing applications, and its extreme ease of implementation in its numerous deployment options. Your professional application can be put into production more quickly, at a lower cost, and will always be instantly scalable. 4D makes it easy, whether you're looking to create a classic desktop application, a client-server system, a distributed solution for Web or mobile clients - or all of the above!

  19. Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) for Deep Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Howe, Alan S.; Tores, Recaredo J.; Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Hambuchen, Kimberly A.; Demel, Matthew; Chapman, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    On medium- to long-duration human spaceflight missions, latency in communications from Earth could reduce efficiency or hinder local operations, control, and monitoring of the various mission vehicles and other elements. Regardless of the degree of autonomy of any one particular element, a means of monitoring and controlling the elements in real time based on mission needs would increase efficiency and response times for their operation. Since human crews would be present locally, a local means for monitoring and controlling all the various mission elements is needed, particularly for robotic elements where response to interesting scientific features in the environment might need near- instantaneous manipulation and control. One of the elements proposed for medium- and long-duration human spaceflight missions, the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), is intended to be used as a remote residence and working volume for human crews. The proposed solution for local monitoring and control would be to provide a workstation within the DSH where local crews can operate local vehicles and robotic elements with little to no latency. The Telerobotics Workstation (TRWS) is a multi-display computer workstation mounted in a dedicated location within the DSH that can be adjusted for a variety of configurations as required. From an Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) location, the TRWS uses the Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate (RAPID) control environment through the local network to remotely monitor and control vehicles and robotic assets located outside the pressurized volume in the immediate vicinity or at low-latency distances from the habitat. The multiple display area of the TRWS allows the crew to have numerous windows open with live video feeds, control windows, and data browsers, as well as local monitoring and control of the DSH and associated systems.

  20. The console password feature for DEC workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lehn, A.L.

    1993-10-01

    New VAXstations and all DECstations offer a ``hardware`` password feature that, when enabled, restricts unauthorized access to your system console terminal when turned on or restarted. VAXstation 3100s shipped after July, 1989 offer this feature. A description of this feature should be part of the Hardware User Guide for your workstation; however, some of the early systems did not document this security enhancement. This document is based on the author`s investigation as well as information provided by the Digital Equipment Corporation.

  1. Efficient Parallel Engineering Computing on Linux Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, John Z.

    2010-01-01

    A C software module has been developed that creates lightweight processes (LWPs) dynamically to achieve parallel computing performance in a variety of engineering simulation and analysis applications to support NASA and DoD project tasks. The required interface between the module and the application it supports is simple, minimal and almost completely transparent to the user applications, and it can achieve nearly ideal computing speed-up on multi-CPU engineering workstations of all operating system platforms. The module can be integrated into an existing application (C, C++, Fortran and others) either as part of a compiled module or as a dynamically linked library (DLL).

  2. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  3. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  4. 4D flow imaging with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Zoran; Allen, Bradley D.; Garcia, Julio; Jarvis, Kelly B.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with cardiovascular disease. Since its introduction in the late 1980s, 2-dimensional phase contrast MRI (2D PC-MRI) has become a routine part of standard-of-care cardiac MRI for the assessment of regional blood flow in the heart and great vessels. More recently, time-resolved PC-MRI with velocity encoding along all three flow directions and three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage (also termed ‘4D flow MRI’) has been developed and applied for the evaluation of cardiovascular hemodynamics in multiple regions of the human body. 4D flow MRI allows for the comprehensive evaluation of complex blood flow patterns by 3D blood flow visualization and flexible retrospective quantification of flow parameters. Recent technical developments, including the utilization of advanced parallel imaging techniques such as k-t GRAPPA, have resulted in reasonable overall scan times, e.g., 8-12 minutes for 4D flow MRI of the aorta and 10-20 minutes for whole heart coverage. As a result, the application of 4D flow MRI in a clinical setting has become more feasible, as documented by an increased number of recent reports on the utility of the technique for the assessment of cardiac and vascular hemodynamics in patient studies. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential of 4D flow MRI to provide an improved assessment of hemodynamics which might aid in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to describe the methods used for 4D flow MRI acquisition, post-processing and data analysis. In addition, the article provides an overview of the clinical applications of 4D flow MRI and includes a review of applications in the heart, thoracic aorta and hepatic system. PMID:24834414

  5. Advanced satellite workstation: An integrated workstation environment for operational support of satellite system planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Stewart A.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), is described that has been developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, Optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central mission of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysts of complex systems such as satellites. There have been many workstation implementations recently which incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems. ASW is a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based upon the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets. A variety of tools have been constructed in support of this prototype environment including: an automated pass planner for scheduling vehicle support activities, architectural modeler for hierarchical simulation and analysis of satellite vehicle subsystems, multimedia-based information systems that provide an intuitive and easily accessible interface to Orbit Operations Handbook and other relevant support documentation, and a data analysis architecture that integrates user modifiable telemetry display systems, expert systems for background data analysis, and interfaces to the multimedia system via inter-process communication.

  6. GL4D: a GPU-based architecture for interactive 4D visualization.

    PubMed

    Chu, Alan; Fu, Chi-Wing; Hanson, Andrew J; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes GL4D, an interactive system for visualizing 2-manifolds and 3-manifolds embedded in four Euclidean dimensions and illuminated by 4D light sources. It is a tetrahedron-based rendering pipeline that projects geometry into volume images, an exact parallel to the conventional triangle-based rendering pipeline for 3D graphics. Novel features include GPU-based algorithms for real-time 4D occlusion handling and transparency compositing; we thus enable a previously impossible level of quality and interactivity for exploring lit 4D objects. The 4D tetrahedrons are stored in GPU memory as vertex buffer objects, and the vertex shader is used to perform per-vertex 4D modelview transformations and 4D-to-3D projection. The geometry shader extension is utilized to slice the projected tetrahedrons and rasterize the slices into individual 2D layers of voxel fragments. Finally, the fragment shader performs per-voxel operations such as lighting and alpha blending with previously computed layers. We account for 4D voxel occlusion along the 4D-to-3D projection ray by supporting a multi-pass back-to-front fragment composition along the projection ray; to accomplish this, we exploit a new adaptation of the dual depth peeling technique to produce correct volume image data and to simultaneously render the resulting volume data using 3D transfer functions into the final 2D image. Previous CPU implementations of the rendering of 4D-embedded 3-manifolds could not perform either the 4D depth-buffered projection or manipulation of the volume-rendered image in real-time; in particular, the dual depth peeling algorithm is a novel GPU-based solution to the real-time 4D depth-buffering problem. GL4D is implemented as an integrated OpenGL-style API library, so that the underlying shader operations are as transparent as possible to the user.

  7. Shadow-driven 4D haptic visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Hanson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Just as we can work with two-dimensional floor plans to communicate 3D architectural design, we can exploit reduced-dimension shadows to manipulate the higher-dimensional objects generating the shadows. In particular, by taking advantage of physically reactive 3D shadow-space controllers, we can transform the task of interacting with 4D objects to a new level of physical reality. We begin with a teaching tool that uses 2D knot diagrams to manipulate the geometry of 3D mathematical knots via their projections; our unique 2D haptic interface allows the user to become familiar with sketching, editing, exploration, and manipulation of 3D knots rendered as projected imageson a 2D shadow space. By combining graphics and collision-sensing haptics, we can enhance the 2D shadow-driven editing protocol to successfully leverage 2D pen-and-paper or blackboard skills. Building on the reduced-dimension 2D editing tool for manipulating 3D shapes, we develop the natural analogy to produce a reduced-dimension 3D tool for manipulating 4D shapes. By physically modeling the correct properties of 4D surfaces, their bending forces, and their collisions in the 3D haptic controller interface, we can support full-featured physical exploration of 4D mathematical objects in a manner that is otherwise far beyond the experience accessible to human beings. As far as we are aware, this paper reports the first interactive system with force-feedback that provides "4D haptic visualization" permitting the user to model and interact with 4D cloth-like objects.

  8. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  9. Commodity clusters: Performance comparison between PC`s and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.; Laroco, J.; Armstrong, R.

    1996-03-01

    Workstation clusters were originally developed as a way to leverage the better cost basis of UNIX workstations to perform computations previously handled only by relatively more expensive supercomputers. Commodity workstation clusters take this evolutionary process one step further by replacing equivalent proprietary workstation functionality with less expensive PC technology. As PC technology encroaches on proprietary UNIX workstation vendor markets, these vendors will see a declining share of the overall market. As technology advances continue, the ability to upgrade a workstations performance plays a large role in cost analysis. For example, a major upgrade to a typical UNIX workstation means replacing the whole machine. As major revisions to the UNIX vendor`s product line come out, brand new systems are introduced. IBM compatibles, however, are modular by design, and nothing need to be replaced except the components that are truly improved. The DAISy cluster, for example, is about to undergo a major upgrade from 90MHz Pentiums to 200MHz Pentium Pros. All of the memory -- the system`s largest expense -- and disks, power supply, etc., can be reused. As a result, commodity workstation clusters ought to gain an increasingly large share of the distributed computing market.

  10. Digital workstation for Venus topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poehler, Paul; Haag, Nils N.; Maupin, Jerry A.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Wu, Sherman S.

    1993-10-01

    A digital workstation was developed and is currently at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Flagstaff, Arizona to be used for Venus topographic mapping. The system is based on a mapping and geocoding image correlation (GIS MAGIC) system developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the creation of precisely geocoded imagery data bases for both optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. A multitude of data from various sources has been processed, including conventional aerial photographs, airborne and orbital SAR, and Spot. This paper covers the GIS MAGIC development history, hardware/software features and capabilities. Also covered are the types of modifications required to accommodate Venus radar data and results which can be achieved using the GIS MAGIC System.

  11. Application development environment for advanced digital workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Daniel J.; Harreld, Michael R.; Liu, Brent J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Huang, Lu J.

    1998-06-01

    One remaining barrier to the clinical acceptance of electronic imaging and information systems is the difficulty in providing intuitive access to the information needed for a specific clinical task (such as reaching a diagnosis or tracking clinical progress). The purpose of this research was to create a development environment that enables the design and implementation of advanced digital imaging workstations. We used formal data and process modeling to identify the diagnostic and quantitative data that radiologists use and the tasks that they typically perform to make clinical decisions. We studied a diverse range of radiology applications, including diagnostic neuroradiology in an academic medical center, pediatric radiology in a children's hospital, screening mammography in a breast cancer center, and thoracic radiology consultation for an oncology clinic. We used object- oriented analysis to develop software toolkits that enable a programmer to rapidly implement applications that closely match clinical tasks. The toolkits support browsing patient information, integrating patient images and reports, manipulating images, and making quantitative measurements on images. Collectively, we refer to these toolkits as the UCLA Digital ViewBox toolkit (ViewBox/Tk). We used the ViewBox/Tk to rapidly prototype and develop a number of diverse medical imaging applications. Our task-based toolkit approach enabled rapid and iterative prototyping of workstations that matched clinical tasks. The toolkit functionality and performance provided a 'hands-on' feeling for manipulating images, and for accessing textual information and reports. The toolkits directly support a new concept for protocol based-reading of diagnostic studies. The design supports the implementation of network-based application services (e.g., prefetching, workflow management, and post-processing) that will facilitate the development of future clinical applications.

  12. Energy consumption of personal computer workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.

    1995-12-01

    An important question for consideration is, {open_quotes}Are office equipment plug loads increasing?{close_quotes} Data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in May 1990 from the Forrestal Building, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters in Washington, DC, are desegregated by end use including: plug loads, lights, HVAC, large dedicated computers, and elevators. This study was repeated in November 1993, and there was a 3.8%/yr increase in plug loads in a building of approximately 1.75 million sq ft. Subsequent to this measurement, the plug loads were measured continuously by PNL over a 10-month period from November 1993 through September 1994, and the results showed another increase of 3.9%, nearly the same increase as in the previous three years. The energy use of personal computers (PCs) was measured by setting up a mobile outlet module (MOM), a replacement for a strip outlet, with current transformers (CTs) and potential transformers. The MOM was connected to a set of dataloggers, allowing for the monitoring of up to four PCs at a time. The PCs were plugged in through the MOM to a C180 datalogger, the data collected to a laptop, and the individual 24-hour profiles were then reduced to a standard profile. About 200 workstations were studied, including the PC, monitor, printer, modem, external disk drives, and CAD systems with their own peripherals. Also monitored were an additional collection of printers, photocopiers, facsimile machines, and monitor controllers. The end result was a set of profiles for energy use during working hours for five different buildings. There was a wide variation in these profiles from daytime to nighttime, since 16 to 35% of the computers remain on at night. Therefore, the needs for computers left on at night vary, along with the attitudes of people. Another area of energy consumption concern is the type of PC, such as IBM- or Macintosh-compatible, and there are many different kinds of workstations.

  13. Interactive animation of 4D performance capture.

    PubMed

    Casas, Dan; Tejera, Margara; Guillemaut, Jean-Yves; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    A 4D parametric motion graph representation is presented for interactive animation from actor performance capture in a multiple camera studio. The representation is based on a 4D model database of temporally aligned mesh sequence reconstructions for multiple motions. High-level movement controls such as speed and direction are achieved by blending multiple mesh sequences of related motions. A real-time mesh sequence blending approach is introduced, which combines the realistic deformation of previous nonlinear solutions with efficient online computation. Transitions between different parametric motion spaces are evaluated in real time based on surface shape and motion similarity. Four-dimensional parametric motion graphs allow real-time interactive character animation while preserving the natural dynamics of the captured performance.

  14. Respiratory gating and 4-D tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Tiezhi

    2004-12-01

    Helical tomotherapy is a new intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery process developed at the University of Wisconsin and TomoTherapy Inc. Tomotherapy may be of advantage in lung cancer treatment due to its rotational delivery mode. As with conventional IMRT delivery, however, intrafraction respiratory motion during a tomotherapy treatment causes unnecessary radiation to the healthy tissue. Possible solutions to these problems associated with intrafraction motion have been studied in this thesis. A spirometer is useful for monitoring breathing because of its direct correlation with lung volume changes. However, its inherent drift prevents its application in long-term breathing monitoring. With calibration and stabilization algorithms, a spirometer is able to provide accurate, long-term lung volume change measurements. Such a spirometer system is most suited for deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) treatments. An improved laser-spirometer combined system has also been developed for target tracking in 4-D treatment. Spirometer signals are used to calibrate the displacement measurements into lung volume changes, thereby eliminating scaling errors from daily setup variations. The laser displacement signals may also be used to correct spirometer drifts during operation. A new 4-D treatment technique has been developed to account for intrafraction motion in treatment planning. The patient's breathing and the beam delivery are synchronized, and the target motion/deformation is incorporated into treatment plan optimization. Results show that this new 4D treatment technique significantly reduces motion effects and provides improved patient tolerance.

  15. Development of a Pamphlet Targeting Computer Workstation Ergonomics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faraci, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    With the increased use of computers throughout Goddard Space Flight Center, the Industrial Hygiene Office (IHO) has observed a growing trend in the number of health complaints attributed to poor computer workstation setup. A majority of the complaints has centered around musculoskeletal symptoms, including numbness, pain, and tingling in the upper extremities, shoulders, and neck. Eye strain and headaches have also been reported. In some cases, these symptoms can lead to chronic conditions such as repetitive strain injuries (RSI's). In an effort to prevent or minimize the frequency of these symptoms among the GSFC population, the IHO conducts individual ergonomic workstation evaluations and ergonomics training classes upon request. Because of the extensive number of computer workstations at GSFC, and the limited amount of manpower which the Industrial Hygiene staff could reasonably allocate to conduct workstation evaluations and employee training, a pamphlet was developed with a two-fold purpose: (1) to educate the GSFC population about the importance of ergonomically-correct computer workstation setup and the potential effects of a poorly configured workstation; and (2) to enable employees to perform a general assessment of their own workstations and make any necessary modifications for proper setup.

  16. Intranet and Internet metrological workstation with photonic sensors and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Dybko, Artur

    1999-05-01

    We describe in this paper a part of a telemetric network which consists of a workstation with photonic measurement and communication interfaces, structural fiber optic cabling (10/100BaseFX and CAN-FL), and photonic sensors with fiber optic interfaces. The station is equipped with direct photonic measurement interface and most common measuring standards converter (RS, GPIB) with fiber optic I/O CAN bus, O/E converters, LAN and modem ports. The station was connected to the Intranet (ipx/spx) and Internet (tcp/ip) with separate IP number and DNS, WINS names. Virtual measuring environment system program was written specially for such an Intranet and Internet station. The measurement system program communicated with the user via a Graphical User's Interface (GUI). The user has direct access to all functions of the measuring station system through appropriate layers of GUI: telemetric, transmission, visualization, processing, information, help and steering of the measuring system. We have carried out series of thorough simulation investigations and tests of the station using WWW subsystem of the Internet. We logged into the system through the LAN and via modem. The Internet metrological station works continuously under the address http://nms.ipe.pw.edu.pl/nms. The station and the system hear the short name NMS (from Network Measuring System).

  17. Graphical workstation capability for reliability modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to computational capabilities, software tools for estimating the reliability of fault-tolerant digital computer systems must also provide a means of interfacing with the user. Described here is the new graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP), a software package that implements advanced reliability modeling techniques. The graphics oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault-tree gates, including sequence-dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. By using this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain, which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the graphical kernal system (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing stages.

  18. Unattended ground sensor situation assessment workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppesen, D.; Trellue, R.

    1997-04-01

    Effective utilization of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) in a theater reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and kill assessment environment requires that a human operator be able to interpret, and collectively assess, the significance of real time data obtained from UGS emplacements over large geographical regions of interest. The products of this UGS data interpretation and assessment activity can then be used in the decision support process for command level evaluation of appropriate courses of action. Advancements in both sensor hardware technology and in software systems and processing technology have enabled the development of practical real time situation assessment capabilities based upon information from unattended ground sensors. A decision support workstation that employs rule-based expert system processing of reports from unattended ground sensors is described. The primary goal of this development activity is to produce a suite of software to track vehicles using data from unattended ground sensors. The situational assessment products from this system have stand-alone utility, but are also intended to provide cueing support for overhead sensors and supplementary feeds to all-source fusion centers. The conceptual framework, developmental architecture, and demonstration field tests of the system are described.

  19. The advanced software development workstation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Pitman, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) task is researching and developing the technologies required to support Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) with the emphasis on those advanced methods, tools, and processes that will be of benefit to support all NASA programs. Immediate goals are to provide research and prototype tools that will increase productivity, in the near term, in projects such as the Software Support Environment (SSE), the Space Station Control Center (SSCC), and the Flight Analysis and Design System (FADS) which will be used to support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Goals also include providing technology for development, evolution, maintenance, and operations. The technologies under research and development in the ASDW project are targeted to provide productivity enhancements during the software life cycle phase of enterprise and information system modeling, requirements generation and analysis, system design and coding, and system use and maintenance. On-line user's guides will assist users in operating the developed information system with knowledge base expert assistance.

  20. Pc-Based Floating Point Imaging Workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzak, Chris J.; Pier, Richard M.; Chinn, Patty; Kim, Yongmin

    1989-07-01

    The medical, military, scientific and industrial communities have come to rely on imaging and computer graphics for solutions to many types of problems. Systems based on imaging technology are used to acquire and process images, and analyze and extract data from images that would otherwise be of little use. Images can be transformed and enhanced to reveal detail and meaning that would go undetected without imaging techniques. The success of imaging has increased the demand for faster and less expensive imaging systems and as these systems become available, more and more applications are discovered and more demands are made. From the designer's perspective the challenge to meet these demands forces him to attack the problem of imaging from a different perspective. The computing demands of imaging algorithms must be balanced against the desire for affordability and flexibility. Systems must be flexible and easy to use, ready for current applications but at the same time anticipating new, unthought of uses. Here at the University of Washington Image Processing Systems Lab (IPSL) we are focusing our attention on imaging and graphics systems that implement imaging algorithms for use in an interactive environment. We have developed a PC-based imaging workstation with the goal to provide powerful and flexible, floating point processing capabilities, along with graphics functions in an affordable package suitable for diverse environments and many applications.

  1. A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

  2. A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1994-02-01

    Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

  3. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Setting Up Computer Workstations in Classrooms and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Explains the benefits of computer workstations in schools and describes various components, including projection tools such as LCD (liquid crystal display) projectors, printers, Internet connections, tape drives, digitizers, scanners, laserdisc players, and CD-i (interactive) players. (LRW)

  5. Active origami by 4D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qi; Dunn, Conner K.; Qi, H. Jerry; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in three dimensional (3D) printing technology that allow multiple materials to be printed within each layer enable the creation of materials and components with precisely controlled heterogeneous microstructures. In addition, active materials, such as shape memory polymers, can be printed to create an active microstructure within a solid. These active materials can subsequently be activated in a controlled manner to change the shape or configuration of the solid in response to an environmental stimulus. This has been termed 4D printing, with the 4th dimension being the time-dependent shape change after the printing. In this paper, we advance the 4D printing concept to the design and fabrication of active origami, where a flat sheet automatically folds into a complicated 3D component. Here we print active composites with shape memory polymer fibers precisely printed in an elastomeric matrix and use them as intelligent active hinges to enable origami folding patterns. We develop a theoretical model to provide guidance in selecting design parameters such as fiber dimensions, hinge length, and programming strains and temperature. Using the model, we design and fabricate several active origami components that assemble from flat polymer sheets, including a box, a pyramid, and two origami airplanes. In addition, we directly print a 3D box with active composite hinges and program it to assume a temporary flat shape that subsequently recovers to the 3D box shape on demand.

  6. 4d Spectra from BPS Quiver Dualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espahbodi, Sam

    We attack the question of BPS occupancy in a wide class of 4d N = 2 quantum field theories. We first review the Seiberg-Witten approach to finding the low energy Wilsonian effective action actions of such theories. In particular, we analyze the case of Gaiotto theories, which provide a large number of non-trivial examples in a unified framework. We then turn to understanding the massive BPS spectrum of such theories, and in particular their relation to BPS quivers. We present a purely 4d characterization of BPS quivers, and explain how a quiver's representation theory encodes the solution to the BPS occupancy problem. Next, we derive a so called mutation method, based on exploiting quiver dualities, to solve the quiver's representation theory. This method makes previously intractable calculations nearly trivial in many examples. As a particular highlight, we apply our methods to understand strongly coupled chambers in ADE SYM gauge theories with matter. Following this, we turn to the general story of quivers for theories of the Gaiotto class. We present a geometric approach to attaining quivers for the rank 2 theories, leading to a very elegant solution which includes a specification of quiver superpotentials. Finally, we solve these theories by an unrelated method based on gauging flavor symmetries in their various dual weakly coupled Lagrangian descriptions. After seeing that this method agrees in the rank 2 case, we will apply our new approach to the case of rank n.

  7. C.A.D. and ergonomic workstations conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keravel, Francine

    1986-07-01

    Computer Aided Design is able to perform workstation's conception. An ergonomic data could be complete this view and warrant a coherent fiability conception. Complexe form representation machines, anthropometric data and environment factors are allowed to perceive the limit points between humain and new technology situation. Work ability users, safety, confort and human efficiency could be also included. Such a programm with expert system integration will give a complete listing appreciation about workstation's conception.

  8. A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.

  9. Helical mode lung 4D-CT reconstruction using Bayesian model.

    PubMed

    He, Tiancheng; Xue, Zhong; Nitsch, Paige L; Teh, Bin S; Wong, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    4D computed tomography (CT) has been widely used for treatment planning of thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. Current 4D-CT lung image reconstruction methods rely on respiratory gating to rearrange the large number of axial images into different phases, which may be subject to external surrogate errors due to poor reproducibility of breathing cycles. New image-matching-based reconstruction works better for the cine mode of 4D-CT acquisition than the helical mode because the table position of each axial image is different in helical mode and image matching might suffer from bigger errors. In helical mode, not only the phases but also the un-uniform table positions of images need to be considered. We propose a Bayesian method for automated 4D-CT lung image reconstruction in helical mode 4D scans. Each axial image is assigned to a respiratory phase based on the Bayesian framework that ensures spatial and temporal smoothness of surfaces of anatomical structures. Iterative optimization is used to reconstruct a series of 3D-CT images for subjects undergoing 4D scans. In experiments, we compared visually and quantitatively the results of the proposed Bayesian 4D-CT reconstruction algorithm with the respiratory surrogate and the image matching-based method. The results showed that the proposed algorithm yielded better 4D-CT for helical scans.

  10. Advances in 4D radiation therapy for managing respiration: part II - 4D treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Rosu, Mihaela; Hugo, Geoffrey D

    2012-12-01

    The development of 4D CT imaging technology made possible the creation of patient models that are reflective of respiration-induced anatomical changes by adding a temporal dimension to the conventional 3D, spatial-only, patient description. This had opened a new venue for treatment planning and radiation delivery, aimed at creating a comprehensive 4D radiation therapy process for moving targets. Unlike other breathing motion compensation strategies (e.g. breath-hold and gating techniques), 4D radiotherapy assumes treatment delivery over the entire respiratory cycle - an added bonus for both patient comfort and treatment time efficiency. The time-dependent positional and volumetric information holds the promise for optimal, highly conformal, radiotherapy for targets experiencing movements caused by respiration, with potentially elevated dose prescriptions and therefore higher cure rates, while avoiding the uninvolved nearby structures. In this paper, the current state of the 4D treatment planning is reviewed, from theory to the established practical routine. While the fundamental principles of 4D radiotherapy are well defined, the development of a complete, robust and clinically feasible process still remains a challenge, imposed by limitations in the available treatment planning and radiation delivery systems.

  11. Cyber-Workstation for Computational Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Zhao, Ming; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C.; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor) by specifying appropriate connections in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface. PMID:20126436

  12. Soft Route to 4D Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillandier-Thomas, Thibault; Roux, Stéphane; Hild, François

    2016-07-01

    Based on the assumption that the time evolution of a sample observed by computed tomography requires many less parameters than the definition of the microstructure itself, it is proposed to reconstruct these changes based on the initial state (using computed tomography) and very few radiographs acquired at fixed intervals of time. This Letter presents a proof of concept that for a fatigue cracked sample its kinematics can be tracked from no more than two radiographs in situations where a complete 3D view would require several hundreds of radiographs. This 2 order of magnitude gain opens the way to a "computed" 4D tomography, which complements the recent progress achieved in fast or ultrafast computed tomography, which is based on beam brightness, detector sensitivity, and signal acquisition technologies.

  13. Controlled Source 4D Seismic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Morency, C.; Tromp, J.

    2009-12-01

    Earth's material properties may change after significant tectonic events, e.g., volcanic eruptions, earthquake ruptures, landslides, and hydrocarbon migration. While many studies focus on how to interpret observations in terms of changes in wavespeeds and attenuation, the oil industry is more interested in how we can identify and locate such temporal changes using seismic waves generated by controlled sources. 4D seismic analysis is indeed an important tool to monitor fluid movement in hydrocarbon reservoirs during production, improving fields management. Classic 4D seismic imaging involves comparing images obtained from two subsequent seismic surveys. Differences between the two images tell us where temporal changes occurred. However, when the temporal changes are small, it may be quite hard to reliably identify and characterize the differences between the two images. We propose to back-project residual seismograms between two subsequent surveys using adjoint methods, which results in images highlighting temporal changes. We use the SEG/EAGE salt dome model to illustrate our approach. In two subsequent surveys, the wavespeeds and density within a target region are changed, mimicking possible fluid migration. Due to changes in material properties induced by fluid migration, seismograms recorded in the two surveys differ. By back propagating these residuals, the adjoint images identify the location of the affected region. An important issue involves the nature of model. For instance, are we characterizing only changes in wavespeed, or do we also consider density and attenuation? How many model parameters characterize the model, e.g., is our model isotropic or anisotropic? Is acoustic wave propagation accurate enough or do we need to consider elastic or poroelastic effects? We will investigate how imaging strategies based upon acoustic, elastic and poroelastic simulations affect our imaging capabilities.

  14. Opening the Black Box of ICT4D: Advancing Our Understanding of ICT4D Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    The term, Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), pertains to programs or projects that strategically use ICTs (e.g. mobile phones, computers, and the internet) as a means toward the socio-economic betterment for the poor in developing contexts. Gaining the political and financial support of the international community…

  15. Spatiotemporal directional analysis of 4D echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini-Casadevall, Elsa D.; Laine, Andrew F.; Takuma, Shin; Homma, Shunichi

    2000-12-01

    Speckle noise corrupts ultrasonic data by introducing sharp changes in an echocardiographic image intensity profile, while attenuation alters the intensity of equally significant cardiac structures. These properties introduce inhomogeneity in the spatial domain and suggests that measures based on phase information rather than intensity are more appropriate for denoising and cardiac border detection. The present analysis method relies on the expansion of temporal ultrasonic volume data on complex exponential wavelet-like basis functions called Brushlets. These basis functions decompose a signal into distinct patterns of oriented textures. Projected coefficients are associated with distinct 'brush strokes' of a particular size and orientation. 4D overcomplete brushlet analysis is applied to temporal echocardiographic values. We show that adding the time dimension in the analysis dramatically improves the quality and robustness of the method without adding complexity in the design of a segmentation tool. We have investigated mathematical and empirical methods for identifying the most 'efficient' brush stroke sizes and orientations for decomposition and reconstruction on both phantom and clinical data. In order to determine the 'best tiling' or equivalently, the 'best brushlet basis', we use an entorpy-based information cost metric function. Quantitative validation and clinical applications of this new spatio-temporal analysis tool are reported for balloon phantoms and clinical data sets.

  16. Muscle activity patterns and spinal shrinkage in office workers using a sit-stand workstation versus a sit workstation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Cronin, Neil J; Pesola, Arto J; Finni, Taija

    2016-10-01

    Reducing sitting time by means of sit-stand workstations is an emerging trend, but further evidence is needed regarding their health benefits. This cross-sectional study compared work time muscle activity patterns and spinal shrinkage between office workers (aged 24-62, 58.3% female) who used either a sit-stand workstation (Sit-Stand group, n = 10) or a traditional sit workstation (Sit group, n = 14) for at least the past three months. During one typical workday, muscle inactivity and activity from quadriceps and hamstrings were monitored using electromyography shorts, and spinal shrinkage was measured using stadiometry before and after the workday. Compared with the Sit group, the Sit-Stand group had less muscle inactivity time (66.2 ± 17.1% vs. 80.9 ± 6.4%, p = 0.014) and more light muscle activity time (26.1 ± 12.3% vs. 14.9 ± 6.3%, p = 0.019) with no significant difference in spinal shrinkage (5.62 ± 2.75 mm vs. 6.11 ± 2.44 mm). This study provides evidence that working with sit-stand workstations can promote more light muscle activity time and less inactivity without negative effects on spinal shrinkage. Practitioner Summary: This cross-sectional study compared the effects of using a sit-stand workstation to a sit workstation on muscle activity patterns and spinal shrinkage in office workers. It provides evidence that working with a sit-stand workstation can promote more light muscle activity time and less inactivity without negative effects on spinal shrinkage.

  17. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a)...

  18. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a)...

  19. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2000-04-01 2000-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a) Each application for an order under section 304(d)...

  20. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2005-04-01 2005-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a)...

  1. The knowledge workstation: an electronic environment for knowledge management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucier, R E; Matheson, N W; Butter, K A; Reynolds, R E

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the creation of the IAIMS workstation in the context of the outcomes of a year-long IAIMS strategic planning process at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI). These outcomes include a long-term institutional vision for a functional knowledge management environment, a JHMI IAIMS model, a strategic plan, and two model prototypes. The functional requirements and specific implementation strategies for the IAIMS workstation, the prototype for managing the knowledge base of the published biomedical literature, are discussed in detail. PMID:3416102

  2. Video display terminal workstation improvement program: I. Baseline associations between musculoskeletal discomfort and ergonomic features of workstations.

    PubMed

    Demure, B; Luippold, R S; Bigelow, C; Ali, D; Mundt, K A; Liese, B

    2000-08-01

    Associations between selected sites of musculoskeletal discomfort and ergonomic characteristics of the video display terminal (VDT) workstation were assessed in analyses controlling for demographic, psychosocial stress, and VDT use factors in 273 VDT users from a large administrative department. Significant associations with wrist/hand discomfort were seen for female gender; working 7+ hours at a VDT; low job satisfaction; poor keyboard position; use of new, adjustable furniture; and layout of the workstation. Significantly increased odds ratios for neck/shoulder discomfort were observed for 7+ hours at a VDT, less than complete job control, older age (40 to 49 years), and never/infrequent breaks. Lower back discomfort was related marginally to working 7+ hours at a VDT. These results demonstrate that some characteristics of VDT workstations, after accounting for psychosocial stress, can be correlated with musculoskeletal discomfort.

  3. 4D electron microscopy: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, David J; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2012-10-16

    achievable with short intense pulses containing a large number of electrons, however, are limited to tens of nanometers and nanoseconds, respectively. This is because Coulomb repulsion is significant in such a pulse, and the electrons spread in space and time, thus limiting the beam coherence. It is therefore not possible to image the ultrafast elementary dynamics of complex transformations. The challenge was to retain the high spatial resolution of a conventional TEM while simultaneously enabling the temporal resolution required to visualize atomic-scale motions. In this Account, we discuss the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D UEM) and summarize techniques and applications that illustrate the power of the approach. In UEM, images are obtained either stroboscopically with coherent single-electron packets or with a single electron bunch. Coulomb repulsion is absent under the single-electron condition, thus permitting imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy, all with high spatiotemporal resolution, the atomic scale (sub-nanometer and femtosecond). The time resolution is limited only by the laser pulse duration and energy carried by the electron packets; the CCD camera has no bearing on the temporal resolution. In the regime of single pulses of electrons, the temporal resolution of picoseconds can be attained when hundreds of electrons are in the bunch. The applications given here are selected to highlight phenomena of different length and time scales, from atomic motions during structural dynamics to phase transitions and nanomechanical oscillations. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging methods, which include scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM), scanning transmission ultrafast electron microscopy (ST-UEM) with convergent beams, and time-resolved imaging of biological structures at ambient conditions with environmental cells.

  4. WorkstationJ: workstation emulation software for medical image perception and technology evaluation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartz, Kevin M.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Caldwell, Robert T.; Madsen, Mark T.

    2007-03-01

    We developed image presentation software that mimics the functionality available in the clinic, but also records time-stamped, observer-display interactions and is readily deployable on diverse workstations making it possible to collect comparable observer data at multiple sites. Commercial image presentation software for clinical use has limited application for research on image perception, ergonomics, computer-aids and informatics because it does not collect observer responses, or other information on observer-display interactions, in real time. It is also very difficult to collect observer data from multiple institutions unless the same commercial software is available at different sites. Our software not only records observer reports of abnormalities and their locations, but also inspection time until report, inspection time for each computed radiograph and for each slice of tomographic studies, window/level, and magnification settings used by the observer. The software is a modified version of the open source ImageJ software available from the National Institutes of Health. Our software involves changes to the base code and extensive new plugin code. Our free software is currently capable of displaying computed tomography and computed radiography images. The software is packaged as Java class files and can be used on Windows, Linux, or Mac systems. By deploying our software together with experiment-specific script files that administer experimental procedures and image file handling, multi-institutional studies can be conducted that increase reader and/or case sample sizes or add experimental conditions.

  5. Initial experience with a nuclear medicine viewing workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Robert M.; Burt, Robert W.

    1992-07-01

    Graphical User Interfaced (GUI) workstations are now available from commercial vendors. We recently installed a GUI workstation in our nuclear medicine reading room for exclusive use of staff and resident physicians. The system is built upon a Macintosh platform and has been available as a DELTAmanager from MedImage and more recently as an ICON V from Siemens Medical Systems. The workstation provides only display functions and connects to our existing nuclear medicine imaging system via ethernet. The system has some processing capabilities to create oblique, sagittal and coronal views from transverse tomographic views. Hard copy output is via a screen save device and a thermal color printer. The DELTAmanager replaced a MicroDELTA workstation which had both process and view functions. The mouse activated GUI has made remarkable changes to physicians'' use of the nuclear medicine viewing system. Training time to view and review studies has been reduced from hours to about 30-minutes. Generation of oblique views and display of brain and heart tomographic studies has been reduced from about 30-minutes of technician''s time to about 5-minutes of physician''s time. Overall operator functionality has been increased so that resident physicians with little prior computer experience can access all images on the image server and display pertinent patient images when consulting with other staff.

  6. Interior, looking southeast in long wing. Nearly every workstation is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking southeast in long wing. Nearly every workstation is connected to an overhead tube which pulls the sawdust to the machine in photograph CO-172-AF-5. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Carpenter Shop Building, Southwest Corner of West I Avenue, & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. 6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE BEING CONSTRUCTED FOR FOUNDRY PROCESSES IN MODULE A. (10/6/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. Application of usability testing for improving PACS workstation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Bradley J.; Kossack, Merrick F.

    2000-05-01

    User-centered design is a critical step in the product development cycle. It is an iterative process consisting of product design, implementation, and evaluation stages. Industry-standard usability metrics were employed to evaluate two sequential versions of commercial Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) workstation software as part of this process. They were evaluated 6 months apart by five radiologists with varying PACS experience. All radiologists were naive to the specific workstation tested. After a brief workstation overview, they were videotaped as they completed scenarios that closely simulated typical radiological practice. Each scenario consisted of various task categories. The task duration, nature and number of errors, help requests, and operator's manual consultations were recorded. After evaluating the first software version, areas for improvement were identified and the application design modified. An unexpected result was the rewriting of the software manual to be task- and process-based rather than feature-based. Testing of the second version revealed a 22% improvement in performance time and 30% decrease in the number of errors compared to the first. Usability testing objectively identifies areas for improvement in the PACS workstation software. Additionally, it provides quantitative measures that may be used to prioritize and suggest future design efforts. Performing this evaluation as early as possible results in the rapid evolution of an application that will maximize radiologists' productivity and satisfaction.

  9. Underestimated health hazard: proposal for an ergonomic microscope workstation.

    PubMed

    Kreczy, A; Kofler, M; Gschwendtner, A

    1999-11-13

    Working daily for a long time with a standard microscope causes back pain, fibromyalgia, or tension headache in up to 80% of microscopists. These complaints may be prevented by an ergonomic design of the microscope workstation, leading to a beneficial and significant reduction of electromyographical activity in the most strained muscle groups as shown by surface electromyographic recordings.

  10. Head-mounted workstation displays for airborne reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Michael P.

    1998-09-01

    Aircraft reconnaissance operators need to access increasing amounts of information to perform their job effectively. Unfortunately, there is no excess weight, space or power capacity in most airborne platforms for the installation of additional display surfaces. Head mounted workstation displays solve these weight, space and power problems and mitigate information overload by providing a user-friendly interface to displayed information. Savings can be tremendous for large platforms. Over 18 kW of power and over 5,000 pounds could be saved on each Rivet Joint or AWACS platform. Even small platforms such as the E-2C or UAV ground control stations benefit from removal of large, heavy CRT or LCD displays. In addition, head mounted workstation displays provide an increased capability for collaborative mission planning and reduce motion-induced nausea. Kaiser Electronics has already designed and demonstrated a prototype system, VIEWTM, that addresses the needs of the airborne workstation operator. This system is easily reconfigured for multiple tasks and can be designed as a portable workstation for use anywhere within the aircraft (especially for maintenance or supervisory roles). We have validated the VIEWTM design with hundreds of user trials within the airborne reconnaissance community. Adopting such a display system in reconnaissance aircraft will gain significant benefits such as longer on-station time, increased operational altitude and improved operator performance.

  11. Providing Independent Reading Comprehension Strategy Practice through Workstations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an action research project undertaken by a second grade teacher looking for research-based ways to increase his students' reading comprehension. He designed fifteen comprehension workstations and evaluated their effect on his second graders' reading comprehension scores as measured by district Imagination Station…

  12. High Performance Diskless Linux Workstations in AX-Division

    SciTech Connect

    Councell, E; Busby, L

    2003-09-30

    AX Division has recently installed a number of diskless Linux workstations to meet the needs of its scientific staff for classified processing. Results so far are quite positive, although problems do remain. Some unusual requirements were met using a novel, but simple, design: Each diskless client has a dedicated partition on a server disk that contains a complete Linux distribution.

  13. Accessible Microscopy Workstation for Students and Scientists with Mobility Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerstock, Bradley S.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated accessible microscopy workstation was designed and developed to allow persons with mobility impairments to control all aspects of light microscopy with minimal human assistance. This system, named AccessScope, is capable of performing brightfield and fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and tissue morphometry requisite for…

  14. A Conceptual Exploration of a Bibliographer's Workstation Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Arsdale, William O., III; Leath, Janis Hollingsworth

    Productivity of University of Wyoming (UW) subject bibliographers can be significantly increased by developing a network of microcomputer-based workstations with custom and off-the-shelf software; telecommunications to CARL (Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries), OCLC, and other databases; and a network server to provide special services and…

  15. Impact of Workstation Accommodation on Fatigue and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    this study. The present research focuses on the biodynamic impact of anthropometric accommodation of a dual- monitor computer workstation on an...Biometric Response Cognitive Response Good Anthropometric Accommodation Sustainable & Optimal Muscular...Activity, Low Levels of Subjective Discomfort Sustainable & Optimal Levels of Cerebral Oxygenation & Cognitive Performance Poor Anthropometric

  16. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R.

    1993-10-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

  17. Motion4D-library extended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    The new version of the Motion4D-library now also includes the integration of a Sachs basis and the Jacobi equation to determine gravitational lensing of pointlike sources for arbitrary spacetimes.New version program summaryProgram title: Motion4D-libraryCatalogue identifier: AEEX_v3_0Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEX_v3_0.htmlProgram obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. IrelandLicensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.htmlNo. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 219 441No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 968 223Distribution format: tar.gzProgramming language: C++Computer: All platforms with a C++ compilerOperating system: Linux, WindowsRAM: 61 MbytesClassification: 1.5External routines: Gnu Scientic Library (GSL) (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/)Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEX_v2_0Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 703Does the new version supersede the previous version?: YesNature of problem: Solve geodesic equation, parallel and Fermi-Walker transport in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Determine gravitational lensing by integration of Jacobi equation and parallel transport of Sachs basis.Solution method: Integration of ordinary differential equations.Reasons for new version: The main novelty of the current version is the extension to integrate the Jacobi equation and the parallel transport of the Sachs basis along null geodesics. In combination, the change of the cross section of a light bundle and thus the gravitational lensing effect of a spacetime can be determined. Furthermore, we have implemented several new metrics.Summary of revisions: The main novelty of the current version is the integration of the Jacobi equation and the parallel transport of the Sachs basis along null geodesics. The corresponding set of equations readd2xμdλ2=-Γρ

  18. 4D GPR Experiments--Towards the Virtual Lysimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmueck, M.; Viggiano, D. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Drasdis, J. B.; Kruse, S. E.; Or, D.

    2006-05-01

    In-situ monitoring of infiltration, water flow and retention in the vadose zone currently rely primarily on invasive methods, which irreversibly disturb original soil structure and alter its hydrologic behavior in the vicinity of the measurement. For example, use of lysimeters requires extraction and repacking of soil samples, and time- domain reflectometry (TDR) requires insertion of probes into the soil profile. This study investigates the use of repeated high-density 3D ground penetrating radar surveys (also known as 4D GPR) as a non-invasive alternative for detailed visualization and quantification of water flow in the vadose zone. Evaluation of the 4D GPR method was based on a series of controlled point-source water injection experiments into undisturbed beach sand deposits at Crandon Park in Miami, Florida. The goal of the GPR surveys was to image the shape and evolution of a wet-bulb as it propagates from the injection points (~0.5 m) towards the water table at 2.2 m depth. The experimental design was guided by predictive modeling using Hydrus 2D and finite-difference GPR waveform codes. Input parameters for the modeling were derived from hydrologic and electromagnetic characterization of representative sand samples. Guided by modeling results, we injected 30 to 40 liters of tap water through plastic-cased boreholes with slotted bottom sections (0.1 m) located 0.4 to 0.6 m below the surface. During and after injection, an area of 25 m2 was surveyed every 20 minutes using 250 and 500 MHz antennas with a grid spacing of 0.05 x 0.025 m. A total of 20 3D GPR surveys were completed over 3 infiltration sites. To confirm wet-bulb shapes measured by GPR, we injected 2 liters of "brilliant blue" dye (~100 mg/l) along with a saline water tracer towards the end of one experiment. After completion of GPR scanning, a trench was excavated to examine the distribution of the saltwater and dye using TDR and visual inspection, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the 4D GPR

  19. Do Workstations Work Too Well? An Investigation into Library Workstation Popularity and the "Principle of Least Effort."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrzastowski, Tina E.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the hypothesis that a shift toward more widely-available, less comprehensive workstation indexes is changing the nature of academic library research (based on statistical data from the chemistry library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Topics include an explanation of Zipf's "Principle of Least Effort" and…

  20. MIT-MANUS: a workstation for manual therapy and training II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Neville; Krebs, Hermano I.; Charnnarong, J.; Srikrishna, P.; Sharon, Andre

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents some recent work on the development of a workstation for teaching and therapy in manual and manipulative skills. The experimental workstation, MANUS, as well as the overall concept are described. State-of-the-art aspects of the workstation under development are introduced.

  1. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a) Each application for an order under section 304(d)...

  2. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a) Each application for an order under section 304(d)...

  3. 17 CFR 260.4d-8 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content. 260.4d-8 Section 260.4d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Rules Under Section 304 § 260.4d-8 Content. (a) Each application for an order under section 304(d)...

  4. Killing Weeds with 2,4-D. Extension Bulletin 389.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Oliver C.

    Discussed is the use of the herbicide 2,4-D. Though written for farmers and agricultural workers, the pamphlet considers turf weed control and use of 2,4-D near ornamental plants. Aspects of the use of this herbicide covered are: (1) the common forms of 2,4-D; (2) plant responses and tolerances to the herbicide; (3) dilution and concentration of…

  5. Multimaterial 4D Printing with Tailorable Shape Memory Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Qi; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Lee, Howon; Dunn, Conner K.; Fang, Nicholas X.; Dunn, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new 4D printing approach that can create high resolution (up to a few microns), multimaterial shape memory polymer (SMP) architectures. The approach is based on high resolution projection microstereolithography (PμSL) and uses a family of photo-curable methacrylate based copolymer networks. We designed the constituents and compositions to exhibit desired thermomechanical behavior (including rubbery modulus, glass transition temperature and failure strain which is more than 300% and larger than any existing printable materials) to enable controlled shape memory behavior. We used a high resolution, high contrast digital micro display to ensure high resolution of photo-curing methacrylate based SMPs that requires higher exposure energy than more common acrylate based polymers. An automated material exchange process enables the manufacture of 3D composite architectures from multiple photo-curable SMPs. In order to understand the behavior of the 3D composite microarchitectures, we carry out high fidelity computational simulations of their complex nonlinear, time-dependent behavior and study important design considerations including local deformation, shape fixity and free recovery rate. Simulations are in good agreement with experiments for a series of single and multimaterial components and can be used to facilitate the design of SMP 3D structures. PMID:27499417

  6. Multimaterial 4D Printing with Tailorable Shape Memory Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qi; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Lee, Howon; Dunn, Conner K.; Fang, Nicholas X.; Dunn, Martin L.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new 4D printing approach that can create high resolution (up to a few microns), multimaterial shape memory polymer (SMP) architectures. The approach is based on high resolution projection microstereolithography (PμSL) and uses a family of photo-curable methacrylate based copolymer networks. We designed the constituents and compositions to exhibit desired thermomechanical behavior (including rubbery modulus, glass transition temperature and failure strain which is more than 300% and larger than any existing printable materials) to enable controlled shape memory behavior. We used a high resolution, high contrast digital micro display to ensure high resolution of photo-curing methacrylate based SMPs that requires higher exposure energy than more common acrylate based polymers. An automated material exchange process enables the manufacture of 3D composite architectures from multiple photo-curable SMPs. In order to understand the behavior of the 3D composite microarchitectures, we carry out high fidelity computational simulations of their complex nonlinear, time-dependent behavior and study important design considerations including local deformation, shape fixity and free recovery rate. Simulations are in good agreement with experiments for a series of single and multimaterial components and can be used to facilitate the design of SMP 3D structures.

  7. Multimaterial 4D Printing with Tailorable Shape Memory Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qi; Sakhaei, Amir Hosein; Lee, Howon; Dunn, Conner K; Fang, Nicholas X; Dunn, Martin L

    2016-08-08

    We present a new 4D printing approach that can create high resolution (up to a few microns), multimaterial shape memory polymer (SMP) architectures. The approach is based on high resolution projection microstereolithography (PμSL) and uses a family of photo-curable methacrylate based copolymer networks. We designed the constituents and compositions to exhibit desired thermomechanical behavior (including rubbery modulus, glass transition temperature and failure strain which is more than 300% and larger than any existing printable materials) to enable controlled shape memory behavior. We used a high resolution, high contrast digital micro display to ensure high resolution of photo-curing methacrylate based SMPs that requires higher exposure energy than more common acrylate based polymers. An automated material exchange process enables the manufacture of 3D composite architectures from multiple photo-curable SMPs. In order to understand the behavior of the 3D composite microarchitectures, we carry out high fidelity computational simulations of their complex nonlinear, time-dependent behavior and study important design considerations including local deformation, shape fixity and free recovery rate. Simulations are in good agreement with experiments for a series of single and multimaterial components and can be used to facilitate the design of SMP 3D structures.

  8. SARA - SURE/ASSIST RELIABILITY ANALYSIS WORKSTATION (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    SARA, the SURE/ASSIST Reliability Analysis Workstation, is a bundle of programs used to solve reliability problems. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of four software packages that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation, including three for use in analyzing reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems and one for analyzing non-reconfigurable systems. The SARA bundle includes the three for reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST specification interface program (LAR-14193, LAR-14923), and PAWS/STEM reliability analysis programs (LAR-14165, LAR-14920). As indicated by the program numbers in parentheses, each of these three packages is also available separately in two machine versions. The fourth package, which is only available separately, is FTC, the Fault Tree Compiler (LAR-14586, LAR-14922). FTC is used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault tree which describes a non-reconfigurable system. PAWS/STEM and SURE are analysis programs which utilize different solution methods, but have a common input language, the SURE language. ASSIST is a preprocessor that generates SURE language from a more abstract definition. ASSIST, SURE, and PAWS/STEM are described briefly in the following paragraphs. For additional details about the individual packages, including pricing, please refer to their respective abstracts. ASSIST, the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool program, allows a reliability engineer to describe the failure behavior of a fault-tolerant computer system in an abstract, high-level language. The ASSIST program then automatically generates a corresponding semi-Markov model. A one-page ASSIST-language description may result in a semi-Markov model with thousands of states and

  9. SARA - SURE/ASSIST RELIABILITY ANALYSIS WORKSTATION (VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    SARA, the SURE/ASSIST Reliability Analysis Workstation, is a bundle of programs used to solve reliability problems. The mathematical approach chosen to solve a reliability problem may vary with the size and nature of the problem. The Systems Validation Methods group at NASA Langley Research Center has created a set of four software packages that form the basis for a reliability analysis workstation, including three for use in analyzing reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems and one for analyzing non-reconfigurable systems. The SARA bundle includes the three for reconfigurable, fault-tolerant systems: SURE reliability analysis program (COSMIC program LAR-13789, LAR-14921); the ASSIST specification interface program (LAR-14193, LAR-14923), and PAWS/STEM reliability analysis programs (LAR-14165, LAR-14920). As indicated by the program numbers in parentheses, each of these three packages is also available separately in two machine versions. The fourth package, which is only available separately, is FTC, the Fault Tree Compiler (LAR-14586, LAR-14922). FTC is used to calculate the top-event probability for a fault tree which describes a non-reconfigurable system. PAWS/STEM and SURE are analysis programs which utilize different solution methods, but have a common input language, the SURE language. ASSIST is a preprocessor that generates SURE language from a more abstract definition. ASSIST, SURE, and PAWS/STEM are described briefly in the following paragraphs. For additional details about the individual packages, including pricing, please refer to their respective abstracts. ASSIST, the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool program, allows a reliability engineer to describe the failure behavior of a fault-tolerant computer system in an abstract, high-level language. The ASSIST program then automatically generates a corresponding semi-Markov model. A one-page ASSIST-language description may result in a semi-Markov model with thousands of states and

  10. Human Modeling Evaluations in Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cynthia; Wheaton, Aneice; Hancock, Lorraine; Beierle, Jason; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide long-term missions which will enable the astronauts to live and work, as well as, conduct research in a microgravity environment. The dominant factor in space affecting the crew is "weightlessness" which creates a challenge for establishing workstation microgravity design requirements. The crewmembers will work at various workstations such as Human Research Facility (HRF), Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG). Since the crew will spend considerable amount of time at these workstations, it is critical that ergonomic design requirements are integral part of design and development effort. In order to achieve this goal, the Space Human Factors Laboratory in the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Support Division has been tasked to conduct integrated evaluations of workstations and associated crew restraints. Thus, a two-phase approach was used: 1) ground and microgravity evaluations of the physical dimensions and layout of the workstation components, and 2) human modeling analyses of the user interface. Computer-based human modeling evaluations were an important part of the approach throughout the design and development process. Human modeling during the conceptual design phase included crew reach and accessibility of individual equipment, as well as, crew restraint needs. During later design phases, human modeling has been used in conjunction with ground reviews and microgravity evaluations of the mock-ups in order to verify the human factors requirements. (Specific examples will be discussed.) This two-phase approach was the most efficient method to determine ergonomic design characteristics for workstations and restraints. The real-time evaluations provided a hands-on implementation in a microgravity environment. On the other hand, only a limited number of participants could be tested. The human modeling evaluations provided a more detailed analysis of the setup. The issues identified

  11. Synthesis, biological activities and pharmacokinetic properties of new fluorinated derivatives of selective PDE4D inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brullo, Chiara; Massa, Matteo; Villa, Carla; Ricciarelli, Roberta; Rivera, Daniela; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Fedele, Ernesto; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Bertoni, Simona; Flammini, Lisa; Bruno, Olga

    2015-07-01

    A new series of selective PDE4D inhibitors has been designed and synthesized by replacing 3-methoxy group with 3-difluoromethoxy isoster moiety in our previously reported cathecolic structures. All compounds showed a good PDE4D3 inhibitory activity, most of them being inactive toward other PDE4 isoforms (PDE4A4, PDE4B2 and PDE4C2). Compound 3b, chosen among the synthesized compounds as the most promising in terms of inhibitory activity, selectivity and safety, showed an improved pharmacokinetic profile compared to its non fluorinated analogue. Spontaneous locomotor activity, assessed in an open field apparatus, showed that, differently from rolipram and diazepam, selective PDE4D inhibitors, such as compounds 3b, 5b and 7b, did not affect locomotion, whereas compound 1b showed a tendency to reduce the distance traveled and to prolong the immobility period, possibly due to a poor selectivity.

  12. GENERALIZATION OF POSTURE TRAINING TO COMPUTER WORKSTATIONS IN AN APPLIED SETTING

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Ring, Brandon M; Needham, Mick; Boscoe, James H; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Improving employees' posture may decrease the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The current paper is a systematic replication and extension of Sigurdsson and Austin (2008), who found that an intervention consisting of information, real-time feedback, and self-monitoring improved participant posture at mock workstations. In the current study, participants worked in an applied setting, and posture data were collected at participants' own workstations and a mock workstation. Intervention in the mock setting was associated with consistent improvement in safe posture at the mock workstation, but generalization to the actual workstation was limited. PMID:21541108

  13. An integrated distributed processing interface for supercomputers and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.; McGavran, L.

    1989-01-01

    Access to documentation, communication between multiple processes running on heterogeneous computers, and animation of simulations of engineering problems are typically weak in most supercomputer environments. This presentation will describe how we are improving this situation in the Computer Research and Applications group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have developed a tool using UNIX filters and a SunView interface that allows users simple access to documentation via mouse driven menus. We have also developed a distributed application that integrated a two point boundary value problem on one of our Cray Supercomputers. It is controlled and displayed graphically by a window interface running on a workstation screen. Our motivation for this research has been to improve the usual typewriter/static interface using language independent controls to show capabilities of the workstation/supercomputer combination. 8 refs.

  14. Automated simulation as part of a design workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Elizabeth; Shenk, T.; Robinson, P.; Upadhye, R.

    1990-01-01

    A development project for a design workstation for advanced life-support systems (called the DAWN Project, for Design Assistant Workstation), incorporating qualitative simulation, required the implementation of a useful qualitative simulation capability and the integration of qualitative and quantitative simulation such that simulation capabilities are maximized without duplication. The reason is that to produce design solutions to a system goal, the behavior of the system in both a steady and perturbed state must be represented. The Qualitative Simulation Tool (QST), on an expert-system-like model building and simulation interface toll called ScratchPad (SP), and on the integration of QST and SP with more conventional, commercially available simulation packages now being applied in the evaluation of life-support system processes and components are discussed.

  15. A collaborative approach to lean laboratory workstation design reduces wasted technologist travel.

    PubMed

    Yerian, Lisa M; Seestadt, Joseph A; Gomez, Erron R; Marchant, Kandice K

    2012-08-01

    Lean methodologies have been applied in many industries to reduce waste. We applied Lean techniques to redesign laboratory workstations with the aim of reducing the number of times employees must leave their workstations to complete their tasks. At baseline in 68 workflows (aggregates or sequence of process steps) studied, 251 (38%) of 664 tasks required workers to walk away from their workstations. After analysis and redesign, only 59 (9%) of the 664 tasks required technologists to leave their workstations to complete these tasks. On average, 3.4 travel events were removed for each workstation. Time studies in a single laboratory section demonstrated that workers spend 8 to 70 seconds in travel each time they step away from the workstation. The redesigned workstations will allow employees to spend less time travelling around the laboratory. Additional benefits include employee training in waste identification, improved overall laboratory layout, and identification of other process improvement opportunities in our laboratory.

  16. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed...

  17. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed...

  18. 4D Printing with Mechanically Robust, Thermally Actuating Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bakarich, Shannon E; Gorkin, Robert; in het Panhuis, Marc; Spinks, Geoffrey M

    2015-06-01

    A smart valve is created by 4D printing of hydrogels that are both mechanically robust and thermally actuating. The printed hydrogels are made up of an interpenetrating network of alginate and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). 4D structures are created by printing the "dynamic" hydrogel ink alongside other static materials.

  19. Nearest Neighbor Search Applications for the Terasys Massively Parallel Workstation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    ANALYSES Nearest Neighbor Search Applications for the Terasys Massively Parallel Workstation Eric W. Johnson 00 ^«fciasn» ^ «RBOüSQ...thank Harold E. Conn for help with Tera- sys programming and for running the Terasys tests described in this report. The author would like to thank...USING THE TERASYS TO FIND NEAREST NEIGHBORS 9 4.1 Placing Sample Records in the Terasys 9 4.2 Placing Training Records in the Terasys 10 4.3

  20. Let's Use Cognitive Science to Create Collaborative Workstations.

    PubMed

    Reicher, Murray A; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-05-01

    When informed by an understanding of cognitive science, radiologists' workstations could become collaborative to improve radiologists' performance and job satisfaction. The authors review relevant literature and present several promising areas of research, including image toggling, eye tracking, cognitive computing, intelligently restricted messaging, work habit tracking, and innovative input devices. The authors call for more research in "perceptual design," a promising field that can complement advances in computer-aided detection.

  1. Supporting large scale applications on networks of workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    Distributed applications on networks of workstations are an increasingly common way to satisfy computing needs. However, existing mechanisms for distributed programming exhibit poor performance and reliability as application size increases. Extension of the ISIS distributed programming system to support large scale distributed applications by providing hierarchical process groups is discussed. Incorporation of hierarchy in the program structure and exploitation of this to limit the communication and storage required in any one component of the distributed system is examined.

  2. Parallel Computation of Unsteady Flows on a Network of Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Parallel computation of unsteady flows requires significant computational resources. The utilization of a network of workstations seems an efficient solution to the problem where large problems can be treated at a reasonable cost. This approach requires the solution of several problems: 1) the partitioning and distribution of the problem over a network of workstation, 2) efficient communication tools, 3) managing the system efficiently for a given problem. Of course, there is the question of the efficiency of any given numerical algorithm to such a computing system. NPARC code was chosen as a sample for the application. For the explicit version of the NPARC code both two- and three-dimensional problems were studied. Again both steady and unsteady problems were investigated. The issues studied as a part of the research program were: 1) how to distribute the data between the workstations, 2) how to compute and how to communicate at each node efficiently, 3) how to balance the load distribution. In the following, a summary of these activities is presented. Details of the work have been presented and published as referenced.

  3. ARCIMBOLDO_LITE: single-workstation implementation and use.

    PubMed

    Sammito, Massimo; Millán, Claudia; Frieske, Dawid; Rodríguez-Freire, Eloy; Borges, Rafael J; Usón, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    ARCIMBOLDO solves the phase problem at resolutions of around 2 Å or better through massive combination of small fragments and density modification. For complex structures, this imposes a need for a powerful grid where calculations can be distributed, but for structures with up to 200 amino acids in the asymmetric unit a single workstation may suffice. The use and performance of the single-workstation implementation, ARCIMBOLDO_LITE, on a pool of test structures with 40-120 amino acids and resolutions between 0.54 and 2.2 Å is described. Inbuilt polyalanine helices and iron cofactors are used as search fragments. ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES can also run on a single workstation to solve structures in this test set using precomputed libraries of local folds. The results of this study have been incorporated into an automated, resolution- and hardware-dependent parameterization. ARCIMBOLDO has been thoroughly rewritten and three binaries are now available: ARCIMBOLDO_LITE, ARCIMBOLDO_SHREDDER and ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES. The programs and libraries can be downloaded from http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE.

  4. Advances in 4D Treatment Planning for Scanned Particle Beam Therapy — Report of Dedicated Workshops

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Christoph; Graeff, Christian; Riboldi, Marco; Nill, Simeon; Baroni, Guido; Knopf, Antje-Christin

    2014-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the field of mobile tumor treatment with scanned particle beams, as discussed in the latest editions of the 4D treatment planning workshop. The workshop series started in 2009, with about 20 people from 4 research institutes involved, all actively working on particle therapy delivery and development. The first workshop resulted in a summary of recommendations for the treatment of mobile targets, along with a list of requirements to apply these guidelines clinically. The increased interest in the treatment of mobile tumors led to a continuously growing number of attendees: the 2012 edition counted more than 60 participants from 20 institutions and commercial vendors. The focus of research discussions among workshop participants progressively moved from 4D treatment planning to complete 4D treatments, aiming at effective and safe treatment delivery. Current research perspectives on 4D treatments include all critical aspects of time resolved delivery, such as in-room imaging, motion detection, beam application, and quality assurance techniques. This was motivated by the start of first clinical treatments of hepato cellular tumors with a scanned particle beam, relying on gating or abdominal compression for motion mitigation. Up to date research activities emphasize significant efforts in investigating advanced motion mitigation techniques, with a specific interest in the development of dedicated tools for experimental validation. Potential improvements will be made possible in the near future through 4D optimized treatment plans that require upgrades of the currently established therapy control systems for time resolved delivery. But since also these novel optimization techniques rely on the validity of the 4DCT, research focusing on alternative 4D imaging technique, such as MRI based 4DCT generation will continue. PMID:24354749

  5. Substitutional 4d and 5d impurities in graphene.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Lanza, Tomás; Ayuela, Andrés; Aguilera-Granja, Faustino

    2016-08-21

    We describe the structural and electronic properties of graphene doped with substitutional impurities of 4d and 5d transition metals. The adsorption energies and distances for 4d and 5d metals in graphene show similar trends for the later groups in the periodic table, which are also well-known characteristics of 3d elements. However, along earlier groups the 4d impurities in graphene show very similar adsorption energies, distances and magnetic moments to the 5d ones, which can be related to the influence of the 4d and 5d lanthanide contraction. Surprisingly, within the manganese group, the total magnetic moment of 3 μB for manganese is reduced to 1 μB for technetium and rhenium. We find that compared with 3d elements, the larger size of the 4d and 5d elements causes a high degree of hybridization with the neighbouring carbon atoms, reducing spin splitting in the d levels. It seems that the magnetic adjustment of graphene could be significantly different if 4d or 5d impurities are used instead of 3d impurities.

  6. Design method for multi-user workstations utilizing anthropometry and preference data.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Joseph M; Kurczewski, Nicolas A; Froede, Erick W

    2015-01-01

    Past efforts have been made to design single-user workstations to accommodate users' anthropometric and preference distributions. However, there is a lack of methods for designing workstations for group interaction. This paper introduces a method for sizing workstations to allow for a personal work area for each user and a shared space for adjacent users. We first create a virtual population with the same anthropometric and preference distributions as an intended demographic of college-aged students. Members of the virtual population are randomly paired to test if their extended reaches overlap but their normal reaches do not. This process is repeated in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the total percentage of groups in the population that will be accommodated for a workstation size. We apply our method to two test cases: in the first, we size polygonal workstations for two populations and, in the second, we dimension circular workstations for different group sizes.

  7. Advanced Terrain Representation for the Microticcit Workstation: System Maintenance Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    controlled by C50, R61 and R62. the VERT PHASE control. C48 couples this pulse into the "box car" one-shot Q25 where the reset pulse is generated at its...indicated for TICCIT to operate properly. Fail- ure to reset the switches as indicated will degrade the perfor- mance of the MicroTICCIT workstation. 19...in case new ones are illegal */ oldx - x; oldy • y; oldz « z; I /* reset flag indicating joystick movement */ sameframe • FALSE; /* calculate

  8. Worksheets for computing recommended notebook computer and workstation adjustments.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Udomratana, Chatkate; Hansawad, Saowalak; Thepkanjana, Jayaporn; Tantasuwan, Wanchalerm

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and development of worksheets for helping notebook computer (NBC) users to compute NBC and workstation adjustments so as to assume an appropriate seated posture. The worksheets (one for male users, the other for female ones) require the following information: body height, NBC screen size, work surface height, and seat height. The worksheets contain tables for estimating recommended NBC base angle, NBC screen angle, body-NBC distance, work surface height, and seat height. Additionally, they include flow charts to help NBC users to determine necessary adjustment accessories and their settings.

  9. Oscillator strengths and branching fractions of 4d75p-4d75s Rh II transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2017-01-01

    This work reports semi-empirical determination of oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and branching fractions for Rh II 4d75p-4d75s transitions in a wide wavelength range. The angular coefficients of the transition matrix, beforehand obtained in pure SL coupling with help of Racah algebra are transformed into intermediate coupling using eigenvector amplitudes of these two configuration levels determined for this purpose; The transition integral was treated as free parameter in the least squares fit to experimental oscillator strength (gf) values found in literature. The extracted value: <4d75s|r1|4d75p> =2.7426 ± 0.0007 is slightly smaller than that computed by means of ab-initio method. Subsequently to oscillator strength evaluations, transition probabilities and branching fractions were deduced and compared to those obtained experimentally or through another approach like pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock model including core-polarization effects.

  10. Application of EVA guidelines and design criteria. Volume 2: EVA workstation conceptual designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Several EV workstation concepts were developed and are documented. The workstation concepts were developed following a comprehensive analysis of potential EV missions, functions, and tasks as interpreted from NASA and contractor space shuttle and space station studies, mission models, and related reports. The design of a versatile, portable EVA workstation is aimed at reducing the design and development costs for each mission and aiding in the development of on-orbit serviceable payloads.

  11. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E.; Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D.; Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve

  12. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Buhamrah, Asma; Schneider, Abraham; Lin, Yi-Ling; Zhou, Hua; Bugshan, Amr; Basile, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects. PMID:26910109

  13. Soil matrix and macropore biodegradation of 2,4-D

    SciTech Connect

    Pivetz, B.E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    1995-07-01

    Preferential flow of pesticides in macropores can lead to decreased travel times through the vadose zone and increased groundwater contamination. Macropores, however, may present a favorable environment for biodegradation because of greater oxygen, nutrient, and substrate supply, and higher microbial populations in earthworm burrows, compared to the soil matrix. The biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was measured in macropores and soil matrix of packed soil columns (7.0-cm diam., 10-cm length) and undisturbed cores contained as well-defined artificial macropore and the undisturbed cores contained earthworm-burrow macropores. A 50 {mu}g/L 2,4-D solution was continuously applied to the unsaturated soil surface and breakthrough curves (BTCs) indicating pesticide loss in the effluent were obtained from the soil matrix and macropore flow paths. Biodegradation rates were calculated separately for each flow path by comparing the BTCs to BTCs representing abiotic conditions, and dividing the 2,4-D loss by the travel time through each flow path. The biodegradation rates increased with time in both flow paths, and the final biodegradation rate in the macropore region surpassed that of the matrix, presumably because of increased microbial populations in the macropore. Complete loss of the 2,4-D in both flow paths was observed after continuous application of 2,4-D for 400 h, with maximum column-averaged 2,4-D loss rates of 0.879 {mu}g/(L h) in the matrix and 1.073 {mu}g/(L h) in the macropore. Biodegradation of 2,4-D was also observed in the macropore and matrix regions of the undisturbed soil cores. 19 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Buhamrah, Asma; Schneider, Abraham; Lin, Yi-Ling; Zhou, Hua; Bugshan, Amr; Basile, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects.

  15. Workout at work: laboratory test of psychological and performance outcomes of active workstations.

    PubMed

    Sliter, Michael; Yuan, Zhenyu

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns over the obesity epidemic in the United States and other developed countries, many organizations have taken steps to incorporate healthy workplace practices. However, most workers are still sedentary throughout the day--a major contributor to individual weight gain. The current study sought to gather preliminary evidence of the efficacy of active workstations, which are a possible intervention that could increase employees' physical activity while they are working. We conducted an experimental study, in which boredom, task satisfaction, stress, arousal, and performance were evaluated and compared across 4 randomly assigned conditions: seated workstation, standing workstation, cycling workstation, and walking workstation. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits were examined as moderators to determine whether differences in these variables would relate to increased benefits in active conditions. The results (n = 180) showed general support for the benefits of walking workstations, whereby participants in the walking condition had higher satisfaction and arousal and experienced less boredom and stress than those in the passive conditions. Cycling workstations, on the other hand, tended to relate to reduced satisfaction and performance when compared with other conditions. The moderators did not impact these relationships, indicating that walking workstations might have psychological benefits to individuals, regardless of BMI and exercise habits. The results of this study are a preliminary step in understanding the work implications of active workstations.

  16. Predicting lower mantle heterogeneity from 4-D Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flament, Nicolas; Williams, Simon; Müller, Dietmar; Gurnis, Michael; Bower, Dan J.

    2016-04-01

    basal layer ˜ 4% denser than ambient mantle. Increasing convective vigour (Ra ≈ 5 x 108) or decreasing the density of the basal layer decreases both the accuracy and sensitivity of the predicted lower mantle structure. References: D. J. Bower, M. Gurnis, N. Flament, Assimilating lithosphere and slab history in 4-D Earth models. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 238, 8-22 (2015). V. Lekic, S. Cottaar, A. Dziewonski, B. Romanowicz, Cluster analysis of global lower mantle tomography: A new class of structure and implications for chemical heterogeneity. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 357, 68-77 (2012).

  17. Accessible microscopy workstation for students and scientists with mobility impairments.

    PubMed

    Duerstock, Bradley S

    2006-01-01

    An integrated accessible microscopy workstation was designed and developed to allow persons with mobility impairments to control all aspects of light microscopy with minimal human assistance. This system, named AccessScope, is capable of performing brightfield and fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and tissue morphometry requisite for undergraduate science courses to graduate-level research. An accessible microscope is necessary for students and scientists with mobility impairments to be able to use a microscope independently to better understand microscopical imaging concepts and cell biology. This knowledge is not always apparent by simply viewing a catalog of histological images. The ability to operate a microscope independently eliminates the need to hire an assistant or rely on a classmate and permits one to take practical laboratory examinations by oneself. Independent microscope handling is also crucial for graduate students and scientists with disabilities to perform scientific research. By making a personal computer as the user interface for controlling AccessScope functions, different upper limb mobility impairments could be accommodated by using various computer input devices and assistive technology software. Participants with a range of upper limb mobility impairments evaluated the prototype microscopy workstation. They were able to control all microscopy functions including loading different slides without assistance.

  18. Development of a reactor engineering workstation at Seabrook station

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, M.A.; Gorski, J.P. ); Gurney, P.V. )

    1992-01-01

    The reactor engineers at Seabrook station are responsible for supporting plant operation with respect to the current reactor core design. Advanced assembly designs, complex reactor core loading patterns, and emphasis on efficient and safe operation puts a greater demand on the reactor engineer. The traditional use of static data constants and coarse core modeling, in light of the more complex fuel and core designs of today, results in less than optimum monitoring and predicting tools for the reactor engineer. The incorporation of an advanced three-dimensional nodal code with thermal feedbacks and detailed spatial modeling along with the ability to follow current operational history on a state-of-the-art workstation provides the reactor engineer with a dynamic core monitoring and predictive tool. This approach allows for more accurate and efficient completion of the reactor engineer's tasks. Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) is currently in the process of providing advanced reactor physics nodal methods to the reactor engineers at Seabrook station. The scope of this project is to supply a reactor engineering workstation with a simplified user interface to an advanced nodal core model as part of an on-line core monitor/predictor for standard reactor engineering calculations. It uses the Studsvik Core Management System (CMS), which primarily consists of the CASMO-3 cross-section generating code and the SIMULATE-3 three-dimensional two-group nodal reactor analysis code.

  19. Scheduling revisited workstations in integrated-circuit fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline, Paul J.

    1992-01-01

    The cost of building new semiconductor wafer fabrication factories has grown rapidly, and a state-of-the-art fab may cost 250 million dollars or more. Obtaining an acceptable return on this investment requires high productivity from the fabrication facilities. This paper describes the Photo Dispatcher system which was developed to make machine-loading recommendations on a set of key fab machines. Dispatching policies that generally perform well in job shops (e.g., Shortest Remaining Processing Time) perform poorly for workstations such as photolithography which are visited several times by the same lot of silicon wafers. The Photo Dispatcher evaluates the history of workloads throughout the fab and identifies bottleneck areas. The scheduler then assigns priorities to lots depending on where they are headed after photolithography. These priorities are designed to avoid starving bottleneck workstations and to give preference to lots that are headed to areas where they can be processed with minimal waiting. Other factors considered by the scheduler to establish priorities are the nearness of a lot to the end of its process flow and the time that the lot has already been waiting in queue. Simulations that model the equipment and products in one of Texas Instrument's wafer fabs show the Photo Dispatcher can produce a 10 percent improvement in the time required to fabricate integrated circuits.

  20. True 4D Image Denoising on the GPU.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Anders; Andersson, Mats; Knutsson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The use of image denoising techniques is an important part of many medical imaging applications. One common application is to improve the image quality of low-dose (noisy) computed tomography (CT) data. While 3D image denoising previously has been applied to several volumes independently, there has not been much work done on true 4D image denoising, where the algorithm considers several volumes at the same time. The problem with 4D image denoising, compared to 2D and 3D denoising, is that the computational complexity increases exponentially. In this paper we describe a novel algorithm for true 4D image denoising, based on local adaptive filtering, and how to implement it on the graphics processing unit (GPU). The algorithm was applied to a 4D CT heart dataset of the resolution 512  × 512  × 445  × 20. The result is that the GPU can complete the denoising in about 25 minutes if spatial filtering is used and in about 8 minutes if FFT-based filtering is used. The CPU implementation requires several days of processing time for spatial filtering and about 50 minutes for FFT-based filtering. The short processing time increases the clinical value of true 4D image denoising significantly.

  1. Motion management with phase-adapted 4D-optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohadani, Omid; Seco, Joao; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Cancer treatment with ionizing radiation is often compromised by organ motion, in particular for lung cases. Motion uncertainties can significantly degrade an otherwise optimized treatment plan. We present a spatiotemporal optimization method, which takes into account all phases of breathing via the corresponding 4D-CTs and provides a 4D-optimal plan that can be delivered throughout all breathing phases. Monte Carlo dose calculations are employed to warrant for highest dosimetric accuracy, as pertinent to study motion effects in lung. We demonstrate the performance of this optimization method with clinical lung cancer cases and compare the outcomes to conventional gating techniques. We report significant improvements in target coverage and in healthy tissue sparing at a comparable computational expense. Furthermore, we show that the phase-adapted 4D-optimized plans are robust against irregular breathing, as opposed to gating. This technique has the potential to yield a higher delivery efficiency and a decisively shorter delivery time.

  2. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere 4D-Var: Formulation and Sensitivity Analysis Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngodock, Hans; Carrier, Matthew; Xu, Liang; Amerault, Clark; Campbell, Tim; Rowley, Clark

    2016-04-01

    The US Navy is currently developing the first coupled ocean-atmosphere four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to be used for short-term regional forecasting. This project merges the 4D-Var capabilities of the atmospheric component of the Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS©) with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). This will provide the coupled ocean-atmosphere forecast with a fully balanced analysis that accounts for all combined observations in both primary fluids (i.e. ocean and atmosphere). In this present work, the formulation of the system is presented in detail along with a series of adjoint sensitivity analysis results using the coupled ocean-atmosphere adjoint model. The sensitivity of the atmosphere (ocean) to each ocean (atmosphere) model variable is analyzed in detail in order to illustrate the usefulness of this approach in the coupled data assimilation system.

  3. 3D/4D sonography - any safety problem.

    PubMed

    Pooh, Ritsuko K; Maeda, Kazuo; Kurjak, Asim; Sen, Cihat; Ebrashy, Alaa; Adra, Abdallah; Dayyabu, Aliyu Labaran; Wataganara, Tuangsit; de Sá, Renato Augusto Moreira; Stanojevic, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Gray-scale image data are processed in 3D ultrasound by repeated scans of multiple planes within a few seconds to achieve one surface rendering image and three perpendicular plane images. The 4D image is achieved by repeating 3D images in short intervals, i.e. 3D and 4D ultrasound are based on simple B-mode images. During 3D/4D acquisition, a fetus in utero is exposed by ultrasound beam for only a few seconds, and it is as short as real-time B-mode scanning. Therefore, simple 3D imaging is as safe as a simple B-mode scan. The 4D ultrasound is also as safe as a simple B-mode scan, but the ultrasound exposure should be shorter than 30 min. The thermal index (TI) and mechanical index (MI) should both be lower than 1.0, and the ultrasound study is regulated by the Doppler ultrasound if it is combined with simple 3D or 4D ultrasound. Recently, some articles have reported the functional changes of animal fetal brain neuronal cells and liver cell apoptosis with Doppler ultrasound. We discuss cell apoptosis by ultrasound in this report. Diagnostic ultrasound safety is achieved by controlling the output pulse and continuous ultrasound waves using thermal and mechanical indices, which should be <1.0 in abdominal and transvaginal scan, pulsed Doppler, as well as 3D and 4D ultrasound. The lowest spatial peak temporal average (SPTA) intensity of the ultrasound to suppress cultured cell growth is 240 mW/cm2, below which no ultrasound effect has been reported. An ultrasound user must be trained to recognize the ultrasound bioeffects; thermal and mechanical indices, and how to reduce these when they are higher than 1.0 on the monitor display; and guide the proper use of the ultrasound under the ALARA principle, because the user is responsible for ensuring ultrasound safety.

  4. The 4-D approach to visual control of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1994-01-01

    Development of a 4-D approach to dynamic machine vision is described. Core elements of this method are spatio-temporal models oriented towards objects and laws of perspective projection in a foward mode. Integration of multi-sensory measurement data was achieved through spatio-temporal models as invariants for object recognition. Situation assessment and long term predictions were allowed through maintenance of a symbolic 4-D image of processes involving objects. Behavioral capabilities were easily realized by state feedback and feed-foward control.

  5. 4D ultrasound imaging - ethically justifiable in India?

    PubMed

    Indiran, Venkatraman

    2017-01-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound (real-time volume sonography), which has been used in the West since the last decade for the determination of gender as well as for bonding and entertainment of the parents, has become widely available in India in this decade. Here, I would like to discuss the ethical issues associated with 4D ultrasonography in India. These are self-referral, the use of the technology for non-medical indications, a higher possibility of the disclosure of the foetus' gender and safety concerns.

  6. 4D Near Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Using Highly Temporal LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Canli, Ekrem; Schmitz, Evelyn; Crommelinck, Sophie; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed extensive applications of 3D environmental monitoring with the LiDAR technology, also referred to as laser scanning. Although several automatic methods were developed to extract environmental parameters from LiDAR point clouds, only little research has focused on highly multitemporal near real-time LiDAR (4D-LiDAR) for environmental monitoring. Large potential of applying 4D-LiDAR is given for landscape objects with high and varying rates of change (e.g. plant growth) and also for phenomena with sudden unpredictable changes (e.g. geomorphological processes). In this presentation we will report on the most recent findings of the research projects 4DEMON (http://uni-heidelberg.de/4demon) and NoeSLIDE (https://geomorph.univie.ac.at/forschung/projekte/aktuell/noeslide/). The method development in both projects is based on two real-world use cases: i) Surface parameter derivation of agricultural crops (e.g. crop height) and ii) change detection of landslides. Both projects exploit the "full history" contained in the LiDAR point cloud time series. One crucial initial step of 4D-LiDAR analysis is the co-registration over time, 3D-georeferencing and time-dependent quality assessment of the LiDAR point cloud time series. Due to the high amount of datasets (e.g. one full LiDAR scan per day), the procedure needs to be performed fully automatically. Furthermore, the online near real-time 4D monitoring system requires to set triggers that can detect removal or moving of tie reflectors (used for co-registration) or the scanner itself. This guarantees long-term data acquisition with high quality. We will present results from a georeferencing experiment for 4D-LiDAR monitoring, which performs benchmarking of co-registration, 3D-georeferencing and also fully automatic detection of events (e.g. removal/moving of reflectors or scanner). Secondly, we will show our empirical findings of an ongoing permanent LiDAR observation of a landslide (Gresten

  7. Volumetric limiting spatial resolution analysis of four dimensional digital subtraction angiography (4D-DSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Brian; Oberstar, Erick; Royalty, Kevin; Schafer, Sebastian; Strother, Charles; Mistretta, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Static C-Arm CT 3D FDK baseline reconstructions (3D-DSA) are unable to provide temporal information to radiologists. 4D-DSA provides a time series of 3D volumes implementing a constrained image, thresholded 3D-DSA, reconstruction utilizing temporal dynamics in the 2D projections. Volumetric limiting spatial resolution (VLSR) of 4DDSA is quantified and compared to a 3D-DSA reconstruction using the same 3D-DSA parameters. Investigated were the effects of varying over significant ranges the 4D-DSA parameters of 2D blurring kernel size applied to the projection and threshold applied to the 3D-DSA when generating the constraining image of a scanned phantom (SPH) and an electronic phantom (EPH). The SPH consisted of a 76 micron tungsten wire encased in a 47 mm O.D. plastic radially concentric thin walled support structure. An 8-second/248-frame/198° scan protocol acquired the raw projection data. VLSR was determined from averaged MTF curves generated from each 2D transverse slice of every (248) 4D temporal frame (3D). 4D results for SPH and EPH were compared to the 3D-DSA. Analysis of the 3D-DSA resulted in a VLSR of 2.28 and 1.69 lp/mm for the EPH and SPH respectively. Kernel (2D) sizes of either 10x10 or 20x20 pixels with a threshold of 10% of the 3D-DSA as a constraining image provided 4D-DSA VLSR nearest to the 3D-DSA. 4D-DSA algorithms yielded 2.21 and 1.67 lp/mm with a percent error of 3.1% and 1.2% for the EPH and SPH respectively as compared to the 3D-DSA. This research indicates 4D-DSA is capable of retaining the resolution of the 3D-DSA.

  8. The Working Postures among Schoolchildren--Controlled Intervention Study on the Effects of Newly Designed Workstations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Lea; Nygrd, Clas-H kan; Rimpel, Arja; Nummi, Tapio; Kaukiainen, Anneli

    2007-01-01

    Background: School workstations are often inappropriate in not offering an optimal sitting posture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individually adjustable saddle-type chairs with wheels and desks with comfort curve and arm support on schoolchildren's working postures compared to conventional workstations. Methods:…

  9. Combining Workstation Design and Performance Management to Increase Ergonomically Correct Computer Typing Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra; Austin, John

    2008-01-01

    The effects of workstation changes and a performance management (PM) package on seven typing postures were examined for seven office workers. Workstation adjustments were implemented first. Two participants increased five safe postures by 50% or more. The effects of a PM package on postures that did not improve by 50% were then examined using a…

  10. Parallel Simulation of Subsonic Fluid Dynamics on a Cluster of Workstations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    inside wind musical instruments. Typical simulations achieve $80\\%$ parallel efficiency (speedup/processors) using 20 HP-Apollo workstations. Detailed...TERMS AI, MIT, Artificial Intelligence, Distributed Computing, Workstation Cluster, Network, Fluid Dynamics, Musical Instruments 17. SECURITY...for example, the flow of air inside wind musical instruments. Typical simulations achieve 80% parallel efficiency (speedup/processors) using 20 HP

  11. Enterococcus faecalis promotes osteoclastogenesis and semaphorin 4D expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Deng, Zuhui; Seneviratne, Chaminda J; Cheung, Gary S P; Jin, Lijian; Zhao, Baohong; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-10-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is considered a major bacterial pathogen implicated in endodontic infections and contributes considerably to periapical periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms by which E. faecalis accounts for the bone destruction in periapical periodontitis in vitro. Osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells were treated with E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and a wild strain of E. faecalis derived clinically from an infected root canal. The results showed that, to some extent, E. faecalis induced the RAW264.7 cells to form tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated osteoclast-like cells. This pathogen markedly stimulated RAW264.7 cells to express semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), which inhibits bone formation. Once RAW264.7 cells were primed by low-dose receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), E. faecalis could significantly increase the production of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and up-regulate the expression of osteoclast-specific markers, including NFATc1, TRAP and cathepsin K. Both p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways were activated by E. faecalis in RANKL-primed RAW264.7 cells, and meanwhile the expression of Sema4D was highly increased. In conclusion, E. faecalis may greatly contribute to the bone resorption in periapical periodontitis by promoting RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis and expression of Sema4D through activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways.

  12. The technology and performance of 4D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Obruchkov, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in 4D ultrasound imaging technology allow clinicians to obtain not only rich visual information but also quantitative data that can be used for diagnosis and treatment. Some argue that the extension of 2D ultrasound is unnecessary and does not offer any benefits to diagnosis, while others argue that it is possible to better assess an abnormality in 3D than 2D. Anatomy can be reconstructed in perspectives that were never seen with conventional 2D US imaging. Advanced rendering techniques in three dimensions can be customized to be sensitive to specific pathology, thus making diagnosis more accurate. Volume and function of certain anatomical components can be measured with greater accuracy. This article reviews physical principles behind the ultrasound technology, how they are applied to advance the field of ultrasound imaging, and maybe reach its limits. Advances in ultrasound technology make 4D ultrasound imaging faster and less dependent on the operator's expertise, thus opening up more research possibilities in the fields of data processing and visualization. Currently, 4D ultrasound is extensively used in the field of obstetrics and interven-tional radiology. The goal of 4D ultrasound is to overcome the limitations posed by its predecessor technology and to be more clinically useful as an imaging tool.

  13. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4 - D ) ; CASRN 94 - 75 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  14. 4D flow mri post-processing strategies for neuropathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrauben, Eric Mathew

    4D flow MRI allows for the measurement of a dynamic 3D velocity vector field. Blood flow velocities in large vascular territories can be qualitatively visualized with the added benefit of quantitative probing. Within cranial pathologies theorized to have vascular-based contributions or effects, 4D flow MRI provides a unique platform for comprehensive assessment of hemodynamic parameters. Targeted blood flow derived measurements, such as flow rate, pulsatility, retrograde flow, or wall shear stress may provide insight into the onset or characterization of more complex neuropathologies. Therefore, the thorough assessment of each parameter within the context of a given disease has important medical implications. Not surprisingly, the last decade has seen rapid growth in the use of 4D flow MRI. Data acquisition sequences are available to researchers on all major scanner platforms. However, the use has been limited mostly to small research trials. One major reason that has hindered the more widespread use and application in larger clinical trials is the complexity of the post-processing tasks and the lack of adequate tools for these tasks. Post-processing of 4D flow MRI must be semi-automated, fast, user-independent, robust, and reliably consistent for use in a clinical setting, within large patient studies, or across a multicenter trial. Development of proper post-processing methods coupled with systematic investigation in normal and patient populations pushes 4D flow MRI closer to clinical realization while elucidating potential underlying neuropathological origins. Within this framework, the work in this thesis assesses venous flow reproducibility and internal consistency in a healthy population. A preliminary analysis of venous flow parameters in healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients is performed in a large study employing 4D flow MRI. These studies are performed in the context of the chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency hypothesis. Additionally, a

  15. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  16. HiRel - Reliability/availability integrated workstation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Dugan, Joanne B.

    1992-01-01

    The HiRel software tool is described and demonstrated by application to the mission avionics subsystem of the Advanced System Integration Demonstrations (ASID) system that utilizes the PAVE PILLAR approach. HiRel marks another accomplishment toward the goal of producing a totally integrated computer-aided design (CAD) workstation design capability. Since a reliability engineer generally represents a reliability model graphically before it can be solved, the use of a graphical input description language increases productivity and decreases the incidence of error. The graphical postprocessor module HARPO makes it possible for reliability engineers to quickly analyze huge amounts of reliability/availability data to observe trends due to exploratory design changes. The addition of several powerful HARP modeling engines provides the user with a reliability/availability modeling capability for a wide range of system applications all integrated under a common interactive graphical input-output capability.

  17. Braccio di Ferro: a new haptic workstation for neuromotor rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Maura; Sanguineti, Vittorio; Morasso, Pietro G; Arrichiello, Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    This technical note describes a new robotic workstation for neurological rehabilitation, shortly named Braccio di Ferro. It has been designed by having in mind the range of forces and the frequency bandwidth that characterize the interaction between a patient and a physical therapist, as well as a number of requirements that we think are essential for allowing a natural haptic interaction: back-driveability, very low friction and inertia, mechanical robustness, the possibility to operate in different planes, and an open software environment, which allows the operator to add new functionalities and design personalized rehabilitation protocols. Braccio di Ferro is an open system and, in the spirit of open source design, is intended to foster the dissemination of robot therapy. Moreover, its combination of features is not present in commercially available systems.

  18. Metals in dust fractions emitted at mechanical workstations.

    PubMed

    Kondej, Dorota; Gawęda, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Workers at metal machining workstations are exposed to airborne dust particles containing metals and their compounds. Their harmful impact on the workers' health depends on both their chemical composition and their distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the content of metals in dust fractions emitted in the process of mechanical machining of products made of brass, steel and cast iron. Samples taken during grinding, turning and drilling were tested. The concentration of metals in dust fractions was determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of iron, manganese, chromium, zinc, lead, copper and nickel in the dust fractions was highly differentiated depending on the size of the particles, the material and the processes used.

  19. C3 generic workstation: Performance metrics and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, Douglas R.

    1988-01-01

    The large number of integrated dependent measures available on a command, control, and communications (C3) generic workstation under development are described. In this system, embedded communications tasks will manipulate workload to assess the effects of performance-enhancing drugs (sleep aids and decongestants), work/rest cycles, biocybernetics, and decision support systems on performance. Task performance accuracy and latency will be event coded for correlation with other measures of voice stress and physiological functioning. Sessions will be videotaped to score non-verbal communications. Physiological recordings include spectral analysis of EEG, ECG, vagal tone, and EOG. Subjective measurements include SWAT, fatigue, POMS and specialized self-report scales. The system will be used primarily to evaluate the effects on performance of drugs, work/rest cycles, and biocybernetic concepts. Performance assessment algorithms will also be developed, including those used with small teams. This system provides a tool for integrating and synchronizing behavioral and psychophysiological measures in a complex decision-making environment.

  20. Ergonomic assessment of selected workstations on a merchant ship.

    PubMed

    Krystosik-Gromadzińska, Agata

    2017-01-23

    This study describes some key ergonomic factors within the engine room, navigation bridge and other locations of a merchant ship. Ergonomic assessments were carried out on a crew of a merchant ship. The study examines the importance of factors such as noise, vibration, heat radiation (in machinery areas), psychological stress and ergonomics of the physical arrangement of the navigation bridge. It also addresses the effect of working in confined areas for a long duration and the need to process large amounts of data, decision-making and the influence of specific operating conditions in different areas of a ship. This study includes analysis of workstations, working methods and the burden of environmental factors as well as a discussion of specific marine environmental conditions such as confined working and leisure spaces, long-term family and sociocultural separation, frequent changes in climate and time zones, and temporary physical overload and long-term psychological burdens.

  1. Automated simulation as part of a design workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E.; Shenk, T.; Robinson, P.; Upadhye, R.

    1990-01-01

    A development project for a design workstation for advanced life-support systems incorporating qualitative simulation, required the implementation of a useful qualitative simulation capability and the integration of qualitative and quantitative simulations, such that simulation capabilities are maximized without duplication. The reason is that to produce design solutions to a system goal, the behavior of the system in both a steady and perturbed state must be represented. The paper reports on the Qualitative Simulation Tool (QST), on an expert-system-like model building and simulation interface toll called ScratchPad (SP), and on the integration of QST and SP with more conventional, commercially available simulation packages now being applied in the evaluation of life-support system processes and components.

  2. Diagnostic workstation for digital hand atlas in bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Huang, H. K.; Pietka, Ewa; Gilsanz, Vicente; Ominsky, Steven

    1998-06-01

    Bone age assessment by a radiological examination of a hand and wrist image is a procedure frequently performed in pediatric patients to evaluate growth disorders, determine growth potential in children and monitor therapy effects. The assessment method currently used in radiological diagnosis is based on atlas matching of the diagnosed hand image with the reference set of atlas patterns, which was developed in 1950s and is not fully applicable for children of today. We intent to implement a diagnostic workstation for creating a new reference set of clinically normal images which will serve as a digital atlas and can be used for a computer-assisted bone age assessment. In this paper, we present the initial data- collection and system setup phase of this five-year research program. We describe the system design, user interface implementation and software tool development for collection, visualization, management and processing of clinically normal hand and wrist images.

  3. Performance Comparison of Mainframe, Workstations, Clusters, and Desktop Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    A performance evaluation of a variety of computers frequently found in a scientific or engineering research environment was conducted using a synthetic and application program benchmarks. From a performance perspective, emerging commodity processors have superior performance relative to legacy mainframe computers. In many cases, the PC clusters exhibited comparable performance with traditional mainframe hardware when 8-12 processors were used. The main advantage of the PC clusters was related to their cost. Regardless of whether the clusters were built from new computers or whether they were created from retired computers their performance to cost ratio was superior to the legacy mainframe computers. Finally, the typical annual maintenance cost of legacy mainframe computers is several times the cost of new equipment such as multiprocessor PC workstations. The savings from eliminating the annual maintenance fee on legacy hardware can result in a yearly increase in total computational capability for an organization.

  4. Workstations for people with disabilities: an example of a virtual reality approach

    PubMed Central

    Budziszewski, Paweł; Grabowski, Andrzej; Milanowicz, Marcin; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a method of adapting workstations for workers with motion disability using computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) techniques. A workstation for grinding spring faces was used as an example. It was adjusted for two people with a disabled right upper extremity. The study had two stages. In the first, a computer human model with a visualization of maximal arm reach and preferred workspace was used to develop a preliminary modification of a virtual workstation. In the second stage, an immersive VR environment was used to assess the virtual workstation and to add further modifications. All modifications were assessed by measuring the efficiency of work and the number of movements involved. The results of the study showed that a computer simulation could be used to determine whether a worker with a disability could access all important areas of a workstation and to propose necessary modifications. PMID:26651540

  5. Workstations for people with disabilities: an example of a virtual reality approach.

    PubMed

    Budziszewski, Paweł; Grabowski, Andrzej; Milanowicz, Marcin; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a method of adapting workstations for workers with motion disability using computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) techniques. A workstation for grinding spring faces was used as an example. It was adjusted for two people with a disabled right upper extremity. The study had two stages. In the first, a computer human model with a visualization of maximal arm reach and preferred workspace was used to develop a preliminary modification of a virtual workstation. In the second stage, an immersive VR environment was used to assess the virtual workstation and to add further modifications. All modifications were assessed by measuring the efficiency of work and the number of movements involved. The results of the study showed that a computer simulation could be used to determine whether a worker with a disability could access all important areas of a workstation and to propose necessary modifications.

  6. 4D MR imaging using robust internal respiratory signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, CheukKai; Wen, Zhifei; Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, R. H. N.; van den Berg, C. A. T.; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Beddar, Sam

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using internal respiratory (IR) surrogates to sort four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance (MR) images. The 4D MR images were constructed by acquiring fast 2D cine MR images sequentially, with each slice scanned for more than one breathing cycle. The 4D volume was then sorted retrospectively using the IR signal. In this study, we propose to use multiple low-frequency components in the Fourier space as well as the anterior body boundary as potential IR surrogates. From these potential IR surrogates, we used a clustering algorithm to identify those that best represented the respiratory pattern to derive the IR signal. A study with healthy volunteers was performed to assess the feasibility of the proposed IR signal. We compared this proposed IR signal with the respiratory signal obtained using respiratory bellows. Overall, 99% of the IR signals matched the bellows signals. The average difference between the end inspiration times in the IR signal and bellows signal was 0.18 s in this cohort of matching signals. For the acquired images corresponding to the other 1% of non-matching signal pairs, the respiratory motion shown in the images was coherent with the respiratory phases determined by the IR signal, but not the bellows signal. This suggested that the IR signal determined by the proposed method could potentially correct the faulty bellows signal. The sorted 4D images showed minimal mismatched artefacts and potential clinical applicability. The proposed IR signal therefore provides a feasible alternative to effectively sort MR images in 4D.

  7. Evaluation of COPD's diaphragm motion extracted from 4D-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swastika, Windra; Masuda, Yoshitada; Kawata, Naoko; Matsumoto, Koji; Suzuki, Toshio; Iesato, Ken; Tada, Yuji; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Ohnishi, Takashi; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a method called intersection profile method to construct a 4D-MRI (3D+time) from time-series of 2D-MRI. The basic idea is to find the best matching of the intersection profile from the time series of 2D-MRI in sagittal plane (navigator slice) and time series of 2D-MRI in coronal plane (data slice). In this study, we use 4D-MRI to semiautomatically extract the right diaphragm motion of 16 subjects (8 healthy subjects and 8 COPD patients). The diaphragm motion is then evaluated quantitatively by calculating the displacement of each subjects and normalized it. We also generate phase-length map to view and locate paradoxical motion of the COPD patients. The quantitative results of the normalized displacement shows that COPD patients tend to have smaller displacement compared to healthy subjects. The average normalized displacement of total 8 COPD patients is 9.4mm and the average of normalized displacement of 8 healthy volunteers is 15.3mm. The generated phase-length maps show that not all of the COPD patients have paradoxical motion, however if it has paradoxical motion, the phase-length map is able to locate where does it occur.

  8. Combined convective and diffusive simulations: VERB-4D comparison with 17 March 2013 Van Allen Probes observations: VERB-4D

    SciTech Connect

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Kellerman, Adam C.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; Spence, Harlan E.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Baker, Daniel N.

    2015-11-19

    Our study focused on understanding the coupling between different electron populations in the inner magnetosphere and the various physical processes that determine evolution of electron fluxes at different energies. Observations during the 17 March 2013 storm and simulations with a newly developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt-4D (VERB-4D) are presented. This analysis of the drift trajectories of the energetic and relativistic electrons shows that electron trajectories at transitional energies with a first invariant on the scale of ~100 MeV/G may resemble ring current or relativistic electron trajectories depending on the level of geomagnetic activity. Simulations with the VERB-4D code including convection, radial diffusion, and energy diffusion are presented. Sensitivity simulations including various physical processes show how different acceleration mechanisms contribute to the energization of energetic electrons at transitional energies. In particular, the range of energies where inward transport is strongly influenced by both convection and radial diffusion are studied. Our results of the 4-D simulations are compared to Van Allen Probes observations at a range of energies including source, seed, and core populations of the energetic and relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere.

  9. Combined convective and diffusive simulations: VERB-4D comparison with 17 March 2013 Van Allen Probes observations: VERB-4D

    DOE PAGES

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Kellerman, Adam C.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; ...

    2015-11-19

    Our study focused on understanding the coupling between different electron populations in the inner magnetosphere and the various physical processes that determine evolution of electron fluxes at different energies. Observations during the 17 March 2013 storm and simulations with a newly developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt-4D (VERB-4D) are presented. This analysis of the drift trajectories of the energetic and relativistic electrons shows that electron trajectories at transitional energies with a first invariant on the scale of ~100 MeV/G may resemble ring current or relativistic electron trajectories depending on the level of geomagnetic activity. Simulations with the VERB-4D code including convection,more » radial diffusion, and energy diffusion are presented. Sensitivity simulations including various physical processes show how different acceleration mechanisms contribute to the energization of energetic electrons at transitional energies. In particular, the range of energies where inward transport is strongly influenced by both convection and radial diffusion are studied. Our results of the 4-D simulations are compared to Van Allen Probes observations at a range of energies including source, seed, and core populations of the energetic and relativistic electrons in the inner magnetosphere.« less

  10. SU-E-T-790: Validation of 4D Measurement-Guided Dose Reconstruction (MGDR) with OCTAVIUS 4D System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V; Leung, R; Wong, M; Law, G; Lee, K; Tung, S; Chan, M; Blanck, O

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To validate the MGDR of OCTAVIUS 4D system (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for quality assurance (QA) of volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT). Methods: 4D-MGDR measurements were divided into two parts: 1) square fields from 2×2 to 25×25 cm{sup 2} at 0°, 10° and 45° gantry, and 2) 8 VMAT plans (5 nasopharyngeal and 3 prostate) collapsed to gantry 40° in QA mode in Monaco v5.0 (Elekta, CMS, Maryland Heights, MO) were delivered on the OCTAVIUS 4D phantom with the OCTAVIUS 1500 detector plane perpendicular to either the incident beam to obtain the reconstructed dose (OCTA4D) or the 0° gantry axis to obtain the raw doses (OCTA3D) in Verisoft 6.1 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Raw measurements of OCTA3D were limited to < 45° gantry to avoid >0.5% variation of detector angular response with respect to 0° gantry as determined previously. Reconstructed OCTA4D and raw OCTA3D doses for all plans were compared at the same detector plane using γ criteria of 2% (local dose)/2mm and 3%/3mm criteria. Results: At gantry 0° and 10°, the γ results for all OCTA4D on detector plane coinciding with OCTA3D were over 90% at 2%/2mm except for the largest field (25×25 cm{sup 2} ) showing >88%. For square field at 45° gantry, γ passing rate is > 90% for fields smaller than 15x 15cm2 but < 80% for field size of 20 x20 cm{sup 2} upward. For VMAT, γ results showed 94% and 99% passing rate at 2%/2mm and 3%/3mm, respectively. Conclusion: OCTAVIUS 4D system has compromised accuracy in reconstructing dose away from the central beam axis, possibly due to the off-axis softening correction and errors of the percent depth dose data necessary as input for MGDR. Good results in VMAT delivery suggested that the system is relatively reliable for VMAT with small segments.

  11. Improved Respiratory Navigator Gating for Thoracic 4D flow MRI

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, Pim; Semaan, Edouard; Schnell, Susanne; Giri, Shivraman; Stankovic, Zoran; Carr, James; Barker, Alex J.; Markl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Thoracic and abdominal 4D flow MRI is typically acquired in combination with navigator respiration control which can result in highly variable scan efficiency (Seff) and thus total scan time due to inter-individual variability in breathing patterns. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of an improved respiratory control strategy based on diaphragm navigator gating with fixed Seff, respiratory driven phase encoding, and a navigator training phase. Methods 4D flow MRI of the thoracic aorta was performed in 10 healthy subjects at 1.5T and 3T systems for the in-vivo assessment of aortic time-resolved 3D blood flow velocities. For each subject, four 4D flow scans (1: conventional navigator gating, 2–4: new implementation with fixed Seff =60%, 80% and 100%) were acquired. Data analysis included semi-quantitative evaluation of image quality of the 4D flow magnitude images (image quality grading on a four point scale), 3D segmentation of the thoracic aorta, and voxel-by-voxel comparisons of systolic 3D flow velocity vector fields between scans. Results Conventional navigator gating resulted in variable Seff = 74±13% (range = 56% – 100%) due to inter-individual variability of respiration patterns. For scans 2–4, the the new navigator implementation was able to achieve predictable total scan times with stable Seff, only depending on heart rate. Semi- and fully quantitative analysis of image quality in 4D flow magnitude images was similar for the new navigator scheme compared to conventional navigator gating. For aortic systolic 3D velocities, good agreement was found between all new navigator settings (scan 2–4) with the conventional navigator gating (scan 1) with best performance for Seff = 80% (mean difference = −0.01; limits od agreement = 0.23, Pearson’s ρ=0.89, p <0.001). No significant differences for image quality or 3D systolic velocities were found for 1.5T compared to 3T. Conclusions The findings of this study demonstrate the

  12. 4D CT sorting based on patient internal anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Cerviño, Laura I.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-08-01

    Respiratory motion during free-breathing computed tomography (CT) scan may cause significant errors in target definition for tumors in the thorax and upper abdomen. A four-dimensional (4D) CT technique has been widely used for treatment simulation of thoracic and abdominal cancer radiotherapy. The current 4D CT techniques require retrospective sorting of the reconstructed CT slices oversampled at the same couch position. Most sorting methods depend on external surrogates of respiratory motion recorded by extra instruments. However, respiratory signals obtained from these external surrogates may not always accurately represent the internal target motion, especially when irregular breathing patterns occur. We have proposed a new sorting method based on multiple internal anatomical features for multi-slice CT scan acquired in the cine mode. Four features are analyzed in this study, including the air content, lung area, lung density and body area. We use a measure called spatial coherence to select the optimal internal feature at each couch position and to generate the respiratory signals for 4D CT sorting. The proposed method has been evaluated for ten cancer patients (eight with thoracic cancer and two with abdominal cancer). For nine patients, the respiratory signals generated from the combined internal features are well correlated to those from external surrogates recorded by the real-time position management (RPM) system (average correlation: 0.95 ± 0.02), which is better than any individual internal measures at 95% confidence level. For these nine patients, the 4D CT images sorted by the combined internal features are almost identical to those sorted by the RPM signal. For one patient with an irregular breathing pattern, the respiratory signals given by the combined internal features do not correlate well with those from RPM (correlation: 0.68 ± 0.42). In this case, the 4D CT image sorted by our method presents fewer artifacts than that from the RPM signal. Our

  13. Measurement and modeling of 4D live mouse heart volumes from CT time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, Arthur W.; Badea, Cristian T.; Pomerantz, Stuart M.; Mistry, Nilesh; Nave, Démian; Johnson, G. Allan

    2007-01-01

    In vivo quantitative studies of cardiac function in mouse models provide information about cardiac pathophysiology in more detail than can be obtained in humans. Quantitative measurements of left ventricular (LV) volume at multiple contractile phases are particularly important. However, the mouse heart's small size and rapid motion present challenges for precise measurement in live animals. Researchers at Duke University's Center for In Vivo Microscopy (CIVM) have developed noninvasive time-gated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) techniques providing the temporal and spatial resolutions required for in vivo characterization of cardiac structure and function. This paper describes analysis of the resulting reconstructions to produce volume measurements and corresponding models of heart motion. We believe these are the most precise noninvasive estimates of in vivo LV volume currently available. Our technique uses binary mixture models to directly recover volume estimates from reconstructed datasets. Unlike methods using segmentation followed by voxel counting, this approach provides statistical error estimates and maintains good precision at high noise levels. This is essential for long term multiple session experiments that must simultaneously minimize contrast agent and x-ray doses. The analysis tools are built into the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center's Volume Browser (PSC-VB) that provides networked multi-site data sharing and collaboration including analysis and visualization functions.

  14. Brain tissue segmentation in 4D CT using voxel classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boom, R.; Oei, M. T. H.; Lafebre, S.; Oostveen, L. J.; Meijer, F. J. A.; Steens, S. C. A.; Prokop, M.; van Ginneken, B.; Manniesing, R.

    2012-02-01

    A method is proposed to segment anatomical regions of the brain from 4D computer tomography (CT) patient data. The method consists of a three step voxel classification scheme, each step focusing on structures that are increasingly difficult to segment. The first step classifies air and bone, the second step classifies vessels and the third step classifies white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid. As features the time averaged intensity value and the temporal intensity change value were used. In each step, a k-Nearest-Neighbor classifier was used to classify the voxels. Training data was obtained by placing regions of interest in reconstructed 3D image data. The method has been applied to ten 4D CT cerebral patient data. A leave-one-out experiment showed consistent and accurate segmentation results.

  15. A new spin foam model for 4D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Krasnov, Kirill

    2008-06-01

    Starting from Plebanski formulation of gravity as a constrained BF theory we propose a new spin foam model for 4D Riemannian quantum gravity that generalizes the well-known Barrett Crane model and resolves the inherent to it ultra-locality problem. The BF formulation of 4D gravity possesses two sectors: gravitational and topological ones. The model presented here is shown to give a quantization of the gravitational sector, and is dual to the recently proposed spin foam model of Engle et al which, we show, corresponds to the topological sector. Our methods allow us to introduce the Immirzi parameter into the framework of spin foam quantization. We generalize some of our considerations to the Lorentzian setting and obtain a new spin foam model in that context as well.

  16. 4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, M. W.; Rothenberg, F.; Roy, D.; Nikolski, V. P.; Hu, Z.; Watanabe, M.; Wilson, D. L.; Efimov, I. R.; Rollins, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous imaging of very early embryonic heart structure and function has technical limitations of spatial and temporal resolution. We have developed a gated technique using optical coherence tomography (OCT) that can rapidly image beating embryonic hearts in four-dimensions (4D), at high spatial resolution (10-15 μm), and with a depth penetration of 1.5 - 2.0 mm that is suitable for the study of early embryonic hearts. We acquired data from paced, excised, embryonic chicken and mouse hearts using gated sampling and employed image processing techniques to visualize the hearts in 4D and measure physiologic parameters such as cardiac volume, ejection fraction, and wall thickness. This technique is being developed to longitudinally investigate the physiology of intact embryonic hearts and events that lead to congenital heart defects.

  17. Intelligent Vehicle Systems: A 4D/RCS Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, Raj

    2007-04-01

    This book presents new research on autonomous mobility capabilities and shows how technological advances can be anticipated in the coming two decades. An in-depth description is presented on the theoretical foundations and engineering approaches that enable these capabilities. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the 4D/RCS reference model architecture and design methodology that has proven successful in guiding the development of autonomous mobility systems. Chapters 2 through 7 provide more detailed descriptions of research that has been conducted and algorithms that have been developed to implement the various aspects of the 4D/RCS reference model architecture and design methodology. Chapters 8 and 9 discuss applications, performance measures, and standards. Chapter 10 provides a history of Army and DARPA research in autonomous ground mobility. Chapter 11 provides a perspective on the potential future developments in autonomous mobility.

  18. 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Dyverfeldt, Petter; Bissell, Malenka; Barker, Alex J; Bolger, Ann F; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino; Francios, Christopher J; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Geiger, Julia; Giese, Daniel; Hope, Michael D; Kilner, Philip J; Kozerke, Sebastian; Myerson, Saul; Neubauer, Stefan; Wieben, Oliver; Markl, Michael

    2015-08-10

    Pulsatile blood flow through the cavities of the heart and great vessels is time-varying and multidirectional. Access to all regions, phases and directions of cardiovascular flows has formerly been limited. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has enabled more comprehensive access to such flows, with typical spatial resolution of 1.5×1.5×1.5 - 3×3×3 mm(3), typical temporal resolution of 30-40 ms, and acquisition times in the order of 5 to 25 min. This consensus paper is the work of physicists, physicians and biomedical engineers, active in the development and implementation of 4D Flow CMR, who have repeatedly met to share experience and ideas. The paper aims to assist understanding of acquisition and analysis methods, and their potential clinical applications with a focus on the heart and greater vessels. We describe that 4D Flow CMR can be clinically advantageous because placement of a single acquisition volume is straightforward and enables flow through any plane across it to be calculated retrospectively and with good accuracy. We also specify research and development goals that have yet to be satisfactorily achieved. Derived flow parameters, generally needing further development or validation for clinical use, include measurements of wall shear stress, pressure difference, turbulent kinetic energy, and intracardiac flow components. The dependence of measurement accuracy on acquisition parameters is considered, as are the uses of different visualization strategies for appropriate representation of time-varying multidirectional flow fields. Finally, we offer suggestions for more consistent, user-friendly implementation of 4D Flow CMR acquisition and data handling with a view to multicenter studies and more widespread adoption of the approach in routine clinical investigations.

  19. Repairing Stevenson's step in the 4d Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, Janos; Niedermayer, Ferenc; Weisz, Peter

    2006-05-01

    In a recent paper Stevenson claimed that analysis of the data on the wave function renormalization constant near the critical point of the 4d Ising model is not consistent with analytical expectations. Here we present data with improved statistics and show that the results are indeed consistent with conventional wisdom once one takes into account the uncertainty of lattice artifacts in the analytical computations.

  20. Phosphodiesterase 4D gene polymorphisms in sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chen-Yu; Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Hsi, Edward; Chang, Ning-Chia; Wang, Hsun-Mo; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Kuen-Yao

    2016-09-01

    The phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) gene has been reported as a risk gene for ischemic stroke. The vascular factors are between the hypothesized etiologies of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), and this genetic effect might be attributed for its role in SSNHL. We hypothesized that genetic variants of the PDE4D gene are associated with susceptibility to SSNHL. We conducted a case-control study with 362 SSNHL cases and 209 controls. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected. The genotypes were determined using TaqMan technology. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested for each SNP, and genetic effects were evaluated according to three inheritance modes. We carried out sex-specific analysis to analyze the overall data. All three SNPs were in HWE. When subjects were stratified by sex, the genetic effect was only evident in females but not in males. The TT genotype of rs702553 exhibited an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.83 (95 % confidence interval = 1.46-11.18) (p = 0.006) in female SSNHL. The TT genotype of SNP rs702553 was associated with female SSNHL under the recessive model (p = 0.004, OR 3.70). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, TT genotype of rs702553 was significantly associated with female SSNHL (p = 0.0043, OR 3.70). These results suggest that PDE4D gene polymorphisms influence the susceptibility for the development of SSNHL in the southern Taiwanese female population.

  1. Real-time 4D ultrasound mosaicing and visualization.

    PubMed

    Brattain, Laura J; Howe, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Intra-cardiac 3D ultrasound imaging has enabled new minimally invasive procedures. Its narrow field of view, however, limits its efficacy in guiding beating heart procedures where geometrically complex and spatially extended moving anatomic structures are often involved. In this paper, we present a system that performs electrocardiograph gated 4D mosaicing and visualization of 3DUS volumes. Real-time operation is enabled by GPU implementation. The method is validated on phantom and porcine heart data.

  2. 2D:4D Ratio and its Implications in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jeevanandam, Saravanakumar

    2016-01-01

    Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females. Prenatal androgen exposure and therefore, digit ratios have been reported to be associated with numerical competencies, spatial skills, handedness, cognitive abilities, academic performance, sperm counts, personalities and prevalence of obesity, migraine, eating disorders, depression, myopia, autism etc. The authors have attempted to write a brief account on the digit ratios and the dimorphism observed in various physiological, psychological and behavioural traits. Also, the authors have discussed the relevant molecular basics and the methods of measurement of digit ratios. PMID:28208851

  3. 4D-Flow validation, numerical and experimental framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Kurt; Liu, Haining; Canton, Gador; Aliseda, Alberto; Yuan, Chun

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a group of assessment metrics of new 4D MRI flow sequences, an imaging modality that allows for visualization of three-dimensional pulsatile flow in the cardiovascular anatomy through time-resolved three-dimensional blood velocity measurements from cardiac-cycle synchronized MRI acquisition. This is a promising tool for clinical assessment but lacks a robust validation framework. First, 4D-MRI flow in a subject's stenotic carotid bifurcation is compared with a patient-specific CFD model using two different boundary condition methods. Second, Particle Image Velocimetry in a patient-specific phantom is used as a benchmark to compare the 4D-MRI in vivo measurements and CFD simulations under the same conditions. Comparison of estimated and measureable flow parameters such as wall shear stress, fluctuating velocity rms, Lagrangian particle residence time, will be discussed, with justification for their biomechanics relevance and the insights they can provide on the pathophysiology of arterial disease: atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. Lastly, the framework is applied to a new sequence to provide a quantitative assessment. A parametric analysis on the carotid bifurcation pulsatile flow conditions will be presented and an accuracy assessment provided.

  4. Development of a mobile HIS/PACS workstation to assist critical cardiac patients in an intensive care unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Marco A.; Cestari, Idagene A.; Hamamoto, Gina; Bacht, Simão; Rebelo, Marina S.; Silva, João E. M. M.; Lage, Silvia G.

    2008-03-01

    The current study describes the experience in the implementation of a mobile HIS/PACS workstation to assist critical cardiac patients in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Recently, mobile devices connected to a WiFi network were incorporated to the Hospital information System, providing the same functionalities of common desktop counterpart. However, the use of commercially devices like PDAs and Pocket PCs presented a series of problems that are more emphasized in the ICUs 1) low autonomy of the batteries, which need constant recharges; 2) low robustness of the devices; 3) insufficient display area to show medical images and vital signals; 4) data entry remains a major problem and imposes an extra time consumption to the staff; 5) high cost when fully equipped with WiFi connection, optical reader to access bar codes and memory. To address theses problems we developed a mobile workstation (MedKart) that provides access the HIS and PACS systems, with all resources and an ergonomic and practical design to be used by physicians and nurses inside the ICU. The system fulfills the requirements to assist, in the point-of-care, critical cardiac patients in Intensive Care Units.

  5. The role of the host in a cooperating mainframe and workstation environment, volumes 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusmanoff, Antone; Martin, Nancy L.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, advancements made in computer systems have prompted a move from centralized computing based on timesharing a large mainframe computer to distributed computing based on a connected set of engineering workstations. A major factor in this advancement is the increased performance and lower cost of engineering workstations. The shift to distributed computing from centralized computing has led to challenges associated with the residency of application programs within the system. In a combined system of multiple engineering workstations attached to a mainframe host, the question arises as to how does a system designer assign applications between the larger mainframe host and the smaller, yet powerful, workstation. The concepts related to real time data processing are analyzed and systems are displayed which use a host mainframe and a number of engineering workstations interconnected by a local area network. In most cases, distributed systems can be classified as having a single function or multiple functions and as executing programs in real time or nonreal time. In a system of multiple computers, the degree of autonomy of the computers is important; a system with one master control computer generally differs in reliability, performance, and complexity from a system in which all computers share the control. This research is concerned with generating general criteria principles for software residency decisions (host or workstation) for a diverse yet coupled group of users (the clustered workstations) which may need the use of a shared resource (the mainframe) to perform their functions.

  6. High-performance mass storage system for workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations and Personnel Computers (PC) are very popular tools for office automation, command and control, scientific analysis, database management, and many other applications. However, when using Input/Output (I/O) intensive applications, the RISC workstations and PC's are often overburdened with the tasks of collecting, staging, storing, and distributing data. Also, by using standard high-performance peripherals and storage devices, the I/O function can still be a common bottleneck process. Therefore, the high-performance mass storage system, developed by Loral AeroSys' Independent Research and Development (IR&D) engineers, can offload a RISC workstation of I/O related functions and provide high-performance I/O functions and external interfaces. The high-performance mass storage system has the capabilities to ingest high-speed real-time data, perform signal or image processing, and stage, archive, and distribute the data. This mass storage system uses a hierarchical storage structure, thus reducing the total data storage cost, while maintaining high-I/O performance. The high-performance mass storage system is a network of low-cost parallel processors and storage devices. The nodes in the network have special I/O functions such as: SCSI controller, Ethernet controller, gateway controller, RS232 controller, IEEE488 controller, and digital/analog converter. The nodes are interconnected through high-speed direct memory access links to form a network. The topology of the network is easily reconfigurable to maximize system throughput for various applications. This high-performance mass storage system takes advantage of a 'busless' architecture for maximum expandability. The mass storage system consists of magnetic disks, a WORM optical disk jukebox, and an 8mm helical scan tape to form a hierarchical storage structure. Commonly used files are kept in the magnetic disk for fast retrieval. The optical disks are used as archive

  7. International space station mobile servicing system robotic workstation displays and overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Susan H.

    1997-07-01

    The International Space Station (ISSP) currently under development is equipped with robotic workstations to perform and provide information on the mobile servicing system robotic functions in use. The workstations include conventional and special developed hardware, software displays, and control software configurations. The robotic activities are critical to the ISSP during assembly and maintenance activities resulting in detailed crew interface requirements. Operational scenarios were used to develop the requirements of the ISSP Robotic activities resulting in the specification and configuration of the Mobile Servicing System Robotic Workstation.

  8. Physiological stress assessment of female workers at kitchen workstation.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Hema; Sidhu, M K

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the extent of the physiological stresses of female workers at kitchen workstation while performing the various activities. For this a survey of eighty homemakers and experiment on sixteen respondents having similar physical and physiological parameters was done. Five activities in which the respondents faced maximum problems were selected and were standardized. Physiological stresses including cardiovascular, muscular, and energy expenditure during these activities were then assessed. Study revealed that fatigue during the selected five activities i.e. cutting, grating, rolling, kneading, dish washing, was felt mainly at the wrist, fore arm, followed by discomfort in the shoulders, upper arm, lower back and neck. Energy expenditure for these activities ranged from 7.0 to10 kJ\\min, total cardiac cost of work (TCCW) was between 200.81 to 364.30 beats, physiological cost of work (PCW) was 12.82 to 26.26 beats\\min; maximum for grating and minimum for rolling. The percent increase in heart rate was maximum for grating 38.56 and minimum for rolling 16.20. Reduction in grip and pinch strength of right hand was found more as compared to the left hand.

  9. Advisory Algorithm for Scheduling Open Sectors, Operating Positions, and Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Drew, Michael; Lai, Chok Fung; Bilimoria, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Air traffic controller supervisors configure available sector, operating position, and work-station resources to safely and efficiently control air traffic in a region of airspace. In this paper, an algorithm for assisting supervisors with this task is described and demonstrated on two sample problem instances. The algorithm produces configuration schedule advisories that minimize a cost. The cost is a weighted sum of two competing costs: one penalizing mismatches between configurations and predicted air traffic demand and another penalizing the effort associated with changing configurations. The problem considered by the algorithm is a shortest path problem that is solved with a dynamic programming value iteration algorithm. The cost function contains numerous parameters. Default values for most of these are suggested based on descriptions of air traffic control procedures and subject-matter expert feedback. The parameter determining the relative importance of the two competing costs is tuned by comparing historical configurations with corresponding algorithm advisories. Two sample problem instances for which appropriate configuration advisories are obvious were designed to illustrate characteristics of the algorithm. Results demonstrate how the algorithm suggests advisories that appropriately utilize changes in airspace configurations and changes in the number of operating positions allocated to each open sector. The results also demonstrate how the advisories suggest appropriate times for configuration changes.

  10. An overview of high-speed networking for workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, K.

    1995-04-01

    The telecommunications industry provides new technologies for GIS (Geographic Information System) workstation upgrades: Fast Ethernet, 100VG-AnyLAN, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). These network technologies are based on approved standards and have industry backing (alliance for Fast Ethernet). This paper briefly examines these technologies. Fast Ethernet is an extension to its predecessor 10 Mbps Ethernet, providing a 10x increase in transmission rate. 100VG-AnyLAN offers extensions to Ethernet but embraces the Token Ring technology, allowing internetworking and better performance for networked video. ATM takes a radial approach by simplifying the information quantum to a 53-byte cell, resulting in rapid data handling for telecommunications equipment and allowing efficient transport of data, video, and voice communications. Switched Ethernet and Full Duplexing are among the other technologies competing for this market. The ultimate test of usefulness for any technology lies in how they handle the GIS environment requirements; working demonstration systems will help clarify marketing rhetoric and determine which vendor best implemented the standard.

  11. 4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Feng; Peng, Su-Ping

    2014-06-01

    In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions.

  12. Digit ratio (2D:4D), salivary testosterone, and handedness.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Alan A; Rudling, Nick; Kissling, Christian; Taurines, Regine; Thome, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    The length of the index finger relative to that of the ring finger, the 2D:4D ratio, has been taken to be a marker of the amount of testosterone (T) that was present in the foetal environment (Manning, Scutt, Wilson, & Lewis-Jones, 1998). It has also been suggested (Geschwind & Galaburda, 1987) that elevated levels of foetal T are associated with left-handedness and that adult levels of circulating T might relate to foetal levels (Jamison, Meier, & Campbell, 1993). We used multiple regression analyses to investigate whether there is any relationship between either left or right hand 2D:4D ratio and handedness. We also examined whether adult levels of salivary T (or cortisol, used as a control hormone) predict digit ratio and/or handedness. Although the 2D:4D ratio of neither the left nor the right hand was related to handedness, the difference between the digit ratios of the right and left hands, D(R-L), was a significant predictor of handedness and of the performance difference between the hands on a peg-moving task, supporting previous findings (Manning & Peters, 2009; Manning et al., 1998; Manning, Trivers, Thornhill, & Singh, 2000; Stoyanov, Marinov, & Pashalieva, 2009). Adult circulating T levels did not predict the digit ratio of the left or right hand; nor was there a significant relationship between concentrations of salivary T (or cortisol) and either hand preference or asymmetry in manual skill. We suggest that the association between D(R-L) and hand preference arises because D(R-L) is a correlate of sensitivity to T in the developing foetus.

  13. CMT4D (NDRG1 mutation): genotype-phenotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Emilie; Mathis, Stéphane; Magdelaine, Corinne; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Magy, Laurent; Funalot, Benoît; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2013-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous condition with a large number of clinical, electrophysiological and pathological phenotypes. More than 40 genes are involved. We report a child of gypsy origin with an autosomal recessive demyelinating phenotype. Clinical data, familial history, and electrophysiological studies were in favor of a CMT4 sub-type. The characteristic N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) mutation responsible for this CMT4D phenotype was confirmed: p.R148X. The exact molecular function of the NDRG1 protein has yet to be elucidated.

  14. 4D micro-CT using fast prospective gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaolian; Johnston, Samuel M.; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-CT is currently used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. But, there is also significant interest in using this technology to obtain functional information. We report here a new sampling strategy for 4D micro-CT for functional cardiac and pulmonary imaging. Rapid scanning of free-breathing mice is achieved with fast prospective gating (FPG) implemented on a field programmable gate array. The method entails on-the-fly computation of delays from the R peaks of the ECG signals or the peaks of the respiratory signals for the triggering pulses. Projection images are acquired for all cardiac or respiratory phases at each angle before rotating to the next angle. FPG can deliver the faster scan time of retrospective gating (RG) with the regular angular distribution of conventional prospective gating for cardiac or respiratory gating. Simultaneous cardio-respiratory gating is also possible with FPG in a hybrid retrospective/prospective approach. We have performed phantom experiments to validate the new sampling protocol and compared the results from FPG and RG in cardiac imaging of a mouse. Additionally, we have evaluated the utility of incorporating respiratory information in 4D cardiac micro-CT studies with FPG. A dual-source micro-CT system was used for image acquisition with pulsed x-ray exposures (80 kVp, 100 mA, 10 ms). The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent containing 123 mg I ml-1 delivered via a tail vein catheter in a dose of 0.01 ml g-1 body weight. The phantom experiment demonstrates that FPG can distinguish the successive phases of phantom motion with minimal motion blur, and the animal study demonstrates that respiratory FPG can distinguish inspiration and expiration. 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging with FPG provides image quality superior to RG at an isotropic voxel size of 88 µm and 10 ms temporal resolution. The acquisition time for either sampling approach is less than 5 min. The

  15. 4D micro-CT using fast prospective gating.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaolian; Johnston, Samuel M; Qi, Yi; Johnson, G Allan; Badea, Cristian T

    2012-01-07

    Micro-CT is currently used in preclinical studies to provide anatomical information. But, there is also significant interest in using this technology to obtain functional information. We report here a new sampling strategy for 4D micro-CT for functional cardiac and pulmonary imaging. Rapid scanning of free-breathing mice is achieved with fast prospective gating (FPG) implemented on a field programmable gate array. The method entails on-the-fly computation of delays from the R peaks of the ECG signals or the peaks of the respiratory signals for the triggering pulses. Projection images are acquired for all cardiac or respiratory phases at each angle before rotating to the next angle. FPG can deliver the faster scan time of retrospective gating (RG) with the regular angular distribution of conventional prospective gating for cardiac or respiratory gating. Simultaneous cardio-respiratory gating is also possible with FPG in a hybrid retrospective/prospective approach. We have performed phantom experiments to validate the new sampling protocol and compared the results from FPG and RG in cardiac imaging of a mouse. Additionally, we have evaluated the utility of incorporating respiratory information in 4D cardiac micro-CT studies with FPG. A dual-source micro-CT system was used for image acquisition with pulsed x-ray exposures (80 kVp, 100 mA, 10 ms). The cardiac micro-CT protocol involves the use of a liposomal blood pool contrast agent containing 123 mg I ml(-1) delivered via a tail vein catheter in a dose of 0.01 ml g(-1) body weight. The phantom experiment demonstrates that FPG can distinguish the successive phases of phantom motion with minimal motion blur, and the animal study demonstrates that respiratory FPG can distinguish inspiration and expiration. 4D cardiac micro-CT imaging with FPG provides image quality superior to RG at an isotropic voxel size of 88 μm and 10 ms temporal resolution. The acquisition time for either sampling approach is less than 5 min. The

  16. 4D Flow MRI in Neuroradiology: Techniques and Applications.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Delattre, Benedicte; Brina, Olivier; Bouillot, Pierre; Vargas, Maria Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of the intracranial flow is important for the understanding and management of cerebral vascular diseases. From brain aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations lesions to intracranial and cervical stenosis, the appraisal of the blood flow can be crucial and influence positively on patients' management. The determination of the intracranial hemodynamics and the collateral pattern seems to play to a major role in the management of these lesions. 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive phase contrast derived method that has been developed and applied in neurovascular diseases. It has a great potential if followed by further technical improvements and comprehensive and systematic clinical studies.

  17. Actively triggered 4d cone-beam CT acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Martin F.; Wisotzky, Eric; Oelfke, Uwe; Nill, Simeon

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 4d cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are usually reconstructed by extracting the motion information from the 2d projections or an external surrogate signal, and binning the individual projections into multiple respiratory phases. In this “after-the-fact” binning approach, however, projections are unevenly distributed over respiratory phases resulting in inefficient utilization of imaging dose. To avoid excess dose in certain respiratory phases, and poor image quality due to a lack of projections in others, the authors have developed a novel 4d CBCT acquisition framework which actively triggers 2d projections based on the forward-predicted position of the tumor.Methods: The forward-prediction of the tumor position was independently established using either (i) an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system based on implanted EM-transponders which act as a surrogate for the tumor position, or (ii) an external motion sensor measuring the chest-wall displacement and correlating this external motion to the phase-shifted diaphragm motion derived from the acquired images. In order to avoid EM-induced artifacts in the imaging detector, the authors devised a simple but effective “Faraday” shielding cage. The authors demonstrated the feasibility of their acquisition strategy by scanning an anthropomorphic lung phantom moving on 1d or 2d sinusoidal trajectories.Results: With both tumor position devices, the authors were able to acquire 4d CBCTs free of motion blurring. For scans based on the EM tracking system, reconstruction artifacts stemming from the presence of the EM-array and the EM-transponders were greatly reduced using newly developed correction algorithms. By tuning the imaging frequency independently for each respiratory phase prior to acquisition, it was possible to harmonize the number of projections over respiratory phases. Depending on the breathing period (3.5 or 5 s) and the gantry rotation time (4 or 5 min), between ∼90 and 145

  18. Realistic CT simulation using the 4D XCAT phantom.

    PubMed

    Segars, W P; Mahesh, M; Beck, T J; Frey, E C; Tsui, B M W

    2008-08-01

    The authors develop a unique CT simulation tool based on the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom, a whole-body computer model of the human anatomy and physiology based on NURBS surfaces. Unlike current phantoms in CT based on simple mathematical primitives, the 4D XCAT provides an accurate representation of the complex human anatomy and has the advantage, due to its design, that its organ shapes can be changed to realistically model anatomical variations and patient motion. A disadvantage to the NURBS basis of the XCAT, however, is that the mathematical complexity of the surfaces makes the calculation of line integrals through the phantom difficult. They have to be calculated using iterative procedures; therefore, the calculation of CT projections is much slower than for simpler mathematical phantoms. To overcome this limitation, the authors used efficient ray tracing techniques from computer graphics, to develop a fast analytic projection algorithm to accurately calculate CT projections directly from the surface definition of the XCAT phantom given parameters defining the CT scanner and geometry. Using this tool, realistic high-resolution 3D and 4D projection images can be simulated and reconstructed from the XCAT within a reasonable amount of time. In comparison with other simulators with geometrically defined organs, the XCAT-based algorithm was found to be only three times slower in generating a projection data set of the same anatomical structures using a single 3.2 GHz processor. To overcome this decrease in speed would, therefore, only require running the projection algorithm in parallel over three processors. With the ever decreasing cost of computers and the rise of faster processors and multi-processor systems and clusters, this slowdown is basically inconsequential, especially given the vast improvement the XCAT offers in terms of realism and the ability to generate 3D and 4D data from anatomically diverse patients. As such, the authors conclude

  19. Oblique sounding using the DPS-4D stations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosna, Zbysek; Kouba, Daniel; Koucka Knizova, Petra; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan; Gok, Gokhan; Rejfek, Lubos

    2016-07-01

    The DPS-4D Digisondes are capable of detection of echoes from neighbouring European stations. Currently, a campaign with high-temporal resolution of 5 min is being run. Further, ionograms from regular vertical sounding with 15 min resolution provide us with oblique reflections together with vertical reflections. We analyzed profiles of electron concentration and basic ionospheric parameters derived from the ionograms. We compared results derived from reflections from the ionosphere above the stations (vertical sounding) with information derived from oblique reflections between the stations. This study is supported by the Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  20. Founding Gravitation in 4D Euclidean Space-Time Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Franz-Guenter

    2010-11-24

    The Euclidean interpretation of special relativity which has been suggested by the author is a formulation of special relativity in ordinary 4D Euclidean space-time geometry. The natural and geometrically intuitive generalization of this view involves variations of the speed of light (depending on location and direction) and a Euclidean principle of general covariance. In this article, a gravitation model by Jan Broekaert, which implements a view of relativity theory in the spirit of Lorentz and Poincare, is reconstructed and shown to fulfill the principles of the Euclidean approach after an appropriate reinterpretation.

  1. Treadmill workstations: the effects of walking while working on physical activity and work performance.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.

  2. The microcomputer workstation - An alternate hardware architecture for remotely sensed image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. K.; Hofman, L. B.; Donovan, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Difficulties regarding the digital image analysis of remotely sensed imagery can arise in connection with the extensive calculations required. In the past, an expensive large to medium mainframe computer system was needed for performing these calculations. For image-processing applications smaller minicomputer-based systems are now used by many organizations. The costs for such systems are still in the range from $100K to $300K. Recently, as a result of new developments, the use of low-cost microcomputers for image processing and display systems appeared to have become feasible. These developments are related to the advent of the 16-bit microprocessor and the concept of the microcomputer workstation. Earlier 8-bit microcomputer-based image processing systems are briefly examined, and a computer workstation architecture is discussed. Attention is given to a microcomputer workstation developed by Stanford University, and the design and implementation of a workstation network.

  3. Treadmill Workstations: The Effects of Walking while Working on Physical Activity and Work Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J.; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U.; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees’ physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0–2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations. PMID:24586359

  4. Workstation design in carpet hand-weaving operation: guidelines for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Choobineh, Alireza; Lahmi, Mohammadali; Hosseini, Mostafa; Shahnavaz, Houshang; Jazani, Reza Khani

    2004-01-01

    Carpet weavers suffer from musculoskeletal problems mainly attributed to poor working postures. Their posture is mostly constrained by the design of workstations. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 design parameters (weaving height and seat type) on postural variables and subjective experience, and to develop guidelines for workstation adjustments. At an experimental workstation, 30 professional weavers worked in 9 different conditions. Working posture and weavers' perceptions were measured. It was shown that head, neck and shoulder postures were influenced by weaving height. Both design parameters influenced trunk and elbows postures. The determinant factor for weavers' perception on the neck, shoulders and elbows was found to be weaving height, and on the back and knees it was seat type. Based on the results, the following guidelines were developed: (a) weaving height should be adjusted to 20 cm above elbow height; (b) a 10 degrees forward-sloping high seat is to be used at weaving workstations.

  5. Ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstation design and the impact on users' health - a review.

    PubMed

    Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.

  6. 4D rotational x-ray imaging of wrist joint dynamic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Carelsen, Bart; Bakker, Niels H.; Strackee, Simon D.; Boon, Sjirk N.; Maas, Mario; Sabczynski, Joerg; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.; Streekstra, Geert J.

    2005-09-15

    Current methods for imaging joint motion are limited to either two-dimensional (2D) video fluoroscopy, or to animated motions from a series of static three-dimensional (3D) images. 3D movement patterns can be detected from biplane fluoroscopy images matched with computed tomography images. This involves several x-ray modalities and sophisticated 2D to 3D matching for the complex wrist joint. We present a method for the acquisition of dynamic 3D images of a moving joint. In our method a 3D-rotational x-ray (3D-RX) system is used to image a cyclically moving joint. The cyclic motion is synchronized to the x-ray acquisition to yield multiple sets of projection images, which are reconstructed to a series of time resolved 3D images, i.e., four-dimensional rotational x ray (4D-RX). To investigate the obtained image quality parameters the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function (PSF) via the edge spread function and the contrast to noise ratio between air and phantom were determined on reconstructions of a bullet and rod phantom, using 4D-RX as well as stationary 3D-RX images. The CNR in volume reconstructions based on 251 projection images in the static situation and on 41 and 34 projection images of a moving phantom were 6.9, 3.0, and 2.9, respectively. The average FWHM of the PSF of these same images was, respectively, 1.1, 1.7, and 2.2 mm orthogonal to the motion and parallel to direction of motion 0.6, 0.7, and 1.0 mm. The main deterioration of 4D-RX images compared to 3D-RX images is due to the low number of projection images used and not to the motion of the object. Using 41 projection images seems the best setting for the current system. Experiments on a postmortem wrist show the feasibility of the method for imaging 3D dynamic joint motion. We expect that 4D-RX will pave the way to improved assessment of joint disorders by detection of 3D dynamic motion patterns in joints.

  7. Exploration of 4D MRI blood flow using stylistic visualization.

    PubMed

    van Pelt, Roy; Oliván Bescós, Javier; Breeuwer, Marcel; Clough, Rachel E; Gröller, M Eduard; ter Haar Romenij, Bart; Vilanova, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Insight into the dynamics of blood-flow considerably improves the understanding of the complex cardiovascular system and its pathologies. Advances in MRI technology enable acquisition of 4D blood-flow data, providing quantitative blood-flow velocities over time. The currently typical slice-by-slice analysis requires a full mental reconstruction of the unsteady blood-flow field, which is a tedious and highly challenging task, even for skilled physicians. We endeavor to alleviate this task by means of comprehensive visualization and interaction techniques. In this paper we present a framework for pre-clinical cardiovascular research, providing tools to both interactively explore the 4D blood-flow data and depict the essential blood-flow characteristics. The framework encompasses a variety of visualization styles, comprising illustrative techniques as well as improved methods from the established field of flow visualization. Each of the incorporated styles, including exploded planar reformats, flow-direction highlights, and arrow-trails, locally captures the blood-flow dynamics and may be initiated by an interactively probed vessel cross-section. Additionally, we present the results of an evaluation with domain experts, measuring the value of each of the visualization styles and related rendering parameters.

  8. 4D Simulation of Explosive Eruption Dynamics at Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, A.; Esposti Ongaro, T.; Menconi, G.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Cavazzoni, C.; Erbacci, G.; Baxter, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    We applied, using a supercomputer, a new simulation model based on fundamental transport laws to describe the 4D (3D spatial co-ordinates plus time) multiphase flow dynamics of explosive eruptions. The model solves the fundamental transport equations for a multiphase mixture formed by a continuous multi-component gas phase and n solid particulate phases representative of magma fragments (such as ash, crystals, and lapilli). Numerical simulations describe the collapse of the volcanic eruption column and the propagation of pyroclastic density currents, for selected medium scale (sub-Plinian) eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius, Italy. The study shows that 4D multiphase numerical models can illuminate the non-intuitive and internal dynamics of explosive eruptions that cannot otherwise be studied by direct observation or using previous models. In particular, simulations provide crucial insights into the effects of the generation mechanism of the flows - partial collapse vs boiling-over - on their hazard potential, the complex dynamics of the collapsing column, and the influence of Mount Somma on the propagation of PDCs into the circum-Vesuvian area, one of the world's most hazardous volcanic settings.

  9. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  10. Atlas construction for dynamic (4D) PET using diffeomorphic transformations.

    PubMed

    Bieth, Marie; Lombaert, Hervé; Reader, Andrew J; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    A novel dynamic (4D) PET to PET image registration procedure is proposed and applied to multiple PET scans acquired with the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT), the highest resolution human brain PET scanner available in the world. By extending the recent diffeomorphic log-demons (DLD) method and applying it to multiple dynamic [11C]raclopride scans from the HRRT, an important step towards construction of a PET atlas of unprecedented quality for [11C]raclopride imaging of the human brain has been achieved. Accounting for the temporal dimension in PET data improves registration accuracy when compared to registration of 3D to 3D time-averaged PET images. The DLD approach was chosen for its ease in providing both an intensity and shape template, through iterative sequential pair-wise registrations with fast convergence. The proposed method is applicable to any PET radiotracer, providing 4D atlases with useful applications in high accuracy PET data simulations and automated PET image analysis.

  11. Positive Energy Conditions in 4D Conformal Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, Kara; Luty, Markus; Prilepina, Valentina

    2016-03-01

    We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality avgT00 >= - C /L4 , where L is the size of the smearing region, and C is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the ``conformal collider'' constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. We speculate that there may be theories that violate the Hofman-Maldacena bounds, but satisfy our bounds. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarkably simple functions of momenta, and may be of interest in their own right.

  12. Positive energy conditions in 4D conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, Kara; Luty, Markus A.; Prilepina, Valentina

    2016-10-01

    We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality < T 00> ≥ - C/L 4, where L is the size of the smearing region, and C is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the "conformal collider" constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarkably simple functions of momenta, and may be of interest in their own right.

  13. 4D Dynamic Required Navigation Performance Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelsztein, Daniel M.; Sturdy, James L.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Hochwarth, Joachim K.

    2011-01-01

    New advanced four dimensional trajectory (4DT) procedures under consideration for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) require an aircraft to precisely navigate relative to a moving reference such as another aircraft. Examples are Self-Separation for enroute operations and Interval Management for in-trail and merging operations. The current construct of Required Navigation Performance (RNP), defined for fixed-reference-frame navigation, is not sufficiently specified to be applicable to defining performance levels of such air-to-air procedures. An extension of RNP to air-to-air navigation would enable these advanced procedures to be implemented with a specified level of performance. The objective of this research effort was to propose new 4D Dynamic RNP constructs that account for the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of Interval Management and Self-Separation, develop mathematical models of the Dynamic RNP constructs, "Required Self-Separation Performance" and "Required Interval Management Performance," and to analyze the performance characteristics of these air-to-air procedures using the newly developed models. This final report summarizes the activities led by Raytheon, in collaboration with GE Aviation and SAIC, and presents the results from this research effort to expand the RNP concept to a dynamic 4D frame of reference.

  14. 4D-computerized visualisation of human craniofacial skeletal growth and of the development of the dentition.

    PubMed

    Radlanski, R J; van der Linden, F P; Ohnesorge, I

    1999-01-01

    The understanding of growth and developmental changes can be improved when shapes and changes in size, proportion, and relationships are visualized in 3 dimensions and at different stages. This applies particularly to craniofacial skeletal growth and the development of the dentition. For that purpose 3D-data were collected from prenatal human heads ranging from 18 up to 275 mm CRL and from a collection of macerated fetal and postnatal skulls. Computer-aided graphical reconstructions were obtained from histological serial sections of embryonic and early fetal specimens. Proportional changes in the growing skull were recorded by means of radiological and cephalometric evaluation. In addition, computed tomography was applied to fetal and postnatal skulls. Furthermore, the prenatal and postnatal development of the dentition was digitized. To that end 3D-polygone sets of these data were read into a workstation computer and animated by means of the software Soft Image (Microsoft). This comprehensive 4D insight into growth facilitates the understanding and teaching of normal and abnormal development.

  15. Development of Dynamic Spatial Video Camera (DSVC) for 4D observation, analysis and modeling of human body locomotion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Otake, Yoshito

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an imaging system for free and quantitative observation of human locomotion in a time-spatial domain by way of real time imaging. The system is equipped with 60 computer controlled video cameras to film human locomotion from all angles simultaneously. Images are installed into the main graphic workstation and translated into a 2D image matrix. Observation of the subject from optional directions is able to be performed by selecting the view point from the optimum image sequence in this image matrix. This system also possesses a function to reconstruct 4D models of the subject's moving human body by using 60 images taken from all directions at one particular time. And this system also has the capability to visualize inner structures such as the skeletal or muscular systems of the subject by compositing computer graphics reconstructed from the MRI data set. We are planning to apply this imaging system to clinical observation in the area of orthopedics, rehabilitation and sports science.

  16. 2D/4D marker-free tumor tracking using 4D CBCT as the reference image.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjiao; Sharp, Gregory C; Rit, Simon; Delmon, Vivien; Wang, Guangzhi

    2014-05-07

    Tumor motion caused by respiration is an important issue in image-guided radiotherapy. A 2D/4D matching method between 4D volumes derived from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and 2D fluoroscopic images was implemented to track the tumor motion without the use of implanted markers. In this method, firstly, 3DCBCT and phase-rebinned 4DCBCT are reconstructed from cone beam acquisition. Secondly, 4DCBCT volumes and a streak-free 3DCBCT volume are combined to improve the image quality of the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Finally, the 2D/4D matching problem is converted into a 2D/2D matching between incoming projections and DRR images from each phase of the 4DCBCT. The diaphragm is used as a target surrogate for matching instead of using the tumor position directly. This relies on the assumption that if a patient has the same breathing phase and diaphragm position as the reference 4DCBCT, then the tumor position is the same. From the matching results, the phase information, diaphragm position and tumor position at the time of each incoming projection acquisition can be derived. The accuracy of this method was verified using 16 candidate datasets, representing lung and liver applications and one-minute and two-minute acquisitions. The criteria for the eligibility of datasets were described: 11 eligible datasets were selected to verify the accuracy of diaphragm tracking, and one eligible dataset was chosen to verify the accuracy of tumor tracking. The diaphragm matching accuracy was 1.88 ± 1.35 mm in the isocenter plane and the 2D tumor tracking accuracy was 2.13 ± 1.26 mm in the isocenter plane. These features make this method feasible for real-time marker-free tumor motion tracking purposes.

  17. [A particular anthropometric method for the study of accessibility of a workstation].

    PubMed

    Molinaro, V; Del Ferraro, S

    2008-01-01

    One of the main factors which can involve musculo-skeletal disorders is the assumption of awkward postures. These lasts can be caused, in some cases, by a no-suitable collocation of some devices which are indispensable for the work. It is possible to evaluate if the chosen collocation is adequate or not by studying the accessibility of the workstation with a special regard for the accessibility of the devices placed inside the workstation. EN ISO 14738:2002 is a specific standard which has been adopted in Italy as UNI EN ISO 14738:2004. This standard gives some useful requirements, in terms of accessibility, to design a workstation at no-mobile machinery. In this study, the authors have analyzed a check out workstation by following the requirements described in UNI EN ISO 14738:2004. Critical aspects, related to the organization both of the work activities either of the workstation, have been highlighted taking into account standard criteria. Finally the authors make a new design of the check out workstation trying to optimize device collocation in order to reduce awkward postures. The new configuration has been investigated by applying the criteria mentioned in the standard.

  18. Intensive care unit referring physician usage of PACS workstation functions based on disease categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horii, Steven C.; Kundel, Harold L.; Shile, Peter E.; Carey, Bruce; Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Feingold, Eric R.

    1994-05-01

    As part of a study of the use of a PACS workstation compared to film in a Medical Intensive Care Unit, logs of workstation activity were maintained. The software for the workstation kept track of the type of user (i.e., intern, resident, fellow, or attending physician) and also of the workstation image manipulation functions used. The functions logged were: no operation, brightness/contrast adjustment, invert video, zoom, and high resolution display (this last function resulted in the display of the full 2 K X 2 K image rather than the usual subsampled 1 K X 1 K image. Associated data collection allows us to obtain the diagnostic category of the examination being viewed (e.g., location of tubes and lines, rule out: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion). The diagnostic categories and user type were then correlated with the use of workstation functions during viewing of images. In general, there was an inverse relationship between the level of training and the number of workstation uses. About two-thirds of the time, there was no image manipulation operation performed. Adjustment of brightness/contrast had the highest percentage of use overall, followed by zoom, video invert, and high resolution display.

  19. SU-E-T-202: Comparison of 4D-Measurement-Guided Dose Reconstructions (MGDR) with COMPASS and OCTAVIUS 4D System

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, R; Wong, M; Lee, V; Law, G; Lee, K; Tung, S; Chan, M; Blanck, O

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To cross-validate the MGDR of COMPASS (IBA dosimetry, GmbH, Germany) and OCTAVIUS 4D system (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Methods: Volumetric-modulated arc plans (5 head-and-neck and 3 prostate) collapsed to 40° gantry on the OCTAVIUS 4D phantom in QA mode on Monaco v5.0 (Elekta, CMS, Maryland Heights, MO) were delivered on a Elekta Agility linac. This study was divided into two parts: (1) error-free measurements by gantry-mounted EvolutionXX 2D array were reconstructed in COMPASS (IBA dosimetry, GmbH, Germany), and by OCTAVIUS 1500 array in Versoft v6.1 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) to obtain the 3D doses (COM4D and OCTA4D). COM4D and OCTA4D were compared to the raw measurement (OCTA3D) at the same detector plane for which OCTAVIUS 1500 was perpendicular to 0° gantry axis while the plans were delivered at gantry 40°; (2) beam steering errors of energy (Hump=-2%) and symmetry (2T=+2%) were introduced during the delivery of 5 plans to compare the MGDR doses COM4D-Hump (COM4D-2T), OCTA4D-Hump (OCTA4D-2T), with raw doses OCTA3D-Hump (OCTA3D-2T) and with OCTA3D to assess the error reconstruction and detection ability of MGDR tools. All comparisons used Υ-criteria of 2%(local dose)/2mm and 3%/3mm. Results: Averaged Υ passing rates were 85% and 96% for COM4D,and 94% and 99% for OCTA4D at 2%/2mm and 3%/3mm criteria respectively. For error reconstruction, COM4D-Hump (COM4D-2T) showed 81% (93%) at 2%/2mm and 94% (98%) at 3%/3mm, while OCTA4D-Hump (OCTA4D-2T) showed 96% (96%) at 2%/2mm and 99% (99%) at 3%/3mm. For error detection, OCTA3D doses were compared to COM4D-Hump (COM4D-2T) showing Υ passing rates of 93% (93%) at 2%/2mm and 98% (98%), and to OCTA4D-Hump (OCTA4D -2T) showing 94% (99%) at 2%/2mm and 81% (96%) at 3%/3mm, respectively. Conclusion: OCTAVIUS MGDR showed better agreement to raw measurements in both error- and error-free comparisons. COMPASS MGDR deviated from the raw measurements possibly owing to beam modeling uncertainty.

  20. Digitizing rocks standardizing the geological description process using workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, M.R. , Windsor, Berkshire ); Shields, J.A. ); Taylor, M.R. )

    1993-09-01

    The preservation of geological knowledge in a standardized digital form presents a challenge. Data sources, inherently fuzzy, range in scale from the macroscopic (e.g., outcrop) through the mesoscopic (e.g., hand-specimen) core and sidewall core, to the microscopic (e.g., drill cuttings, thin sections, and microfossils). Each scale change results in increased heterogeneity and potentially contradictory data and the providers of such data may vary in experience level. To address these issues with respect to cores and drill cuttings, a geological description workstation has been developed and is undergoing field trials. Over 1000 carefully defined geological attributes are currently available within a depth-indexed, relational database. Attributes are stored in digital form, allowing multiple users to select familiar usage (e.g., diabase vs. dolerite). Data can be entered in one language and retrieved in other languages. The database structure allow groupings of similar elements (e.g., rhyolites in acidic, igneous or volcanics subgroups or the igneous rock group) permitting different uses to analyze details appropriate to the scale of the usage. Data entry uses a graphical user interface, allowing the geologist to make quick, logical selections in a standardized or custom-built format with extensive menus, on-screen graphics and help screens available. Description ranges are permissible. Entries for lithology, petrology, structures (sedimentary, organic and deformational), reservoir characteristics (porosity and hydrocarbon shows), and macrofossils are available. Sampling points for thin sections, core analysis, geochemistry, or micropaleontology studies are also recorded. Using digital data storage, geological logs using graphical, alphanumeric and symbolic depictions are possible. Data can be integrated with drilling and mud gas data, MWD and wireline data and off well-site analyses to produced composite formation evaluation logs and interpretational crossplots.

  1. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  2. 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P.; Sturgeon, G.; Mendonca, S.; Grimes, Jason; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The authors develop the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. Methods: Highly detailed whole-body anatomies for the adult male and female were defined in the XCAT using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and subdivision surfaces based on segmentation of the Visible Male and Female anatomical datasets from the National Library of Medicine as well as patient datasets. Using the flexibility of these surfaces, the Visible Human anatomies were transformed to match body measurements and organ volumes for a 50th percentile (height and weight) male and female. The desired body measurements for the models were obtained using the PEOPLESIZE program that contains anthropometric dimensions categorized from 1st to the 99th percentile for US adults. The desired organ volumes were determined from ICRP Publication 89 [ICRP, ''Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values,'' ICRP Publication 89 (International Commission on Radiological Protection, New York, NY, 2002)]. The male and female anatomies serve as standard templates upon which anatomical variations may be modeled in the XCAT through user-defined parameters. Parametrized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions were also incorporated into the XCAT based on high-resolution cardiac- and respiratory-gated multislice CT data. To demonstrate the usefulness of the phantom, the authors show example simulation studies in PET, SPECT, and CT using publicly available simulation packages. Results: As demonstrated in the pilot studies, the 4D XCAT (which includes thousands of anatomical structures) can produce realistic imaging data when combined with accurate models of the imaging process. With the flexibility of the NURBS surface primitives, any number of different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, and spatial resolutions can be simulated to perform imaging research. Conclusions: With the ability to produce

  3. 4D Light Field Imaging System Using Programmable Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam

    2012-01-01

    Complete depth information can be extracted from analyzing all angles of light rays emanated from a source. However, this angular information is lost in a typical 2D imaging system. In order to record this information, a standard stereo imaging system uses two cameras to obtain information from two view angles. Sometimes, more cameras are used to obtain information from more angles. However, a 4D light field imaging technique can achieve this multiple-camera effect through a single-lens camera. Two methods are available for this: one using a microlens array, and the other using a moving aperture. The moving-aperture method can obtain more complete stereo information. The existing literature suggests a modified liquid crystal panel [LC (liquid crystal) panel, similar to ones commonly used in the display industry] to achieve a moving aperture. However, LC panels cannot withstand harsh environments and are not qualified for spaceflight. In this regard, different hardware is proposed for the moving aperture. A digital micromirror device (DMD) will replace the liquid crystal. This will be qualified for harsh environments for the 4D light field imaging. This will enable an imager to record near-complete stereo information. The approach to building a proof-ofconcept is using existing, or slightly modified, off-the-shelf components. An SLR (single-lens reflex) lens system, which typically has a large aperture for fast imaging, will be modified. The lens system will be arranged so that DMD can be integrated. The shape of aperture will be programmed for single-viewpoint imaging, multiple-viewpoint imaging, and coded aperture imaging. The novelty lies in using a DMD instead of a LC panel to move the apertures for 4D light field imaging. The DMD uses reflecting mirrors, so any light transmission lost (which would be expected from the LC panel) will be minimal. Also, the MEMS-based DMD can withstand higher temperature and pressure fluctuation than a LC panel can. Robotics need

  4. Semi-automatic border detection method for left ventricular volume estimation in 4D ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stralen, Marijn; Bosch, Johan G.; Voormolen, Marco M.; van Burken, Gerard; Krenning, Boudewijn J.; van Geuns, Robert Jan M.; Angelie, Emmanuelle; van der Geest, Rob J.; Lancee, Charles T.; de Jong, Nico; Reiber, Johan H. C.

    2005-04-01

    We propose a semi-automatic endocardial border detection method for LV volume estimation in 3D time series of cardiac ultrasound data. It is based on pattern matching and dynamic programming techniques and operates on 2D slices of the 4D data requiring minimal user-interaction. We evaluated on data acquired with the Fast Rotating Ultrasound (FRU) transducer: a linear phased array transducer rotated at high speed around its image axis, generating high quality 2D images of the heart. We automatically select a subset of 2D images at typically 10 rotation angles and 16 cardiac phases. From four manually drawn contours a 4D shape model and a 4D edge pattern model is derived. For the selected images, contour shape and edge patterns are estimated using the models. Pattern matching and dynamic programming is applied to detect the contours automatically. The method allows easy corrections in the detected 2D contours, to iteratively achieve more accurate models and improved detections. An evaluation of this method on FRU data against MRI was done for full cycle LV volumes on 10 patients. Good correlations were found against MRI volumes (r=0.94, y=0.72x + 30.3, difference of 9.6 +/- 17.4 ml (Av +/- SD) ) and a low interobserver variability for US (r=0.94, y=1.11x - 16.8, difference of 1.4 +/- 14.2 ml). On average only 2.8 corrections per patient were needed (in a total of 160 images). Although the method shows good correlations with MRI without corrections, applying these corrections can make significant improvements.

  5. 4D simulation of explosive eruption dynamics at Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Augusto; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Menconi, Gianluca; De'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Erbacci, Giovanni; Baxter, Peter J.

    2007-02-01

    We applied a new simulation model, based on multiphase transport laws, to describe the 4D (3D spatial coordinates plus time) dynamics of explosive eruptions. Numerical experiments, carried out on a parallel supercomputer, describe the collapse of the volcanic eruption column and the propagation of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), for selected medium scale (sub-Plinian) eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius, Italy. Simulations provide crucial insights into the effects of the generation mechanism of the flows - partial collapse vs boiling-over - on their evolution and hazard potential, the unstable dynamics of the fountain, and the influence of Mount Somma on the propagation of PDCs into the circum-Vesuvian area, one of the world's most hazardous volcanic settings. Results also show that it is possible to characterize the volcanic column behavior in terms of percentage of the mass of pyroclasts collapsed to the ground and how this parameter strongly influences the dynamics and hazard of the associated PDCs.

  6. Chaos in a 4D dissipative nonlinear fermionic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogmus, Fatma

    2015-12-01

    Gursey Model is the only possible 4D conformally invariant pure fermionic model with a nonlinear self-coupled spinor term. It has been assumed to be similar to the Heisenberg's nonlinear generalization of Dirac's equation, as a possible basis for a unitary description of elementary particles. Gursey Model admits particle-like solutions for the derived classical field equations and these solutions are instantonic in character. In this paper, the dynamical nature of damped and forced Gursey Nonlinear Differential Equations System (GNDES) are studied in order to get more information on spinor type instantons. Bifurcation and chaos in the system are observed by constructing the bifurcation diagrams and Poincaré sections. Lyapunov exponent and power spectrum graphs of GNDES are also constructed to characterize the chaotic behavior.

  7. Deformable registration of 4D computed tomography data.

    PubMed

    Rietzel, Eike; Chen, George T Y

    2006-11-01

    Four-dimensional radiotherapy requires deformable registration to track delivered dose across varying anatomical states. Deformable registration based on B-splines was implemented to register 4D computed tomography data to a reference respiratory phase. To assess registration performance, anatomical landmarks were selected across ten respiratory phases in five patients. These point landmarks were transformed according to global registration parameters between different respiratory phases. Registration uncertainties were computed by subtraction of transformed and reference landmark positions. The selection of appropriate registration masks to separate independently moving anatomical subunits is crucial to registration performance. The average registration error for five landmarks for each of five patients was 2.1 mm. This level of accuracy is acceptable for most radiotherapy applications.

  8. Probabilistic 4D blood flow tracking and uncertainty estimation.

    PubMed

    Friman, Ola; Hennemuth, Anja; Harloff, Andreas; Bock, Jelena; Markl, Michael; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2011-10-01

    Phase-Contrast (PC) MRI utilizes signal phase shifts resulting from moving spins to measure tissue motion and blood flow. Time-resolved 4D vector fields representing the motion or flow can be derived from the acquired PC MRI images. In cardiovascular PC MRI applications, visualization techniques such as vector glyphs, streamlines, and particle traces are commonly employed for depicting the blood flow. Whereas these techniques indeed provide useful diagnostic information, uncertainty due to noise in the PC-MRI measurements is ignored, which may lend the results a false sense of precision. In this work, the statistical properties of PC MRI flow measurements are investigated and a probabilistic flow tracking method based on sequential Monte Carlo sampling is devised to calculate flow uncertainty maps. The theoretical derivations are validated using simulated data and a number of real PC MRI data sets of the aorta and carotid arteries are used to demonstrate the flow uncertainty mapping technique.

  9. Biomechanics of DNA structures visualized by 4D electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Ulrich J.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a technique for in situ visualization of the biomechanics of DNA structural networks using 4D electron microscopy. Vibrational oscillations of the DNA structure are excited mechanically through a short burst of substrate vibrations triggered by a laser pulse. Subsequently, the motion is probed with electron pulses to observe the impulse response of the specimen in space and time. From the frequency and amplitude of the observed oscillations, we determine the normal modes and eigenfrequencies of the structures involved. Moreover, by selective “nano-cutting” at a given point in the network, it was possible to obtain Young’s modulus, and hence the stiffness, of the DNA filament at that position. This experimental approach enables nanoscale mechanics studies of macromolecules and should find applications in other domains of biological networks such as origamis. PMID:23382239

  10. 4D fast tracking for experiments at high luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, N.; Cardini, A.; Calabrese, R.; Fiorini, M.; Luppi, E.; Marconi, U.; Petruzzo, M.

    2016-11-01

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of the high luminosity LHC is a big challenge that requires new instrumentation and innovative solutions. We present here a conceptual design and simulation studies of a fast timing pixel detector with embedded real-time tracking capabilities. The system is conceived to operate at 40 MHz event rate and to reconstruct tracks in real-time, using precise space and time 4D information of the hit, for fast trigger decisions. This work is part of an R&D project aimed at building an innovative tracking detector with superior time (10 ps) and position (10 μm) resolutions to be used in very harsh radiation environments, for the ultimate flavour physics experiment at the high luminosity phase of the LHC.

  11. Parallel Wavefront Analysis for a 4D Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti R.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a programming interface for automating data collection with a PhaseCam interferometer from 4D Technology, and distributing the image-processing algorithm across a cluster of general-purpose computers. Multiple instances of 4Sight (4D Technology s proprietary software) run on a networked cluster of computers. Each connects to a single server (the controller) and waits for instructions. The controller directs the interferometer to several images, then assigns each image to a different computer for processing. When the image processing is finished, the server directs one of the computers to collate and combine the processed images, saving the resulting measurement in a file on a disk. The available software captures approximately 100 images and analyzes them immediately. This software separates the capture and analysis processes, so that analysis can be done at a different time and faster by running the algorithm in parallel across several processors. The PhaseCam family of interferometers can measure an optical system in milliseconds, but it takes many seconds to process the data so that it is usable. In characterizing an adaptive optics system, like the next generation of astronomical observatories, thousands of measurements are required, and the processing time quickly becomes excessive. A programming interface distributes data processing for a PhaseCam interferometer across a Windows computing cluster. A scriptable controller program coordinates data acquisition from the interferometer, storage on networked hard disks, and parallel processing. Idle time of the interferometer is minimized. This architecture is implemented in Python and JavaScript, and may be altered to fit a customer s needs.

  12. An updated version of the Motion4D-library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Grave, Frank

    2010-03-01

    We present an updated version of the Motion4D-library that can be used for the newly developed GeodesicViewer application. New version program summaryProgram title: Motion4D-library Catalogue identifier: AEEX_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEX_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 153 757 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5 178 439 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: All platforms with a C++ compiler Operating system: Linux, Unix, Windows RAM: 31 MBytes Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEX_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2355 Classification: 1.5 External routines: Gnu Scientific Library (GSL) ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Solve geodesic equation, parallel and Fermi-Walker transport in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Solution method: Integration of ordinary differential equations. Reasons for new version: To be applicable for the GeodesicViewer (accepted for publication in Comput. Phys. Comm. (COMPHY) 3941, doi:10.1016/j.cpc.2009.10.010 [program AEFP_v1_0]), there were several minor adjustments to be done. Summary of revisions:Calculation of embedding diagrams are improved. Physical units can be used for some metrics. Tests for the constraint equation within the metric classes are slightly modified. New metrics: AlcubierreWarp, GoedelScaled, GoedelScaledCart, Kasner. Running time: The test runs provided with the distribution require only a few seconds to run.

  13. Mapping motion from 4D-MRI to 3D-CT for use in 4D dose calculations: A technical feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Tony; Knopf, Antje

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Target sites affected by organ motion require a time resolved (4D) dose calculation. Typical 4D dose calculations use 4D-CT as a basis. Unfortunately, 4D-CT images have the disadvantage of being a 'snap-shot' of the motion during acquisition and of assuming regularity of breathing. In addition, 4D-CT acquisitions involve a substantial additional dose burden to the patient making many, repeated 4D-CT acquisitions undesirable. Here the authors test the feasibility of an alternative approach to generate patient specific 4D-CT data sets. Methods: In this approach motion information is extracted from 4D-MRI. Simulated 4D-CT data sets [which the authors call 4D-CT(MRI)] are created by warping extracted deformation fields to a static 3D-CT data set. The employment of 4D-MRI sequences for this has the advantage that no assumptions on breathing regularity are made, irregularities in breathing can be studied and, if necessary, many repeat imaging studies (and consequently simulated 4D-CT data sets) can be performed on patients and/or volunteers. The accuracy of 4D-CT(MRI)s has been validated by 4D proton dose calculations. Our 4D dose algorithm takes into account displacements as well as deformations on the originating 4D-CT/4D-CT(MRI) by calculating the dose of each pencil beam based on an individual time stamp of when that pencil beam is applied. According to corresponding displacement and density-variation-maps the position and the water equivalent range of the dose grid points is adjusted at each time instance. Results: 4D dose distributions, using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets as input were compared to results based on a reference conventional 4D-CT data set capturing similar motion characteristics. Almost identical 4D dose distributions could be achieved, even though scanned proton beams are very sensitive to small differences in the patient geometry. In addition, 4D dose calculations have been performed on the same patient, but using 4D-CT(MRI) data sets based on

  14. Detecting default mode networks in utero by integrated 4D fMRI reconstruction and analysis.

    PubMed

    Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Anna I; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Dighe, Manjiri; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-11-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest, especially for in utero imaging, in the detection of functional connectivity in subjects whose motion cannot be controlled while in the MRI scanner. These cases require two advances over current studies: (1) multiecho acquisitions and (2) post processing and reconstruction that can deal with significant between slice motion during multislice protocols to allow for the ability to detect temporal correlations introduced by spatial scattering of slices into account. This article focuses on the estimation of a spatially and temporally regular time series from motion scattered slices of multiecho fMRI datasets using a full four-dimensional (4D) iterative image reconstruction framework. The framework which includes quantitative MRI methods for artifact correction is evaluated using adult studies with and without motion to both refine parameter settings and evaluate the analysis pipeline. ICA analysis is then applied to the 4D image reconstruction of both adult and in utero fetal studies where resting state activity is perturbed by motion. Results indicate quantitative improvements in reconstruction quality when compared to the conventional 3D reconstruction approach (using simulated adult data) and demonstrate the ability to detect the default mode network in moving adults and fetuses with single-subject and group analysis. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4158-4178, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The contributions of Hans-Dieter Rösler: pioneer of digit ratio (2D:4D) research.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Dressler, Stefan G; Loibl, Lisa Mariella

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain, body, and behavior, has received extensive research attention in psychology. This account makes more widely accessible the contributions of the German psychologist, Hans-Dieter Rösler, an early, for a long time unnoticed, predecessor of modern 2D:4D research. In the mid-1950s, Rösler collected a massive sample of hand outline drawings, totalling nearly 7,000 individuals, ranging in age from 1 mo. to 70 yr. With regard to the distal finger-extent pattern, Rösler differentiated radial (longer index than ring finger), ulnar (reversed pattern), and intermediate hand types, which reflect higher (more female-typical), lower (more male-typical), and intermediate 2D:4D, respectively. Here is summarized Rösler's research. In a series of investigations into the hand types, he reported on their anatomical bases, unsuitability for paternity testing, developmental changes, heritability, sex, side, and occupational group differences, and associations with left-handedness, manual dexterity, mental retardation, and clinodactyly. Based on new data from 313 male and 316 female adults, hand type is further shown to be only a weak proxy of actual 2D:4D, leaving 75% of the interindividual variation in 2D:4D unexplained. Notwithstanding these shortcomings of the hand-type method, Rösler's work from the 1950s still has the potential to inform modern 2D:4D research, as it contains a multitude of testable hypotheses not yet picked up by current research.

  16. PC-based workstation for global PACS remote consultation and diagnosis in rural clinics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Robles, Saul; Kim, Jinman

    1995-05-01

    Most rural clinics across the country have limited facilities to provide state-of-the-art medical services. The availability of enabling technologies, such as telecommunication networks, multimedia workstations, and telemedicine systems which provide medical services to patients without requiring them to travel from their cities represents a great step in patient care. In previous work, we have developed a distributed software for remote consultation and diagnosis (RCD) in a Global PACS environment over the Internet. The RCD system has been designed and tested on DEC and SUN workstations. In this paper, we present a Unix-PC based platform to implement the RCD over a standard telephone line and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). The Unix-PC platform offers an inexpensive option for telemedicine workstations in rural clinics, where no Internet is available. If an Internet connection is available at the rural clinic, full RCD multimedia services are possible. The Unix-PC platform has been developed by using Linux, a Unix-like operating system available from several public sites over the Internet. We call the system PC-PACS. The PC-PACS workstation has been tested from different rural sites by connecting the Unix-PC system to the Internet through SLIP. Once the system is connected, RCD sessions have been performed between the Unix- PC platform and SUN workstations. The tests have included diagnosis on radiology and pathology images. A separate telephone line for voice communications during the RCD session is required. This paper describes performance tests for the PC-based workstation and the RCD system over SLIP and Ethernet interfaces. Results show acceptable performance of the workstation and the RCD software.

  17. 4D Printing of Shape Memory-Based Personalized Endoluminal Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Zarek, Matt; Mansour, Nicola; Shapira, Shir; Cohn, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The convergence of additive manufacturing and shape-morphing materials is promising for the advancement of personalized medical devices. The capability to transform 3D objects from one shape to another, right off the print bed, is known as 4D printing. Shape memory thermosets can be tailored to have a range of thermomechanical properties favorable to medical devices, but processing them is a challenge because they are insoluble and do not flow at any temperature. This study presents here a strategy to capitalize on a series of medical imaging modalities to construct a printable shape memory endoluminal device, exemplified by a tracheal stent. A methacrylated polycaprolactone precursor with a molecular weight of 10 000 g mol(-1) is printed with a UV-LED stereolithography printer based on anatomical data. This approach converges with the zeitgeist of personalized medicine and it is anticipated that it will broadly expand the application of shape memory-exhibiting biomedical devices to myriad clinical indications.

  18. Optimal target VOI size for accurate 4D coregistration of DCE-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Brian; Mikheev, Artem; Zaim Wadghiri, Youssef; Bertrand, Anne; Novikov, Dmitry; Chandarana, Hersh; Rusinek, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI has emerged as a reliable and diagnostically useful functional imaging technique. DCE protocol typically lasts 3-15 minutes and results in a time series of N volumes. For automated analysis, it is important that volumes acquired at different times be spatially coregistered. We have recently introduced a novel 4D, or volume time series, coregistration tool based on a user-specified target volume of interest (VOI). However, the relationship between coregistration accuracy and target VOI size has not been investigated. In this study, coregistration accuracy was quantitatively measured using various sized target VOIs. Coregistration of 10 DCE-MRI mouse head image sets were performed with various sized VOIs targeting the mouse brain. Accuracy was quantified by measures based on the union and standard deviation of the coregistered volume time series. Coregistration accuracy was determined to improve rapidly as the size of the VOI increased and approached the approximate volume of the target (mouse brain). Further inflation of the VOI beyond the volume of the target (mouse brain) only marginally improved coregistration accuracy. The CPU time needed to accomplish coregistration is a linear function of N that varied gradually with VOI size. From the results of this study, we recommend the optimal size of the VOI to be slightly overinclusive, approximately by 5 voxels, of the target for computationally efficient and accurate coregistration.

  19. Posture And Dorsal Shape At A Sitted Workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepoutre, F. X.; Cloup, P.; Guerra, T. M.

    1986-07-01

    The ergonomic analysis of a control or a supervision workstation for a vehicle or a process, necessitates to take into account the biomecanical visuo-postural system. The measurements, which are necessary to do, must give informations about the spatial direction of the limbs, the dorsal shape, eventually the eyes direction, and the postural evolution during the working time. More, the smallness of the work station, the backrest and sometime a vibratory environment made use specific, strong and small devices wich do not disturb the operator. The measurement system which we propose is made of an optical device. This system is studied in relation with the french "Institute de Recherche pour les Transports" for an ergonomic analysis of a truck cabin. The optical device consists on placing on the body of the driver on particular places materializing specially members and trunck joint points, some drops which reflect the infra-red raies coming from a specific light. Several cameras whose relative positions depend on the experiment site, transmit video signals to the associated treatment systems which extract the coordinates (Xi, Yi) of each drop in the observation scope of any camera. By regrouping the informations obtained from every view, it is possible to obtain the spatial drop position and then to restore the individual's posture in three dimensions. Therefore, this device doesn't enable us, in consideration of the backrest, to analyse the dorsal posture, which is important with regard to dorsal pains frequency. For that reason, we complete the measurements by using a "curvometer". This device consists of a flexible stick fixed upon the individual back with elastic belts, whose distorsions (curvature in m-1) are measured, in the individual's sagittal plane, with 4 strain gauges pairs; located approximately at the level of vertebra D1, D6, D10 and L3. A fifth measurement, concerning the inclination (in degree) of the lower part of the stick, makes it is possible to

  20. 4D Dynamic RNP Annual Interim Report-Year 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelsztein, Daniel M.; Sturdy, James L.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Chung, William W.; Salvano, Daniel; Klooster, Joel; Hochwarth, Joachim K.

    2010-01-01

    This Annual Interim Report summarizes the activities led by Raytheon, in collaboration with GE Aviation and SAIC, and presents the results obtained during the first year of this research effort to expand the RNP concept to 4 dimensions relative to a dynamic frame of reference. Joint Program Development Office (JPDO)Concepts of Operations for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) considers 4 Dimension Trajectory (4DT) procedures a key enabler to Trajectory Based Operations (TBO). The JPDO defines 4DT as a precise description of an aircraft path in space and time . While NextGen assumes that this path is defined within an Earth-reference frame, many 4DT procedure implementations will require an aircraft to precisely navigate relative to a moving reference such as another aircraft to form aggregate flows or a weather cell to allow for flows to shift. Current methods of implementing routes and flight paths rely on aircraft meeting a Required Navigation Performance (RNP) specification and being equipped with a monitoring and alerting capability to annunciate when the aircraft system is unable to meet the performance specification required for the operation. Since all aircraft today operate within the NAS relative to fixed reference points, the current RNP definition is deemed satisfactory. However, it is not well understood how the current RNP construct will support NextGen 4DT procedures where aircraft operate relative to each other or to other dynamic frames of reference. The objective of this research effort is to analyze candidate 4DT procedures from both an Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) and aircraft perspective, to identify their specific navigational requirements, assess the shortcomings of the current RNP construct to meet these requirements, to propose an extended 4 Dimensional Dynamic RNP (4D Dynamic RNP) construct that accounts for the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of the selected 4DT procedures, and finally, to design an

  1. Parallel Infrastructure Modeling and Inversion Module for E4D

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-09

    Electrical resistivity tomography ERT is a method of imaging the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. Electrical conductivity is a useful metric for understanding the subsurface because it is governed by geomechanical and geochemical properties that drive subsurface systems. ERT works by injecting current into the subsurface across a pair of electrodes, and measuring the corresponding electrical potential response across another pair of electrodes. Many such measurements are strategically taken across an array of electrodes to produce an ERT data set. These data are then processed through a computationally demanding process known as inversion to produce an image of the subsurface conductivity structure that gave rise to the measurements. Data can be inverted to provide 2D images, 3D images, or in the case of time-lapse 3D imaging, 4D images. ERT is generally not well suited for environments with buried electrically conductive infrastructure such as pipes, tanks, or well casings, because these features tend to dominate and degrade ERT images. This reduces or eliminates the utility of ERT imaging where it would otherwise be highly useful for, for example, imaging fluid migration from leaking pipes, imaging soil contamination beneath leaking subusurface tanks, and monitoring contaminant migration in locations with dense network of metal cased monitoring wells. The location and dimension of buried metallic infrastructure is often known. If so, then the effects of the infrastructure can be explicitly modeled within the ERT imaging algorithm, and thereby removed from the corresponding ERT image. However,there are a number of obstacles limiting this application. 1) Metallic infrastructure cannot be accurately modeled with standard codes because of the large contrast in conductivity between the metal and host material. 2) Modeling infrastructure in true dimension requires the computational mesh to be highly refined near the metal inclusions, which increases

  2. Respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography: A novel method to reduce imaging dose

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Benjamin J.; O'Brien, Ricky T.; Keall, Paul J.; Balik, Salim; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: A novel method called respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography (RT 4D CBCT) is described whereby imaging dose can be reduced without degrading image quality. RT 4D CBCT utilizes a respiratory signal to trigger projections such that only a single projection is assigned to a given respiratory bin for each breathing cycle. In contrast, commercial 4D CBCT does not actively use the respiratory signal to minimize image dose. Methods: To compare RT 4D CBCT with conventional 4D CBCT, 3600 CBCT projections of a thorax phantom were gathered and reconstructed to generate a ground truth CBCT dataset. Simulation pairs of conventional 4D CBCT acquisitions and RT 4D CBCT acquisitions were developed assuming a sinusoidal respiratory signal which governs the selection of projections from the pool of 3600 original projections. The RT 4D CBCT acquisition triggers a single projection when the respiratory signal enters a desired acquisition bin; the conventional acquisition does not use a respiratory trigger and projections are acquired at a constant frequency. Acquisition parameters studied were breathing period, acquisition time, and imager frequency. The performance of RT 4D CBCT using phase based and displacement based sorting was also studied. Image quality was quantified by calculating difference images of the test dataset from the ground truth dataset. Imaging dose was calculated by counting projections. Results: Using phase based sorting RT 4D CBCT results in 47% less imaging dose on average compared to conventional 4D CBCT. Image quality differences were less than 4% at worst. Using displacement based sorting RT 4D CBCT results in 57% less imaging dose on average, than conventional 4D CBCT methods; however, image quality was 26% worse with RT 4D CBCT. Conclusions: Simulation studies have shown that RT 4D CBCT reduces imaging dose while maintaining comparable image quality for phase based 4D CBCT; image quality is degraded for displacement based RT 4D

  3. Musculoskeletal problems in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry: guidelines for workstation design.

    PubMed

    Choobineh, Alireza; Hosseini, Mostafa; Lahmi, Mohammadali; Khani Jazani, Reza; Shahnavaz, Houshang

    2007-09-01

    Long hours of static work with awkward posture at traditionally designed looms can cause high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among carpet weavers. A comprehensive study was conducted in this industry with the objectives of determination of MSDs symptoms prevalence; identification of major factors associated with MSDs symptoms in carpet weaving occupation; and development of guidelines for weaving workstation design. In the present paper, this ergonomics study is presented. The study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, MSDs symptoms in nine Iranian provinces were surveyed by questionnaire among 1439 randomly selected weavers. Working posture and weaving workstations were ergonomically assessed as well. The results of this phase revealed that symptoms from the musculoskeletal system occurred in high rate among weavers with the prevalence significantly higher than that of the general Iranian population (P<0.001). It was found that the majority of ergonomics shortcomings originated from ill-designed weaving workstation. Based on the findings, some general guidelines for workstation design were presented. In the second phase, considering the general guidelines, an adjustable workstation was designed and constructed. To develop quantitative guidelines for optimizing workstation set-up, in the laboratory, nine sets of experimental conditions were tested, and working posture and weavers' perceptions were measured. The results of this lab work showed that working posture was acceptable for both the researchers and the weavers when the weaving height was adjusted 20 cm above the elbow height and a high seat with forward slope was used. By combining the results of the two phases, guidelines for weaving workstation design were presented. In this ergonomics-oriented workstation, loom is vertical. Seat, loom and weaving heights are adjustable. There is enough leg room under the loom. The seat with 10 degrees forward slope is adjusted 15 cm above the

  4. Further Insights in the Binding Mode of Selective Inhibitors to Human PDE4D Enzyme Combining Docking and Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    D'Ursi, Pasqualina; Guariento, Sara; Trombetti, Gabriele; Orro, Alessandro; Cichero, Elena; Milanesi, Luciano; Bruno, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer′s disease has recently emerged as a possible field of application for PDE4D inhibitors (PDE4DIs). The great structure similarity among the various PDE4 isoforms and, furthermore, the lack of the full length crystal structure of the enzyme, impaired the rational design of new selective PDE4DIs. In this paper, with the aim of exploring new insights into the PDE4D binding, we tackled the problem by performing a computational study based on docking simulations combined with molecular dynamics (D‐MD). Our work uniquely identified the binding mode and the key residues involved in the interaction with a number of in‐house catechol iminoether derivatives, acting as PDE4DIs. Moreover, the new binding mode was tested using a series of analogues previously reported by us and it was used to confirm their key structural features to allow PDE4D inhibition. The binding model disclosed within the current computational study may prove to be useful to further advance the design and synthesis of novel, more potent and selective, PDE4D inhibitors. PMID:27546041

  5. The impact of sit-stand office workstations on worker discomfort and productivity: a review.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2014-05-01

    This review examines the effectiveness of sit-stand workstations at reducing worker discomfort without causing a decrease in productivity. Four databases were searched for studies on sit-stand workstations, and five selection criteria were used to identify appropriate articles. Fourteen articles were identified that met at least three of the five selection criteria. Seven of the identified studies reported either local, whole body or both local and whole body subjective discomfort scores. Six of these studies indicated implementing sit-stand workstations in an office environment led to lower levels of reported subjective discomfort (three of which were statistically significant). Therefore, this review concluded that sit-stand workstations are likely effective in reducing perceived discomfort. Eight of the identified studies reported a productivity outcome. Three of these studies reported an increase in productivity during sit-stand work, four reported no affect on productivity, and one reported mixed productivity results. Therefore, this review concluded that sit-stand workstations do not cause a decrease in productivity.

  6. Virtual slide telepathology workstation of the future: lessons learned from teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A

    2009-08-01

    The clinical reading environment for the 21st century pathologist looks very different than it did even a few short years ago. Glass slides are quickly being replaced by digital "virtual slides," and the traditional light microscope is being replaced by the computer display. There are numerous questions that arise however when deciding exactly what this new digital display viewing environment will be like. Choosing a workstation for daily use in the interpretation of digital pathology images can be a very daunting task. Radiology went digital nearly 20 years ago and faced many of the same challenges so there are lessons to be learned from these experiences. One major lesson is that there is no "one size fits all" workstation so users must consider a variety of factors when choosing a workstation. In this article, we summarize some of the potentially critical elements in a pathology workstation and the characteristics one should be aware of and look for in the selection of one. Issues pertaining to both hardware and software aspects of medical workstations will be reviewed particularly as they may impact the interpretation process.

  7. Virtual slide telepathology workstation of the future: lessons learned from teleradiology☆

    PubMed Central

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The clinical reading environment for the 21st century pathologist looks very different than it did even a few short years ago. Glass slides are quickly being replaced by digital “virtual slides,” and the traditional light microscope is being replaced by the computer display. There are numerous questions that arise however when deciding exactly what this new digital display viewing environment will be like. Choosing a workstation for daily use in the interpretation of digital pathology images can be a very daunting task. Radiology went digital nearly 20 years ago and faced many of the same challenges so there are lessons to be learned from these experiences. One major lesson is that there is no “one size fits all” workstation so users must consider a variety of factors when choosing a workstation. In this article, we summarize some of the potentially critical elements in a pathology workstation and the characteristics one should be aware of and look for in the selection of one. Issues pertaining to both hardware and software aspects of medical workstations will be reviewed particularly as they may impact the interpretation process. PMID:19552939

  8. Denoising and 4D visualization of OCT images

    PubMed Central

    Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Wilson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We are using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to image structure and function of the developing embryonic heart in avian models. Fast OCT imaging produces very large 3D (2D + time) and 4D (3D volumes + time) data sets, which greatly challenge ones ability to visualize results. Noise in OCT images poses additional challenges. We created an algorithm with a quick, data set specific optimization for reduction of both shot and speckle noise and applied it to 3D visualization and image segmentation in OCT. When compared to baseline algorithms (median, Wiener, orthogonal wavelet, basic non-orthogonal wavelet), a panel of experts judged the new algorithm to give much improved volume renderings concerning both noise and 3D visualization. Specifically, the algorithm provided a better visualization of the myocardial and endocardial surfaces, and the interaction of the embryonic heart tube with surrounding tissue. Quantitative evaluation using an image quality figure of merit also indicated superiority of the new algorithm. Noise reduction aided semi-automatic 2D image segmentation, as quantitatively evaluated using a contour distance measure with respect to an expert segmented contour. In conclusion, the noise reduction algorithm should be quite useful for visualization and quantitative measurements (e.g., heart volume, stroke volume, contraction velocity, etc.) in OCT embryo images. With its semi-automatic, data set specific optimization, we believe that the algorithm can be applied to OCT images from other applications. PMID:18679509

  9. 4D Cellular Automaton Track Finder in the CBM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishina, Valentina; Kisel, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    The CBM experiment (FAIR/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany) will focus on the measurement of rare probes at interaction rates up to 10MHz with data flow of up to 1 TB/s. It requires a novel read-out and data-acquisition concept with self-triggered electronics and free-streaming data. In this case resolving different collisions is a non-trivial task and event building must be performed in software online. That requires full online event reconstruction and selection not only in space, but also in time, so-called 4D event building and selection. This is a task of the First-Level Event Selection (FLES). The FLES reconstruction and selection package consists of several modules: track finding, track fitting, short-lived particles finding, event building and event selection. The Cellular Automaton (CA) track finder algorithm was adapted towards time-based reconstruction. In this article, we describe in detail the modification done to the algorithm, as well as the performance of the developed time-based CA approach.

  10. "4D Biology for health and disease" workshop report.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Jan-Pieter; Apweiler, Rolf; Balling, Rudi; Bertero, Michela G; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Chayen, Naomi E; Chène, Patrick; Corthals, Gary L; Dyląg, Tomasz; Förster, Friedrich; Heck, Albert J R; Henderson, Peter J F; Herwig, Ralf; Jehenson, Philippe; Kokalj, Sasa Jenko; Laue, Ernest; Legrain, Pierre; Martens, Lennart; Migliorini, Cristiano; Musacchio, Andrea; Podobnik, Marjetka; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Schreiber, Gideon; Sixma, Titia K; Smit, August B; Stuart, David; Svergun, Dmitri I; Taussig, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    The "4D Biology Workshop for Health and Disease", held on 16-17th of March 2010 in Brussels, aimed at finding the best organising principles for large-scale proteomics, interactomics and structural genomics/biology initiatives, and setting the vision for future high-throughput research and large-scale data gathering in biological and medical science. Major conclusions of the workshop include the following. (i) Development of new technologies and approaches to data analysis is crucial. Biophysical methods should be developed that span a broad range of time/spatial resolution and characterise structures and kinetics of interactions. Mathematics, physics, computational and engineering tools need to be used more in biology and new tools need to be developed. (ii) Database efforts need to focus on improved definitions of ontologies and standards so that system-scale data and associated metadata can be understood and shared efficiently. (iii) Research infrastructures should play a key role in fostering multidisciplinary research, maximising knowledge exchange between disciplines and facilitating access to diverse technologies. (iv) Understanding disease on a molecular level is crucial. System approaches may represent a new paradigm in the search for biomarkers and new targets in human disease. (v) Appropriate education and training should be provided to help efficient exchange of knowledge between theoreticians, experimental biologists and clinicians. These conclusions provide a strong basis for creating major possibilities in advancing research and clinical applications towards personalised medicine.

  11. Comparison of three computer office workstations offering forearm support: impact on upper limb posture and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Alain; Larivière, Christian; Plamondon, André; Imbeau, Daniel

    2006-02-10

    The aims of the study were: 1) to determine whether resting the forearms on the work surface, as compared to chair armrests, reduces muscular activation; 2) to compare the sensitivity of different electromyographic (EMG) summary parameters. Eighteen healthy subjects performed computer work (with keyboard and mouse alternately) for 20 min while resting their forearms on a work surface adjustable in height (Workstation A), on the chair's armrests with an adjustable workstation (Workstation B) or on their chair's armrests with a non-adjustable workstation (Workstation C). The EMG amplitude of the trapezius and deltoid muscles was little influenced by the workstations, whereas their EMG variability increased with Workstation A, which was interpreted as a positive effect. However, the EMG amplitude of the mouse-side extensor digitorum muscle was higher with Workstation A. Alternating between resting the forearms on the work surface and on the chairs' armrests could solicit different muscles during computer work, and could be considered as a strategy for preventing musculoskeletal disorders. The new exposure variation analysis summary parameters used were sensitive to small workstation changes, thus supporting their use in future studies.

  12. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and hand preference for writing in the BBC Internet Study.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Peters, M

    2009-09-01

    The ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) may be negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone. Hand preference has been linked with prenatal testosterone and 2D:4D. Here we show that 2D:4D is associated with hand preference for writing in a large internet sample (n>170,000) in which participants self-reported their finger lengths. We replicated a significant association between right 2D:4D and writing hand preference (low right 2D:4D associated with left hand preference) as well as a significant correlation between writing hand preference and the difference between left and right 2D:4D or Dr-l (low Dr-l associated with left hand preference). A new significant correlation between left 2D:4D and writing hand preference was also shown (high left 2D:4D associated with left hand preference). There was a clear interaction between writing hand preference and 2D:4D: The left 2D:4D was significantly larger than the right 2D:4D in male and female left-handed writers, and the right hand 2D:4D was significantly larger than the left hand 2D:4D in male and female right-handed writers.

  13. 2,4-D and IAA Amino Acid Conjugates Show Distinct Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Eyer, Luděk; Vain, Thomas; Pařízková, Barbora; Oklestkova, Jana; Barbez, Elke; Kozubíková, Hana; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Wierzbicka, Roksana; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Fránek, Milan; Strnad, Miroslav; Robert, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-D exhibits an auxinic activity and therefore can be used as a synthetic and traceable analog to study auxin-related responses. Here we identified that not only exogenous 2,4-D but also its amide-linked metabolite 2,4-D-Glu displayed an inhibitory effect on plant growth via the TIR1/AFB auxin-mediated signaling pathway. To further investigate 2,4-D metabolite conversion, identity and activity, we have developed a novel purification procedure based on the combination of ion exchange and immuno-specific sorbents combined with a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. In 2,4-D treated samples, 2,4-D-Glu and 2,4-D-Asp were detected at 100-fold lower concentrations compared to 2,4-D levels, showing that 2,4-D can be metabolized in the plant. Moreover, 2,4-D-Asp and 2,4-D-Glu were identified as reversible forms of 2,4-D homeostasis that can be converted to free 2,4-D. This work paves the way to new studies of auxin action in plant development. PMID:27434212

  14. Automatic 4D Reconstruction of Patient-Specific Cardiac Mesh with 1-to-1 Vertex Correspondence from Segmented Contours Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi Wan; Su, Yi; Yeo, Si Yong; Ng, Gillian Maria; Nguyen, Vinh Tan; Zhong, Liang; Tan, Ru San; Poh, Kian Keong; Chai, Ping

    2014-01-01

    We propose an automatic algorithm for the reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac mesh models with 1-to-1 vertex correspondence. In this framework, a series of 3D meshes depicting the endocardial surface of the heart at each time step is constructed, based on a set of border delineated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the whole cardiac cycle. The key contribution in this work involves a novel reconstruction technique to generate a 4D (i.e., spatial–temporal) model of the heart with 1-to-1 vertex mapping throughout the time frames. The reconstructed 3D model from the first time step is used as a base template model and then deformed to fit the segmented contours from the subsequent time steps. A method to determine a tree-based connectivity relationship is proposed to ensure robust mapping during mesh deformation. The novel feature is the ability to handle intra- and inter-frame 2D topology changes of the contours, which manifests as a series of merging and splitting of contours when the images are viewed either in a spatial or temporal sequence. Our algorithm has been tested on five acquisitions of cardiac MRI and can successfully reconstruct the full 4D heart model in around 30 minutes per subject. The generated 4D heart model conforms very well with the input segmented contours and the mesh element shape is of reasonably good quality. The work is important in the support of downstream computational simulation activities. PMID:24743555

  15. Impact of scanning parameters and breathing patterns on image quality and accuracy of tumor motion reconstruction in 4D CBCT: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoung; Yan, Guanghua; Lu, Bo; Kahler, Darren; Li, Jonathan G; Sanjiv, Samat S

    2015-11-08

    Four-dimensional, cone-beam CT (4D CBCT) substantially reduces respiration-induced motion blurring artifacts in three-dimension (3D) CBCT. However, the image quality of 4D CBCT is significantly degraded which may affect its accuracy in localizing a mobile tumor for high-precision, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of scanning parameters hereinafter collectively referred to as scanning sequence) and breathing patterns on the image quality and the accuracy of computed tumor trajectory for a commercial 4D CBCT system, in preparation for its clinical implementation. We simulated a series of periodic and aperiodic sinusoidal breathing patterns with a respiratory motion phantom. The aperiodic pattern was created by varying the period or amplitude of individual sinusoidal breathing cycles. 4D CBCT scans of the phantom were acquired with a manufacturer-supplied scanning sequence (4D-S-slow) and two in-house modified scanning sequences (4D-M-slow and 4D-M-fast). While 4D-S-slow used small field of view (FOV), partial rotation (200°), and no imaging filter, 4D-M-slow and 4D-M-fast used medium FOV, full rotation, and the F1 filter. The scanning speed was doubled in 4D-M-fast (100°/min gantry rotation). The image quality of the 4D CBCT scans was evaluated using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and motion blurring ratio (MBR). The trajectory of the moving target was reconstructed by registering each phase of the 4D CBCT with a reference CT. The root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) analysis was used to quantify its accuracy. Significant decrease in CNR and SNR from 3D CBCT to 4D CBCT was observed. The 4D-S-slow and 4D-M-fast scans had comparable image quality, while the 4D-M-slow scans had better performance due to doubled projections. Both CNR and SNR decreased slightly as the breathing period increased, while no dependence on the amplitude was observed. The difference of both CNR and SNR

  16. JACK - ANTHROPOMETRIC MODELING SYSTEM FOR SILICON GRAPHICS WORKSTATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B.

    1994-01-01

    human figure in an environment. Integrated into JACK is a set of vision tools that allow predictions about visibility and legibility. The program is capable of displaying environment perspectives corresponding to what the mannequin would see while in the environment, indicating potential problems with occlusion and visibility. It is also possible to display view cones emanating from the figure's eyes, indicating field of view. Another feature projects the environment onto retina coordinates which gives clues regarding visual angles, acuity and occlusion by the biological blind spots. A retina editor makes it possible to draw onto the retina and project that into 3-dimensional space. Another facility, Reach, causes the mannequin to move a specific portion of its anatomy to a chosen point in space. The Reach facility helps in analyzing problems associated with operator size and other constraints. The 17-segment torso makes it possible to set a figure into realistic postures, simulating human postures closely. The JACK application software is written in C-language for Silicon Graphics workstations running IRIX versions 4.0.5 or higher and is available only in executable form. Since JACK is a copyrighted program (copyright 1991 University of Pennsylvania), this executable may not be redistributed. The recommended minimum hardware configuration for running the executable includes a floating-point accelerator, an 8-megabyte program memory, a high resolution (1280 x 1024) graphics card, and at least 50Mb of free disk space. JACK's data files take up millions of bytes of storage space, so additional disk space is highly recommended. The standard distribution medium for JACK is a .25 inch streaming magnetic IRIX tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. JACK was originally developed in 1988. Jack v4.8 was released for distribution through COSMIC in 1993.

  17. Multimodal optical workstation for simultaneous linear, nonlinear microscopy and nanomanipulation: upgrading a commercial confocal inverted microscope.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Manoj; Santos, Susana I C O; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    In this work we propose and build a multimodal optical workstation that extends a commercially available confocal microscope (Nikon Confocal C1-Si) to include nonlinear/multiphoton microscopy and optical manipulation/stimulation tools such as nanosurgery. The setup allows both subsystems (confocal and nonlinear) to work independently and simultaneously. The workstation enables, for instance, nanosurgery along with simultaneous confocal and brightfield imaging. The nonlinear microscopy capabilities are added around the commercial confocal microscope by exploiting all the flexibility offered by this microscope and without need for any mechanical or electronic modification of the confocal microscope systems. As an example, the standard differential interference contrast condenser and diascopic detector in the confocal microscope are readily used as a forward detection mount for second harmonic generation imaging. The various capabilities of this workstation, as applied directly to biology, are demonstrated using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans.

  18. GRAM 88 - 4D GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERE MODEL-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    the Jacchia values. Below 25km the atmospheric parameters are computed by the 4-D worldwide atmospheric model of Spiegler and Fowler (1972). This data set is not included. GRAM-88 incorporates a hydrostatic/gas law check in the 0-30 km altitude range to flag and change any bad data points. Between 5km and 30km, an interpolation scheme is used between the 4-D results and the modified Groves values. The output parameters consist of components for: (1) latitude, longitude, and altitude dependent monthly and annual means, (2) quasi-biennial oscillations (QBO), and (3) random perturbations to partially simulate the variability due to synoptic, diurnal, planetary wave, and gravity wave variations. Quasi-biennial and random variation perturbations are computed from parameters determined by various empirical studies and are added to the monthly mean values. The GRAM-88 program is for batch execution on the IBM 3084. It is written in STANDARD FORTRAN 77 under the MVS/XA operating system. The IBM DISPLA graphics routines are necessary for graphical output. The program was developed in 1988.

  19. 4D Imaging of Protein Aggregation in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaganovich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    proteins that are not ubiquitinated are diverted to the IPOD, where they are actively aggregated in a protective compartment. Up until this point, the methodological paradigm of live-cell fluorescence microscopy has largely been to label proteins and track their locations in the cell at specific time-points and usually in two dimensions. As new technologies have begun to grant experimenters unprecedented access to the submicron scale in living cells, the dynamic architecture of the cytosol has come into view as a challenging new frontier for experimental characterization. We present a method for rapidly monitoring the 3D spatial distributions of multiple fluorescently labeled proteins in the yeast cytosol over time. 3D timelapse (4D imaging) is not merely a technical challenge; rather, it also facilitates a dramatic shift in the conceptual framework used to analyze cellular structure. We utilize a cytosolic folding sensor protein in live yeast to visualize distinct fates for misfolded proteins in cellular aggregation quality control, using rapid 4D fluorescent imaging. The temperature sensitive mutant of the Ubc9 protein10-12 (Ubc9ts) is extremely effective both as a sensor of cellular proteostasis, and a physiological model for tracking aggregation quality control. As with most ts proteins, Ubc9ts is fully folded and functional at permissive temperatures due to active cellular chaperones. Above 30 °C, or when the cell faces misfolding stress, Ubc9ts misfolds and follows the fate of a native globular protein that has been misfolded due to mutation, heat denaturation, or oxidative damage. By fusing it to GFP or other fluorophores, it can be tracked in 3D as it forms Stress Foci, or is directed to JUNQ or IPOD. PMID:23608881

  20. Evaluation of a novel 4D in vivo dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Cherpak, A.; Ding, W.; Hallil, A.; Cygler, J. E.

    2009-05-15

    A prototype of a new 4D in vivo dosimetry system capable of simultaneous real-time position monitoring and dose measurement has been developed. The radiation positioning system (RADPOS) is controlled by a computer and combines two technologies: MOSFET radiation detector coupled with an electromagnetic positioning device. Special software has been developed that allows sampling position and dose either manually or automatically in user-defined time intervals. Preliminary tests of the new device include a dosimetric evaluation of the detector in {sup 60}Co, 6 MV, and 18 MV beams and measurements of spatial position stability and accuracy. In addition, the effect of metals and other materials on the performance of the positioning system has been investigated. Results show that the RADPOS system can measure in-air dose profiles that agree, on average, within 3%-5% of diode measurements for the energies tested. The response of the detector is isotropic within 1.6% (1 SD) with a maximum deviation of {+-}4.0% over 360 deg. The maximum variation in the calibration coefficient over field sizes from 6x6 to 25x25 cm{sup 2} was 2.3% for RADPOS probe with the high sensitivity MOSFET and 4.6% for the probe with the standard sensitivity MOSFET. Of the materials tested, only aluminum, lead, and brass caused shifts in the RADPOS read position. The magnitude of the shift varied between materials and size of the material sample. Nonmagnetic stainless steel (Grade 304) caused a distortion of less than 2 mm when placed within 10 mm of the detector; therefore, it can provide a reasonable alternative to other metals if required. The results of the preliminary tests indicate that the device can be used for in vivo dosimetry in {sup 60}Co and high-energy beams from linear accelerators.

  1. Binary 4D seismic history matching, a metric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassagne, Romain; Obidegwu, Dennis; Dambrine, Julien; MacBeth, Colin

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores 4D seismic history matching and it specifically focuses on the objective function used during the optimisation with seismic data. The objective function is calculated by using binary maps, where one map is obtained from the observed seismic data and the other is from one realisation of the optimisation algorithm from the simulation model. In order to decide which set of parameters is a relevant update for the simulation model, an efficient way is required to measure how similar these two binary images are, during their evaluation within the objective function. Behind this aspect of quantification of the similarities or dissimilarities lies the metric notion, or the art of measuring distances. Four metrics are proposed with this study, the well-known Hamming distance, two widely used metrics, the Hausdorff distance and Mutual Information and a recent metric, called the Current Measure Metric. These metrics will be tested and compared on different case scenarios, designed in accordance to a real field case (gas exsolution) before being used in the second part of the paper. Despite its simplicity, the Hamming distance gives positive results, but the Current Measure Metric appears to be a more efficient choice to cover a wider range of scenarios, these conclusions remain true when tested on synthetic and real dataset in a history matching exercise. Some practical aspects of binary map processes will be examined through the paper, as it is shown that it is more proper to use a derivative free optimisation algorithm and a proper metric should be more inclined to capture global features than local features.

  2. Infrared PINEM developed by diffraction in 4D UEM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haihua; Baskin, John Spencer; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2016-02-23

    The development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D UEM) has enabled not only observations of the ultrafast dynamics of photon-matter interactions at the atomic scale with ultrafast resolution in image, diffraction, and energy space, but photon-electron interactions in the field of nanoplasmonics and nanophotonics also have been captured by the related technique of photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM) in image and energy space. Here we report a further extension in the ongoing development of PINEM using a focused, nanometer-scale, electron beam in diffraction space for measurements of infrared-light-induced PINEM. The energy resolution in diffraction mode is unprecedented, reaching 0.63 eV under the 200-keV electron beam illumination, and separated peaks of the PINEM electron-energy spectrum induced by infrared light of wavelength 1,038 nm (photon energy 1.2 eV) have been well resolved for the first time, to our knowledge. In a comparison with excitation by green (519-nm) pulses, similar first-order PINEM peak amplitudes were obtained for optical fluence differing by a factor of more than 60 at the interface of copper metal and vacuum. Under high fluence, the nonlinear regime of IR PINEM was observed, and its spatial dependence was studied. In combination with PINEM temporal gating and low-fluence infrared excitation, the PINEM diffraction method paves the way for studies of structural dynamics in reciprocal space and energy space with high temporal resolution.

  3. Fast interactive exploration of 4D MRI flow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennemuth, A.; Friman, O.; Schumann, C.; Bock, J.; Drexl, J.; Huellebrand, M.; Markl, M.; Peitgen, H.-O.

    2011-03-01

    1- or 2-directional MRI blood flow mapping sequences are an integral part of standard MR protocols for diagnosis and therapy control in heart diseases. Recent progress in rapid MRI has made it possible to acquire volumetric, 3-directional cine images in reasonable scan time. In addition to flow and velocity measurements relative to arbitrarily oriented image planes, the analysis of 3-dimensional trajectories enables the visualization of flow patterns, local features of flow trajectories or possible paths into specific regions. The anatomical and functional information allows for advanced hemodynamic analysis in different application areas like stroke risk assessment, congenital and acquired heart disease, aneurysms or abdominal collaterals and cranial blood flow. The complexity of the 4D MRI flow datasets and the flow related image analysis tasks makes the development of fast comprehensive data exploration software for advanced flow analysis a challenging task. Most existing tools address only individual aspects of the analysis pipeline such as pre-processing, quantification or visualization, or are difficult to use for clinicians. The goal of the presented work is to provide a software solution that supports the whole image analysis pipeline and enables data exploration with fast intuitive interaction and visualization methods. The implemented methods facilitate the segmentation and inspection of different vascular systems. Arbitrary 2- or 3-dimensional regions for quantitative analysis and particle tracing can be defined interactively. Synchronized views of animated 3D path lines, 2D velocity or flow overlays and flow curves offer a detailed insight into local hemodynamics. The application of the analysis pipeline is shown for 6 cases from clinical practice, illustrating the usefulness for different clinical questions. Initial user tests show that the software is intuitive to learn and even inexperienced users achieve good results within reasonable processing

  4. Infrared PINEM developed by diffraction in 4D UEM

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haihua; Baskin, John Spencer; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2016-01-01

    The development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D UEM) has enabled not only observations of the ultrafast dynamics of photon–matter interactions at the atomic scale with ultrafast resolution in image, diffraction, and energy space, but photon–electron interactions in the field of nanoplasmonics and nanophotonics also have been captured by the related technique of photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM) in image and energy space. Here we report a further extension in the ongoing development of PINEM using a focused, nanometer-scale, electron beam in diffraction space for measurements of infrared-light-induced PINEM. The energy resolution in diffraction mode is unprecedented, reaching 0.63 eV under the 200-keV electron beam illumination, and separated peaks of the PINEM electron-energy spectrum induced by infrared light of wavelength 1,038 nm (photon energy 1.2 eV) have been well resolved for the first time, to our knowledge. In a comparison with excitation by green (519-nm) pulses, similar first-order PINEM peak amplitudes were obtained for optical fluence differing by a factor of more than 60 at the interface of copper metal and vacuum. Under high fluence, the nonlinear regime of IR PINEM was observed, and its spatial dependence was studied. In combination with PINEM temporal gating and low-fluence infrared excitation, the PINEM diffraction method paves the way for studies of structural dynamics in reciprocal space and energy space with high temporal resolution. PMID:26848135

  5. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intact bacteriophage T4D particles.

    PubMed Central

    Childs, J D; Birnboim, H C

    1975-01-01

    A method for the electrophoresis of intact bacteriophage T4D particles through polyacrylamide gels has been developed. It was found that phage particles will migrate through dilute polyacrylamide gels (less than 2.1%) in the presence of a low concentration of MgCl2. As few as 5 x 10(9) phage particles can be seen directly as a light-scattering band during the course of electrophoresis. The band can also be detected by scanning gels at 260 to 265 nm or by eluting viable phage particles from gel slices. A new mutant (eph1) has been identified on the basis of its decreased electrophoretic mobility compared with that of the wild type; mutant particles migrated 14% slower than the wild type particles at pH 8.3 and 35% slower at pH 5.0. The isoelectric points of both the wild type and eph1 mutant were found to be between pH 4.0 and 5.0. Particles of T4 with different head lengths were also studied. Petite particles (heads 20% shorter than normal) migrated at the same rate as normal-size particles. Giant particles, heterogenous with respect to head length (two to nine times normal), migrated faster than normal-size particles as a diffuse band. This diffuseness was due to separation within the band of particles having mobilities ranging from 8 to 35% faster than those of normal-size particles. These observations extend the useful range of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to include much larger particles than have previously been studied, including most viruses. Images PMID:240037

  6. 4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Kowalski, Marcin; Haex, Bart; Mooshake, Sven

    2006-04-01

    Orthopedics and neurosciences are fields of medicine where the analysis of objective movement parameters is extremely important for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, as there are significant differences between static and dynamic parameters, there is a strong need of analyzing the anatomical structures under functional conditions. In clinical gait analysis the benefits of kinematical methods are undoubted. In this paper we present a 4D (3D + time) measurement system capable of automatic location of selected anatomical structures by locating and tracing the structures' position and orientation in time. The presented system is designed to help a general practitioner in diagnosing selected lower limbs' dysfunctions (e.g. knee injuries) and also determine if a patient should be directed for further examination (e.g. x-ray or MRI). The measurement system components are hardware and software. For the hardware part we adapt the laser triangulation method. In this way we can evaluate functional and dynamic movements in a contact-free, non-invasive way, without the use of potentially harmful radiation. Furthermore, opposite to marker-based video-tracking systems, no preparation time is required. The software part consists of a data acquisition module, an image processing and point clouds (point cloud, set of points described by coordinates (x, y, z)) calculation module, a preliminary processing module, a feature-searching module and an external biomechanical module. The paper briefly presents the modules mentioned above with the focus on the feature-searching module. Also we present some measurement and analysis results. These include: parameters maps, landmarks trajectories in time sequence and animation of a simplified model of lower limbs.

  7. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  8. Use of model-based qualitative icons and adaptive windows in workstations for supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Saisi, Donna L.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of an operator interface using qualitative icons and dynamic windows designed and controlled by means of an operator function model is demonstrated, and the simulation system, the Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center, is described. Qualitative icons are used to integrate low-level quantitative data into high-level qualitative error detection mechanisms, and window technology is used for the simultaneous display of multiple data sources that reflect different aspects of the system state. Based on eleven experimental measures, the workstation incorporating the model-based qualitative icons and dynamic operator function window sets was found to perform better than the conventional workstation.

  9. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section... CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D who is a: (a) Duly ordained minister of religion; or (b)...

  10. 49 CFR 178.53 - Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.53 Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere...

  11. 49 CFR 178.53 - Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.53 Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere...

  12. 49 CFR 178.53 - Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.53 Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere...

  13. 49 CFR 178.53 - Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.53 Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use. (a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere...

  14. 40 CFR 180.142 - 2,4-D; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...,4-D; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... § 180.1(l), are established for residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D (2,4... established for indirect or inadvertent residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D...

  15. 40 CFR 180.142 - 2,4-D; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,4-D; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... § 180.1(m), are established for residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D (2,4... established for indirect or inadvertent residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D...

  16. 2,4-D removal via denitrification using volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    He, X; Wareham, D G

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have waters contaminated with both herbicides and nitrates; however, information is limited with respect to removal rates for combined nitrate and herbicide elimination. This research investigates the removal of 2,4-D via denitrification, with a particular emphasis on the effect of adding naturally generated volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The acids were produced from an acid-phase anaerobic digester with a mean VFA concentration of 3153±801 mg/L (as acetic acid). Initially, 2,4-D degrading bacteria were developed in an SBR fed with both sewage and 2,4-D (30-100 mg/L). Subsequent denitrification batch tests demonstrated that the specific denitrification rate increased from 0.0119±0.0039 using 2,4-D alone to 0.0192±0.0079 g NO₃-N/g VSS per day, when 2,4-D was combined with natural VFAs from the digester. Similarly, the specific 2,4-D consumption rate increased from 0.0016±0.0009 using 2,4-D alone to 0.0055±0.0021 g 2,4-D/g VSS per day, when using 2,4-D plus natural VFAs. Finally, a parallel increase in the percent 2,4-D removal was observed, rising from 28.33±11.88 using 2,4-D alone to 54.17±21.89 using 2,4-D plus natural VFAs.

  17. 4d electron Ruthenate systems: their unique and new magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungran; Shin, Yeongjae; Anwar, M. S.; Sugimoto, Yusuke; Lee, Mincheol; Kang, Sungjin; Yonezawa, Shingo; Maeno, Yoshiteru; Noh, Taewon

    The Ruddlesden-Popper series (PR) of Srn+1RunO3n+1 has attract much interest of their unique physical properties. Among them, SrRuO3 (n = ∞) (SRO) is the only ferromagnetic metallic oxide especially in Ru 4d transition metal oxides. Bulk SRO has orthorhombic structure showing the Curie temperature (TC) ~ 160 K. It is well known that RuO6 octahedral distortion plays critical roles in its mangetic properties. In film systems, such RuO6 octahedra can be easily controlled by strain-engineering. In this talk, with high quality SRO films fully strained (-1.7%-1%) using various substrates, we systematically studied their structural changes and associated magnetic properties. Compared to theoretical predictions, the structural changes can be explained, while the magnetic property changes cannot be understood. Surprisingly, when SRO113 is grown on its PR series of Sr2RuO4 (n=1) (SRO214) single crystal, the exact substrate of SRO214 magnetization results in strongly enhanced magnetization (M > 3 μB/Ru, TC ~ 160 K), which has never found SRO113 (001) since the low-spin configuration of SRO113 prevent M never exceed 2 μB/Ru. The mystery of M in SRO113 (especially SRO113/SRO214) will be further discussed.

  18. A dose error evaluation study for 4D dose calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milz, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J.; Ullrich, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that respiration induced motion is not negligible for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy. The intrafractional breathing induced motion influences the delivered dose distribution on the underlying patient geometry such as the lung or the abdomen. If a static geometry is used, a planning process for these indications does not represent the entire dynamic process. The quality of a full 4D dose calculation approach depends on the dose coordinate transformation process between deformable geometries. This article provides an evaluation study that introduces an advanced method to verify the quality of numerical dose transformation generated by four different algorithms. The used transformation metric value is based on the deviation of the dose mass histogram (DMH) and the mean dose throughout dose transformation. The study compares the results of four algorithms. In general, two elementary approaches are used: dose mapping and energy transformation. Dose interpolation (DIM) and an advanced concept, so called divergent dose mapping model (dDMM), are used for dose mapping. The algorithms are compared to the basic energy transformation model (bETM) and the energy mass congruent mapping (EMCM). For evaluation 900 small sample regions of interest (ROI) are generated inside an exemplary lung geometry (4DCT). A homogeneous fluence distribution is assumed for dose calculation inside the ROIs. The dose transformations are performed with the four different algorithms. The study investigates the DMH-metric and the mean dose metric for different scenarios (voxel sizes: 8 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm 9 different breathing phases). dDMM achieves the best transformation accuracy in all measured test cases with 3-5% lower errors than the other models. The results of dDMM are reasonable and most efficient in this study, although the model is simple and easy to implement. The EMCM model also achieved suitable results, but the approach requires a more complex

  19. Experimenting with the GMAO 4D Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, R.; El Akkraoui, A.; Errico, R. M.; Guo, J.; Kim, J.; Kliest, D.; Parrish, D. F.; Suarez, M.; Trayanov, A.; Tremolet, Yannick; Whitaker, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) has been working to promote its prototype four-dimensional variational (4DVAR) system to a version that can be exercised at operationally desirable configurations. Beyond a general circulation model (GeM) and an analysis system, traditional 4DV AR requires availability of tangent linear (TL) and adjoint (AD) models of the corresponding GeM. The GMAO prototype 4DVAR uses the finite-volume-based GEOS GeM and the Grid-point Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system for the first two, and TL and AD models derived ITom an early version of the finite-volume hydrodynamics that is scientifically equivalent to the present GEOS nonlinear GeM but computationally rather outdated. Specifically, the TL and AD models hydrodynamics uses a simple (I-dimensional) latitudinal MPI domain decomposition, which has consequent low scalability and prevents the prototype 4DV AR ITom being used in realistic applications. In the near future, GMAO will be upgrading its operational GEOS GCM (and assimilation system) to use a cubed-sphere-based hydrodynamics. This versions of the dynamics scales to thousands of processes and has led to a decision to re-derive the TL and AD models for this more modern dynamics, thus taking advantage of a two-dimensional MPI decomposition and improved scalability properties. With the aid of the Transformation of Algorithms in FORTRAN (l'AF) automatic adjoint generation tool and some hand-coding, a version of the cubed-sphere-based TL and AD models, with a simplified vertical diffusion scheme, is now available, enabling multiple configurations of standard implementations of 4DV AR in GEOS. Concurrent to this development, collaboration with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) has allowed GMAO to implement a hybrid-ensemble capability within the GEOS data assimilation system. Both 3Dand 4D-ensemble capabilities are presently available thus allowing

  20. 4D motion animation of coronary arteries from rotational angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, Wolfgang; Rohkohl, Christopher; Schuldhaus, Dominik; Prümmer, Marcus; Lauritsch, Günter; Hornegger, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    Time-resolved 3-D imaging of the heart is a major research topic in the medical imaging community. Recent advances in the interventional cardiac 3-D imaging from rotational angiography (C-arm CT) are now also making 4-D imaging feasible during procedures in the catheter laboratory. State-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms try to estimate the cardiac motion and utilize the motion field to enhance the reconstruction of a stable cardiac phase (diastole). The available data offers a handful of opportunities during interventional procedures, e.g. the ECG-synchronized dynamic roadmapping or the computation and analysis of functional parameters. In this paper we will demonstrate that the motion vector field (MVF) that is output by motion compensated image reconstruction algorithms is in general not directly usable for animation and motion analysis. Dependent on the algorithm different defects are investigated. A primary issue is that the MVF needs to be inverted, i.e. the wrong direction of motion is provided. A second major issue is the non-periodicity of cardiac motion. In algorithms which compute a non-periodic motion field from a single rotation the in depth motion information along viewing direction is missing, since this cannot be measured in the projections. As a result, while the MVF improves reconstruction quality, it is insufficient for motion animation and analysis. We propose an algorithm to solve both problems, i.e. inversion and missing in-depth information in a unified framework. A periodic version of the MVF is approximated. The task is formulated as a linear optimization problem where a parametric smooth motion model based on B-splines is estimated from the MVF. It is shown that the problem can be solved using a sparse QR factorization within a clinical feasible time of less than one minute. In a phantom experiment using the publicly available CAVAREV platform, the average quality of a non-periodic animation could be increased by 39% by applying the

  1. Interactive 4D Visualization of Sediment Transport Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkiewicz, T.; Englert, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal sediment transport models simulate the effects that waves, currents, and tides have on near-shore bathymetry and features such as beaches and barrier islands. Understanding these dynamic processes is integral to the study of coastline stability, beach erosion, and environmental contamination. Furthermore, analyzing the results of these simulations is a critical task in the design, placement, and engineering of coastal structures such as seawalls, jetties, support pilings for wind turbines, etc. Despite the importance of these models, there is a lack of available visualization software that allows users to explore and perform analysis on these datasets in an intuitive and effective manner. Existing visualization interfaces for these datasets often present only one variable at a time, using two dimensional plan or cross-sectional views. These visual restrictions limit the ability to observe the contents in the proper overall context, both in spatial and multi-dimensional terms. To improve upon these limitations, we use 3D rendering and particle system based illustration techniques to show water column/flow data across all depths simultaneously. We can also encode multiple variables across different perceptual channels (color, texture, motion, etc.) to enrich surfaces with multi-dimensional information. Interactive tools are provided, which can be used to explore the dataset and find regions-of-interest for further investigation. Our visualization package provides an intuitive 4D (3D, time-varying) visualization of sediment transport model output. In addition, we are also integrating real world observations with the simulated data to support analysis of the impact from major sediment transport events. In particular, we have been focusing on the effects of Superstorm Sandy on the Redbird Artificial Reef Site, offshore of Delaware Bay. Based on our pre- and post-storm high-resolution sonar surveys, there has significant scour and bedform migration around the

  2. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  3. The development of a population of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P. Norris, Hannah; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Zhang, Yakun; Bond, Jason; Samei, E.; Minhas, Anum; Frush, D.; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: We previously developed a set of highly detailed 4D reference pediatric extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 yr with organ and tissue masses matched to ICRP Publication 89 values. In this work, we extended this reference set to a series of 64 pediatric phantoms of varying age and height and body mass percentiles representative of the public at large. The models will provide a library of pediatric phantoms for optimizing pediatric imaging protocols. Methods: High resolution positron emission tomography-computed tomography data obtained from the Duke University database were reviewed by a practicing experienced radiologist for anatomic regularity. The CT portion of the data was then segmented with manual and semiautomatic methods to form a target model defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was used to calculate the transform from the best age matching pediatric XCAT reference phantom to the patient target. The transform was used to complete the target, filling in the nonsegmented structures and defining models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. The complete phantoms, consisting of thousands of structures, were then manually inspected for anatomical accuracy. The mass for each major tissue was calculated and compared to linearly interpolated ICRP values for different ages. Results: Sixty four new pediatric phantoms were created in this manner. Each model contains the same level of detail as the original XCAT reference phantoms and also includes parameterized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. For the phantoms that were 10 yr old and younger, we included both sets of reproductive organs. This gave them the capability to simulate both male and female anatomy. With this, the population can be expanded to 92. Wide anatomical variation was clearly seen amongst the phantom models, both in organ shape and size, even for

  4. General specifications for the development of a USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D distributed workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Chum, Frank Y.

    1984-01-01

    The general specifications for the development of a PC-based distributed workstation (PCDWS) for an information storage and retrieval systems environment are defined. This research proposes the development of a PCDWS prototype as part of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA/PC R and D project in the PC-based workstation environment.

  5. Validation of COG10 and ENDFB6R7 on the Auk Workstation for General Application to Plutonium Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Percher, Catherine G

    2011-08-08

    The COG 10 code package1 on the Auk workstation is now validated with the ENBFB6R7 neutron cross section library for general application to plutonium (Pu) systems by comparison of the calculated keffective to the expected keffective of several relevant experimental benchmarks. This validation is supplemental to the installation and verification of COG 10 on the Auk workstation2.

  6. Estrogen-dependent proteolytic cleavage of semaphorin 4D and plexin-B1 enhances semaphorin 4D-induced apoptosis during postnatal vaginal remodeling in pubescent mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Around the fifth week after birth, the vaginal cavity in female mouse pups opens to the overlaying skin. This postnatal tissue remodeling of the genital tract occurs during puberty, and it largely depends upon hormonally induced apoptosis that mainly occurs in the epithelium at the lower part of the mouse vaginal cavity. Previously, we showed that most BALB/c mice lacking the class IV Semaphorin (Sema4D) develop imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos; therefore, we reasoned that the absence of Sema4D-induced apoptosis in vaginal epithelial cells may cause the imperforate vagina. Sema4D signals via the Plexin-B1 receptor; nevertheless detailed mechanisms mediating this hormonally triggered apoptosis are not fully documented. To investigate the estrogen-dependent control of Sema4D signaling during the apoptosis responsible for mouse vaginal opening, we examined structural and functional modulation of Sema4D, Plexin-B1, and signaling molecules by analyzing both wild-type and Sema4D-/- mice with or without ovariectomy. Both the release of soluble Sema4D and the conversion of Plexin-B1 by proteolytic processing in vaginal tissue peaked 5 weeks after birth of wild-type BALB/c mice at the time of vaginal opening. Estrogen supplementation of ovariectomized wild-type mice revealed that both the release of soluble Sema4D and the conversion of Plexin-B1 into an active form were estrogen-dependent and concordant with apoptosis. Estrogen supplementation of ovariectomized Sema4D-/- mice did not induce massive vaginal apoptosis in 5-week-old mice; therefore, Sema4D may be an essential apoptosis-inducing ligand that acts downstream of estrogen action in vaginal epithelium during this postnatal tissue remodeling. Analysis of ovariectomized mice also indicated that Sema4D contributed to estrogen-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt and ERK at the time of vaginal opening. Based on our results, we propose that apoptosis in vaginal epithelium during postnatal vaginal opening is induced

  7. Implementation of softcopy photogrammetric workstations at the US Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skalet, C.D.; Lee, G.Y.G.; Ladner, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has provided the Nation with primary quadrangle maps and map products for the last 50 years. The Survey recently completed initial coverage of the conterminous United States and Hawaii at 1:24 000 scale. In Alaska, complete coverage exists at 1:63 360 scale. Effort is underway to build a National Digital Cartographic Data Base (NDCDB) composed of the digital representation of these and other map series. In addition the Survey plans to meet the demand for more current and complete data through the development and promotion of spatial data standards in cooperation with other Federal, State, local and private organizations. -from Authors

  8. Generalization of Posture Training to Computer Workstations in an Applied Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Ring, Brandon M.; Needham, Mick; Boscoe, James H.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Improving employees' posture may decrease the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The current paper is a systematic replication and extension of Sigurdsson and Austin (2008), who found that an intervention consisting of information, real-time feedback, and self-monitoring improved participant posture at mock workstations. In the current study,…

  9. From Workstation to Teacher Support System: A Tool to Increase Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J. Wey

    1989-01-01

    Describes a teacher support system which is a computer-based workstation that provides support for teachers and administrators by integrating teacher utility programs, instructional management software, administrative packages, and office automation tools. Hardware is described and software components are explained, including database managers,…

  10. The Electronic Library: The Student/Scholar Workstation, CD-ROM and Hypertext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triebwasser, Marc A.

    Predicting that a large component of the library of the not so distant future will be an electronic network of file servers where information is stored for access by personal computer workstations in remote locations as well as the library, this paper discusses innovative computer technologies--particularly CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory)…

  11. The Personal Computer as an Analytical Workstation: Interfacing Standard Software Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, Jeffery L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the functions that should be included in an analytical workstation. Also discusses the common data file structures and the techniques of data interchange between software modules and presents a brief overview of commercial products and their interfacing characteristics. These software include word processors, spreadsheets, database…

  12. Execution Time Requirements of Petri Net Programs in a Sun Workstation Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-21

    Sun workstation in a reasonable time . The time for the solution of the SIMNET models was measured using two different configurations of the Sun... reasonable time . The degradation in performance with an increasing number of markings is more gradual with larger memory. A number of tables are included

  13. From an automated flight-test management system to a flight-test engineer's workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, E. L.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities and evolution is described of a flight engineer's workstation (called TEST-PLAN) from an automated flight test management system. The concept and capabilities of the automated flight test management systems are explored and discussed to illustrate the value of advanced system prototyping and evolutionary software development.

  14. Evaluating the low back biomechanics of three different office workstations: Seated, standing, and perching.

    PubMed

    Le, Peter; Marras, William S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how different workstations may influence physical behavior in office work through motion and how that may affect spinal loads and discomfort. Twenty subjects performed a typing task in three different workstations (seated, standing, and perching) for one hour each. Measures of postural transitions, spinal loads, discomfort, and task performance were assessed in order to understand the effects of workstation interaction over time. Results indicated that standing had the most amount of motion (6-8 shifts/min), followed by perching (3-7 shifts/min), and then seating (<1 shift/min). Standing had the highest reports of discomfort and seating the least. However, spinal loads were highest in A/P shear during standing (190N posterior shear, 407N anterior shear) compared to perching (65N posterior shear, 288N anterior shear) and seating (106N posterior shear, 287 anterior shear). These loads are below the risk threshold for shear, but may still elicit a cumulative response. Perching may induce motion through supported mobility in the perching stool, whereas standing motion may be due to postural discomfort. Office workstation designs incorporating supported movement may represent a reasonable trade-off in the costs-benefits between seating and standing.

  15. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  16. Analysis of STEM images on a RISC workstation with an APL interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapp, Oscar H.; Ruan, Shengyang

    1992-08-01

    We have developed a stand-alone image processing system with an interface to an APL interpreter on a second generation RISC workstation to analyze digital images from our scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM). The system is UNIX based and utilizes the X-Windows system to display images and to toggle between different environments.

  17. CALL in a Communicative Context: A Study of Students' Conversation at a Multimedia Workstation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miceli, Tiziana; Kennedy, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of Italia Oggi, a videodisc-based system for intermediate and advanced students of Italian at Griffith University in Australia. Attention was focused on students' behavior in pair work, including talk at the workstation and the collaborative strategies they employed. (Author/VWL)

  18. Development and Use of a GIS Workstation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the Department of Energy s (DOE) largest multipurpose science and energy laboratory. As an interdisciplinary research organization, access to information plays a critical part in the success of the many research efforts in progress at the Laboratory. The Research Library, in a supportive role, enables staff to fulfill the Laboratory s mission by making available a myriad of information resources including paper and electronic maps. The Research Library Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation was developed to better serve library customers by providing convenient access to a variety of mapping resources. The GIS workstation functions as a supplement to the paper map collection by providing customers with maps in an electronic format that can easily be inserted into memos, reports, and journal articles. Customer interest, together with the growing availability of low-cost and user-friendly mapping software, led to the development of the GIS workstation, which hosts an array of commercial mapping software that enables customers to produce ready-made topographic maps, current and historical maps, and road maps. Customers may also create customized maps using their own data or data supplied by the software vendor. This article focuses on the development, implementation, and use of the library s GIS workstation by providing a brief description of hardware components, mapping resources, and how these resources are used by Laboratory staff.

  19. Taming the CD-ROM Wilderness: Developing and Managing a Workstation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Karen J.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of development and management of a CD-ROM workstation for library reference services covers: (1) IBM compatibles; (2) computer storage capacity; (3) compact disk drives and printers; (4) file management; (5) protecting the integrity of a hard disk; and (6) backing up software. (three references) (MES)

  20. The CD-ROM Workstation: What It Is and What to Look For.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1991-01-01

    Describes the hardware components of a CD-ROM workstation and offers guidelines for selection decisions. Components discussed include CD-ROM drives; keyboards; monitors, including color and monochrome; graphics; microcomputers, including memory requirements; disk storage, including hard disks and floppy disks; and printers. Turnkey systems are…

  1. 76 FR 21775 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Office Workstations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    .... is the country of origin of the finished article for purposes of U.S. government procurement. Section... seq.), CBP issues country of origin advisory rulings and final determinations as to whether an article... design a workstation architecture best suited to the specific office space. Once a design decision...

  2. The Use of a UNIX-Based Workstation in the Information Systems Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    WORKSTATION IN THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY by Charlotte V. Smith March 1989 Thesis Advisor: Norman F. Schneidewind Co-Advisor: Magdi Kamel Approved for...5002 3. Dr. Norman F. Schneidewind, Code 54Ss 2 Department of Administrative Sciences Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 4. Dr. Magdi

  3. Development of an EVA systems cost model. Volume 2: Shuttle orbiter crew and equipment translation concepts and EVA workstation concept development and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    EVA crewman/equipment translational concepts are developed for a shuttle orbiter payload application. Also considered are EVA workstation systems to meet orbiter and payload requirements for integration of workstations into candidate orbiter payload worksites.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of a high-resolution workstation for diagnostic interpretation of portable radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Huda, Walter; Palmer, Carole K.; Frost, Meryll M.; Moser, Robert; Staab, Edward V.

    1995-04-01

    A cost effectiveness study on the feasibility of using computed radiography (CR) instead of screen-film methods for portable radiographs indicates that we could only justify CR if film were eliminated. Before purchasing CR equipment, we needed to evaluate the use of softcopy to replace film for routine clinical use. The evaluation had to cover image quality, human factors, and efficiency measures. Screen-film radiographs were digitized and used to simulate CR in two studies. The first study evaluated the quality of digitized images and the workstation user interface. Twenty-one radiographs were selected at random from scopes in the radiology department, were digitized, and transferred to a megascan workstation. Five radiologists were asked to assess the quality of the images and the ease of operation of the workstation while an observer recorded their comments and scores. The second study evaluated the feasibility of using the workstation in a clinical environment. Four radiologists read adult and pediatric portable images in film and softcopy format. Reports were evaluated for differences and timing statistics were kept. The results of the first study indicate that image quality may be acceptable for diagnostic purposes and suggests some changes in the user interface. Newborn infant images were the least acceptable in softcopy, largely due to magnification artifacts introduced when viewing very small images. The evaluation was based on a digitizer as a simulator for a CR unit and the digitizer did not exhibit the same resolution characteristics as CR. Films that were unacceptable from the digitizer are expected to be acceptable with CR. The results of the second study indicated that the high resolution diagnostic workstation could be used in a clinical setting, and that the diagnostic readings were not significantly different between film and softcopy displays. The results also indicated that, depending on the radiologist and the type of images, more time was

  5. Implementation of a high-resolution workstation for primary diagnosis of projection radiography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Walter F.; Herron, John M.; Maitz, Glenn S.; Gur, David; Miller, Stephen L.; Straub, William H.; Fuhrman, Carl R.

    1990-08-01

    We designed and implemented a high-resolution video workstation as the central hardware component in a comprehensive multi-project program comparing the use of digital and film modalities. The workstation utilizes a 1.8 GByte real-time disk (RCI) capable of storing 400 full-resolution images and two Tektronix (GMA251) display controllers with 19" monitors (GMA2O2). The display is configured in a portrait format with a resolution of 1536 x 2048 x 8 bit, and operates at 75 Hz in a noninterlaced mode. Transmission of data through a 12 to 8 bit lookup table into the display controllers occurs at 20 MBytes/second (.35 seconds per image). The workstation allows easy use of brightness (level) and contrast (window) to be manipulated with a trackball, and various processing options can be selected using push buttons. Display of any of the 400 images is also performed at 20MBytes/sec (.35 sec/image). A separate text display provides for the automatic display of patient history data and for a scoring form through which readers can interact with the system by means of a computer mouse. In addition, the workstation provides for the randomization of cases and for the immediate entry of diagnostic responses into a master database. Over the past year this workstation has been used for over 10,000 readings in diagnostic studies related to 1) image resolution; 2) film vs. soft display; 3) incorporation of patient history data into the reading process; and 4) usefulness of image processing.

  6. SEMA4D compromises blood-brain barrier, activates microglia, and inhibits remyelination in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ernest S; Jonason, Alan; Reilly, Christine; Veeraraghavan, Janaki; Fisher, Terrence; Doherty, Michael; Klimatcheva, Ekaterina; Mallow, Crystal; Cornelius, Chad; Leonard, John E; Marchi, Nicola; Janigro, Damir; Argaw, Azeb Tadesse; Pham, Trinh; Seils, Jennifer; Bussler, Holm; Torno, Sebold; Kirk, Renee; Howell, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth E; Paris, Mark; Bowers, William J; John, Gareth; Zauderer, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease characterized by immune cell infiltration of CNS, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, localized myelin destruction, and progressive neuronal degeneration. There exists a significant need to identify novel therapeutic targets and strategies that effectively and safely disrupt and even reverse disease pathophysiology. Signaling cascades initiated by semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) induce glial activation, neuronal process collapse, inhibit migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and disrupt endothelial tight junctions forming the BBB. To target SEMA4D, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognizes mouse, rat, monkey and human SEMA4D with high affinity and blocks interaction between SEMA4D and its cognate receptors. In vitro, anti-SEMA4D reverses the inhibitory effects of recombinant SEMA4D on OPC survival and differentiation. In vivo, anti-SEMA4D significantly attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in multiple rodent models by preserving BBB integrity and axonal myelination and can be shown to promote migration of OPC to the site of lesions and improve myelin status following chemically-induced demyelination. Our study underscores SEMA4D as a key factor in CNS disease and supports the further development of antibody-based inhibition of SEMA4D as a novel therapeutic strategy for MS and other neurologic diseases with evidence of demyelination and/or compromise to the neurovascular unit.

  7. An historical analysis of the California Current circulation using ROMS 4D-Var: System configuration and diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Emilie; Moore, Andrew M.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Fiechter, Jérôme; Drake, Patrick; Crawford, William J.; Jacox, Michael G.; Nuss, Emma

    2016-03-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation tool has been used to compute two sequences of circulation analyses for the U.S. west coast. One sequence of analyses spans the period 1980-2010 and is subject to surface forcing derived from relatively low resolution atmospheric products from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform wind product (CCMP) and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis project. The second sequence spans the shorter period 1999-2012 and is subject to forcing derived from a high resolution product from the Naval Research Laboratory Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). The two analysis periods are divided into eight day windows, and all available satellite observations of sea surface temperature and sea surface height, as well as in situhydrographic profiles are assimilated into ROMS using 4D-Var. The performance of the system is monitored in terms of the cost function and the statistics of the innovations, and the impact of data assimilated on the circulation is assessed by comparing the posterior circulation estimates with the prior circulation and the circulation from a run of the model without data assimilation, with particular emphasis on eddy kinetic energy. This is part I of a two part series, and the circulation variability of the 4D-Var analyses will be documented in part II.

  8. Regulation of semaphorin 4D expression and cell proliferation of ovarian cancer by ERalpha and ERbeta

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y.; Hou, Y.; Ma, L.; Sun, C.; Pan, J.; Yang, Y.; Zhou, H.; Zhang, J.

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Semaphorin 4D (sema 4D) is involved in the progress of multiple cancers. In the presence of estrogen-like ligands, estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) participate in the progress of breast and ovarian cancers by transcriptional regulation. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of sema 4D and elucidate the regulatory pattern of ERα and ERβ on sema 4D expression in ovarian cancers. Sema 4D levels were up-regulated in ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. Patients with malignant ovarian cancers had significantly higher sema 4D levels than controls, suggesting an oncogene role of sema 4D in ovarian cancer. ERα expressions were up-regulated in SKOV-3 cells compared with normal ovarian IOSE80 epithelial cells. Conversely, down-regulation of ERβ was observed in SKOV-3 cells. Forced over-expression of ERα and ERβ in SKOV-3 cells was manipulated to establish ERα+ and ERβ+ SKOV-3 cell lines. Incubation of ERα+ SKOV-3 cells with ERs agonist 17β-estradiol (E2) significantly enhanced sema 4D expression and rate of cell proliferation. Incubated with E2, ERβ+ SKOV-3 cells showed lower sema 4D expression and cell proliferation. Blocking ERα and ERβ activities with ICI182-780 inhibitor, sema 4D expressions and cell proliferation of ERα+ and ERβ+ SKOV-3 cells were recovered to control levels. Taken together, the data showed that sema 4D expression was positively correlated with the progress of ovarian cancer. ERα positively regulated sema 4D expression and accelerated cell proliferation. ERβ negatively regulated sema 4D expression and inhibited cell multiplication. PMID:28225892

  9. Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yong; Fan, Zhaoyang; Yang, Wensha; Pang, Jianing; Deng, Zixin; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Tuli, Richard; Wallace, Robert; Li, Debiao; Fraass, Benedick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: MRI is increasingly being used for radiotherapy planning, simulation, and in-treatment-room motion monitoring. To provide more detailed temporal and spatial MR data for these tasks, we have recently developed a novel self-gated (SG) MRI technique with advantage of k-space phase sorting, high isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution. The current work describes the validation of this 4D-MRI technique using a MRI- and CT-compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: The 4D-MRI sequence is based on a spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection reconstruction sequence with self-gating for 4D-MRI at 3 T. Respiratory phase is resolved by using SG k-space lines as the motion surrogate. 4D-MRI images are reconstructed into ten temporal bins with spatial resolution 1.56 × 1.56 × 1.56 mm3. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed to validate the performance of the 4D-MRI sequence and 4D-CT imaging. A spherical target (diameter 23 mm, volume 6.37 ml) filled with high-concentration gadolinium (Gd) gel is embedded into a plastic box (35 × 40 × 63 mm3) and stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The phantom, driven by an air pump, is able to produce human-type breathing patterns between 4 and 30 respiratory cycles/min. 4D-CT of the phantom has been acquired in cine mode, and reconstructed into ten phases with slice thickness 1.25 mm. The 4D images sets were imported into a treatment planning software for target contouring. The geometrical accuracy of the 4D MRI and CT images has been quantified using target volume, flattening, and eccentricity. The target motion was measured by tracking the centroids of the spheres in each individual phase. Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Results: The dynamic phantom has been operated in four respiratory rate (RR) settings, 6, 10, 15, and 20/min, and was scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT. 4D-CT images have target-stretching, partial

  10. Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yong Yang, Wensha; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Tuli, Richard; Wallace, Robert; Fraass, Benedick; Fan, Zhaoyang; Pang, Jianing; Deng, Zixin; Li, Debiao

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: MRI is increasingly being used for radiotherapy planning, simulation, and in-treatment-room motion monitoring. To provide more detailed temporal and spatial MR data for these tasks, we have recently developed a novel self-gated (SG) MRI technique with advantage of k-space phase sorting, high isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution. The current work describes the validation of this 4D-MRI technique using a MRI- and CT-compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: The 4D-MRI sequence is based on a spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection reconstruction sequence with self-gating for 4D-MRI at 3 T. Respiratory phase is resolved by using SG k-space lines as the motion surrogate. 4D-MRI images are reconstructed into ten temporal bins with spatial resolution 1.56 × 1.56 × 1.56 mm{sup 3}. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed to validate the performance of the 4D-MRI sequence and 4D-CT imaging. A spherical target (diameter 23 mm, volume 6.37 ml) filled with high-concentration gadolinium (Gd) gel is embedded into a plastic box (35 × 40 × 63 mm{sup 3}) and stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The phantom, driven by an air pump, is able to produce human-type breathing patterns between 4 and 30 respiratory cycles/min. 4D-CT of the phantom has been acquired in cine mode, and reconstructed into ten phases with slice thickness 1.25 mm. The 4D images sets were imported into a treatment planning software for target contouring. The geometrical accuracy of the 4D MRI and CT images has been quantified using target volume, flattening, and eccentricity. The target motion was measured by tracking the centroids of the spheres in each individual phase. Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Results: The dynamic phantom has been operated in four respiratory rate (RR) settings, 6, 10, 15, and 20/min, and was scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT. 4D-CT images have target

  11. The role of semaphorin 4D in tumor development and angiogenesis in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongchao; Chen, Ceshi; Sun, Qiangming; Wu, Jing; Qiu, Lijuan; Gao, Change; Liu, Weiqing; Yang, Jun; Jun, Nie; Dong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) is highly expressed in certain types of tumors and functions in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and growth. However, it is still not clear regarding the roles of Sema4D in breast cancer. This study was designed to explore the effects of Sema4D on proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, invasion, migration, tumor growth, and angiogenesis in breast cancer. Materials and methods The expression level of Sema4D was investigated in MCF10A, 184A1, HCC1937, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, BT474, MCF-7, and T47D breast cancer cell lines by Western blotting analysis. Sema4D downregulation or overexpression was established by infection with lentiviruses-encoding Sema4D short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or Sema4D. To evaluate the effects of Sema4D on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, invasion, and migration of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, methods including MTT assay, flow cytometry, wound healing assay, and transwell experiments were applied. BALB/c nude mice were injected with MDA-MB-231 cells, which were respectively infected with lentiviruses-encoding Sema4D, Sema4D shRNA, and GFP, followed by tumor angiogenesis assay. Results Sema4D was expressed at higher levels in breast cancer cell lines compared with the normal human breast epithelial cell lines, especially in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Cell proliferation ability was remarkably inhibited in Sema4D downregulated condition, whereas the proportions of cells in the G0/G1 phase and apoptosis increased in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. In addition, the invasion and migration abilities of these cells were obviously reduced. Xenograft growth as well as angiogenesis was inhibited when infected with lentiviruses-encoding Sema4D shRNA in vivo. Conclusion Downregulation of Sema4D had notable influence on cell proliferation ability, invasion, migration, and apoptosis of both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Furthermore, infection with lentiviruses

  12. IMRT treatment planning on 4D geometries for the era of dynamic MLC tracking.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yelin; Murray, Walter; Keall, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    The problem addressed here was to obtain optimal and deliverable dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf sequences from four-dimensional (4D) geometries for dynamic MLC tracking delivery. The envisaged scenario was where respiratory phase and position information of the target was available during treatment, from which the optimal treatment plan could be further adapted in real time. A tool for 4D treatment plan optimization was developed that integrates a commercially available treatment planning system and a general-purpose optimization system. The 4D planning method was applied to the 4D computed tomography planning scans of three lung cancer patients. The optimization variables were MLC leaf positions as a function of monitor units and respiratory phase. The objective function was the deformable dose-summed 4D treatment plan score. MLC leaf motion was constrained by the maximum leaf velocity between control points in terms of monitor units for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction and between phases for tumor motion parallel to the leaf travel direction. For comparison and a starting point for the 4D optimization, three-dimensional (3D) optimization was performed on each of the phases. The output of the 4D IMRT planning process is a leaf sequence which is a function of both monitor unit and phase, which can be delivered to a patient whose breathing may vary between the imaging and treatment sessions. The 4D treatment plan score improved during 4D optimization by 34%, 4%, and 50% for Patients A, B, and C, respectively, indicating 4D optimization generated a better 4D treatment plan than the deformable sum of individually optimized phase plans. The dose-volume histograms for each phase remained similar, indicating robustness of the 4D treatment plan to respiratory variations expected during treatment delivery. In summary, 4D optimization for respiratory phase-dependent treatment planning with dynamic MLC motion tracking improved the 4D treatment plan

  13. 4D MRI for the Localization of Parathyroid Adenoma: A Novel Method in Evolution.

    PubMed

    Merchavy, Shlomo; Luckman, Judith; Guindy, Michal; Segev, Yoram; Khafif, Avi

    2016-03-01

    The sestamibi scan (MIBI) and ultrasound (US) are used for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma (PTA), with sensitivity as high as 90%. We developed 4-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (4D MRI) as a novel tool for identifying PTAs. Eleven patients with PTA were enrolled. 4D MRI from the mandible to the aortic arch was used. Optimization of the timing of image acquisition was obtained by changing dynamic and static sequences. PTAs were identified in all except 1 patient. In 9 patients, there was a complete match between the 4D MRI and the US and MIBI, as well as with the operative finding. In 1 patient, the adenoma was correctly localized by 4D MRI, in contrast to the US and MIBI scan. The sensitivity of the 4D MRI was 90% and after optimization, 100%. Specificity was 100%. We concluded that 4D MRI is a reliable technique for identification of PTAs, although more studies are needed.

  14. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section 1630.43 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D...

  15. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section 1630.43 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D...

  16. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section 1630.43 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D...

  17. 32 CFR 1630.43 - Class 4-D: Minister of religion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Class 4-D: Minister of religion. 1630.43 Section 1630.43 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.43 Class 4-D: Minister of religion. In accord with part 1645 of this chapter any registrant shall be placed in Class 4-D...

  18. Immunomodulation of the tumor microenvironment by neutralization of Semaphorin 4D

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth E; Paris, Mark; Smith, Ernest S; Zauderer, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Semaphorin 4D is highly expressed at the invasive tumor margin and acts as a guidance molecule, restricting movement of tumoricidal immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. We recently showed that antibody neutralization of SEMA4D augmented activated monocyte and anticancer T-cell tumor penetration and that anti-SEMA4D antibody potentiated other immunomodulatory therapies in murine tumor models. PMID:26587332

  19. 4D maximum a posteriori reconstruction in dynamic SPECT using a compartmental model-based prior.

    PubMed

    Kadrmas, D J; Gullberg, G T

    2001-05-01

    A 4D ordered-subsets maximum a posteriori (OSMAP) algorithm for dynamic SPECT is described which uses a temporal prior that constrains each voxel's behaviour in time to conform to a compartmental model. No a priori limitations on kinetic parameters are applied; rather, the parameter estimates evolve as the algorithm iterates to a solution. The estimated parameters and time-activity curves are used within the reconstruction algorithm to model changes in the activity distribution as the camera rotates, avoiding artefacts due to inconsistencies of data between projection views. This potentially allows for fewer, longer-duration scans to be used and may have implications for noise reduction. The algorithm was evaluated qualitatively using dynamic 99mTc-teboroxime SPECT scans in two patients, and quantitatively using a series of simulated phantom experiments. The OSMAP algorithm resulted in images with better myocardial uniformity and definition, gave time-activity curves with reduced noise variations, and provided wash-in parameter estimates with better accuracy and lower statistical uncertainty than those obtained from conventional ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) processing followed by compartmental modelling. The new algorithm effectively removed the bias in k21 estimates due to inconsistent projections for sampling schedules as slow as 60 s per timeframe, but no improvement in wash-out parameter estimates was observed in this work. The proposed dynamic OSMAP algorithm provides a flexible framework which may benefit a variety of dynamic tomographic imaging applications.

  20. Mitotic activation of the DISC1-inducible cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4D9 (PDE4D9), through multi-site phosphorylation, influences cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Catherine L; Lee, Louisa C Y; Hill, Elaine V; Henderson, David J P; Anthony, Diana F; Houslay, Daniel M; Yalla, Krishna C; Cairns, Lynne S; Dunlop, Allan J; Baillie, George S; Huston, Elaine; Houslay, Miles D

    2014-09-01

    In Rat-1 cells, the dramatic decrease in the levels of both intracellular cyclic 3'5' adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP; cAMP) and in the activity of cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) observed in mitosis was paralleled by a profound increase in cAMP hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) activity. The decrease in PKA activity, which occurs during mitosis, was attributable to PDE4 activation as the PDE4 selective inhibitor, rolipram, but not the phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE3) inhibitor, cilostamide, specifically ablated this cell cycle-dependent effect. PDE4 inhibition caused Rat-1 cells to move from S phase into G2/M more rapidly, to transit through G2/M more quickly and to remain in G1 for a longer period. Inhibition of PDE3 elicited no observable effects on cell cycle dynamics. Selective immunopurification of each of the four PDE4 sub-families identified PDE4D as being selectively activated in mitosis. Subsequent analysis uncovered PDE4D9, an isoform whose expression can be regulated by Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1)/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) complex, as the sole PDE4 species activated during mitosis in Rat-1 cells. PDE4D9 becomes activated in mitosis through dual phosphorylation at Ser585 and Ser245, involving the combined action of ERK and an unidentified 'switch' kinase that has previously been shown to be activated by H2O2. Additionally, in mitosis, PDE4D9 also becomes phosphorylated at Ser67 and Ser81, through the action of MK2 (MAPKAPK2) and AMP kinase (AMPK), respectively. The multisite phosphorylation of PDE4D9 by all four of these protein kinases leads to decreased mobility (band-shift) of PDE4D9 on SDS-PAGE. PDE4D9 is predominantly concentrated in the perinuclear region of Rat-1 cells but with a fraction distributed asymmetrically at the cell margins. Our investigations demonstrate that the diminished levels of cAMP and PKA activity that characterise mitosis are due to enhanced cAMP degradation by PDE4D9. PDE4D9, was found to

  1. Office productivity and workstation environment control workshop: Research planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of this R D planning workshop was to identify and define specific office building industry research that will lead to new and/or improved uses of electricity to provide individual (local) office environment control and increase office worker productivity. The workshop conducted October 11--12, 1988 was the third in a series of meetings held to identify research needs related to office productivity. Participants included experts in the fields of office acoustics, lighting, thermal comfort, air quality, environmental system controls, space planning, automation, and productivity. The first meeting was held May 31--June 1 to broadly define issues related to office productivity research and limitations in existing office environmental systems. A second meeting was held August 22--23 with another group of experts to define the state of the art in office environmental systems and productivity measurement and to begin to identify specific research that could lead to improved systems (and increased productivity). Recommendations from this group became the basis for workshop discussions. The October workshop combined the participants from the first two meetings and added a new group of experts to respond to the conclusions being developed from the earlier work. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A sinogram warping strategy for pre-reconstruction 4D PET optimization.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Fontana, Giulia; Kurz, Christopher; Parodi, Katia; Baroni, Guido

    2016-03-01

    A novel strategy for 4D PET optimization in the sinogram domain is proposed, aiming at motion model application before image reconstruction ("sinogram warping" strategy). Compared to state-of-the-art 4D-MLEM reconstruction, the proposed strategy is able to optimize the image SNR, avoiding iterative direct and inverse warping procedures, which are typical of the 4D-MLEM algorithm. A full-count statistics sinogram of the motion-compensated 4D PET reference phase is generated by warping the sinograms corresponding to the different PET phases. This is achieved relying on a motion model expressed in the sinogram domain. The strategy was tested on the anthropomorphic 4D PET-CT NCAT phantom in comparison with the 4D-MLEM algorithm, with particular reference to robustness to PET-CT co-registrations artefacts. The MLEM reconstruction of the warped sinogram according to the proposed strategy exhibited better accuracy (up to +40.90 % with respect to the ideal value), whereas images reconstructed according to the 4D-MLEM reconstruction resulted in less noisy (down to -26.90 % with respect to the ideal value) but more blurred. The sinogram warping strategy demonstrates advantages with respect to 4D-MLEM algorithm. These advantages are paid back by introducing approximation of the deformation field, and further efforts are required to mitigate the impact of such an approximation in clinical 4D PET reconstruction.

  3. The Relationship Between Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Sexual Orientation in Men from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2016-04-01

    We examined the relationship between 2D:4D digit ratio and sexual orientation in men from China and analyzed the influences of the components used to assess sexual orientation and the criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A total of 309 male and 110 female participants took part in a web-based survey. Our results showed that heterosexual men had a significantly lower 2D:4D than heterosexual women and exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher left 2D:4D than heterosexual men whereas only exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher right 2D:4D than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. The left 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, and the right 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual attraction. The effect sizes for differences in 2D:4D between homosexual and heterosexual men varied according to criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual and sexual orientation components; the more stringent the criteria (scores closer to the homosexual category), the larger the effect sizes; further, sexual attraction yielded the largest effect size. There were no significant effects of age and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. This study contributes to the current understanding of the relationship between 2D:4D and male sexual orientation.

  4. 4D VMAT, gated VMAT, and 3D VMAT for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, E.; Loewen, S. K.; Nichol, A.; Otto, K.

    2013-02-01

    Four-dimensional volumetric modulated arc therapy (4D VMAT) is a treatment strategy for lung cancers that aims to exploit relative target and tissue motion to improve organ at risk (OAR) sparing. The algorithm incorporates the entire patient respiratory cycle using 4D CT data into the optimization process. Resulting treatment plans synchronize the delivery of each beam aperture to a specific phase of target motion. Stereotactic body radiation therapy treatment plans for 4D VMAT, gated VMAT, and 3D VMAT were generated on three patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Tumour motion ranged from 1.4-3.4 cm. The dose and fractionation scheme was 48 Gy in four fractions. A B-spline transformation model registered the 4D CT images. 4D dose volume histograms (4D DVH) were calculated from total dose accumulated at the maximum exhalation. For the majority of OARs, gated VMAT achieved the most radiation sparing but treatment times were 77-148% longer than 3D VMAT. 4D VMAT plan qualities were comparable to gated VMAT, but treatment times were only 11-25% longer than 3D VMAT. 4D VMAT's improvement of healthy tissue sparing can allow for further dose escalation. Future study could potentially adapt 4D VMAT to irregular patient breathing patterns.

  5. The relationship between nursing and medical cultures: implications for the design and implementation of a clinicians' workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Turley, J. P.; Connelly, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    The culture of different professions is manifest in how members relate to each other and in how they organize and store data and information. For developers of clinical workstations intended to support not only the independent tasks but also the interdependent tasks of multiple health professionals, recognition of cultural differences among groups of health care professionals may be of great importance. Allowance for and adaptation to these differences are likely to be important for both acceptance and effective use of clinical workstations. Examples are drawn from Nursing and Medicine based on a clinician's workstation currently in use and undergoing continuous development. PMID:8130468

  6. Noninvasive 4D pressure difference mapping derived from 4D flow MRI in patients with repaired aortic coarctation: comparison with young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rengier, Fabian; Delles, Michael; Eichhorn, Joachim; Azad, Yoo-Jin; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Ley, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    To assess spatial and temporal pressure characteristics in patients with repaired aortic coarctation compared to young healthy volunteers using time-resolved velocity-encoded three-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow MRI) and derived 4D pressure difference maps. After in vitro validation against invasive catheterization as gold standard, 4D flow MRI of the thoracic aorta was performed at 1.5T in 13 consecutive patients after aortic coarctation repair without recoarctation and 13 healthy volunteers. Using in-house developed processing software, 4D pressure difference maps were computed based on the Navier-Stokes equation. Pressure difference amplitudes, maximum slope of pressure amplitudes and spatial pressure range at mid systole were retrospectively measured by three readers, and twice by one reader to assess inter- and intraobserver agreement. In vitro, pressure differences derived from 4D flow MRI showed excellent agreement to invasive catheter measurements. In vivo, pressure difference amplitudes, maximum slope of pressure difference amplitudes and spatial pressure range at mid systole were significantly increased in patients compared to volunteers in the aortic arch, the proximal descending and the distal descending thoracic aorta (p < 0.05). Greatest differences occurred in the proximal descending aorta with values of the three parameters for patients versus volunteers being 19.7 ± 7.5 versus 10.0 ± 2.0 (p < 0.001), 10.9 ± 10.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.4 (p = 0.002), and 8.7 ± 6.3 versus 1.6 ± 0.9 (p < 0.001). Inter- and intraobserver agreements were excellent (p < 0.001). Noninvasive 4D pressure difference mapping derived from 4D flow MRI enables detection of altered intraluminal aortic pressures and showed significant spatial and temporal changes in patients with repaired aortic coarctation.

  7. Presentation and Outcomes of C4d-Negative Antibody-Mediated Rejection After Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Orandi, B J; Alachkar, N; Kraus, E S; Naqvi, F; Lonze, B E; Lees, L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wickliffe, C; Bagnasco, S M; Zachary, A A; Segev, D L; Montgomery, R A

    2016-01-01

    The updated Banff classification allows for the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in the absence of peritubular capillary C4d staining. Our objective was to quantify allograft loss risk in patients with consistently C4d-negative AMR (n = 51) compared with C4d-positive AMR patients (n = 156) and matched control subjects without AMR. All first-year posttransplant biopsy results from January 2004 through June 2014 were reviewed and correlated with the presence of donor-specific antibody (DSA). C4d-negative AMR patients were not different from C4d-positive AMR patients on any baseline characteristics, including immunologic risk factors (panel reactive antibody, prior transplant, HLA mismatch, donor type, DSA class, and anti-HLA/ABO-incompatibility). C4d-positive AMR patients were significantly more likely to have a clinical presentation (85.3% vs. 54.9%, p < 0.001), and those patients presented substantially earlier posttransplantation (median 14 [interquartile range 8-32] days vs. 46 [interquartile range 20-191], p < 0.001) and were three times more common (7.8% vs 2.5%). One- and 2-year post-AMR-defining biopsy graft survival in C4d-negative AMR patients was 93.4% and 90.2% versus 86.8% and 82.6% in C4d-positive AMR patients, respectively (p = 0.4). C4d-negative AMR was associated with a 2.56-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.05, p = 0.033) increased risk of graft loss compared with AMR-free matched controls. No clinical characteristics were identified that reliably distinguished C4d-negative from C4d-positive AMR. However, both phenotypes are associated with increased graft loss and thus warrant consideration for intervention.

  8. Exploring coupled 4D-Var data assimilation using an idealised atmosphere-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Polly; Fowler, Alison; Lawless, Amos; Haines, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The successful application of data assimilation techniques to operational numerical weather prediction and ocean forecasting systems has led to an increased interest in their use for the initialisation of coupled atmosphere-ocean models in prediction on seasonal to decadal timescales. Coupled data assimilation presents a significant challenge but offers a long list of potential benefits including improved use of near-surface observations, reduction of initialisation shocks in coupled forecasts, and generation of a consistent system state for the initialisation of coupled forecasts across all timescales. In this work we explore some of the fundamental questions in the design of coupled data assimilation systems within the context of an idealised one-dimensional coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The system is based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS) atmosphere model and a K-Profile Parameterisation (KKP) mixed layer ocean model developed by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) climate group at the University of Reading. It employs a strong constraint incremental 4D-Var scheme and is designed to enable the effective exploration of various approaches to performing coupled model data assimilation whilst avoiding many of the issues associated with more complex models. Working with this simple framework enables a greater range and quantity of experiments to be performed. Here, we will describe the development of our simplified single-column coupled atmosphere-ocean 4D-Var assimilation system and present preliminary results from a series of identical twin experiments devised to investigate and compare the behaviour and sensitivities of different coupled data assimilation methodologies. This includes comparing fully and weakly coupled assimilations with uncoupled assimilation, investigating whether coupled assimilation can eliminate or lessen initialisation shock in coupled model forecasts, and

  9. Evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the phosphodiesterase 4D gene (PDE4D) and their association with ischaemic stroke in a large German cohort.

    PubMed

    Kuhlenbäumer, G; Berger, K; Huge, A; Lange, E; Kessler, C; John, U; Funke, H; Nabavi, D G; Stögbauer, F; Ringelstein, E B; Stoll, M

    2006-04-01

    Genetic fine mapping of the first locus identified for genetically complex forms of stroke, STRK1 (which has been mapped to chromosome 5q12 in Icelandic families), has identified the phosphodiesterase 4D gene (PDE4D) gene as a good candidate gene. Association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PDE4D gene in an Icelandic stroke cohort demonstrated genetic association between six SNPs in the 5' region of PDE4D and ischaemic stroke. The present study aimed to test whether the same six SNPs in PDE4D were also associated with stroke in a large stroke cohort from northern Germany (stroke patients with acute completed ischaemic stroke: n = 1181; population based controls: n = 1569). None of the six SNPs showed significant association with ischaemic stroke in the whole stroke sample before and after adjustment for conventional stroke risk factors (age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolaemia). Haplotype analysis did also not reveal any significant association. Marginally positive statistical measures of association in the subgroup with cardioembolic stroke did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, this study was unable to demonstrate an association between the six SNPs which had showed significant single marker association with stroke in the Icelandic stroke cohort and ischaemic stroke in a large German cohort.

  10. Application of a screening method in assessing occupational safety and health of computer workstations.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Toivo; Lehtelä, Jouni; Länsikallio, Riina

    2014-01-01

    Employers and workers need concrete guidance to plan and implement changes in the ergonomics of computer workstations. The Näppärä method is a screening tool for identifying problems requiring further assessment and corrective actions. The aim of this study was to assess the work of occupational safety and health (OSH) government inspectors who used Näppärä as part of their OSH enforcement inspections (430 assessments) related to computer work. The modifications in workstation ergonomics involved mainly adjustments to the screen, mouse, keyboard, forearm supports, and chair. One output of the assessment is an index indicating the percentage of compliance items. This method can be considered as exposure assessment and ergonomics intervention used as a benchmark for the level of ergonomics. Future research can examine whether the effectiveness of participatory ergonomics interventions should be investigated with Näppärä.

  11. SPREADSHEET-BASED PROGRAM FOR ERGONOMIC ADJUSTMENT OF NOTEBOOK COMPUTER AND WORKSTATION SETTINGS.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Prae-Arporn, Kanlayanee; Chanjirawittaya, Sorajak; Paripoonyo, Satirajit; Rodloy, Somsak

    2015-06-01

    This paper discusses a computer program, ErgoNBC, which provides suggestions regarding the ergonomic settings of a notebook computer (NBC), workstation components, and selected accessories in order to help computer users to assume an appropriate work posture during the NBC work. From the users' body height, NBC and workstation component data, ErgoNBC computes the recommended tilt angle of NBC base unit, NBC screen angle, distance between the user and NBC, seat height and work surface height. If necessary, the NBC base support, seat cushion and footrest, including their settings, are recommended. An experiment involving twenty-four university students was conducted to evaluate the recommendations provided by ErgoNBC. The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) technique was used to analyze their work postures both before and after implementing the Ergo NBC's recommendations. The results clearly showed that ErgoNBC could significantly help to improve the subjects' work postures.

  12. Workstation-Based Avionics Simulator to Support Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriquez, David; Canham, Timothy; Chang, Johnny T.; McMahon, Elihu

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory developed the WorkStation TestSet (WSTS) to support flight software development. The WSTS is the non-real-time flight avionics simulator that is designed to be completely software-based and run on a workstation class Linux PC. This provides flight software developers with their own virtual avionics testbed and allows device-level and functional software testing when hardware testbeds are either not yet available or have limited availability. The WSTS has successfully off-loaded many flight software development activities from the project testbeds. At the writing of this paper, the WSTS has averaged an order of magnitude more usage than the project's hardware testbeds.

  13. A component-based, distributed object services architecture for a clinical workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, H. C.; Raila, W. F.; Pappas, J. J.; Ford, M.; Zatsman, P.; Tu, J.; Barnett, G. O.

    1996-01-01

    Attention to an architectural framework in the development of clinical applications can promote reusability of both legacy systems as well as newly designed software. We describe one approach to an architecture for a clinical workstation application which is based on a critical middle tier of distributed object-oriented services. This tier of network-based services provides flexibility in the creation of both the user interface and the database tiers. We developed a clinical workstation for ambulatory care using this architecture, defining a number of core services including those for vocabulary, patient index, documents, charting, security, and encounter management. These services can be implemented through proprietary or more standard distributed object interfaces such as CORBA and OLE. Services are accessed over the network by a collection of user interface components which can be mixed and matched to form a variety of interface styles. These services have also been reused with several applications based on World Wide Web browser interfaces. PMID:8947744

  14. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization Plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference that documents the plans of each organization for office automation, identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations, and encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan.

  15. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization Plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference that documents the plans of each organization for office automation, identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations, and encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan.

  16. Simulation of automatic rotorcraft nap-of-the-earth flight in graphics workstation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, T.; Cheng, Victor H. L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional (3D) helicopter flight simulation system. The simulation is designed to be a readily available tool for concept verification and tuning of automatic obstacle-avoidance guidance algorithms. The system has been implemented on networked workstations capable of interactive 3D graphics simulation. The simulation uses realistic terrain and obstacle models. The dynamics of the rotorcraft and the functional capabilities of the range sensors are simulated to provide all the components required to evaluate the guidance function. Standard graphics hardware available on the workstation is utilized to accelerate the range-data calculations for sensor simulation at the guidance rate. An example is given to demonstrate the performance of the obstacle-avoidance capability.

  17. Computer modeling and design of diagnostic workstations and radiology reading rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Amato, Carlos L.; Balbona, Joseph A.; Boots, Kevin; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2000-05-01

    We used 3D modeling techniques to design and evaluate the ergonomics of diagnostic workstation and radiology reading room in the planning phase of building a new hospital at UCLA. Given serious space limitations, the challenge was to provide more optimal working environment for radiologists in a crowded and busy environment. A particular attention was given to flexibility, lighting condition and noise reduction in rooms shared by multiple users performing diagnostic tasks as well as regular clinical conferences. Re-engineering workspace ergonomics rely on the integration of new technologies, custom designed cabinets, indirect lighting, sound-absorbent partitioning and geometric arrangement of workstations to allow better privacy while optimizing space occupation. Innovations included adjustable flat monitors, integration of videoconferencing and voice recognition, control monitor and retractable keyboard for optimal space utilization. An overhead compartment protecting the monitors from ambient light is also used as accessory lightbox and rear-view projection screen for conferences.

  18. "Virtual" clinical trials: case control experiments utilizing a health services research workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, M. G.; Hillman, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    We created an interface to a growing repository of clinical and administrative information to facilitate the design and execution of case-control experiments. The system enables knowledgeable users to generate and test hypotheses regarding associations among diseases and outcomes. The intuitive interface allows the user to specify criteria for selecting cases and defining putative risks. The repository contains comprehensive administrative and selected clinical information on all ambulatory and emergency department visits as well as hospital admissions since 1994. We tested the workstation's ability to determine relationships between outpatient diagnoses including hypertension, osteoarthritis and hypercholesterolemia with the occurrence of admissions for stroke and myocardial infarction and achieved results consistent with published studies. Successful implementation of this Health Services Research Workstation will allow "virtual" clinical trials to validate the results of formal clinical trials on a local population and may provide meaningful analyses of data when formal clinical trials are not feasible. PMID:9929230

  19. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  20. OMEGA System Performance Assessment and Coverage Evaluation (PACE) Workstation Design and Implementation. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-15

    contract number * * DI2~ 3 -89-C-20008, Task Order 90-0001, Task No. 5834, for * * the Omega Navigation System Center (ONSN), Alexardria, VA. * * IJR * * Ts...CG-ONSCEN-02.2-𔄃 1’ OMEGA SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND COVERAGE EVALUATION (PACE) WORKSTATION DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION AD- A239 7 24 George R...Springfield, Virginia 22161 Prepared for: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION UNITED STATES COAST GUARD OMEGA Navigation System Center Alexandria, Virginia

  1. Teaching Tip: Managing Software Engineering Student Teams Using Pellerin's 4-D System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doman, Marguerite; Besmer, Andrew; Olsen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the use of Pellerin's Four Dimension Leadership System (4-D) as a way to manage teams in a classroom setting. Over a 5-year period, we used a modified version of the 4-D model to manage teams within a senior level Software Engineering capstone course. We found that this approach for team management in a classroom…

  2. Test of radiologist performance in interpreting bedside chest examinations on a workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Nelson, Martha C.; Reagan, Kathleen; Horii, Steven C.; Mun, Seong K.

    1992-05-01

    A book cassette containing both a conventional film-screen radiographic system (FR) and a phosphor storage radiographic plate (SR) was used to obtain simultaneous bedside chest images in 22 patients in the Post Operative Cardiac and Surgical Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Twenty-five potential findings of normal structures, lung and pleural disease, and life support devices were recorded for each image in a five point rating format. The FR images are all considered of good diagnostic quality. The original FR films, the laser digitized FR images (DF) displayed on a workstation (WS), and the SR images displayed on a WS were compared. The WS viewing was on a 1 K X 1.2 K, 8 bit monitor. Free adjustment of window level, window width, and black-white inversion was allowed. Magnification allowed access to the 2 K data set. ROC analysis supports the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the diagnostic yield of good quality bedside obtained FR, DF made from good quality FR viewed on a workstation, and SR viewed on a workstation. Analysis of the subset of interstitial and airspace edema indicated that readers gave higher scores for interstitial disease on the WS for both false positive and true positive findings.

  3. Three-dimensional cellular deformation analysis with a two-photon magnetic manipulator workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hayden; Dong, Chen Y; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Sutin, Jason D; Kamm, Roger D; So, Peter T C

    2002-01-01

    The ability to apply quantifiable mechanical stresses at the microscopic scale is critical for studying cellular responses to mechanical forces. This necessitates the use of force transducers that can apply precisely controlled forces to cells while monitoring the responses noninvasively. This paper describes the development of a micromanipulation workstation integrating two-photon, three-dimensional imaging with a high-force, uniform-gradient magnetic manipulator. The uniform-gradient magnetic field applies nearly uniform forces to a large cell population, permitting statistical quantification of select molecular responses to mechanical stresses. The magnetic transducer design is capable of exerting over 200 pN of force on 4.5-microm-diameter paramagnetic particles and over 800 pN on 5.0-microm ferromagnetic particles. These forces vary within +/-10% over an area 500 x 500 microm2. The compatibility with the use of high numerical aperture (approximately 1.0) objectives is an integral part of the workstation design allowing submicron-resolution, three-dimensional, two-photon imaging. Three-dimensional analyses of cellular deformation under localized mechanical strain are reported. These measurements indicate that the response of cells to large focal stresses may contain three-dimensional global deformations and show the suitability of this workstation to further studying cellular response to mechanical stresses. PMID:11916876

  4. A representational framework and user-interface for an image understanding workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Joyce D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems in image understanding involve a wide variety of data (e.g., image arrays, edge maps, 3-D shape models) and processes or algorithms (e.g., convolution, feature extraction, rendering). The underlying structure of an Image Understanding Workstation designed to support mulitple levels and types of representations for both data and processes is described, also the user-interface. The Image Understanding Workstation consists of two parts: the Image Understanding (IU) Framework, and the user-interface. The IU Framework is the set of data and process representations. It includes multiple levels of representation for data such as images (2-D), sketches (2-D), surfaces (2 1/2 D), and models (3-D). The representation scheme for processes characterizes their inputs, outputs, and parameters. Data and processes may reside on different classes of machines. The user-interface to the IU Workstation gives the user convenient access for creating, manipulating, transforming, and displaying image data. The user-interface follows the structure of the IU Framework and gives the user control over multiple types of data and processes. Both the IU Framework and user-interface are implemented on a LISP machine.

  5. Task Performance and Meta-Cognitive Outcomes When Using Activity Workstations and Traditional Desks

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, June J.; Baker, Victoria C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to compare the effects of light physical activity to sedentary behavior on cognitive task performance and meta-cognitive responses. Thirty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants used a stationary bicycle with a desk top and a traditional desk while completing two complex cognitive tasks and measures of affect, motivation, morale, and engagement. The participants pedaled the stationary bicycle at a slow pace (similar in exertion to a normal walking pace) while working. The results indicated that cognitive task performance did not change between the two workstations. However, positive affect, motivation, and morale improved when using the stationary bicycle. These results suggest that activity workstations could be implemented in the work place and in educational settings to help decrease sedentary behavior without negatively affecting performance. Furthermore, individuals could experience a positive emotional response when working on activity workstations which in turn could help encourage individuals to choose to be more physical active during daily activities. PMID:27445921

  6. Frequency of neck and shoulder pain and use of adjustable computer workstation among bankers

    PubMed Central

    Shabbir, Maryam; Rashid, Sajid; Umar, Bilal; Ahmad, Aqeel; Ehsan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: Neck and shoulder are the most susceptible areas for developing musculoskeletal symptoms among computer users. The modifiable risk factors for these work related musculoskeletal disorders include physical office environment and psychosocial work related factors. Computer workstation layout had been shown to be an important physical aspect of work environment that influences the upper quadrant symptoms. Our objective was to find the frequency of neck and shoulder pain and use of adjustable computer workstation among bankers of Islamabad/Rawalpindi/Multan Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted and 120 participants were questioned. Purposive sampling technique was used in this study. Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire (MUEQ) was remodeled and important questions were extracted from its detailed version. The tool was then validated by taking expert opinion. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Results: Pain in the neck during working hours was experienced by 71.67% of the respondents and 48.33% of the participants had experienced shoulder pain during working hours. Adjustable keyboards were used by 16.67% of respondents. Back care material was used by 40% bankers. Adjustable chairs were used by 95.83% of the participants. Only 3% of the bankers did not have chairs with adjustable heights. Chairs with adjustable armrests were used by 25% bankers. Conclusion: Neck and shoulder pain are common occurrences among bankers. Most of the components of workstations of bankers were adjustable but some of them still need attention. PMID:27182253

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  8. Low Cost Desktop Image Analysis Workstation With Enhanced Interactive User Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Huang, H. K.

    1989-05-01

    A multimodality picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is in routine clinical use in the UCLA Radiology Department. Several types workstations are currently implemented for this PACS. Among them, the Apple Macintosh II personal computer was recently chosen to serve as a desktop workstation for display and analysis of radiological images. This personal computer was selected mainly because of its extremely friendly user-interface, its popularity among the academic and medical community and its low cost. In comparison to other microcomputer-based systems the Macintosh II offers the following advantages: the extreme standardization of its user interface, file system and networking, and the availability of a very large variety of commercial software packages. In the current configuration the Macintosh II operates as a stand-alone workstation where images are imported from a centralized PACS server through an Ethernet network using a standard TCP-IP protocol, and stored locally on magnetic disk. The use of high resolution screens (1024x768 pixels x 8bits) offer sufficient performance for image display and analysis. We focused our project on the design and implementation of a variety of image analysis algorithms ranging from automated structure and edge detection to sophisticated dynamic analysis of sequential images. Specific analysis programs were developed for ultrasound images, digitized angiograms, MRI and CT tomographic images and scintigraphic images.

  9. Do ergonomically designed school workstations decrease musculoskeletal symptoms in children? A 26-month prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Saarni, Lea A; Rimpelä, Arja H; Nummi, Tapio H; Kaukiainen, Anneli; Salminen, Jouko J; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2009-05-01

    Workstations at school are among several factors that contribute to musculoskeletal symptoms among school-aged children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ergonomically designed workstations on schoolchildren's musculoskeletal symptoms as compared to conventional workstations. In the first 14-month phase of the study (2002-2003, two schools), 42 from the intervention and 46 from the control school participated. In the total follow-up of 26 months (2002-2004), 23 in the intervention group and 20 in the control group participated. Anthropometrics and musculoskeletal symptoms were measured. In general, the ergonomically designed school workstations did not decrease present neck-shoulder, upper back, low back and lower limbs strain and pain, compared to conventional ones during follow-ups.

  10. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance. PMID:26600255

  11. TU-C-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT I: Multi-Modality 4D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, J; Mageras, G; Pan, T

    2014-06-15

    Motion management is one of the critical technical challenges for radiation therapy. 4D imaging has been rapidly adopted as essential tool to assess organ motion associated with respiratory breathing. A variety of 4D imaging techniques have been developed and are currently under development based on different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, PET, and CBCT. Each modality provides specific and complementary information about organ and tumor respiratory motion. Effective use of each different technique or combined use of different techniques can introduce a comprehensive management of tumor motion. Specifically, these techniques have afforded tremendous opportunities to better define and delineate tumor volumes, more accurately perform patient positioning, and effectively apply highly conformal therapy techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Successful implementation requires good understanding of not only each technique, including unique features, limitations, artifacts, imaging acquisition and process, but also how to systematically apply the information obtained from different imaging modalities using proper tools such as deformable image registration. Furthermore, it is important to understand the differences in the effects of breathing variation between different imaging modalities. A comprehensive motion management strategy using multi-modality 4D imaging has shown promise in improving patient care, but at the same time faces significant challenges. This session will focuses on the current status and advances in imaging respiration-induced organ motion with different imaging modalities: 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, 4D-PET, and 4D-CBCT/DTS. Learning Objectives: Understand the need and role of multimodality 4D imaging in radiation therapy. Understand the underlying physics behind each 4D imaging technique. Recognize the advantages and limitations of each 4D imaging technique.

  12. Weight of the evidence on the human carcinogenicity of 2,4-D*

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, M. A.; Bond, G. G.; Burke, T. A.; Cole, P.; Dost, F. N.; Enterline, P. E.; Gough, M.; Greenberg, R. S.; Halperin, W. E.; McConnell, E.; Munro, I. C.; Swenberg, J. A.; Zahm, S. H.; Graham, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The phenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is widely used to control the growth of weeds and broadleaf plants. We convened a panel of 13 scientists to weigh the evidence on the human carcinogenicity of 2,4-D. The panel based its findings on a review of the toxicological and epidemiological literature on 2,4-D and related phenoxy herbicides. The toxicological data do not provide a strong basis for predicting that 2,4-D is a human carcinogen. Although a cause–effect relationship is far from being established, the epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to 2,4-D and non–Hodgkin's lymphoma is suggestive and requires further investigation. There is little evidence of an association between use of 2,4-D and soft-tissue sarcoma or Hodgkin's disease, and no evidence of an association between 2,4-D use and any other form of cancer. Scientists on the panel were asked to categorize 2,4-D as a “known,” “probable,” “possible,” or “unlikely” carcinogen or as a noncarcinogen in humans. The predominant opinion among the panel members was that the weight of the evidence indicates that it is possible that exposure to 2,4-D can cause cancer in humans, although not all of the panelists believed the possibility was equally likely: one thought the possibility was strong, leaning toward probable, and five thought the possibility was remote, leaning toward unlikely. Two panelists believed it unlikely that 2,4-D can cause cancer in humans. PMID:1820267

  13. Scientometric analysis and bibliography of digit ratio (2D:4D) research, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella

    2009-06-01

    A scientometric analysis of modern research on the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a widely studied putative marker for prenatal androgen action, is presented. In early 2009, this literature totalled more than 300 publications and, since its initiation in 1998, has grown at a rate slightly faster than linear. Key findings included evidence of publication bias and citation bias, incomplete coverage and outdatedness of existing reviews, and a dearth of meta-analyses in this field. 2D:4D research clusters noticeably in terms of researchers, institutions, countries, and journals involved. Although 2D:4D is an anthropometric trait, most of the research has been conducted at psychology departments, not anthropology departments. However, 2D:4D research has not been predominantly published in core and specialized journals of psychology, but rather in more broadly scoped journals of the behavioral sciences, biomedical social sciences, and neurosciences. Total citation numbers of 2D:4D papers for the most part were not larger than their citation counts within 2D:4D research, indicating that until now, only a few 2D:4D studies have attained broader interest outside this specific field. Comparative citation analyses show that 2D:4D research presently is commensurate in size and importance to evolutionary psychological jealousy research, but has grown faster than the latter field. In contrast, it is much smaller and has spread more slowly than research about the Implicit Association Test Fifteen conjectures about anticipated trends in 2D:4D research are outlined, appendixed by a first-time bibliography of the entirety of the published 2D:4D literature.

  14. A standardized non-instrumental tool for characterizing workstations concerned with exposure to engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu I, Guseva; C, Ducros; S, Ducamp; L, Delabre; S, Audignon-Durand; C, Durand; Y, Iwatsubo; D, Jezewski-Serra; Bihan O, Le; S, Malard; A, Radauceanu; M, Reynier; M, Ricaud; O, Witschger

    2015-05-01

    The French national epidemiological surveillance program EpiNano aims at surveying mid- and long-term health effects possibly related with occupational exposure to either carbon nanotubes or titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2). EpiNano is limited to workers potentially exposed to these nanomaterials including their aggregates and agglomerates. In order to identify those workers during the in-field industrial hygiene visits, a standardized non-instrumental method is necessary especially for epidemiologists and occupational physicians unfamiliar with nanoparticle and nanomaterial exposure metrology. A working group, Quintet ExpoNano, including national experts in nanomaterial metrology and occupational hygiene reviewed available methods, resources and their practice in order to develop a standardized tool for conducting company industrial hygiene visits and collecting necessary information. This tool, entitled “Onsite technical logbook”, includes 3 parts: company, workplace, and workstation allowing a detailed description of each task, process and exposure surrounding conditions. This logbook is intended to be completed during the company industrial hygiene visit. Each visit is conducted jointly by an industrial hygienist and an epidemiologist of the program and lasts one or two days depending on the company size. When all collected information is computerized using friendly-using software, it is possible to classify workstations with respect to their potential direct and/or indirect exposure. Workers appointed to workstations classified as concerned with exposure are considered as eligible for EpiNano program and invited to participate. Since January 2014, the Onsite technical logbook has been used in ten company visits. The companies visited were mostly involved in research and development. A total of 53 workstations with potential exposure to nanomaterials were pre-selected and observed: 5 with TiO2, 16 with single-walled carbon nanotubes, 27 multiwalled

  15. A Real-Time Parallel Application:. The Detection of Gravitational Waves by a Network of Heterogeneous Workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, Stefano; Medugno, Mario; Longo, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    We deal with the detection of gravitational chirp signals among noisy data, where the reception and the detection are piped and run in parallel. We consider the classical theory of signal detection, which yields a detector with a "bank-of-filters" structure. We investigate distributed network computing in order to implement such a detector by heterogeneous high performance workstations interconnected via an Ethernet network. The goal is to design a distributed detector running on a number of available workstations. The computation is decomposed across the workstations in such a way to minimize communications and to match the acquisition rate. Our approach is general and can be used for networks of workstations different from those used in our experimentation. We point out that the classical performance analysis seems inappropriate if applied to real-time detection by heterogeneous distributed systems, because the execution time requirements are disregarded. To take into account such constraints we characterize the algorithm, evaluate performances on different workstations, and propose a task decomposition strategy assigning the appropriateGrainto each workstation.

  16. 4D dose simulation in volumetric arc therapy: Accuracy and affecting parameters.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, Thilo; Gauer, Tobias; Werner, René

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy of lung and liver lesions has changed from normofractioned 3D-CRT to stereotactic treatment in a single or few fractions, often employing volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-based techniques. Potential unintended interference of respiratory target motion and dynamically changing beam parameters during VMAT dose delivery motivates establishing 4D quality assurance (4D QA) procedures to assess appropriateness of generated VMAT treatment plans when taking into account patient-specific motion characteristics. Current approaches are motion phantom-based 4D QA and image-based 4D VMAT dose simulation. Whereas phantom-based 4D QA is usually restricted to a small number of measurements, the computational approaches allow simulating many motion scenarios. However, 4D VMAT dose simulation depends on various input parameters, influencing estimated doses along with mitigating simulation reliability. Thus, aiming at routine use of simulation-based 4D VMAT QA, the impact of such parameters as well as the overall accuracy of the 4D VMAT dose simulation has to be studied in detail-which is the topic of the present work. In detail, we introduce the principles of 4D VMAT dose simulation, identify influencing parameters and assess their impact on 4D dose simulation accuracy by comparison of simulated motion-affected dose distributions to corresponding dosimetric motion phantom measurements. Exploiting an ITV-based treatment planning approach, VMAT treatment plans were generated for a motion phantom and different motion scenarios (sinusoidal motion of different period/direction; regular/irregular motion). 4D VMAT dose simulation results and dose measurements were compared by local 3% / 3 mm γ-evaluation, with the measured dose distributions serving as ground truth. Overall γ-passing rates of simulations and dynamic measurements ranged from 97% to 100% (mean across all motion scenarios: 98% ± 1%); corresponding values for comparison of different day repeat measurements were

  17. 4D dose simulation in volumetric arc therapy: Accuracy and affecting parameters

    PubMed Central

    Werner, René

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy of lung and liver lesions has changed from normofractioned 3D-CRT to stereotactic treatment in a single or few fractions, often employing volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-based techniques. Potential unintended interference of respiratory target motion and dynamically changing beam parameters during VMAT dose delivery motivates establishing 4D quality assurance (4D QA) procedures to assess appropriateness of generated VMAT treatment plans when taking into account patient-specific motion characteristics. Current approaches are motion phantom-based 4D QA and image-based 4D VMAT dose simulation. Whereas phantom-based 4D QA is usually restricted to a small number of measurements, the computational approaches allow simulating many motion scenarios. However, 4D VMAT dose simulation depends on various input parameters, influencing estimated doses along with mitigating simulation reliability. Thus, aiming at routine use of simulation-based 4D VMAT QA, the impact of such parameters as well as the overall accuracy of the 4D VMAT dose simulation has to be studied in detail–which is the topic of the present work. In detail, we introduce the principles of 4D VMAT dose simulation, identify influencing parameters and assess their impact on 4D dose simulation accuracy by comparison of simulated motion-affected dose distributions to corresponding dosimetric motion phantom measurements. Exploiting an ITV-based treatment planning approach, VMAT treatment plans were generated for a motion phantom and different motion scenarios (sinusoidal motion of different period/direction; regular/irregular motion). 4D VMAT dose simulation results and dose measurements were compared by local 3% / 3 mm γ-evaluation, with the measured dose distributions serving as ground truth. Overall γ-passing rates of simulations and dynamic measurements ranged from 97% to 100% (mean across all motion scenarios: 98% ± 1%); corresponding values for comparison of different day repeat measurements were

  18. Mineralization of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) and Mixtures of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, J. S.; Reddy, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is presented for mineralization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in nutrient-rich media (high-nitrogen and malt extract media) by wild-type Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by a peroxidase-negative mutant of this organism. Mass balance analysis of [U-ring-14C]2,4-D mineralization in malt extract cultures showed 82.7% recovery of radioactivity. Of this, 38.6% was released as 14CO2 and 27.0, 11.2, and 5.9% were present in the aqueous, methylene chloride, and mycelial fractions, respectively. 2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) were simultaneously mineralized when presented as a mixture, and mutual inhibition of degradation was not observed. In contrast, a relatively higher rate of mineralization of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T was observed when these compounds were tested as mixtures than when they were tested alone. PMID:16349039

  19. 2,4-D resistance in wild radish: reduced herbicide translocation via inhibition of cellular transport

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Cawthray, Gregory R.; Powles, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to auxinic herbicides is increasing in a range of dicotyledonous weed species, but in most cases the biochemical mechanism of resistance is unknown. Using 14C-labelled herbicide, the mechanism of resistance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in two wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations was identified as an inability to translocate 2,4-D out of the treated leaf. Although 2,4-D was metabolized in wild radish, and in a different manner to the well-characterized crop species wheat and bean, there was no difference in metabolism between the susceptible and resistant populations. Reduced translocation of 2,4-D in the latter was also not due to sequestration of the herbicide, or to reduced uptake by the leaf epidermis or mesophyll cells. Application of auxin efflux or ABCB transporter inhibitors to 2,4-D-susceptible plants caused a mimicking of the reduced-translocation resistance phenotype, suggesting that 2,4-D resistance in the populations under investigation could be due to an alteration in the activity of a plasma membrane ABCB-type auxin transporter responsible for facilitating long-distance transport of 2,4-D. PMID:26994475

  20. Clinical evaluation of 4D PET motion compensation strategies for treatment verification in ion beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianoli, Chiara; Kurz, Christopher; Riboldi, Marco; Bauer, Julia; Fontana, Giulia; Baroni, Guido; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia

    2016-06-01

    A clinical trial named PROMETHEUS is currently ongoing for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT, Germany). In this framework, 4D PET-CT datasets are acquired shortly after the therapeutic treatment to compare the irradiation induced PET image with a Monte Carlo PET prediction resulting from the simulation of treatment delivery. The extremely low count statistics of this measured PET image represents a major limitation of this technique, especially in presence of target motion. The purpose of the study is to investigate two different 4D PET motion compensation strategies towards the recovery of the whole count statistics for improved image quality of the 4D PET-CT datasets for PET-based treatment verification. The well-known 4D-MLEM reconstruction algorithm, embedding the motion compensation in the reconstruction process of 4D PET sinograms, was compared to a recently proposed pre-reconstruction motion compensation strategy, which operates in sinogram domain by applying the motion compensation to the 4D PET sinograms. With reference to phantom and patient datasets, advantages and drawbacks of the two 4D PET motion compensation strategies were identified. The 4D-MLEM algorithm was strongly affected by inverse inconsistency of the motion model but demonstrated the capability to mitigate the noise-break-up effects. Conversely, the pre-reconstruction warping showed less sensitivity to inverse inconsistency but also more noise in the reconstructed images. The comparison was performed by relying on quantification of PET activity and ion range difference, typically yielding similar results. The study demonstrated that treatment verification of moving targets could be accomplished by relying on the whole count statistics image quality, as obtained from the application of 4D PET motion compensation strategies. In particular, the pre-reconstruction warping was shown to represent a promising choice when combined with intra

  1. Comparing Dislodgeable 2,4-D Residues across Athletic Field Turfgrass Species and Time

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, James T.; Breeden, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    2,4-dimethylamine salt (2,4-D) is an herbicide commonly applied on athletic fields for broadleaf weed control that can dislodge from treated turfgrass. Dislodge potential is affected by numerous factors, including turfgrass canopy conditions. Building on previous research confirming herbicide-turfgrass dynamics can vary widely between species, field research was initiated in 2014 and 2015 in Raleigh, NC, USA to quantify dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from dormant hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) and hybrid bermudagrass overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), which are common athletic field playing surfaces in subtropical climates. Additionally, dislodgeable 2,4-D was compared at AM (7:00 eastern standard time) and PM (14:00) sample timings within a day. Samples collected from perennial ryegrass consistently resulted in greater 2,4-D dislodgment immediately after application (9.4 to 9.9% of applied) compared to dormant hybrid bermudagrass (2.3 to 2.9%), as well as at all AM compared to PM timings from 1 to 3 d after treatment (DAT; 0.4 to 6.3% compared to 0.1 to 0.8%). Dislodgeable 2,4-D did not differ across turfgrass species at PM sample collections, with ≤ 0.1% of the 2,4-D applied dislodged from 1 to 6 DAT, and 2,4-D detection did not occur at 12 and 24 DAT. In conclusion, dislodgeable 2,4-D from treated turfgrass can vary between species and over short time-scales within a day. This information should be taken into account in human exposure risk assessments, as well as by turfgrass managers and athletic field event coordinators to minimize 2,4-D exposure. PMID:27936174

  2. Clinical evaluation of 4D PET motion compensation strategies for treatment verification in ion beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Chiara; Kurz, Christopher; Riboldi, Marco; Bauer, Julia; Fontana, Giulia; Baroni, Guido; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia

    2016-06-07

    A clinical trial named PROMETHEUS is currently ongoing for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT, Germany). In this framework, 4D PET-CT datasets are acquired shortly after the therapeutic treatment to compare the irradiation induced PET image with a Monte Carlo PET prediction resulting from the simulation of treatment delivery. The extremely low count statistics of this measured PET image represents a major limitation of this technique, especially in presence of target motion. The purpose of the study is to investigate two different 4D PET motion compensation strategies towards the recovery of the whole count statistics for improved image quality of the 4D PET-CT datasets for PET-based treatment verification. The well-known 4D-MLEM reconstruction algorithm, embedding the motion compensation in the reconstruction process of 4D PET sinograms, was compared to a recently proposed pre-reconstruction motion compensation strategy, which operates in sinogram domain by applying the motion compensation to the 4D PET sinograms. With reference to phantom and patient datasets, advantages and drawbacks of the two 4D PET motion compensation strategies were identified. The 4D-MLEM algorithm was strongly affected by inverse inconsistency of the motion model but demonstrated the capability to mitigate the noise-break-up effects. Conversely, the pre-reconstruction warping showed less sensitivity to inverse inconsistency but also more noise in the reconstructed images. The comparison was performed by relying on quantification of PET activity and ion range difference, typically yielding similar results. The study demonstrated that treatment verification of moving targets could be accomplished by relying on the whole count statistics image quality, as obtained from the application of 4D PET motion compensation strategies. In particular, the pre-reconstruction warping was shown to represent a promising choice when combined with intra

  3. SU-E-J-241: Creation of Ventilation CT From Daily 4D CTs Or 4D Conebeam CTs Acquired During IGRT for Thoracic Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, A; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to create ventilation CTs from daily 4D CTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs (4DCBCT) acquired during image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for thoracic tumors, and to explore the potential for using the ventilation CTs as a means for early detection of lung injury during radiation treatment. Methods: 4DCT acquired using an in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) and 4DCBCT acquired using the X-ray Volume Imaging (XVI) system (Infinity, Elekta) for representative lung cancer patients were analyzed. These 4D data sets were sorted into 10 phase images. A newly-available deformable image registration tool (ADMIRE, Elekta) is used to deform the phase images at the end of exhale (EE) to the phase images at the end of inhale (EI). The lung volumes at EI and EE were carefully contoured using an intensity-based auto-contour tool and then manually edited. The ventilation images were calculated from the variations of CT numbers of those voxels masked by the lung contour at EI between the registered phase images. The deformable image registration is also performed between the daily 4D images and planning 4DCT, and the resulting deformable field vector (DFV) is used to deform the planning doses to the daily images by an in-house Matlab program. Results: The ventilation images were successfully created. The tide volumes calculated using the ventilation images agree with those measured through volume difference of contours at EE and EI, indicating the accuracy of ventilation images. The association between the delivered doses and the change of lung ventilation from the daily ventilation CTs is identified. Conclusions: A method to create the ventilation CT using daily 4DCTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs was developed and demonstrated.

  4. Validation of the 4D NCAT simulation tools for use in high-resolution x-ray CT research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segars, W. P.; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Beck, T.; Frey, E. C.; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2005-04-01

    We validate the computer-based simulation tools developed in our laboratory for use in high-resolution CT research. The 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom was developed to provide a realistic and flexible model of the human anatomy and physiology. Unlike current phantoms in CT, the 4D NCAT has the advantage, due to its design, that its organ shapes can be changed to realistically model anatomical variations and patient motion. To efficiently simulate high-resolution CT images, we developed a unique analytic projection algorithm (including scatter and quantum noise) to accurately calculate projections directly from the surface definition of the phantom given parameters defining the CT scanner and geometry. The projection data are reconstructed into CT images using algorithms developed in our laboratory. The 4D NCAT phantom contains a level of detail that is close to impossible to produce in a physical test object. We, therefore, validate our CT simulation tools and methods through a series of direct comparisons with data obtained experimentally using existing, simple physical phantoms at different doses and using different x-ray energy spectra. In each case, the first-order simulations were found to produce comparable results (<12%). We reason that since the simulations produced equivalent results using simple test objects, they should be able to do the same in more anatomically realistic conditions. We conclude that, with the ability to provide realistic simulated CT image data close to that from actual patients, the simulation tools developed in this work will have applications in a broad range of CT imaging research.

  5. Reducing the 4d index to the S 3 partition function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Yan, Wenbin

    2012-12-01

    The superconformal index of a 4 d gauge theory is computed by a matrix integral arising from localization of the supersymmetric path integral on S 3 × S 1. As the radius of the circle goes to zero, it is natural to expect that the 4 d path integral becomes the partition function of dimensionally reduced gauge theory on S 3. We show that this is indeed the case and recover the matrix integral of Kapustin, Willett and Yaakov from the matrix integral that computes the superconformal index. Remarkably, the superconformal index of the "parent" 4 d theory can be thought of as the q-deformation of the 3 d partition function.

  6. Inheritance of 2,4-D resistance traits in multiple herbicide- resistant Raphanus raphanistrum populations.

    PubMed

    Busi, Roberto; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-04-01

    A relatively low number of weed species have evolved resistance to auxinic herbicides despite their use for almost 70 years. This inheritance study with two Raphanus raphanistrum populations multiple-resistant 2,4-D and the ALS-inhibiting herbicide chlorsulfuron determined the number of genes and genetic dominance of 2,4-D resistance and investigated the association between traits conferring resistance to the two herbicide modes of action. Levels of 2,4-D phenotypic resistance and resistance segregation patterns were assessed in parental populations, F1 and F2 families.

  7. Bacterial degradation of phenoxy herbicide mixtures 2,4-D and MCPP

    SciTech Connect

    Kyeheon Oh; Tuovinen, O.H. )

    1991-08-01

    The phenoxy herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (MCPP) have auxin-like growth regulating properties and are extensively used for the control of broad-leaf angiosperm weeds. The microbiological degradation of 2,4-D by pure and mixed cultures has been examined in a number of studies. The authors have previously evaluated the concurrent microbiological degradation of 2,4-D and MCPP in stirred tank reactors. For the present paper, they examined the utilization of the two substrates by three mixed cultures that had a previous history of growth with the respective single phenoxy herbicide.

  8. EOS workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, Franz; Karspeck, Milan; Millot, Michel; Maurice, Kelly; Jackson, Matt

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work done from mid-1989 until January 1992 to develop a prototype set of tools for the analysis of EOS-type images. Such images are characterized by great multiplicity and quantity. A single 'snapshot' of EOS-type imagery may contain several hundred component images so that on a particular pixel, one finds multiple gray values. A prototype EOS-sensor, AVIRIS, has 224 gray values at each pixel. The work focused on the ability to utilize very large images and continuously roam through those images, zoom and be able to hold more than one black and white or color image, for example for stereo viewing or for image comparisons. A second focus was the utilization of so-called 'image cubes', where multiple images need to be co-registered and then jointly analyzed, viewed, and manipulated. The target computer platform that was selected was a high-performance graphics superworkstation, Stardent 3000. This particular platform offered many particular graphics tools such as the Application Visualization System (AVS) or Dore, but it missed availability of commercial third-party software for relational data bases, image processing, etc. The project was able to cope with these limitations and a phase-3 activity is currently being negotiated to port the software and enhance it for use with a novel graphics superworkstation to be introduced into the market in the Spring of 1993.

  9. Low 2D:4D Values Are Associated with Video Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Zenses, Eva-Maria; Lenz, Bernd; Stoessel, Christina; Bouna-Pyrrou, Polyxeni; Rehbein, Florian; Kliem, Sören; Mößle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Androgen-dependent signaling regulates the growth of the fingers on the human hand during embryogenesis. A higher androgen load results in lower 2D:4D (second digit to fourth digit) ratio values. Prenatal androgen exposure also impacts brain development. 2D:4D values are usually lower in males and are viewed as a proxy of male brain organization. Here, we quantified video gaming behavior in young males. We found lower mean 2D:4D values in subjects who were classified according to the CSAS-II as having at-risk/addicted behavior (n = 27) compared with individuals with unproblematic video gaming behavior (n = 27). Thus, prenatal androgen exposure and a hyper-male brain organization, as represented by low 2D:4D values, are associated with problematic video gaming behavior. These results may be used to improve the diagnosis, prediction, and prevention of video game addiction. PMID:24236143

  10. Dissipation and residue of 2,4-D in citrus under field condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Sun, Dali

    2015-05-01

    The dissipation, residues, and risks of 2,4-dicholrophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in citrus under field condition were investigated based on a simple ultra-performance LC (UPLC)-MS/MS method. The results indicated that the residue level of 2,4-D in citrus did not degrade gradually with sampling time under field condition. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 20-40 days, 2,4-D residues were 0.021-0.269 mg/kg in citrus flesh, 0.028-0.337 mg/kg in whole citrus, and 0.028-0.376 mg/kg in citrus peel, all bellow the China maximum residue limit in citrus (1 mg/kg). Risks of 2,4-D were assessed by calculation of risk quotient, and the results revealed no significant health risks after consumption of citrus.

  11. Low 2D:4D values are associated with video game addiction.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Zenses, Eva-Maria; Lenz, Bernd; Stoessel, Christina; Bouna-Pyrrou, Polyxeni; Rehbein, Florian; Kliem, Sören; Mößle, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Androgen-dependent signaling regulates the growth of the fingers on the human hand during embryogenesis. A higher androgen load results in lower 2D:4D (second digit to fourth digit) ratio values. Prenatal androgen exposure also impacts brain development. 2D:4D values are usually lower in males and are viewed as a proxy of male brain organization. Here, we quantified video gaming behavior in young males. We found lower mean 2D:4D values in subjects who were classified according to the CSAS-II as having at-risk/addicted behavior (n = 27) compared with individuals with unproblematic video gaming behavior (n = 27). Thus, prenatal androgen exposure and a hyper-male brain organization, as represented by low 2D:4D values, are associated with problematic video gaming behavior. These results may be used to improve the diagnosis, prediction, and prevention of video game addiction.

  12. Planning 4D intensity-modulated arc therapy for tumor tracking with a multileaf collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ying; Betzel, Gregory T.; Yang, Xiaocheng; Gui, Minzhi; Parke, William C.; Yi, Byongyong; Yu, Cedric X.

    2017-02-01

    This study introduces a practical four-dimensional (4D) planning scheme of IMAT using 4D computed tomography (4D CT) for planning tumor tracking with dynamic multileaf beam collimation. We assume that patients can breathe regularly, i.e. the same way as during 4D CT with an unchanged period and amplitude, and that the start of 4D-IMAT delivery can be synchronized with a designated respiratory phase. Each control point of the IMAT-delivery process can be associated with an image set of 4D CT at a specified respiratory phase. Target is contoured at each respiratory phase without a motion-induced margin. A 3D-IMAT plan is first optimized on a reference-phase image set of 4D CT. Then, based on the projections of the planning target volume in the beam’s eye view at different respiratory phases, a 4D-IMAT plan is generated by transforming the segments of the optimized 3D plan by using a direct aperture deformation method. Compensation for both translational and deformable tumor motion is accomplished, and the smooth delivery of the transformed plan is ensured by forcing connectivity between adjacent angles (control points). It is envisioned that the resultant plans can be delivered accurately using the dose rate regulated tracking method which handles breathing irregularities (Yi et al 2008 Med. Phys. 35 3955–62).This planning process is straightforward and only adds a small step to current clinical 3D planning practice. Our 4D planning scheme was tested on three cases to evaluate dosimetric benefits. The created 4D-IMAT plans showed similar dose distributions as compared with the 3D-IMAT plans on a single static phase, indicating that our method is capable of eliminating the dosimetric effects of breathing induced target motion. Compared to the 3D-IMAT plans with large treatment margins encompassing respiratory motion, our 4D-IMAT plans reduced radiation doses to surrounding normal organs and tissues.

  13. Pregnancy monitoring in dogs and cats using 3D and 4D ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T B; Drews, B; Kurz, J; Hermes, R; Yang, S; Göritz, F

    2009-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D)/four-dimensional (4D) volume ultrasound is an established method in human medicine that offers various options for analysing and presenting ultrasound volume data. However, the successful application of the different 3D/4D imaging modalities in pregnant dogs and cats has not yet been reported in the literature. The main reasons for this are: (1) the high costs of 3D/4D ultrasound systems, (2) operation difficulties due to high breathing frequency in non-sedated animals and (3) the missing specific knowledge in veterinary medicine concerning how to perform high-quality volume scans. Automatically acquired ultrasound volume data sets were generated with two different ultrasound systems: the portable Voluson i and the stationary Voluson Expert 730. Different 3D/4D imaging modalities were tested in regard of their practicability in pregnancy monitoring in dogs and cats. Nine different volume imaging modalities were applied using the saved files. For the presentation of the static 3D volume data sets, we used the multiplanar, niche, surface, transparency, glass body, inversion, volume calculation and tomographic ultrasound imaging modes. For the dynamic 4D data, the surface and glass body modes were applied. By changing the human standard settings to the requirements of small animal anatomy, it was found that 3D/4D ultrasound has great potential for the characterization of pregnancy in queens and bitches. The 3D/4D technology offered advanced information about pregnancy status and birth prediction and improved the diagnostic confidence. By using standardized examination protocols, 3D/4D ultrasound will allow a reduction in examination time by generating even more relevant information. These benefits, combined with possible future cost reduction of commercial ultrasound systems, might lead to frequent utilization in routine pregnancy diagnostic and birth management in small animal practice.

  14. A standardized method for 4D ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade and catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Clendenen, N J; Robards, C B; Clendenen, S R

    2014-01-01

    We present a standardized method for using four-dimensional ultrasound (4D US) guidance for peripheral nerve blocks. 4D US allows for needle tracking in multiple planes simultaneously and accurate measurement of the local anesthetic volume surrounding the nerve following injection. Additionally, the morphology and proximity of local anesthetic spread around the target nerve is clearly seen with the described technique. This method provides additional spatial information in real time compared to standard two-dimensional ultrasound.

  15. Digit ratio (2D:4D), lateral preferences, and performance in fencing.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Reimer, Barbara; Ertl, Clara; Dressler, Stefan G

    2006-10-01

    The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait (men tend to have lower values than women) and a likely biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain and body. Prenatal testosterone, as reflected by 2D:4D, has many extragenital effects, including its relevance for the formation of an efficient cardiovascular system. Previous research, reviewed here, has therefore investigated possible associations of 2D:4D with sport performance. Several studies found more masculinized digit ratio patterns (low 2D:4D values or a negative right-minus-left difference in 2D:4D) to be related to high performance in running, soccer, and skiing. The present research tested this hypothesis in a sample of 54 tournament fencers, predominantly from Austria. For men, negative right-left differences in 2D:4D corresponded significantly to better current as well as highest national fencing rankings, independent of training intensity and fencing experience. The mean 2D:4D values of these fencers were significantly lower and the proportion of left-handers was elevated relative to the local general population. For the right hand, the ratio was somewhat lower in male sabre fencers than in male epée and foil fencers combined and significantly lower in left-handed compared to right-handed fencers. Although nonsignificant due to low statistical power, effect sizes suggested that crossed versus congruent hand-eye and hand-foot preferences might also be related to fencing performance. The present findings add to the evidence that 2D:4D might be a performance indicator for men across a variety of sports.

  16. Evaluation of 2, 4-D Ester and Triclopyr Amine Against Waterlily and Spatterdock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    cause un-intended damage to non-target, floating-leaved plant stands. Both 2,4-D and triclopyr are auxin -type herbicides effective on dicotyledons...stem, petioles and leaves) typical of auxin -type herbicides. Both herbicides are rapidly translocated in plant tissues via the symplastic pathway...curling and petiole elongation are common to auxin -type herbicides such as 2,4-D and triclopyr (WSSA 2002). These symptoms are indicators of herbicide

  17. 3D and 4D atlas system of living human body structure.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Takatsu, A; Hattori, A; Ezumi, T; Oda, S; Yanai, T; Tominaga, H

    1998-01-01

    A reference system for accessing anatomical information from a complete 3D structure of the whole body "living human", including 4D cardiac dynamics, was reconstructed with 3D and 4D data sets obtained from normal volunteers. With this system, we were able to produce a human atlas in which sectional images can be accessed from any part of the human body interactively by real-time image generation.

  18. Fast 2D FWI on a multi and many-cores workstation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, Philippe; Donno, Daniela; Noble, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Following the introduction of x86 co-processors (Xeon Phi) and the performance increase of standard 2-socket workstations using the latest 12 cores E5-v2 x86-64 CPU, we present here a MPI + OpenMP implementation of an acoustic 2D FWI (full waveform inversion) code which simultaneously runs on the CPUs and on the co-processors installed in a workstation. The main advantage of running a 2D FWI on a workstation is to be able to quickly evaluate new features such as more complicated wave equations, new cost functions, finite-difference stencils or boundary conditions. Since the co-processor is made of 61 in-order x86 cores, each of them having up to 4 threads, this many-core can be seen as a shared memory SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) machine with its own IP address. Depending on the vendor, a single workstation can handle several co-processors making the workstation as a personal cluster under the desk. The original Fortran 90 CPU version of the 2D FWI code is just recompiled to get a Xeon Phi x86 binary. This multi and many-core configuration uses standard compilers and associated MPI as well as math libraries under Linux; therefore, the cost of code development remains constant, while improving computation time. We choose to implement the code with the so-called symmetric mode to fully use the capacity of the workstation, but we also evaluate the scalability of the code in native mode (i.e running only on the co-processor) thanks to the Linux ssh and NFS capabilities. Usual care of optimization and SIMD vectorization is used to ensure optimal performances, and to analyze the application performances and bottlenecks on both platforms. The 2D FWI implementation uses finite-difference time-domain forward modeling and a quasi-Newton (with L-BFGS algorithm) optimization scheme for the model parameters update. Parallelization is achieved through standard MPI shot gathers distribution and OpenMP for domain decomposition within the co-processor. Taking advantage of the 16

  19. Low Digit Ratio 2D∶4D in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Bernd; Kraus, Thomas; Sperling, Wolfgang; Bayerlein, Kristina; Biermann, Teresa; Stoessel, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth finger (2D∶4D) has been described as reflecting the degree of prenatal androgen exposure in humans. 2D∶4D is smaller for males than females and is associated with traits such as left-handedness, physical aggression, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and a genetic polymorphism of the androgen receptor. All of these traits are known to be correlated to the vulnerability for alcohol dependency. We therefore hypothesized low 2D∶4D in patients with alcohol dependency. In the present study on 131 patients suffering from alcohol dependency and 185 healthy volunteers, we found that alcohol dependent patients had smaller 2D∶4D ratios compared to controls with preserved sexual dimorphism but with reduced right-left differences. The detection of alcohol dependency based on 2D∶4D ratios was most accurate using the right hand of males (ROC-analysis: AUC 0.725, sensitivity 0.667, specificity 0.723). These findings provide novel insights into the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of alcohol dependency and for the use of 2D∶4D as a possible trait marker in identifying patients with alcohol dependency. PMID:21547078

  20. A hybrid space approach for ensemble-based 4-D variational data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Aimei; Xi, Shuang; Qiu, Chongjian; Xu, Qin

    2009-09-01

    A new scheme is developed to improve the ensemble-based 4-D variational data assimilation (En4DVar). In this scheme, leading singular vectors are extracted from 4-D ensemble perturbations in a hybrid space and then used to construct the analysis increment to fit the 4-D innovation (observation minus background) data. The hybrid space combines the 4-D observation space with only a gridded 3-D subspace at the end of each assimilation cycle, so its dimension can be much smaller than the dimension of the fully gridded 4-D space used in the original En4DVar. This improves the computational efficiency. With this hybrid space approach, the analysis increment can fit the 4-D innovation data in the observation space directly and also provide the necessary initial condition in the gridded 3-D subspace exclusively for the model integration into the next assimilation cycle, so the background covariance matrix can be and only needs to be constructed by the ensemble perturbations in the 3-D subspace. This reduces the rank deficiency of the ensemble-constructed covariance matrix and improves analysis accuracy as long as the observations are not too sparse. The potential merits of the new scheme are demonstrated by assimilation experiments performed with an imperfect shallow-water equation model and simulated observations.

  1. A real-time emergency response workstation using a 3-D numerical model initialized with sodar

    SciTech Connect

    Lawver, B.S.; Sullivan, T.J.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-01-28

    Many emergency response dispersion modeling systems provide simple Gaussian models driven by single meteorological tower inputs to estimate the downwind consequences from accidental spills or stack releases. Complex meteorological or terrain settings demand more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion. Mountain valleys and sea breeze flows are two common examples of such settings. To address these complexities, the authors have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on a workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. MATHEW/ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project. The models are initialized using an array of surface wind measurements from meteorological towers coupled with vertical profiles from an acoustic sounder (sodar). The workstation automatically acquires the meteorological data every 15 minutes. A source term is generated using either defaults or a real-time stack monitor. Model outputs include contoured isopleths displayed on site geography or plume densities shown over 3-D color shaded terrain. The models are automatically updated every 15 minutes to provide the emergency response manager with a continuous display of potentially hazardous ground-level conditions if an actual release were to occur. Model run time is typically less than 2 minutes on 6 megaflop ({approximately}30 MIPS) workstations. Data acquisition, limited by dial-up modem communications, requires 3 to 5 minutes.

  2. A graphical workstation based part-task flight simulator for preliminary rapid evaluation of advanced displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Hahn, Edward; Pritchett, Amy; Hansman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) has developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator has been successfully used to evaluate graphical microburst alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.

  3. A graphical workstation based part-task flight simulator for preliminary rapid evaluation of advanced displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Hahn, Edward; Pritchett, A.; Hansman, R. John

    1994-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator was successfully used to evaluate graphical microbursts alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.

  4. Touch-typing VDU operation: workstation adjustment, working posture and workers' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Delleman, Nico J; Berndsen, Marion B

    2002-06-10

    At a VDU workstation professional touch-typing operators worked at eight different combined adjustments of visual target height and chair backrest inclination. Working posture, workers' perceptions and work performance were measured. Two conclusions were drawn. First, in order to minimize the load on the musculoskeletal system for touch-typing VDU operators, the gaze inclination to a visual target (screen, document) should be 6-9 degrees (range 0-15 degrees ) below the horizontal and, second, the gaze inclination recommended is independent of sitting posture (that is with the backrest between upright and 15 degrees inclined backwards).

  5. Human factors analysis of workstation design: Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.

  6. Implementing a Physician's Workstation using client/server technology and the distributed computing environment.

    PubMed

    Pham, T Q; Young, C Y; Tang, P C; Suermondt, H J; Annevelink, J

    1994-01-01

    PWS is a physician's workstation research prototype developed to explore the use of information management tools by physicians in the context of patient care. The original prototype was implemented in a client/server architecture using a broadcast message server. As we expanded the scope of the prototyping activities, we identified the limitations of the broadcast message server in the areas of scalability, security, and interoperability. To address these issues, we reimplemented PWS using the Open Software Foundation's Distributed Computing Environment (DCE). We describe the rationale for using DCE, the migration process, and the benefits achieved. Future work and recommendations are discussed.

  7. 4D MR and attenuation map generation in PET/MR imaging using 4D PET derived deformation matrices: a feasibility study for lung cancer applications.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Hadi; Schmidt, Holger; Kuestner, Thomas; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2016-10-13

    Respiratory motion may reduce accuracy in fusion of functional and anatomical images using combined Positron emission tomography / Magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems. Methodologies for the correction of respiratory motion in PET acquisitions using such systems are mostly based on the use of respiratory synchronized MR acquisitions to derive motion fields. Existing approaches based on tagging acquisitions may introduce artifacts in the MR images, while motion model approaches require the acquisition of training datasets. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of generating 4D MR images and associated attenuation maps (AMs) from a single static MR image combined with motion fields obtained from simultaneously acquired 4D non-attenuation corrected (NAC) PET images.

  8. Low external pH replaces 2,4-D in maintaining and multiplying 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A mixed culture comprised of both embryonic globules and nonembryogenic callus was derived from seedling hypocotyls of Daucus carota cv. Scarlet Nantes on 2,4-D- containing medium using well-established methods. Then the mixed cultures were transferred to, and serially subcultured on, a hormone-free medium near pH 4. The medium contained 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. When cultured in this way, embryonic globules were able to multiply without development into later embryo stages. Nonembryogenic callus did not survive. Continuous culture of embryonic globules on this low pH hormone-free medium yielded cultures consisting entirely of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). PGSP cultures have been maintained as such with continuous multiplication for nearly 2 years without loss of embryogenic potential. These hormone-free-maintained PGSPs continue their development to later embryo stages when cultured on the same hormone-free medium buffered at pH 5.8. We show that hormone-free medium near pH 4 can replace 2,4-D in its ability to sustain multiplication of 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot at an acceptable growth rate without their development into later embryo stages. This procedure provides selective conditions that do not permit the growth of non-embryogenic cells while providing an adequate environment for embryogenic cell proliferation and should prove invaluable in studying habituation.

  9. Directional sinogram interpolation for motion weighted 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Kruis, Matthijs; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2017-03-01

    The image quality of respiratory sorted four-dimensional (4D) cone-beam (CB) computed tomography (CT) is often limited by streak artifacts due to insufficient projections. A motion weighted reconstruction (MWR) method is proposed to decrease streak artifacts and improve image quality. Firstly, respiratory correlated CBCT projections were interpolated by directional sinogram interpolation (DSI) to generate additional CB projections for each phase and subsequently reconstructed. Secondly, local motion was estimated by deformable image registration of the interpolated 4D CBCT. Thirdly, a regular 3D FDK CBCT was reconstructed from the non-interpolated projections. Finally, weights were assigned to each voxel, based on the local motion, and then were used to combine the 3D FDK CBCT and interpolated 4D CBCT to generate the final 4D image. MWR method was compared with regular 4D CBCT scans as well as McKinnon and Bates (MKB) based reconstructions. Comparisons were made in terms of (1) comparing the steepness of an extracted profile from the boundary of the region-of-interest (ROI), (2) contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) inside certain ROIs, and (3) the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between the planning CT and CBCT inside a homogeneous moving region. Comparisons were made for both a phantom and four patient scans. In a 4D phantom, RMSE were reduced by 24.7% and 38.7% for MKB and MWR respectively, compared to conventional 4D CBCT. Meanwhile, interpolation induced blur was minimal in static regions for MWR based reconstructions. In regions with considerable respiratory motion, image blur using MWR is less than the MKB and 3D Feldkamp (FDK) methods. In the lung cancer patients, average CNRs of MKB, DSI and MWR improved by a factor 1.7, 2.8 and 3.5 respectively relative to 4D FDK. MWR effectively reduces RMSE in 4D cone-beam CT and improves the image quality in both the static and respiratory moving regions compared to 4D FDK and MKB methods.

  10. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference

  11. Intra-vascular blood velocity and volumetric flow rate calculated from dynamic 4D CT angiography using a time of flight technique.

    PubMed

    Barfett, Joseph John; Velauthapillai, Nivethan; Fierstra, Jorn; Crawley, Adrian; Coolens, Catherine; Crean, Andrew; Jaskolka, Jeff; Dufort, Paul; Krings, Timo; Mikulis, David

    2014-10-01

    We examine a time of flight (TOF) approach for the analysis of contrast enhanced 4D volumetric CT angiography scans to derive and display blood velocity in arteries. Software was written to divide blood vessels into a series of cross sections and to track contrast bolus TOF along the central vessel axis, which was defined by a user, from 4D CT source data. Time density curves at each vessel cross section were fit with quadratic, Gaussian, and gamma variate functions to determine bolus time to peak (TTP). A straight line was used to plot TTP versus vessel path length for all three functions and the slope used to calculate intraluminal velocity. Software was validated in a simulated square channel and non-pulsatile flow phantom prior to the calculation of blood velocity in the major cerebral arteries of 8 normal patients. The TOF algorithm correctly calculates intra-luminal fluid velocity in eight flow conditions of the CT flow phantom where quadratic functions were used. Across all conditions, in phantoms and in vivo, the success of calculations depended strongly on having a sufficiently long path length to make measurements and avoiding venous contamination. Total blood flow into the brain was approximately 17 % of a normal 5 L cardiac output. The technique was explored in vivo in a patient with subclavian steal syndrome, in the pulmonary arteries and in the iliac artery from clinical 4D CT source data. Intravascular blood velocity and flow may be calculated from 4D CT angiography using a TOF approach.

  12. Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy and C4d deposition; correlation and its implication.

    PubMed

    Rath, Ashutosh; Tewari, Rohit; Mendonca, Satish; Badwal, Sonia; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is well known to be the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis throughout the world. The histopathological changes are wide and varied as brought out by the various classification systems like the Haas and Oxford systems. C4d is a well-known biomarker of the complement cascade and has recently been implicated in certain native renal diseases. We attempted to characterize C4d deposition in IgAN and correlate this with histopathology by the Oxford classification system. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included renal biopsies of 15 cases of IgAN diagnosed on histopathology and immunofluorescence over a period of 2 years. Demographic parameters of age and sex were reviewed. The Oxford classification system was applied to score the cases and immunohistochemistry for C4d was done on all cases to characterize staining pattern and intensity and was correlated with Oxford classification. Results: On histological examination, the cases showed various combinations of lesions ranging from M0E0S0T0 to M1E1S1T1. C4d deposition was found to be occurring mainly in mesangial location (12/15 cases, 80%). Forty percent cases showed C4d deposition in the glomerular capillary walls in a segmental fashion and 26.67% showed global pattern. Other patterns of deposition were arteriolar (53.33%), in peritubular capillaries (26.67%) and in tubular epithelium (20%). Conclusion: On comparing the various patterns of deposition of C4d with the four variables of the Oxford classification system, we found that segmental and global deposition of C4d correlated best with endocapillary proliferation.

  13. Evaluation of 4D CT acquisition methods designed to reduce artifacts.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Sarah J; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Pan, Tinsu; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Balter, Peter; Hobbs, Brian; Guerrero, Thomas

    2015-03-08

    Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) is used to account for respiratory motion in radiation treatment planning, but artifacts resulting from the acquisition and postprocessing limit its accuracy. We investigated the efficacy of three experimental 4D CT acquisition methods to reduce artifacts in a prospective institutional review board approved study. Eighteen thoracic patients scheduled to undergo radiation therapy received standard clinical 4D CT scans followed by each of the alternative 4D CT acquisitions: 1) data oversampling, 2) beam gating with breathing irregularities, and 3) rescanning the clinical acquisition acquired during irregular breathing. Relative values of a validated correlation-based artifact metric (CM) determined the best acquisition method per patient. Each 4D CT was processed by an extended phase sorting approach that optimizes the quantitative artifact metric (CM sorting). The clinical acquisitions were also postprocessed by phase sorting for artifact comparison of our current clinical implementation with the experimental methods. The oversampling acquisition achieved the lowest artifact presence among all acquisitions, achieving a 27% reduction from the current clinical 4D CT implementation (95% confidence interval = 34-20). The rescan method presented a significantly higher artifact presence from the clinical acquisition (37%; p < 0.002), the gating acquisition (26%; p < 0.005), and the oversampling acquisition (31%; p < 0.001), while the data lacked evidence of a significant difference between the clinical, gating, and oversampling methods. The oversampling acquisition reduced artifact presence from the current clinical 4D CT implementation to the largest degree and provided the simplest and most reproducible implementation. The rescan acquisition increased artifact presence significantly, compared to all acquisitions, and suffered from combination of data from independent scans over which large internal anatomic shifts occurred.

  14. 4D scattering amplitudes and asymptotic symmetries from 2D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; de la Fuente, Anton; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-01-01

    We reformulate the scattering amplitudes of 4D flat space gauge theory and gravity in the language of a 2D CFT on the celestial sphere. The resulting CFT structure exhibits an OPE constructed from 4D collinear singularities, as well as infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody and Virasoro algebras encoding the asymptotic symmetries of 4D flat space. We derive these results by recasting 4D dynamics in terms of a convenient foliation of flat space into 3D Euclidean AdS and Lorentzian dS geometries. Tree-level scattering amplitudes take the form of Witten diagrams for a continuum of (A)dS modes, which are in turn equivalent to CFT correlators via the (A)dS/CFT dictionary. The Ward identities for the 2D conserved currents are dual to 4D soft theorems, while the bulk-boundary propagators of massless (A)dS modes are superpositions of the leading and subleading Weinberg soft factors of gauge theory and gravity. In general, the massless (A)dS modes are 3D Chern-Simons gauge fields describing the soft, single helicity sectors of 4D gauge theory and gravity. Consistent with the topological nature of Chern-Simons theory, Aharonov-Bohm effects record the "tracks" of hard particles in the soft radiation, leading to a simple characterization of gauge and gravitational memories. Soft particle exchanges between hard processes define the Kac-Moody level and Virasoro central charge, which are thereby related to the 4D gauge coupling and gravitational strength in units of an infrared cutoff. Finally, we discuss a toy model for black hole horizons via a restriction to the Rindler region.

  15. A computer graphics pilot project - Spacecraft mission support with an interactive graphics workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, John; Ehrner, Marie-Jacqueline; Reese, Jodi; Chang, Kan; Tseng, Irene

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Computer Graphics Pilot Project was undertaken to enhance the quality control, productivity and efficiency of mission support operations at the Goddard Operations Support Computing Facility. The Project evolved into a set of demonstration programs for graphics intensive simulated control room operations, particularly in connection with the complex space missions that began in the 1980s. Complex mission mean more data. Graphic displays are a means to reduce the probabilities of operator errors. Workstations were selected with 1024 x 768 pixel color displays controlled by a custom VLSI chip coupled to an MC68010 chip running UNIX within a shell that permits operations through the medium of mouse-accessed pulldown window menus. The distributed workstations run off a host NAS 8040 computer. Applications of the system for tracking spacecraft orbits and monitoring Shuttle payload handling illustrate the system capabilities, noting the built-in capabilities of shifting the point of view and rotating and zooming in on three-dimensional views of spacecraft.

  16. Integrated radiologist's workstation enabling the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Kevin W.; Suitor, Charles T.; Hildebrand, Stan; Downs, Rebecca; Thompson, Stephen K.; Shepard, S. Jeff

    2002-05-01

    Since February 2000, radiologists at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have accessed clinical information through an internally developed radiologist's clinical interpretation workstation called RadStation. This project provides a fully integrated digital dictation workstation with clinical data review. RadStation enables the radiologist as an effective clinical consultant with access to pertinent sources of clinical information at the time of dictation. Data sources not only include prior radiology reports from the radiology information system (RIS) but access to pathology data, laboratory data, history and physicals, clinic notes, and operative reports. With integrated clinical information access, a radiologists's interpretation not only comments on morphologic findings but also can enable evaluation of study findings in the context of pertinent clinical presentation and history. Image access is enabled through the integration of an enterprise image archive (Stentor, San Francisco). Database integration is achieved by a combination of real time HL7 messaging and queries to SQL-based legacy databases. A three-tier system architecture accommodates expanding access to additional databases including real-time patient schedule as well as patient medications and allergies.

  17. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.; Rockwell, V.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software (ANL/TM, Revision 4) to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference document that (1) documents the plans of each organization for office automation, (2) identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations and (3) encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations (ANL/TM 458) and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 466).

  18. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, K.R.; Rockwell, V.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software (ANL/TM, Revision 4) to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference document that (1) documents the plans of each organization for office automation, (2) identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations and (3) encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations (ANL/TM 458) and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 466).

  19. DICOM structured reporting: Part 2. Problems and challenges in implementation for PACS workstations.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rada; Engelmann, Uwe; Schroeter, Andre; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2004-01-01

    Structured reporting (SR) was recently added to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard to provide an efficient mechanism for the generation, distribution, and management of clinical reports. The main advantage of SR is the ability to link clinical documents with the referenced images for simultaneous retrieval and display. A generic SR toolkit that covers the different clinical reports used in today's healthcare enterprises was developed for picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstations. The modules of the SR toolkit collaborate to automatically construct the DICOM SR files from the free-text input presented in hypertext markup language (HTML) by using the associated SR trees. The DICOM toolkit is reused for SR encoding and DICOM services. A setup module was required for creating both the standard and private SR templates used in different healthcare specialties. The SR manager transparently converts between the different SR document presentations, that is, DICOM SR files and HTML documents, to provide the end users with an easy-to-use toolkit. To evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the SR toolkit in a pragmatic setting, the toolkit was integrated into PACS workstations.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2004-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.

  1. Automated processing of forensic casework samples using robotic workstations equipped with nondisposable tips: contamination prevention.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Elliott, Jim; Yensen, Craig; Fourney, Ron M

    2008-05-01

    An automated process has been developed for the analysis of forensic casework samples using TECAN Genesis RSP 150/8 or Freedom EVO liquid handling workstations equipped exclusively with nondisposable tips. Robot tip cleaning routines have been incorporated strategically within the DNA extraction process as well as at the end of each session. Alternative options were examined for cleaning the tips and different strategies were employed to verify cross-contamination. A 2% sodium hypochlorite wash (1/5th dilution of the 10.8% commercial bleach stock) proved to be the best overall approach for preventing cross-contamination of samples processed using our automated protocol. The bleach wash steps do not adversely impact the short tandem repeat (STR) profiles developed from DNA extracted robotically and allow for major cost savings through the implementation of fixed tips. We have demonstrated that robotic workstations equipped with fixed pipette tips can be used with confidence with properly designed tip washing routines to process casework samples using an adapted magnetic bead extraction protocol.

  2. Health care professional workstation: software system construction using DSSA scenario-based engineering process.

    PubMed

    Hufnagel, S; Harbison, K; Silva, J; Mettala, E

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for the evolutionary determination of user requirements and system specifications called scenario-based engineering process (SEP). Health care professional workstations are critical components of large scale health care system architectures. We suggest that domain-specific software architectures (DSSAs) be used to specify standard interfaces and protocols for reusable software components throughout those architectures, including workstations. We encourage the use of engineering principles and abstraction mechanisms. Engineering principles are flexible guidelines, adaptable to particular situations. Abstraction mechanisms are simplifications for management of complexity. We recommend object-oriented design principles, graphical structural specifications, and formal components' behavioral specifications. We give an ambulatory care scenario and associated models to demonstrate SEP. The scenario uses health care terminology and gives patients' and health care providers' system views. Our goal is to have a threefold benefit. (i) Scenario view abstractions provide consistent interdisciplinary communications. (ii) Hierarchical object-oriented structures provide useful abstractions for reuse, understandability, and long term evolution. (iii) SEP and health care DSSA integration into computer aided software engineering (CASE) environments. These environments should support rapid construction and certification of individualized systems, from reuse libraries.

  3. International Space Station alpha remote manipulator system workstation controls test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrenstrom, William A.; Swaney, Colin; Forrester, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Previous development testing for the space station remote manipulator system workstation controls determined the need for hardware controls for the emergency stop, brakes on/off, and some camera functions. This report documents the results of an evaluation to further determine control implementation requirements, requested by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), to close outstanding review item discrepancies. This test was conducted at the Johnson Space Center's Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility in Houston, Texas, with nine NASA astronauts and one CSA astronaut as operators. This test evaluated camera iris and focus, back-up drive, latching end effector release, and autosequence controls using several types of hardware and software implementations. Recommendations resulting from the testing included providing guarded hardware buttons to prevent accidental actuation, providing autosequence controls and back-up drive controls on a dedicated hardware control panel, and that 'latch on/latch off', or on-screen software, controls not be considered. Generally, the operators preferred hardware controls although other control implementations were acceptable. The results of this evaluation will be used along with further testing to define specific requirements for the workstation design.

  4. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2015-02-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild‑type (WT) mice. Administration of β‑estradiol to infant Sema4D‑deficient (Sema4D‑/‑) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β‑estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin‑B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five‑week‑old WT and Sema4D‑/‑ mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin‑B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase‑3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five‑week‑old Sema4D‑/‑ mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D‑/‑ vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis‑inducing activity of Sema4D. The

  5. Hydrophobic metabolites of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in cultured coconut tissue.

    PubMed

    López-Villalobos, Arturo; Hornung, Roland; Dodds, Peter F

    2004-10-01

    Cultures of inflorescence and plumular tissues of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) were maintained in the presence of the auxin, [14C]2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), so that its metabolic fate could be studied. Thin layer chromatography of methanol extracts of the plumular tissue showed that four classes of metabolites, as well as the unchanged acid, were recovered in the extract. In inflorescence tissue, only the unchanged acid and the most polar class of metabolites (metabolite I) were recovered. Metabolite I was shown to consist mostly of a mixture of sugar conjugates and metabolite II (the next most polar) was an unidentified basic metabolite. Metabolites III and IV were both novel triacylglycerol analogues in which one of the natural fatty acids was replaced with a chain-elongated form of 2,4-D. Reversed-phase thin layer chromatography was used to identify the 2,4-D-derived acids and it was found that metabolite III contained the 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-moiety attached to a chain-length of between 2 and 12 carbons, whereas metabolite IV contained 12, 14 and 16 carbon chain lengths. In inflorescence tissue, and in plumular tissue at low sucrose or 2,4-D concentrations and after short periods in culture, metabolite I predominated. The other metabolites increased as a percentage when plumular culture was prolonged or when sucrose or 2,4-D concentrations were raised. These changes correlated with better development of the explant.

  6. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness: exploring the 4-D model.

    PubMed

    Frewen, Paul A; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Frewen and Lanius (in press) recently articulated a 4-D model as a framework for classifying symptoms of posttraumatic stress into those that potentially occur within normal waking consciousness (NWC) versus those that intrinsically represent dissociative experiences of trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC). Four dimensions were specified: time-memory, thought, body, and emotion. The 4-D model further hypothesizes that in traumatized persons, symptoms of TRASC, compared with NWC forms of distress, will be (a) observed less frequently; (b) less intercorrelated, especially as measured as moment-to-moment states; (c) observed more frequently in people with high dissociative symptomatology as measured independently; and (d) observed more often in people who have experienced repeated traumatization, particularly early developmental trauma. The aim of the present research was to begin to evaluate these 4 predictions of the 4-D model. Within a sample of 74 women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) primarily due to histories of childhood trauma, as well as within a 2nd sample of 504 undergraduates (384 females), the 1st 2 hypotheses of the 4-D model were supported. In addition, within the PTSD sample, the 3rd hypothesis was supported. However, inconsistent with the 4th hypothesis, severity of childhood trauma history was not strongly associated with TRASC. We conclude that the hypotheses articulated by the 4-D model were generally supported, although further research in different trauma-related disorders is needed, and the role of childhood trauma history in the etiology of TRASC requires further research.

  7. Inter- and Intrarater Reliability Using Different Software Versions of E4D Compare in Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Callan, Richard S; Cooper, Jeril R; Young, Nancy B; Mollica, Anthony G; Furness, Alan R; Looney, Stephen W

    2015-06-01

    The problems associated with intra- and interexaminer reliability when assessing preclinical performance continue to hinder dental educators' ability to provide accurate and meaningful feedback to students. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate the validity of utilizing various technologies to assist educators in achieving that goal. The purpose of this study was to compare two different versions of E4D Compare software to determine if either could be expected to deliver consistent and reliable comparative results, independent of the individual utilizing the technology. Five faculty members obtained E4D digital images of students' attempts (sample model) at ideal gold crown preparations for tooth #30 performed on typodont teeth. These images were compared to an ideal (master model) preparation utilizing two versions of E4D Compare software. The percent correlations between and within these faculty members were recorded and averaged. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure both inter- and intrarater agreement among the examiners. The study found that using the older version of E4D Compare did not result in acceptable intra- or interrater agreement among the examiners. However, the newer version of E4D Compare, when combined with the Nevo scanner, resulted in a remarkable degree of agreement both between and within the examiners. These results suggest that consistent and reliable results can be expected when utilizing this technology under the protocol described in this study.

  8. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  9. Review of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biomonitoring and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; Swaen, Gerard M. H.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative review of the epidemiological literature on the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and health after 2001 is presented. In order to compare the exposure of the general population, bystanders and occupational groups, their urinary levels were also reviewed. In the general population, 2,4-D exposure is at or near the level of detection (LOD). Among individuals with indirect exposure, i.e. bystanders, the urinary 2,4-D levels were also very low except in individuals with opportunity for direct contact with the herbicide. Occupational exposure, where exposure was highest, was positively correlated with behaviors related to the mixing, loading and applying process and use of personal protection. Information from biomonitoring studies increases our understanding of the validity of the exposure estimates used in epidemiology studies. The 2,4-D epidemiology literature after 2001 is broad and includes studies of cancer, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. In general, a few publications have reported statistically significant associations. However, most lack precision and the results are not replicated in other independent studies. In the context of biomonitoring, the epidemiology data give no convincing or consistent evidence for any chronic adverse effect of 2,4-D in humans. PMID:22876750

  10. 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations.

  11. The epidemic dynamics of hepatitis C virus subtypes 4a and 4d in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A.; Baele, Guy; Khalaf , Nisreen; Suchard, Marc A.; Al-Anazi, Mashael R.; Abdo, Ayman A.; Sanai, Faisal M.; Al-Ashgar, Hamad I.; Khan, Mohammed Q.; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N.; Lemey, Philippe; Vrancken, Bram

    2017-01-01

    The relatedness between viral variants sampled at different locations through time can provide information pertinent to public health that cannot readily be obtained through standard surveillance methods. Here, we use virus genetic data to identify the transmission dynamics that drive the hepatitis C virus subtypes 4a (HCV4a) and 4d (HCV4d) epidemics in Saudi Arabia. We use a comprehensive dataset of newly generated and publicly available sequence data to infer the HCV4a and HCV4d evolutionary histories in a Bayesian statistical framework. We also introduce a novel analytical method for an objective assessment of the migration intensity between locations. We find that international host mobility patterns dominate over within country spread in shaping the Saudi Arabia HCV4a epidemic, while this may be different for the HCV4d epidemic. This indicates that the subtypes 4a and 4d burden can be most effectively reduced by combining the prioritized screening and treatment of Egyptian immigrants with domestic prevention campaigns. Our results highlight that the joint investigation of evolutionary and epidemiological processes can provide valuable public health information, even in the absence of extensive metadata information. PMID:28322313

  12. 4D cone-beam CT reconstruction using multi-organ meshes for sliding motion modeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zichun; Gu, Xuejun; Mao, Weihua; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) strategy was proposed for 4D cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) reconstruction and showed excellent results in both phantom and lung cancer patient studies. In the original SMEIR algorithm, the deformation vector field (DVF) was defined on voxel grid and estimated by enforcing a global smoothness regularization term on the motion fields. The objective of this work is to improve the computation efficiency and motion estimation accuracy of SMEIR for 4D-CBCT through developing a multi-organ meshing model. Feature-based adaptive meshes were generated to reduce the number of unknowns in the DVF estimation and accurately capture the organ shapes and motion. Additionally, the discontinuity in the motion fields between different organs during respiration was explicitly considered in the multi-organ mesh model. This will help with the accurate visualization and motion estimation of the tumor on the organ boundaries in 4D-CBCT. To further improve the computational efficiency, a GPU-based parallel implementation was designed. The performance of the proposed algorithm was evaluated on a synthetic sliding motion phantom, a 4D NCAT phantom, and four lung cancer patients. The proposed multi-organ mesh based strategy outperformed the conventional Feldkamp–Davis–Kress, iterative total variation minimization, original SMEIR and single meshing method based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. PMID:26758496

  13. Semaphorin 4D cooperates with VEGF to promote angiogenesis and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Binmadi, Nada O.; Yang, Ying-Hua; Proia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    The semaphorins and plexins comprise a family of cysteine-rich proteins implicated in control of nerve growth and development and regulation of the immune response. Our group and others have found that Semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) and its receptor, Plexin-B1, play an important role in tumor-induced angiogenesis, with some neoplasms producing SEMA4D in a manner analogous to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in order to attract Plexin-B1-expressing endothelial cells into the tumor for the purpose of promoting growth and vascularity. While anti-VEGF strategies have been the focus of most angiogenesis inhibition research, such treatment can lead to upregulation of pro-angiogenic factors that can compensate for the loss of VEGF, eventually leading to failure of therapy. Here, we demonstrate that SEMA4D cooperates with VEGF to promote angiogenesis in malignancies and can perform the same function in a setting of VEGF blockade. We also show the potential value of inhibiting SEMA4D/Plexin-B1 signaling as a complementary mechanism to anti-VEGF treatment, particularly in VEGF inhibitor–resistant tumors, suggesting that this may represent a novel treatment for some cancers. PMID:22476930

  14. Phosphodiesterase 4D and 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Meschia, James F.; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.; Crook, Richard; Worrall, Bradford B.; Kissela, Brett; Brown, W. Mark; Rich, Stephen S.; Case, L. Douglas; Evans, E. Whitney; Hague, Stephen; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John

    2006-01-01

    Risk for ischemic stroke is mediated by both environmental and genetic factors. Although several environmental exposures have been implicated, relatively little is known about the genetic basis of predisposition to this disease. Recent studies in Iceland identified risk polymorphisms in two putative candidate genes for ischemic stroke: phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) and 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP). A collection of North American sibling pairs concordant for ischemic stroke and two cohorts of prospectively ascertained North American ischemic stroke cases and control subjects were used for evaluation of PDE4D and ALOX5AP. Although no evidence supported linkage of ischemic stroke with either of the two candidate genes, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypic associations were observed between PDE4D and ischemic stroke. There was no evidence of association between variants of ALOX5AP and ischemic stroke. These data suggest that common variants in PDE4D may contribute to the genetic risk for ischemic stroke in multiple populations. PMID:16130105

  15. Clarifying the role of activated charcoal filters in preparing an anaesthetic workstation for malignant hyperthermia-susceptible patients.

    PubMed

    Bilmen, J G; Gillies, R I

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a life-threatening condition caused by exposure of susceptible individuals to volatile anaesthetics or suxamethonium. MH-susceptible individuals must avoid exposure to these drugs, so accurate and reproducible processes to remove residual anaesthetic agents from anaesthetic workstations are required. Activated charcoal filters (ACFs) have been used for this purpose. ACFs can reduce the time for preparing an anaesthetic workstation for MH patients. Currently, the only commercially available ACFs are the Vapor-Clean$trade; (Dynasthetics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) filters which retail at approximately AUD$130 per set of two, both of which are to be used in a single anaesthetic. Anaesthetic workstations were saturated with anaesthetic vapours and connected to a Miran ambient air analyser (SapphRe XL, ThermoScientific, Waltham, MA, USA) to measure vapour concentration. Various scenarios were tested in order to determine the most economical configurations of machine flushing, component change and activated charcoal filter use. We found that placement of filters in an unprepared, saturated circuit was insufficient to safely prepare an anaesthetic workstation. Following flushing of the anaesthetic workstation with high-flow oxygen for 90 seconds, a circuit and soda lime canister change and the placement of an ACF on the inspiratory limb, we were able to safely prepare a workstation in less than three minutes. A single filter on the inspiratory limb was able to maintain a clean circuit for 12 hours, with gas flows dropped from 10 lpm to 3 lpm after 90 minutes or removal of the filter after 90 minutes if high gas flows were maintained.

  16. Chlorinated pesticides (2,4-D and DDT) biodegradation at high concentrations using immobilized Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Germán; Bandala, Erick R; Torres, Luis G

    2005-01-01

    Degradation of two chlorinated pesticides (2,4-D and DDT) using a 54-mL glass column packed with tezontle (a low-cost basaltic scoria) was tested. Bacteria were cultured in YPG (yeast, peptone, and glucose) liquid medium at 32 degrees C. The rich medium was pumped during 24 h through the column to inoculate it. Later, the wasted medium was discharged and the pesticide added. Optical densities, TOC, and pesticide concentration were determined. Pesticide removals for 2,4-D (with initial concentration between 100 and 500 mg/L) were about 99%. DDT removal (at initial concentration of up to 150 mg/L) was as high as 55-99%. TOC removals for 2,4-D was in the 36-87% interval, whereas for DDT they were as high as 36-78%.

  17. Live 4D optical coherence tomography for early embryonic mouse cardiac phenotyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Andrew L.; Wang, Shang; Larin, Kirill V.; Overbeek, Paul A.; Larina, Irina V.

    2016-03-01

    Studying embryonic mouse development is important for our understanding of normal human embryogenesis and the underlying causes of congenital defects. Our research focuses on imaging early development in the mouse embryo to specifically understand cardiovascular development using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We have previously developed imaging approaches that combine static embryo culture, OCT imaging and advanced image processing to visualize the whole live mouse embryos and obtain 4D (3D+time) cardiodynamic datasets with cellular resolution. Here, we present the study of using 4D OCT for dynamic imaging of early embryonic heart in live mouse embryos to assess mutant cardiac phenotypes during development, including a cardiac looping defect. Our results indicate that the live 4D OCT imaging approach is an efficient phenotyping tool that can reveal structural and functional cardiac defects at very early stages. Further studies integrating live embryonic cardiodynamic phenotyping with molecular and genetic approaches in mouse mutants will help to elucidate the underlying signaling defects.

  18. A practical introduction to the hemodynamic analysis of the cardiovascular system with 4D Flow MRI.

    PubMed

    Pineda Zapata, J A; Delgado de Bedout, J A; Rascovsky Ramírez, S; Bustamante, C; Mesa, S; Calvo Betancur, V D

    2014-01-01

    The 4D Flow MRI technique provides a three-dimensional representation of blood flow over time, making it possible to evaluate the hemodynamics of the cardiovascular system both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this article, we describe the application of the 4D Flow technique in a 3T scanner; in addition to the technical parameters, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the technique and its possible clinical applications. We used 4D Flow MRI to study different body areas (chest, abdomen, neck, and head) in 10 volunteers. We obtained 3D representations of the patterns of flow and quantitative hemodynamic measurements. The technique makes it possible to evaluate the pattern of blood flow in large and midsize vessels without the need for exogenous contrast agents.

  19. Proximal femoral focal deficiency of the fetus - early 3D/4D prenatal ultrasound diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kudla, Marek J; Beczkowska-Kielek, Aleksandra; Kutta, Katarzyna; Partyka-Lasota, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital syndrome of unknown etiology. Additional disorders can be present up to 70% of PFFD cases. Management (including termination) depends on the severity of the malformation. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman referred for routine ultrasound examination in the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed 3D/4D evaluation revealed asymmetry of lower limbs and diagnosis of isolated PFFD was established. Parents were fully informed and decided to continue the pregnancy. We stress here the importance of early 3D/4D ultrasound diagnosis. Our paper presents the earliest case where the diagnosis of PFFD was established with 3D/4D ultrasound.

  20. X-ray emissions in 3d, 4d, and 5d ranges for uranium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnelle, C.; Jonnard, P.; Barre, C.; Giorgi, G.; Bruneau, J.

    1997-05-01

    Radiative decay of nd{sup {minus}1}5f{sup m+1} excited states in UO{sub 2} induced by electron collisions is studied theoretically and experimentally. Energies, transition probabilities, and photoexcitation cross sections for the relevant configurations of U{sup 4+} are calculated by using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. Experimental observations are made in the 4d range. Direct recombination of the excited 5f electron to the 4d hole and 4d-6p emission in the presence of the spectator excited 5f electron are observed. From the theoretical results, the spectra are simulated and compared to the observed spectra in the three nd regions. The agreement is correct and describes the evolution of the coupling scheme in the nd{sup {minus}1}5f{sup 3} excited states from n=3 to n=5. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Magnetic dipole transitions in 4d{sup N} configurations of tungsten ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jonauskas, V.; Kisielius, R.; Kyniene, A.; Kucas, S.; Norrington, P. H.

    2010-01-15

    Magnetic dipole transitions between the levels of ground 4d{sup N} configurations of tungsten ions were analyzed by employing a large basis of interacting configurations. Previously introduced configuration interaction strength between two configurations was used to determine the configurations with the largest contribution to wave functions of atomic states for the considered configurations. Collisional-radiative modeling was performed for the levels of the ground configuration coupled through electric dipole transitions with 4p{sup 5}4d{sup N+1} and 4d{sup N-1}4f configurations. New identification of some lines observed in the electron-beam ion trap plasma was proposed based on calculations in which wavelength convergence was reached.

  2. SU-E-T-300: Dosimetric Comparision of 4D Radiation Therapy and 3D Radiation Therapy for the Liver Tumor Based On 4D Medical Image

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine the dosimetric benefit to normal tissues by tracking liver tumor dose in four dimensional radiation therapy (4DRT) on ten phases of four dimensional computer tomagraphy(4DCT) images. Methods: Target tracking each phase with the beam aperture for ten liver cancer patients were converted to cumulative plan and compared to the 3D plan with a merged target volume based on 4DCT image in radiation treatment planning system (TPS). The change in normal tissue dose was evaluated in the plan by using the parameters V5, V10, V15, V20,V25, V30, V35 and V40 (volumes receiving 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40Gy, respectively) in the dose-volume histogram for the liver; mean dose for the following structures: liver, left kidney and right kidney; and maximum dose for the following structures: bowel, duodenum, esophagus, stomach and heart. Results: There was significant difference between 4D PTV(average 115.71cm3 )and ITV(169.86 cm3). When the planning objective is 95% volume of PTV covered by the prescription dose, the mean dose for the liver, left kidney and right kidney have an average decrease 23.13%, 49.51%, and 54.38%, respectively. The maximum dose for bowel, duodenum,esophagus, stomach and heart have an average decrease 16.77%, 28.07%, 24.28%, 4.89%, and 4.45%, respectively. Compared to 3D RT, radiation volume for the liver V5, V10, V15, V20, V25, V30, V35 and V40 by using the 4D plans have a significant decrease(P≤0.05). Conclusion: The 4D plan method creates plans that permit better sparing of the normal structures than the commonly used ITV method, which delivers the same dosimetric effects to the target.

  3. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1.2. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  4. The telerobot workstation testbed for the shuttle aft flight deck: A project plan for integrating human factors into system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauerwein, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    The human factors design process in developing a shuttle orbiter aft flight deck workstation testbed is described. In developing an operator workstation to control various laboratory telerobots, strong elements of human factors engineering and ergonomics are integrated into the design process. The integration of human factors is performed by incorporating user feedback at key stages in the project life-cycle. An operator centered design approach helps insure the system users are working with the system designer in the design and operation of the system. The design methodology is presented along with the results of the design and the solutions regarding human factors design principles.

  5. Synthesis of some novel pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4(5H)-one derivatives as potential antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    Sureja, Dipen K.; Dholakia, Sandip P.; Vadalia, Kantilal R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present work was to synthesize a novel series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H)-one derivatives and evaluate their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Methods: Cyclization of an ortho-amino ester of 1-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)pyrazole with various aliphatic/aromatic nitriles under different reaction conditions such as conventional and microwave assisted synthesis, provided pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4(5H)-one derivatives. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against selected bacteria and fungi by agar well diffusion method. Results: All newly synthesized compounds were characterized using spectral and elemental analysis. Compounds 2e, 2f, and 2g showed significant antimicrobial activity as compared to standard drugs used. Conclusion: The newly synthesized compounds could be useful templates for the design and optimization of more active analogs as a possible antimicrobial agent. PMID:28216957

  6. The 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism Revisited: Empirical Evidence from Germany and China

    PubMed Central

    Sindermann, Cornelia; Li, Mei; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Duke, Éilish; Cooper, Andrew; Warneck, Lidia; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 2D:4D-Ratio, as an indirect measure of the fetal testosterone to estradiol ratio, is potentially very important for understanding and explaining different personality traits. It was the aim of the present study to replicate the findings from Fink et al. (2004) about the relation between individual differences in 2D:4D-Ratios and the Five Factor Model in different cultural groups. Therefore a sample of n = 78 Chinese and n = 370 German participants was recruited. Every participant provided hand scans of both hands, from which 2D:4D-Ratios were computed. Moreover, all participants filled in the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Significant sex differences were found for ratios of both hands in the expected direction, with females showing higher ratios than males. With respect to links between personality and the digit ratio, a positive association was observed between 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism in females, as shown in the earlier study. These findings were observed in both female subsamples from China and Germany, as well as in the full sample of participants. But in contrast to the results for the whole and the German female sample, where 2D:4D-Ratio of both hands were related to Neuroticism, in the Chinese female sample only left hand 2D:4D-Ratio was significantly and positively related to Neuroticism. There were no significant correlations found in any of the male samples. Thus, prenatal exposure to sex steroids appears to influence the personality factor Neuroticism in females specifically. This finding potentially has implications for mental health, as Neuroticism has been shown to be a risk factor for various forms of psychopathology. PMID:27375513

  7. The 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism Revisited: Empirical Evidence from Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Sindermann, Cornelia; Li, Mei; Sariyska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Duke, Éilish; Cooper, Andrew; Warneck, Lidia; Montag, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 2D:4D-Ratio, as an indirect measure of the fetal testosterone to estradiol ratio, is potentially very important for understanding and explaining different personality traits. It was the aim of the present study to replicate the findings from Fink et al. (2004) about the relation between individual differences in 2D:4D-Ratios and the Five Factor Model in different cultural groups. Therefore a sample of n = 78 Chinese and n = 370 German participants was recruited. Every participant provided hand scans of both hands, from which 2D:4D-Ratios were computed. Moreover, all participants filled in the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Significant sex differences were found for ratios of both hands in the expected direction, with females showing higher ratios than males. With respect to links between personality and the digit ratio, a positive association was observed between 2D:4D-Ratio and Neuroticism in females, as shown in the earlier study. These findings were observed in both female subsamples from China and Germany, as well as in the full sample of participants. But in contrast to the results for the whole and the German female sample, where 2D:4D-Ratio of both hands were related to Neuroticism, in the Chinese female sample only left hand 2D:4D-Ratio was significantly and positively related to Neuroticism. There were no significant correlations found in any of the male samples. Thus, prenatal exposure to sex steroids appears to influence the personality factor Neuroticism in females specifically. This finding potentially has implications for mental health, as Neuroticism has been shown to be a risk factor for various forms of psychopathology.

  8. Prevention of alveolar bone loss in an osteoporotic animal model via interference of semaphorin 4d.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Wei, L; Miron, R J; Zhang, Q; Bian, Z

    2014-11-01

    Semaphorin 4d (Sema4d) has been proposed as a novel target gene for the treatment of osteoporosis. Recently, we fabricated a site-specific bone-targeting system from polymeric nanoparticles that demonstrates an ability to prevent bone loss in an osteoporotic model by interfering with Sema4d gene expression using small interference RNA (siRNA) molecules. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effects of this targeting system on the periodontium, an area of high bone turnover. We demonstrated, by single photon emission computed tomography, that intravenous injection of this molecule in ovariectomized Balb/C mice is able to target alveolar bone peaking 4 hr post-injection. We then compared, by histological analysis, the bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), alveolar bone height loss, immunohistochemical expression of Sema4d, and total number of osteoclasts in mandibular alveolar bone. Four treatment modalities were compared as follows: (1) sham-operated, (2) OVX-operated, (3) OVX+estrogen replacement therapy, and (4) OVX+siRNA-Sema4d animals. The results from the present study demonstrate that an osteoporotic condition significantly increases alveolar bone height loss, and that the therapeutic effects via bone-targeting systems featuring interference of Sema4d are able to partly counteract alveolar bone loss caused by osteoporosis. While the future therapeutic demand for the large number of patients suffering from osteoporosis faces many challenges, we demonstrate within the present study an effective drug-delivery moiety with anabolic effects on the bone remodeling cycle able to locate and target alveolar bone regeneration.

  9. Genome-wide Association Analysis Identifies PDE4D as an Asthma-Susceptibility Gene

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Blanca E.; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Baurley, James W.; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; Sleiman, Patrick; Strachan, David P.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Willis-Owen, Saffron A.G.; Klanderman, Barbara; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Lazarus, Ross; Murphy, Amy J.; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E.; Avila, Lydiana; Beaty, Terri; Mathias, Rasika A.; Ruczinski, Ingo; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Celedón, Juan C.; Cookson, William O.C.; Gauderman, W. James; Gilliland, Frank D.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Lange, Christoph; Moffatt, Miriam F.; O'Connor, George T.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Weiss, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma, a chronic airway disease with known heritability, affects more than 300 million people around the world. A genome-wide association (GWA) study of asthma with 359 cases from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) and 846 genetically matched controls from the Illumina ICONdb public resource was performed. The strongest region of association seen was on chromosome 5q12 in PDE4D. The phosphodiesterase 4D, cAMP-specific (phosphodiesterase E3 dunce homolog, Drosophila) gene (PDE4D) is a regulator of airway smooth-muscle contractility, and PDE4 inhibitors have been developed as medications for asthma. Allelic p values for top SNPs in this region were 4.3 × 10−07 for rs1588265 and 9.7 × 10−07 for rs1544791. Replications were investigated in ten independent populations with different ethnicities, study designs, and definitions of asthma. In seven white and Hispanic replication populations, two PDE4D SNPs had significant results with p values less than 0.05, and five had results in the same direction as the original population but had p values greater than 0.05. Combined p values for 18,891 white and Hispanic individuals (4,342 cases) in our replication populations were 4.1 × 10−04 for rs1588265 and 9.2 × 10−04 for rs1544791. In three black replication populations, which had different linkage disequilibrium patterns than the other populations, original findings were not replicated. Further study of PDE4D variants might lead to improved understanding of the role of PDE4D in asthma pathophysiology and the efficacy of PDE4 inhibitor medications. PMID:19426955

  10. Respiratory motion correction in 4D-PET by simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantari, Faraz; Li, Tianfang; Jin, Mingwu; Wang, Jing

    2016-08-01

    In conventional 4D positron emission tomography (4D-PET), images from different frames are reconstructed individually and aligned by registration methods. Two issues that arise with this approach are as follows: (1) the reconstruction algorithms do not make full use of projection statistics; and (2) the registration between noisy images can result in poor alignment. In this study, we investigated the use of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) methods for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. A modified ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm coupled with total variation minimization (OSEM-TV) was used to obtain a primary motion-compensated PET (pmc-PET) from all projection data, using Demons derived deformation vector fields (DVFs) as initial motion vectors. A motion model update was performed to obtain an optimal set of DVFs in the pmc-PET and other phases, by matching the forward projection of the deformed pmc-PET with measured projections from other phases. The OSEM-TV image reconstruction was repeated using updated DVFs, and new DVFs were estimated based on updated images. A 4D-XCAT phantom with typical FDG biodistribution was generated to evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm in lung and liver tumors with different contrasts and different diameters (10-40 mm). The image quality of the 4D-PET was greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm. When all projections were used to reconstruct 3D-PET without motion compensation, motion blurring artifacts were present, leading up to 150% tumor size overestimation and significant quantitative errors, including 50% underestimation of tumor contrast and 59% underestimation of tumor uptake. Errors were reduced to less than 10% in most images by using the SMEIR algorithm, showing its potential in motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET.

  11. Clinical Utility of 4D FDG-PET/CT Scans in Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Sher, David J.; Allen, Aaron M.; Larson, Elysia; Chen, Aileen B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The potential role of four-dimensional (4D) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in radiation treatment planning, relative to standard three-dimensional (3D) PET/CT, was examined. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with non-small-cell lung cancer had sequential 3D and 4D [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scans in the treatment position prior to radiation therapy. The gross tumor volume and involved lymph nodes were contoured on the PET scan by use of three different techniques: manual contouring by an experienced radiation oncologist using a predetermined protocol; a technique with a constant threshold of standardized uptake value (SUV) greater than 2.5; and an automatic segmentation technique. For each technique, the tumor volume was defined on the 3D scan (VOL3D) and on the 4D scan (VOL4D) by combining the volume defined on each of the five breathing phases individually. The range of tumor motion and the location of each lesion were also recorded, and their influence on the differences observed between VOL3D and VOL4D was investigated. Results: We identified and analyzed 22 distinct lesions, including 9 primary tumors and 13 mediastinal lymph nodes. Mean VOL4D was larger than mean VOL3D with all three techniques, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The range of tumor motion and the location of the tumor affected the magnitude of the difference. For one case, all three tumor definition techniques identified volume of moderate uptake of approximately 1 mL in the hilar region on the 4D scan (SUV maximum, 3.3) but not on the 3D scan (SUV maximum, 2.3). Conclusions: In comparison to 3D PET, 4D PET may better define the full physiologic extent of moving tumors and improve radiation treatment planning for lung tumors. In addition, reduction of blurring from free-breathing images may reveal additional information regarding regional disease.

  12. Impact of Petrophysical Experiments on Quantitative Interpretation of 4D Seismic Data at Ketzin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A.; Lueth, S.

    2015-12-01

    Petrophysical investigations for CCS concern relationships between physical properties of rocks and geophysical observations for understanding behavior of injected CO2 in a geological formation. In turn 4D seismic surveying is a proven tool for CO2 monitoring. At the Ketzin pilot site (Germany) 4D seismic data have been acquired by means of a baseline (pre-injection) survey in 2005 and monitor surveys in 2009 and 2012. At Ketzin CO2 was injected in supercritical state from 2008 to 2013 in a sandstone saline aquifer (Stuttgart Formation) at a depth of about 650 m. The 4D seismic data from Ketzin reflected a pronounced effect of this injection. Seismic forward modeling using results of petrophysical experiments on two core samples fromthe target reservoir confirmed that effects of the injected CO2 on the 4D seismic data are significant. The petrophysical data were used in that modeling in order to reflect changes due to the CO2 injection in acoustic parameters of the reservoir. These petrophysical data were further used for a successful quantitative interpretation of the 4D seismic data at Ketzin. Now logs from a well (drilled in 2012) penetrating the reservoir containing information about changes in the acoustic parameters of the reservoir due to the CO2 injection are available. These logs were used to estimate impact of the petrophysical data on the qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the 4D seismic data at Ketzin. New synthetic seismograms were computed using the same software and the same wavelet as the old ones apart from the only difference and namely the changes in the input acoustic parameters would not be affected with any petrophysical experiments anymore. Now these changes were put in computing directly from the logs. In turn the new modelled changes due to the injection in the newly computed seismograms do not include any effects of the petrophysical data anymore. Key steps of the quantitative and qualitative interpretation of the 4D seismic

  13. A hybrid reconstruction algorithm for fast and accurate 4D cone-beam CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hao; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B. E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Jia, Xun E-mail: steve.jiang@UTSouthwestern.edu; Zhen, Xin; Li, Yongbao; Pan, Tinsu; Cervino, Laura

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: 4D cone beam CT (4D-CBCT) has been utilized in radiation therapy to provide 4D image guidance in lung and upper abdomen area. However, clinical application of 4D-CBCT is currently limited due to the long scan time and low image quality. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new 4D-CBCT reconstruction method that restores volumetric images based on the 1-min scan data acquired with a standard 3D-CBCT protocol. Methods: The model optimizes a deformation vector field that deforms a patient-specific planning CT (p-CT), so that the calculated 4D-CBCT projections match measurements. A forward-backward splitting (FBS) method is invented to solve the optimization problem. It splits the original problem into two well-studied subproblems, i.e., image reconstruction and deformable image registration. By iteratively solving the two subproblems, FBS gradually yields correct deformation information, while maintaining high image quality. The whole workflow is implemented on a graphic-processing-unit to improve efficiency. Comprehensive evaluations have been conducted on a moving phantom and three real patient cases regarding the accuracy and quality of the reconstructed images, as well as the algorithm robustness and efficiency. Results: The proposed algorithm reconstructs 4D-CBCT images from highly under-sampled projection data acquired with 1-min scans. Regarding the anatomical structure location accuracy, 0.204 mm average differences and 0.484 mm maximum difference are found for the phantom case, and the maximum differences of 0.3–0.5 mm for patients 1–3 are observed. As for the image quality, intensity errors below 5 and 20 HU compared to the planning CT are achieved for the phantom and the patient cases, respectively. Signal-noise-ratio values are improved by 12.74 and 5.12 times compared to results from FDK algorithm using the 1-min data and 4-min data, respectively. The computation time of the algorithm on a NVIDIA GTX590 card is 1–1.5 min per phase

  14. Use of 4-D atmospheric models in the simulation of radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D. T.; Fowler, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture data contained in the Global 4-D Atmospheric Models developed in previous studies were analyzed to establish regional differences. The regional values of precipitable water along latitudinal belts were compared with values derived from the corresponding atmospheric models defined in the U.S Standard Atmosphere Supplement. The effects of the differences between the 4-D Models and the Standard Atmosphere Models on radiometric computations in the infrared window and water vapor absorption band regions were evaluated using a standard computation model of radiation transfer through a cloudless atmosphere. The significance of these differences in simulation is discussed.

  15. Fast X-ray micro-CT for real-time 4D observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, H.; Yoshida, K.; Tsuji, T.; Koyama, T.; Tsusaka, Y.; Kagoshima, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Fast X-ray computed tomography (CT) system with sub-second order measurement for single CT acquisition has been developed. The system, consisting of a high-speed sample rotation stage and a high-speed X-ray camera, is constructed at synchrotron radiation beamline in order to utilize fully intense X-rays. A time-resolving CT movie (i.e. 4D CT) can be available by operating the fast CT system continuously. Real-time observation of water absorbing process of super-absorbent polymer (SAP) has been successfully performed with the 4D CT operation.

  16. [Free hand acquisition, reconstruction and visualization of 3D and 4D ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sakas, G; Walter, S; Grimm, M; Richtscheid, M

    2000-03-01

    3D Ultrasound will find in the next years a wide popularity under the medical imaging applications. The method expands the well-known sonography on the third dimension, therefore it becomes possible to generate spatial 3D views of internal organs. It is further possible to display static (3D) as well as dynamic organs (4D, e.g. pulsating heart). The clarity of the three-dimensional presentation supports very effectively the navigation. In this article we review the upgrading of conventional ultrasound devices on 3D and 4D capabilities, as well as the display of the datasets by corresponding visualisation and filtering approaches.

  17. Exploring the relation between 4D and 5D BPS solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrndt, Klaus; Lopes Cardoso, Gabriel; Mahapatra, Swapna

    2006-01-01

    Based on recent proposals linking four and five-dimensional BPS solutions, we discuss the explicit dictionary between general stationary 4D and 5D supersymmetric solutions in N=2 supergravity theories with cubic prepotentials. All these solutions are completely determined in terms of the same set of harmonic functions and the same set of attractor equations. As an example, we discuss black holes and black rings in Gödel-Taub-NUT spacetime. Then we consider corrections to the 4D solutions associated with more general prepotentials and comment on analogous corrections on the 5D side.

  18. Four-dimensional (4D) tracking of high-temperature microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Liu, Q.; Waganaar, W.; Fontanese, J.; James, D.; Munsat, T.

    2016-11-01

    High-speed tracking of hot and molten microparticles in motion provides rich information about burning plasmas in magnetic fusion. An exploding-wire apparatus is used to produce moving high-temperature metallic microparticles and to develop four-dimensional (4D) or time-resolved 3D particle tracking techniques. The pinhole camera model and algorithms developed for computer vision are used for scene calibration and 4D reconstructions. 3D positions and velocities are then derived for different microparticles. Velocity resolution approaches 0.1 m/s by using the local constant velocity approximation.

  19. Four-dimensional (4D) tracking of high-temperature microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Liu, Qiuguang; Waganaar, Bill; Fontanese, John; James, David; Munsat, Tobin

    2016-07-08

    High-speed tracking of hot and molten microparticles in motion provides rich information about burning plasmas in magnetic fusion. An exploding-wire apparatus is used to produce moving high-temperature metallic microparticles and to develop four-dimensional (4D) or time-resolved 3D particle tracking techniques. The pinhole camera model and algorithms developed for computer vision are used for scene calibration and 4D reconstructions. 3D positions and velocities are then derived for different microparticles. As a result, velocity resolution approaches 0.1 m/s by using the local constant velocity approximation.

  20. Biomarker correlations of urinary 2,4-D levels in foresters: genomic instability and endocrine disruption.

    PubMed Central

    Garry, V F; Tarone, R E; Kirsch, I R; Abdallah, J M; Lombardi, D P; Long, L K; Burroughs, B L; Barr, D B; Kesner, J S

    2001-01-01

    Forest pesticide applicators constitute a unique pesticide use group. Aerial, mechanical-ground, and focal weed control by application of herbicides, in particular chlorophenoxy herbicides, yield diverse exposure scenarios. In the present work, we analyzed aberrations in G-banded chromosomes, reproductive hormone levels, and polymerase chain reaction-based V(D)J rearrangement frequencies in applicators whose exposures were mostly limited to chlorophenoxy herbicides. Data from appliers where chlorophenoxy use was less frequent were also examined. The biomarker outcome data were compared to urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) obtained at the time of maximum 2,4-D use. Further comparisons of outcome data were made to the total volume of herbicides applied during the entire pesticide-use season.Twenty-four applicators and 15 minimally exposed foresters (control) subjects were studied. Categorized by applicator method, men who used a hand-held, backpack sprayer in their applications showed the highest average level (453.6 ppb) of 2,4-D in urine. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) values were correlated with urinary 2,4-D levels, but follicle-stimulating hormone and free and total testosterone were not. At the height of the application season; 6/7 backpack sprayers, 3/4 applicators who used multinozzle mechanical (boom) sprayers, 4/8 aerial applicators, and 2/5 skidder-radiarc (closed cab) appliers had two or more V(D)J region rearrangements per microgram of DNA. Only 5 of 15 minimally exposed (control) foresters had two or more rearrangements, and 3 of these 5 subjects demonstrated detectable levels of 2,4-D in the urine. Only 8/24 DNA samples obtained from the exposed group 10 months or more after their last chlorophenoxy use had two rearrangements per microgram of DNA, suggesting that the exposure-related effects observed were reversible and temporary. Although urinary 2,4-D levels were not correlated with chromosome aberration frequency, chromosome

  1. A method for deriving a 4D-interpolated balanced planning target for mobile tumor radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Roland, Teboh; Hales, Russell; McNutt, Todd; Wong, John; Simari, Patricio; Tryggestad, Erik

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: Tumor control and normal tissue toxicity are strongly correlated to the tumor and normal tissue volumes receiving high prescribed dose levels in the course of radiotherapy. Planning target definition is, therefore, crucial to ensure favorable clinical outcomes. This is especially important for stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung cancers, characterized by high fractional doses and steep dose gradients. The shift in recent years from population-based to patient-specific treatment margins, as facilitated by the emergence of 4D medical imaging capabilities, is a major improvement. The commonly used motion-encompassing, or internal-target volume (ITV), target definition approach provides a high likelihood of coverage for the mobile tumor but inevitably exposes healthy tissue to high prescribed dose levels. The goal of this work was to generate an interpolated balanced planning target that takes into account both tumor coverage and normal tissue sparing from high prescribed dose levels, thereby improving on the ITV approach. Methods: For each 4DCT dataset, 4D deformable image registration was used to derive two bounding targets, namely, a 4D-intersection and a 4D-composite target which minimized normal tissue exposure to high prescribed dose levels and maximized tumor coverage, respectively. Through definition of an ''effective overlap volume histogram'' the authors derived an ''interpolated balanced planning target'' intended to balance normal tissue sparing from prescribed doses with tumor coverage. To demonstrate the dosimetric efficacy of the interpolated balanced planning target, the authors performed 4D treatment planning based on deformable image registration of 4D-CT data for five previously treated lung cancer patients. Two 4D plans were generated per patient, one based on the interpolated balanced planning target and the other based on the conventional ITV target. Plans were compared for tumor coverage and the degree of normal tissue sparing

  2. Construction of 4D-QSAR models for use in the design of novel p38-MAPK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Romeiro, Nelilma Correia; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; Ravi, Malini; Hopfinger, Anton J

    2005-06-01

    The p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) plays a key role in lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) release during the inflammatory process, emerging as an attractive target for new anti-inflammatory agents. Four-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (4D-QSAR) analysis [Hopfinger et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 119 (1997) 10509] was applied to a series of 33 (a training set of 28 and a test set of 5) pyridinyl-imidazole and pyrimidinyl-imidazole inhibitors of p38-MAPK, with IC50 ranging from 0.11 to 2100 nM [Liverton et al., J. Med. Chem., 42 (1999) 2180]. Five thousand conformations of each analogue were sampled from a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) during 50 ps at a constant temperature of 303 K. Each conformation was placed in a 2 angstroms grid cell lattice for each of three trial alignments. 4D-QSAR models were constructed by genetic algorithm (GA) optimization and partial least squares (PLS) fitting, and evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation technique. In the best models, with three to six terms, the adjusted cross-validated squared correlation coefficients, Q2adj, ranged from 0.67 to 0.85. Model D (Q2adj = 0.84) was identified as the most robust model from alignment 1, and it is representative of the other best models. This model encompasses new molecular regions as containing pharmacophore sites, such as the amino-benzyl moiety of pyrimidine analogs and the N1-substituent in the imidazole ring. These regions of the ligands should be further explored to identify better anti-inflammatory inhibitors of p38-MAPK.

  3. Construction of 4D-QSAR Models for Use in the Design of Novel p38-MAPK Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeiro, Nelilma Correia; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; Ravi, Malini; Hopfinger, Anton J.

    2005-06-01

    The p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) plays a key role in lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) release during the inflammatory process, emerging as an attractive target for new anti-inflammatory agents. Four-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (4D-QSAR) analysis [Hopfinger et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 119 (1997) 10509] was applied to a series of 33 (a training set of 28 and a test set of 5) pyridinyl-imidazole and pyrimidinyl-imidazole inhibitors of p38-MAPK, with IC50 ranging from 0.11 to 2100 nM [Liverton et al., J. Med. Chem., 42 (1999) 2180]. Five thousand conformations of each analogue were sampled from a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) during 50 ps at a constant temperature of 303 K. Each conformation was placed in a 2 Å grid cell lattice for each of three trial alignments. 4D-QSAR models were constructed by genetic algorithm (GA) optimization and partial least squares (PLS) fitting, and evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation technique. In the best models, with three to six terms, the adjusted cross-validated squared correlation coefficients, Q 2 adj, ranged from 0.67 to 0.85. Model D ( Q 2 adj = 0.84) was identified as the most robust model from alignment 1, and it is representative of the other best models. This model encompasses new molecular regions as containing pharmacophore sites, such as the amino-benzyl moiety of pyrimidine analogs and the N1-substituent in the imidazole ring. These regions of the ligands should be further explored to identify better anti-inflammatory inhibitors of p38-MAPK.

  4. The development of a population of 4D pediatric XCAT phantoms for CT imaging research and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Hannah; Zhang, Yakun; Frush, Jack; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Minhas, Anum; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Miller, M. I.; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul

    2014-03-01

    With the increased use of CT examinations, the associated radiation dose has become a large concern, especially for pediatrics. Much research has focused on reducing radiation dose through new scanning and reconstruction methods. Computational phantoms provide an effective and efficient means for evaluating image quality, patient-specific dose, and organ-specific dose in CT. We previously developed a set of highly-detailed 4D reference pediatric XCAT phantoms at ages of newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years with organ and tissues masses matched to ICRP Publication 89 values. We now extend this reference set to a series of 64 pediatric phantoms of a variety of ages and height and weight percentiles, representative of the public at large. High resolution PET-CT data was reviewed by a practicing experienced radiologist for anatomic regularity and was then segmented with manual and semi-automatic methods to form a target model. A Multi-Channel Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (MC-LDDMM) algorithm was used to calculate the transform from the best age matching pediatric reference phantom to the patient target. The transform was used to complete the target, filling in the non-segmented structures and defining models for the cardiac and respiratory motions. The complete phantoms, consisting of thousands of structures, were then manually inspected for anatomical accuracy. 3D CT data was simulated from the phantoms to demonstrate their ability to generate realistic, patient quality imaging data. The population of pediatric phantoms developed in this work provides a vital tool to investigate dose reduction techniques in 3D and 4D pediatric CT.

  5. 16 CFR 300.35 - Hearings under section 4(d) of the act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearings under section 4(d) of the act. 300.35 Section 300.35 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 General § 300.35 Hearings...

  6. Experimental investigation of irregular motion impact on 4D PET-based particle therapy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Stützer, K.; Enghardt, W.; Priegnitz, M.; Helmbrecht, S.; Bert, C.; Fiedler, F.

    2016-01-01

    Particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) is an in vivo and non-invasive imaging technique to monitor treatment delivery in particle therapy. The inevitable patient respiratory motion during irradiation causes artefacts and inaccurate activity distribution in PET images. Four-dimensional (4D) maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (4D MLEM) allows for a compensation of these effects, but has up to now been restricted to regular motion for PT-PET investigations. However, intra-fractional motion during treatment might differ from that during acquisition of the 4D-planning CT (e.g. amplitude variation, baseline drift) and therefore might induce inaccurate 4D PET reconstruction results. This study investigates the impact of different irregular analytical one-dimensional (1D) motion patterns on PT-PET imaging by means of experiments with a radioactive source and irradiated moving phantoms. Three sorting methods, namely phase sorting, equal amplitude sorting and event-based amplitude sorting, were applied to manage the PET list-mode data. The influence of these sorting methods on the motion compensating algorithm has been analysed. The event-based amplitude sorting showed a superior performance and it is applicable for irregular motions with  ⩽4 mm amplitude elongation and drift. For motion with 10 mm baseline drift, the normalised root mean square error was as high as 10.5% and a 10 mm range deviation was observed.

  7. Preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands with 4D-CT.

    PubMed

    Lundstroem, Anke Katrin; Trolle, Waldemar; Soerensen, Christian Hjort; Myschetzky, Peter Sand

    2016-05-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is almost exclusively the result of a solitary parathyroid adenoma. In most cases, the affected gland can be surgically removed, but precise preoperative imaging is essential for adenoma localization prior to surgical intervention. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) as a preoperative imaging tool in relation to the localization of pathologic parathyroid glands in patients with pHPT and negative sestamibi scans. This study included 43 consecutive patients with pHPT referred for parathyroidectomy at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet in 2011 and 2012. All patients had a 4D-CT performed prior to parathyroidectomy. CT localization of the suspected adenoma was correlated to the actual surgical findings and subsequent histological diagnosis was also available as references for the accuracy of this imaging tool. Hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands were found in 40 patients. 4D-CT identified 32 solitary hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands located on the correct side of the neck (PPV 76 %) and 21 located within the correct quadrant (PPV 49 %). Unilateral resection was performed in 72 % of patients due to the localization findings of preoperative imaging. 4D-CT can, therefore, be considered an effective method for the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas and is an important tool in surgical intervention for patients referred to parathyroidectomy.

  8. Interaction between integrin α5 and PDE4D regulates endothelial inflammatory signalling

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sanguk; Budatha, Madhusudhan; Dahlman, James E.; Coon, Brian G.; Cameron, Ryan T.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Baillie, George; Schwartz, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is primarily a disease of lipid metabolism and inflammation; however, it is also closely associated with endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, with fibronectin accumulating in the laminin–collagen basement membrane. To investigate how fibronectin modulates inflammation in arteries, we replaced the cytoplasmic tail of the fibronectin receptor integrin α5 with that of the collagen/laminin receptor integrin α2. This chimaera suppressed inflammatory signalling in endothelial cells on fibronectin and in knock-in mice. Fibronectin promoted inflammation by suppressing anti-inflammatory cAMP. cAMP was activated through endothelial prostacyclin secretion; however, this was ECM-independent. Instead, cells on fibronectin suppressed cAMP via enhanced phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, through direct binding of integrin α5 to phosphodiesterase-4D5 (PDE4D5), which induced PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation of PDE4D5 on the inhibitory site Ser651. In vivo knockdown of PDE4D5 inhibited inflammation at athero-prone sites. These data elucidate a molecular mechanism linking ECM remodelling and inflammation, thereby identifying a new class of therapeutic targets. PMID:27595237

  9. A design of a DICOM-RT-based tool box for nonrigid 4D dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Victy Y W; Baker, Colin R; Leung, T W; Tung, Stewart Y

    2016-03-08

    The study was aimed to introduce a design of a DICOM-RT-based tool box to facilitate 4D dose calculation based on deformable voxel-dose registration. The computational structure and the calculation algorithm of the tool box were explicitly discussed in the study. The tool box was written in MATLAB in conjunction with CERR. It consists of five main functions which allow a) importation of DICOM-RT-based 3D dose plan, b) deformable image registration, c) tracking voxel doses along breathing cycle, d) presentation of temporal dose distribution at different time phase, and e) derivation of 4D dose. The efficacy of using the tool box for clinical application had been verified with nine clinical cases on retrospective-study basis. The logistic and the robustness of the tool box were tested with 27 applications and the results were shown successful with no computational errors encountered. In the study, the accumulated dose coverage as a function of planning CT taken at end-inhale, end-exhale, and mean tumor position were assessed. The results indicated that the majority of the cases (67%) achieved maximum target coverage, while the planning CT was taken at the temporal mean tumor position and 56% at the end-exhale position. The comparable results to the literature imply that the studied tool box can be reliable for 4D dose calculation. The authors suggest that, with proper application, 4D dose calculation using deformable registration can provide better dose evaluation for treatment with moving target.

  10. ADULT AND CHILDREN'S EXPOSURE TO 2,4-D FROM MULTIPLE SOURCES AND PATHWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigated the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide exposures of 135 preschool-aged children and their adult caregivers at 135 homes in North Carolina (NC) and Ohio (OH). Participants were randomly recruited from six NC and six OH counties. Monito...

  11. Statistical 4D graphs for multi-organ abdominal segmentation from multiphase CT.

    PubMed

    Linguraru, Marius George; Pura, John A; Pamulapati, Vivek; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-05-01

    The interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer-aided diagnosis applications. Diagnosis also relies on the comprehensive analysis of multiple organs and quantitative measures of soft tissue. An automated method optimized for medical image data is presented for the simultaneous segmentation of four abdominal organs from 4D CT data using graph cuts. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained at two phases: non-contrast and portal venous. Intra-patient data were spatially normalized by non-linear registration. Then 4D convolution using population training information of contrast-enhanced liver, spleen and kidneys was applied to multiphase data to initialize the 4D graph and adapt to patient-specific data. CT enhancement information and constraints on shape, from Parzen windows, and location, from a probabilistic atlas, were input into a new formulation of a 4D graph. Comparative results demonstrate the effects of appearance, enhancement, shape and location on organ segmentation. All four abdominal organs were segmented robustly and accurately with volume overlaps over 93.6% and average surface distances below 1.1mm.

  12. 4D Ultrasound Tracking of Liver and its Verification for TIPS Guidance.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Klink, Camiel; Niessen, Wiro J; Moelker, Adriaan; van Walsum, Theo

    2016-01-01

    In this work we describe a 4D registration method for on the fly stabilization of ultrasound volumes for improving image guidance for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) interventions. The purpose of the method is to enable a continuous visualization of the relevant anatomical planes (determined in a planning stage) in a free breathing patient during the intervention. This requires registration of the planning information to the interventional images, which is achieved in two steps. In the first step tracking is performed across the streaming input. An approximate transformation between the reference image and the incoming image is estimated by composing the intermediate transformations obtained from the tracking. In the second step a subsequent registration is performed between the reference image and the approximately transformed incoming image to account for the accumulation of error. The two step approach helps in reducing the search range and is robust under rotation. We additionally present an approach to initialize and verify the registration. Verification is required when the reference image (containing planning information) is acquired in the past and is not part of the (interventional) 4D ultrasound sequence. The verification score will help in invalidating the registration outcome, for instance, in the case of insufficient overlap or information between the registering images due to probe motion or loss of contact, respectively. We evaluate the method over thirteen 4D US sequences acquired from eight subjects. A graphics processing unit implementation runs the 4D tracking at 9 Hz with a mean registration error of 1.7 mm.

  13. 4D numerical observer for lesion detection in respiratory-gated PET

    SciTech Connect

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Li, Quanzheng; Ouyang, Jinsong; El Fakhri, Georges; Trott, Cathryn M.; Hoog, Christopher; Petibon, Yoann; Laine, Andrew F.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Respiratory-gated positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography protocols reduce lesion smearing and improve lesion detection through a synchronized acquisition of emission data. However, an objective assessment of image quality of the improvement gained from respiratory-gated PET is mainly limited to a three-dimensional (3D) approach. This work proposes a 4D numerical observer that incorporates both spatial and temporal informations for detection tasks in pulmonary oncology. Methods: The authors propose a 4D numerical observer constructed with a 3D channelized Hotelling observer for the spatial domain followed by a Hotelling observer for the temporal domain. Realistic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose activity distributions were simulated using a 4D extended cardiac torso anthropomorphic phantom including 12 spherical lesions at different anatomical locations (lower, upper, anterior, and posterior) within the lungs. Simulated data based on Monte Carlo simulation were obtained using GEANT4 application for tomographic emission (GATE). Fifty noise realizations of six respiratory-gated PET frames were simulated by GATE using a model of the Siemens Biograph mMR scanner geometry. PET sinograms of the thorax background and pulmonary lesions that were simulated separately were merged to generate different conditions of the lesions to the background (e.g., lesion contrast and motion). A conventional ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction (5 iterations and 6 subsets) was used to obtain: (1) gated, (2) nongated, and (3) motion-corrected image volumes (a total of 3200 subimage volumes: 2400 gated, 400 nongated, and 400 motion-corrected). Lesion-detection signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured in different lesion-to-background contrast levels (3.5, 8.0, 9.0, and 20.0), lesion diameters (10.0, 13.0, and 16.0 mm), and respiratory motion displacements (17.6–31.3 mm). The proposed 4D numerical observer applied on multiple-gated images was

  14. Can exposure to prenatal sex hormones (2D:4D) predict cognitive reflection?

    PubMed

    Bosch-Domènech, Antoni; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M

    2014-05-01

    The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a test introduced by Frederick (2005). The task is designed to measure the tendency to override an intuitive response that is incorrect and to engage in further reflection that leads to the correct response. The consistent sex differences in CRT performance may suggest a role for prenatal sex hormones. A now widely studied putative marker for relative prenatal testosterone is the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D). This paper tests to what extent 2D:4D, as a proxy for the prenatal ratio of testosterone/estrogens, can predict CRT scores in a sample of 623 students. After controlling for sex, we observe that a lower 2D:4D (reflecting a relative higher exposure to testosterone) is significantly associated with a higher number of correct answers. The result holds for both hands' 2D:4Ds. In addition, the effect appears to be stronger for females than for males. We also control for patience and math proficiency, which are significantly related to performance in the CRT. But the effect of 2D:4D on performance in CRT is not reduced with these controls, implying that these variables are not mediating the relationship between digit ratio and CRT.

  15. Five cycles of selection for 2,4-D resistance in red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    2,4-D and other auxin-like mode of action herbicides are used to control broadleaf weeds in pastures. Unfortunately such herbicides also kill beneficial forage legumes in pastures. Although transgene-conferred herbicide-resistance is utilized in some crops, it is unlikely that transgenic breeding ap...

  16. 4-D Cardiac MR Image Analysis: Left and Right Ventricular Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wahle, Andreas; Johnson, Ryan K.; Scholz, Thomas D.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a combination of active shape model (ASM) and active appearance model (AAM) was used to segment the left and right ventricles of normal and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) hearts on 4-D (3-D+time) MR images. For each ventricle, a 4-D model was first used to achieve robust preliminary segmentation on all cardiac phases simultaneously and a 3-D model was then applied to each phase to improve local accuracy while maintaining the overall robustness of the 4-D segmentation. On 25 normal and 25 TOF hearts, in comparison to the expert traced independent standard, our comprehensive performance assessment showed subvoxel segmentation accuracy, high overlap ratios, good ventricular volume correlations, and small percent volume differences. Following 4-D segmentation, novel quantitative shape and motion features were extracted using shape information, volume-time and dV/dt curves, analyzed and used for disease status classification. Automated discrimination between normal/TOF subjects achieved 90%–100% sensitivity and specificity. The features obtained from TOF hearts show higher variability compared to normal subjects, suggesting their potential use as disease progression indicators. The abnormal shape and motion variations of the TOF hearts were accurately captured by both the segmentation and feature characterization. PMID:19709962

  17. Parallel computations using a cluster of workstations to simulate elasticity problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, J. B. B.; Mungkasi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Computational physics has played important roles in real world problems. This paper is within the applied computational physics area. The aim of this study is to observe the performance of parallel computations using a cluster of workstations (COW) to simulate elasticity problems. Parallel computations with the COW configuration are conducted using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. In parallel computations with COW, we consider five scenarios with twenty simulations. In addition to the execution time, efficiency is used to evaluate programming algorithm scenarios. Sequential and parallel programming performances are evaluated based on their execution time and efficiency. Results show that the one-dimensional elasticity equations are not appropriate to be solved in parallel with MPI_Send and MPI_Recv technique in the MPI standard, because the total amount of time to exchange data is considered more dominant compared with the total amount of time to conduct the basic elasticity computation.

  18. An intelligent control and virtual display system for evolutionary space station workstation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Xin; Niederjohn, Russell J.; Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Research and development of the Advanced Display and Computer Augmented Control System (ADCACS) for the space station Body-Ported Cupola Virtual Workstation (BP/VCWS) were pursued. The potential applications were explored of body ported virtual display and intelligent control technology for the human-system interfacing applications is space station environment. The new system is designed to enable crew members to control and monitor a variety of space operations with greater flexibility and efficiency than existing fixed consoles. The technologies being studied include helmet mounted virtual displays, voice and special command input devices, and microprocessor based intelligent controllers. Several research topics, such as human factors, decision support expert systems, and wide field of view, color displays are being addressed. The study showed the significant advantages of this uniquely integrated display and control system, and its feasibility for human-system interfacing applications in the space station command and control environment.

  19. Using a Cray Y-MP as an array processor for a RISC Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamaster, Hugh; Rogallo, Sarah J.

    1992-01-01

    As microprocessors increase in power, the economics of centralized computing has changed dramatically. At the beginning of the 1980's, mainframes and super computers were often considered to be cost-effective machines for scalar computing. Today, microprocessor-based RISC (reduced-instruction-set computer) systems have displaced many uses of mainframes and supercomputers. Supercomputers are still cost competitive when processing jobs that require both large memory size and high memory bandwidth. One such application is array processing. Certain numerical operations are appropriate to use in a Remote Procedure Call (RPC)-based environment. Matrix multiplication is an example of an operation that can have a sufficient number of arithmetic operations to amortize the cost of an RPC call. An experiment which demonstrates that matrix multiplication can be executed remotely on a large system to speed the execution over that experienced on a workstation is described.

  20. The robotized workstation "MASTER" for users with tetraplegia: description and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Busnel, M; Cammoun, R; Coulon-Lauture, F; Détriché, J M; Le Claire, G; Lesigne, B

    1999-07-01

    The rehabilitation robotics MASTER program was developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and evaluated by the APPROCHE Rehabilitation centers. The aim of this program is to increase the autonomy and quality of life of persons with tetraplegia in domestic and vocational environments. Taking advantage of its experience in nuclear robotics, the CEA has supported studies dealing with the use of such technical aids in the medical area since 1975 with the SPARTACUS project, followed by MASTER 10 years later, and its European extension in the framework of the TIDE/RAID program. The present system is composed of a fixed robotized workstation that includes a six-axis SCARA robot mounted on a rail to allow horizontal movement and is equipped with tools for various tasks. The Operator Interface (OI) has been carefully adapted to the most severe tetraplegia. Results are given following a 2-year evaluation in real-life situations.

  1. Iterative solution of general sparse linear systems on clusters of workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Gen-Ching; Saad, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Solving sparse irregularly structured linear systems on parallel platforms poses several challenges. First, sparsity makes it difficult to exploit data locality, whether in a distributed or shared memory environment. A second, perhaps more serious challenge, is to find efficient ways to precondition the system. Preconditioning techniques which have a large degree of parallelism, such as multicolor SSOR, often have a slower rate of convergence than their sequential counterparts. Finally, a number of other computational kernels such as inner products could ruin any gains gained from parallel speed-ups, and this is especially true on workstation clusters where start-up times may be high. In this paper we discuss these issues and report on our experience with PSPARSLIB, an on-going project for building a library of parallel iterative sparse matrix solvers.

  2. The NASA performance assessment workstation: Cognitive performance during head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehab, Randa L.; Schlegel, Robert E.; Schiflett, Samuel G.; Eddy, Douglas R.

    The NASA Performance Assessment Workstation was used to assess cognitive performance changes in eight males subjected to seventeen days of 6 ° head-down bed rest. PAWS uses six performance tasks to assess directed and divided attention, spatial, mathematical, and memory skills, and tracking ability. Subjective scales assess overall fatigue and mood state. Subjects completed training trials, practice trials, bed rest trials, and recovery trials. The last eight practice trials and all bed rest trials were performed with subjects lying face-down on a gurney. In general, there was no apparent cumulative effect of bed rest. Following a short period of performance stabilization, a slight but steady trend of performance improvement was observed across all trials. For most tasks, this trend of performance improvement was enhanced during recovery. No statistically significant differences in performance were observed when comparing bed rest with the control period. Additionally, fatigue scores showed little change across all periods.

  3. Seeing the forest for the trees: Networked workstations as a parallel processing computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breen, J. O.; Meleedy, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike traditional 'serial' processing computers in which one central processing unit performs one instruction at a time, parallel processing computers contain several processing units, thereby, performing several instructions at once. Many of today's fastest supercomputers achieve their speed by employing thousands of processing elements working in parallel. Few institutions can afford these state-of-the-art parallel processors, but many already have the makings of a modest parallel processing system. Workstations on existing high-speed networks can be harnessed as nodes in a parallel processing environment, bringing the benefits of parallel processing to many. While such a system can not rival the industry's latest machines, many common tasks can be accelerated greatly by spreading the processing burden and exploiting idle network resources. We study several aspects of this approach, from algorithms to select nodes to speed gains in specific tasks. With ever-increasing volumes of astronomical data, it becomes all the more necessary to utilize our computing resources fully.

  4. Developing a workstation-based, real-time simulation for rapid handling qualities evaluations during design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Frederick; Biezad, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Rapid Aircraft DynamIcs AssessmeNt (RADIAN) project - an integration of the Aircraft SYNThesis (ACSTNT) design code with the USAD DATCOM code that estimates stability derivatives. Both of these codes are available to universities. These programs are then linked to flight simulation and flight controller synthesis tools and resulting design is evaluated on a graphics workstation. The entire process reduces the preliminary design time by an order of magnitude and provides an initial handling qualities evaluation of the design coupled to a control law. The integrated design process is applicable to both conventional aircraft taken from current textbooks and to unconventional designs emphasizing agility and propulsive control of attitude. The interactive and concurrent nature of the design process has been well received by industry and by design engineers at NASA. The process is being implemented into the design curriculum and is being used by students who view it as a significant advance over prior methods.

  5. Automation of plasma protein binding assay using rapid equilibrium dialysis device and Tecan workstation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhengqi; Zetterberg, Craig; Gao, Hong

    2017-03-14

    Binding of drug molecules to plasma proteins is an important parameter in assessing drug ADME properties. Plasma protein binding (PPB) assays are routinely performed during drug discovery and development. A fully automated PPB assay was developed using rapid equilibrium dialysis (RED) device and Tecan workstation coupled to an automated incubator. The PPB assay was carried out in unsealed RED plates which allowed the assay to be fully automated. The plasma pH was maintained at 7.4 during the 6-h dialysis under 2% CO2 condition. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The percent bound results of 10 commercial drugs in plasma protein binding were very similar between the automated and manual assays, and were comparable to literature values. The automated assay increases laboratory productivity and is applicable to high-throughput screening of drug protein binding in drug discovery.

  6. Semmelweis revisited: hand hygiene and nosocomial disease transmission in the anesthesia workstation.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Chuck

    2009-06-01

    Hospital-acquired infections occur at an alarmingly high frequency, possibly affecting as many as 1 in 10 patients, resulting in a staggering morbidity and an annual mortality of many tens of thousands of patients. Appropriate hand hygiene is highly effective and represents the simplest approach that we have to preventing nosocomial infections. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has targeted hand-washing compliance as a top research agenda item for patient safety. Recent research has identified inadequate hand washing and contaminated anesthesia workstation issues as likely contributors to nosocomial infections, finding aseptic practices highly variable among providers. It is vital that all healthcare providers, including anesthesia providers, appreciate the role of inadequate hand hygiene in nosocomial infection and meticulously follow the mandates of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists and other professional healthcare organizations.

  7. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  8. Evaluation of the Elekta Symmetry ™ 4D IGRT system by using a moving lung phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hun-Joo; Kim, Shin-Wook; Kay, Chul Seung; Seo, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Gi-Woong; Kang, Ki-Mun; Jang, Hong Seok; Kang, Young-nam

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: 4D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a beneficial tool for the treatment of movable tumors because it can help us to understand where the tumors are actually located and it has a precise treatment plan. However, general CBCT images have a limitation in that they cannot perfectly perform a sophisticated registration. On the other hand, the Symmetry TM 4D image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system of Elekta offers a 4D CBCT registration option. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of Symmetry TM . Method and Materials: Planning CT images of the CIRS moving lung phantom were acquired 4D multi-detector CT (MDCT), and the images were sorted as 10 phases from 0% phase to 90% phase. The thickness of the CT images was 1 mm. Acquired MDCT images were transferred to the contouring software, and a virtual target was generated. A one-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan was performed by using the treatment planning system on the virtual target. Finally, the movement of the phantom was verified by using the XVI Symmetry TM system. Results: The physical movement of the CIRS moving lung phantom was ±10.0 mm in the superiorinferior direction, ±1.0 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.5 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. The movement of the phantom was measured from the 4D MDCT registration as ±10.2 mm in the superior-inferior direction, ±0.9 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.45 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. The movement of the phantom was measured from the SymmetryTM registration as ±10.1 mm in the superior-inferior direction, ±0.9 mm in the lateral direction, and ±2.4 mm in the anterior-posterior direction. Conclusion: We confirmed that 4D CBCT is a beneficial tool for the treatment of movable tumors, and that the 4D registration of SymmetryTM can increase the precision of the registration when a movable tumor is the target of radiation treatment.

  9. Erythrocyte C3d and C4d for Monitoring Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Amy H.; Navratil, Jeannine S.; Ruffing, Margie J.; Liu, Chau-Ching; Hawkins, Douglas; McKinnon, Kathleen M.; Danchenko, Natalya; Ahearn, Joseph M.; Manzi, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Objective Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is typically monitored by measuring serum C3 and C4. However, these proteins have limited utility as lupus biomarkers, because they are substrates rather than products of complement activation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of measuring the erythrocyte-bound complement activation products, erythrocyte-bound C3d (E-C3d) and E-C4d, compared with that of serum C3 and C4 for monitoring disease activity in patients with SLE. Methods The levels of E-C3d and E-C4d were measured by flow cytometry in 157 patients with SLE, 290 patients with other diseases, and 256 healthy individuals. The patients with SLE were followed up longitudinally. Disease activity was measured at each visit, using the validated Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment (SELENA) version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Results At baseline, patients with SLE had higher median levels of E-C3d and E-C4d (P < 0.0001) in addition to higher within-patient and between-patient variability in both E-C3d and E-C4d when compared with the 2 non-SLE groups. In a longitudinal analysis of patients with SLE, E-C3d, E-C4d, serum C3, and anti–double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies were each significantly associated with the SLAM and SELENA–SLEDAI. In a multivariable analysis, E-C4d remained significantly associated with these SLE activity measures after adjusting for serum C3, C4, and anti-dsDNA antibodies; however, E-C3d was associated with the SLAM but not with the SELENA–SLEDAI. Conclusion Determining the levels of the erythrocyte-bound complement activation products, especially E-C4d, is an informative measure of SLE disease activity as compared with assessing serum C4 levels and should be considered for monitoring disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:20187154

  10. VMAT QA: Measurement-guided 4D dose reconstruction on a patient

    SciTech Connect

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Opp, Daniel; Robinson, Joshua; Wolf, Theresa K.; Zhang, Geoffrey; Moros, Eduardo; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a volume-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) tool that takes as input a time-resolved, low-density ({approx}10 mm) cylindrical surface dose map from a commercial helical diode array, and outputs a high density, volumetric, time-resolved dose matrix on an arbitrary patient dataset. This first validation study is limited to a homogeneous 'patient.'Methods: A VMAT treatment is delivered to a diode array phantom (ARCCHECK, Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, FL). 3DVH software (Sun Nuclear) derives the high-density volumetric dose using measurement-guided dose reconstruction (MGDR). MGDR cylindrical phantom results are then used to perturb the three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning dose on the patient dataset, producing a semiempirical volumetric dose grid. Four-dimensional (4D) dose reconstruction on the patient is also possible by morphing individual sub-beam doses instead of the composite. For conventional (3D) dose comparison two methods were developed, using the four plans (Multi-Target, C-shape, Mock Prostate, and Head and Neck), including their structures and objectives, from the AAPM TG-119 report. First, 3DVH and treatment planning system (TPS) cumulative point doses were compared to ion chamber in a cube water-equivalent phantom ('patient'). The shape of the phantom is different from the ARCCHECK and furthermore the targets were placed asymmetrically. Second, coronal and sagittal absolute film dose distributions in the cube were compared with 3DVH and TPS. For time-resolved (4D) comparisons, three tests were performed. First, volumetric dose differences were calculated between the 3D MGDR and cumulative time-resolved patient (4D MGDR) dose at the end of delivery, where they ideally should be identical. Second, time-resolved (10 Hz sampling rate) ion chamber doses were compared to cumulative point dose vs time curves from 4D MGDR. Finally, accelerator output was varied to assess the linearity of the 4D MGDR with

  11. LG based decision aid for naval tactical action officer's (TAO) workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    In the increasingly NetCentric battlespace of the 21st century, Stilman Advanced Strategies Linguistic Geometry software has the potential to revolutionize the way that the Navy fights in two key areas: as a Tactical Decision Aid and for creating a relevant Common Operating Picture. Incorporating STILMAN's software into a prototype Tactical Action Officers (TAO) workstation as a Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) will allow warfighters to manage their assets more intelligently and effectively. This prototype workstation will be developed using human-centered design principles and will be an open, component-based architecture for combat control systems for future small surface combatants. It will integrate both uninhabited vehicles and onboard sensors and weapon systems across a squadron of small surface combatants. In addition, the hypergame representation of complex operations provides a paradigm for the presentation of a common operating picture to operators and personnel throughout the command hierarchy. In the hypergame technology there are game levels that span the range from the tactical to the global strategy level, with each level informing the others. This same principle will be applied to presenting the relevant common operating picture to operators. Each operator will receive a common operating picture that is appropriate for their level in the command hierarchy. The area covered by this operating picture and the level of detail contained within it will be dependent upon the specific tasks the operator is performing (supervisory vice tactical control) and the level of the operator (or command personnel) within the command hierarchy. Each level will inform the others to keep the picture concurrent and up-to-date.

  12. Formation of 2,4-D bound residues in soils: New insights into microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Botero, Liliana Rocío; Mougin, Chistian; Peñuela, Gustavo; Barriuso, Enrique

    2017-04-15

    The microbial contribution to the formation of bound residues in soils is studied by characterizing the metabolic activity of three microorganisms (Trametes versicolor, Fusarium solani and Ralstonia eutropha) on (14)C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) during incubation in synthetic liquid media and soil. A fractionation protocol was applied to quantify the (14)C-2,4-D that was incorporated into the biomass among biomolecular-like fractions. Successive fractionation of microbial biomass was implemented to break up and quantify the methanol/dichloromethane fraction (corresponding to the (14)C-lipid-like fraction), the trichloroacetic acid fraction (or hydrolysed (14)C-polysaccharide-like fraction) and the acid hydrolysable fraction (or the hydrolysed (14)C-protein-like fraction). Relevant differences in the 2,4-D degradation and biomass radioactivity distribution among the three microorganisms were found. The (14)C-protein-like fraction was the most consistent biomass fraction for reflecting the pesticide use capacity of the microorganisms under liquid and soil conditions. 2,4-D and its metabolite 4-chlorophenol were detected in methanol/dichloromethane and trichloroacetic acid fractions of the biomass of microorganisms exhibiting a low capacity to mineralize 2,4-D, thus proving that the microbial participation in the formation of bound residues while conserving the initial pesticide structure under natural soil conditions may be intimately associated with the lipid- and polysaccharide-like constituents. The fractionation protocol differentiates between (14)C that is incorporated into biomass as a biomolecular constituent and the pesticide or its metabolites that accumulate in the biomass and thus correspond to the stricto sensu definition of bound residues.

  13. Phosphodiesterase 4D polymorphisms associate with the short-term outcome in ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan-li; Wang, Chun-juan; Wu, Yi-ping; Lin, Jie; Wang, Peng-lian; Du, Wan-liang; Liu, Li; Lin, Jin-xi; Wang, Yi-long; Wang, Yong-jun; Liu, Gai-fen

    2017-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) genetic polymorphism is associated with ischemic stroke. However, the association between PDE4D gene and prognosis after ischemic stroke remains unknown. We consecutively enrolled ischemic stroke patients admitted to Beijing Tiantan Hospital from October 2009 to December 2013. Clinical, laboratory and imaging data upon admission were collected. All patients were followed up 3 months after stroke onset. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the associations of genetic polymorphisms with 3-month outcome after ischemic stroke and different subtypes, under various genetic models. A total of 1447 patients were enrolled, and 3-month follow-up data were obtained from 1388 (95.92%). Multivariate regression analysis showed that SNP87 of PDE4D gene was associated with increased risk of unfavorable outcome after total ischemic stroke (OR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.12–1.93), as well as stroke due to large-artery atherosclerosis (OR = 1.49, 95%CI 1.04–2.11) and small-artery occlusion (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.05–2.96) under a recessive model. No association between SNP83 genotype and poor outcome was found. Overall, this study demonstrated that the TT genotype of SNP87 in PDE4D was associated with increased risk of poor outcome after total ischemic stroke, large-artery atherosclerosis and small-artery occlusion, in a Chinese population. PMID:28225001

  14. Constructing 4D infant cortical surface atlases based on dynamic developmental trajectories of the cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Cortical surface atlases play an increasingly important role for analysis, visualization, and comparison of results across different neuroimaging studies. As the first two years of life is the most dynamic period of postnatal structural and functional development of the highly-folded cerebral cortex, longitudinal (4D) cortical surface atlases for the infant brains during this period is highly desired yet still lacking for early brain development studies. In this paper, we construct the first longitudinal (4D) cortical surface atlases for the dynamic developing infant cortical structures at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age, based on 202 serial MRI scans from 35 healthy infants. To ensure longitudinal consistency and unbiasedness of the 4D infant cortical surface atlases, we first compute the within-subject mean cortical folding geometries by groupwise registration of longitudinal surfaces of each infant. Then we establish intersubject cortical correspondences by groupwise registration of the within-subject mean cortical folding geometries of all infants. More importantly, for the first time, we further parcellate the 4D infant surface atlases into developmentally and functionally distinctive regions based solely on the dynamic developmental trajectories of the cortical thickness, by using the spectral clustering method. Specifically, to deal with the problem that each infant has different number of scans, we first compute the within-subject affinity matrix of vertices' cortical thickness trajectories of each infant, and then we use the averaged affinity matrix of all infants for parcellation. Our constructed 4D infant cortical surface atlases with developmental trajectories based parcellation will greatly facilitate the surface-based analysis of dynamic brain development in infants.

  15. Radiolucent 4D Ultrasound Imaging: System Design and Application to Radiotherapy Guidance.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Hristov, Dimitre

    2016-04-27

    Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound (US) is an attractive modality for image guidance due to its real-time, non-ionizing, volumetric imaging capability with high soft tissue contrast. However, existing 4D US imaging systems contain large volumes of metal which interfere with diagnostic and therapeutic ionizing radiation in procedures such as CT imaging and radiation therapy. This study aimed to design and characterize a novel 4D Radiolucent Remotely-Actuated UltraSound Scanning (RRUSS) device that overcomes this limitation. In a phantom, we evaluated the imaging performance of the RRUSS device including frame rate, resolution, spatial integrity, and motion tracking accuracy. To evaluate compatibility with radiation therapy workflow, we evaluated device-induced CT imaging artifacts, US tracking performance during beam delivery, and device compatibility with commercial radiotherapy planning software. The RRUSS device produced 4D volumes at 0.1-3.0 Hz with 60⁰ lateral field of view (FOV), 50⁰ maximum elevational FOV, and 200 mm maximum depth. Imaging resolution (-3 dB point spread width) was 1.2-7.9 mm at depths up to 100 mm and motion tracking accuracy was ≤0.3±0.5 mm. No significant effect of the RRUSS device on CT image integrity was found, and RRUSS device performance was not affected by radiotherapy beam exposure. Agreement within ±3.0% / 2.0 mm was achieved between computed and measured radiotherapy dose delivered directly through the RRUSS device at 6 MV and 15 MV. In-vivo liver, kidney, and prostate images were successfully acquired. Our investigations suggest that a RRUSS device can offer non-interfering 4D guidance for radiation therapy and other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  16. Radiolucent 4D Ultrasound Imaging: System Design and Application to Radiotherapy Guidance.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Hristov, Dimitre

    2016-10-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound (US) is an attractive modality for image guidance due to its real-time, non-ionizing, volumetric imaging capability with high soft tissue contrast. However, existing 4D US imaging systems contain large volumes of metal which interfere with diagnostic and therapeutic ionizing radiation in procedures such as CT imaging and radiation therapy. This study aimed to design and characterize a novel 4D Radiolucent Remotely-Actuated UltraSound Scanning (RRUSS) device that overcomes this limitation. In a phantom, we evaluated the imaging performance of the RRUSS device including frame rate, resolution, spatial integrity, and motion tracking accuracy. To evaluate compatibility with radiation therapy workflow, we evaluated device-induced CT imaging artifacts, US tracking performance during beam delivery, and device compatibility with commercial radiotherapy planning software. The RRUSS device produced 4D volumes at 0.1-3.0 Hz with 60° lateral f