Science.gov

Sample records for 4f core level

  1. Linear Dichroism in Angle-Resolved Core-Level Photoemission Spectra Reflecting 4f Ground-State Symmetry of Strongly Correlated Cubic Pr Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Satoru; Fujioka, Shuhei; Kanai, Yuina; Yamagami, Kohei; Nakatani, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Koya; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Kiss, Takayuki; Higashiya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Kadono, Toshiharu; Imada, Shin; Tanaka, Arata; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Keisuke T.; Onimaru, Takahiro; Takabatake, Toshiro; Sekiyama, Akira

    2017-12-01

    We report experimentally observed linear dichroism in angle-resolved core-level photoemission spectra of PrIr2Zn20 and PrB6 with cubic symmetry. The different anisotropic 4f charge distributions between the compounds due to the crystalline-electric-field splitting are responsible for the difference in the linear dichroism, which has been verified by spectral simulations with the full multiplet theory for a single-site Pr3+ ion with cubic symmetry. The observed linear dichroism and polarization-dependent spectra in two different photoelectron directions for PrIr2Zn20 are reproduced by theoretical analysis for the Γ3 ground state, whereas those of the Pr 3d and 4d core levels indicate the Γ5 ground state for PrB6.

  2. Transitions between the 4 f -core-excited states in Ir16 +,Ir17 +, and Ir18 + ions for clock applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Flambaum, V. V.; Safronova, M. S.

    2015-08-01

    Iridium ions near 4 f -5 s level crossings are the leading candidates for a new type of atomic clocks with a high projected accuracy and a very high sensitivity to the temporal variation of the fine structure constant α . To identify spectra of these ions in experiment accurate calculations of the spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities should be performed. Properties of the 4 f -core-excited states in Ir16 +,Ir17 +, and Ir18 + ions are evaluated using relativistic many-body perturbation theory and Hartree-Fock-relativistic method (COWAN code). We evaluate excitation energies, wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates. Our large-scale calculations included the following set of configurations: 4 f145 s ,4 f145 p ,4 f135 s2,4 f135 p2,4 f135 s 5 p ,4 f125 s25 p , and 4 f125 s 5 p2 in Pm-like Ir16 +; 4 f14,4 f135 s ,4 f135 p ,4 f125 s2,4 f125 s 5 p , and 4 f125 p2 in Nd-like Ir17 +; and 4 f13,4 f125 s ,4 f125 p ,4 f115 s2 , and 4 f115 s 5 p in Pr-like Ir18 +. The 5 s -5 p transitions are illustrated by the synthetic spectra in the 180-200 Å range. Large contributions of magnetic-dipole transitions to lifetimes of low-lying states in the region below 2.5 Ry are demonstrated.

  3. Transitions between the 4 f -core-excited states in Ir16+, Ir17+, and Ir18+ ions for clock applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Flambaum, V. V.; Safronova, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    Iridium ions near 4 f - 5 s level crossings are the leading candidates for a new type of atomic clocks with a high projected accuracy and a very high sensitivity to the temporal variation of the fine structure constant α. To identify spectra of these ions in experiment accurate calculations of the spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities should be performed. Properties of the 4 f -core-excited states in Ir16+, Ir17+, and Ir18+ ions are evaluated using relativistic many-body perturbation theory and Hartree-Fock-Relativistic method (COWAN code). We evaluate excitation energies, wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates. Our large-scale calculations included the following set of configurations: 4f14 5 s , 4f14 5 p , 4f13 5s2 , 4f13 5p2 , 4f13 5 s 5 p , 4f12 5s2 5 p , and 4f12 5 s 5p2 in Pm-like Ir16+ ; 4f14 , 4f13 5 s , 4f13 5 p , 4f12 5s2 , 4f12 5 s 5 p , and 4f12 5p2 in Nd-like Ir17+; and 4f13 , 4f12 5 s , 4f12 5 p , 4f11 5s2 , and 4f11 5 s 5 p in Pr-like Ir18+. The 5 s - 5 p transitions are illustrated by the synthetic spectra in the 180 - 200 Å range. Large contributions of magnetic-dipole transitions to lifetimes of low-lying states in the region 2.5 Ry.

  4. Improved RCI techniques for atomic 4f{\\hspace*{1.5pt}}^n excitation energies: application to Sm I 4f{\\hspace*{2pt}}^66s2 5DJ levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Donald R.; O'Malley, Steven M.

    2010-11-01

    We complete the development of a relativistic energy-dependent efficient method by which important pair-correlation effects associated with open subshells can be incorporated into the relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) methodology. We apply this to predict the positions of the 4f{\\hspace*{1pt}}^66s2 5DJ levels of Sm I. Relative to 5D1, we predict 5D0 lies at -1613 cm-1 and 5D4 at 6589 cm-1. For 5D2 and 5D3, we are 22 cm-1 and 123 cm-1 below the observed difference, respectively. We also calculate magnetic dipole transition rates among these levels and the ground-state 7FJ levels, which may be of interest to future parity nonconservation studies.

  5. Hyperfine structure of excited 4f/sup 11/5d6s/sup 2/ levels in /sup 167/ErI: Measurements and multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, W.J.; Goodman, L.S.; Cheng, K.T.

    1986-03-01

    The laser-RF double-resonance technique has been used to make precise measurements of the hyperfine structure (hfs) of 10 excited 4f/sup 11/5d6s/sup 2/ levels in /sup 167/Er. The results are compared with multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations using the known nuclear moment values. For the dipole hfs, agreement with experiment is reasonably good. For the quadrupole hfs, agreement is relatively good if allowance is made for different shielding in the 4f and 5d shells. The theory is less successful where the 4f and 5d contributions tend to cancel. Sternheimer factors R/sub n/l are obtained. Precise hfs studies are also made for one highlymore » excited 4f/sup 12/6s6p level. Less precise results are given for hfs of more highly excited levels and for isotope shifts of a number of optical lines.« less

  6. Core level excitation of simple gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, A.; Morar, J. F.; Park, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The ionization of simple gases by electron bombardment exhibits distinct resonances at electron energies slightly below the core level binding energies of the atomic constituents of the gas. A vacancy in an inner shell of the atom may recombine by a radiationless Auger process, thus leaving the molecule in a singly or higher ionized state. These ions are easily collected and the threshold resonances for excitation are evident in the second derivative of the ion yield plotted as a function of the energy of the electron beam. By using a mixture of gases, such as CO and CO2, it is possible to measure relative chemical shifts of the C and O 1s thresholds. In this case the C 1s threshold is 3.9 eV lower in CO than in CO2, and the O 1s threshold is 2.7 eV lower in CO than in CO2. The feasibility of constructing a simple analyzer based on this technique will be discussed to supplement conventional mass spectrometer analysis of gas composition.

  7. Laser techniques for spectroscopy of core-excited atomic levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.; Falcone, R. W.; Rothenberg, J. E.; Willison, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss three techniques which allow the use of tunable lasers for high resolution and picosecond time scale spectroscopy of core-excited atomic levels. These are: anti-Stokes absorption spectroscopy, laser induced emission from metastable levels, and laser designation of selected core-excited levels.

  8. Idaho Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Career Sustaining Level, Specialist Level, Supervisory Level, Entrepreneurial Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda Wise; Winn, Richard

    This document contains Idaho's marketing education (ME) core curriculum. Presented first are a list of 22 ME strategies that are aligned with the Idaho State Division of Vocational-Technical Education's strategic plan and a chart detailing the career pathways of ME in Idaho (arts and communication, business and management, health services, human…

  9. The 4f states of He2: A new spectrum of He2 in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzberg, G.; Jungen, Ch.

    1986-02-01

    A new spectrum of the He2 molecule has been discovered in the region 5100-5900 cm-1. It is identified as the 4f-3d Rydberg transition of He2 with a weak contribution of 4d-3p in the same region. The uncoupling of l from the internuclear axis in both the triplet and the singlet system is almost complete in the 4f complex; the appropriate quantum number is N+ corresponding to the rotational angular momentum of the He+2 core. The electronic fine structure in each N+ level depends on the dipole polarizability α of the core and its anisotropy as well as on the quadrupole moment Q2 and higher moments Q4,... of the core. Conversely, from the observed structure some of the quantities characterizing the core have been determined, e.g., α=1/3(2α⊥+α∥) =2.82 ±0.02, Q2=1.39±0.13, Q4=0.99±0.14, all in atomic units. The detailed rotational analysis of the spectrum shows that widespread perturbations occur in the triplet 4f levels, the largest affecting the N=6,N+=3 and N=9,N+=7 levels which are shifted towards higher energies by 1 and 2 cm-1, respectively. The perturbations are clearly caused by Δl=2 interaction with corresponding levels of 4pπ for which Orth and Ginter have found the opposite perturbations. There are no similar perturbations in the corresponding singlet levels.

  10. Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 levels in ETS emissions of a Marlboro Red cigarette in comparison to the 3R4F reference cigarette under open- and closed-door condition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Potential health damage by environmental emission of tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS) has been demonstrated convincingly in numerous studies. People, especially children, are still exposed to ETS in the small space of private cars. Although major amounts of toxic compounds from ETS are likely transported into the distal lung via particulate matter (PM), few studies have quantified the amount of PM in ETS. Study aim The aim of this study was to determine the ETS-dependent concentration of PM from both a 3R4F reference cigarette (RC) as well as a Marlboro Red brand cigarette (MRC) in a small enclosed space under different conditions of ventilation to model car exposure. Method In order to create ETS reproducibly, an emitter (ETSE) was constructed and mounted on to an outdoor telephone booth with an inner volume of 1.75 m3. Cigarettes were smoked under open- and closed-door condition to imitate different ventilation scenarios. PM2.5 concentration was quantified by a laser aerosol spectrometer (Grimm; Model 1.109), and data were adjusted for baseline values. Simultaneously indoor and outdoor climate parameters were recorded. The time of smoking was divided into the ETS generation phase (subset “emission”) and a declining phase of PM concentration (subset “elimination”); measurement was terminated after 10 min. For all three time periods the average concentration of PM2.5 (Cmean-PM2.5) and the area under the PM2.5 concentration curve (AUC-PM2.5) was calculated. The maximum concentration (Cmax-PM2.5) was taken from the total interval. Results For both cigarette types open-door ventilation reduced the AUC-PM2.5 (RC: from 59 400 ± 14 600 to 5 550 ± 3 900 μg*sec/m3; MRC: from 86 500 ± 32 000 to 7 300 ± 2 400 μg*sec/m3; p < 0.001) and Cmean-PM2.5 (RC: from 600 ± 150 to 56 ± 40 μg/m3, MRC from 870 ± 320 to 75 ± 25 μg/m3; p < 0.001) by about 90%. Cmax-PM2.5 was reduced by about 80% (RC

  11. Greenland ice cores tell tales on past sea level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2017-12-01

    All the deep ice cores drilled to the base of the Greenland ice sheet contain ice from the previous warm climate period, the Eemian 130-115 thousand years before present. This demonstrates the resilience of the Greenland ice sheet to a warming of 5 oC. Studies of basal material further reveal the presence of boreal forest over Greenland before ice covered Greenland. Conditions for Boreal forest implies temperatures at this time has been more than 10 oC warmer than the present. To compare the paleo-behavior of the Greenland ice sheet to the present in relation to sea level rise knowledge gabs include the reaction of ice streams to climate changes. To address this the international EGRIP-project is drilling an ice core in the center of the North East Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). The first results will be presented.

  12. Gamma thermometer based reactor core liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    A system is provided which employs a modified gamma thermometer for determining the liquid coolant level within a nuclear reactor core. The gamma thermometer which normally is employed to monitor local core heat generation rate (reactor power), is modified by thermocouple junctions and leads to obtain an unambiguous indication of the presence or absence of coolant liquid at the gamma thermometer location. A signal processor generates a signal based on the thermometer surface heat transfer coefficient by comparing the signals from the thermocouples at the thermometer location. The generated signal is a direct indication of loss of coolant due to the change in surface heat transfer when coolant liquid drops below the thermometer location. The loss of coolant indication is independent of reactor power at the thermometer location. Further, the same thermometer may still be used for the normal power monitoring function.

  13. Pre-industrial ethane levels inferred from polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Nicewonger, M. R.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Ethane is an abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere and it is a precursor to tropospheric ozone formation. Ethane also impacts the atmosphere's oxidative capacity through its reaction with OH, the primary loss pathway. Today, the primary sources of atmospheric ethane are from anthropogenic fossil fuel use, mainly from evaporative emissions associated with the production, processing and transmission of fossil fuels. Ethane also has significant emissions from biomass burning and biofuel use, and minor emissions from oceanic, biogenic, and possibly geologic sources. The mean annual atmospheric lifetime of ethane is about 2 months. Reconstructions from polar firn air and surface flask data show a significant rise in the global levels of atmospheric ethane during the twentieth century, followed by a peak and a decline from 1980-2010. However, to date, no ice core measurements of paleo-atmospheric ethane have been reported. A pre-industrial ethane record would provide information about the magnitude and natural variability of ethane from biomass-burning and geologic emissions and would contribute to our understanding of the variability in atmospheric methane over long timescales. In this study, we discuss analytical methods for the extraction of ethane from polar ice cores. Ethane measurements were made in shallow, dry-drilled ice cores from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide and the South Pole, and in Greenland ice cores from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project. Samples were analyzed by both dry and wet extraction procedures, with analysis by high-resolution mass spectrometry with isotope dilution. The results from both methods will be compared. Preliminary estimates of pre-industrial ethane levels will be discussed, as well as the feasibility of reconstructing long-term records of atmospheric ethane.

  14. Renal localization, expression, and developmental regulation of P450 4F cytochromes in three substrains of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kalsotra, Auinash; Cui, Xiaoming; Anakk, Sayeepriyadarshini; Hinojos, Cruz A; Doris, Peter A; Strobel, Henry W

    2005-12-09

    Cytochrome P450 4F isoforms have been shown to metabolize arachidonic acid to generate 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a potent eicosanoid that modulates vascular tone and renal tubular function. 20-HETE production in the kidney is implicated in the development of essential hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). In this study, we determined CYP4F mRNA localization and distribution in rat liver and kidney by in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. CYP4Fs are regionally distributed in the kidney with CYP4F1, 4F4, and 4F5 being expressed more in the renal cortex than medulla while CYP4F6 shows higher medullary expression. We investigated developmental CYP4F gene expression in three different substrains of SHR. Distinct age-dependent patterns of expression were seen for individual CYP4F isoforms in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and three SHR substrains (B2, C, and A3). A steady increase in CYP4F1 expression with age was seen in each of the three substrains which correlate well with increased 20-HETE levels and elevated blood pressure seen in these animals. CYP4F4 expression increased significantly at 8 weeks followed by a precipitous fall in WKY and A3 strains at 12 weeks of age. In strains B2 and C, CYP4F4 levels started declining as early as 8 weeks of age. CYP4F5 and 4F6 levels fluctuated with age in a biphasic manner with a different profile for each sub-strain. Based on the expression profile and catalytic activity, CYP4F1 seems to be the most critical 4F isoform involved in the production of 20-HETE in the SHR kidney.

  15. Assessing GW Approaches for Predicting Core Level Binding Energies.

    PubMed

    van Setten, Michiel J; Costa, Ramon; Viñes, Francesc; Illas, Francesc

    2018-02-13

    Here we present a systematic study on the performance of different GW approaches: G 0 W 0 , G 0 W 0 with linearized quasiparticle equation (lin-G 0 W 0 ), and quasiparticle self-consistent GW (qsGW), in predicting core level binding energies (CLBEs) on a series of representative molecules comparing to Kohn-Sham (KS) orbital energy-based results. KS orbital energies obtained using the PBE functional are 20-30 eV lower in energy than experimental values obtained from X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), showing that any Koopmans-like interpretation of KS core level orbitals fails dramatically. Results from qsGW lead to CLBEs that are closer to experimental values from XPS, yet too large. For the qsGW method, the mean absolute error is about 2 eV, an order of magnitude better than plain KS PBE orbital energies and quite close to predictions from ΔSCF calculations with the same functional, which are accurate within ∼1 eV. Smaller errors of ∼0.6 eV are found for qsGW CLBE shifts, again similar to those obtained using ΔSCF PBE. The computationally more affordable G 0 W 0 approximation leads to results less accurate than qsGW, with an error of ∼9 eV for CLBEs and ∼0.9 eV for their shifts. Interestingly, starting G 0 W 0 from PBE0 reduces this error to ∼4 eV with a slight improvement on the shifts as well (∼0.4 eV). The validity of the G 0 W 0 results is however questionable since only linearized quasiparticle equation results can be obtained. The present results pave the way to estimate CLBEs in periodic systems where ΔSCF calculations are not straightforward although further improvement is clearly needed.

  16. Lattice charge models and core level shifts in disordered alloys.

    PubMed

    Underwood, T L; Cole, R J

    2013-10-30

    Differences in core level binding energies between atoms belonging to the same chemical species can be related to differences in their intra- and extra-atomic charge distributions, and differences in how their core holes are screened. With this in mind, we consider the charge-excess functional model (CEFM) for net atomic charges in alloys (Bruno et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 166401). We begin by deriving the CEFM energy function in order to elucidate the approximations which underpin this model. We thereafter consider the particular case of the CEFM in which the strengths of the 'local interactions' within all atoms are the same. We show that for binary alloys the ground state charges of this model can be expressed in terms of charge transfer between all pairs of unlike atoms analogously to the linear charge model (Magri et al 1990 Phys. Rev. B 42 11388). Hence, the model considered is a generalization of the linear charge model for alloys containing more than two chemical species. We then determine the model's unknown 'geometric factors' over a wide range of parameter space. These quantities are linked to the nature of charge screening in the model, and we illustrate that the screening becomes increasingly universal as the strength of the local interactions is increased. We then use the model to derive analytical expressions for various physical quantities, including the Madelung energy and the disorder broadening in the core level binding energies. These expressions are applied to ternary random alloys, for which it is shown that the Madelung energy and magnitude of disorder broadening are maximized at the composition at which the two species with the largest 'electronegativity difference' are equal, while the remaining species have a vanishing concentration. This result is somewhat counterintuitive with regards to the disorder broadening since it does not correspond to the composition with the highest entropy. Finally, the model is applied to CuPd and Cu

  17. Preservation of biological function despite oxidative modification of the apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F

    PubMed Central

    White, C. Roger; Datta, Geeta; Buck, Amanda K. W.; Chaddha, Manjula; Reddy, Gautam; Wilson, Landon; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N.; Abbasi, Mohammad; Anantharamaiah, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived hypochlorous acid induces changes in HDL function via redox modifications at the level of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). As 4F and apoA-I share structural and functional properties, we tested the hypothesis that 4F acts as a reactive substrate for hypochlorous acid (HOCl). 4F reduced the HOCl-mediated oxidation of the fluorescent substrate APF in a concentration-dependent manner (ED50 ∼ 56 ± 3 μM). This reaction induced changes in the physical properties of 4F. Addition of HOCl to 4F at molar ratios ranging from 1:1 to 3:1 reduced 4F band intensity on SDS-PAGE gels and was accompanied by the formation of a higher molecular weight species. Chromatographic studies showed a reduction in 4F peak area with increasing HOCl and the formation of new products. Mass spectral analyses of collected fractions revealed oxidation of the sole tryptophan (Trp) residue in 4F. 4F was equally susceptible to oxidation in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states. To determine whether Trp oxidation influenced its apoA-I mimetic properties, we monitored effects of HOCl on 4F-mediated lipid binding and ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux. Neither property was altered by HOCl. These results suggest that 4F serves as a reactive substrate for HOCl, an antioxidant response that does not influence the lipid binding and cholesterol effluxing capacities of the peptide. PMID:22589558

  18. Visual Arts, Levels 7-12. Secondary Core Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This Utah state curriculum guide calls for one 7-8th grade course (0.5 unit) of visual arts education to fulfill the visual arts Component requirement of the core curriculum. Up to three visual arts courses may be taken at the 9-12th grades as fulfillment of the 1.5 core art units required. Core options include courses in ceramics, jewelry,…

  19. 77 FR 321 - Section 4(f) Policy Paper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...] Section 4(f) Policy Paper AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Request for comments. SUMMARY: This is a notice and request for comments on a draft Section 4(f) Policy Paper that will... at [email protected] . Business hours for the FHWA are from 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., e.t., Monday...

  20. Electron induced ionization of plasma processing gases: C4F x (x  =  1–8) and the isomers of C4F6 and C4F8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Choi, Heechol; Kwon, Deuk-Chul; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Song, Mi-Young

    2018-04-01

    The total ionization cross section (Q ion) for C4F x (x  =  1–8) fluorocarbons and the isomers of C4F6 and C4F8 molecules are calculated from ionization threshold to 5 keV using the binary-encounter bethe method. The targets are fully optimized using the Hartree–Fock (HF) method and density function theory (DFT) for their minimum energy structure and orbital parameters. The present Q ion with HF parameters showed good agreement with the experimental data for 1,3-C4F6, 2-C4F6, 2-C4F8 and 1-C4F8. On the other hand, the Q ion with DFT parameters are in good accordance with the recent theoretical results for 1,3-C4F6 and 2-C4F6. The Q ion for c-C4F8 showed much variation among the various results. The isomer effect in Q ion is negligible for the isomers of C4F6 and C4F8 molecules. The calculation of Q ion for C4F, C4F2, C4F3, C4F4, C4F5, c-C4F6, C4F7 and iso-C4F8 is a maiden attempt. The present cross section data are important quantities for low temperature plasma modeling especially related to the fluorocarbon plasmas.

  1. The coordination chemistry and magnetism of some 3d-4f and 4f amino-polyalcohol compounds.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Joseph W; Collison, David

    2014-02-01

    Triethanolamine, teaH 3 , and diethanolamine, RdeaH 2 , 3d-4f and 4f compounds demonstrate an enormous variety in their structure and bonding. This review examines the synthetic strategies to these molecules and their magnetic properties, whilst trying to assess these ligands' suitability towards new SMMs and magnetic refrigerants.

  2. Science, Levels 7-12. Secondary Core Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document presents the core science curriculum standards which must be completed by all students as a requisite for graduation from Utah's secondary schools. Contained within are the elementary and secondary school program of studies and high school graduation requirements. Each course entry for grades 7-12 contains: course title, unit of…

  3. Energy level properties of 4p{sup 6}4d{sup 3}, 4p{sup 6}4d{sup 2}4f, and 4p{sup 5}4d{sup 4} configurations of the W{sup 35+} ion

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanovich, P., E-mail: Pavelas.Bogdanovicius@tfai.vu.lt; Kisielius, R.

    2014-11-15

    The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree–Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectroscopic parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions was used to derive spectral data for the multicharged tungsten ion W{sup 35+}. The configuration interaction method was applied to include the electron-correlation effects. The relativistic effects were taken into account in the Breit–Pauli approximation for quasirelativistic Hartree–Fock radial orbitals. The energy level spectra, radiative lifetimes τ, and Lande g-factors have been calculated for the 4p{sup 6}4d{sup 3}, 4p{sup 6}4d{sup 2}4f, and 4p{sup 5}4d{sup 4} configurations of the W{sup 35+} ion.

  4. Case study of 4(f) litigation/rulings.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-06-01

    This study addresses issues related to compliance with Section 4(f). By referring to the manual Cabinet employees will be to: 1) Conduct an assessment of proposed alternatives to evaluate prudence and feasibility of a proposed project alternative; 2)...

  5. Manifestation of intra-atomic 5d6s-4f exchange coupling in photoexcited gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. P.; Jenkins, T.; Bennett, M.; Bai, Y. H.

    2017-12-01

    Intra-atomic exchange couplings (IECs) between 5d6s and 4f electrons are ubiquitous in rare-earth metals and play a critical role in spin dynamics. However, detecting them in real time domain has been difficult. Here we show the direct evidence of IEC between 5d6s and 4f electrons in gadolinium. Upon femtosecond laser excitation, 5d6s electrons are directly excited; their majority bands shift toward the Fermi level while their minority bands do the opposite. For the first time, our first-principles minority shift now agrees with the experiment quantitatively. Excited 5d6s electrons lower the exchange potential barrier for 4f electrons, so the 4f states are also shifted in energy, a prediction that can be tested experimentally. Although a significant number of 5d6s electrons, some several eV below the Fermi level, are excited out of the Fermi sea, there is no change in the 4f states, a clear manifestation of intra-atomic exchange coupling.

  6. Alkaline Earth Core Level Photoemission Spectroscopy of High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines photoemission measurements of the alkaline Earth core levels of high-temperature superconductors and related materials, models that seek to explain the large negative shifts observed relative to the corresponding alkaline Earth metals, and the effect of lattice site disorder on the core level spectra and the presence or absence of intrinsic surface peaks.

  7. Role of 4 f electrons in crystallographic and magnetic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Paudyal, Durga; Mudryk, Yaroslav; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2017-08-01

    The functionality of many magnetic materials critically depends on first manipulating and then taking advantage of highly nonlinear changes of properties that occur during phase transformations. Unique to lanthanides, property-defining 4 f electrons are highly localized and, as commonly accepted, play little to no role in chemical bonding. Yet here we demonstrate that the competition between 4 f -electron energy landscapes of Dy (4 f9 ) and Er (4 f11 ) is the key element of the puzzle required to explain complex interplay of magnetic and structural features observed in E r1 -xD yxC o2 , and likely many other mixed lanthanide systems. Unlike the parent binaries—DyC o2 and ErC o2 —E r1 -xD yxC o2 exhibits two successive magnetostructural transitions: a first order at TC, followed by a second order in the ferrimagnetically ordered state. Supported by first-principles calculations, our results offer new opportunities for targeted design of magnetic materials with multiple functionalities, and also provide a critical insight into the role of 4 f electrons in controlling the magnetism and structure of lanthanide intermetallics.

  8. Role of 4 f electrons in crystallographic and magnetic complexity

    DOE PAGES

    Pathak, Arjun K.; Paudyal, Durga; Mudryk, Yaroslav; ...

    2017-08-09

    Here, the functionality of many magnetic materials critically depends on first manipulating and then taking advantage of highly nonlinear changes of properties that occur during phase transformations. Unique to lanthanides, property-defining 4f electrons are highly localized and, as commonly accepted, play little to no role in chemical bonding. Yet here we demonstrate that the competition between 4f-electron energy landscapes of Dy (4f 9) and Er (4f 11) is the key element of the puzzle required to explain complex interplay of magnetic and structural features observed in Er 1–xDy xCo 2, and likely many other mixed lanthanide systems. Unlike the parentmore » binaries—DyCo 2 and ErCo 2—Er 1–xDy xCo 2 exhibits two successive magnetostructural transitions: a first order at TC, followed by a second order in the ferrimagnetically ordered state. Supported by first-principles calculations, our results offer new opportunities for targeted design of magnetic materials with multiple functionalities, and also provide a critical insight into the role of 4f electrons in controlling the magnetism and structure of lanthanide intermetallics.« less

  9. S2p core level spectroscopy of short chain oligothiophenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baseggio, O.; Toffoli, D.; Stener, M.; Fronzoni, G.; de Simone, M.; Grazioli, C.; Coreno, M.; Guarnaccio, A.; Santagata, A.; D'Auria, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Near-Edge X-ray-Absorption Fine-Structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) of short-chain oligothiophenes (thiophene, 2,2'-bithiophene, and 2,2':5',2″-terthiophene) in the gas phase have been measured in the sulfur L2,3-edge region. The assignment of the spectral features is based on the relativistic two-component zeroth-order regular approximation time dependent density functional theory approach. The calculations allow us to estimate both the contribution of the spin-orbit splitting and of the molecular-field splitting to the sulfur binding energies and give results in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The deconvolution of the calculated S2p NEXAFS spectra into the two manifolds of excited states converging to the LIII and LII edges facilitates the attribution of the spectral structures. The main S2p NEXAFS features are preserved along the series both as concerns the energy positions and the nature of the transitions. This behaviour suggests that the electronic and geometrical environment of the sulfur atom in the three oligomers is relatively unaffected by the increasing chain length. This trend is also observed in the XPS spectra. The relatively simple structure of S2p NEXAFS spectra along the series reflects the localized nature of the virtual states involved in the core excitation process.

  10. S2p core level spectroscopy of short chain oligothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Baseggio, O; Toffoli, D; Stener, M; Fronzoni, G; de Simone, M; Grazioli, C; Coreno, M; Guarnaccio, A; Santagata, A; D'Auria, M

    2017-12-28

    The Near-Edge X-ray-Absorption Fine-Structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) of short-chain oligothiophenes (thiophene, 2,2'-bithiophene, and 2,2':5',2″-terthiophene) in the gas phase have been measured in the sulfur L 2,3 -edge region. The assignment of the spectral features is based on the relativistic two-component zeroth-order regular approximation time dependent density functional theory approach. The calculations allow us to estimate both the contribution of the spin-orbit splitting and of the molecular-field splitting to the sulfur binding energies and give results in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The deconvolution of the calculated S2p NEXAFS spectra into the two manifolds of excited states converging to the L III and L II edges facilitates the attribution of the spectral structures. The main S2p NEXAFS features are preserved along the series both as concerns the energy positions and the nature of the transitions. This behaviour suggests that the electronic and geometrical environment of the sulfur atom in the three oligomers is relatively unaffected by the increasing chain length. This trend is also observed in the XPS spectra. The relatively simple structure of S2p NEXAFS spectra along the series reflects the localized nature of the virtual states involved in the core excitation process.

  11. Surface enhanced single-molecule magnetism involving 4f spin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yachao, E-mail: yachao.zhang@pku.edu.cn

    2016-03-28

    We study the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of the isolated and deposited Eu(C{sub 8}H{sub 8}){sub 2} by first-principles calculations considering the van der Waals correction and the strong correlation effects. We find that both the molecular spin moment and the easy-axis magnetic anisotropy are enhanced upon deposition on Cu(111). We propose a mechanism in terms of the weakened spin polarization of the π-2p orbitals and the induced anisotropic occupations of the 4f orbitals. Our findings pave the way for raising the MAE of 4f-element single-molecule magnets by tailoring the molecule–surface contacts.

  12. Asymmetric encryption method in 4f system based on interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Sixing; Wang, Xiaolei; Song, Lipei; Huang, Shuai; Chang, Shengjiang; Lin, Lie

    2015-01-01

    An asymmetric encryption method in 4f system based on interference is proposed in this paper. The original image is transformed into two white stationary noise images, and the decryption keys are designed to be different from the encryption keys to realize asymmetric encryption. The decryption process is implemented in a 4f system of image addition with grating. This method has very high security as the asymmetric cryptosystem encryption system but also can be easy implemented in optical system. Besides, holographic plate or photorefractive crystal is not necessary in the encryption process. The simulation results prove the feasibility and security of this method.

  13. Rare-Earth Fourth-Order Multipole Moment in Cubic ErCo2 Probed by Linear Dichroism in Core-Level Photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abozeed, Amina A.; Kadono, Toshiharu; Sekiyama, Akira; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Higashiya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Kanai, Yuina; Yamagami, Kohei; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Andreev, Alexander V.; Wada, Hirofumi; Imada, Shin

    2018-03-01

    We developed a method to experimentally quantify the fourth-order multipole moment of the rare-earth 4f orbital. Linear dichroism (LD) in the Er 3d5/2 core-level photoemission spectra of cubic ErCo2 was measured using bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Theoretical calculation reproduced the observed LD, and the result showed that the observed result does not contradict the suggested Γ 83 ground state. Theoretical calculation further showed a linear relationship between the LD size and the size of the fourth-order multipole moment of the Er3+ ion, which is proportional to the expectation value < O40 + 5O44> , where Onm are the Stevens operators. These analyses indicate that the LD in 3d photoemission spectra can be used to quantify the average fourth-order multipole moment of rare-earth atoms in a cubic crystal electric field.

  14. Nuclear reactor with low-level core coolant intake

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    A natural-circulation boiling-water reactor has skirts extending downward from control rod guide tubes to about 10 centimeters from the reactor vessel bottom. The skirts define annular channels about control rod drive housings that extend through the reactor vessel bottom. Recirculating water is forced in through the low-level entrances to these channels, sweeping bottom water into the channels in the process. The sweeping action prevents cooler water from accumulating at the bottom. This in turn minimizes thermal shock to bottom-dwelling components as would occur when accumulated cool water is swept away and suddenly replaced by warmer water.

  15. Revisiting the valence-band and core-level photoemission spectra of NiO.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, M; Matsunami, M; Ishida, Y; Eguchi, R; Chainani, A; Takata, Y; Yabashi, M; Tamasaku, K; Nishino, Y; Ishikawa, T; Senba, Y; Ohashi, H; Shin, S

    2008-05-23

    We have reexamined the valence-band (VB) and core-level electronic structure of NiO by means of hard and soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopies. The spectral weight of the lowest energy state was found to be enhanced in the bulk sensitive Ni 2p core-level spectrum. A configuration-interaction model including a bound state screening has shown agreement with the core-level spectrum and off- and on-resonance VB spectra. These results identify the lowest energy states in the core-level and VB spectra as the Zhang-Rice (ZR) doublet bound states, consistent with the spin-fermion model and recent ab initio calculations within dynamical mean-field theory. The results indicate that the ZR character first ionization (the lowest hole-addition) states are responsible for transport properties in NiO and doped NiO.

  16. Two transcription factors, Pou4f2 and Isl1, are sufficient to specify the retinal ganglion cell fate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuguo; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J; Sethuramanujam, Santhosh; Li, Renzhong; Jain, Varsha; Slaughter, Malcolm; Mu, Xiuqian

    2015-03-31

    As with other retinal cell types, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) arise from multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), and their formation is regulated by a hierarchical gene-regulatory network (GRN). Within this GRN, three transcription factors--atonal homolog 7 (Atoh7), POU domain, class 4, transcription factor 2 (Pou4f2), and insulin gene enhancer protein 1 (Isl1)--occupy key node positions at two different stages of RGC development. Atoh7 is upstream and is required for RPCs to gain competence for an RGC fate, whereas Pou4f2 and Isl1 are downstream and regulate RGC differentiation. However, the genetic and molecular basis for the specification of the RGC fate, a key step in RGC development, remains unclear. Here we report that ectopic expression of Pou4f2 and Isl1 in the Atoh7-null retina using a binary knockin-transgenic system is sufficient for the specification of the RGC fate. The RGCs thus formed are largely normal in gene expression, survive to postnatal stages, and are physiologically functional. Our results indicate that Pou4f2 and Isl1 compose a minimally sufficient regulatory core for the RGC fate. We further conclude that during development a core group of limited transcription factors, including Pou4f2 and Isl1, function downstream of Atoh7 to determine the RGC fate and initiate RGC differentiation.

  17. A first-principles core-level XPS study on the boron impurities in germanium crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Jun; Yoshimoto, Yoshihide; Suwa, Yuji

    2013-12-04

    We systematically investigated the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core-level shifts and formation energies of boron defects in germanium crystals and compared the results to those in silicon crystals. Both for XPS core-level shifts and formation energies, relationship between defects in Si and Ge is roughly linear. From the similarity in the formation energy, it is expected that the exotic clusters like icosahedral B12 exist in Ge as well as in Si.

  18. 4F Peptide reduces nascent atherosclerosis and induces natural antibody production in apolipoprotein E-null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wool, Geoffrey D.; Cabana, Veneracion G.; Lukens, John; Shaw, Peter X.; Binder, Christoph J.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Reardon, Catherine A.; Getz, Godfrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to contrast the effect of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic peptides, such as 4F and 4F-Pro-4F (Pro), on nascent and mature atherosclerotic lesions and on levels of antibodies against oxidation-specific epitopes. Chow-fed apoE−/− mice were injected intraperitoneally with either the 4F peptide or a tandem helix apoA-I mimetic peptide (Pro) every other day. Mice treated with 4F, but not Pro, for 4 wk starting at 10 wk of age showed a dramatic decrease in atherosclerosis at 2 arterial sites. However, neither peptide was effective in mice treated for 8 wk starting at 20 wk of age; lesions were larger and more mature at this time point. Peptide treatment caused increased production of antibodies against oxidation-specific epitopes, including a disproportionate induction of the IgM natural antibody (NAb) E06/T15 to oxidized phospholipids. In summary, 4F, but not the tandem peptide Pro, effectively inhibited early atherogenesis but was ineffective against more mature lesions. Two different apoA-I mimetic peptides increased titers of natural antibodies against oxidation-specific epitopes.—Wool, G. D., Cabana, V. G., Lukens, J., Shaw, P. X., Binder, C. J., Witztum, J. L., Reardon, C. A., Getz, G. S. 4F Peptide reduces nascent atherosclerosis and induces natural antibody production in apolipoprotein E-null mice. PMID:20876212

  19. System design of programmable 4f phase modulation techniques for rapid intensity shaping: a conceptual comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Matthias; Heber, Jörg; Janschek, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyses three beam shaping approaches with respect to a light-efficient generation of i) patterns and ii) multiple spots by means of a generic optical 4f-setup. 4f approaches share the property that due to the one-to-one relationship between output intensity and input phase, the need for time-consuming, iterative calculation can be avoided. The resulting low computational complexity offers a particular advantage compared to the widely used holographic principles and makes them potential candidates for real-time applications. The increasing availability of high-speed phase modulators, e.g. on the basis of MEMS, calls for an evaluation of the performances of these concepts. Our second interest is the applicability of 4f methods to high-power applications. We discuss the variants of 4f intensity shaping by phase modulation from a system-level point of view which requires the consideration of application relevant boundary conditions. The discussion includes i) the micro mirror based phase manipulation combined with amplitude masking in the Fourier plane, ii) the Generalized Phase Contrast, and iii) matched phase-only correlation filtering combined with GPC. The conceptual comparison relies on comparative figures of merit for energy efficiency, pattern homogeneity, pattern image quality, maximum output intensity and flexibility with respect to the displayable pattern. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings.

  20. NF1 loss disrupts Schwann cell–axonal interactions: a novel role for semaphorin 4F

    PubMed Central

    Parrinello, Simona; Noon, Luke A.; Harrisingh, Marie C.; Digby, Patrick Wingfield; Rosenberg, Laura H.; Cremona, Catherine A.; Echave, Pedro; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Parada, Luis F.; Lloyd, Alison C.

    2008-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients develop neurofibromas, tumors of Schwann cell origin, as a result of loss of the Ras-GAP neurofibromin. In normal nerves, Schwann cells are found tightly associated with axons, while loss of axonal contact is a frequent and important early event in neurofibroma development. However, the molecular basis of this physical interaction or how it is disrupted in cancer remains unclear. Here we show that loss of neurofibromin in Schwann cells is sufficient to disrupt Schwann cell/axonal interactions via up-regulation of the Ras/Raf/ERK signaling pathway. Importantly, we identify down-regulation of semaphorin 4F (Sema4F) as the molecular mechanism responsible for the Ras-mediated loss of interactions. In heterotypic cocultures, Sema4F knockdown induced Schwann cell proliferation by relieving axonal contact-inhibitory signals, providing a mechanism through which loss of axonal contact contributes to tumorigenesis. Importantly, Sema4F levels were strongly reduced in a panel of human neurofibromas, confirming the relevance of these findings to the human disease. This work identifies a novel role for the guidance-molecules semaphorins in the mediation of Schwann cell/axonal interactions, and provides a molecular mechanism by which heterotypic cell–cell contacts control cell proliferation and suppress tumorigenesis. Finally, it provides a new approach for the development of therapies for NF1. PMID:19056885

  1. Measures for the Final Common Core of Constructs. The Project on State-Level Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Project on State-Level Child Outcomes, a federal project designed to improve the measurement of child outcomes in state welfare evaluations and in other state data systems. This document provides measures for the common core of constructs that state representatives developed at the second national-level meeting of the Project's planning phase.…

  2. Cloning and expression of a b(0,+)-like amino acid transporter functioning as a heterodimer with 4F2hc instead of rBAT. A new candidate gene for cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Rajan, D P; Kekuda, R; Huang, W; Wang, H; Devoe, L D; Leibach, F H; Prasad, P D; Ganapathy, V

    1999-10-08

    We have cloned a transporter protein from rabbit small intestine, which, when coexpressed with the 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) in mammalian cells, induces a b(0,+)-like amino acid transport activity. This protein (4F2-lc6 for the sixth member of the 4F2 light chain family) consists of 487 amino acids and has 12 putative transmembrane domains. At the level of amino acid sequence, 4F2-lc6 shows significant homology (44% identity) to the other five known members of the 4F2 light chain family, namely LAT1 (4F2-lc1), y(+)LAT1 (4F2-lc2), y(+)LAT2 (4F2-lc3), xCT (4F2-lc4), and LAT2 (4F2-lc5). The 4F2hc/4F2-lc6 complex-mediated transport process is Na(+)-independent and exhibits high affinity for neutral and cationic amino acids and cystine. These characteristics are similar to those of the b(0,+)-like amino acid transport activity previously shown to be associated with rBAT (protein related to b(0,+) amino acid transport system). However, the newly cloned 4F2-lc6 does not interact with rBAT. This is the first report of the existence of a b(0,+)-like amino acid transport process that is independent of rBAT. 4F2-lc6 is expressed predominantly in the small intestine and kidney. Based on the characteristics of the transport process mediated by the 4F2hc/4F2-lc6 complex and the expression pattern of 4F2-lc6 in mammalian tissues, we suggest that 4F2-lc6 is a new candidate gene for cystinuria.

  3. Extended analysis of the 5g. -->. 4f emissions in H/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, E.S.; Pulchtopek, S.; Eyler, E.E.

    1984-01-15

    An analysis starting from Hund's case d has been used to extend the work of Herzberg and Jungen on the 5g..-->..4f emissions in H/sub 2/. A simple analytical expression for the line intensities is presented that agrees with their calculations is about 1%. All of the experimentally observed lines have been accounted for by including higher vibrational levels in our calculations.

  4. 4f/5d hybridization in the heavy rare earth elements Er and Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. D.; Strange, P.; Bouchenoire, L.; Thompson, P. B. J.

    2013-04-01

    We present experimental data and first-principles calculations of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) line shapes of Er and Tm metals. Band structure calculations are presented that illustrate the existence of 4f/5d hybridization of unoccupied electron levels. This leads to spin and orbital features in the XRMS spectra that are not representative of the 5d occupied moments. General trends through the heavy rare earth series are discussed with reference to previous work.

  5. On the prediction of core level binding energies in molecules, surfaces and solids.

    PubMed

    Viñes, Francesc; Sousa, Carmen; Illas, Francesc

    2018-03-28

    Core level binding energies, directly measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), provide unique information regarding the chemical environment of atoms in a given system. However, interpretation of XPS in extended systems may not be straightforward and requires assistance from theory. The different state-of-the-art theoretical methods commonly used to approach core level binding energies and their shifts with respect to a given reference are reviewed and critically assessed with special emphasis on recently developed theoretical methods and with a focus on future applications in materials and surface sciences.

  6. Supramolecular 3d-4f single-molecule magnet architectures.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Sebastian; van Leusen, Jan; Izarova, Natalya V; Lan, Yanhua; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Kögerler, Paul; Monakhov, Kirill Yu

    2016-10-18

    The nanosized self-assemblies {[{Ln III }{H 2 O⊂CrLn}] 2 (H 2 O)} (Ln = Dy, 1 and Tb, 2) based on new 3d-4f mixed-metal coordination topologies are formed via extensive intramolecular hydrogen bonding that is directed by enclosed water molecules. Compounds 1 and 2 show single-molecule magnet characteristics manifested by hysteresis loops up to 1.6 K (U eff = 8.3 cm -1 ) and 1 K (U eff = 3.4 cm -1 ), respectively.

  7. Deduction of the chemical state and the electronic structure of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy core-level and valence-band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Le; Zhang, Lanting, E-mail: lantingzh@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lmsun@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-10-28

    Characterization of chemical state and electronic structure of the technologically important Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is attractive for understanding the physical nature of its excellent magnetic properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of such rare-earth compound is important and also challenging due to the easy oxidation of surface and small photoelectron cross-sections of rare-earth 4f electrons and B 2p electrons, etc. Here, we reported an investigation based on XPS spectra of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound as a function of Ar ion sputtering time. The chemical state of Fe and that of B in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound can be clearlymore » determined to be 0 and −3, respectively. The Nd in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is found to have the chemical state of close to +3 instead of +3 as compared with the Nd in Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, by comparing the valence-band spectrum of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound to that of the pure Fe, the contributions from Nd, Fe, and B to the valence-band structure of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is made more clear. The B 2p states and B 2s states are identified to be at ∼11.2 eV and ∼24.6 eV, respectively, which is reported for the first time. The contribution from Nd 4f states can be identified both in XPS core-level spectrum and XPS valence-band spectrum. Although Nd 4f states partially hybridize with Fe 3d states, Nd 4f states are mainly localized in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound.« less

  8. Deglacial and lake level fluctuation history recorded in cores, Beaver Lake, Upper Peninsula, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Whitman, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores collected from the littoral and pelagic zones of Beaver Lake, Michigan record fluctuations in the water level of Lake Superior. Beaver Lake is a small 300 ha lake in Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (PRNL) now separated from Lake Superior by a dune-capped barrier bar. Cores were collected using a vibracorer from a lake-ice platform in February 1997. A 2.85 m long core in 10 m of water contains well-sorted sand, rhythmites, peat, interbedded sand and gyttja, and is capped with 1 m of massive gyttja. A 9480 BP AMS age from the basal sand provides a minimum deglacial date for the area. Further analysis indicates a sand-dominated depositional environment from a low lake stand at approximately 8500 BP to present. An approximate 8800 BP red to gray sediment color transition records either the cessation of meltwater input from Lake Agassiz or receding ice, while a younger similarly colored transition, 6600 BP in age, likely records sediment reworking in the coastal zone. Four AMS ages on peat range from 8520 to 7340 BP and are indicative of the Houghton low phase. Burial of the peat by stratified sand and gyttja after 7340 BP indicates a rising lake level. Peat at a higher level in the lake basin, encountered in shallow littoral cores, ranges in age from 6800 to 6420 BP, which estimates a 0.91 m rise/century in lake level to the Nipissing level by 5000 BP.

  9. Exploring the Perceptions of Core Values of Nursing in Taiwanese Nursing Students at the Baccalaureate Level.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Chih; Han, Chin-Yen; Pan, I-Ju; Lin, Pi-Li

    2016-06-01

    The core values of nursing are a standard component of the nursing curriculum in Taiwan. Therefore, these values provide an essential guide for educating and evaluating the learning outcomes of nursing students. Student perceptions of those core values that relate to the process of curricula learning are key to measuring the core values of nursing. This study explores the views on the core values of nursing of baccalaureate-level nursing students at a Taiwanese university. This qualitative study collected data from the reflection reports of 109 students and analyzed these data using thematic content analysis. The results of this study identified that the learning of core values of nursing tends to utilize the latent curriculum rather than the open curriculum. Critical thinking was perceived and experienced by asking "why." General clinical skills and basic biomedical science were categorized collectively as care ability, which relates to the thinking, analysis, and mapping of client health problems. The value of communication and teamwork capability was defined as the sequential process of accepting, interacting, communicating, and collaborating. Caring was defined as contributing empathy with respect to one's self and to others. Ethics was defined as a moral perspective, as respecting others, and as prioritizing the needs of clients. Accountability was defined as a way of observing standards within the role given in a position. Finally, lifelong learning is a process of learning that encourages more aggressive learning. The progress of core values of nursing in this study reflects positive movement and achievement. The participants expressed the perception that the core values of nursing enhance understanding, which enables nursing educators to reframe the nursing curriculum to meet their learning needs. The perceptions of nursing students of core values of nursing may be used as a guide to increase clinical nursing competence in healthcare.

  10. The approach to 4d/4f-polyphosphides.

    PubMed

    Arleth, Nicholas; Gamer, Michael T; Köppe, Ralf; Pushkarevsky, Nikolay A; Konchenko, Sergey N; Fleischmann, Martin; Bodensteiner, Michael; Scheer, Manfred; Roesky, Peter W

    2015-12-01

    The first 4d/4f polyphosphides were obtained by reaction of the divalent metallocenes [Cp* 2 Ln(thf) 2 ] (Ln = Sm, Yb) with [{CpMo(CO) 2 } 2 (μ,η 2:2 -P 2 )] or [Cp*Mo(CO) 2 (η 3 -P 3 )]. Treatment of [Cp* 2 Ln(thf) 2 ] (Ln = Sm, Yb) with [{CpMo(CO) 2 } 2 (μ,η 2:2 -P 2 )] gave the 16-membered bicyclic compounds [(Cp 2 *Ln) 2 P 2 (CpMo(CO) 2 ) 4 ] (Ln = Sm, Yb) as the major products. From the reaction involving samarocene, the cyclic P 4 complex [(Cp* 2 Sm) 2 P 4 (CpMo(CO) 2 ) 2 ] and the cyclic P 5 complex [(Cp* 2 Sm) 3 P 5 (CpMo(CO) 2 ) 3 ] were also obtained as minor products. In each reaction, the P 2 unit is reduced and a rearrangement occurred. In dedicated cases, a P-P bond formation takes place, which results in a new aggregation of the central phosphorus scaffold. In the reactions of [Cp* 2 Ln(thf) 2 ] (Ln = Sm, Yb) with [Cp*Mo(CO) 2 P 3 ] a new P-P bond is formed by reductive dimerization and the 4d/4f hexaphosphides [(Cp* 2 Ln) 2 P 6 (Cp*Mo(CO) 2 ) 2 ] (Ln = Sm, Yb) were obtained.

  11. Polymers and Cross-Linking: A CORE Experiment to Help Students Think on the Submicroscopic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Bruce, Alice E.; Avargil, Shirly; Amar, Francois G.; Wemyss, Thomas M.; Flood, Virginia J.

    2016-01-01

    The Polymers and Cross-Linking experiment is presented via a new three phase learning cycle: CORE (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation), which is designed to model productive chemical inquiry and to promote a deeper understanding about the chemistry operating at the submicroscopic level. The experiment is built on two familiar…

  12. Reader Identity and the Common Core: Agency and Identity in Leveled Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abodeeb-Gentile, Theresa; Zawilinski, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article moves beyond the common core and leveled literacy instruction to demonstrate how diverse learners in one fourth grade classroom, challenged teacher authority in an effort to position themselves as capable readers. In doing so, they implored the teachers to consider the social context of reading as an essential component to the ways in…

  13. Theoretical modeling of the uranium 4f XPS for U(VI) and U(IV) oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Connie J.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2013-12-01

    A rigorous study is presented of the physical processes related to X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, in the 4f level of U oxides, which, as well as being of physical interest in themselves, are representative of XPS in heavy metal oxides. In particular, we present compelling evidence for a new view of the screening of core-holes that extends prior understandings. Our analysis of the screening focuses on the covalent mixing of high lying U and O orbitals as opposed to the, more common, use of orbitals that are nominally pure U or pure O. It is shown that this covalent mixing is quite different for the initial and final, core-hole, configurations and that this difference is directly related to the XPS satellite intensity. Furthermore, we show that the high-lying U d orbitals as well as the U(5f) orbital may both contribute to the core-hole screening, in contrast with previous work that has only considered screening through the U(5f) shell. The role of modifying the U-O interaction by changing the U-O distance has been investigated and an unexpected correlation between U-O distance and XPS satellite intensity has been discovered. The role of flourite and octahedral crystal structures for U(IV) oxides has been examined and relationships established between XPS features and the covalent interactions in the different structures. The physical views of XPS satellites as arising from shake processes or as arising from ligand to metal charge transfers are contrasted; our analysis provides strong support that shake processes give a more fundamental physical understanding than charge transfer. Our theoretical studies are based on rigorous, strictly ab initio determinations of the electronic structure of embedded cluster models of U oxides with formal U(VI) and U(IV) oxidation states. Our results provide a foundation that makes it possible to establish quantitative relationships between features of the XPS spectra and materials properties.

  14. THE 3d2 - 3d4f TRANSITIONS IN V IV

    SciTech Connect

    Shalimoff, G. V.; Conway, J.G.

    1977-09-01

    The 3d4f levels in the spectrum of triply ionized vanadium, V IV, were located by L. Iglesias. She located these levels by identifying transitions from the 3d{sup 2} ground configuration to the 3d4p levels, then to the 3d4d levels and finally to the 3d4f levels. She also identified the transitions from the 3d4d levels to the 3d5p levels, continued up to the 3d5d levels, then back down to the 3d4f levels. Though the 3d4f levels were well established by two routes, the direct transitions from the ground state were not observed, being beyond her experimental range which stopped at 675more » {angstrom}. We have photographed the spectrum of vanadium in the region of 190-650 {angstrom} and the direct transitions from 3d{sup 2} to 3d4f have been observed. The spectrum was excited with a vacuum sliding-spark discharge between vanadium metal electrodes separated by a quartz spacer as described previously. Peak discharge current was 1000 {angstrom}. The spectrum was photographed on Kodak SWR plates using the 10 {center_dot} 7 m grazing incidence spectrograph at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C. The plate factor in the region of interest is about 0.27 {angstrom}/mm. The plates were measured on a Grant comparator. Lines of yttrium IV and V, oxygen III and carbon IV were used for reference standards. The same plates were used to obtain the spectrum of vanadium V as reported previously by van Deurzen. Table I contains 19 transitions from the ground configuration, 3d{sup 2}, to the 3d4f configuration and 3 transitions from the ground configuration to the 3dSp configuration. Column 1 in the table is our measured vacuum wavelengths. The intensities in column 2 are visual estimates on a scale of 0 to 9. Column 3 lists the wavenumber of the measured lines. The classifications of the transitions and the odd-even level values are given in columns 4 and 5 and are taken from Iglesias. The difference, {Delta}, between the wavenumber of the observed line and the

  15. Relevance of 4-F4t-neuroprostane and 10-F4t-neuroprostane to neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Oger, Camille; Leoncini, Silvia; Ciccoli, Lucia; Carone, Marisa; Ulivelli, Monica; Manna, Caterina; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Hayek, Joussef

    2018-02-01

    F 4 -neuroprostanes (F 4 -NeuroPs) are non-enzymatic oxidized products derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are suggested to be oxidative damage biomarkers of neurological diseases. However, 128 isomers can be formed from DHA oxidation and among them, 4(RS)-4-F 4t -NeuroP (4-F 4t -NeuroP) and 10(RS)-10-F 4t -NeuroP (10-F 4t -NeuroP) are the most studied. Here, we report the identification and the clinical relevance of 4-F 4t -NeuroP and 10-F 4t -NeuroP in plasma of four different neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Rett syndrome (RTT), and Down syndrome (DS). The identification and the optimization of the method were carried out by gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS/MS) using chemically synthesized 4-F 4t -NeuroP and 10-F 4t -NeuroP standards and in oxidized DHA liposome. Both 4-F 4t -NeuroP and 10-F 4t -NeuroP were detectable in all plasma samples from MS (n = 16), DS (n = 16), ASD (n = 9) and RTT (n = 20) patients. While plasma 10-F 4t -NeuroP content was significantly higher in patients of all diseases as compared to age and gender matched healthy control subjects (n = 61), 4-F 4t -NeuroP levels were significantly higher in MS and RTT as compared to healthy controls. Significant positive relationships were observed between relative disease severity and 4-F 4t -NeuroP levels (r = 0.469, P <0.0001), and 10-F 4t -NeuroP levels (r = 0.757, P < 0.0001). The study showed that the plasma amount ratio of 10-F 4t -NeuroP to 4-F 4t -NeuroP and the plasma amount as individual isomer can be used to discriminate between different brain diseases. Overall, by comparing the different types of disease, our plasma data indicates that 4-F 4t -NeuroP and 10-F 4t -NeuroP: i) are biologically synthesized in vivo and circulated, ii) are related to clinical severity of neurological diseases, iii) are useful to identify shared pathogenetic pathways in distinct brain

  16. Fe-3s core-level splitting and local magnetism in Fe{sub 2}VAl

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ye; Dobrotvorska, M. V.; Anderegg, J. W.

    2001-02-01

    X-ray and soft x-ray photoelectron spectra were taken on Fe{sub 2}VAl samples. The Fe-3s spectra show a shoulder on the higher binding energy side of the main peak, split by {approx}4.7 eV. Based on current understanding of core-level multiplet splitting in transition-metal compounds, we believe this is direct evidence of a local moment in Fe{sub 2}VAl.

  17. Predicting preferred coring level to reduce toner scatter in electrophotographic printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyung Jun; Allebach, Jan P.

    2011-01-01

    The electrophotographic process depends on a complex interplay between electrostatically charged toner particles, the developer roller, and the organic photoconductor during development; and between the toner particles, the organic photoconductor, and the paper during transfer. The task of controlling the imaging process is made even more challenging by the fact that colorant planes are developed independently and in succession. At high colorant levels, toner particles for a given colorant plane may be strongly repelled by toner that has already been deposited for previously developed colorant planes. The result is scattering of toner away from the edges of thin lines and character strokes. In previous work, we have proposed a coring method to reduce the occurrence of the toner scatter, and conducted psychophysical experiments to determine the preferred level of coring as a function of line width and colorant level. In this paper, we apply the edge transition width (ETW) metric to physically measure the impact of toner scatter on the sharpness of edges of lines and character strokes. We consider ETW both with and without coring, and compare it to the results from our earlier psychophysical experiments.

  18. Electron attachment to perfluorocarbon compounds. I. c-C/sub 4/F/sub 6/, 2-C/sub 4/F/sub 6/, 1,3-C/sub 4/F/sub 6/, c-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/ and 2-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulides, A.A.; Christophorou, L.G.; Pai, R.Y.

    1979-02-01

    Electron attachment rates ..cap alpha..w, as a function of the pressure-reduced electric field E/P/sub 298/ and mean electron energy have been measured for trace amounts (<10/sup -3/ Torr) each of c-C/sub 4/F/sub 6/ (perfluorocyclobutene), 2-C/sub 4/F/sub 6/ (perfluoro-2-butyne), 1,3-C/sub 4/F/sub 6/ (perfluoro-1,3-butadiene), c-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/ (perfluorocyclobutane), and 2-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/ (perfluoro-2-butene) in mixtures with N/sub 2/ (pressures 500--2000 Torr) and Ar (pressures 500--1500 Torr) at T=298/sup 0/K. The thermal attachment rates for these molecules were found to be 4.89 x 10/sup 9/, 1.77 x 10/sup 9/, 4.26 x 10/sup 9/, 4.05 x 10/sup 8/, and 1.56 x 10/sup 9/ sec/supmore » -1/ Torr/sup -1/, respectively. From the ..cap alpha..w () data, the attachment cross sections sigma/sub a/(epsilon) as a function of electron energy epsilon have been determined using the swarm-unfolding technique and are reported. For all five perfluorocarbon molecules, sigma/sub a/(epsilon) are very large. They exhibit three distinct negative ion resonances with maxima at: approx.0.0, 0.19, and 0.80 eV for 2-C/sub 4/F/sub 6/; approx.0.0, 0.17, and 1.04 eV for 1,3-C/sub 4/F/sub 6/; approx.0.0, 0.22, and 0.48 eV for c-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/; and approx.0.0, 0.18, and 0.59 for 2-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/. For c-C/sub 4/F/sub 6/, only a shoulder with a possible maximum at approx.0.14 eV was observed, in addition to the maxima at approx.0.0 and 0.71 eV. Although the positions of the maxima in sigma/sub a/(epsilon) vary only slightly among these compounds, the magnitude of sigma/sub a/(epsilon) depends strongly on structure.« less

  19. D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic, inhibits TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human alveolar epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    You, Jia; Wang, Jintao; Xie, Linshen; Zhu, Chengwen; Xiong, Jingyuan

    2016-10-01

    Emerging evidences support that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and asthmatic airway remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is the only known substance that can resolve established pulmonary fibrotic nodules, and Apo A-I mimetic D-4F (a synthetic polypeptide consisting of 18 amino acids) plays an inhibitory role in murine asthmatic model. However, cellular mechanisms for such therapeutic effects of Apo A-I and D-4F remain to be elucidated. This study evaluated the effects of D-4F on TGF-β1 induced EMT in human type II alveolar epithelial cell line A549. A549 cells treated with 10ng/ml of TGF-β1 manifested distinct EMT, including fibroblastic morphological changes, down-regulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin and up-regulation of mesenchymal marker vimentin. These EMT related changes were all inhibited by D-4F in a concentration dependent manner. Transcriptional investigation demonstrated clearly that D-4F dose-dependently compensated for the reduced E-cadherin mRNA level and the increased vimentin mRNA level in TGF-β1 treated A549 cells. Translational analysis revealed that D-4F significantly reversed the TGF-β1 induced changes of E-cadherin and vimentin levels. These results suggested that D-4F inhibits TGF-β1 induced EMT in human alveolar epithelial cell. Given the functional similarities between D-4F and Apo A-I, it is speculated that D-4F and Apo A-I are able to exert possible anti-fibrotic and anti-asthmatic effects via inhibiting alveolar EMT, and D-4F may possess beneficial clinical potential for patients suffering from pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytochrome P450-Dependent Catabolism of Vitamin K: ω-Hydroxylation Catalyzed by Human CYP4F2 and CYP4F11

    PubMed Central

    Edson, Katheryne Z.; Prasad, Bhagwat; Unadkat, Jashvant D.; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Okano, Toshio; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K plays an essential role in many biological processes including blood clotting, maintenance of bone health, and inhibition of arterial calcification. A menaquinone form of vitamin K, MK4, is increasingly recognized for its key roles in mitochondrial electron transport, as a ligand for the nuclear receptor SXR, which controls expression of genes involved in transport and metabolism of endo- and xenobiotics, and as a pharmacotherapeutic in the treatment of osteoporosis. Although cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4F2 activity is recognized as an important determinant of phylloquinone (K1) metabolism, the enzymes involved in menaquinone catabolism have not been studied previously. CYP4F2 and CYP4F11 were expressed and purified and found to be equally efficient as in vitro catalysts of MK4 ω-hydroxylation. CYP4F2, but not CYP4F11, catalyzed sequential metabolism of MK4 to the ω-acid without apparent release of the intermediate aldehyde. The ω-alcohol could also be metabolized to the acid by microsomal NAD+-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. LC-MS/MS analysis of trypsinized human liver microsomes (using surrogate peptide approach) revealed mean concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F11 to be 14.3 and 8.4 pmol/mg protein, respectively. Microsomal MK4 ω-hydroxylation activities correlated with the CYP4F2 V433M genotype but not CYP4F11 D446N genotype. Collectively, these data expand the lexicon of vitamin K ω-hydroxylases to include the ‘orphan’ P450 CYP4F11 and identify a common variant, CYP4F2 (rs2108622), as a major pharmacogenetic variable influencing MK4 catabolism. PMID:24138531

  1. The Technical Adequacy of the Core Skills Algebra Curriculum-Based Measure for the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirz, Jennifer Palacios

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the technical adequacy of the Core Skills Algebra curriculum-based measure for students enrolled in algebra I courses at the high school level. Due to the dearth of curriculum-based measures available to educators at the secondary school level, the Core Skills Algebra curriculum-based measure was developed…

  2. Importance of the upper-level warm core in the rapid intensification of a tropical cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Lin; Chen, Hua

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the rapid intensification (RI) of tropical cyclone is examined using a 72-h cloud-permitting prediction of Hurricane Wilma (2005) with a record-breaking intensity of 882 hPa. Results show the formation of an upper-level warm core from the descending air of stratospheric origin in the eye, which coincides with the onset of RI; it reaches the peak amplitude of more than 18°C from its initial conditions at the time of peak intensity. The descending air is associated with the detrainment of convective bursts in the eyewall, and it appears as (perturbation) cyclonic radial inflows above the upper outflow layer and causes the subsidence warming below. We hypothesize that the upper divergent outflow layer favors the generation of a warm core by protecting it from ventilation by environmental flows. Use of the hydrostatic equation shows that the warm core of stratospheric origin contributes more than twice as much as the lower-level warm column to the pressure change at the peak intensity of Wilma. Results suggest that more attention be paid to the magnitude of storm-relative flows and vertical wind shear in the upper troposphere, rather than just vertical shear in the typical 850-200 hPa layer, in order to reasonably predict the RI of tropical cyclones.

  3. Identifying heavy metal levels in historical flood water deposits using sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Lintern, Anna; Leahy, Paul J; Heijnis, Henk; Zawadzki, Atun; Gadd, Patricia; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Deletic, Ana; Mccarthy, David T

    2016-11-15

    When designing mitigation and restoration strategies for aquatic systems affected by heavy metal contamination, we must first understand the sources of these pollutants. In this study, we introduce a methodology that identifies the heavy metal levels in floodplain lake sediments deposited by one source; fluvial floods. This is done by comparing sediment core heavy metal profiles (i.e., historical pollution trends) to physical and chemical properties of sediments in these cores (i.e., historical flooding trends). This methodology is applied to Willsmere and Bolin Billabongs, two urban floodplain lakes (billabongs) of the Yarra River (South-East Australia). Both billabongs are periodically inundated by flooding of the Yarra River and one billabong (Willsmere Billabong) is connected to an urban stormwater drainage network. 1-2-m long sediment cores (containing sediment deposits up to 500 years old) were taken from the billabongs and analysed for heavy metal concentrations (arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc). In cores from both billabongs, arsenic concentrations are high in the flood-borne sediments. In Bolin Billabong, absolute metal levels are similar in flood and non-flood deposits. In Willsmere Billabong, absolute copper, lead and zinc levels were generally lower in fluvial flood-borne sediments in the core compared to non-fluvial sediments. This suggests that heavy metal concentrations in Bolin Billabong sediments are relatively similar regardless of whether or not fluvial flooding is occurring. However for Willsmere Billabong, heavy metal concentrations are high when overland runoff, direct urban stormwater discharges or atmospheric deposition is occurring. As such, reducing the heavy metal concentrations in these transport pathways will be of great importance when trying to reduce heavy metal concentrations in Willsmere Billabong sediments. This study presents a proof-of-concept that can be applied to other polluted aquatic systems, to understand the

  4. Copper Causes Regiospecific Formation of C4F8-Containing Six-Membered Rings and their Defluorination/Aromatization to C4F4-Containing Rings in Triphenylene/1,4-C4F8I2 Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rippy, Kerry C.; Bukovsky, Eric V.; Clikeman, Tyler T.

    2016-01-18

    The presence of Cu in reactions of triphenylene (TRPH) and 1,4-C4F8I2 at 360 °C led to regiospecific substitution of TRPH ortho C(β) atoms to form C4F8-containing rings, completely suppressing substitution on C(α) atoms. In addition, Cu caused selective reductive-defluorination/aromatization (RD/A) to form C4F4- containing aromatic rings. Without Cu, the reactions of TRPH and 1,4- C4F8I2 were not regiospecific and no RD/A was observed. These results, supported by DFT calculations, are the first examples of Cupromoted (i) regiospecific perfluoroannulation, (ii) preparative C–F activation, and (iii) RD/A. HPLC-purified products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature PES, and 1H/19F NMR.

  5. Production Level CFD Code Acceleration for Hybrid Many-Core Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Austen C.; Hammond, Dana P.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a novel graphics processing unit (GPU) distributed sharing model for hybrid many-core architectures is introduced and employed in the acceleration of a production-level computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The latest generation graphics hardware allows multiple processor cores to simultaneously share a single GPU through concurrent kernel execution. This feature has allowed the NASA FUN3D code to be accelerated in parallel with up to four processor cores sharing a single GPU. For codes to scale and fully use resources on these and the next generation machines, codes will need to employ some type of GPU sharing model, as presented in this work. Findings include the effects of GPU sharing on overall performance. A discussion of the inherent challenges that parallel unstructured CFD codes face in accelerator-based computing environments is included, with considerations for future generation architectures. This work was completed by the author in August 2010, and reflects the analysis and results of the time.

  6. Ultra-sensitive Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) determination of calcium in ice cores at ppt level.

    PubMed

    Traversi, R; Becagli, S; Castellano, E; Maggi, V; Morganti, A; Severi, M; Udisti, R

    2007-07-02

    A Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) spectrofluorimetric method for calcium determination in ice cores was optimised in order to achieve better analytical performances which would make it suitable for reliable calcium measurements at ppt level. The method here optimised is based on the formation of a fluorescent compound between Ca and Quin-2 in buffered environment. A careful evaluation of operative parameters (reagent concentration, buffer composition and concentration, pH), influence of interfering species possibly present in real samples and potential favourable effect of surfactant addition was carried out. The obtained detection limit is around 15 ppt, which is one order of magnitude lower than the most sensitive Flow Analysis method for Ca determination currently available in literature and reproducibility is better than 4% for Ca concentrations of 0.2 ppb. The method was validated through measurements performed in parallel with Ion Chromatography on 200 samples from an alpine ice core (Lys Glacier) revealing an excellent fit between the two chemical series. Calcium stratigraphy in Lys ice core was discussed in terms of seasonal pattern and occurrence of Saharan dust events.

  7. The apolipoprotein-AI mimetic peptide L4F at a modest dose does not attenuate weight gain, inflammation, or atherosclerosis in LDLR-null mice.

    PubMed

    Averill, Michelle M; Kim, Eung Ju; Goodspeed, Leela; Wang, Shari; Subramanian, Savitha; Den Hartigh, Laura J; Tang, Chongren; Ding, Yilei; Reardon, Catherine A; Getz, Godfrey S; Chait, Alan

    2014-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are inversely related to cardiovascular disease risk and associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I; major HDL protein) mimetics have been reported to reduce atherosclerosis and decrease adiposity. This study investigated the effect of L4F mimetic peptide and apoA-I overexpression on weight gain, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis in an LDL receptor deficient (Ldlr-/-) model fed a high fat high sucrose with cholesterol (HFHSC) diet. Studies in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes tested whether L4F could inhibit palmitate-induced adipocyte inflammation. In vivo studies used male Ldlr-/- mice fed a HFHSC diet for 12 weeks and were injected daily with L4F (100 µg/mouse) subcutaneously during the last 8 weeks. Wild-type and apoA-I overexpressing Ldlr-/- mice were fed HFHSC diet for 16 weeks. Neither L4F administration nor apoA-I overexpression affected weight gain, total plasma cholesterol or triglycerides in our studies. While pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with either L4F or HDL abolished palmitate-induced cytokine expression in vitro, L4F treatment did not affect circulating or adipose tissue inflammatory markers in vivo. Neither L4F administration nor apoA-I overexpression affected glucose tolerance. ApoA-I overexpression significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion size, yet L4F treatment did not affect atherosclerosis. Our results suggest that neither L4F (100 µg/day/mouse) nor apoA-I overexpression affects adiposity or insulin resistance in this model. We also were unable to confirm a reduction in atherosclerosis with L4F in our particular model. Further studies on the effect of apoA-I mimetics on atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in a variety of dietary contexts are warranted.

  8. The Apolipoprotein-AI Mimetic Peptide L4F at a Modest Dose Does Not Attenuate Weight Gain, Inflammation, or Atherosclerosis in LDLR-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Michelle M.; Kim, Eung Ju; Goodspeed, Leela; Wang, Shari; Subramanian, Savitha; Den Hartigh, Laura J.; Tang, Chongren; Ding, Yilei; Reardon, Catherine A.; Getz, Godfrey S.; Chait, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are inversely related to cardiovascular disease risk and associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I; major HDL protein) mimetics have been reported to reduce atherosclerosis and decrease adiposity. This study investigated the effect of L4F mimetic peptide and apoA-I overexpression on weight gain, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis in an LDL receptor deficient (Ldlr-/-) model fed a high fat high sucrose with cholesterol (HFHSC) diet. Methods Studies in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes tested whether L4F could inhibit palmitate-induced adipocyte inflammation. In vivo studies used male Ldlr-/- mice fed a HFHSC diet for 12 weeks and were injected daily with L4F (100 µg/mouse) subcutaneously during the last 8 weeks. Wild-type and apoA-I overexpressing Ldlr-/- mice were fed HFHSC diet for 16 weeks. Results Neither L4F administration nor apoA-I overexpression affected weight gain, total plasma cholesterol or triglycerides in our studies. While pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with either L4F or HDL abolished palmitate-induced cytokine expression in vitro, L4F treatment did not affect circulating or adipose tissue inflammatory markers in vivo. Neither L4F administration nor apoA-I overexpression affected glucose tolerance. ApoA-I overexpression significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion size, yet L4F treatment did not affect atherosclerosis. Conclusion Our results suggest that neither L4F (100 µg/day/mouse) nor apoA-I overexpression affects adiposity or insulin resistance in this model. We also were unable to confirm a reduction in atherosclerosis with L4F in our particular model. Further studies on the effect of apoA-I mimetics on atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in a variety of dietary contexts are warranted. PMID:25286043

  9. Structural relationships among LiNaMg[PO4]F and Na2M[PO4]F (M = Mn-Ni, and Mg), and the magnetic structure of LiNaNi[PO4]F.

    PubMed

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Shikano, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Avdeev, Maxim; Liu, Samuel; Ling, Chris D

    2014-02-07

    The new compound LiNaMg[PO4]F has been synthesized by a wet chemical reaction route. Its crystal structure was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. LiNaMg[PO4]F crystallizes with the monoclinic pseudomerohedrally twinned LiNaNi[PO4]F structure, space group P2(1)/c, a = 6.772(4), b = 11.154(6), c = 5.021(3) Å, β = 90.00(1)° and Z = 4. The structure contains [MgO3F]n chains made up of zigzag edge-sharing MgO4F2 octahedra. These chains are interlinked by PO4 tetrahedra forming 2D-Mg[PO4]F layers. The alkali metal atoms are well ordered in between these layers over two atomic positions. The use of group-subgroup transformation schemes in the Bärnighausen formalism enabled us to determine precise phase transition mechanisms from LiNaNi[PO4]F- to Na2M[PO4]F-type structures (M = Mn-Ni, and Mg) (see video clip 1 and 2). The crystal and magnetic structure and properties of the parent LiNaNi[PO4]F phase were also studied by magnetometry and neutron powder diffraction. Despite the rather long interlayer distance, d(min)(Ni(+2)-Ni(+2)) ~ 6.8 Å, the material develops a long-range magnetic order below 5 K. The magnetic structure can be viewed as antiferromagnetically coupled ferromagnetic layers with moments parallel to the b-axis.

  10. Characterization of YBa 2Cu 3O x using core- and valence-level XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundle, C. R.; Fowler, D. E.

    1993-12-01

    Hundreds of papers have been published involving the photoelectron spectroscopy of the high- Tc superconducting oxides since 1987. The early work, originally on bulk-sintered material, sputtered films, and later on "single crystals", concentrated on finding "unusual" features in valence- or core-level spectra to relate to electronic structure effects which might explain the superconducting mechanism. The majority of this work has not adequately taken into account the facts that (a) photoemission probes only the top few monolayers of material, and (b) in many cases the top few layers are completely unrepresentative of the bulk material. This is particularly true for YBa 2Cu 3O x, where the surface is extremely reactive, unstable, and prone to contaminating phases, even when prepared under UHV conditions. This has led to a flood of misinformation concerning the true characteristic spectra of this material and their interpretation. In this paper, we present core- and valence-level XPS for YBa 2Cu 3O x single-crystal, bulk-sintered, and thin-film samples, and show that, when artifacts are eliminated, the characteristic spectra are the same, to first order, and easily allow distinction of surfaces consisting of the genuine orthorhombic phase ( x > 6.4) from those with the non-superconducting tetragonal phase ( x<6.4) or contaminant or reaction-product phases. With this information, it is possible to eliminate much of the previous literature discussion and also to follow the material changes occuring, for instance, during annealing, adsorption and reaction. We then discuss some detailed interpretations, including the DOS observed at and near EF, the explanations for the ˜1.5 eV chemical shift in Ba core-level BE between orthorhombic and tetragonal forms, and the implications of the very low O(1s) BE of the orthorhombic form.

  11. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank T

    2015-06-01

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used.

  12. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Layout, Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Gauges, Ralph; Rost, Ursula; Sahle, Sven; Wengler, Katja; Bergmann, Frank Thomas

    2015-09-04

    Many software tools provide facilities for depicting reaction network diagrams in a visual form. Two aspects of such a visual diagram can be distinguished: the layout (i.e.: the positioning and connections) of the elements in the diagram, and the graphical form of the elements (for example, the glyphs used for symbols, the properties of the lines connecting them, and so on). For software tools that also read and write models in SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) format, a common need is to store the network diagram together with the SBML representation of the model. This in turn raises the question of how to encode the layout and the rendering of these diagrams. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding diagrams, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The Layout package for SBML Level 3 adds the necessary features to SBML so that diagram layouts can be encoded in SBML files, and a companion package called SBML Rendering specifies how the graphical rendering of elements can be encoded. The SBML Layout package is based on the principle that reaction network diagrams should be described as representations of entities such as species and reactions (with direct links to the underlying SBML elements), and not as arbitrary drawings or graphs; for this reason, existing languages for the description of vector drawings (such as SVG) or general graphs (such as GraphML) cannot be used.

  13. Core level excitations—A fingerprint of structural and electronic properties of epitaxial silicene

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlein, R., E-mail: friedl@jaist.ac.jp; Fleurence, A.; Aoyagi, K.

    2014-05-14

    From the analysis of high-resolution Si 2p photoelectron and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra, we show that core level excitations of epitaxial silicene on ZrB{sub 2}(0001) thin films are characteristically different from those of sp{sup 3}-hybridized silicon. In particular, it is revealed that the lower Si 2p binding energies and the low onset in the NEXAFS spectra as well as the occurrence of satellite features in the core level spectra are attributed to the screening by low-energy valence electrons and interband transitions between π bands, respectively. The analysis of observed Si 2p intensities related to chemically distinct Simore » atoms indicates the presence of at least one previously unidentified component. The presence of this component suggests that the observation of stress-related stripe domains in scanning tunnelling microscopy images is intrinsically linked to the relaxation of Si atoms away from energetically unfavourable positions.« less

  14. Quanty for core level spectroscopy - excitons, resonances and band excitations in time and frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverkort, Maurits W.

    2016-05-01

    Depending on the material and edge under consideration, core level spectra manifest themselves as local excitons with multiplets, edge singularities, resonances, or the local projected density of states. Both extremes, i.e., local excitons and non-interacting delocalized excitations are theoretically well under control. Describing the intermediate regime, where local many body interactions and band-formation are equally important is a challenge. Here we discuss how Quanty, a versatile quantum many body script language, can be used to calculate a variety of different core level spectroscopy types on solids and molecules, both in the frequency as well as the time domain. The flexible nature of Quanty allows one to choose different approximations for different edges and materials. For example, using a newly developed method merging ideas from density renormalization group and quantum chemistry [1-3], Quanty can calculate excitons, resonances and band-excitations in x-ray absorption, photoemission, x-ray emission, fluorescence yield, non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and many more spectroscopy types. Quanty can be obtained from: http://www.quanty.org.

  15. 4 f occupancy and magnetism of rare-earth atoms adsorbed on metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Aparajita; Baltic, Romana; Donati, Fabio; Wäckerlin, Christian; Dreiser, Jan; Persichetti, Luca; Stepanow, Sebastian; Gambardella, Pietro; Rusponi, Stefano; Brune, Harald

    2017-12-01

    We report x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements as well as multiplet calculations for Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm atoms adsorbed on Pt(111), Cu(111), Ag(100), and Ag(111). In the gas phase, all four elements are divalent and we label their 4 f occupancy as 4 fn . Upon surface adsorption, and depending on the substrate, the atoms either remain in that state or become trivalent with 4 fn -1 configuration. The trivalent state is realized when the sum of the atomic correction energies (4 f →5 d promotion energy Ef d+ intershell coupling energy δ Ec ) is low and the surface binding energy is large. The latter correlates with a high substrate density of states at the Fermi level. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of trivalent RE atoms is larger than the one of divalent RE atoms. We ascribe this to the significantly smaller covalent radius of the trivalent state compared to the divalent one for a given RE element. For a given valency of the RE atom, the anisotropy is determined by the overlap between the s p d states of the RE and the d states of the surface. For all investigated systems, the magnetization curves recorded at 2.5 K show absence of hysteresis indicating that magnetic relaxation is faster than about 10 s.

  16. KB(PO4)F: a novel acentric deep-ultraviolet material.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Lin-Chuan; Huang, Ya-Xi; Sun, Zhi-Mei; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao

    2017-01-31

    Two challenges to grow KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF), the best known deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical (NLO) material to date, are the limited crystal sizes and the use of a highly toxic element (Be). Herein we report on the discovery of a novel anhydrous non-centrosymmetric alkali fluorinated borophosphate KB(PO 4 )F (KBPF) featuring a cut-off wavelength of less than 200 nm and a large second-harmonic generation (SHG) effect similar to KH 2 PO 4 (KDP), hence representing a new promising deep-ultraviolet NLO material. The KBPF crystals consisting of common elements can be grown using green and cost effective processes and do not show any detectable hygroscopicity. The title compound also features a 2-dimensional layer [BPO 4 F] ∞ built from [BO 3 F] 4- and [PO 4 ] 3- tetrahedral groups but has much stronger interlayer bonds than KBBF, allowing the growth of large crystals. The title compound has been characterized by PXRD, SEM, TG-DSC, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance and SHG analyses as well as single-crystal X-ray structure refinements. The optical properties of KBPF have also been evaluated by first-principles calculations at the density functional theory (DFT) level.

  17. Theoretical modeling of the uranium 4f XPS for U(VI) and U(IV) oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Connie J.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2013-12-28

    A rigorous study is presented of the physical processes related to X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, in the 4f level of U oxides, which, as well as being of physical interest in themselves, are representative of XPS in heavy metal oxides. In particular, we present compelling evidence for a new view of the screening of core-holes that extends prior understandings. Our analysis of the screening focuses on the covalent mixing of high lying U and O orbitals as opposed to the, more common, use of orbitals that are nominally pure U or pure O. It is shown that this covalent mixingmore » is quite different for the initial and final, core-hole, configurations and that this difference is directly related to the XPS satellite intensity. Furthermore, we show that the high-lying U d orbitals as well as the U(5f) orbital may both contribute to the core-hole screening, in contrast with previous work that has only considered screening through the U(5f) shell. The role of modifying the U-O interaction by changing the U-O distance has been investigated and an unexpected correlation between U-O distance and XPS satellite intensity has been discovered. The role of flourite and octahedral crystal structures for U(IV) oxides has been examined and relationships established between XPS features and the covalent interactions in the different structures. The physical views of XPS satellites as arising from shake processes or as arising from ligand to metal charge transfers are contrasted; our analysis provides strong support that shake processes give a more fundamental physical understanding than charge transfer. Our theoretical studies are based on rigorous, strictly ab initio determinations of the electronic structure of embedded cluster models of U oxides with formal U(VI) and U(IV) oxidation states. Our results provide a foundation that makes it possible to establish quantitative relationships between features of the XPS spectra and materials properties.« less

  18. Levoglucosan Levels in Alaskan Ice Cores as a Record of Past Wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, M. E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Kennedy, J.; Ferris, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers in southeast Alaska are significant contributors to global sea-level rise, and therefore understanding the mechanisms driving their recent mass loss is crucial for predicting future sea-level change. Fire activity in Alaska has increased dramatically during the last decade, adding a potential new source of light-absorbing organic material (soot) to the Juneau Icefield that can reduce albedo and enhance surface melt rates. The goal of this project is to create an accurate record of Alaskan wildfires to understand how Alaskan glacial mass balance is affected by the deposition of organic aerosols from wildfires. Previously, oxalate, ammonia, and potassium ion levels have been used as proxies for past wildfire activity, but these ions all have broader emission sources in addition to wildfires. Here we develop a record of past Alaskan fire events and climate from: (1) levels of a biomass burning indicator, levoglucosan, which only forms when cellulose is burned over 300 °C, (2) major ions including oxalate, ammonia, and potassium; (3) the number and size distribution of particles to quantify trace amounts of soot from wildfires; and (4) stable water isotope ratios as a proxy for past temperature in ice cores. We utilize a total of four shallow ice cores, ranging from 7 to 9 m in length, that were collected by a biogeochemistry team during the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP) in 2016. Complications include our limited understanding of the conservation and degradation of levoglucosan over time or during the firnification process. We hypothesize that particle counts will be correlated with levoglucosan peaks, co-varying with wildfire frequency and temperatures over time. Based on previous work, we also expect to find correlations between levoglucosan and oxalate ion concentrations, even though oxalate ions have sources in addition to wildfire activity.

  19. Wheat germ poly(A) binding protein enhances the binding affinity of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F and (iso)4F for cap analogues.

    PubMed

    Wei, C C; Balasta, M L; Ren, J; Goss, D J

    1998-02-17

    Most eukaryotic mRNAs contain a 5' cap (m7GppX) and a 3' poly(A) tail to increase synergistically the translational efficiency. Recently, the poly(A) binding protein (PABP) and cap-binding protein, eIF-4F, were found to interact [Le et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 16247-16255; Tarun and Sachs (1996) EMBO J. 15, 7168-7177]. These data suggest that PABP may exert its effect on translational efficiency either by increasing the formation of initiation factor-mRNA complex or by enhancing ribosome recycling. To investigate the functional consequences of these interactions, the fluorescent cap analogue, ant-m7GTP, which is an environmentally sensitive fluorescent probe [Ren and Goss (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3629-3634] was used to investigate the cap-binding affinity. Our data show that the binding of eIF-(iso)4F or eIF-4F to cap analogue enhanced their binding affinity toward PABP approximately 40-fold. Similarly, the eIF-4F/PABP or eIF-(iso)4F/PABP complexes show a 40-fold enhancement of cap analogue binding as compared to eIF-4F or eIF-(iso)4F alone. At least part of the enhancement of the translational initiation by PABP can be accounted for by direct changes in cap-binding affinity. The interactions of these components also suggest a mechanism whereby the poly(A) tail is brought into close proximity with m7G cap. This effect was examined by fluorescence energy transfer, and it was determined that the PABP/eIF-4F complex could bind both poly(A) and 5' cap simultaneously.

  20. RNA editing and regulation of Drosophila 4f-rnp expression by sas-10 antisense readthrough mRNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, NICK T.; ROHRBACH, JUSTIN A.; ZALEWSKI, BRIAN A.; BYRKETT, COLLEEN M.; VAUGHN, JACK C.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously described an example of extensively A-to-G edited cDNA derived from adult heads of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. In that study, the source of the predicted antisense RNA pairing strand for template recognition by dADAR editase was not identified, and the biological significance of the observed hyperediting was not known. Here, we address each of these questions. 4f-rnp and sas-10 are closely adjacent X-linked genes located on opposite DNA strands that produce convergent transcripts. We show that developmentally regulated antisense sas-10 readthrough mRNA arises by activation of an upstream promoter P2 during the late embryo stage of fly development. The sas-10 readthrough transcripts pair with 4f-rnp mRNA to form double-stranded molecules, as indicated by A-to-G editing observed in both RNA strands. It would be predicted that perfect RNA duplexes would be targeted for modification/degradation by enzyme pathways that recognize double-stranded RNAs, leading to decline in 4f-rnp mRNA levels, and this is what we observe. The observation using quantitative RT-PCR that sas-10 readthrough and 4f-rnp transcript levels are inversely related suggests a role for the antisense RNA in posttranscriptional regulation of 4f-rnp gene expression during development. Potential molecular mechanisms that could lead to this result are discussed, one of which is targeted transcript degradation via the RNAi pathway. Insofar as the dADAR editase and RNAi pathways are known to be constitutive in this system, it is likely that control of antisense RNA transcription is the rate-limiting factor. The results provide insight into roles of naturally occurring antisense RNAs in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. PMID:12756328

  1. Core-level spectra and binding energies of transition metal nitrides by non-destructive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy through capping layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greczynski, G.; Primetzhofer, D.; Lu, J.; Hultman, L.

    2017-02-01

    We present the first measurements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level binding energies (BE:s) for the widely-applicable group IVb-VIb polycrystalline transition metal nitrides (TMN's) TiN, VN, CrN, ZrN, NbN, MoN, HfN, TaN, and WN as well as AlN and SiN, which are common components in the TMN-based alloy systems. Nitride thin film samples were grown at 400 °C by reactive dc magnetron sputtering from elemental targets in Ar/N2 atmosphere. For XPS measurements, layers are either (i) Ar+ ion-etched to remove surface oxides resulting from the air exposure during sample transfer from the growth chamber into the XPS system, or (ii) in situ capped with a few nm thick Cr or W overlayers in the deposition system prior to air-exposure and loading into the XPS instrument. Film elemental composition and phase content is thoroughly characterized with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-E ERDA), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and x-ray diffraction. High energy resolution core level XPS spectra acquired with monochromatic Al Kα radiation on the ISO-calibrated instrument reveal that even mild etching conditions result in the formation of a nitrogen-deficient surface layer that substantially affects the extracted binding energy values. These spectra-modifying effects of Ar+ ion bombardment increase with increasing the metal atom mass due to an increasing nitrogen-to-metal sputter yield ratio. The superior quality of the XPS spectra obtained in a non-destructive way from capped TMN films is evident from that numerous metal peaks, including Ti 2p, V 2p, Zr 3d, and Hf 4f, exhibit pronounced satellite features, in agreement with previously published spectra from layers grown and analyzed in situ. In addition, the N/metal concentration ratios are found to be 25-90% higher than those obtained from the corresponding ion-etched surfaces, and in most cases agree very well with the RBS and ToF-E ERDA values. The N 1 s BE:s extracted from

  2. Reverse-D-4F Increases the Number of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunctions in High Fat Diet Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jianlin, Zhang; Xiangjian, Zhang; Shutong, Yao; Enxin, Zhan; Bin, Li; Chuanlong, Zong; Hua, Tian; Yanhong, Si; Yunsai, Du; Shucun, Qin; Hui, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Although high density lipoprotein (HDL) improves the functions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), the effect of HDL ApoAI mimetic peptide reverse-D-4F (Rev-D4F) on EPC mobilization and repair of EPC dysfunctions remains to be studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of Rev-D4F on peripheral blood cell subpopulations in C57 mice treated with a high fat diet and the mechanism of Rev-D4F in improving the function of EPCs impaired by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The high fat diet significantly decreased the number of EPCs, EPC migratory functions, and the percentage of lymphocytes in the white blood cells. However, it significantly increased the number of white blood cells, the percentage of monocytes in the white blood cells, and the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and TNF-α in the plasma. Rev-D4F clearly inhibited the effect of the high fat diet on the quantification of peripheral blood cell subpopulations and cytokine levels, and increased stromal cell derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) in the plasma. We provided in vitro evidence that TNF-α impaired EPC proliferation, migration, and tube formation through inactive AKT and eNOS, which was restored by Rev-D4F treatment. In contrast, both the PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) and AKT inhibitor (perifosine) obviously inhibited the restoration of Rev-4F on EPCs impaired by TNF-α. Our results suggested that Rev-D4F increases the quantity of endothelial progenitor cells through increasing the SDF-1α levels and decreasing the TNF-α level of peripheral blood in high fat diet-induced C57BL/6J mice, and restores TNF-α induced dysfunctions of EPCs partly through stimulating the PI3K/AKT signal pathway. PMID:26398523

  3. Reverse-D-4F Increases the Number of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunctions in High Fat Diet Mice.

    PubMed

    Nana, Yang; Peng, Jiao; Jianlin, Zhang; Xiangjian, Zhang; Shutong, Yao; Enxin, Zhan; Bin, Li; Chuanlong, Zong; Hua, Tian; Yanhong, Si; Yunsai, Du; Shucun, Qin; Hui, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Although high density lipoprotein (HDL) improves the functions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), the effect of HDL ApoAI mimetic peptide reverse-D-4F (Rev-D4F) on EPC mobilization and repair of EPC dysfunctions remains to be studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of Rev-D4F on peripheral blood cell subpopulations in C57 mice treated with a high fat diet and the mechanism of Rev-D4F in improving the function of EPCs impaired by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The high fat diet significantly decreased the number of EPCs, EPC migratory functions, and the percentage of lymphocytes in the white blood cells. However, it significantly increased the number of white blood cells, the percentage of monocytes in the white blood cells, and the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and TNF-α in the plasma. Rev-D4F clearly inhibited the effect of the high fat diet on the quantification of peripheral blood cell subpopulations and cytokine levels, and increased stromal cell derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) in the plasma. We provided in vitro evidence that TNF-α impaired EPC proliferation, migration, and tube formation through inactive AKT and eNOS, which was restored by Rev-D4F treatment. In contrast, both the PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) and AKT inhibitor (perifosine) obviously inhibited the restoration of Rev-4F on EPCs impaired by TNF-α. Our results suggested that Rev-D4F increases the quantity of endothelial progenitor cells through increasing the SDF-1α levels and decreasing the TNF-α level of peripheral blood in high fat diet-induced C57BL/6J mice, and restores TNF-α induced dysfunctions of EPCs partly through stimulating the PI3K/AKT signal pathway.

  4. Core promoter sequence in yeast is a major determinant of expression level

    PubMed Central

    Lubliner, Shai; Regev, Ifat; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Edelheit, Sarit; Weinberger, Adina; Segal, Eran

    2015-01-01

    The core promoter is the regulatory sequence to which RNA polymerase is recruited and where it acts to initiate transcription. Here, we present the first comprehensive study of yeast core promoters, providing massively parallel measurements of core promoter activity and of TSS locations and relative usage for thousands of native and designed sequences. We found core promoter activity to be highly correlated to the activity of the entire promoter and that sequence variation in different core promoter regions substantially tunes its activity in a predictable way. We also show that location, orientation, and flanking bases critically affect TATA element function, that transcription initiation in highly active core promoters is focused within a narrow region, that poly(dA:dT) orientation has a functional consequence at the 3′ end of promoters, and that orthologous core promoters across yeast species have conserved activities. Our results demonstrate the importance of core promoters in the quantitative study of gene regulation. PMID:25969468

  5. [Correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder in children].

    PubMed

    Dong, H Y; Wang, B; Li, H H; Shan, L; Jia, F Y

    2017-12-02

    Objective: To explore the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. Method: In this cross-sectional study, ASD children 4 to 6 years of age who were diagnosed in Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, First Hospital of Jilin university from January to May 2017 were assigned to ASD group, and children for routine growth and development assessment in Jilin province were assigned to control group. The two groups were well matched for age and sex, and none of them had received vitamin D supplementation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured by HPLC-MS/MS method. The patients of the ASD group were assessed with autism behavior checklist (ABC), childhood autism rating scale (CARS), social response scale (SRS), and autism treatment evaluation checklist (ATEC). The levels of vitamin D were divided into normal(>0.03 ng/L), insufficient (0.01-0.03 ng/L) and deficient (<0.01 ng/L). Levels of serum vitamin D between the two groups were compared by two independent sample t -test, and the difference in the percentages of normal, insufficient and deficient levels of vitamin D was tested by chi-square test, and correlations between vitamin D levels and the total scores or subscales of ABC, CARS, SRS and ATEC were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Result: The 87 subjects in the ASD group included 75 males and 12 females, with a mean (±SD) age of (4.7±0.7) years. The 301 subjects in the control group included 249 males and 52 females, with a mean (±SD) age of (4.8±0.8) years. Serum vitamin D level in ASD children was significantly lower than that of the control group ( (0.021±0.008) vs . (0.036±0.016) ng/L, t= -8.17, P< 0.01), and the between-group percentage difference of normal, insufficient and deficient levels of vitamin D was statistically significant (12 (14%) vs . 186 (62%) , 67 (77%) vs . 113 (37%) , 8 (9%) vs . 2 (1%) , χ(2)=72.1, P< 0.01). There were

  6. Exciton and core-level electron confinement effects in transparent ZnO thin films

    PubMed Central

    Mosquera, Adolfo A.; Horwat, David; Rashkovskiy, Alexandr; Kovalev, Anatoly; Miska, Patrice; Wainstein, Dmitry; Albella, Jose M.; Endrino, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    The excitonic light emission of ZnO films have been investigated by means of photoluminescence measurements in ultraviolet-visible region. Exciton confinement effects have been observed in thin ZnO coatings with thickness below 20 nm. This is enhanced by a rise of the intensity and a blue shift of the photoluminescence peak after extraction of the adsorbed species upon annealing in air. It is found experimentally that the free exciton energy (determined by the photoluminescence peak) is inversely proportional to the square of the thickness while core-level binding energy is inversely proportional to the thickness. These findings correlate very well with the theory of kinetic and potential confinements.

  7. Recommendations for Training in Pediatric Psychology: Defining Core Competencies Across Training Levels

    PubMed Central

    Janicke, David M.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Mullins, Larry L.; Robins, Paul M.; Wu, Yelena P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective As a field, pediatric psychology has focused considerable efforts on the education and training of students and practitioners. Alongside a broader movement toward competency attainment in professional psychology and within the health professions, the Society of Pediatric Psychology commissioned a Task Force to establish core competencies in pediatric psychology and address the need for contemporary training recommendations. Methods The Task Force adapted the framework proposed by the Competency Benchmarks Work Group on preparing psychologists for health service practice and defined competencies applicable across training levels ranging from initial practicum training to entry into the professional workforce in pediatric psychology. Results Competencies within 6 cluster areas, including science, professionalism, interpersonal, application, education, and systems, and 1 crosscutting cluster, crosscutting knowledge competencies in pediatric psychology, are presented in this report. Conclusions Recommendations for the use of, and the further refinement of, these suggested competencies are discussed. PMID:24719239

  8. First-principles calculational methods for surface-vacancy formation energies, heats of segregation, and surface core-level shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Feibelman, P.J.

    1989-03-15

    The matrix Green's-function version of the self-consistent scattering theory of surface-point-defect energetics is extended to the cases of vacancy formation, substitutional adsorption, and surface core-level shifts. Vacancies are treated by zeroing Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements involving orbitals of atoms being removed and crystal orbitals or the crystal potential. Substitutional adsorption is treated as ordinary adsorption in a vacancy, a treatment which permits use of an arbitrary number of substitutional-atom basis orbitals. Surface core-level shifts, including final-state relaxation effects, are obtained from substitutional adsorption calculations via the Born-Haber-cycle argument of Rosengren and Johansson. In a first comparison with experiment, themore » surface core-level shift for Al(001) is predicted to be -97 meV, modeling this system as a five-layer film, while different experimental groups report values ranging from 0 to -120 meV, respectively, for the Al(2p) level. Earlier calculations, which neglected final-state relaxation, predict a shift of -94 meV for the Al(1s) and about -120 meV for the Al(2s) and Al(2p) core levels. Comparison with the present result indicates that relaxation effects are small in the Al(001) surface core-level shift.« less

  9. SANCnews: Sector 4f, charged current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, A.; Bardin, D.; Bondarenko, S.; Christova, P.; Kalinovskaya, L.; Nanava, G.; Sadykov, R.; von Schlippe, W.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper we describe the implementation of the charged current decays of the type t→bl+νl(γ) in the framework of the SANC system. All calculations are done taking into account the one-loop electroweak correction in the standard model. The emphasis of this paper is on the presentation of numerical results. Various distributions are produced by means of a Monte Carlo integrator and event generator. Comparison with the results of the CompHEP and PYTHIA packages are presented for the Born and hard photon contributions. The validity of the cascade approximation at one-loop level is also studied.

  10. Promoting Research as a Core Value in Master's-Level Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Charles H.; Savage, Todd A.

    2009-01-01

    Theory, practice, and research are all espoused to be core values within counselor education. The authors assert that research needs to become directly associated with theory and practice for it to be a concurrent core value. "Action research" is most simply defined as a form of research that is practitioner based. The authors propose infusing…

  11. Raising FLAGS: Renewing Core French at the Pre-Service Teacher Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    A new program for core French teacher candidates called FLAGS (French Language and Global Studies) was established at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in 2007. The program is intended for those who are keen to teach core French and possess rudimentary proficiency in the language but may not necessarily have the same proficiency or prior…

  12. Intellectual property protection of IP cores through high-level watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, E.; Meyer-Baese, U.; García, A.; Parrilla, L.; Lloris, A.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper a watermarking technique for Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) of FPGA-based systems is proposed. The aim is to protect the author rights of reusable IP cores by means of a digital signature that uniquely identifies both the original design and the design recipient. The proposed watermarking technique relies on a procedure that spreads the digital signature in cells of memory structures at Hardware Description Language (HDL) design level, not increasing the area of the system. This signature is preserved through synthesis, placement and routing processes. The technique includes a procedure for signature extraction requiring minimal modifications to the system. Thus, it is possible to detect the ownership rights without interfering the normal operation of the system and providing high invulnerability. To illustrate the properties of the proposed watermarking technique, both protected and unprotected design examples are compared in terms of area and performance. The analysis of the results shows that the area increase is very low while throughput penalization is almost negligible.

  13. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core

    PubMed Central

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T.; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M.; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C.; Smith, Lucian P.; Wilkinson, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/. PMID:26528564

  14. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  15. Intermediate coupling for core-level excited states: Consequences for X-Ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bagus, Paul S.; Sassi, Michel J.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2015-04-01

    The origin of the complex NEXAFS features of X-Ray Absorption, XAS, spectra in transition metal complexes is analyzed and interpreted in terms of the angular momentum coupling of the open shell electrons. Especially for excited configurations where a core-electron is promoted to an open valence shell, the angular momentum coupling is intermediate between the two limits of Russell- Saunders, RS, coupling where spin-orbit splitting of the electron shells is neglected and j-j coupling where this splitting is taken as dominant. The XAS intensities can be understood in terms of two factors: (1) The dipole selection rules that give the allowedmore » excited RS multiplets and (2) The contributions of these allowed multiplets to the wavefunctions of the intermediate coupled levels. It is shown that the origin of the complex XAS spectra is due to the distribution of the RS allowed multiplets over several different intermediate coupled excited levels. The specific case that is analyzed is the L2,3 edge XAS of an Fe3+ cation, because this cation allows a focus on the angular momentum coupling to the exclusion of other effects; e.g., chemical bonding. Arguments are made that the properties identified for this atomic case are relevant for more complex materials. The analysis is based on the properties of fully relativistic, ab initio, many-body wavefunctions for the initial and final states of the XAS process. The wavefunction properties considered include the composition of the wavefunctions in terms of RS multiplets and the occupations of the spin-orbit split open shells; the latter vividly show whether the coupling is j-j or not.« less

  16. Engineering task plan for upgrades to the leveling jacks on core sample trucks number 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    KOSTELNIK, A.J.

    1999-02-24

    Characterizing the waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site is accomplished by obtaining a representative core sample for analysis. Core sampling is one of the numerous techniques that have been developed for use given the environmental and field conditions at the Hanford Site. Core sampling is currently accomplished using either Push Mode Core Sample Truck No.1 or; Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks No.2, 3 or 4. Past analysis (WHC 1994) has indicated that the Core Sample Truck (CST) leveling jacks are structurally inadequate when lateral loads are applied. WHC 1994 identifies many areas where failure could occur. Allmore » these failures are based on exceeding the allowable stresses listed in the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code. The mode of failure is for the outrigger attachments to the truck frame to fail resulting in dropping of the CST and possible overturning (Ref. Ziada and Hundal, 1996). Out of level deployment of the truck can exceed the code allowable stresses in the structure. Calculations have been performed to establish limits for maintaining the truck level when lifting. The calculations and the associated limits are included in appendix A. The need for future operations of the CSTS is limited. Sampling is expected to be complete in FY-2001. Since there is limited time at risk for continued use of the CSTS with the leveling controls without correcting the structural problems, there are several design changes that could give incremental improvements to the operational safety of the CSTS with limited impact on available operating time. The improvements focus on making the truck easier to control during lifting and leveling. Not all of the tasks identified in this ETP need to be performed. Each task alone can improve the safety. This engineering task plan is the management plan document for implementing the necessary additional structural analysis. Any additional changes to meet requirements of standing orders shall

  17. Association between CYP4F2 genotype and circulating plasma vitamin K concentration in children on chronic warfarin therapy: Possible long-term implications for bone development and vascular health.

    PubMed

    Kampouraki, Emmanouela; Avery, Peter J; Biss, Tina; Kamali, Farhad

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin K is essential, for the activation of clotting proteins, as well as the biosynthesis of osteocalcin in bones and the activation of matrix-Gla protein needed in maintaining vasculature health. Cytochrome p450 4F2 (CYP4F2) enzyme is involved in vitamin K catabolism. Genetic polymorphism in CYP4F2 is thus likely to affect vitamin K systemic availability. We show that children on chronic warfarin therapy have low levels of vitamin K and vitamin K levels are linked to CYP4F2 genotype. Long-term low levels of vitamin K, influenced by CYP4F2 genotype, might affect bone development and vascular health in children on chronic warfarin therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Theoretical modeling of the uranium 4f XPS for U(VI) and U(IV) oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Constance J.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2013-12-28

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and in particular the U4f level, has been widely used to elucidate the chemical state of uranium in various materials. In large part, previous experimental work has relied on comparing the U4f spectra of an unknown to some “standard” or using qualitative intuitive judgments on the expected behavior of the primary lines and satellite structures as a function of oxidation state and bonding environment. Such approaches are useful and can be sufficiently robust to make defensible claims. Nonetheless, there is no quantitative understanding of the chemistry and physics that control satellite structures or even the shapemore » of the primary peaks. To address this issue, we used a rigorous, strictly ab initio theoretical approach to investigate the U(4f) XPS of U oxides with formal U(VI) and U(IV) oxidation states. Our theoretical studies are based on the electronic structures of embedded cluster models, where bonding between U and O is explicitly incorporated. We demonstrate that treatment of the many-body character of the cluster wavefunctions is essential to correctly model and interpret the U4f XPS. Here we definitively show that shake configurations, where an electron is transferred from a dominantly O2p bonding orbital into dominantly 5f or 6d antibonding orbitals, are indeed responsible for the major satellite features. Based on this rigorous theoretical framework, it is possible to establish quantitative relationships between features of the XPS spectra and the chemistry of the material.« less

  19. Correlation of coagulation markers and 4F-PCC-mediated reversal of rivaroxaban in a rabbit model of acute bleeding.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Eva; Kaspereit, Franz; Krege, Wilfried; Mueller-Cohrs, Jochen; Doerr, Baerbel; Niebl, Peter; Dickneite, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    Rivaroxaban is an oral, selective direct factor Xa inhibitor approved for several indications in patients at risk of thrombotic events. One limitation of its clinical use is the lack of data pertaining to its reversal in situations where urgent response is critical (e.g. acute bleeding events or emergency surgery). This study assessed the effectiveness of a four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC; Beriplex(®)/Kcentra(®)) for the reversal of rivaroxaban-associated bleeding in an in vivo rabbit model, and evaluated the correlations between in vitro coagulation parameters and haemostasis in vivo. Administration of single intravenous doses of rivaroxaban (150-450 μg/kg) resulted in increased and prolonged bleeding following standardised kidney incision. Pre-incision treatment with 4F-PCC (25-100 IU/kg) resulted in a dose-dependent reversal of rivaroxaban (150 and 300 μg/kg)-associated increases in time to haemostasis and blood loss; no reversal was seen at the highest rivaroxaban dose (450 μg/kg). Of the in vitro biomarkers tested, thrombin generation and whole-blood clotting time correlated well with in vivo measures of 4F-PCC-mediated effects. Thrombin generation was highly reagent-dependent, with the assay initiated using the phospholipid-only reagent being the most predictive of effective haemostasis in vivo. In summary, in a rabbit model of acute bleeding, treatment with 4F-PCC reduced bleeding to control levels following rivaroxaban 150 μg/kg and 300 μg/kg administration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A Novel Nonsense Mutation ofPOU4F3Gene Causes Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Wang, Mingming; Xiao, Yun; Zhang, Fengguo; Zhou, Yicui; Li, Jianfeng; Zheng, Qingyin; Bai, Xiaohui; Wang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    POU4F3 gene encodes a transcription factor which plays an essential role in the maturation and maintenance of hair cells in cochlea and vestibular system. Several mutations of POU4F3 have been reported to cause autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss in recent years. In this study, we describe a pathogenic nonsense mutation located in POU4F3 in a four-generation Chinese family. Target region capture sequencing was performed to search for the candidate mutations from 81 genes related to nonsyndromic hearing loss in this family. A novel nonsense mutation of POU4F3 , c.337C>T (p. Gln113 ⁎ ), was identified in a Chinese family characterized by late-onset progressive nonsyndromic hearing loss. The novel mutation cosegregated with hearing loss in this family and was absent in 200 ethnicity-matched controls. The mutation led to a stop codon and thus a truncated protein with no functional domains remained. Transient transfection and immunofluorescence assay revealed that the subcellular localization of the truncated protein differed markedly from normal protein, which could be the underlying reason for complete loss of its normal function. Here, we report the first nonsense mutation of POU4F3 associated with progressive hearing loss and explored the possible underlying mechanism. Routine examination of POU4F3 is necessary for the genetic diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss in the future.

  1. Public health nutrition workforce composition, core functions, competencies and capacity: perspectives of advanced-level practitioners in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Roger

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the attitudes, experiences and beliefs of advanced-level public health nutritionists with respect to public health nutrition workforce composition, core functions, competency requirements and existing workforce capacity. Qualitative study using structured interviews. Australia. Forty-one advanced-level public health nutritionists employed in academic and senior technocratic positions in state health systems. Advanced-level public health nutritionists recognise the diversity of the public health nutrition workforce but clearly identify the need for a specialist public health nutrition workforce tier to provide workforce leadership. Nominated core functions for public health nutrition reflect broader public health core functions but, in the context of nutrition, specific problem resolution. Opinions about competency needs were similar to many of the cross-cutting competencies identified in the public health field but with specific application to nutrition problems. Competency in the scientific underpinning of nutrition was considered particularly important and delineated this public health nutrition workforce from the broader public health workforce. Public health nutrition was identified as a specialisation within public health and dietetics. Workforce capacity assessments by this group indicate a need for workforce development. Qualitative data from a large proportion of the Australian public health nutrition leadership group have identified core functions, competencies and workforce development priorities that can be a basis for further systematic research and workforce strategy development.

  2. Real-time TDDFT simulations of time-resolved core-level spectroscopies in solid state systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemmaraju, Sri Chaitanya Das; Prendergast, David; Theory of Nanostructured Materials Facility Team

    The advent of sub-femtosecond time-resolved core-level spectroscopies based on high harmonic generated XUV pulses has enabled the study of electron dyanamics on characteristic femtosecond time-scales. Unambiguous interpretation of these powerful yet complex spectroscopies however requires the development of theoretical algorithms capable of modeling light-matter interaction across a wide energy range spanning both valence and core orbitals. In this context we present a recent implementation of the velocity-gauge formalism of real-time TDDFT within a linear combination of atomic orbital (LCAO) framework, which facilitates efficient numerical treatment of localized semi-core orbitals. Dynamics and spectra obtained from LCAO based simulations are compared to those from a real-space grid implementation. Potential applications are also illustrated by applying the method towards interpreting recent atto-second time-resolved IR-pump XUV-probe spectroscopies investigating sub-cycle excitation dynamics in bulk silicon.

  3. Core sampling beneath low-level radioactive-waste burial trenches, West Valley, Cattaraugus County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    1979-01-01

    A technique was developed for collecting cores for radiometric analysis from beneath a low-level radioactive-waste landfill to determine the rates of downward radionuclide migration below the trenches. A closed pipe was driven through the buried waste, and a removable point withdrawn. The hole was then advanced by alternately pushing a coring device, then driving an inner casing to the depth reached by the coring device and cleaning out cuttings from within the casing. The effectiveness of the technique was limited by inability to predict the location of impenetrable objects within the waste in some parts of the burial ground and difficulty in detecting when the end of the pipe first penetrated undisturbed material beneath the trench floor. Geophysical logs of the completed hole were used to help determine the trench-floor depth. (USGS).

  4. Strong Correlation between Liver and Serum Levels of Hepatitis C Virus Core Antigen and RNA in Chronically Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, V.; Op de Beeck, A.; Plassart, C.; Brochot, E.; François, C.; Helle, F.; Adler, M.; Bourgeois, N.; Degré, D.; Duverlie, G.

    2012-01-01

    HCV core antigen (Ag) and HCV RNA levels were evaluated in matched liver biopsy samples and sera from 22 patients with hepatitis C infection by using the quantitative Architect HCV Ag immunoassay and a real-time RT-qPCR assay, respectively. The data showed a strong correlation between liver and serum compartments of HCV Ag levels (r = 0.80) and HCV RNA levels (r = 0.87). In summary, the serum HCV Ag and RNA levels reflect the intrahepatic values. PMID:22162563

  5. Liquid level, void fraction, and superheated steam sensor for nuclear-reactor cores. [PWR; BWR

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-10-27

    This disclosure relates to an apparatus for monitoring the presence of coolant in liquid or mixed liquid and vapor, and superheated gaseous phases at one or more locations within an operating nuclear reactor core, such as pressurized water reactor or a boiling water reactor.

  6. Microstructure-dependent mechanical properties of electrospun core-shell scaffolds at multi-scale levels.

    PubMed

    Horner, Christopher B; Ico, Gerardo; Johnson, Jed; Zhao, Yi; Nam, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Mechanical factors among many physiochemical properties of scaffolds for stem cell-based tissue engineering significantly affect tissue morphogenesis by controlling stem cell behaviors including proliferation and phenotype-specific differentiation. Core-shell electrospinning provides a unique opportunity to control mechanical properties of scaffolds independent of surface chemistry, rendering a greater freedom to tailor design for specific applications. In this study, we synthesized electrospun core-shell scaffolds having different core composition and/or core-to-shell dimensional ratios. Two independent biocompatible polymer systems, polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) and gelatin as the core materials while maintaining the shell polymer with polycaprolactone (PCL), were utilized. The mechanics of such scaffolds was analyzed at the microscale and macroscales to determine the potential implications it may hold for cell-material and tissue-material interactions. The mechanical properties of individual core-shell fibers were controlled by core-shell composition and structure. The individual fiber modulus correlated with the increase in percent core size ranging from 0.55±0.10GPa to 1.74±0.22GPa and 0.48±0.12GPa to 1.53±0.12GPa for the PEKK-PCL and gelatin-PCL fibers, respectively. More importantly, it was demonstrated that mechanical properties of the scaffolds at the macroscale were dominantly determined by porosity under compression. The increase of scaffold porosity from 70.2%±1.0% to 93.2%±0.5% by increasing the core size in the PEKK-PCL scaffold resulted in the decrease of the compressive elastic modulus from 227.67±20.39kPa to 14.55±1.43kPa while a greater changes in the porosity of gelatin-PCL scaffold from 54.5%±4.2% to 89.6%±0.4% resulted in the compressive elastic modulus change from 484.01±30.18kPa to 17.57±1.40kPa. On the other hand, the biphasic behaviors under tensile mechanical loading result in a range from a minimum of 5.42±1.05MPa to a maximum

  7. Levels of metals and semimetals in sedimentary cores in Bertioga Channel, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartoretto, J. R.; Salaroli, A.; Figueira, R. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Baixada Santista is one of the most exploited and populated regions of São Paulo state. During the last decades, due to intense industrialization the Baixada Santista has passed through a strong process of environmental degradation. Metals in sediments are persistent, present toxicity in varied concentrations and may be deposited reaching biota habitats. In this context, high concentrations of metals represent environmental concern to costal management. Bertioga Channel is part of this complex system and is known mainly by a wide adjacent mangrove area. The channel is 25 km long, connecting the upstream region of Santos estuary to the adjacent ocean through an inlet located at the city of Bertioga. Urban development generates the concern of potential waste influx from surrounding streams, generating deposits and contaminating surface sediments along the channel, which may lead to adjacent coastal issues. The objective of this study was to characterize the concentration of the following metals at Bertioga Channel sediments: Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, V and Zn. Five sediment cores were sampled along the channel and analyzed. Determination of metals concentration was based on methods SW 846 US EPA 3050B and EPA 7471. High As concentrations were observed at all cores, with considerable concentration similarity between the first and second sampling points. Analytical results showed that cores Bertioga 4 and Bertioga 5 have accumulated high quantity of metals and semimetals, mainly As, Cd and Cr. Normalization of concentration values showed low contamination at the cores. Nevertheless, As and Hg values indicated moderate to significant contamination at a few sampling points. Despite of the low probability of contamination demonstrated by the normalized values, increasing at the sediment surface of Enrichment Factor (ER), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Sediment Pollution Index (SPI) parameters were observed. Results indicate that industrialization

  8. Scanning microscopy of magnetic domains using the Fe 3p core level transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J.; Rozhko, I.; Voss, J.; Hillebrecht, F. U.; Kisker, E.; Wedemeier, V.

    1999-04-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of the vacuum ultraviolet analog to visible-light magneto-optical imaging of magnetic structures using the resonantly enhanced transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect at core level thresholds with incident p-polarized radiation. The advantages are element specificity and a variable information depth. We used the scanning x-ray microscope at HASYLAB capable of obtaining about 1 μm resolution by means of its focusing ellipsoidal ring mirror. The p-polarized component of the reflected light was selected using multilayer reflection at an additional plane mirror downstream to the sample. Micrographs of the optical reflectivity were taken in the vicinity of the Fe 3p core level threshold at 53.7 and 56.5 eV photon energy where the magneto-optical effect is of opposite sign. Magnetic domains are visible in the difference of both recorded images.

  9. Pou4f2 knock-in Cre mouse: A multifaceted genetic tool for vision researchers.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Aaron B; Bloomsburg, Samuel J; Billingslea, Samuel A; Merrill, Morgan M; Li, Shuai; Thomas, Marshall W; Fuerst, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    A transgenic mouse that expresses Cre recombinase under control of the Pou4f2-promoter (also referred to as Brn-3b and Brn-3.2) was characterized. Pou4f2 expression has been reported in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the retina, in the midbrain, and in the germline. In this study, we characterize the expression pattern of this Cre-recombinase line and report its utility in targeted deletion, temporal deletion, RGC depletion, and germline targeting, which can be regulated by the sex of the Cre-carrying mouse. Pou4f2(Cre) was mapped by using a combination of PCR and sequencing of PCR products to better understand the construct and to locate where it was inserted within the Pou4f2 locus. Cre expression patterns were examined by crossing Pou4f2(Cre/+) mice to Cre reporter mice. Immunohistochemistry was used to further define the pattern of Cre expression and Cre-mediated recombination within the retina, brain, and other tissues. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-Cre cassette was inserted into the Pou4f2 gene disrupting normal gene function, as verified by the depletion of RGCs in mice homozygous for the insert. Pou4f2(Cre) expression was observed in the retina, brain, peripheral neurons, and male germ cells. Germline recombination was observed when the sire carried the Cre and the target for recombination. In all other breeding schemes, recombination was observed within subsets of cells within the retina, brain, intestines, heart, and gonads. In the retina, Cre efficiently targets recombination in neurons within the RGC layer (RGL), the inner nuclear layer (INL), and a small percentage of photoreceptors, activity that has not been previously reported. Unlike most other Cre lines active in the inner retina, recombination in Müller and other glia was not observed in mice carrying Pou4f2(Cre) . Within the visual centers of the brain, Cre targets recombination in about 15% of cells within the superchiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, and

  10. SF6 and C4F8 global kinetic models coupled to sheath models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidar, Yehya; Pateau, Amand; Rhallabi, Ahmed; Fernandez, Marie Claude; Mokrani, Arezki; Taher, Fadia; Roqueta, Fabrice; Boufnichel, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Global kinetic models combined with Monte Carlo sheath models are developed for SF6 and C4F8 plasma discharges for silicon etching under the Bosch process. In SF6 plasma, the dominant positive ions are SF_5+ , SF_4+ , SF_3+ and F+ while in C4F8 the dominant positive ions are CF_3+ and C_2F_3+ . The simulation results show that the electrical parameters, such as the electron density and electron temperature, clearly affect the sheath dynamics and consequently the ion energy distribution function evolutions. In this context, we showed the effects of the operating conditions, such as the pressure and the radiofrequency power, on the electron density and electron temperature evolutions as well as the reactive particle fluxes (neutral and positive ions) involved in the plasma surface interactions for etching/deposition under the Bosch process. Ion energy distribution functions obtained from SF6 and C4F8 plasmas are compared with each other as regards the electrical properties of their associated plasmas. The simulation results show that the bimodal peaks of ion energy distribution functions are wider for SF6 plasma than for C4F8 plasma due to the high sheath thickness of SF6 compared to that of C4F8. This is explained by the low electron density due to the high electronegativity of SF6 in comparison to that of C4F8. The simulations also reveal that the bimodal peak of the ion energy distribution function is wider when the ion mass is low.

  11. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Weiyi; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2010-11-17

    In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs). A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), measles and tuberculosis (TB) surveillance systems got relatively high recognition both at province level and county level. China has

  12. Electron Affinity of trans-2-C4F8 from Electron Attachment-Detachment Kinetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-04

    out the temperature range (133 Pa at 300 K). The 2-C4F8 isomeric mixture was introduced into the flow tube at a concentration of typically 1 ppm by...Figure 1 . Mid-IR spectrum of a dilute mixture of the 2-C4F8 sample in UHP helium from which the sample composition of 18% cis- perfluoro-2- butene and...previous reports did not characterize the isomeric distribution of the perfluoro-2- butene but it is likely that it was similar to the mixture used in

  13. Kondo Physics in a Rare Earth Ion with Well Localized 4f Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Evangelisti, Marco; Fisk, Zachary; Schlottmann, Pedro; Gor'kov, Lev P.

    2012-06-01

    Dilute Nd in simple cubic LaB6 shows electrical resistance and specific heat features at low temperature consistent with a Kondo scale of TK≲0.3K. Nd has a well-localized 4f3 J=9/2 Hund’s rule configuration which is not anticipated to be Kondo coupled to the conduction electrons in LaB6. We conjecture that the unexpected Kondo effect arises via participation of 4f quadrupolar degrees of freedom of the Nd crystal-field, ground-state quartet.

  14. Kondo physics in a rare earth ion with well localized 4f electrons.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Evangelisti, Marco; Fisk, Zachary; Schlottmann, Pedro; Gor'kov, Lev P

    2012-06-22

    Dilute Nd in simple cubic LaB(6) shows electrical resistance and specific heat features at low temperature consistent with a Kondo scale of T(K) 4f(3) J = 9/2 Hund's rule configuration which is not anticipated to be Kondo coupled to the conduction electrons in LaB(6). We conjecture that the unexpected Kondo effect arises via participation of 4f quadrupolar degrees of freedom of the Nd crystal-field, ground-state quartet.

  15. Cyclin A Is a Mediator of p120E4F-Dependent Cell Cycle Arrest in G1

    PubMed Central

    Fajas, Lluis; Paul, Conception; Vié, Annick; Estrach, Soline; Medema, René; Blanchard, Jean Marie; Sardet, Claude; Vignais, Marie-Luce

    2001-01-01

    E4F is a ubiquitously expressed GLI-Krüppel-related transcription factor which has been identified for its capacity to regulate transcription of the adenovirus E4 gene in response to E1A. However, cellular genes regulated by E4F are still unknown. Some of these genes are likely to be involved in cell cycle progression since ectopic p120E4F expression induces cell cycle arrest in G1. Although p21WAF1 stabilization was proposed to mediate E4F-dependent cell cycle arrest, we found that p120E4F can induce a G1 block in p21−/− cells, suggesting that other proteins are essential for the p120E4F-dependent block in G1. We show here that cyclin A promoter activity can be repressed by p120E4F and that this repression correlates with p120E4F binding to the cyclic AMP-responsive element site of the cyclin A promoter. In addition, enforced expression of cyclin A releases p120E4F-arrested cells from the G1 block. These data identify the cyclin A gene as a cellular target for p120E4F and suggest a mechanism for p120E4F-dependent cell cycle regulation. PMID:11283272

  16. Adsorption of lithium on the Si(111)7 × 7 surface studied with high resolution core-level spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grehk, T. M.; Larsson, C. U. S.; Prince, N. P.; Flodström, S. A.

    1993-03-01

    Li-adsorption on the Si(111)7 × 7 surface at room temperature has been studied for different metal coverages with core-level spectroscopy. Four Li-induced components are observed in the Si 2p level at high Li-coverages indicating the formation of four thermodynamically stable phases. It is shown that the reaction between the Li atoms and the Si(111)7 × 7 surface takes place in two steps. In the first the surface reconstructs towards a "7 × 1" reconstruction and in the second Li react with the Si-substrate, forming Li suicides, with the Si atom coordinating up to four Li neighbors.

  17. Overexpression of eIF4F components in meningiomas and suppression of meningioma cell growth by inhibiting translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Oblinger, Janet L; Burns, Sarah S; Huang, Jie; Pan, Li; Ren, Yulin; Shen, Rulong; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Welling, D Bradley; Chang, Long-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Meningiomas frequently display activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, leading to elevated levels of phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding proteins, which enhances protein synthesis; however, it is not known whether inhibition of protein translation is an effective treatment option for meningiomas. We found that human meningiomas expressed high levels of the three components of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) translation initiation complex, eIF4A, eIF4E, and eIF4G. The expression of eIF4A and eIF4E was important in sustaining the growth of NF2-deficient benign meningioma Ben-Men-1 cells, as shRNA-mediated knockdown of these proteins strongly reduced cell proliferation. Among a series of 23 natural compounds evaluated, silvestrol, which inhibits eIF4A, was identified as being the most growth inhibitory in both primary meningioma and Ben-Men-1 cells. Silvestrol treatment of meningioma cells prominently induced G 2 /M arrest. Consistently, silvestrol significantly decreased the amounts of cyclins D1, E1, A, and B, PCNA, and Aurora A. In addition, total and phosphorylated AKT, ERK, and FAK, which have been shown to be important drivers for meningioma cell proliferation, were markedly lower in silvestrol-treated Ben-Men-1 cells. Our findings suggest that inhibiting protein translation could be a potential treatment for meningiomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chai-An; Agca, Cavit; Mocko-Strand, Julie A; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2016-03-16

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. The design of multi-core DSP parallel model based on message passing and multi-level pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jingyu; Hu, Jian; He, Wenjing; Meng, Fanrong; Li, Chuanrong

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the design of embedded signal processing system is often based on a specific application, but this idea is not conducive to the rapid development of signal processing technology. In this paper, a parallel processing model architecture based on multi-core DSP platform is designed, and it is mainly suitable for the complex algorithms which are composed of different modules. This model combines the ideas of multi-level pipeline parallelism and message passing, and summarizes the advantages of the mainstream model of multi-core DSP (the Master-Slave model and the Data Flow model), so that it has better performance. This paper uses three-dimensional image generation algorithm to validate the efficiency of the proposed model by comparing with the effectiveness of the Master-Slave and the Data Flow model.

  20. CdS/CdSe core-shell nanorod arrays: energy level alignment and enhanced photoelectrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Jiang, Jiangang; Shi, Jinwen; Guo, Liejin

    2013-05-22

    Novel CdS/CdSe core-shell nanorod arrays were fabricated by a chemical bath deposition of CdSe on hydrothermally synthesized CdS nanorods. The CdS rods were hexagonal phase faced and the top of the rod was subulate. After the chemical bath deposition approach, CdS nanorod arrays were encapsulated by a uniform CdSe layer resulting enhanced absorbance and extended absorption edges of the films. A tandem structure of the energy bands of CdS/CdSe was also formed as a result of the Fermi level alignment, which is a benefit to the efficient separation of photogenerated charges. CdS/CdSe core-shell arrays gave a maximum photocurrent of 5.3 mA/cm(2), which was 4 and 11 times as large as bare CdS and CdSe, respectively.

  1. From serendipitous assembly to controlled synthesis of 3d-4f single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Ledezma-Gairaud, M; Grangel, L; Aromí, G; Fujisawa, T; Yamaguchi, A; Sumiyama, A; Sañudo, E C

    2014-06-16

    Learning from serendipitous assembly, we have prepared a new family of designed 3d-4f Mn6Ln complexes. The dynamics of relaxation of the magnetization via alternating-current magnetic susceptibility for the new Mn6Ln complexes 1 (Ln = La), 2 (Ln = Tb), and 4 (Ln = Dy) have been studied down to 0.2 K.

  2. Reversing chemoresistance by small molecule inhibition of the translation initiation complex eIF4F

    PubMed Central

    Cencic, Regina; Hall, David R.; Robert, Francis; Du, Yuhong; Min, Jaeki; Li, Lian; Qui, Min; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Dingledine, Ray; Fu, Haian; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Pelletier, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Deregulation of cap-dependent translation is associated with cancer initiation and progression. The rate-limiting step of protein synthesis is the loading of ribosomes onto mRNA templates stimulated by the heterotrimeric complex, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4F. This step represents an attractive target for anticancer drug discovery because it resides at the nexus of the TOR signaling pathway. We have undertaken an ultra-high-throughput screen to identify inhibitors that prevent assembly of the eIF4F complex. One of the identified compounds blocks interaction between two subunits of eIF4F. As a consequence, cap-dependent translation is inhibited. This compound can reverse tumor chemoresistance in a genetically engineered lymphoma mouse model by sensitizing cells to the proapoptotic action of DNA damage. Molecular modeling experiments provide insight into the mechanism of action of this small molecule inhibitor. Our experiments validate targeting the eIF4F complex as a strategy for cancer therapy to modulate chemosensitivity. PMID:21191102

  3. 48 CFR 47.305-4 - F.o.b. destination solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. destination solicitations. 47.305-4 Section 47.305-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-4 F.o.b. destination solicitations. (a) When preparing f.o.b...

  4. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid. 47.303-4 Section 47.303-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F....

  5. Prospecting Lighting Applications with Ligand Field Tools and Density Functional Theory: A First-Principles Account of the 4f(7)-4f(6)5d(1) Luminescence of CsMgBr3:Eu(2+).

    PubMed

    Ramanantoanina, Harry; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Göttel, Christian; Sahnoun, Mohammed; Herden, Benjamin; Suta, Markus; Wickleder, Claudia; Urland, Werner; Daul, Claude

    2015-09-08

    The most efficient way to provide domestic lighting nowadays is by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) technology combined with phosphors shifting the blue and UV emission toward a desirable sunlight spectrum. A route in the quest for warm-white light goes toward the discovery and tuning of the lanthanide-based phosphors, a difficult task, in experimental and technical respects. A proper theoretical approach, which is also complicated at the conceptual level and in computing efforts, is however a profitable complement, offering valuable structure-property rationale as a guideline in the search of the best materials. The Eu(2+)-based systems are the prototypes for ideal phosphors, exhibiting a wide range of visible light emission. Using the ligand field concepts in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT), conducted in nonroutine manner, we develop a nonempirical procedure to investigate the 4f(7)-4f(6)5d(1) luminescence of Eu(2+) in the environment of arbitrary ligands, applied here on the CsMgBr3:Eu(2+)-doped material. Providing a salient methodology for the extraction of the relevant ligand field and related parameters from DFT calculations and encompassing the bottleneck of handling large matrices in a model Hamiltonian based on the whole set of 33,462 states, we obtained an excellent match with the experimental spectrum, from first-principles, without any fit or adjustment. This proves that the ligand field density functional theory methodology can be used in the assessment of new materials and rational property design.

  6. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Christian; Hartmann, Claudia; Cocchi, Caterina; Sadoughi, Golnaz; Habisreutinger, Severin N; Félix, Roberto; Wilks, Regan G; Snaith, Henry J; Bär, Marcus; Draxl, Claudia

    2018-04-19

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L 3 and the Pb M 5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI 3 ) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI 2 . The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI 3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. The theoretical analysis complementing experimental observations provides the conceptual insights required for a full characterization of this complex material.

  7. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Habisreutinger, Severin N; Vorwerk, Christian; Hartmann, Claudia

    2018-03-23

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L3 and the Pb M5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI2. The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. The theoretical analysis complementing experimental observations provides the conceptual insights required formore » a full characterization of this complex material.« less

  8. Exciton-Dominated Core-Level Absorption Spectra of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Vorwerk, Christian; Hartmann, Claudia; Cocchi, Caterina

    2018-03-23

    In a combined theoretical and experimental work, we investigate X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of the I L3 and the Pb M5 edges of the methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid inorganic-organic perovskite and its binary phase PbI2. The absorption onsets are dominated by bound excitons with sizable binding energies of a few hundred millielectronvolts and pronounced anisotropy. The spectra of both materials exhibit remarkable similarities, suggesting that the fingerprints of core excitations in MAPbI3 are essentially given by its inorganic component, with negligible influence from the organic groups. The theoretical analysis complementing experimental observations provides the conceptual insights required formore » a full characterization of this complex material.« less

  9. Core Competencies in Integrative Pain Care for Entry-Level Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Tick, Heather; Chauvin, Sheila W; Brown, Michael; Haramati, Aviad

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to develop a set of core competencies for graduating primary care physicians in integrative pain care (IPC), using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) domains. These competencies build on previous work in competencies for integrative medicine, interprofessional education, and pain medicine and are proposed for inclusion in residency training. A task force was formed to include representation from various professionals who are involved in education, research, and the practice of IPC and who represent broad areas of expertise. The task force convened during a 1.5-day face-to-face meeting, followed by a series of surveys and other vetting processes involving diverse interprofessional groups, which led to the consensus of a final set of competencies. The proposed competencies focus on interprofessional knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) and are in line with recommendations by the Institute of Medicine, military medicine, and professional pain societies advocating the need for coordination and integration of services for effective pain care with reduced risk and cost and improved outcomes. These ACGME domain compatible competencies for physicians reflect the contributions of several disciplines that will need to be included in evolving interprofessional settings and underscore the need for collaborative care. These core competencies can guide the incorporation of KSAs within curricula. The learning experiences should enable medical educators and graduating primary care physicians to focus more on integrative approaches, interprofessional team-based, patient-centered care that use evidence-based, traditional and complementary disciplines and therapeutics to provide safe and effective treatments for people in pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Yes we can! Eliminating health disparities as part of the core business of nursing on a global level.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    Nurses in the 21st century are being called to rise to new levels of practice, including a more influential leadership at senior levels of policy development. Decades of research, good will, and a revolutionary civil rights movement have not resolved the world's staggering health outcome disparities. Nursing has a solution: Many of the most troubling disparities are amenable to effective intervention by the world's nurses through their clinical and policy work. The author challenges nurses to imagine the impact on global health if the elimination of disparities is the core goal of nursing for the 21st century. Moving from individuals and communities to systems levels, nurses must be versed in a range of system-level vital signs that affect policy development including economics, demographics, and access to care. Setting our sights on the elimination of health disparities offers a rallying point around which nursing can coalesce and set human health on a new and more equitable course.

  11. Transintestinal transport of the anti-inflammatory drug 4F and the modulation of transintestinal cholesterol efflux[S

    PubMed Central

    Meriwether, David; Sulaiman, Dawoud; Wagner, Alan; Grijalva, Victor; Kaji, Izumi; Williams, Kevin J.; Yu, Liqing; Fogelman, Spencer; Volpe, Carmen; Bensinger, Steven J.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Shechter, Ishaiahu; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.

    2016-01-01

    The site and mechanism of action of the apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F are incompletely understood. Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) is a process involved in the clearance of excess cholesterol from the body. While TICE is responsible for at least 30% of the clearance of neutral sterols from the circulation into the intestinal lumen, few pharmacological agents have been identified that modulate this pathway. We show first that circulating 4F selectively targets the small intestine (SI) and that it is predominantly transported into the intestinal lumen. This transport of 4F into the SI lumen is transintestinal in nature, and it is modulated by TICE. We also show that circulating 4F increases reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages and cholesterol efflux from lipoproteins via the TICE pathway. We identify the cause of this modulation of TICE either as 4F being a cholesterol acceptor with respect to enterocytes, from which 4F enhances cholesterol efflux, or as 4F being an intestinal chaperone with respect to TICE. Our results assign a novel role for 4F as a modulator of the TICE pathway and suggest that the anti-inflammatory functions of 4F may be a partial consequence of the codependent intestinal transport of both 4F and cholesterol. PMID:27199144

  12. Study of muons near shower cores at sea level using the E594 neutrino detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, J. A.; Gupta, S. C.; Freudenreich, H.; Sivaprasad, K.; Tonwar, S. C.; Yodh, G. B.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Goodman, M. C.; Bogert, D.; Burnstein, R.

    1985-01-01

    The E594 neutrino detector has been used to study the lateral distribution of muons of energy 3 GeV near shower cores. The detector consists of a 340 ton fine grain calorimeter with 400,000 cells of flash chamber and dimensions of 3.7 m x 20 m x 3.7 m (height). The average density in the calorimeter is 1.4 gm/sq cm, and the average Z is 21. The detector was triggered by four 0.6 sq m scintillators placed immediately on the top of the calorimeter. The trigger required at least two of these four counters. The accompanying extensive air showers (EAS) was sampled by 14 scintillation counters located up to 15 m from the calorimeter. Several off line cuts have been applied to the data. Demanding five particles in at least two of the trigger detectors, a total of 20 particles in all of them together, and an arrival angle for the shower 450 deg reduced the data sample to 11053 events. Of these in 4869 cases, a computer algorithm found at least three muons in the calorimeter.

  13. Macrocyclic {3d-4f} SMMs as building blocks for 1D-polymers: selective bridging of 4f ions by use of an O-donor ligand.

    PubMed

    Dhers, Sébastien; Feltham, Humphrey L C; Rouzières, Mathieu; Clérac, Rodolphe; Brooker, Sally

    2016-11-15

    Crystallisation of the tetranuclear 3d-4f Single-Molecule Magnet (SMM) [CuTb III (L Et )(NO 3 ) 3 (MeOH)]·MeOH (1) with Na 2 [tpa] (tpa = terephthalate and H 6 L Et is the [3 + 3] imine macrocycle derived from 1,4-diformyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzene and 1,2-diaminoethane) gives a structurally characterised one-dimensional cationic polymer {[CuTb III (L Et )(tpa)(H 2 O) 3 ](NO 3 )·0.5H 2 O·0.25MeOH} n (2). A comparative study of the static and dynamic magnetic properties of 2 and its precursor, 1, is reported.

  14. Crystallography aided by atomic core-level binding energies: proton transfer versus hydrogen bonding in organic crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joanna S; Byard, Stephen J; Seaton, Colin C; Sadiq, Ghazala; Davey, Roger J; Schroeder, Sven L M

    2011-10-10

    Ionic bond or hydrogen bridge? Brønsted proton transfer to nitrogen acceptors in organic crystals causes strong N1s core-level binding energy shifts. A study of 15 organic cocrystal and salt systems shows that standard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) can be used as a complementary method to X-ray crystallography for distinguishing proton transfer from H-bonding in organic condensed matter. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Model calculation of core level XPS spectra in early 3d-metal compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlebas, J. C.

    1992-07-01

    Using a configuration-interaction impurity-Anderson model we calculate core-hole X-ray Photoemission Spectra (c-XPS) for some early Transition Metal (TM) insulating compounds. Because in these compounds the valence (ligand) band is completely filled, the TM on-site Coulomb repulsion U_dd is treated exactly, as well as the 3d-core hole interaction U_dc. The ground state of such a ligand-TM system with a nominally d^0 cation is described as a mixture of purely d^0 ionic state, and charge-transfer screened d^1L and d^2L^2 states where L denotes a hole in the ligand band. Our simplified model enables us to understand why c-XPS satellites are still present in CaF2 or CaO, like in light TM compounds, but absent for KF compounds. In addition to U_dd and U_dc, the other relevant parameters are the ligand-to-metal charge-transfer energy Δ and the corresponding hybridization V (related to the metal-ligand transfer integrals). Finally quite a good fit to 2p{3/2}-XPS of TiO2 is obtained by using the parameter values estimated from (i) a LMTO band structure calculation of TiO2, and (ii) another calculated fit of the K(Ti) pre-edge absorption spectrum in TiO2. A l'aide du modèle d'impureté d'Anderson avec mélange de configurations, nous calculons les spectres X de la photoémission de cœur (c-XPS) pour certains composés isolants du début de la série des métaux de transition (MT). Comme la bande de valence de ces composés est complètement remplie, on peut traiter exactement la répulsion de Coulomb U_dd sur le site du MT ainsi d'ailleurs que l'interaction U_dc entre l'électron 3d et le trou de cœur. L'état de base d'un tel système contenant un cation de configuration d^0 est décrit par un mélange de l'état ionique purement d^0 et des états écrantés à transfert de charge d^1L et d^2L^2 où L est mis pour un trou dans la bande de valence. Ce modèle très simplifié est par exemple capable de comprendre pourquoi les satellites de la photoémission de c

  16. Translation initiation complex eIF4F is a therapeutic target for dual mTOR kinase inhibitors in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Demosthenous, Christos; Han, Jing Jing; Stenson, Mary J; Maurer, Matthew J; Wellik, Linda E; Link, Brian; Hege, Kristen; Dogan, Ahmet; Sotomayor, Eduardo; Witzig, Thomas; Gupta, Mamta

    2015-04-20

    Deregulated mRNA translation has been implicated in disease development and in part is controlled by a eukaryotic initiation complex eIF4F (composed of eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A). We demonstrate here that the cap bound fraction from lymphoma cells was enriched with eIF4G and eIF4E indicating that lymphoma cells exist in an activated translational state. Moreover, 77% (110/142) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma tumors expressed eIF4E and this was associated with an inferior event free survival. Over-expression of wild-type eIF4E (eIF4E(WT)) but not cap-mutant eIF4E (eIF4E(cap mutant)) increased the activation of the eIF4F complex. Treatment with the active-site dual mTOR inhibitor CC214-1 reduced the level of the eIF4F complex by decreasing the cap bound fraction of eIF4G and increasing the levels of 4E-BP1. CC214-1 inhibited both the cap dependent and global protein translation. CC214-1 inhibited c-Myc, and cyclin D3 translation by decreasing polysomal fractions from lymphoma cells. Inhibition of eIF4E with shRNA further decreased the CC214-1 induced inhibition of the eIF4F complex, c-Myc, cyclin D3 translation, and colony formation. These studies demonstrate that the eIF4F complex is deregulated in aggressive lymphoma and that dual mTOR therapy has therapeutic potential in these patients.

  17. Translation initiation complex eIF4F is a therapeutic target for dual mTOR kinase inhibitors in non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Stenson, Mary J.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Wellik, Linda E.; Link, Brian; Hege, Kristen; Dogan, Ahmet; Sotomayor, Eduardo; Witzig, Thomas; Gupta, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated mRNA translation has been implicated in disease development and in part is controlled by a eukaryotic initiation complex eIF4F (composed of eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A). We demonstrate here that the cap bound fraction from lymphoma cells was enriched with eIF4G and eIF4E indicating that lymphoma cells exist in an activated translational state. Moreover, 77% (110/142) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma tumors expressed eIF4E and this was associated with an inferior event free survival. Over-expression of wild-type eIF4E (eIF4EWT) but not cap-mutant eIF4E (eIF4Ecap mutant) increased the activation of the eIF4F complex. Treatment with the active-site dual mTOR inhibitor CC214-1 reduced the level of the eIF4F complex by decreasing the cap bound fraction of eIF4G and increasing the levels of 4E-BP1. CC214-1 inhibited both the cap dependent and global protein translation. CC214-1 inhibited c-Myc, and cyclin D3 translation by decreasing polysomal fractions from lymphoma cells. Inhibition of eIF4E with shRNA further decreased the CC214-1 induced inhibition of the eIF4F complex, c-Myc, cyclin D3 translation, and colony formation. These studies demonstrate that the eIF4F complex is deregulated in aggressive lymphoma and that dual mTOR therapy has therapeutic potential in these patients. PMID:25839159

  18. Sexual dimorphism and tissue specificity in the expression of CYP4F forms in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kalsotra, Auinash; Anakk, Sayeepriyadarshini; Boehme, Christopher L; Strobel, Henry W

    2002-09-01

    The cytochromes P450 belong to a superfamily of enzymes involved in a diverse array of endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolic pathways. Several members of a novel family of cytochrome P450 (CYP4F), which specifically mediate leukotriene B(4) omega-hydroxylation, have now been identified in various species including rat, mouse, and human. In rats, the CYP4F family consists of four related genes, CYP4F1, CYP4F4, CYP4F5, and CYP4F6. Here we report development of fluorescent real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays (TaqMan), which allow us to carry out specific quantitation of mRNA expression of all four members of this subfamily. Since no inducers for the CYP4F family are known to date, we validated these assays using clofibrate, a known suppressor of rat CYP4Fs. Additionally, Northern blot hybridization was carried out to validate these assays. Using this approach, we demonstrate quantitatively, for the first time, that each of the rat CYP4Fs is expressed in a tissue- and sex-dependent manner showing a significantly higher expression in females vis-à-vis males. Western blot analysis using a CYP4F polyclonal antibody also shows a considerably higher protein expression in female liver, kidneys, and lungs when compared with male rats. Furthermore, we observe a significant decrease in the CYP4F1, CYP4F4, and CYP4F6 message in kidneys and liver of ovariectomized rats when compared with control females. This loss of expression is partially restored by estrogen treatment in both tissues, suggesting a role of estrogen in regulating CYP4F expression.

  19. Precore/basal core promoter mutants and hepatitis B viral DNA levels as predictors for liver deaths and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Myron J; Blatt, Lawrence M; Kao, Jia-Horng; Cheng, Jason Tzuying; Corey, William G

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a retrospective study in 400 chronic hepatitis B patients in order to identify hepatitis B viral factors associated with complications of liver disease or development of hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: The mean follow-up time was 83.6 ± 39.6 mo. Alpha-fetoprotein test and abdominal ultrasound were used for cancer surveillance. Hepatitis B basal core promoter mutants, precore mutants, genotypes, hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV DNA) level and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were measured. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to assess odds ratios for viral factors related to liver deaths and hepatocellular carcinoma development. RESULTS: During follow-up, 38 patients had liver deaths not related to hepatocellular carcinoma. On multivariate analysis, older age [odds ratio: 95.74 (12.13-891.31); P < 0.0001], male sex [odds ratio: 7.61 (2.20-47.95); P = 0.006], and higher log10 HBV DNA [odds ratio: 4.69 (1.16-20.43); P < 0.0001] were independently predictive for these liver related deaths. Also, 31 patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma. Multivariate analysis showed that older age [odds ratio: 26.51 (2.36-381.47); P = 0.007], presence of precore mutants [odds ratio: 4.23 (1.53-19.58); P = 0.02] and presence of basal core promoter mutants [odds ratio: 2.93 (1.24-7.57); P = 0.02] were independent predictors for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Our results show that high levels of baseline serum HBV DNA are associated with non-hepatocellular carcinoma-related deaths of liver failure, while genetic mutations in the basal core promoter and precore regions are predictive for development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:17075974

  20. Long-lived transient anion of c-C4F8O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kočišek, J.; Janečková, R.; Fedor, J.

    2018-02-01

    We report partial cross sections for electron attachment to c-C4F8O, a gas with promising technological applications in free-electron-rich environments. The dissociative electron attachment leads to a number of anionic fragments resulting from complex bond-breaking and bond-forming processes. However, the anion with the highest abundance is the non-dissociated (transient) parent anion which is formed around 0.9 eV electron energy. Its lifetime reaches tens of microseconds. We discuss the origin of this long lifetime, the anion's strong interactions with other molecules, and the consequences for electron-scavenging properties of c-C4F8O in denser environments, in particular for its use in mixtures with CO2 and N2.

  1. [VIEW Level, Special Education Core Curriculum Manual.] I.E.P. Development Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen County Region III, Demerest, NJ. Div. of Special Education.

    The Individualized Educational Program development guide is intended for handicapped students at the VIEW level (Vocational Instruction and Experience Workshop). Goals, objectives, and activities are specified for each of seven categories (sample subsections in parentheses): (1) assembly skills (collating, sorting, filing, folding); (2)…

  2. Equation of State Model for Delocalization of 4 f Electrons in Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeff, Carl

    2017-06-01

    The elemental metal Ce has an isostructural phase transition under pressure, from the low density γ phase to the high density α phase, with a line of first order transitions terminating at a critical point. This leads to anomalies under dynamic compression such as large dissipative heating and non-monotonic variation of the bulk modulus with pressure. The transition is generally understood to be associated with delocalization of the 4 f electron states. The thermodynamics of the low density γ phase are accurately described by a combination of phonons, itinerant electrons, and a local 4 f electron on each atom. The 14-fold degeneracy of the 4 f state is broken by a 260 meV spin orbit splitting and a 17 meV crystal field splitting. I will describe our EOS model, which allows for a continuously varying degree of localization as a function of compression. I will show comparisons with static and dynamic data. Finally, I will comment on the prospects for an analogous phase transition in the liquid.

  3. 3d/4f Coordination Clusters as Cooperative Catalysts for Highly Diastereoselective Michael Addition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kieran; Tsipis, Athanassios C; Kumar, Prashant; Townrow, Oliver P E; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Akien, Geoffrey R; Baldansuren, Amgalanbaatar; Spivey, Alan C; Kostakis, George E

    2017-08-21

    Michael addition (MA) is one of the most well studied chemical transformation in synthetic chemistry. Here, we report the synthesis and crystal structures of a library of 3d/4f coordination clusters (CCs) formulated as [Zn II 2 Y III 2 L 4 (solv) X (Z) Y ] and study their catalytic properties toward the MA of nitrostyrenes with barbituric acid derivatives. Each CC presents two borderline hard/soft Lewis acidic Zn II centers and two hard Lewis acidic Y III centers in a defect dicubane topology that brings the two different metals into a proximity of ∼3.3 Å. Density functional theory computational studies suggest that these tetrametallic CCs dissociate in solution to give two catalytically active dimers, each containing one 3d and one 4f metal that act cooperatively. The mechanism of catalysis has been corroborated via NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance, and UV-vis. The present work demonstrates for the first time the successful use of 3d/4f CCs as efficient and high diastereoselective catalysts in MA reactions.

  4. Significance of pregnancy test false negative results due to elevated levels of β-core fragment hCG.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Eapen, Saji; Smith, Peter; Warren, Graham; Zinaman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Very high levels of β-core fragment human chorionic gonadotrophin (βcf-hCG) are reported to potentially cause false negative results in point-of-care (POC)/over-the-counter (OTC) pregnancy tests. To investigate this further, women's daily early morning urine samples, collected prior to conception and during pregnancy, were analysed for intact, free β-, and βcf-hCG. The proportion of βcf-hCG was found to be related to that of hCG produced and in circulation. Therefore, best practice for accuracy testing of POC/OTC pregnancy tests would be to test devices against clinical samples containing high levels of βcf-hCG as well as standards spiked with biologically relevant ratios.

  5. Paf1 and Ctr9, core components of the PAF1 complex, maintain low levels of telomeric repeat containing RNA

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Joana

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The conserved PAF1 complex (Cdc73, Paf1, Ctr9, Leo1 and Rtf1, in yeast), binds RNA pol II, and affects levels of many RNAs. Although PAF1 is a complex, there is evidence that different components perform different functions. In yeast, Cdc73, Paf1 and Ctr9 maintain normal telomerase RNA (TLC1) levels and affect telomere length. Here we report a new connection between the PAF1 complex and telomere biology. We show that Paf1 and Ctr9 maintain low telomere repeat containing RNA (TERRA) levels while Cdc73, Leo1 and Rtf1 have lesser effects. Analysis of double mutants shows that Paf1 and Ctr9 can affect TERRA independently of Sir4, Rat1, and Trf4, previously identified regulators of TERRA. The data suggest that Paf1 and Ctr9 maintain low TERRA levels by affecting both transcription and degradation and that short telomeres in cdc73Δ, paf1Δ and ctr9Δ mutants do not induce TERRA. These data establish the PAF1 complex as a new regulator of TERRA, and are consistent with the model in which Paf1 and Ctr9, the core components of the PAF1 complex, affect transcript levels and cell fitness by numerous mechanisms. PMID:29145644

  6. Relation of hepatitis B core antigen expression with histological activity, serum HBeAg, and HBV DNA levels.

    PubMed

    Sari, Aysegul; Dere, Yelda; Pakoz, Betul; Calli, Aylin; Unal, Belkis; Tunakan, Mine

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a potentially life-threatening liver infection which may progress to liver failure and cirrhosis. Intrahepatic expression patterns of viral antigens detected by immunohistochemistry may have prognostic implications in disease process. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) expression and histological activity index (HAI), fibrosis, serum hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) status and HBV DNA levels in patients with chronic HBV infection. A total of 114 liver biopsies from patients with chronic HBV infection were included in the study. Immunohistochemical expression of HBcAg and its relation with HAI, fibrosis, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, HBeAg status and HBV DNA levels were assessed. The presence of nuclear expression of HBcAg did not show any correlations with ALT levels, HAI and fibrosis score. When the groups were categorized according to the HBeAg status, nuclear HBcAg expression was found to be high in HBeAg positive patients. However, HBcAg nuclear expression showed significant correlations with HBV DNA levels and fibrosis scores in HBeAg negative but not HBeAg positive patients. HBV DNA levels were also significantly associated with HAI and fibrosis scores in HBeAg negative patients. Significant differences found between HBeAg positive and negative patients suggest that HBeAg negative disease is different from HBeAg positive disease, and also point outs that in HBeAg negative disease, patients with nuclear HBcAg expression and increased levels of HBV DNA levels are at a higher risk of developing progressive liver disease.

  7. Ternary complexes with core-shell bilayer for double level targeted gene delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Yao, Jing; Du, Ronghui; Hou, Lin; Zhou, Jianping; Lu, Yun; Meng, Qinggang; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-05-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA)/polyethyleneimine-dexamethasone (PEI-Dex)/DNA ternary complexes with "core-shell" bilayer were developed for double level targeted gene delivery. A PEI1800-Dex, as a core, was applied to compact DNA into a nano-sized structure and facilitate the nuclear translocation of DNA after endocytosis into tumor cells, and a polyanion HA, as the outer corona, was employed to improve targeted tumor delivery and reduce cytotoxicity. PEI-Dex was synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR. The characterizations of ternary complexes were investigated. Their biological properties, including transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and in vivo efficacy were evaluated systemically. Ternary complexes with the size of about 160 nm exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity and the highest transfection efficiency in B16F10 cells among investigated complexes. The sub-cellular localization study confirmed that ternary complexes could facilitate more efficient cell uptake and nuclear transport of DNA than binary complexes. Moreover, Cy7-labeled ternary complexes obviously accumulated in the tumor after i.v. administration, indicating that ternary complexes could assist the DNA targeting to the tumor. In in vivo studies, HA/PEI1800-Dex/DNA ternary complexes showed confirmed anti-inflammation activity, and could significantly suppress tumor growth of tumor-bearing nude mice. HA/PEI-Dex/DNA ternary complexes might be a promising targeted gene delivery system.

  8. Ionic bonding of lanthanides, as influenced by d- and f-atomic orbitals, by core-shells and by relativity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wen-Xin; Xu, Wei; Schwarz, W H Eugen; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2015-03-15

    Lanthanide trihalide molecules LnX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) were quantum chemically investigated, in particular detail for Ln = Lu (lutetium). We applied density functional theory (DFT) at the nonrelativistic and scalar and SO-coupled relativistic levels, and also the ab initio coupled cluster approach. The chemically active electron shells of the lanthanide atoms comprise the 5d and 6s (and 6p) valence atomic orbitals (AO) and also the filled inner 4f semivalence and outer 5p semicore shells. Four different frozen-core approximations for Lu were compared: the (1s(2) -4d(10) ) [Pd] medium core, the [Pd+5s(2) 5p(6) = Xe] and [Pd+4f(14) ] large cores, and the [Pd+4f(14) +5s(2) 5p(6) ] very large core. The errors of LuX bonding are more serious on freezing the 5p(6) shell than the 4f(14) shell, more serious upon core-freezing than on the effective-core-potential approximation. The LnX distances correlate linearly with the AO radii of the ionic outer shells, Ln(3+) -5p(6) and X(-) -np(6) , characteristic for dominantly ionic Ln(3+) -X(-) binding. The heavier halogen atoms also bind covalently with the Ln-5d shell. Scalar relativistic effects contract and destabilize the LuX bonds, spin orbit coupling hardly affects the geometries but the bond energies, owing to SO effects in the free atoms. The relativistic changes of bond energy BE, bond length Re , bond force k, and bond stretching frequency vs do not follow the simple rules of Badger and Gordy (Re ∼BE∼k∼vs ). The so-called degeneracy-driven covalence, meaning strong mixing of accidentally near-degenerate, nearly nonoverlapping AOs without BE contribution is critically discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Changing levels of numeracy and other core mathematical skills among psychology undergraduates between 1992 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, Gerry; Wylie, Judith

    2004-08-01

    Teaching statistics and research methods to psychology undergraduates is a major pedagogic challenge. Knowledge of students' conceptual problems in mathematics is important in the current climate of widening access, a burgeoning interest in psychology, and fears about declining standards of numeracy and other quantitative skills. This study compared the mathematical knowledge of two cohorts of undergraduates who entered psychology a decade apart--one in 1992, the other in 2002. Six broadly defined components of mathematical thinking relevant to the teaching of statistics in psychology were examined--calculation, algebraic reasoning, graphical interpretation, proportionality and ratio, probability and sampling, and estimation. Both cohorts were also compared with a 1984 cohort on a subset of items reported in a study by Greer and Semrau (1984). Results revealed highly significant differences between the two cohorts on all six components, with 1992 students outperforming their 2002 counterparts. Males were also found to perform significantly better than females on a majority of components. Level of qualification in mathematics was found to predict overall performance. Comparison with Greer and Semrau's (1984) sample revealed an alarming decline in performance across the two decades on a selection of test items.

  10. The 3' cap-independent translation element of Barley yellow dwarf virus binds eIF4F via the eIF4G subunit to initiate translation.

    PubMed

    Treder, Krzysztof; Kneller, Elizabeth L Pettit; Allen, Edwards M; Wang, Zhaohui; Browning, Karen S; Miller, W Allen

    2008-01-01

    The 3' cap-independent translation element (BTE) of Barley yellow dwarf virus RNA confers efficient translation initiation at the 5' end via long-distance base pairing with the 5'-untranslated region (UTR). Here we provide evidence that the BTE functions by recruiting translation initiation factor eIF4F. We show that the BTE interacts specifically with the cap-binding initiation factor complexes eIF4F and eIFiso4F in a wheat germ extract (wge). In wge depleted of cap-interacting factors, addition of eIF4F (and to a lesser extent, eIFiso4F) allowed efficient translation of an uncapped reporter construct (BLucB) containing the BTE in its 3' UTR. Translation of BLucB required much lower levels of eIF4F or eIFiso4F than did a capped, nonviral mRNA. Both full-length eIF4G and the carboxy-terminal half of eIF4G lacking the eIF4E binding site stimulated translation to 70% of the level obtained with eIF4F, indicating a minor role for the cap-binding protein, eIF4E. In wge inhibited by either BTE in trans or cap analog, eIF4G alone restored translation nearly as much as eIF4F, while addition of eIF4E alone had no effect. The BTE bound eIF4G (Kd = 177 nm) and eIF4F (Kd = 37 nm) with high affinity, but very weakly to eIF4E. These interactions correlate with the ability of the factors to facilitate BTE-mediated translation. These results and previous observations are consistent with a model in which eIF4F is delivered to the 5' UTR by the BTE, and they show that eIF4G, but not eIF4E, plays a major role in this novel mechanism of cap-independent translation.

  11. The 3′ cap-independent translation element of Barley yellow dwarf virus binds eIF4F via the eIF4G subunit to initiate translation

    PubMed Central

    Treder, Krzysztof; Pettit Kneller, Elizabeth L.; Allen, Edwards M.; Wang, Zhaohui; Browning, Karen S.; Miller, W. Allen

    2008-01-01

    The 3′ cap-independent translation element (BTE) of Barley yellow dwarf virus RNA confers efficient translation initiation at the 5′ end via long-distance base pairing with the 5′-untranslated region (UTR). Here we provide evidence that the BTE functions by recruiting translation initiation factor eIF4F. We show that the BTE interacts specifically with the cap-binding initiation factor complexes eIF4F and eIFiso4F in a wheat germ extract (wge). In wge depleted of cap-interacting factors, addition of eIF4F (and to a lesser extent, eIFiso4F) allowed efficient translation of an uncapped reporter construct (BLucB) containing the BTE in its 3′ UTR. Translation of BLucB required much lower levels of eIF4F or eIFiso4F than did a capped, nonviral mRNA. Both full-length eIF4G and the carboxy-terminal half of eIF4G lacking the eIF4E binding site stimulated translation to 70% of the level obtained with eIF4F, indicating a minor role for the cap-binding protein, eIF4E. In wge inhibited by either BTE in trans or cap analog, eIF4G alone restored translation nearly as much as eIF4F, while addition of eIF4E alone had no effect. The BTE bound eIF4G (Kd = 177 nm) and eIF4F (Kd = 37 nm) with high affinity, but very weakly to eIF4E. These interactions correlate with the ability of the factors to facilitate BTE-mediated translation. These results and previous observations are consistent with a model in which eIF4F is delivered to the 5′ UTR by the BTE, and they show that eIF4G, but not eIF4E, plays a major role in this novel mechanism of cap-independent translation. PMID:18025255

  12. Particle distributions in approximately 10(14) 10(16) eV air shower cores at sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, A. L.; Ash, A. G.; Bull, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental evidence is reported for fixed distances (0, 1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 m) from the shower centers and for core flattening. The cores become flatter, on average, as the shower size (primary energy) increases. With improved statistics on 4192 cores, the previous results are exactly confirmed.

  13. Red nucleus and rubrospinal tract disorganization in the absence of Pou4f1

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The red nucleus (RN) is a neuronal population that plays an important role in forelimb motor control and locomotion. Histologically it is subdivided into two subpopulations, the parvocellular RN (pRN) located in the diencephalon and the magnocellular RN (mRN) in the mesencephalon. The RN integrates signals from motor cortex and cerebellum and projects to spinal cord interneurons and motor neurons through the rubrospinal tract (RST). Pou4f1 is a transcription factor highly expressed in this nucleus that has been related to its specification. Here we profoundly analyzed consequences of Pou4f1 loss-of-function in development, maturation and axonal projection of the RN. Surprisingly, RN neurons are specified and maintained in the mutant, no cell death was detected. Nevertheless, the nucleus appeared disorganized with a strong delay in radial migration and with a wider neuronal distribution; the neurons did not form a compacted population as they do in controls, Robo1 and Slit2 were miss-expressed. Cplx1 and Npas1, expressed in the RN, are transcription factors involved in neurotransmitter release, neuronal maturation and motor function processes among others. In our mutant mice, both transcription factors are lost, suggesting an abnormal maturation of the RN. The resulting altered nucleus occupied a wider territory. Finally, we examined RST development and found that the RN neurons were able to project to the spinal cord but their axons appeared defasciculated. These data suggest that Pou4f1 is necessary for the maturation of RN neurons but not for their specification and maintenance. PMID:25698939

  14. MINACE filter realization as computer generated hologram for 4-f correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Shaulskiy, Dmitriy V.; Zlokazov, Evgeny Y.; Starikov, Rostislav S.

    2013-03-01

    Optical correlators are well known to be perspective for real time image recognition. Application of distortion invariant filters (DIF) provides image recognition with increased speed of correlation image matching. Minimum noise and correlation energy filters (MINACE filters) provide good recognition in the case of gray-scale input images. These filters possess a good mathematical basis and can be efficiently implemented in digital processing systems or in hybrid opto-digital correlators at a high rate. This paper is subjected to synthesis and realization of MINACE filters for 4-f correlator as computer generated holograms (holographic filters).

  15. Electronic transport properties of 4f shell elements of liquid metal using hard sphere Yukawa system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, H. P.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Thakor, P. B.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic transport properties are analyzed for 4f shell elements of liquid metals. To examine the electronic transport properties like electrical resistivity (ρ), thermal conductivity (σ) and thermo electrical power (Q), we used our own parameter free model potential with the Hard Sphere Yukawa (HSY) reference system. The screening effect on aforesaid properties has been examined by using different screening functions like Hartree (H), Taylor (T) and Sarkar (S). The correlations of our resultsand other data with available experimental values are intensely promising. Also, we conclude that our newly constructed parameter free model potential is capable of explaining the above mentioned electronic transport properties.

  16. Rare Earth 4f Hybridization with the GaN Valence Band

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    DOS of Ga17GdN18. and Auger-like electrons emitted in a super Coster– Kronig process [52] 4d104fN + hν → [4d94fN+1]∗ → 4d104fN−1 + e−, (2) where...similar, albeit not identical, response for GaN:Er compared to GaN:Gd at the photon energy characteristic for the Er 4d → 4f super Coster– Kronig resonance

  17. XeCl laser pumped iodine laser using t-C4F9I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In Heon; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1989-01-01

    An iodine photodissociation laser using t-C4F9I as the active material was pumped by a XeCl laser. An iodine laser output energy of 3 mJ with pulse duration of 25 ns was obtained when the pumping pulse energy was 80 mJ, the iodine pressure was 70 torr, and the reflectance of the output mirror was 85 percent. The high pumping efficiency and low threshold pump power achieved in this experiment are attributable to the high absorption cross section at the pump laser wavelength (308 nm) of the iodide used.

  18. XeCl laser pumped iodine laser using t-C4F9I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, In Heon; Han, Kwang S.

    1989-01-01

    An iodine photodissociation laser using t-C4F9I as the active material was pumped by an XeCl laser. An iodine laser output energy of 3 mJ with pulse duration of 25 ns was obtained when the pumping pulse energy was 80 mJ, the iodide pressure was 70 torr, and the reflectance of the output mirror was 85 percent. The high pumping efficiency and low threshold pump power achieved in this experiment are attributable to the high absorption cross section at the pump laser wavelength (308 nm) of the iodide used.

  19. Requirement of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F complex in hepatitis E virus replication.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinying; Xu, Lei; Wang, Yijin; Wang, Wenshi; Sprengers, Dave; Metselaar, Herold J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, one of the foremost causes of acute hepatitis, is becoming a health problem of increasing magnitude. As other viruses, HEV exploits elements from host cell biochemistry, but we understand little as to which components of the human hepatocellular machinery are perverted for HEV multiplication. It is, however, known that the eukaryotic translation initiation factors 4F (eIF4F) complex, the key regulator of the mRNA-ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation, serves as an important component for the translation and replication of many viruses. Here we aim to investigate the role of three subunits of the eIF4F complex: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in HEV replication. We found that efficient replication of HEV requires eIF4A, eIF4G and eIF4E. Consistently, the negative regulatory factors of this complex: programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) and eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) exert anti-HEV activities, which further illustrates the requirement for eIF4A and eIF4E in supporting HEV replication. Notably, phosphorylation of eIF4E induced by MNK1/2 activation is not involved in HEV replication. Although ribavirin and interferon-α (IFN-α), the most often-used off-label drugs for treating hepatitis E, interact with this complex, their antiviral activities are independent of eIF4E. In contrast, eIF4E silencing provokes enhanced anti-HEV activity of these compounds. Thus, HEV replication requires eIF4F complex and targeting essential elements of this complex provides important clues for the development of novel antiviral therapy against HEV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Causes of enhanced fluoride levels in Alpine ice cores over the last 75 years: Implications for the atmospheric fluoride budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preunkert, Susanne; Legrand, Michel; Wagenbach, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    A continuous high-resolution record from a Col du Dôme (Mont Blanc massif, 4250 m above sea level (asl), French Alps) ice core in addition to discontinuous samples from a Colle Gnifetti (Monte Rosa massif, 4450 m asl, Swiss Alps) ice core were used to reconstruct the history of the atmospheric fluoride pollution at the scale of Europe. Such studies are mandatory by large uncertainties in our understanding of the natural fluoride cycle which have confounded assessment of the environmental impact of anthropogenic emissions. For fluoride, advantages of Alpine ice core records with respect to the Greenland ones include less efficient post-depositional effects in relation with higher snow accumulation rates, and less contamination by quasi-permanent passive volcanic HF emissions at midlatitudes compared to the situation at high northern latitudes. Hence Alpine ice records permit detailed examination of natural sources of fluoride for the free troposphere over Europe and the impact of anthropogenic sources such as aluminium smelters, coal burning, and contribution of the stratospheric reservoir built up from the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) degradation since the beginning of the twentieth century. At Col du Dôme (CDD), fluoride concentrations in summer snow layers were close to 0.30 ng g-1 in 1930, started to increase in the late 1930s, reaching 1.4 ng g-1 in 1940 and 2.4 ng g-1 in the late 1960s. From 1970 to 1980 they were strongly decreased, exhibiting a plateau value close to 1.3 ng g-1 between 1980 and 1995. It is shown that at the scale of Europe in summer, soil dust emissions dominated the atmospheric fluoride budget prior to 1880. In the late 1960s the soil contribution decreased to 6±1% due to enhanced release of fluoride by aluminium smelters and coal burning which accounted for 86±3% and 8±2% of the total fluoride content, respectively. From 1970 to 1980, effective precautions have been taken to minimize the release of fluoride from aluminium smelters to the

  1. Electron attachment, ionization and drift in c-C4F8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Urquijo, J.; Basurto, E.

    2001-05-01

    The pulsed Townsend method has been used to measure the drift velocity ve and the density-normalized effective ionization coefficient (α-η)/N, (α and η are the ionization and attachment coefficients, respectively) in c-C4F8 over the density-normalized electric field strength E/N, 12 Td≤E/N≤43 Td and 330 Td≤E/N≤600 Td (1 Td = 10-17 V cm2), at pressures between 1 and 7.5 Torr (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa). For 12 Td≤E/N≤43 Td, the above parameters were found to be pressure independent, while for the range 330 Td≤E/N≤600 Td an inverse dependence of the above coefficients was found for gas pressures less than 2 Torr. Such dependence is believed to be due to the autodetachment of the originally formed, unstable parent negative ion c-C4F8-*. At low E/N, no previous data for ve or (α-η)/N were found for comparison with the present data. A critical field strength of E/Ncrit = 439.5 Td, for which α = η, was found to be in good agreement with previous data.

  2. On the effect of 4f electrons on the structural characteristics of lanthanide trihalides: Computational and electron diffraction study of dysprosium trichloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, Giuseppe; Varga, Zoltán; Kolonits, Maria; Hargittai, Magdolna

    2008-02-01

    The molecular and electronic structure of dysprosium trichloride, DyCl3, was calculated by high-level quantum chemical methods in order to learn about the effect of the partially filled 4f subshell and of the possible spin-orbit coupling on them. High-temperature electron diffraction studies of DyCl3 were also carried out so that we could compare the computed geometry with the experimental one, after thermal corrections on the latter. Dysprosium monochloride, DyCl, and the dimer of dysprosium trichloride, Dy2Cl6, were also investigated by computation. We found that the electron configuration of the 4f subshell does not influence the geometry of the trichloride monomer molecule as the ground state and first excited state molecules have the same geometry. Nonetheless, taking the 4f electrons into account in the calculation, together with the 5s and 5p electrons, is important in order to get geometrical parameters consistent with the results from experiment. Based on electron diffraction and different levels of computation, the suggested equilibrium bond length (re) of DyCl3 is 2.443(14)Å, while the thermal average distance (rg) from electron diffraction is 2.459(11)Å. The molecule is trigonal planar in equilibrium. Although the ground electronic state splits due to spin-orbit coupling, the lowering of the total electronic energy is very small (about 0.025hartree) and the geometrical parameters are not affected. In contrast with the monomeric trichloride molecule, the bond angles of the dimer seem to be different for different electronic states, indicating the influence of the 4f electronic configuration on their structure. We carried out an anharmonic analysis of the out-of-plane vibration of the trichloride monomer and found that the vibration is considerably anharmonic at 39.5cm-1, compared with the 30.5cm-1 harmonic value.

  3. Core-level attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of laser-dressed solid films of Si and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seres, Enikoe; Seres, Jozsef; Serrat, Carles; Namba, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    We investigated experimentally as well as theoretically the ultrafast response of the wave function of the conduction band (CB) of Si and Zr to a near-infrared laser field using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) absorption spectroscopy in the spectral range of 80-220 eV. The measured dynamics of the XUV transmission demonstrates that the wave function of the CB follows the electric field of the dressing laser pulse. In these terms, laser dressing was earlier mainly studied on gases. Measurements with two-femtosecond and 200-attosecond temporal steps were performed in the vicinity of the Si L2 ,3 edge near 100 eV, the Si L1 edge near 150 eV, and the Zr M4 ,5 edge near 180 eV. The observed changes were dependent on the core states being excited by the XUV probe pulse. At the 2 p to CB transitions of Si, the XUV transmission increased via the effect of the dressing laser pulse, while at the 2 s to CB transition of Si and the 3 d to CB transition of Zr, the XUV transmission decreased. Furthermore, beats between the transition from 2 p1 /2 and 2 p3 /2 levels of Si and from 3 d3 /2 and 3 d5 /2 levels of Zr were observed with 20.7 fs and 3.6 fs periods.

  4. A Quantitative Content Analysis of the Common Core State Standards Compared to Missouri's Grade-Level Expectations Using the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallia, Toni

    2012-01-01

    With the pressure in education to develop a 21st century learner with higher-level thinking skills, many educators connected previous state curriculum to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Missouri's Department of Education experts paired the previous state's curriculum known as the Missouri Grade Level Expectations (MO GLEs) with a…

  5. Tunable 4f/5f Bimodal Emission in Europium-Incorporated Uranyl Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian; Wang, Yaxing; Silver, Mark A; Liu, Wei; Duan, Tao; Yin, Xuemiao; Chen, Lanhua; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Shuao

    2018-01-16

    There have been numerous studies on emission-color regulation by the adjustment of molar amounts of multiple trivalent lanthanide cations, such as Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ , Dy 3+ , and others, in many types of solid host materials. Although uranyl emission originating from charge-transfer transitions has been well-recognized and investigated for many decades, as of now there is no report on tunable 4f/5f bimodal emission based on heterobimetallic lanthanide(III) and uranyl(VI) compounds. In most cases, complete energy transfer between uranyl(VI) and lanthanide(III) centers was observed. In this work, a series of isotypic-europium-incorporated uranyl coordination polymers, Eu@UO 2 L(DMF) (L 2- = 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate, denoted as 1-10, which represent the different Eu contents in UO 2 L(DMF); DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide), has been synthesized by solvothermal reactions. Crystallographic evidence of this series unveiled one-dimensional chains of UO 2 2+ as pentagonal-bipyramidal units bridged by pyridinedicarboxylate with no defined, crystallographically unique site containing Eu, even for the products with high concentrations of Eu in this series. However, emission bands characteristic of Eu 3+ were clearly observed in every product along with the characteristic uranyl-emission feature when observed with UV-vis fluorescence spectroscopy. Laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated that europium was concomitant with uranium, corroborating the incorporation of europium into crystals of UO 2 L(DMF). Systematic control of the solvent ratio (V H 2 O /V DMF ) in each reaction gives rise to an enrichment of Eu 3+ in the interior of UO 2 L(DMF). In addition, the color of emission of these compounds changed significantly from bright red to bright green with decreasing Eu content. This phenomenon occurs from the highly efficient energy transfer between the UO 2 2+ and Eu 3+ centers within each sample, providing the first case of a tunable 4f/5f bimodal

  6. Detergent-induced stabilization and improved 3D map of the human heteromeric amino acid transporter 4F2hc-LAT2.

    PubMed

    Meury, Marcel; Costa, Meritxell; Harder, Daniel; Stauffer, Mirko; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Brühlmann, Béla; Rosell, Albert; Ilgü, Hüseyin; Kovar, Karin; Palacín, Manuel; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Human heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are membrane protein complexes that facilitate the transport of specific amino acids across cell membranes. Loss of function or overexpression of these transporters is implicated in several human diseases such as renal aminoacidurias and cancer. HATs are composed of two subunits, a heavy and a light subunit, that are covalently connected by a disulphide bridge. Light subunits catalyse amino acid transport and consist of twelve transmembrane α-helix domains. Heavy subunits are type II membrane N-glycoproteins with a large extracellular domain and are involved in the trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane. Structural information on HATs is scarce because of the difficulty in heterologous overexpression. Recently, we had a major breakthrough with the overexpression of a recombinant HAT, 4F2hc-LAT2, in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Microgram amounts of purified protein made possible the reconstruction of the first 3D map of a human HAT by negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Here we report the important stabilization of purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 using a combination of two detergents, i.e., n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. The superior quality and stability of purified 4F2hc-LAT2 allowed the measurement of substrate binding by scintillation proximity assay. In addition, an improved 3D map of this HAT could be obtained. The detergent-induced stabilization of the purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 complex presented here paves the way towards its crystallization and structure determination at high-resolution, and thus the elucidation of the working mechanism of this important protein complex at the molecular level.

  7. Detergent-Induced Stabilization and Improved 3D Map of the Human Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter 4F2hc-LAT2

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Daniel; Stauffer, Mirko; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Brühlmann, Béla; Rosell, Albert; Ilgü, Hüseyin; Kovar, Karin; Palacín, Manuel; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Human heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are membrane protein complexes that facilitate the transport of specific amino acids across cell membranes. Loss of function or overexpression of these transporters is implicated in several human diseases such as renal aminoacidurias and cancer. HATs are composed of two subunits, a heavy and a light subunit, that are covalently connected by a disulphide bridge. Light subunits catalyse amino acid transport and consist of twelve transmembrane α-helix domains. Heavy subunits are type II membrane N-glycoproteins with a large extracellular domain and are involved in the trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane. Structural information on HATs is scarce because of the difficulty in heterologous overexpression. Recently, we had a major breakthrough with the overexpression of a recombinant HAT, 4F2hc-LAT2, in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Microgram amounts of purified protein made possible the reconstruction of the first 3D map of a human HAT by negative-stain transmission electron microscopy. Here we report the important stabilization of purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 using a combination of two detergents, i.e., n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside and lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. The superior quality and stability of purified 4F2hc-LAT2 allowed the measurement of substrate binding by scintillation proximity assay. In addition, an improved 3D map of this HAT could be obtained. The detergent-induced stabilization of the purified human 4F2hc-LAT2 complex presented here paves the way towards its crystallization and structure determination at high-resolution, and thus the elucidation of the working mechanism of this important protein complex at the molecular level. PMID:25299125

  8. Stress generation in mandibular anterior teeth restored with different types of post-and-core at various levels of ferrule.

    PubMed

    Savychuk, Anatolii; Manda, Marianthi; Galanis, Christos; Provatidis, Christofer; Koidis, Petros

    2017-11-15

    Pertinent evidence regarding the mechanical integrity of mandibular anterior teeth restored with a post-and-core is limited. The purpose of this finite element analysis study was to compare the impact of the post type (glass fiber post-and-resin core or cast post-and-core) along with the ferrule effect on the stress fields generated in endodontically treated mandibular lateral incisors and canines. Three-dimensional models of the segmented mandible were developed. Mandibular incisors and canines with or without a 2-mm circular ferrule and restored with a cast post-and-core or glass fiber post-and-resin core were simulated and subjected to linear elastic static analysis. The principal stress values were calculated. von Mises equivalent stresses were used to evaluate the stress. Maximum principal stresses in dentin were highest in incisors, with a ferrule. Stress parameters in composite resin core in both incisors and canines were critically close to the tensile failure limit of the core material. Cast post-and-cores cemented in incisors without a ferrule accumulated the highest stresses, exceeding the tensile failure limit of resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Tooth preparation with a ferrule led to a remarkable rise in stress in the dentin of mandibular incisors but favored the mechanical integrity of the restoration. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Common Core's Promises and Pitfalls from the Perspectives of Policy Entrepreneurs and Ground-Level Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Barkauskas, Nikolaus J.; Griffith, Kelly M.; Sausner, Erica; Mahfouz, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative (Common Core) was spearheaded by policy entrepreneurs, unveiled nationally in 2010, and initially received strong support from leaders in state and federal government, philanthropic foundations, the business sector, and teacher unions. However, the reform came into the crosshairs of an ideologically wide…

  10. Series of chiral interpenetrating 3d-4f heterometallic MOFs: Luminescent sensors and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Peng; Hu, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Series of chiral 3d-4f heterometallic MOFs based on a multidentate terpyridyl carboxylic acid ligand have been synthesized under the solvothermal conditions, namely, [LnZnL(CO3)2(H2O)]n (Ln = Eu (1), Gd (2), Dy (3), Ho (4), Er (5), Tm (6), Yb (7), Lu (8)) (HL = 4‧-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2‧:6‧,2″-terpyridine). Compounds 1-8 were structurally characterized by the elemental analyses, infrared spectra, and single crystal X-ray diffractions. Compounds 1-8 exhibit the chiral interpenetrating 3D frameworks. Interestingly, 1 can serve as the luminescent sensor to detect nitrobenzene molecules with high sensitivity. The investigations on CD spectra of single crystals clearly assigned the Cotton effect, indicating that there exist two chiral enantiomers of 1-8 in the course of crystallization. The magnetic properties of 2 and 7 were exploited, respectively.

  11. Observation of orbital order in the half-filled 4 f Gd compound

    DOE PAGES

    Jang, H.; Kang, B. Y.; Cho, B. K.; ...

    2016-11-18

    Half-filled electron systems, even with the maximized spin angular moment, have been given little attention because of their zero-orbital angular moment according to Hund’s rule. Nevertheless, there are several measurements that show evidence of a nonzero orbital moment as well as spin-orbit coupling. Here we report for the first time the orbital order in a half-filled 4f-electron system GdB 4, using the resonant soft x-ray scattering at Gd M 4,5-edges. Furthermore, we discovered that the development of this orbital order is strongly coupled with the antiferromagnetic spin order. Lastly, these results clearly demonstrate that even in half-filled electron systems themore » orbital angular moment can be an important parameter to describe material properties, and may provide significant opportunities for tailoring new correlated electron systems.« less

  12. Impulse attack-free four random phase mask encryption based on a 4-f optical system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2009-04-20

    Optical encryption methods based on double random phase encryption (DRPE) have been shown to be vulnerable to different types of attacks. The Fourier plane random phase mask (RPM), which is the most important key, can be cracked with a single impulse function attack. Such an attack is viable because the Fourier transform of a delta function is a unity function. Formation of a unity function can be avoided if RPMs are placed in front of both lenses in a 4-f optical setup, thereby protecting the DRPE from an impulse attack. We have performed numerical simulations to verify the proposed scheme. Resistance of this scheme is checked against the brute force and the impulse function attacks. The experimental results validate the feasibility of the scheme.

  13. Magnetism and superconductivity driven by identical 4f states in a heavy-fermion metal

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sunil; Stockert, O.; Witte, U.; Nicklas, M.; Schedler, R.; Kiefer, K.; Thompson, J. D.; Bianchi, A. D.; Fisk, Z.; Wirth, S.; Steglich, F.

    2010-01-01

    The apparently inimical relationship between magnetism and superconductivity has come under increasing scrutiny in a wide range of material classes, where the free energy landscape conspires to bring them in close proximity to each other. Particularly enigmatic is the case when these phases microscopically interpenetrate, though the manner in which this can be accomplished remains to be fully comprehended. Here, we present combined measurements of elastic neutron scattering, magnetotransport, and heat capacity on a prototypical heavy fermion system, in which antiferromagnetism and superconductivity are observed. Monitoring the response of these states to the presence of the other, as well as to external thermal and magnetic perturbations, points to the possibility that they emerge from different parts of the Fermi surface. Therefore, a single 4f state could be both localized and itinerant, thus accounting for the coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity. PMID:20457945

  14. The Magnetism in 3d and 4f Intercalated Graphene-Surface Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atodiresei, Nicolae; Caciuc, Vasile; Blügel, Stefan

    Graphene adsorbed on Ir(111) is a widely used two-dimensional template which can be functionalized via metal intercalation or molecular adsorption. Our first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations employing a non-local correlation vdW-DF functional unveiled that the bonding mechanism of graphene on Ir(111) is physisorption with a local chemical modulation. Furthermore, our theoretical investigations of a 3d Co and Fe monolayer intercalated between graphene and Ir(111) demonstrated that the strong hybridization at the interface drastically modifies the magnetic properties of both graphene and substrate. With the prospect of using graphene in spintronics, we will show how the spin-splitting of the graphene π system can be tailored through a fine interplay between the weak hybridization, electrostatic and vdW interactions by intercalating 4f Eu between graphene and Ni(111). Acknowledgement: Volkswagen-Stiftung, Collaborative Research Center SFB 1238.

  15. Observation of Orbital Order in the Half-Filled 4f Gd Compound.

    PubMed

    Jang, H; Kang, B Y; Cho, B K; Hashimoto, M; Lu, D; Burns, C A; Kao, C-C; Lee, J-S

    2016-11-18

    Half-filled electron systems, even with the maximized spin angular moment, have been given little attention because of their zero-orbital angular moment according to Hund's rule. Nevertheless, there are several measurements that show evidence of a nonzero orbital moment as well as spin-orbit coupling. Here we report for the first time the orbital order in a half-filled 4f-electron system GdB_{4}, using the resonant soft x-ray scattering at Gd M_{4,5}-edges. Furthermore, we discovered that the development of this orbital order is strongly coupled with the antiferromagnetic spin order. These results clearly demonstrate that even in half-filled electron systems the orbital angular moment can be an important parameter to describe material properties, and may provide significant opportunities for tailoring new correlated electron systems.

  16. Basic Properties of Eu2+ 5d-4f Luminescence in SiO2 Glass Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yanagida, Takayuki; Futami, Yoshisuke; Fukuda, Kentaro; Koshimizu, Masanori

    Basic luminescence and scintillation properties of Eu2+ 5d-4f luminescence in SiO2 glass were studied with photoluminescence, decay time profile, radioluminescence and pulse height spectra measurements. When both UV light and alpha-ray excited to the glass, intense blue emission band was observed, which is due to the Eu2+ 4f65d-4f7(8S7/2) transition. Fluorescence quantum efficiency of the Eu2+ 5d-4f transitions was calculated to be more than 95%, and the value of two decay component was 774 ns (77%) and 1730 ns (23%). Relative scintillation light output was about 110% compared with that of reference lithium silicate glass (GS20) scintillator.

  17. 4f metals (compounds) under High Pressure (and Temperature): f-electron Correlation Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipp, Magnus; Jenei, Zsolt; Cynn, Hyunchae; Evans, William; Physics Division Team

    The physics of 4f-electron correlation governs the behavior of the most interesting group in the periodic table, the rare-earth elements. Arguably the most celebrated example is cerium with its iso-structural (fcc) volume collapse (VC) from the γ- to the α-phase ending in a critical point. Close to the VC cerium is even auxetic since its Poisson's ratio becomes negative. Radiography tells us that both phases continue on into the melt, possibly separated by a first order transition. The presence of the f-electron can be interrogated via X-ray emission spectroscopy of the satellite intensity of the L γ radiation. Across the VC it experiences a step-like drop which could be interpreted as a discontinuous decrease of the 4f-moment or occupancy. The theoretical models (Hubbard-Mott or Kondo) explain these phenomena with the behavior of the f-electrons themselves or their spin but the contribution of the lattice-phonons also plays an important part. However, its share in the entropy change across the VC decreases with temperature. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. The X-ray studies were performed at HPCAT (Sector 16), APS/ANL. HPCAT is supported by CIW, CDAC, UNLV and LLNL through funding from DOE-NNSA, DOE-BES and NSF. APS is supported by DOE-BES, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  18. Core Levels, Band Alignments, and Valence-Band States in CuSbS 2 for Solar Cell Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Whittles, Thomas J.; Veal, Tim D.; Savory, Christopher N.; ...

    2017-11-10

    The earth-abundant material CuSbS 2 (CAS) has shown good optical properties as a photovoltaic solar absorber material, but has seen relatively poor solar cell performance. To investigate the reason for this anomaly, the core levels of the constituent elements, surface contaminants, ionization potential, and valence-band spectra are studied by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The ionization potential and electron affinity for this material (4.98 and 3.43 eV) are lower than those for other common absorbers, including CuInxGa (1-x)Se 2 (CIGS). Experimentally corroborated density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the valence band maximum is raised by the lone pair electrons from themore » antimony cations contributing additional states when compared with indium or gallium cations in CIGS. The resulting conduction band misalignment with CdS is a reason for the poor performance of cells incorporating a CAS/CdS heterojunction, supporting the idea that using a cell design analogous to CIGS is unhelpful. These findings underline the critical importance of considering the electronic structure when selecting cell architectures that optimize open-circuit voltages and cell efficiencies.« less

  19. Dynamical Mean-Field Approach to Core-Level Spectroscopy of NiO and its Insulating Character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariki, Atsushi; Uozumi, Takayuki

    2014-03-01

    Core-level X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful tool to investigate electronic structure of strongly correlated electron systems, such as 3 d transition metal oxides. In the Ni2 pXPS of NiO, a characteristic double-peak structure has been observed in the 2p3 / 2 main line, which is considered to be related with the insulating property of NiO. However, previous studies contradicts each other for the spectral assignment of the double peaks. Thus, a further investigation about the microscopic origin of the double peaks from a different viewpoint is required. In this talk, we investigate the double-peak structure using a framework, which was recently proposed in our research group, based on the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) under realistic crystal structure. We show that, besides the so-called nonlocal screening indicated by Van Veenendaal et al., the antiferromagnetic ordering of NiO plays a crucial role of the formation of the double peaks. We conclude from the spectral analysis that the lowest first ionization state of NiO is given by an electron removal from the Zhang-Rice doublet band.

  20. Core Levels, Band Alignments, and Valence-Band States in CuSbS2 for Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Whittles, Thomas J; Veal, Tim D; Savory, Christopher N; Welch, Adam W; de Souza Lucas, Francisco Willian; Gibbon, James T; Birkett, Max; Potter, Richard J; Scanlon, David O; Zakutayev, Andriy; Dhanak, Vinod R

    2017-12-06

    The earth-abundant material CuSbS 2 (CAS) has shown good optical properties as a photovoltaic solar absorber material, but has seen relatively poor solar cell performance. To investigate the reason for this anomaly, the core levels of the constituent elements, surface contaminants, ionization potential, and valence-band spectra are studied by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The ionization potential and electron affinity for this material (4.98 and 3.43 eV) are lower than those for other common absorbers, including CuIn x Ga (1-x) Se 2 (CIGS). Experimentally corroborated density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the valence band maximum is raised by the lone pair electrons from the antimony cations contributing additional states when compared with indium or gallium cations in CIGS. The resulting conduction band misalignment with CdS is a reason for the poor performance of cells incorporating a CAS/CdS heterojunction, supporting the idea that using a cell design analogous to CIGS is unhelpful. These findings underline the critical importance of considering the electronic structure when selecting cell architectures that optimize open-circuit voltages and cell efficiencies.

  1. 3d-4f magnetic interaction with density functional theory plus u approach: local Coulomb correlation and exchange pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yachao; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Hong

    2013-12-12

    The 3d-4f exchange interaction plays an important role in many lanthanide based molecular magnetic materials such as single-molecule magnets and magnetic refrigerants. In this work, we study the 3d-4f magnetic exchange interactions in a series of Cu(II)-Gd(III) (3d(9)-4f(7)) dinuclear complexes based on the numerical atomic basis-norm-conserving pseudopotential method and density functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction approach (DFT+U). We obtain improved description of the 4f electrons by including the semicore 5s5p states in the valence part of the Gd-pseudopotential. The Hubbard U correction is employed to treat the strongly correlated Cu-3d and Gd-4f electrons, which significantly improve the agreement of the predicted exchange constants, J, with experiment, indicating the importance of accurate description of the local Coulomb correlation. The high efficiency of the DFT+U approach enables us to perform calculations with molecular crystals, which in general improve the agreement between theory and experiment, achieving a mean absolute error smaller than 2 cm(-1). In addition, through analyzing the physical effects of U, we identify two magnetic exchange pathways. One is ferromagnetic and involves an interaction between the Cu-3d, O-2p (bridge ligand), and the majority-spin Gd-5d orbitals. The other one is antiferromagnetic and involves Cu-3d, O-2p, and the empty minority-spin Gd-4f orbitals, which is suppressed by the planar Cu-O-O-Gd structure. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the DFT+U method for evaluating the 3d-4f exchange interactions, provides a better understanding of the exchange mechanism in the Cu(II)-Gd(III) complexes, and paves the way for exploiting the magnetic properties of the 3d-4f compounds containing lanthanides other than Gd.

  2. Properties of C4F7N–CO2 thermal plasmas: thermodynamic properties, transport coefficients and emission coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi; Wang, Chunlin; Sun, Hao; Murphy, Anthony B.; Rong, Mingzhe; Yang, Fei; Chen, Zhexin; Niu, Chunpin; Wang, Xiaohua

    2018-04-01

    The thermophysical properties, including composition, thermodynamic properties, transport coefficients and net emission coefficients, of thermal plasmas formed from pure iso-C4 perfluoronitrile C4F7N and C4F7N–CO2 mixtures are calculated for temperatures from 300 to 30 000 K and pressures from 0.1 to 20 atm. These gases have received much attention as alternatives to SF6 for use in circuit breakers, due to the low global warming potential and good dielectric properties of C4F7N. Since the parameters of the large molecules formed in the dissociation of C4F7N are unavailable, the partition function and enthalpy of formation were calculated using computational chemistry methods. From the equilibrium composition calculations, it was found that when C4F7N is mixed with CO2, CO2 can capture C atoms from C4F7N, producing CO, since the system consisting of small molecules such as CF4 and CO has lower energy at room temperature. This is in agreement with previous experimental results, which show that CO dominates the decomposition products of C4F7N–CO2 mixtures; it could limit the repeated breaking performance of C4F7N. From the point of view of chemical stability, the mixing ratio of CO2 should therefore be chosen carefully. Through comparison with common arc quenching gases (including SF6, CF3I and C5F10O), it is found that for the temperature range for which electrical conductivity remains low, pure C4F7N has similar ρC p (product of mass density and specific heat) properties to SF6, and higher radiative emission coefficient, properties that are correlated with good arc extinguishing capability. For C4F7N–CO2 mixtures, the electrical conductivity is very close to that of SF6 while the ρC p peak at 7000 K caused by decomposition of CO implies inferior interruption capability to that of SF6. The calculated properties will be useful in arc simulations.

  3. Revisiting the origin of satellites in core-level photoemission of transparent conducting oxides: The case of n -doped SnO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgatti, Francesco; Berger, J. A.; Céolin, Denis; Zhou, Jianqiang Sky; Kas, Joshua J.; Guzzo, Matteo; McConville, C. F.; Offi, Francesco; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Regoutz, Anna; Payne, David J.; Rueff, Jean-Pascal; Bierwagen, Oliver; White, Mark E.; Speck, James S.; Gatti, Matteo; Egdell, Russell G.

    2018-04-01

    The longstanding problem of interpretation of satellite structures in core-level photoemission spectra of metallic systems with a low density of conduction electrons is addressed using the specific example of Sb-doped SnO2. Comparison of ab initio many-body calculations with experimental hard x-ray photoemission spectra of the Sn 4 d states shows that strong satellites are produced by coupling of the Sn core hole to the plasma oscillations of the free electrons introduced by doping. Within the same theoretical framework, spectral changes of the valence band spectra are also related to dynamical screening effects. These results demonstrate that, for the interpretation of electron correlation features in the core-level photoelectron spectra of such narrow-band materials, going beyond the homogeneous electron gas electron-plasmon coupling model is essential.

  4. Astronomical Pacing of Relative Sea Level through OAE2 from the Expanded SH#1 Core, Southern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. M.; Sageman, B. B.; Oakes, R. L.; Bralower, T. J.; Parker, A. L.; Leckie, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Proximal marine strata of the North American Western Interior Basin (WIB) preserve a rich record of faunal turnover linked to Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2 - 94 Ma), a pronounced Late Cretaceous carbon cycle perturbation interpreted to reflect global warming and possible ocean acidification. To develop a more robust synthesis of paleobiologic and geochemical datasets spanning this major Earth-life transition, we drilled a 131-meter core (SH#1) on the Kaiparowits Plateau of southern Utah, recovering the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (CTB) interval of the Tropic Shale. A 17.5-meter positive excursion in high-resolution bulk carbon isotope chemostratigraphy (δ13Corg) of SH#1 characterizes the most expanded and detailed record of OAE2 recovered from the WIB. Additionally, we detect statistically significant evidence for astronomical cycles in a companion δ13Ccarb dataset, using advanced spectral techniques (evolutive average spectral misfit). Bandpass filtering and tracing of the short eccentricity cycle (97 ka) permit development of a floating astronomical time scale (ATS) for the CTB interval. The presence of radioisotopic dates within the time series provides an independent check on astrochronologic interpretations. We attribute some depleted δ13Ccarb values in SH#1, which cyclically punctuate the OAE2 excursion, to preferential carbonate diagenesis driven by periodic sea level oscillations. Accordingly, major flooding surfaces in SH#1 correlate well to an existing sequence stratigraphic framework from shoreface facies of the Markagunt Plateau ( 100 km west). Comparing the ATS and sequence stratigraphic surfaces in SH#1, we observe that stable eccentricity cycles (405 ka) pace stratigraphic sequences and associated saw-toothed trends in sedimentation rate estimates through OAE2. Furthermore, short eccentricity cycles pace nested parasequences. These results confirm astronomical and, therefore, climatic pacing of relative sea level trends during OAE2 in the WIB. The

  5. Low-light-level nonlinear optics with rubidium atoms in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Amar Ramdas

    Low-light-level optical nonlinearities are of significant interest for performing operations such as single-photon switching and quantum non-demolition measurements on single-photons. To evoke strong nonlinearities from single-photons, one can enhance the matter-photon interaction using strongly nonlinear materials such as alkali vapors in combination with an appropriate geometry such as a waveguide, which provides a long interaction length while maintaining a small light mode area. We demonstrate for the first time that such a system can be experimentally realized by loading rubidium vapor inside a hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber. Using the technique of light-induced atomic desorption in this geometry, we have generated optical depths greater than 1000. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with control powers 1000 times lower than those used for hot vapor cells in a focused beam geometry. Working with such a high aspect ratio geometry requires us to identify and measure the various sources of decoherence via spectroscopy of desorbed atoms in the fiber. Using such techniques, we also estimate the temperature of the desorbing atoms inside the fiber. The desorption mechanism is studied, and we show that pulsed desorption beams of the right amplitude and duration can be used for generating precisely controlled optical depths. Finally, we investigate the use of various buffer gas techniques for increasing the effective transverse path of the atoms as they move across the fiber in order to reduce their ground state decoherence and map this effect as a function of buffer gas pressure.

  6. Use of the 4F Roesch Inferior Mesenteric Catheter in Embolization Procedures in the Pelvis: A Review of 300 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kroencke, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.kroencke@charite.de; Kluner, Claudia; Hamm, Bernd

    2007-04-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of a 4F Roesch inferior mesenteric (RIM) catheter for pelvic embolization procedures. Between October 2000 and January 2006, 364 patients (357 female, 7 male; age: 23-67 years) underwent embolization of various pathologies [uterine fibroids (n = 324), pure adenomyosis of the uterus (n = 19), postpartum hemorrhage (n =1), traumatic or postoperative hemorrhage (n = 9), bleeding related to cervical cancer (n =7), AV malformation of the uterus (n = 2) and high-flow priapism (n = 2)] at a single institution. In all cases, bilateral catheterization was primarily attempted withmore » the use of a 4F hook-shaped braided endhole catheter (Roesch-Inferior-Mesenteric, RIM-Catheter, Cordis, Miami, FL). Frequency of initial failure to catheterize the vascular territory of interest and carry out the embolization were recorded and the types of difficulty encountered were noted. Catherization of the main stem of the vessel territory of interest with the use of a unilateral femoral approach and the 4F RIM catherer was successful in 334/364 (91.8%) the embolization cases. Bilateral catheterization of the internal iliac arteries using a single common femoral artery access and the 4F RIM catheter was achieved in 322/364 (88.5%) patients. In 12/364 (3.3%) patients, a contralateral puncture was performed and the same 4F catheter was used. In 28/364 (7.7%) cases the 4F RIM catheter was exchanged for a catheter with a cobra-shaped or sidewinder configuration. The 4F RIM catheter is a simple and valuable alternative to catheters and techniques commonly employed for pelvic artery embolization.« less

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, photoluminescence property of a series of 3d-4f coordination supramolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Li, Cheng-Ren; Xu, Qi; Xu, Xue-Ting; Sun, Li-Xian; Xing, Yong-Heng

    2015-11-05

    A series of 3d-4f heterobinuclear complexes were constructed by employing the 2,2'-bipy (2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) ligand and corresponding metal ions (M(II)/Ln(III), M=Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II); Ln(III)=Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)). Elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis-NIR spectra, PXRD and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that complexes 1-4, 5-8, and 9-12 are isomorphous, respectively. The zero-dimensional structures are further connected to 2D or 3D supramolecular network structures via extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Luminescence studies for the heterobinuclear complexes containing Sm(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III) reveal that the chromophoric composed of Zn(II)/L may efficiently sensitize the luminescence of the rare earth cations which acts as an antenna, whereas the existence of Cu(II) leads to the quenching of the luminescence of Ln(III) ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pressure-enhanced superconductivity in Eu 3 Bi 2 S 4 F 4

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Yongkang; Zhai, Hui -Fei; Zhang, Pan; ...

    2014-12-17

    The pressure effect on the newly discovered charge-transferred BiS 2-based superconductor, Eu 3Bi 2S 4F 4, with a T c of 1.5 K at ambient pressure, is investigated by transport and magnetic measurements. Accompanied with the enhancement of metallicity under pressures, the onset superconducting transition temperature increases abruptly around 1.0 GPa, reaching ~10.0 K at 2.26 GPa. Alternating current magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that a new superconducting phase with a higher T c emerges and dominates at high pressures. In the broad pressure window of 0.68GPa≤p≤2.00 GPa, the high-T c phase coexists with the low-T c phase. Hall effect measurementsmore » reveal a significant difference in electronic structures between the two superconducting phases. As a result, our work devotes the effort to establish the commonality of pressure effect on the BiS 2-based superconductors, and also uncovers the importance of electron carrier density in the high-T c phase.« less

  9. A Search for EUV Emission from the O4f Star Zeta Puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Vallerga, John

    1996-01-01

    We obtained a 140 ks EUVE observation of the O4f star, zeta Puppis. Because of its low ISM column density and highly ionized stellar wind, a unique EUV window is accessible for viewing between 128 to 140 A, suggesting that this star may he the only O star observable with the EUVE. Although no SW spectrometer wavelength bin had a signal to noise greater than 3, a bin at 136 A had a signal to noise of 2.4. This bin is where models predict the brightest line due to OV emission should occur. We present several EUV line emission models. These models were constrained by fitting the ROSAT PSPC X-ray data and our EUVE data. If the OV emission is real, the best fits to the data suggest that there are discrepancies in our current understanding of EUV/X-ray production mechanisms. In particular, the emission measure of the EUV source is found to be much greater than the total wind emission measure, suggesting that the EUV shock must produce a very large density enhancement. In addition, the location of the EUV and X-ray shocks are found to be separated by approx. 0.3 stellar radii, but the EUV emission region is found to be approx. 400 times larger than the X-ray emission region. We also discuss the implications of a null detection and present relevant upper limits.

  10. Nodal multigap superconductivity in KCa2Fe4As4F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidman, M.; Kirschner, F. K. K.; Adroja, D. T.; Hillier, A. D.; Lang, F.; Wang, Z. C.; Cao, G. H.; Blundell, S. J.

    2018-02-01

    We find evidence that the newly discovered Fe-based superconductor KCa2Fe4As4F2 (Tc=33.36 (7 ) K) displays multigap superconductivity with line nodes. Transverse field muon spin rotation (μ SR ) measurements show that the temperature dependence of the superfluid density does not have the expected behavior of a fully gapped superconductor, due to the lack of saturation at low temperatures. Moreover, the data cannot be well fitted using either single band models or a multiband s -wave model, yet are well described by two-gap models with line nodes on either one or both of the gaps. Meanwhile the zero-field μ SR results indicate a lack of time reversal symmetry breaking in the superconducting state, but suggest the presence of magnetic fluctuations. These results demonstrate a different route for realizing nodal superconductivity in iron-based superconductors. Here the gap structure is drastically altered upon replacing one of the spacer layers, indicating the need to understand how the pairing state is tuned by changes of the asymmetry between the pnictogens located either side of the Fe planes.

  11. High Level Analysis, Design and Validation of Distributed Mobile Systems with CoreASM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahbod, R.; Glässer, U.; Jackson, P. J.; Vajihollahi, M.

    System design is a creative activity calling for abstract models that facilitate reasoning about the key system attributes (desired requirements and resulting properties) so as to ensure these attributes are properly established prior to actually building a system. We explore here the practical side of using the abstract state machine (ASM) formalism in combination with the CoreASM open source tool environment for high-level design and experimental validation of complex distributed systems. Emphasizing the early phases of the design process, a guiding principle is to support freedom of experimentation by minimizing the need for encoding. CoreASM has been developed and tested building on a broad scope of applications, spanning computational criminology, maritime surveillance and situation analysis. We critically reexamine here the CoreASM project in light of three different application scenarios.

  12. First stages of oxide growth on Al(1 1 0) and core-level shifts from density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lousada, Cláudio M.; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.

    2018-05-01

    The formation of islands of O-atoms is the dominant mode of growth of the oxide in the first stages of oxidation of Al(1 1 1). It is however unknown if a similar mechanism exists for other low index surfaces of Al. We performed a density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamics investigation of the first stages of the oxidation of Al(1 1 0) using two distinct models: a homogeneous surface disposition of O-atoms; and a model where the O-atoms are close-spaced forming clusters or islands. We investigated the surface reactions with oxygen up to a coverage of 2 ML and found that for both models the adsorption energy per dissociating O2(g) becomes more negative with increasing coverage. Our results show that for coverages up to 1.25 ML the oxide forms clusters or islands while for coverages higher than 1.5 ML the oxide covers the surface homogeneously. This is because the O-atoms bind preferably to neighboring sites even at the minimum coverage. With increasing coverage, the clusters of O start to form stripes along the [1 1 bar 0] direction. The work function (ϕ) of the surface decreases when going from bare Al(1 1 0) to up to 1 ML coverage of O-atoms, but for coverages of 1.25 ML and higher, ϕ increases. The Al 2p surface core level shifts (SCLS) shift towards higher binding energies with increasing surface coverage of O-atoms and start to approach the values of Al 2p in Al2O3 already at a coverage of 2ML. A relation between the SCLS and the coordination number of Al to O-atoms was made. The Al 2p SCLS increases with increasing coordination to O-atoms, for single, twofold and three-fourfold coordinated cations. For the O-atoms that terminate the surface at the short-bridge sites, the SCLS of O 1s, is largely affected by the proximity to other O-atoms. These results demonstrate that the cooperative effects between surface bound O-atoms have important roles in the mechanism of growth of the oxide at Al(1 1 0), and similarly to what happens for Al(1 1 1

  13. Molecular Pathways: The eIF4F Translation Initiation Complex-New Opportunities for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Malka-Mahieu, Hélène; Newman, Michelle; Désaubry, Laurent; Robert, Caroline; Vagner, Stéphan

    2017-01-01

    The eIF4F complex regulates the cap-dependent mRNA translation process. It is becoming increasingly evident that aberrant activity of this complex is observed in many cancers, leading to the selective synthesis of proteins involved in tumor growth and metastasis. The selective translation of cellular mRNAs controlled by this complex also contributes to resistance to cancer treatments, and downregulation of the eIF4F complex components can restore sensitivity to various cancer therapies. Here, we review the contribution of the eIF4F complex to tumorigenesis, with a focus on its role in chemoresistance as well as the promising use of new small-molecule inhibitors of the complex, including flavaglines/rocaglates, hippuristanol, and pateamine A. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 21-25. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Late Quaternary lake-level changes constrained by radiocarbon and stable isotope studies on sediment cores from Lake Titicaca, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Harold D.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Southon, John R.; Seltzer, Geoffrey O.; Mucciarone, David A.; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Baker, Paul A.

    2003-09-01

    developed for the Lake Titicaca sequence using different organic fractions, mobile organic sub-fractions and fractions containing mobile sub-fractions should generally be avoided in geochronology studies. Consequently, we believe humin and/or bulk decalcified ages provide the most consistent chronologies for the post-13,500 yr BP interval, and humin ages provide the most representative ages for sedimentation prior to 13,500 yr BP interval. Using the age model derived from the deep water core site and a previously published isotope-based lake-level reconstruction, we present a qualitative record of lake level in the context of several ice-core records from the western hemisphere. We find the latest Pleistocene lake-level response to changing insolation began during or just prior to the Bølling/Allerød period. Using the isotope-based lake-level reconstruction, we also find the 85-m drop in lake level that occurred during the mid-Holocene was synchronous with an increase in the variability of ice-core δ18O from a nearby icecap, but was not reflected in any of the polar ice-core records recovered from the interior of Antarctica and Greenland.

  15. Common Core, Socioeconomic Status, and Middle Level Student Achievement: Implications for Teacher Preparation Programs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Lauren; Foley, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a history of the standardized testing and accountability movement, the curriculum standards attached to the accountability movement, and the attempted shift to common core. Student poverty and its impact on student achievement are the focus of this paper. Recognizing the impact of poverty on student achievement as measured by…

  16. Preservice Secondary Teachers Perceptions of College-Level Mathematics Content Connections with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Travis A.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers (PSMTs) were surveyed to identify if they could connect early-secondary mathematics content (Grades 7-9) in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) with mathematics content studied in content courses for certification in secondary teacher preparation programs. Respondents were asked to…

  17. Enlarging the angle of view in Michelson-interferometer-based shearography by embedding a 4f system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sijin; He, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Lianxiang

    2011-07-20

    Digital shearography based on Michelson interferometers suffers from the disadvantage of a small angle of view due to the structure. We demonstrate a novel digital shearography system with a large angle of view. In the optical arrangement, the imaging lens is in front of the Michelson interferometer rather than behind it as in traditional digital shearography. Thus, the angle of view is no longer limited by the Michelson interferometer. The images transmitting between the separate lens and camera are accomplished by a 4f system in the new style of shearography. The influences of the 4f system on shearography are also discussed. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Methylmercury Uptake into BeWo Cells Depends on LAT2-4F2hc, a System L Amino Acid Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Balthasar, Christina; Stangl, Herbert; Granitzer, Sebastian; Hengstschläger, Markus; Gundacker, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    The organic mercury compound methylmercury (MeHg) is able to target the fetal brain. However, the uptake of the toxicant into placental cells is incompletely understood. MeHg strongly binds to thiol-S containing molecules such as cysteine. This MeHg-l-cysteine exhibits some structural similarity to methionine. System L plays a crucial role in placental transport of essential amino acids such as leucine and methionine and thus has been assumed to also transport MeHg-l-cysteine across the placenta. The uptake of methylmercury and tritiated leucine and methionine into the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo was examined using transwell assay and small interfering (si)RNA mediated gene knockdown. Upon the downregulation of large neutral amino acids transporter (LAT)2 and 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (4F2hc), respectively, the levels of [3H]leucine in BeWo cells are significantly reduced compared to controls treated with non-targeting siRNA (p < 0.05). The uptake of [3H]methionine was reduced upon LAT2 down-regulation as well as methylmercury uptake after 4F2hc silencing (p < 0.05, respectively). These findings suggest an important role of system L in the placental uptake of the metal. Comparing the cellular accumulation of mercury, leucine, and methionine, it can be assumed that (1) MeHg is transported through system L amino acid transporters and (2) system L is responsible for the uptake of amino acids and MeHg primarily at the apical membrane of the trophoblast. The findings together can explain why mercury in contrast to other heavy metals such as lead or cadmium is efficiently transported to fetal blood. PMID:28786956

  19. Carbothermal reduction synthesis of carbon coated Na2FePO4F for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Dongming; Chen, Shasha; Han, Chang; Ai, Changchun; Yuan, Liangjie

    2016-01-01

    Carbon coated spherical Na2FePO4F particles with typical diameters from 500 nm to 1 μm have been synthesized through an economical carbothermal reduction method with a simple apparatus. Mixed carbon source consists of citric acid and phenolic resin can form highly graphitized carbon and remarkably improve the electrical conductivity. When cycled against lithium, Na2FePO4F/C cathodes deliver maximum discharge capacity of 119 mAh g-1 at a low rate of 0.05 C. Reversible capacity of 110 mAh g-1, 74 mAh g-1 and 52 mAh g-1 can be obtained at 0.1 C, 1 C and 2 C rates, respectively. And after 30 cycles at 0.1 C, 91% of the discharge capacity can still be maintained. The electrochemical kinetic characteristic of electrode material is investigated by EIS and the apparent Li+ diffusion coefficient in the Li/Na2FePO4F system is evaluated to be as high as 1.152 × 10-11 cm2 s-1. This study demonstrates that the practical and economical synthesis process can be a promising way for industrial production of high performance Na2FePO4F/C electrode material for large-scale lithium ion batteries.

  20. A novel frameshift mutation of POU4F3 gene associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee Keun; Park, Hong-Joon; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2010-06-04

    Autosomal dominant mutations in the transcription factor POU4F3 gene are associated with non-syndromic hearing loss in humans; however, there have been few reports of mutations in this gene worldwide. We performed a mutation analysis of the POU4F3 gene in 42 unrelated Koreans with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss, identifying a novel 14-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 (c.662del14) in one patient. Audiometric examination revealed severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in this patient. The novel mutation led to a truncated protein that lacked both functional POU domains. We further investigated the functional distinction between wild-type and mutant POU4F3 proteins using inmore » vitro assays. The wild-type protein was completely localized in the nucleus, while the truncation of protein seriously affected its nuclear localization. In addition, the mutant failed to activate reporter gene expression. This is the first report of a POU4F3 mutation in Asia, and moreover our data suggest that further investigation will need to delineate ethnicity-specific genetic background for autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss within Asian populations.« less

  1. Negative regulation of amino acid signaling by MAPK-regulated 4F2hc/Girdin complex.

    PubMed

    Weng, Liang; Han, Yi-Peng; Enomoto, Atsushi; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Asai, Naoya; An, Jian; Takagishi, Maki; Asai, Masato; Mii, Shinji; Masuko, Takashi; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Masahide

    2018-03-01

    Amino acid signaling mediated by the activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is fundamental to cell growth and metabolism. However, how cells negatively regulate amino acid signaling remains largely unknown. Here, we show that interaction between 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), a subunit of multiple amino acid transporters, and the multifunctional hub protein girders of actin filaments (Girdin) down-regulates mTORC1 activity. 4F2hc interacts with Girdin in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)- and amino acid signaling-dependent manners to translocate to the lysosome. The resultant decrease in cell surface 4F2hc leads to lowered cytoplasmic glutamine (Gln) and leucine (Leu) content, which down-regulates amino acid signaling. Consistently, Girdin depletion augments amino acid-induced mTORC1 activation and inhibits amino acid deprivation-induced autophagy. These findings uncovered the mechanism underlying negative regulation of amino acid signaling, which may play a role in tightly regulated cell growth and metabolism.

  2. Mutation of the 4F2 heavy-chain carboxy terminus causes y+ LAT2 light-chain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chubb, Sarah; Kingsland, Alice L; Bröer, Angelika; Bröer, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of two subunits--a multipass membrane protein called the 'light chain'--and a single pass glycoprotein called the 'heavy chain'. The light chain contains the transport pore, while the heavy chain appears to be necessary for trafficking the light chain to the plasma membrane. In this study, the role of the 4F2hc heavy chain in the function of the y+ LAT2 light chain was investigated. Carboxy terminal truncations and site specific mutants of 4F2hc were co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with the y+ LAT2 light chain, and the oocytes were analysed for transport activity and surface expression. Truncations of the 4F2hc carboxy terminus ranging between 15 and 404 residues caused a complete loss of light chain function, although all heterodimers were expressed at the cell surface. This indicated that the 15 carboxy-terminal residues of 4F2hc are required for the transport function of the heterodimer. Mutation of the conserved residue leucine 523 to glutamine in the carboxy terminus reduced the Vmax of arginine and leucine uptake. The affinity of the transporter for both arginine and leucine remained unaltered, but the Km-value of Na+, being cotransported with leucine, increased about three-fold. The change of the Na+ Km caused a specific defect of leucine efflux, whereas uptake of leucine at high extracellular NaCl concentration was unaffected.

  3. Level of neutral buoyancy, deep convective outflow, and convective core: New perspectives based on 5 years of CloudSat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hanii; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the follow on to a previous publication by the authors, which investigated the relationship between the level of neutral buoyancy (LNB) determined from the ambient sounding and the actual outflow levels using mainly CloudSat observations. The goal of the current study is to provide a more complete characterization of LNB, deep convective outflow, and convective core, and the relationship among them, as well as the dependence on environmental parameters and convective system size. A proxy is introduced to estimate convective entrainment, namely, the difference between the LNB (based on the ambient sounding) and the actual outflow height. The principal findings are as follows: (1) Deep convection over the Warm Pool has larger entrainment rates and smaller convective cores than the counterpart over the two tropical land regions (Africa and Amazonia), lending observational support to a long-standing assumption in convection models concerning the negative relationship between the two parameters. (2) The differences in internal vertical structure of convection between the two tropical land regions and the Warm Pool suggest that deep convection over the two tropical land regions contains more intense cores. (3) Deep convective outflow occurs at a higher level when the midtroposphere is more humid and the convective system size is smaller. The convective system size dependence is postulated to be related to convective lifecycle, highlighting the importance of cloud life stage information in interpretation of snapshot measurements by satellite. Finally, implications of the study to global modeling are discussed.

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of the hexagonal anti-perovskite Na{sub 2}CaVO{sub 4}F

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Robert L., E-mail: rgreen@flpoly.org; Avdeev, Maxim; School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006

    2017-06-15

    The structural details of the ordered hexagonal oxyfluoride Na{sub 2}CaVO{sub 4}F prepared by solid-state synthesis using stoichiometric amounts of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, CaCO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NaF were characterized using high-resolution neutron powder diffraction. The structural changes between 25 °C and 750 °C revealed that the two structural subunits in this material behave different when heated: there is an expansion of the face-shared FNa{sub 4}Ca{sub 2} octahedra while the VO{sub 4} tetrahedra due to increased thermal disorder reveal marginal bond contractions. Bond valences and the global instability index point to significant structural disorder at 750 °C. - Graphicalmore » abstract: The structure of the novel oxyfluoride Na{sub 2}CaVO{sub 4}F is studied at room temperature and high-temperatures. The structure can be viewed as layers of compression and elongation of polyhedral subunits, which change as a function of temperature. - Highlights: • The novel oxyfluoride, Na{sub 2}CaVO{sub 4}F, is synthesized via solid-state method. • High-resolution neutron diffraction data is used to analyze the structure of Na{sub 2}CaVO{sub 4}F. • Structural subunits exhibit expansion and contraction with increasing temperature. • Higher temperatures increase instability within the structure of Na{sub 2}CaVO{sub 4}F.« less

  5. Formation of tavorite-type LiFeSO4F followed by in situ X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Rickard; Sobkowiak, Adam; Ångström, Jonas; Sahlberg, Martin; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Edström, Kristina; Björefors, Fredrik

    2015-12-01

    The tavorite-type polymorph of LiFeSO4F has recently attracted substantial attention as a positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries. The synthesis of this material is generally considered to rely on a topotactic exchange of water (H2O) for lithium (Li) and fluorine (F) within the structurally similar hydrated iron sulfate precursor (FeSO4·H2O) when reacted with lithium fluoride (LiF). However, there have also been discussions in the literature regarding the possibility of a non-topotactic reaction mechanism between lithium sulfate (Li2SO4) and iron fluoride (FeF2) in tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as reaction medium. In this work, we use in situ X-ray diffraction to continuously follow the formation of LiFeSO4F from the two suggested precursor mixtures in a setup aimed to mimic the conditions of a solvothermal autoclave synthesis. It is demonstrated that LiFeSO4F is formed directly from FeSO4·H2O and LiF, in agreement with the proposed topotactic mechanism. The Li2SO4 and FeF2 precursors, on the other hand, are shown to rapidly transform into FeSO4·H2O and LiF with the water originating from the highly hygroscopic TEG before a subsequent formation of LiFeSO4F is initiated. The results highlight the importance of the FeSO4·H2O precursor in obtaining the tavorite-type LiFeSO4F, as it is observed in both reaction routes.

  6. Silicon etch using SF{sub 6}/C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Robert L., E-mail: rlb043000@utdallas.edu; Stephan Thamban, P. L.; Goeckner, Matthew J.

    2014-07-01

    While plasmas using mixtures of SF{sub 6}, C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, and Ar are widely used in deep silicon etching, very few studies have linked the discharge parameters to etching results. The authors form such linkages in this report. The authors measured the optical emission intensities of lines from Ar, F, S, SF{sub x}, CF{sub 2}, C{sub 2}, C{sub 3}, and CS as a function of the percentage C{sub 4}F{sub 8} in the gas flow, the total gas flow rate, and the bias power. In addition, the ion current density and electron temperature were measured using a floating Langmuir probe. Formore » comparison, trenches were etched of various widths and the trench profiles (etch depth, undercut) were measured. The addition of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} to an SF{sub 6}/Ar plasma acts to reduce the availability of F as well as increase the deposition of passivation film. Sulfur combines with carbon in the plasma efficiently to create a large optical emission of CS and suppress optical emissions from C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}. At low fractional flows of C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, the etch process appears to be controlled by the ion flux more so than by the F density. At large C{sub 4}F{sub 8} fractional flows, the etch process appears to be controlled more by the F density than by the ion flux or deposition rate of passivation film. CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2} do not appear to cause deposition from the plasma, but CS and other carbon containing molecules as well as ions do.« less

  7. Toward a W4-F12 approach: Can explicitly correlated and orbital-based ab initio CCSD(T) limits be reconciled?

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvetsky, Nitai, E-mail: gershom@weizmann.ac.il; Martin, Jan M. L., E-mail: gershom@weizmann.ac.il; Peterson, Kirk A., E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu

    2016-06-07

    In the context of high-accuracy computational thermochemistry, the valence coupled cluster with all singles and doubles (CCSD) correlation component of molecular atomization energies presents the most severe basis set convergence problem, followed by the (T) component. In the present paper, we make a detailed comparison, for an expanded version of the W4-11 thermochemistry benchmark, between, on the one hand, orbital-based CCSD/AV{5,6}Z + d and CCSD/ACV{5,6}Z extrapolation, and on the other hand CCSD-F12b calculations with cc-pVQZ-F12 and cc-pV5Z-F12 basis sets. This latter basis set, now available for H–He, B–Ne, and Al–Ar, is shown to be very close to the basis setmore » limit. Apparent differences (which can reach 0.35 kcal/mol for systems like CCl{sub 4}) between orbital-based and CCSD-F12b basis set limits disappear if basis sets with additional radial flexibility, such as ACV{5,6}Z, are used for the orbital calculation. Counterpoise calculations reveal that, while total atomization energies with V5Z-F12 basis sets are nearly free of BSSE, orbital calculations have significant BSSE even with AV(6 + d)Z basis sets, leading to non-negligible differences between raw and counterpoise-corrected extrapolated limits. This latter problem is greatly reduced by switching to ACV{5,6}Z core-valence basis sets, or simply adding an additional zeta to just the valence orbitals. Previous reports that all-electron approaches like HEAT (high-accuracy extrapolated ab-initio thermochemistry) lead to different CCSD(T) limits than “valence limit + CV correction” approaches like Feller-Peterson-Dixon and Weizmann-4 (W4) theory can be rationalized in terms of the greater radial flexibility of core-valence basis sets. For (T) corrections, conventional CCSD(T)/AV{Q,5}Z + d calculations are found to be superior to scaled or extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of similar cost. For a W4-F12 protocol, we recommend obtaining the Hartree-Fock and valence CCSD components from

  8. Toward a W4-F12 approach: Can explicitly correlated and orbital-based ab initio CCSD(T) limits be reconciled?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvetsky, Nitai; Peterson, Kirk A.; Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2016-06-01

    In the context of high-accuracy computational thermochemistry, the valence coupled cluster with all singles and doubles (CCSD) correlation component of molecular atomization energies presents the most severe basis set convergence problem, followed by the (T) component. In the present paper, we make a detailed comparison, for an expanded version of the W4-11 thermochemistry benchmark, between, on the one hand, orbital-based CCSD/AV{5,6}Z + d and CCSD/ACV{5,6}Z extrapolation, and on the other hand CCSD-F12b calculations with cc-pVQZ-F12 and cc-pV5Z-F12 basis sets. This latter basis set, now available for H-He, B-Ne, and Al-Ar, is shown to be very close to the basis set limit. Apparent differences (which can reach 0.35 kcal/mol for systems like CCl4) between orbital-based and CCSD-F12b basis set limits disappear if basis sets with additional radial flexibility, such as ACV{5,6}Z, are used for the orbital calculation. Counterpoise calculations reveal that, while total atomization energies with V5Z-F12 basis sets are nearly free of BSSE, orbital calculations have significant BSSE even with AV(6 + d)Z basis sets, leading to non-negligible differences between raw and counterpoise-corrected extrapolated limits. This latter problem is greatly reduced by switching to ACV{5,6}Z core-valence basis sets, or simply adding an additional zeta to just the valence orbitals. Previous reports that all-electron approaches like HEAT (high-accuracy extrapolated ab-initio thermochemistry) lead to different CCSD(T) limits than "valence limit + CV correction" approaches like Feller-Peterson-Dixon and Weizmann-4 (W4) theory can be rationalized in terms of the greater radial flexibility of core-valence basis sets. For (T) corrections, conventional CCSD(T)/AV{Q,5}Z + d calculations are found to be superior to scaled or extrapolated CCSD(T)-F12b calculations of similar cost. For a W4-F12 protocol, we recommend obtaining the Hartree-Fock and valence CCSD components from CCSD-F12b/cc-pV{Q,5}Z-F12

  9. Magneto-structural variety of new 3d-4f-4(5)d heterotrimetallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Visinescu, Diana; Alexandru, Maria-Gabriela; Madalan, Augustin M; Pichon, Céline; Duhayon, Carine; Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Andruh, Marius

    2015-10-14

    Three families of heterotrimetallic chains (type 1-type 3), with different topologies, have been obtained by reacting the 3d-4f complexes, [{Cu(L(1))}xLn(NO3)3] with x = 1 or 2, formed in situ by the reaction of Schiff-base bi-compartmental [Cu(II)(L(1))] complexes and lanthanide(iii) salts, with (NHBu3)3[M(CN)8] (M = Mo(V), W(V)). For type 1 series of compounds, 1-D coordination polymers, with the general formula [{Cu2(valpn)2Ln}{M(CN)8}]·nH2O·mCH3CN (where H2valpn = 1,3-propanediylbis(2-iminomethylene-6-methoxy-phenol), result from the association of trinuclear {CuLn(III)} moieties and [M(V)(CN)8](3-) anions acting as tri-connecting spacers [Ln = La (1), Ce (2), Eu (3), Tb (4), Ho (5), M = Mo; Ln = Tb (6), Ho (7), M = W; m = 0, n = 1.5 (7) and 2 (1-4, 6); n = 1, m = 1 (5)]. The type 2 family has the general formula [{Cu(valdp)Ln(H2O)4}{M(CN)8}]·2H2O·CH3CN (where H2valdp = 1,2-propanediylbis(2-iminomethylene-6-methoxy-phenol)) and also consists of heterotrimetallic chains involving binuclear {Cu(II)Ln(III)} units linked to [M(CN)8](3-) anions coordinating through two cyano groups [Ln = Gd (8), Tb (9), Dy (10); M = Mo; Ln = La (11), Gd (12), Tb (13), Dy (14); M = W]. With large Ln(III) ions (La(III) and Pr(III)), the type 3 family of heterotrimetallic compounds are assembled: [{Cu2(valdp)2Ln(H2O)4}{Mo(CN)8}]·nCH3OH·mCH3CN, n, m = 0, Ln = La (15); n = m = 1, Pr (16), in which the trinuclear {CuLn(III)} nodes are connected to [Mo(V)(CN)8](3-) anions that act as tetra-connecting spacers. For Tb(III) derivatives of the type 1 (compounds 4 and 6), the DC magnetic properties indicate a predominant ferromagnetic Cu(II)-Tb(III) interaction, while the AC magnetic susceptibility (in the presence of a static magnetic field, HDC = 3000 Oe) emphasize the slow relaxation of the magnetization (Ueff/kB = 20.55 K and τ0 = 5.5 × 10(-7) s for compound 4, Ueff/kBT = 15.1 K and τ0 = 1.5 × 10(-7) s for compound 6). A predominant ferromagnetic Cu(II)-Ln(III) interaction was

  10. Disordered Nd:LuYSiO5 crystal lasers operating on the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 and 4F3/2 → 4I13/2 transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Zhiyong; Huang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun

    2017-11-01

    We report on diode-pumped disordered Nd:LuYSiO5 (Nd:LYSO) crystal lasers operating on the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 and 4F3/2 → 4I 13/2 transitions. Simultaneous laser operation at 1074 and 1078 nm is achieved with maximum output power of 4.46 W and slope efficiency of 39.6%. Single wavelength laser at 1358 nm with maximum output power of 1.15 W and slope efficiency of 11.8% is also obtained. Moreover, four single-wavelength lasers at 1058, 1107, 1330 and 1386 nm with relatively low gains are achieved with maximum output powers of 2.72, 1.22, 0.52 and 0.42 W, respectively, for the first time to our knowledge. Lasing at non-traditional emission lines was obtained by using output couplers with dielectric coatings for specific wavelength ranges.

  11. Measurements of electron attachment lineshapes and cross sections at ultra-low electron energies for CF2Cl2, c-C4F6, c-C4F8 and c-C7F14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Electron-attachment cross sections are reported in the electron energy range 0-160 meV, and at energy resolutions of 7.0 and 7.5 meV (FWHM), for the molecules CF2Cl2 (dichlorodifluoromethane), c-C4F6 (perfluorocyclobutene), c-C4F8 (perfluorocyclobutane), and c-C7F14 (perfluoromethylcyclohexane). Use is made of the Kr photoionization method. Measured attachment lineshapes are deconvoluted from the spectral slit function, and are converted to cross sections by normalization through thermal attachment-rate constants. Comparisons are made with attachment cross sections derived from several independent sets of swarm-measured rate constants, and with collisional ionization (high-Rydberg attachment) data.

  12. Circadian regulation of chloroplast transcription in Chlamydomonas is accompanied by little or no fluctuation in RPOD levels or core RNAP activity.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Ryo; Mahan, Kristina M; Venghaus, Brad E; Carter, Matthew L; Herrin, David L

    2012-12-01

    In Chlamydomonas growing under 24 h light-dark cycles, chloroplast transcription is under circadian clock control, and peaks early in the morning. The peak (but not trough) requires ongoing cytoplasmic translation, as it is sensitive to cycloheximide (CH). The chloroplast transcriptional apparatus in Chlamydomonas is simpler than in land plants, with only one type of RNA polymerase (RNAP, bacterial) and apparently only one sigma factor (RPOD). Core RNAP can be assayed in vitro with a non-sigma factor dependent template, and is sensitive to rifampicin. We developed a membrane-based assay for RNAP activity, and used it to determine that core activity is only weakly affected by pre-treating cells with CH. Moreover, core chloroplast RNAP activity was steady during a 24 h light-dark cycle. Levels of the sigma factor (RPOD) were examined using western blots, and found to fluctuate less than 25 % during light-dark cycles. These data indicate that circadian regulation of chloroplast transcription is distinct from regulation by sulfur availability, which involves significant changes in RPOD levels. The implications of this data for hypotheses that purport to explain the circadian control mechanism are discussed.

  13. Structural changes and self-activated photoluminescence in reductively annealed Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Robert; Avdeev, Maxim; Vogt, Thomas, E-mail: tvogt@mailbox.sc.edu

    2015-08-15

    White light emission of self-activated photoluminescence (PL) in Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F under 254 nm light is only observed after annealing in a reducing atmosphere of 5%H{sub 2}/95%Ar. High-resolution neutron powder diffraction reveals that the FSr{sub 6} octahedrons and AlO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in this anti-perovskite structure are closer packed in reduced than in air-annealed samples which show no PL. Careful analysis of temperature-dependent neutron powder diffraction data establishes smaller isotropic displacement parameters for Sr(1) and O in Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F annealed in a reducing atmosphere indicating that the denser packing of the polyhedral sub-units leads to a slightly deeper potential formore » the Sr(1) and O atoms. Both the air- and reductively-annealed samples have identical thermal expansion within the temperature range between 3 and 350 K. The Debye temperatures were calculated using the atomic displacement parameters and show no significant differences between the air and reductively annealed samples making the Debye temperature a bad proxy for self-activated PL. - Graphical abstract: Annealing Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F under reducing conditions results in an intense self-activated photoluminescence which is correlated with a denser packing of FSr{sub 6} and AlO{sub 4} polyhedra. - Highlights: • Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F made in air does not show self-activated photoluminescence. • Only when annealing Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F in a reducing gas is photoluminescence observed. • FSr{sub 6} and AlO{sub 4} polyhedra in reduced Sr{sub 3}AlO{sub 4}F structure are packed more efficient. • Smaller displacement parameters are found for under-bonded Sr(1) and O sites.« less

  14. Thermal ionization and thermally activated crossover quenching processes for 5 d -4 f luminescence in Y3A l5 -xG axO12:P r3 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Jumpei; Meijerink, Andries; Dorenbos, Pieter; Bos, Adrie J. J.; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We investigated thermally activated ionization and thermally activated crossover as the two possibilities of quenching of 5 d luminescence in P r3 + -doped Y3A l5 -xG axO12 . Varying the Ga content x gives the control over the relative energy level location of the 5 d and 4 f2:P3J states of P r3 + and the host conduction band (CB). Temperature-dependent luminescence lifetime measurements show that the 5 d luminescence quenching temperature T50 % increases up to x =2 and decreases with further increasing Ga content. This peculiar behavior is explained by a unique transition between the two quenching mechanisms which have an opposite dependence of thermal quenching on Ga content. For low Ga content, thermally activated crossover from the 4 f 5 d state to the 4 f2(P3J) states is the operative quenching mechanism. With increasing Ga content, the activation energy for thermally activated crossover becomes larger, as derived from the configuration coordinate diagram, while from the vacuum referred binding energy diagram the activation energy of thermal ionization becomes smaller. Based on these results, we demonstrated that the thermal quenching of P r3 +:5 d1-4 f luminescence in Y3A l5 -xG axO12 with x =0 ,1 ,2 is a thermally activated crossover while for x =3 ,4 ,5 it results from the thermal ionization.

  15. Arginine transport in human erythroid cells: discrimination of CAT1 and 4F2hc/y+LAT2 roles.

    PubMed

    Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Closs, Ellen I; Barilli, Amelia; Visigalli, Rossana; Simon, Alexandra; Habermeier, Alice; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Gambari, Roberto; Gazzola, Gian C; Bussolati, Ovidio; Dall'Asta, Valeria

    2009-10-01

    Since arginine metabolites, such as nitric oxide and polyamines, influence the expression of genes involved in erythroid differentiation, the transport of the cationic amino acid may play an important role in erythroid cells. However, available data only concern the presence in these cells of CAT1 transporter (system y(+)), while no information exists on the role of the heterodimeric transporters of system y(+)L (4F2hc/y(+)LAT1 and 4F2hc/y(+)LAT2) which operates transmembrane arginine fluxes cis-inhibited by neutral amino acids in the presence of sodium. Using erythroleukemia K562 cells and normal erythroid precursors, we demonstrate here that arginine transport in human erythroid cells is due to the additive contributions of a leucine-sensitive and leucine-insensitive component. In both cell types, leucine inhibition of arginine influx is much less evident in the absence of sodium, a hallmark of system y(+)L. In K562 cells, N-ethylmaleimide, a known inhibitor of CAT transporters (system y(+)), suppresses only a fraction of arginine influx corresponding to leucine-insensitive uptake. Moreover, in Xenopus oocytes coexpressing 4F2hc and y(+)LAT2, leucine exerts a marked inhibition of arginine transport, partially dependent on sodium, while no inhibition is seen in oocytes expressing CAT1. Lastly, silencing of SLC7A6, the gene for y(+)LAT2, lowers arginine transport and doubles the intracellular content of the cationic amino acid in K562 cells. We conclude that arginine transport in human erythroid cells is due to both system y(+) (CAT1 transporter) and system y(+)L (4F2hc/y(+)LAT2 isoform), which mainly contribute, respectively, to the influx and to the efflux of the cationic amino acid.

  16. Bulk plasma fragmentation in a C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductively coupled plasma: A hybrid modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp

    2015-06-28

    A hybrid model is used to investigate the fragmentation of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductive discharges. Indeed, the resulting reactive species are crucial for the optimization of the Si-based etching process, since they determine the mechanisms of fluorination, polymerization, and sputtering. In this paper, we present the dissociation degree, the density ratio of F vs. C{sub x}F{sub y} (i.e., fluorocarbon (fc) neutrals), the neutral vs. positive ion density ratio, details on the neutral and ion components, and fractions of various fc neutrals (or ions) in the total fc neutral (or ion) density in a C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductively coupled plasma source,more » as well as the effect of pressure and power on these results. To analyze the fragmentation behavior, the electron density and temperature and electron energy probability function (EEPF) are investigated. Moreover, the main electron-impact generation sources for all considered neutrals and ions are determined from the complicated C{sub 4}F{sub 8} reaction set used in the model. The C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma fragmentation is explained, taking into account many factors, such as the EEPF characteristics, the dominance of primary and secondary processes, and the thresholds of dissociation and ionization. The simulation results are compared with experiments from literature, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Some discrepancies are observed, which can probably be attributed to the simplified polymer surface kinetics assumed in the model.« less

  17. Composite Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Spang & Company's new configuration of converter transformer cores is a composite of gapped and ungapped cores assembled together in concentric relationship. The net effect of the composite design is to combine the protection from saturation offered by the gapped core with the lower magnetizing requirement of the ungapped core. The uncut core functions under normal operating conditions and the cut core takes over during abnormal operation to prevent power surges and their potentially destructive effect on transistors. Principal customers are aerospace and defense manufacturers. Cores also have applicability in commercial products where precise power regulation is required, as in the power supplies for large mainframe computers.

  18. A suggested emergency medicine boot camp curriculum for medical students based on the mapping of Core Entrustable Professional Activities to Emergency Medicine Level 1 milestones.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Wilson, Bryan; Natal, Brenda; Nagurka, Roxanne; Anana, Michael; Sule, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of students rank Emergency Medicine (EM) as a top specialty choice, requiring medical schools to provide adequate exposure to EM. The Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) for Entering Residency by the Association of American Medical Colleges combined with the Milestone Project for EM residency training has attempted to standardize the undergraduate and graduate medical education goals. However, it remains unclear as to how the EPAs correlate to the milestones, and who owns the process of ensuring that an entering EM resident has competency at a certain minimum level. Recent trends establishing specialty-specific boot camps prepare students for residency and address the variability of skills of students coming from different medical schools. Our project's goal was therefore to perform a needs assessment to inform the design of an EM boot camp curriculum. Toward this goal, we 1) mapped the core EPAs for graduating medical students to the EM residency Level 1 milestones in order to identify the possible gaps/needs and 2) conducted a pilot procedure workshop that was designed to address some of the identified gaps/needs in procedural skills. In order to inform the curriculum of an EM boot camp, we used a systematic approach to 1) identify gaps between the EPAs and EM milestones (Level 1) and 2) determine what essential and supplemental competencies/skills an incoming EM resident should ideally possess. We then piloted a 1-day, three-station advanced ABCs procedure workshop based on the identified needs. A pre-workshop test and survey assessed knowledge, preparedness, confidence, and perceived competence. A post-workshop survey evaluated the program, and a posttest combined with psychomotor skills test using three simulation cases assessed students' skills. Students (n=9) reported increased confidence in the following procedures: intubation (1.5-2.1), thoracostomy (1.1-1.9), and central venous catheterization (1.3-2) (a three-point Likert

  19. 926 nm laser operation in Nd:GdNbO4 crystal based on 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Renpeng; Li, Xudong; Yao, Wenming; Shen, Yingjie; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Qingli; Dou, Renqing; Gao, Jing

    2018-05-01

    926 nm laser operation in a Nd:GdNbO4 crystal based on quasi-three-level 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition is reported, for the first time to our best knowledge. An average output power of 393 mW at 926 nm under 879 nm LD pumping is obtained with a slope efficiency of 33.3% and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 26.0%. The slope efficiency with respect to absorbed pump power is estimated to be 47.7%. Comparison between output characters of 926 nm laser under direct and indirect pumping is conducted. The average output power at 926 nm under 808 nm LD pumping reaches 305 mW with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 16.1%.

  20. L-4F Inhibits Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein-induced Inflammatory Adipokine Secretion via Cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A-CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β Signaling Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiang-Zhu; Huang, Xin; Zhao, Shui-Ping; Yu, Bi-Lian; Zhong, Qiao-Qing; Cao, Jian

    2016-05-05

    Adipocytes behave like a rich source of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) participates in the local chronic inflammatory response, and high-density lipoprotein could counterbalance the proinflammatory function of oxLDL, but the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide L-4F on the secretion and expression of MCP-1 in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced by oxLDL and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the medium containing various concentration of L-4F (0-50 μg/ml) with oxLDL (50 μg/ml) stimulated, with/without protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 (10 μmol/L) preincubated. The concentrations of MCP-1 in the supernatant, the mRNA expression of MCP-1, the levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) were evaluated. The monocyte chemotaxis assay was performed by micropore filter method using a modified Boyden chamber. OxLDL stimulation induced a significant increase of MCP-1 expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which were inhibited by L-4F preincubation in a dose-dependent manner. PKA inhibitor H-89 markedly reduced the oxLDL-induced MCP-1 expression, but no further decrease was observed when H-89 was used in combination with L-4F (50 μg/ml) (P > 0.05). OxLDL stimulation showed no significant effect on C/EBPα protein level but increased C/EBPβ protein level in a time-dependent manner. H-89 and L-4F both attenuated C/EBPβ protein level in oxLDL-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. OxLDL induces C/EBPβ protein synthesis in a time-dependent manner and enhances MCP-1 secretion and expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. L-4F dose-dependently counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effect of oxLDL, and cyclic AMP/PKA-C/EBPβ signaling pathway may participate in it.

  1. Variation in Genes Controlling Warfarin Disposition and Response in American Indian and Alaska Native People: CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, CYP4F11, GGCX

    PubMed Central

    Yracheta, Joseph; Dillard, Denise A.; Schilling, Brian; Khan, Burhan; Hopkins, Scarlett; Boyer, Bert; Black, Jynene; Wiener, Howard; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Gordon, Adam; Nickerson, Deborah; Tsai, Jesse M.; Farin, Federico M.; Thornton, Timothy A.; Rettie, Allan E.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pharmacogenetic testing is projected to improve health outcomes and reduce the cost of care by increasing therapeutic efficacy and minimizing drug toxicity. American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people historically have been excluded from pharmacogenetic research and its potential benefits, a deficiency we sought to address. The vitamin K antagonist warfarin is prescribed for prevention of thromboembolic events, although its narrow therapeutic index and wide inter-individual variability necessitate close monitoring of drug response. Therefore, we were interested in variation in CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, CYP4F11, and GGCX, which encode enzymes important for the activity of warfarin and synthesis of vitamin K dependent blood clotting factors. Methods We resequenced these genes in 188 AI/AN people in partnership with Southcentral Foundation (SCF) in Anchorage, AK and 94 Yup'ik people living in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of southwest Alaska to identify known or novel function-disrupting variation. We conducted genotyping for specific SNPs in larger cohorts of each study population (380 and 350, respectively). Results We identified high frequencies of the lower-warfarin dose VKORC1 haplotype (−1639G>A and 1173C>T) and the higher-warfarin dose CYP4F2*3 variant. We also identified two relatively common, novel, and potentially function-disrupting variants in CYP2C9 (M1L and N218I), which, along with CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*29, predict that a significant proportion of AI/AN people will have decreased CYP2C9 activity. Conclusions Overall, we predict a lower average warfarin dose requirement in AI/AN populations in Alaska than that seen in non-AI/AN populations of the US, a finding consistent with clinical experience in Alaska. PMID:25946405

  2. Studies on the complexation of Pr(III) and Nd(III) with glycyl-glycine (gly-gly) using spectral analysis of 4f-4f transitions and potentiometric titrations.

    PubMed

    Ranjana Devi, N; Huidrom, Bimola; Rajmuhon Singh, N

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of gly-gly with Pr(III) and Nd(III) have been studied in different aquated organic solvents like CH(3)OH, CH(3)CN, dioxane and DMF by using 4f-4f transitions spectra. Various energy interaction parameters like Slater Condon (F(k)), Racah (E(k)), Lande (ξ(4f)), nephelauxetic effect (β), bonding (b(1/2)) and percent covalency (δ) parameters have been calculated to explain the nature of complexation. The intensity parameters like oscillator strength (P) and Judd-Ofelt parameters (T(λ), λ=2, 4, 6) also support the mode of binding of gly-gly to metal ions. The results show that Pr(III) and Nd(III) with gly-gly form complexes by ionic linkages with carboxylate anion with weak covalency. The protonation constants and metal-ligand stability constants have also been determined by potentiometric measurements in aqueous medium at different temperatures (290, 300 and 310 K) at constant ionic strength, 0.1 mol dm(-1). The results show the formation of metal-ligand complexes in the stoichiometric ratio 1:1. The stability of complexes is more in Nd(III) complexes as compared to Pr(III) complexes. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) of complexes were also calculated and the negative values of ΔG and ΔH show that the complex reactions are spontaneous and exothermic. The positive values of ΔS indicate high stability of complex reactions which are enthalpy-driven. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Li induced effects in the core level and π-band electronic structure of graphene grown on C-face SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, Leif I., E-mail: lij@ifm.liu.se; Xia, Chao; Virojanadara, Chariya

    2015-11-15

    Studies of the effects induced in the electronic structure after Li deposition, and subsequent heating, on graphene samples prepared on C-face SiC are reported. The as prepared graphene samples are essentially undoped, but after Li deposition, the Dirac point shifts down to 1.2 eV below the Fermi level due to electron doping. The shape of the C 1s level also indicates a doping concentration of around 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} after Li deposition, when compared with recent calculated results of core level spectra of graphene. The C 1s, Si 2p, and Li 1s core level results show little intercalation directly after depositionmore » but that most of the Li has intercalated after heating at 280 °C. Heating at higher temperatures leads to desorption of Li from the sample, and at 1030 °C, Li can no longer be detected on the sample. The single π-band observable from multilayer C-face graphene samples in conventional angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is reasonably sharp both on the initially prepared sample and after Li deposition. After heating at 280 °C, the π-band appears more diffuse and possibly split. The Dirac point becomes located at 0.4 eV below the Fermi level, which indicates occurrence of a significant reduction in the electron doping concentration. Constant energy photoelectron distribution patterns extracted from the as prepared graphene C-face sample and also after Li deposition and heating at 280 °C look very similar to earlier calculated distribution patterns for monolayer graphene.« less

  4. Core strengthening.

    PubMed

    Akuthota, Venu; Nadler, Scott F

    2004-03-01

    Core strengthening has become a major trend in rehabilitation. The term has been used to connote lumbar stabilization, motor control training, and other regimens. Core strengthening is, in essence, a description of the muscular control required around the lumbar spine to maintain functional stability. Despite its widespread use, core strengthening has had meager research. Core strengthening has been promoted as a preventive regimen, as a form of rehabilitation, and as a performance-enhancing program for various lumbar spine and musculoskeletal injuries. The intent of this review is to describe the available literature on core strengthening using a theoretical framework. To understand the concept of core strengthening.

  5. Coupled-cluster based approach for core-level states in condensed phase: Theory and application to different protonated forms of aqueous glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadybekov, Arman; Krylov, Anna I.

    2017-07-01

    A theoretical approach for calculating core-level states in condensed phase is presented. The approach is based on the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) theory and effective fragment potential (EFP) method. By introducing approximate treatment of double excitations in the EOM-CC with single and double substitutions ansatz, we address poor convergence issues that are encountered for the core-level states and significantly reduce computational costs. While the approximations introduce relatively large errors in the absolute values of transition energies, the errors are systematic. Consequently, chemical shifts, changes in ionization energies relative to reference systems, are reproduced reasonably well. By using different protonation forms of solvated glycine as a benchmark system, we show that our protocol is capable of reproducing the experimental chemical shifts with a quantitative accuracy. The results demonstrate that chemical shifts are very sensitive to the solvent interactions and that explicit treatment of a solvent, such as within EFP framework, is essential for achieving quantitative accuracy.

  6. Coupled-cluster based approach for core-level states in condensed phase: Theory and application to different protonated forms of aqueous glycine

    DOE PAGES

    Sadybekov, Arman; Krylov, Anna I.

    2017-07-07

    A theoretical approach for calculating core-level states in condensed phase is presented. The approach is based on equation-of-motion coupled-cluster theory (EOMCC) and effective fragment potential (EFP) method. By introducing an approximate treatment of double excitations in the EOM-CCSD (EOM-CC with single and double substitutions) ansatz, we address poor convergence issues that are encountered for the core-level states and significantly reduce computational costs. While the approximations introduce relatively large errors in the absolute values of transition energies, the errors are systematic. Consequently, chemical shifts, changes in ionization energies relative to reference systems, are reproduced reasonably well. By using different protonation formsmore » of solvated glycine as a benchmark system, we show that our protocol is capable of reproducing the experimental chemical shifts with a quantitative accuracy. The results demonstrate that chemical shifts are very sensitive to the solvent interactions and that explicit treatment of solvent, such as EFP, is essential for achieving quantitative accuracy.« less

  7. The fluctuating population of Sm 4f configurations in topological Kondo insulator SmB6 explored with high-resolution X-ray absorption and emission spectra.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jenn-Min; Haw, Shu-Chih; Chen, Shi-Wei; Chen, Shin-Ann; Ishii, Hirofumi; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Liao, Yen-Fa; Lu, Kueih-Tzu; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2017-09-12

    High-resolution partial-fluorescence-yield X-ray absorption and resonant X-ray emission spectra were used to characterize the temperature dependence of Sm 4f configurations and orbital/charge degree of freedom in SmB 6 . The variation of Sm 4f configurations responds well to the formed Kondo gap, below 140 K, and an in-gap state, below 40 K. The topological in-gap state is correlated with the fluctuating population of Sm 4f configurations that arises via carrier transfer between 3d 9 4f 6 and 3d 9 4f 5 states; both states are partially delocalized, and the mediating 5d orbital plays the role of a transfer path. Complementary results shown in this work thus manifest the importance of configuration fluctuations and orbital delocalization in the topological surface state of SmB 6 .

  8. Thermophysical and radiation properties of high-temperature C4F8-CO2 mixtures to replace SF6 in high-voltage circuit breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Linlin; Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    C4F8-CO2 mixtures are one of the potential substitutes to SF6 in high-voltage circuit breakers. However, the arc quenching ability of C4F8-CO2 mixtures is still unknown. In order to provide the necessary basic data for the further investigation of arc quenching performance, the compositions, thermodynamic properties, transport coefficients, and net emission coefficients (NEC) of various C4F8-CO2 mixtures are calculated at temperatures of 300-30 000 K in this work. The thermodynamic properties are presented as the product of mass density and specific heat, i.e., ρCp. The transport coefficients include electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The atomic and molecular radiation are both taken into account in the calculation of NEC. The comparison of the properties between SF6 and C4F8-CO2 mixtures is also discussed to find their differences. The results of compositions show that C4F8-CO2 mixtures have a distinctive advantage over other alternative gases e.g., CF3I and C3F8, because the dissociative product (i.e., C4F6) of C4F8 at low temperatures has a very high dielectric strength. This is good for an arc quenching medium to endure the arc recovery phase. Compared with SF6, C4F8-CO2 mixtures present lower ρCp at temperatures below 2800 K and larger thermal conductivity above 2800 K. Based on the position of peaks in thermal conductivity, we predict that the cooling of C4F8-CO2 arc will be slowed down at higher temperatures than that of SF6 arc. It is also found that the mixing of CO2 shows slight effects on the electrical conductivity and NEC of C4F8-CO2 mixtures.

  9. The heterodimeric amino acid transporter 4F2hc/y+LAT2 mediates arginine efflux in exchange with glutamine.

    PubMed Central

    Bröer, A; Wagner, C A; Lang, F; Bröer, S

    2000-01-01

    The cationic amino acid arginine, due to its positive charge, is usually accumulated in the cytosol. Nevertheless, arginine has to be released by a number of cell types, e.g. kidney cells, which supply other organs with this amino acid, or the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier which release arginine into the brain. Arginine release in mammalian cells can be mediated by two different transporters, y(+)LAT1 and y(+)LAT2. For insertion into the plasma membrane, these transporters have to be associated with the type-II membrane glycoprotein 4F2hc [Torrents, Estevez, Pineda, Fernandez, Lloberas, Shi, Zorzano and Palacin (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 32437-32445]. The present study elucidates the function and distribution of y(+)LAT2. In contrast to y(+)LAT1, which is expressed mainly in kidney epithelial cells, lung and leucocytes, y(+)LAT2 has a wider tissue distribution, including brain, heart, testis, kidney, small intestine and parotis. When co-expressed with 4F2hc in Xenopus laevis oocytes, y(+)LAT2 mediated uptake of arginine, leucine and glutamine. Arginine uptake was inhibited strongly by lysine, glutamate, leucine, glutamine, methionine and histidine. Mutual inhibition was observed when leucine or glutamine was used as substrate. Inhibition of arginine uptake by neutral amino acids depended on the presence of Na(+), which is a hallmark of y(+)LAT-type transporters. Although arginine transport was inhibited strongly by glutamate, this anionic amino acid was only weakly transported by 4F2hc/y(+)LAT2. Amino acid transport via 4F2hc/y(+)LAT2 followed an antiport mechanism similar to the other members of this new family. Only preloaded arginine could be released in exchange for extracellular amino acids, whereas marginal release of glutamine or leucine was observed under identical conditions. These results indicated that arginine has the highest affinity for the intracellular binding site and that arginine release may be the main physiological function of

  10. The heterodimeric amino acid transporter 4F2hc/y+LAT2 mediates arginine efflux in exchange with glutamine.

    PubMed

    Bröer, A; Wagner, C A; Lang, F; Bröer, S

    2000-08-01

    The cationic amino acid arginine, due to its positive charge, is usually accumulated in the cytosol. Nevertheless, arginine has to be released by a number of cell types, e.g. kidney cells, which supply other organs with this amino acid, or the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier which release arginine into the brain. Arginine release in mammalian cells can be mediated by two different transporters, y(+)LAT1 and y(+)LAT2. For insertion into the plasma membrane, these transporters have to be associated with the type-II membrane glycoprotein 4F2hc [Torrents, Estevez, Pineda, Fernandez, Lloberas, Shi, Zorzano and Palacin (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 32437-32445]. The present study elucidates the function and distribution of y(+)LAT2. In contrast to y(+)LAT1, which is expressed mainly in kidney epithelial cells, lung and leucocytes, y(+)LAT2 has a wider tissue distribution, including brain, heart, testis, kidney, small intestine and parotis. When co-expressed with 4F2hc in Xenopus laevis oocytes, y(+)LAT2 mediated uptake of arginine, leucine and glutamine. Arginine uptake was inhibited strongly by lysine, glutamate, leucine, glutamine, methionine and histidine. Mutual inhibition was observed when leucine or glutamine was used as substrate. Inhibition of arginine uptake by neutral amino acids depended on the presence of Na(+), which is a hallmark of y(+)LAT-type transporters. Although arginine transport was inhibited strongly by glutamate, this anionic amino acid was only weakly transported by 4F2hc/y(+)LAT2. Amino acid transport via 4F2hc/y(+)LAT2 followed an antiport mechanism similar to the other members of this new family. Only preloaded arginine could be released in exchange for extracellular amino acids, whereas marginal release of glutamine or leucine was observed under identical conditions. These results indicated that arginine has the highest affinity for the intracellular binding site and that arginine release may be the main physiological function of

  11. Nonlinear characterization of materials using the D4σ method inside a Z-scan 4f-system.

    PubMed

    Boudebs, Georges; Besse, Valentin; Cassagne, Christophe; Leblond, Hervé; de Araújo, Cid B

    2013-07-01

    We show that direct measurement of the beam radius in Z-scan experiments using a CCD camera at the output of a 4f-imaging system allows higher sensitivity and better accuracy than Baryscan. One of the advantages is to be insensitive to pointing instability of pulsed lasers because no hard (physical) aperture is employed as in the usual Z-scan. In addition, the numerical calculations involved here and the measurement of the beam radius are simplified since we do not measure the transmittance through an aperture and it is not subject to mathematical artifacts related to a normalization process, especially when the diffracted light intensity is very low.

  12. High-precision frequency measurements: indispensable tools at the core of the molecular-level analysis of complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Ruecker, C.; Meringer, M.; Gugisch, R.; Frommberger, M.; Perdue, E. M.; Witt, M.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2007-01-01

    This perspective article provides an assessment of the state-of-the-art in the molecular-resolution analysis of complex organic materials. These materials can be divided into biomolecules in complex mixtures (which are amenable to successful separation into unambiguously defined molecular fractions) and complex nonrepetitive materials (which cannot be purified in the conventional sense because they are even more intricate). Molecular-level analyses of these complex systems critically depend on the integrated use of high-performance separation, high-resolution organic structural spectroscopy and mathematical data treatment. At present, only high-precision frequency-derived data exhibit sufficient resolution to overcome the otherwise common and detrimental effects of intrinsic averaging, which deteriorate spectral resolution to the degree of bulk-level rather than molecular-resolution analysis. High-precision frequency measurements are integral to the two most influential organic structural spectroscopic methods for the investigation of complex materials—NMR spectroscopy (which provides unsurpassed detail on close-range molecular order) and FTICR mass spectrometry (which provides unrivalled resolution)—and they can be translated into isotope-specific molecular-resolution data of unprecedented significance and richness. The quality of this standalone de novo molecular-level resolution data is of unparalleled mechanistic relevance and is sufficient to fundamentally advance our understanding of the structures and functions of complex biomolecular mixtures and nonrepetitive complex materials, such as natural organic matter (NOM), aerosols, and soil, plant and microbial extracts, all of which are currently poorly amenable to meaningful target analysis. The discrete analytical volumetric pixel space that is presently available to describe complex systems (defined by NMR, FT mass spectrometry and separation technologies) is in the range of 108–14 voxels, and is

  13. Rapid measurement of perchlorate in polar ice cores down to sub-ng L(-1) levels without pre-concentration.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kari; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Brandis, Derek; Cox, Thomas; Splett, Scott

    2015-10-01

    An ion chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed for rapid and accurate measurement of perchlorate in polar snow and ice core samples in which perchlorate concentrations are expected to be as low as 0.1 ng L(-1). Separation of perchlorate from major inorganic species in snow is achieved with an ion chromatography system interfaced to an AB SCIEX triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection and lower limit of quantification without pre-concentration have been determined to be 0.1 and 0.3 ng L(-1), respectively, with a linear dynamic range of 0.3-10.0 ng L(-1) in routine measurement. These represent improvements over previously reported methods using similar analytical techniques. The improved method allows fast, accurate, and reproducible perchlorate quantification down to the sub-ng L(-1) level and will facilitate perchlorate measurement in the study of natural perchlorate production with polar ice cores in which perchlorate concentrations are anticipated to vary in the low and sub-ng L(-1) range. Initial measurements of perchlorate in ice core samples from central Greenland show that typical perchlorate concentrations in snow dated prior to the Industrial Revolution are about 0.8 ng L(-1), while perchlorate concentrations are significantly higher in recent (post-1980) snow, suggesting that anthropogenic sources are a significant contributor to perchlorate in the current environment.

  14. Analysis of the 3d(sup 6)4s((sup 6)D)4f-5g supermultiplet of Fe I in laboratory and solar infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, S.; Nave, G.; Geller, M.; Sauval, A. J.; Grevesse, N.; Schoenfeld, W. G.; Change, E. S.; Farmer, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    The combined laboratory and solar analysis of the highly excited subconfigurations 3d(sup 6)4s((sup 6)D)4f and 3d(sup 6)4s((sup 6)D)5g of Fe I has allowed us to classify 87 lines of the 4f-5g supermultiplet in the spectral region 2545-2585 per cm. The level structure of these JK-coupled configurations is predicted by semiempirical calculations and the quardrupolic approximation. Semiempirical gf-values have been calculated and are compared to gf-values derived from the solar spectrum. The solar analysis has shown that these lines, which should be much less sensitive than lower excitation lines to departures from Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) and to temperature uncertanties, lead to a solar abundance of iron which is consistent with the meteoritic value (A(sub Fe) = 7.51).

  15. The evolution of Ga and As core levels in the formation of Fe /GaAs (001): A high resolution soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jamie D. W.; Neal, James R.; Shen, Tiehan H.; Morton, Simon A.; Tobin, James G.; Dan Waddill, G.; Matthew, Jim A. D.; Greig, Denis; Hopkinson, Mark

    2008-07-01

    A high resolution soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of Ga and As 3d core levels has been conducted for Fe /GaAs (001) as a function of Fe thickness. This work has provided unambiguous evidence of substrate disrupting chemical reactions induced by the Fe overlayer—a quantitative analysis of the acquired spectra indicates significantly differing behavior of Ga and As during Fe growth, and our observations have been compared with existing theoretical models. Our results demonstrate that the outdiffusing Ga and As remain largely confined to the interface region, forming a thin intermixed layer. Whereas at low coverages Fe has little influence on the underlying GaAs substrate, the onset of substrate disruption when the Fe thickness reaches 3.5Å results in major changes in the energy distribution curves (EDCs) of both As and Ga 3d cores. Our quantitative analysis suggests the presence of two additional As environments of metallic character: one bound to the interfacial region and another which, as confirmed by in situ oxidation experiments, surface segregates and persists over a wide range of overlayer thickness. Analysis of the corresponding Ga 3d EDCs found not two, but three additional environments—also metallic in nature. Two of the three are interface resident whereas the third undergoes outdiffusion at low Fe coverages. Based on the variations of the integrated intensities of each component, we present a schematic of the proposed chemical makeup of the Fe /GaAs (001) system.

  16. Determining polarity and dislocation core structures at atomic level for epitaxial AlN/(0001)6H-SiC from a single image in HRTEM.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y X; Wang, Y M; Wen, C; Ge, B H; Li, F H; Chen, Y; Chen, H

    2013-03-01

    The polarity of epitaxial AlN film grown on (0001)6H-SiC and dislocation core structures in the film have been studied using a 200 kV LaB6 high-resolution transmission electron microscope of point resolution about 0.2 nm. A posterior image processing technique, the image deconvolution, was utilized to transform a single [21¯1¯0] image that does not intuitively represent the structure into the projected structure map. The adjacent Al and N projected atomic columns with the interatomic distance 0.109 nm can be distinguished from each other by analyzing the image contrast change with the sample thickness based on the pseudo-weak phase object approximation. This makes possible to derive the polarity and core structures of partial dislocations in the epitaxial AlN film at atomic level from a single image without relying on any other additional structure information. The atomic configurations for two partial dislocations containing a 10-atom ring and a 12-atom ring, respectively, have been attained. The method is available for II-VI and other III-V compounds. Its principle and procedure are briefly introduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contiguous 3d and 4f magnetism: strongly correlated 3d electrons in YbFe2Al10.

    PubMed

    Khuntia, P; Peratheepan, P; Strydom, A M; Utsumi, Y; Ko, K-T; Tsuei, K-D; Tjeng, L H; Steglich, F; Baenitz, M

    2014-11-21

    We present magnetization, specific heat, and (27)Al NMR investigations on YbFe2Al10 over a wide range in temperature and magnetic field. The magnetic susceptibility at low temperatures is strongly enhanced at weak magnetic fields, accompanied by a ln(T0/T) divergence of the low-T specific heat coefficient in zero field, which indicates a ground state of correlated electrons. From our hard-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study, the Yb valence at 50 K is evaluated to be 2.38. The system displays valence fluctuating behavior in the low to intermediate temperature range, whereas above 400 K, Yb(3+) carries a full and stable moment, and Fe carries a moment of about 3.1 μB. The enhanced value of the Sommerfeld-Wilson ratio and the dynamic scaling of the spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by T[(27)(1/T1T)] with static susceptibility suggests admixed ferromagnetic correlations. (27)(1/T1T) simultaneously tracks the valence fluctuations from the 4f Yb ions in the high temperature range and field dependent antiferromagnetic correlations among partially Kondo screened Fe 3d moments at low temperature; the latter evolve out of an Yb 4f admixed conduction band.

  18. The nature of 4f electron magnetism in the diluted ferromagnetic Kondo lattice, CeIr2B2.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, K; Iyer, Kartik K; Sampathkumaran, E V

    2012-07-04

    We report on the physical properties of the series Ce(1-x)La(x)Ir(2)B(2) (x = 0-0.9), obtained by means of magnetization, heat capacity and electrical resistivity measurements as a function of temperature (down to 0.7 K for the latter two measurements). The Curie temperature of CeIr(2)B(2) (~5 K) is lowered due to La substitution, as expected. However, no quantum critical point or 'non-Fermi liquid' behavior was observed even in the dilute limit of x = 0.9. Interestingly, ferromagnetic ordering persists even for Ce(0.1)La(0.9)Ir(2)B(2), below 0.8 K. Among the Ce systems, CeIr(2)B(2) is one of the compounds in which direct 4f-4f interaction does not appear to play any role in the magnetism, which is controlled by the indirect exchange interaction alone. In this compound, the Kondo effect persists in the ferromagnetic ordered state, as inferred from the entropy data.

  19. Environmental dependence of artifact CD peaks of chiral Schiff base 3d-4f complexes in soft mater PMMA matrix.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yu; Nidaira, Keisuke; Akitsu, Takashiro

    2011-01-01

    Four chiral Schiff base binuclear 3d-4f complexes (NdNi, NdCu, GdNi, and GdCu) have been prepared and characterized by means of electronic and CD spectra, IR spectra, magnetic measurements, and X-ray crystallography (NdNi). A so-called artifact peak of solid state CD spectra, which was characteristic of oriented molecules without free molecular rotation, appeared at about 470 nm. Magnetic data of the complexes in the solid state (powder) and in PMMA cast films or solutions indicated that only GdCu preserved molecular structures in various matrixes of soft maters. For the first time, we have used the changes of intensity of artifact CD peaks to detect properties of environmental (media solid state (KBr pellets), PMMA cast films, concentration dependence of PMMA in acetone solutions, and pure acetone solution) for chiral 3d-4f complexes (GdCu). Rigid matrix keeping anisotropic orientation exhibited a decrease in the intensity of the artifact CD peak toward negative values. The present results suggest that solid state artifact CD peaks can be affected by environmental viscosity of a soft mater matrix.

  20. Environmental Dependence of Artifact CD Peaks of Chiral Schiff Base 3d-4f Complexes in Soft Mater PMMA Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Yu; Nidaira, Keisuke; Akitsu, Takashiro

    2011-01-01

    Four chiral Schiff base binuclear 3d-4f complexes (NdNi, NdCu, GdNi, and GdCu) have been prepared and characterized by means of electronic and CD spectra, IR spectra, magnetic measurements, and X-ray crystallography (NdNi). A so-called artifact peak of solid state CD spectra, which was characteristic of oriented molecules without free molecular rotation, appeared at about 470 nm. Magnetic data of the complexes in the solid state (powder) and in PMMA cast films or solutions indicated that only GdCu preserved molecular structures in various matrixes of soft maters. For the first time, we have used the changes of intensity of artifact CD peaks to detect properties of environmental (media solid state (KBr pellets), PMMA cast films, concentration dependence of PMMA in acetone solutions, and pure acetone solution) for chiral 3d-4f complexes (GdCu). Rigid matrix keeping anisotropic orientation exhibited a decrease in the intensity of the artifact CD peak toward negative values. The present results suggest that solid state artifact CD peaks can be affected by environmental viscosity of a soft mater matrix. PMID:22072930

  1. Poly(A) binding protein abundance regulates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F assembly in human cytomegalovirus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Caleb; Perez, Cesar; Mohr, Ian

    2012-04-10

    By commandeering cellular translation initiation factors, or destroying those dispensable for viral mRNA translation, viruses often suppress host protein synthesis. In contrast, cellular protein synthesis proceeds in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected cells, forcing viral and cellular mRNAs to compete for limiting translation initiation factors. Curiously, inactivating the host translational repressor 4E-BP1 in HCMV-infected cells stimulates synthesis of the cellular poly(A) binding protein (PABP), significantly increasing PABP abundance. Here, we establish that new PABP synthesis is translationally controlled by the HCMV-encoded UL38 mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1-activator. The 5' UTR within the mRNA encoding PABP contains a terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) element found in mRNAs, the translation of which is stimulated in response to mitogenic, growth, and nutritional stimuli, and proteins encoded by TOP-containing mRNAs accumulated in HCMV-infected cells. Furthermore, UL38 expression was necessary and sufficient to regulate expression of a PABP TOP-containing reporter. Remarkably, preventing the rise in PABP abundance by RNAi impaired eIF4E binding to eIF4G, thereby reducing assembly of the multisubunit initiation factor eIF4F, viral protein production, and replication. This finding demonstrates that viruses can increase host translation initiation factor concentration to foster their replication and defines a unique mechanism whereby control of PABP abundance regulates eIF4F assembly.

  2. Time-related dynamics of variation in core clock gene expression levels in tissues relevant to the immune system.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, G; Sothern, R B; Greco, A; Pazienza, V; Vinciguerra, M; Liu, S; Cai, Y

    2011-01-01

    Immune parameters show rhythmic changes with a 24-h periodicity driven by an internal circadian timing system that relies on clock genes (CGs). CGs form interlocked transcription-translation feedback loops to generate and maintain 24-h mRNA and protein oscillations. In this study we evaluate and compare the profiles and the dynamics of variation of CG expression in peripheral blood, and two lymphoid tissues of mice. Expression levels of seven recognized key CGs (mBmal1, mClock, mPer1, mPer2, mCry1, mCry2, and Rev-erbalpha) were evaluated by quantitative RT- PCR in spleen, thymus and peripheral blood of C57BL/6 male mice housed on a 12-h light (L)-dark (D) cycle and sacrificed every 4 h for 24 h (3-4 mice/time point). We found a statistically significant time-effect in spleen (S), thymus (T) and blood (B) for the original values of expression level of mBmal1 (S), mClock (T, B), mPer1 (S, B), mPer2 (S), mCry1 (S), mCry2 (B) and mRev-Erbalpha (S, T, B) and for the fractional variation calculated between single time-point expression value of mBmal1 (B), mPer2 (T), mCry2 (B) and mRev-Erbalpha (S). A significant 24-h rhythm was validated for five CGs in blood (mClock, mPer1, mPer2, mCry2, mRev-Erbalpha), for four CGs in the spleen (mBmal1, mPer1, mPer2, mRev-Erbalpha), and for three CGs in the thymus (mClock, mPer2, mRev-Erbalpha). The original values of acrophases for mBmal1, mClock, mPer1, mPer2, mCry1 and mCry2 were very similar for spleen and thymus and advanced by several hours for peripheral blood compared to the lymphoid tissues, whereas the phases of mRev-Erbalpha were coincident for all three tissues. In conclusion, central and peripheral lymphoid tissues in the mouse show different sequences of activation of clock gene expression compared to peripheral blood. These differences may underlie the compartmental pattern of web functioning in the immune system.

  3. A 4-fJ/Spike Artificial Neuron in 65 nm CMOS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Sourikopoulos, Ilias; Hedayat, Sara; Loyez, Christophe; Danneville, François; Hoel, Virginie; Mercier, Eric; Cappy, Alain

    2017-01-01

    As Moore's law reaches its end, traditional computing technology based on the Von Neumann architecture is facing fundamental limits. Among them is poor energy efficiency. This situation motivates the investigation of different processing information paradigms, such as the use of spiking neural networks (SNNs), which also introduce cognitive characteristics. As applications at very high scale are addressed, the energy dissipation needs to be minimized. This effort starts from the neuron cell. In this context, this paper presents the design of an original artificial neuron, in standard 65 nm CMOS technology with optimized energy efficiency. The neuron circuit response is designed as an approximation of the Morris-Lecar theoretical model. In order to implement the non-linear gating variables, which control the ionic channel currents, transistors operating in deep subthreshold are employed. Two different circuit variants describing the neuron model equations have been developed. The first one features spike characteristics, which correlate well with a biological neuron model. The second one is a simplification of the first, designed to exhibit higher spiking frequencies, targeting large scale bio-inspired information processing applications. The most important feature of the fabricated circuits is the energy efficiency of a few femtojoules per spike, which improves prior state-of-the-art by two to three orders of magnitude. This performance is achieved by minimizing two key parameters: the supply voltage and the related membrane capacitance. Meanwhile, the obtained standby power at a resting output does not exceed tens of picowatts. The two variants were sized to 200 and 35 μm2 with the latter reaching a spiking output frequency of 26 kHz. This performance level could address various contexts, such as highly integrated neuro-processors for robotics, neuroscience or medical applications. PMID:28360831

  4. More on the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Monnica

    2013-01-01

    From a higher education perspective, new "Common Core" standards could improve student college-readiness levels, reduce institutional remediation rates, and close education gaps in and between states. As a national initiative to create common educational standards for students across multiple states, the Common Core State Standards…

  5. Creating a medical education enterprise: leveling the playing fields of medical education vs. medical science research within core missions

    PubMed Central

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Ligon, B. Lee; Singhal, Geeta; Schutze, Gordon E.; Turner, Teri L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Unlike publications of medical science research that are more readily rewarded, clinician-educators’ scholarly achievements are more nebulous and under-recognized. Objective:Create an education enterprise that empowers clinician-educators to engage in a broad range of scholarly activities and produce educational scholarship using strategic approaches to level the playing fields within an organization. Design: The authors analyzed the advantages and disadvantages experienced by medical science researchers vs. clinician educators using Bolman and Deal’s (B&D) four frames of organization (structural, human resource, political, symbolic). The authors then identified organizational approaches and activities that align with each B&D frame and proposed practical strategies to empower clinician-educators in their scholarly endeavors. Results: Our medical education enterprise enhanced the structural frame by creating a decentralized medical education unit, incorporated the human resource component with an endowed chair to support faculty development, leveraged the political model by providing grant supports and expanding venues for scholarship, and enhanced the symbolic frame by endorsing the value of education and public recognition from leaderships. In five years, we saw an increased number of faculty interested in becoming clinician-educators, had an increased number of faculty winning Educational Awards for Excellence and delivering conference presentations, and received 12 of the 15 college-wide awards for educational scholarship. These satisfactory trends reflect early success of our educational enterprise. Conclusions: B&D’s organizational frames can be used to identify strategies for addressing the pressing need to promote and recognize clinician-educators’ scholarship. We realize that our situation is unique in several respects, but this approach is flexible within an institution and transferable to any other institution and its medical

  6. Creating a medical education enterprise: leveling the playing fields of medical education vs. medical science research within core missions.

    PubMed

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Ligon, B Lee; Singhal, Geeta; Schutze, Gordon E; Turner, Teri L

    2017-01-01

    Unlike publications of medical science research that are more readily rewarded, clinician-educators' scholarly achievements are more nebulous and under-recognized. Create an education enterprise that empowers clinician-educators to engage in a broad range of scholarly activities and produce educational scholarship using strategic approaches to level the playing fields within an organization. The authors analyzed the advantages and disadvantages experienced by medical science researchers vs. clinician educators using Bolman and Deal's (B&D) four frames of organization (structural, human resource, political, symbolic). The authors then identified organizational approaches and activities that align with each B&D frame and proposed practical strategies to empower clinician-educators in their scholarly endeavors. Our medical education enterprise enhanced the structural frame by creating a decentralized medical education unit, incorporated the human resource component with an endowed chair to support faculty development, leveraged the political model by providing grant supports and expanding venues for scholarship, and enhanced the symbolic frame by endorsing the value of education and public recognition from leaderships. In five years, we saw an increased number of faculty interested in becoming clinician-educators, had an increased number of faculty winning Educational Awards for Excellence and delivering conference presentations, and received 12 of the 15 college-wide awards for educational scholarship. These satisfactory trends reflect early success of our educational enterprise. B&D's organizational frames can be used to identify strategies for addressing the pressing need to promote and recognize clinician-educators' scholarship. We realize that our situation is unique in several respects, but this approach is flexible within an institution and transferable to any other institution and its medical education program. B&D: Bolman and Deal; CRIS: Center for Research

  7. An Approach to Combat Student Misbehavior at the Ninth Grade Level: The Committee on Referral and Evaluation (C.O.R.E.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel G.

    The Committee on Referral and Evaluation (CORE) was the second phase of a two-phased practicum designed to improve the behavior of students identified as hard-core discipline problems. The first phase was a computer discipline record-keeping system used to identify problem students. The CORE Program combined school, community, and state agencies…

  8. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a rare nitrato bridged 3d-4f complex containing LaZn2 core synthesized from a Zn(II) metalloligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, S. S.; Mohan, Nithya; Kurup, M. R. Prathapachandra

    2018-02-01

    A trinulcear Zn2La Schiff base complex was synthesized using slow-solvent evaporation technique from a Zn(II) mononuclear metalloligand by 2:1 addition with La(NO3)3 salt. Single crystal XRD analysis revealed a rare nitrato bridged trinuclear entity which is seldom seen in these class of ligand systems. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions/short contacts were done using Hirshfeld surface and 2D finger print analysis. The thermally stable, blue luminescent compound exhibits internal heavy atom effect thereby quenching the emission intensity of the ligand. DFT calculations were performed on the compound to analyze frontier orbitals and also ESP plots were used to monitor nucleophilic/electrophilic regions on the compound and its implications on hydrogen bonding. A comparison of the bond orders and atomic charges on the trinuclear compound and the Zn(II) metalloligand precursor was performed to substantiate the formation of the trinuclear product through ligand exchange.

  9. Reference binding energies of transition metal carbides by core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy free from Ar+ etching artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greczynski, G.; Primetzhofer, D.; Hultman, L.

    2018-04-01

    We report x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level binding energies (BE's) for the widely-applicable groups IVb-VIb transition metal carbides (TMCs) TiC, VC, CrC, ZrC, NbC, MoC, HfC, TaC, and WC. Thin film samples are grown in the same deposition system, by dc magnetron co-sputtering from graphite and respective elemental metal targets in Ar atmosphere. To remove surface contaminations resulting from exposure to air during sample transfer from the growth chamber into the XPS system, layers are either (i) Ar+ ion-etched or (ii) UHV-annealed in situ prior to XPS analyses. High resolution XPS spectra reveal that even gentle etching affects the shape of core level signals, as well as BE values, which are systematically offset by 0.2-0.5 eV towards lower BE. These destructive effects of Ar+ ion etch become more pronounced with increasing the metal atom mass due to an increasing carbon-to-metal sputter yield ratio. Systematic analysis reveals that for each row in the periodic table (3d, 4d, and 5d) C 1s BE increases from left to right indicative of a decreased charge transfer from TM to C atoms, hence bond weakening. Moreover, C 1s BE decreases linearly with increasing carbide/metal melting point ratio. Spectra reported here, acquired from a consistent set of samples in the same instrument, should serve as a reference for true deconvolution of complex XPS cases, including multinary carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides.

  10. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long

  11. Determination of lead isotopes in a new Greenland deep ice core at the sub-picogram per gram level by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using an improved decontamination method.

    PubMed

    Han, Changhee; Burn-Nunes, Laurie J; Lee, Khanghyun; Chang, Chaewon; Kang, Jung-Ho; Han, Yeongcheol; Hur, Soon Do; Hong, Sungmin

    2015-08-01

    An improved decontamination method and ultraclean analytical procedures have been developed to minimize Pb contamination of processed glacial ice cores and to achieve reliable determination of Pb isotopes in North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) deep ice core sections with concentrations at the sub-picogram per gram level. A PL-7 (Fuso Chemical) silica-gel activator has replaced the previously used colloidal silica activator produced by Merck and has been shown to provide sufficiently enhanced ion beam intensity for Pb isotope analysis for a few tens of picograms of Pb. Considering the quantities of Pb contained in the NEEM Greenland ice core and a sample weight of 10 g used for the analysis, the blank contribution from the sample treatment was observed to be negligible. The decontamination and analysis of the artificial ice cores and selected NEEM Greenland ice core sections confirmed the cleanliness and effectiveness of the overall analytical process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, R; Rossier, G; Spindler, B; Meier, C; Kühn, L; Verrey, F

    1999-01-04

    Amino acid transport across cellular membranes is mediated by multiple transporters with overlapping specificities. We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporters. The novel heterodimers form exchangers which mediate the cellular efflux of cationic amino acids and the Na+-dependent uptake of large neutral amino acids. These transport characteristics and kinetic and pharmacological fingerprints identify them as y+L-type transport systems. The mRNA encoding my+LAT1 is detectable in most adult tissues and expressed at high levels in kidney cortex and intestine. This suggests that the y+LAT1-4F2hc heterodimer, besides participating in amino acid uptake/secretion in many cell types, is the basolateral amino acid exchanger involved in transepithelial reabsorption of cationic amino acids; hence, its defect might be the cause of the human genetic disease lysinuric protein intolerance.

  13. New data from fringing-reef cores for the mid-Holocene higher sea level in Hainan Island, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yantao; Zhan, Wenhuan; Sun, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Most previous research on sea level indicators (including beachrock, abrasion platforms, notches and coral reefs) from coast of northern South China Sea suggested a higher sea level in the mid-Holocene. Microatolls, considered to be one of the most reliable indicators, led to an estimation of 2 to 3 m or even more higher sea levels in the mid-Holocene at southwest Leizhou Peninsula. Volcanic activities, however, occurred at several stages during the Quaternary at southern Leizhou Peninsula and northern Hainan Island, indicating a tectonically unstable local crust. Comprehensive comparison of microatolls between the volcanic and the non-volcanic coasts implied obvious uplift of the volcanic coast, where elevation of microatolls was higher than those on the non-volcanic coast. In addition, microatolls from the non-volcanic coast universally demonstrated a mid-Holocene higher sea level of less than 1 m. Similar studies to date at some tectonically stable locations, distant from the major glaciation centers (the far-field), provided evidence that the mid-Holocene sea level was not as high as that estimated before. On the longest and also the widest fringing reef of Hainan Island, 10 cores were drilled in a transect approximately perpendicular to coastline. Upper and lower unconformities for the layer of Holocene marine sediments witnessed the Holocene transgression and regression, respectively. U-series and AMS14C ages of in-situ surface corals and deposits from the unconformities, compiled with sedimentary characteristics, announced a highest sea level of 1.18 m in 5.30 cal ka BP. The rapid sea level rise mainly occurred in 6.25 5.75 cal ka BP at a rate up to 11.4 mm/a. From 5.30 cal ka BP to 4.50 cal ka BP, it can be regarded as a relative sea level stand, for most surface fossil microatolls on reef flat lived in this period. Since then there might be a sudden and fast sea level fall in 4.50 4.14 cal ka BP, resulting in fast exposure of the initial reef flat and then

  14. Luminescence in Li2Sr2Al2PO4F9:Dy3+ - a novel nanophosphor.

    PubMed

    Shinde, K N; Dhoble, S J

    2012-01-01

    Earlier research has revealed numerous advantages of the wet chemical method in reaction acceleration, yield improvement, enhanced photoluminescence properties and the evolution of new material phases. In the present study the novel nanophosphor Li(2)Sr(2)Al(2)PO(4)F(9):Dy(3+) was synthesized by a one-step wet chemical method. Formation of single-phase compounds was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The average diameter of the particles was calculated from the TEM image as ca. 20 nm. The synthesized nanophosphor exhibited intense blue and yellow emissions at 482 and 575 nm, respectively, owing to the Dy(3+) ion, by Hg-free excitation at 387 nm, i.e. solid-state lighting excitation. The results obtained showed that phosphors have the potential for applications in the lamp industry. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Fabrication of controlled hierarchical wrinkle structures on polydimethylsiloxane via one-step C4F8 plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Liming; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Chen, Haotian; Song, Yu; Guo, Hang; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Xuexian; Zhang, Haixia

    2018-01-01

    We report a simple method for fabricating two-dimensional and nested hierarchical wrinkle structures on polydimethylsiloxane surfaces via one-step C4F8 plasma treatment that innovatively combines two approaches to monolayer wrinkle structure fabrication. The wavelengths of the two dimensions of the wrinkle structures can be controlled by plasma treatment (radio frequency (RF) power and plasma treatment time) and stretching (stretching strain and axial stretching), respectively. We also analyze the different interactions between the two dimensions of wrinkle structures with different wavelengths and explain the phenomenon using Fourier waveform superposition. The character of the two dimensions and hierarchy is obvious when the wavelengths of the two wrinkles are different. In surface wetting tests, the hierarchical wrinkle shows great hydrophobicity and keeps the stretching property under 25%.

  16. Two-gap superconductivity with line nodes in CsCa2Fe4As4F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Franziska K. K.; Adroja, Devashibhai T.; Wang, Zhi-Cheng; Lang, Franz; Smidman, Michael; Baker, Peter J.; Cao, Guang-Han; Blundell, Stephen J.

    2018-02-01

    We report the results of a muon-spin rotation (μ SR ) experiment to determine the superconducting ground state of the iron-based superconductor CsCa2Fe4As4F2 with Tc≈28.3 K . This compound is related to the fully gapped superconductor CaCsFe4As4 , but here the Ca-containing spacer layer is replaced with one containing Ca2F2 . The temperature evolution of the penetration depth strongly suggests the presence of line nodes and is best modeled by a system consisting of both an s - and a d -wave gap. We also find a potentially magnetic phase which appears below ≈10 K but does not appear to compete with the superconductivity. This compound contains the largest alkali atom in this family of superconductors, and our results yield a value for the in-plane penetration depth of λa b(T =0 ) =244 (3 ) nm .

  17. Synthesis of [Phe(4F)3]thymopoietin II and examination of its immunological effect on the impaired blastogenic response of T-lymphocytes of uremic patients.

    PubMed

    Abiko, T; Sekino, H

    1995-10-01

    [Phe(4F)3]thymopoietin II was synthesized using a conventional solution method. The deprotection of the protected [Phe(4F)3]thymopoetin II was achieved by treatment with 1 M trifluoromethanesulfonic acid:thioanisole (molar ratio 1:1) in trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of dimethylselenide and m-cresol. The synthetic f1p4(4F)3]thymopoietin II and thymopoietin II were tested for effect on impaired T-lymphocyte transformation by phytohemagglutinin in uremic patients suffering from recurrent infectious diseases. The restoring activity on the impaired phytohemagglutinin stimulation of T-lymphocytes was obtained after incubation of peripheral lymphocytes isolated from uremic patients with the synthetic [Phe(4F)3]thymopoietin II. This peptide exhibited far stronger restoring effect than that of our synthetic thymopoietin II.

  18. 17 CFR 41.3 - Application for an exemptive order pursuant to section 4f(a)(4)(B) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or any broker or dealer exempt from floor broker or floor trader registration pursuant to section 4f... Commission may, in its sole discretion, grant the application, deny the application, decline to entertain the...

  19. Steroid and oxygen effects on eIF4F complex, mTOR, and ENaC translation in fetal lung epithelia.

    PubMed

    Otulakowski, Gail; Duan, Wenming; Gandhi, Shephali; O'brodovich, Hugh

    2007-10-01

    Fetal distal lung epithelium (FDLE) must increase amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) activity during the perinatal period to increase Na(+) transport and fluid clearance. Glucocorticosteroid (GC) levels increase, there is a 7-fold increase in Po(2) at birth, and we have previously shown that dexamethasone (DEX)-induced alpha-ENaC mRNA is efficiently translated only under postnatal (21%) O(2) (Otulakowski et al., AJRCMB 2006;34:204-212). Translation of mRNAs with long GC-rich 5'UTRs, such as alpha-ENaC mRNA, are sensitive to the amount of eIF4F, the mRNA 5'-cap binding complex composed of eIF4E and eIF4G. We now show, by Western blotting and m(7)GTP-Sepharose pull-down experiments, that in FDLE cultured under 3% O(2), DEX decreases formation of eIF4F and increases association of eIF4E with its inhibitor 4E-BP by changing 4E-BP phosphorylation. Conversely, FDLE cultured at 21% O(2) expressed lower levels of 4E-BP and maintained eIF4E-eIF4G association independent of DEX. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP is regulated by the kinase mTOR. Under 3% O(2), DEX decreased abundance of phosphorylated forms of the mTOR effectors, S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6. Neither effect was associated with changes in REDD1, an upstream regulator of mTOR. When mTOR was inhibited (3 nM rapamycin) there was reduced 4E-BP phosphorylation, fewer ribosomes on alpha-ENaC mRNA, and decreased amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current, but no change in ribosomal loading onto any of beta- or gamma-ENaC or cytokeratin 18 mRNAs. We speculate that at birth increased Po(2) acts with GC through an mTOR-related pathway to increase alpha-ENaC protein synthesis, thereby promoting lung fluid absorption.

  20. Sensitization of depressive-like behavior during repeated maternal separation is associated with more-rapid increase in core body temperature and reduced plasma cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Yusko, Brittany; Hawk, Kiel; Schiml, Patricia A; Deak, Terrence; Hennessy, Michael B

    2012-02-01

    Infant guinea pigs exhibit a 2-stage response to maternal separation: an initial active stage, characterized by vocalizing, and a second passive stage marked by depressive-like behavior (hunched posture, prolonged eye-closure, extensive piloerection) that appears to be mediated by proinflammatory activity. Recently we found that pups showed an enhanced (i.e., sensitized) depressive-like behavioral response during repeated separation. Further, core body temperature was higher during the beginning of a second separation compared to the first, suggesting a more-rapid stress-induced febrile response to separation the second day, though the possibility that temperature was already elevated prior to the second separation could not be ruled out. Therefore, the present study examined temperature prior to, and during, 2 daily separations. We also examined the temperature response to a third separation conducted 3 days after the second, and assessed the effect of repeated separation on plasma cortisol levels. Core temperature did not differ just prior to the separations, but showed a more-rapid increase and then decline during both a second and third separation than during a first. Temperature responses were not associated with changes in motor activity. Depressive-like behavior was greater during the second and third separations. Pups separated a first time showed a larger plasma cortisol response at the conclusion of separation than did animals of the same age separated a third time. In all, the results indicate that the sensitization of depressive-like behavior during repeated separations over several days is accompanied by a more-rapid febrile response that may be related to a reduction of glucocorticoid suppression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitization of Depressive-like Behavior during Repeated Maternal Separation is Associated with More-Rapid Increase in Core Body Temperature and Reduced Plasma Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Yusko, Brittany; Hawk, Kiel; Schiml, Patricia A.; Deak, Terrence; Hennessy, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Infant guinea pigs exhibit a 2-stage response to maternal separation: an initial active stage, characterized by vocalizing, and a second passive stage marked by depressive-like behavior (hunched posture, prolonged eye-closure, extensive piloerection) that appears to be mediated by proinflammatory activity. Recently we found that pups showed an enhanced (i.e., sensitized) depressive-like behavioral response during repeated separation. Further, core body temperature was higher during the beginning of a second separation compared to the first, suggesting a more-rapid stress-induced febrile response to separation the second day, though the possibility that temperature was already elevated prior to the second separation could not be ruled out. Therefore, the present study examined temperature prior to, and during, 2 daily separations. We also examined the temperature response to a third separation conducted 3 days after the second, and assessed the effect of repeated separation on plasma cortisol levels. Core temperature did not differ just prior to the separations, but showed a more-rapid increase and then decline during both a second and third separation than during a first. Temperature responses were not associated with changes in motor activity. Depressive-like behavior was greater during the second and third separations. Pups separated a first time showed a larger plasma cortisol response at the conclusion of separation than did animals of the same age separated a third time. In all, the results indicate that the sensitization of depressive-like behavior during repeated separations over several days is accompanied by a more-rapid febrile response that may be related to a reduction of glucocorticoid suppression. PMID:22079581

  2. Silver-coated LiVPO4F composite with improved electrochemical performance as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Yang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Nano-structured LiVPO4F/Ag composite cathode material has been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel route. The structural and physical properties, as well as the electrochemical performance of the material are compared with those of the pristine LiVPO4F. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that Ag particles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of LiVPO4F without destroying the crystal structure of the bulk material. An analysis of the electrochemical measurements show that the Ag-modified LiVPO4F material exhibits high discharge capacity, good cycle performance (108.5 mAh g-1 after 50th cycles at 0.1 C, 93% of initial discharge capacity) and excellent rate behavior (81.8 mAh g-1 for initial discharge capacity at 5 C). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results reveal that the adding of Ag decreases the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of LiVPO4F cathode. This study demonstrates that Ag-coating is a promising way to improve the electrochemical performance of the pristine LiVPO4F for lithium-ion batteries cathode material.

  3. Tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules decrease reactive oxygen species levels and improve bovine embryonic development during in vitro oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Remião, Mariana Härter; Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Domingues, William Borges; Haas, Cristina; Leon, Priscila Marques Moura de; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Ourique, Aline; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Collares, Tiago

    2015-12-01

    In vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) protocols can be improved by adding chemical supplements to the culture media. Tretinoin is considered an important retinoid in embryonic development and its association with lipid-core nanocapsules (TTN-LNC) represents an innovative way of improving its solubility, and chemical stability, and reducing its toxicity. The effects of supplementing IVM medium with TTN-LNC was evaluated by analyzing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), S36-phosphorilated-p66Shc levels and caspase activity in early embryonic development, and expression of apoptosis and pluripotency genes in blastocysts. The lowest concentration tested (0.25μM) of TTN-LNC generated higher blastocyst rate, lower ROS production and S36-p66Shc amount. Additionally, expression of BAX and SHC1 were lower in both non-encapsulated tretinoin (TTN) and TTN-LNC-treated groups. Nanoencapsulation allowed the use of smaller concentrations of tretinoin to supplement IVM medium thus reducing toxic effects related with its use, decreasing ROS levels and apoptose frequency, and improving the blastocyst rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe: the added value of syndromic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo; Fischer, Matthias; Krämer, Alexander; Lippert, Freddy K; Vergeiner, Gernot; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-02-07

    The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing public health emergencies of international concern: (i) can syndromic surveillance support countries, especially the subnational level, to meet the International Health Regulations (2005) core surveillance capacity requirements, (ii) are European syndromic surveillance systems comparable to enable cross-border surveillance, and (iii) at which administrative level should syndromic surveillance best be applied? Despite the ongoing criticism on the usefulness of syndromic surveillance which is related to its clinically nonspecific output, we demonstrate that it was a suitable supplement for timely assessment of the impact of three different public health emergencies affecting Europe. Subnational syndromic surveillance analysis in some cases proved to be of advantage for detecting an event earlier compared to national level analysis. However, in many cases, syndromic surveillance did not detect local events with only a small number of cases. The European Commission envisions comparability of surveillance output to enable cross-border surveillance. Evaluated against European infectious disease case definitions, syndromic surveillance can contribute to identify cases that might fulfil the clinical case definition but the approach is too unspecific to comply to complete clinical definitions. Syndromic surveillance results still seem feasible for comparable cross-border surveillance as similarly defined syndromes are analysed. We suggest a new model of implementing syndromic surveillance at the subnational level. In this model, syndromic surveillance systems are fine-tuned to their local context and integrated into the existing subnational surveillance and reporting structure. By enhancing

  5. Characterizing Fluorocarbon Assisted Atomic Layer Etching of Si Using Cyclic Ar/C 4F 8 and Ar/CHF 3 Plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Metzler, Dominik; Li, Chen; Engelmann, Sebastian; ...

    2016-09-08

    With the increasing interest in establishing directional etching methods capable of atomic scale resolution for fabricating highly scaled electronic devices, the need for development and characterization of atomic layer etching (ALE) processes, or generally etch processes with atomic layer precision, is growing. In this work, a flux-controlled cyclic plasma process is used for etching of SiO 2 and Si at the Angstrom-level. This is based on steady-state Ar plasma, with periodic, precise injection of a fluorocarbon (FC) precursor (C 4F 8 and CHF 3), and synchronized, plasma-based Ar+ ion bombardment [D. Metzler et al., J Vac Sci Technol A 32,more » 020603 (2014), and D. Metzler et al., J Vac Sci Technol A 34, 01B101 (2016)]. For low energy Ar+ ion bombardment conditions, physical sputter rates are minimized, whereas material can be etched when FC reactants are present at the surface. This cyclic approach offers a large parameter space for process optimization. Etch depth per cycle, removal rates, and self-limitation of removal, along with material dependence of these aspects, were examined as a function of FC surface coverage, ion energy, and etch step length using in situ real time ellipsometry. The deposited FC thickness per cycle is found to have a strong impact on etch depth per cycle of SiO 2 and Si, but is limited with regard to control over material etching selectivity. Ion energy over the 20 to 30 eV range strongly impacts material selectivity. The choice of precursor can have a significant impact on the surface chemistry and chemically enhanced etching. CHF 3 has a lower FC deposition yield for both SiO 2 and Si, and also exhibits a strong substrate dependence of FC deposition yield, in contrast to C4F 8. The thickness of deposited FC layers using CHF 3 is found to be greater for Si than for SiO 2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study surface chemistry. When thicker FC films of 11 Å are employed, strong changes of FC film chemistry during a

  6. Quantitative hepatitis B core antibody level is associated with inflammatory activity in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Ran; Lu, Jian-Hua; Ye, Li-Hong; Sun, Xing-Li; Zheng, Yan-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Hai-Cong; Liu, Yun-Yan; Lv, Ying; Huang, Yan; Dai, Er-Hei

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels vary during different phases of disease in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and can be used as a predictor of both interferon-α and nucleoside analogue therapy response. However, there is no information on the association between the quantitative serum anti-HBc (qAnti-HBc) level and liver inflammation in CHB patients. Therefore, we investigated these relationships in a large cohort of treatment-naïve CHB patients. A total of 624 treatment-naïve CHB patients were included in the study. The serum qAnti-HBc level was moderately correlated with ALT and AST levels (P < 0.001) in both hepatitis B e antigen-positive (HBeAg [+]) and HBeAg-negative (HBeAg [-]) CHB patients. CHB patients with no to mild inflammation (G0-1) had significantly lower serum qAnti-HBc levels than patients with moderate to severe inflammation (G2-4) (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that a serum qAnti-HBc cut-off value of 4.36 log10 IU/mL provided a sensitivity of 71.68%, specificity of 73.81%, positive predictive value of 78.43%, and negative predictive value of 66.24% in HBeAg (+) CHB patients with moderate to severe inflammation (G≥2). A cut-off value of 4.62 log10 IU/mL provided a sensitivity of 54.29%, specificity of 90.00%, positive predictive value of 95.00%, and negative predictive value of 36.00% in HBeAg (-) CHB patients with moderate to severe inflammation (G≥2). Serum qAnti-HBc levels were positively associated with liver inflammation grade. Furthermore, we identified optimal serum qAnti-HBc cut-off values for the prediction of inflammation activity in both HBeAg (+) and HBeAg (-) treatment-naïve CHB patients.

  7. Information Orientation, Information Technology Governance, and Information Technology Service Management: A Multi-Level Approach for Teaching the MBA Core Information Systems Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachboard, John; Aytes, Kregg

    2011-01-01

    Core MBA IT courses have tended to be survey courses that cover important topics but often do not sufficiently engage students. The result is that many top-ranked MBA programs have not found such courses useful enough to include in their core MBA requirements. In this paper, we present a design of an MBA course emphasizing information technology…

  8. Eye-Safe KGd(WO4)2 Raman Lasers: Comparative Study of Pumping of Nd:KGd(WO4)2 Lasers With 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 11/2 and 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 13/2 Working Transitions**

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashkevich, V. I.; Rusak, A. A.; Orlovich, V. A.; Shkadarevich, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    This is a comparative study of eye-safe extracavity KGd(WO4)2 (KGW) Raman lasers that convert multimode emission from pulsed Nd:KGW lasers operating on the 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 11/2 and 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 13/2 transitions into the third Stokes component at λ = 1500 nm and the first Stokes component at λ = 1507 or 1538 nm. For equal sizes of the Raman and laser sections of a Raman laser emitting the third Stokes component, the pulse energy is higher ( 14.2 mJ) and the divergence of the Stokes beam is lower ( 9.4 mrad) for a lower energy of the Nd:KGW laser ( 6.7 J). For pump pulse energies of 29-34 mJ, all the Raman lasers have essentially the same optical lasing efficiency of up to 36%. In terms of the electrical energy delivered to the flashlamp, however, the overall efficiency of the Raman laser for the third Stokes component is a factor of 1.7 higher. The duration of the Raman pulses is comparable to that of the pump pulses and is 20 ns for the first Stokes components. The pulse in the third Stokes component is shorter by a factor of 2.5-3. Given the different pump levels and the differences in the thermallyinduced optical distortions of the Nd:KGW laser components, the energy density distribution for beams of the first Stokes components is elliptical, while that of the third Stokes components is almost circular. The possibility of simultaneous lasing at wavelengths of 1507 and 1538 nm with parallel and mutually orthogonal polarizations of the Stokes waves is demonstrated.

  9. Association of 4F2hc with light chains LAT1, LAT2 or y+LAT2 requires different domains.

    PubMed

    Bröer, A; Friedrich, B; Wagner, C A; Fillon, S; Ganapathy, V; Lang, F; Bröer, S

    2001-05-01

    Heterodimeric amino acid transporters are comprised of a type-II membrane protein named the heavy chain (4F2hc or rBAT) that may associate with a number of different polytopic membrane proteins, called light chains. It is thought that the heavy chain is mainly involved in the trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane, whereas the transport process itself is catalysed by the light chain. The 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) associates with at least six different light chains to induce distinct amino acid-transport activites. To test if the light chains are specifically recognized and to identify domains involved in the recognition of light chains, C-terminally truncated mutants of 4F2hc were constructed and co-expressed with the light chains LAT1, LAT2 and y(+)LAT2. The truncated isoform T1, comprised of only 133 amino acids that form the cytosolic N-terminus and the transmembrane helix, displayed only a slight reduction in its ability to promote LAT1 expression at the membrane surface compared with the 529 amino acid wild-type 4F2hc protein. Co-expression of increasingly larger 4F2hc mutants caused a delayed translocation of LAT1. In contrast to the weak effects of 4F2hc truncations on LAT1 expression, surface expression of LAT2 and y(+)LAT2 was almost completely lost with all truncated heavy chains. Co-expression of LAT1 together with the other light chains did not result in displacement of LAT2 and y(+)LAT2. The results suggest that extracellular domains of the heavy chain are responsible mainly for recognition of light chains other than LAT1 and that the extracellular domain ensures proper translocation to the plasma membrane.

  10. Association of 4F2hc with light chains LAT1, LAT2 or y+LAT2 requires different domains.

    PubMed Central

    Bröer, A; Friedrich, B; Wagner, C A; Fillon, S; Ganapathy, V; Lang, F; Bröer, S

    2001-01-01

    Heterodimeric amino acid transporters are comprised of a type-II membrane protein named the heavy chain (4F2hc or rBAT) that may associate with a number of different polytopic membrane proteins, called light chains. It is thought that the heavy chain is mainly involved in the trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane, whereas the transport process itself is catalysed by the light chain. The 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) associates with at least six different light chains to induce distinct amino acid-transport activites. To test if the light chains are specifically recognized and to identify domains involved in the recognition of light chains, C-terminally truncated mutants of 4F2hc were constructed and co-expressed with the light chains LAT1, LAT2 and y(+)LAT2. The truncated isoform T1, comprised of only 133 amino acids that form the cytosolic N-terminus and the transmembrane helix, displayed only a slight reduction in its ability to promote LAT1 expression at the membrane surface compared with the 529 amino acid wild-type 4F2hc protein. Co-expression of increasingly larger 4F2hc mutants caused a delayed translocation of LAT1. In contrast to the weak effects of 4F2hc truncations on LAT1 expression, surface expression of LAT2 and y(+)LAT2 was almost completely lost with all truncated heavy chains. Co-expression of LAT1 together with the other light chains did not result in displacement of LAT2 and y(+)LAT2. The results suggest that extracellular domains of the heavy chain are responsible mainly for recognition of light chains other than LAT1 and that the extracellular domain ensures proper translocation to the plasma membrane. PMID:11311135

  11. POU4F3 mutation screening in Japanese hearing loss patients: Massively parallel DNA sequencing-based analysis identified novel variants associated with autosomal dominant hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Tomohiro; Miyagawa, Maiko; Nishio, Shin-Ya; Moteki, Hideaki; Oda, Kiyoshi; Ohyama, Kenji; Miyazaki, Hiromitsu; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Murata, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Rina; Ohta, Yoko; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kumakawa, Kozo; Furutate, Sakiko; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Yamada, Takechiyo; Ohta, Yumi; Uehara, Natsumi; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    A variant in a transcription factor gene, POU4F3, is responsible for autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hereditary hearing loss, DFNA15. To date, 14 variants, including a whole deletion of POU4F3, have been reported to cause HL in various ethnic groups. In the present study, genetic screening for POU4F3 variants was carried out for a large series of Japanese hearing loss (HL) patients to clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of DFNA15 in the Japanese population. Massively parallel DNA sequencing of 68 target candidate genes was utilized in 2,549 unrelated Japanese HL patients (probands) to identify genomic variations responsible for HL. The detailed clinical features in patients with POU4F3 variants were collected from medical charts and analyzed. Novel 12 POU4F3 likely pathogenic variants (six missense variants, three frameshift variants, and three nonsense variants) were successfully identified in 15 probands (2.5%) among 602 families exhibiting autosomal dominant HL, whereas no variants were detected in the other 1,947 probands with autosomal recessive or inheritance pattern unknown HL. To obtain the audiovestibular configuration of the patients harboring POU4F3 variants, we collected audiograms and vestibular symptoms of the probands and their affected family members. Audiovestibular phenotypes in a total of 24 individuals from the 15 families possessing variants were characterized by progressive HL, with a large variation in the onset age and severity with or without vestibular symptoms observed. Pure-tone audiograms indicated the most prevalent configuration as mid-frequency HL type followed by high-frequency HL type, with asymmetry observed in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Analysis of the relationship between age and pure-tone average suggested that individuals with truncating variants showed earlier onset and slower progression of HL than did those with non-truncating variants. The present study showed that variants in POU4F3 were a

  12. The influence of oxygen adsorption on the NEXAFS and core-level XPS spectra of the C{sub 60} derivative PCBM

    SciTech Connect

    Brumboiu, Iulia Emilia, E-mail: iulia.brumboiu@physics.uu.se; Eriksson, Olle; Brena, Barbara

    2015-02-07

    Fullerenes have been a main focus of scientific research since their discovery due to the interesting possible applications in various fields like organic photovoltaics (OPVs). In particular, the derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 60}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is currently one of the most popular choices due to its higher solubility in organic solvents compared to unsubstituted C{sub 60}. One of the central issues in the field of OPVs is device stability, since modules undergo deterioration (losses in efficiency, open circuit voltage, and short circuit current) during operation. In the case of fullerenes, several possibilities have been proposed, including dimerization, oxidation, and impuritymore » related deterioration. We have studied by means of density functional theory the possibility of oxygen adsorption on the C{sub 60} molecular moiety of PCBM. The aim is to provide guidelines for near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements which can probe the presence of atomic or molecular oxygen on the fullerene cage. By analysing several configurations of PCBM with one or more adsorbed oxygen atoms, we show that a joint core level XPS and O1s NEXAFS investigation could be effectively used not only to confirm oxygen adsorption but also to pinpoint the bonding configuration and the nature of the adsorbate.« less

  13. Facing Challenges for Monte Carlo Analysis of Full PWR Cores : Towards Optimal Detail Level for Coupled Neutronics and Proper Diffusion Data for Nodal Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttin, A.; Capellan, N.; David, S.; Doligez, X.; El Mhari, C.; Méplan, O.

    2014-06-01

    Safety analysis of innovative reactor designs requires three dimensional modeling to ensure a sufficiently realistic description, starting from steady state. Actual Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport codes are suitable candidates to simulate large complex geometries, with eventual innovative fuel. But if local values such as power densities over small regions are needed, reliable results get more difficult to obtain within an acceptable computation time. In this scope, NEA has proposed a performance test of full PWR core calculations based on Monte Carlo neutron transport, which we have used to define an optimal detail level for convergence of steady state coupled neutronics. Coupling between MCNP for neutronics and the subchannel code COBRA for thermal-hydraulics has been performed using the C++ tool MURE, developed for about ten years at LPSC and IPNO. In parallel with this study and within the same MURE framework, a simplified code of nodal kinetics based on two-group and few-point diffusion equations has been developed and validated on a typical CANDU LOCA. Methods for the computation of necessary diffusion data have been defined and applied to NU (Nat. U) and Th fuel CANDU after assembly evolutions by MURE. Simplicity of CANDU LOCA model has made possible a comparison of these two fuel behaviours during such a transient.

  14. Oxo-functionalization and reduction of the uranyl ion through lanthanide-element bond homolysis: synthetic, structural, and bonding analysis of a series of singly reduced uranyl-rare earth 5f1-4f(n) complexes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Polly L; Hollis, Emmalina; Nichol, Gary S; Love, Jason B; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Caciuffo, Roberto; Magnani, Nicola; Maron, Laurent; Castro, Ludovic; Yahia, Ahmed; Odoh, Samuel O; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2013-03-13

    The heterobimetallic complexes [{UO2Ln(py)2(L)}2], combining a singly reduced uranyl cation and a rare-earth trication in a binucleating polypyrrole Schiff-base macrocycle (Pacman) and bridged through a uranyl oxo-group, have been prepared for Ln = Sc, Y, Ce, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, and Lu. These compounds are formed by the single-electron reduction of the Pacman uranyl complex [UO2(py)(H2L)] by the rare-earth complexes Ln(III)(A)3 (A = N(SiMe3)2, OC6H3Bu(t)2-2,6) via homolysis of a Ln-A bond. The complexes are dimeric through mutual uranyl exo-oxo coordination but can be cleaved to form the trimetallic, monouranyl "ate" complexes [(py)3LiOUO(μ-X)Ln(py)(L)] by the addition of lithium halides. X-ray crystallographic structural characterization of many examples reveals very similar features for monomeric and dimeric series, the dimers containing an asymmetric U2O2 diamond core with shorter uranyl U═O distances than in the monomeric complexes. The synthesis by Ln(III)-A homolysis allows [5f(1)-4f(n)]2 and Li[5f(1)-4f(n)] complexes with oxo-bridged metal cations to be made for all possible 4f(n) configurations. Variable-temperature SQUID magnetometry and IR, NIR, and EPR spectroscopies on the complexes are utilized to provide a basis for the better understanding of the electronic structure of f-block complexes and their f-electron exchange interactions. Furthermore, the structures, calculated by restricted-core or all-electron methods, are compared along with the proposed mechanism of formation of the complexes. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the metal centers, mediated by the oxo groups, exists in the U(V)Sm(III) monomer, whereas the dimeric U(V)Dy(III) complex was found to show magnetic bistability at 3 K, a property required for the development of single-molecule magnets.

  15. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Control Over the Growth of Titania Nanotubes by Anodisation of TI Foil in NH4F-Containing Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockman, Z.; Sreekantan, Srimala; Ismail, Syahriza

    2009-06-01

    TiO2 nanotubes were produced by anodisation of pure titanium foil in a standard two-electrode bath consisting of either 1 M Na2SO4 or glycerol solution containing 5 wt% NH4F. The effect of anodisation voltage applied to the foil was studied to investigate the possibility of controlling the dimensions of the nanotubes produced. It was found that, in both electrochemical baths the diameter of the nanotubes increases with increasing of the applied voltage. However, in 1 M Na2SO4 there appears to be a maximum voltage at which the nanotubular structure persists. The maximum applied voltage must be less than 30 V. Above this voltage, the nanotubular structure is destroyed leaving an oxide with porous-like morphology. In glycerol bath, the maximum voltage is higher. The length of the nanotubes was also found to be dependent on the voltage. In glycerol, the length of the nanotubes increases from 200 nm to 700 nm as the anodisation voltage was increased from 10 to 30 V.

  17. Syntheses, crystal structures and properties of two unusual pillared-layer 3 d -4 f Ln -Cu heterometallic coordination polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Le-Qing; Wu, Ji-Huai; Huang, Yun-Fang

    2011-09-01

    Two unusual pillared-layer 3 d-4 f Ln-Cu heterometallic coordination polymers, {[ Ln2Cu 5Br 4(IN) 7(H 2O) 6]·H 2O} n ( Ln=Eu ( 1) and Gd ( 2), HIN=isonicotinic acid), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, thermal analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure determination reveals that 1 and 2 are isostructural and feature a novel three-dimensional pillared-layer hetrometallic structure built upon the linkages of one-dimensional (1D) linear Ln-carboxylate chains, zero-dimensional (0D) Ln-carboxylate Ln2(IN) 8 dimers, rare 1D zigzag [Cu 5Br 4] n inorganic chains and IN - pillars. In both 3D structures, there are Ln-carboxylate layers resulted from the connections of 1D Ln-carboxylate chains and 0D Ln2(IN) 8 dimers through O-H⋯O hydrogen bondings. The luminescent properties of 1 have been investigated. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have also been studied.

  18. Highly compact (4F2) and well behaved nano-pillar transistor controlled resistive switching cell for neuromorphic system application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Wang, Xinpeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Kang, Jinfeng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2014-10-31

    To simplify the architecture of a neuromorphic system, it is extremely desirable to develop synaptic cells with the capacity of low operation power, high density integration, and well controlled synaptic behaviors. In this study, we develop a resistive switching device (ReRAM)-based synaptic cell, fabricated by the CMOS compatible nano-fabrication technology. The developed synaptic cell consists of one vertical gate-all-around Si nano-pillar transistor (1T) and one transition metal-oxide based resistive switching device (1R) stacked on top of the vertical transistor directly. Thanks to the vertical architecture and excellent controllability on the ON/OFF performance of the nano-pillar transistor, the 1T1R synaptic cell shows excellent characteristics such as extremely high-density integration ability with 4F(2) footprint, ultra-low operation current (<2 nA), fast switching speed (<10 ns), multilevel data storage and controllable synaptic switching, which are extremely desirable for simplifying the architecture of neuromorphic system.

  19. Collimator with filtration compensator: clinical adaptation to meet European Union recommendation 4F on radiological protection for dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, M; García-Vera, M C; Bravo, L A; Martínez-Beneyto, Y; Armero, D; Morant, J J; Canteras, M

    2009-09-01

    Our aim was to develop a compensated filtration collimator for use in paediatric patients undergoing cephalometric radiography that reduces the radiation dose administered and fulfils recommendation 4F of the European guidelines on radiation protection in dental radiology. An easy to use filtration-compensated collimator was constructed of plastic, lead and aluminium and used randomly with a group of 32 children (mean age 11 years) undergoing cephalometric radiography before receiving orthodontic treatment. The radiation doses administered to patients (eye lens and thyroid, submandibular and parotid glands) and to the chassis of the radiographic equipment were determined. The filtration-compensated collimator is easily fixed to the external surface of the radiographic equipment and results in (a) as collimator, a reduction of 40% in the surface irradiated in the children and of 61.4% in the dose administered to the thyroid glands (P<0.001); (b) as filtration compensator, a reduction of 32.8% administered to the eye lens (P<0.001), 31.45% to the submaxillary gland (P<0.01) and 11.4% to the parotid gland (P<0.05); there was no difference in the dose determined on the radiographic film. A radiographic examination can be carried out with children using only a third of the dose normally used with no increase in the time or cost involved.

  20. Effect of NQO1 and CYP4F2 genotypes on warfarin dose requirements in Hispanic–Americans and African–Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bress, Adam; Patel, Shitalben R; Perera, Minoli A; Campbell, Richard T; Kittles, Rick A; Cavallari, Larisa H

    2013-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to determine the additional contribution of NQO1 and CYP4F2 genotypes to warfarin dose requirements across two racial groups after accounting for known clinical and genetic predictors. Patients & methods The following were assessed in a cohort of 260 African–Americans and 53 Hispanic–Americans: clinical data; NQO1 p.P187S (*1/*2); CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *8 and *11; CYP4F2 p.V433M; and VKORC1 c.-1639G>A genotypes. Results Both the CYP4F2 433M (0.23 vs 0.06; p < 0.05) and NQO1*2 (0.27 vs. 0.18; p < 0.05) allele frequencies were higher in Hispanic–Americans compared with African–Americans. Multiple regression analysis in the Hispanic–American cohort revealed that each CYP4F2 433M allele was associated with a 22% increase in warfarin maintenance dose (p = 0.019). Possession of the NQO1*2 allele was associated with a 34% increase in warfarin maintenance dose (p = 0.004), while adjusting for associated genetic (CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and VKORC1) and clinical factors. In this population, the inclusion of CYP4F2 and NQO1*2 genotypes improved the dose variability explained by the model from 0.58 to 0.68 (p = 0.001), a 17% relative improvement. By contrast, there was no association between CYP4F2 or NQO1*2 genotype and therapeutic warfarin dose in African–Americans after adjusting for known genetic and clinical predictors. Conclusion In our cohort of inner-city Hispanic–Americans, the CYP4F2 and NQO1*2 genotypes significantly contributed to warfarin dose requirements. If our findings are confirmed, they would suggest that inclusion of the CYP4F2 and NQO1*2 genotypes in warfarin dose prediction algorithms may improve the predictive ability of such algorithms in Hispanic–Americans. PMID:23215885

  1. Effect of NQO1 and CYP4F2 genotypes on warfarin dose requirements in Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Bress, Adam; Patel, Shitalben R; Perera, Minoli A; Campbell, Richard T; Kittles, Rick A; Cavallari, Larisa H

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the additional contribution of NQO1 and CYP4F2 genotypes to warfarin dose requirements across two racial groups after accounting for known clinical and genetic predictors. The following were assessed in a cohort of 260 African-Americans and 53 Hispanic-Americans: clinical data; NQO1 p.P187S (*1/*2); CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *8 and *11; CYP4F2 p.V433M; and VKORC1 c.-1639G>A genotypes. Both the CYP4F2 433M (0.23 vs 0.06; p < 0.05) and NQO1*2 (0.27 vs 0.18; p < 0.05) allele frequencies were higher in Hispanic-Americans compared with African-Americans. Multiple regression analysis in the Hispanic-American cohort revealed that each CYP4F2 433M allele was associated with a 22% increase in warfarin maintenance dose (p = 0.019). Possession of the NQO1*2 allele was associated with a 34% increase in warfarin maintenance dose (p = 0.004), while adjusting for associated genetic (CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and VKORC1) and clinical factors. In this population, the inclusion of CYP4F2 and NQO1*2 genotypes improved the dose variability explained by the model from 0.58 to 0.68 (p = 0.001), a 17% relative improvement. By contrast, there was no association between CYP4F2 or NQO1*2 genotype and therapeutic warfarin dose in African-Americans after adjusting for known genetic and clinical predictors. In our cohort of inner-city Hispanic-Americans, the CYP4F2 and NQO1*2 genotypes significantly contributed to warfarin dose requirements. If our findings are confirmed, they would suggest that inclusion of the CYP4F2 and NQO1*2 genotypes in warfarin dose prediction algorithms may improve the predictive ability of such algorithms in Hispanic-Americans.

  2. Exome sequencing identifies POU4F3 as the causative gene for a large Chinese family with non-syndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xin Zhang; Li, Ying; Xia, Lu; Peng, Yu; He, Chu Feng; Jiang, Lu; Feng, Yong; Xia, Kun; Liu, Xue Zhong; Mei, Ling Yun; Hu, Zheng Mao

    2017-02-01

    Hearing impairment, or deafness (in its most severe form), is one of the most common human sensory disorders. There have been several reports of autosomal dominant mutations in the POU4F3 gene, which is associated with non-syndromic hearing loss. In this study, we identified a novel heterozygous mutation (c.602delT, p.L201fs) in the gene POU4F3 by taking advantage of whole-exome sequencing, which was validated by Sanger sequencing and completely co-segregated within a large hearing impaired Chinese family. We have focused on this pedigree since 2002, and we have mapped a deafness locus named DFNA42 (which has been renamed DFNA52, OMIM entry 607683) via a genome-wide scan. Furthermore, we analyzed this mutational variant and found that it was located at the beginning of the first functional domain of POU4F3, which could theoretically impair the function of POU4F3. We have identified a novel frameshift mutation in the POU4F3 gene. Further functional studies of variants of this specific gene are needed to illustrate the pathogenic mechanism(s) that underlie hearing impairment.

  3. Superconductivity induced by external pressure in Eu3-x Sr x Bi2S4F4 (x = 1, 2) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, M.; Kalai Selvan, G.; Haque, Z.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Wang, B.; Ishigaki, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Gupta, L. C.; Ganguli, A. K.; Arumugam, S.

    2017-11-01

    We have studied the temperature-pressure phase diagram of two materials Eu3-x Sr x Bi2S4F4 (x = 1 and x = 2) by electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements down to 2 K. Semiconducting resistive behavior observed in both the materials under ambient conditions transforms into metallic behavior as externally applied pressure gradually increases. Superconductivity is observed in both the materials at and above applied pressure P = 2.37 GPa. Under the highest pressure P ˜ 2.9 GPa applied in our measurements, T c is ˜9.8 K in Eu2SrBi2S4F4 (x = 1) and 8.2 K in EuSr2Bi2S4F4 (x = 2). Upper critical field H c2(0) ˜ 3.04 T (x = 1) and 1.17 T (x = 2) is estimated from magnetic field dependent resistivity measurements at 2.9 GPa. Using the Arrhenius equation, we estimate the thermally activated flux flow activation energy U 0 as 116 K in Eu2SrBi2S4F4 and 39 K in EuSr2Bi2S4F4. At 2 K, DC magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate S-type paramagnetic behavior.

  4. Shaping the intensity and degree of coherence of a partially coherent beam by a 4f optical system with an amplitude filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tengfei; Liang, Chunhao; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian

    2017-12-01

    It is known that a 4f optical system with an amplitude filter can be adopted to shape the intensity of a coherent Gaussian beam. In this paper, we investigate the propagation of a typical kind of partially coherent beam called a Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam through a 4f optical system with an amplitude filter in the frequency plane. It is demonstrated both numerically and experimentally that the 4f optical system with an amplitude filter can be used to shape the intensity and degree of coherence of a GSM beam simultaneously. The shaped beam displays interesting properties and forms controllable far-field intensity lattices, which may be useful for particle trapping and information transfer.

  5. Digital confocal microscopy using a virtual 4f-system based on numerical beam propagation for depth measurement without mechanical scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yuta; Okamoto, Atsushi; Toda, Masataka; Kuno, Yasuyuki; Nozawa, Jin; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Tomita, Akihisa

    2016-08-01

    We propose a digital confocal microscope using a virtual 4f-system based on numerical beam propagation for depth measurement without mechanical scanning. In our technique, the information in the sample target along the depth direction is obtained by defocusing the virtual 4f-system, which consists of two virtual lenses arranged in a computer simulation. The principle of our technique is completely different from that of the mechanical scanning method used in the conventional confocal microscope based on digital holography. By using the virtual 4f-system, the measurement and exposure time can be markedly reduced because multilayered tomographic images are generated using a single measurement. In this study, we tested the virtual depth imaging technique by measuring cover glasses arranged along the depth direction.

  6. Colloidal lithography nanostructured Pd/PdOx core-shell sensor for ppb level H2S detection.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Samatha; Lumdee, Chatdanai; Dmitriev, Alexandre; Anand, Srinivasan; Bhat, Navakanta

    2018-03-29

    In this work we report on plasma oxidation of palladium (Pd) to form reliable palladium/palladium oxide (Pd/PdOx) core-shell sensor for ppb level H2S detection and its performance improvement through nanostructuring using hole-mask colloidal lithography. The plasma oxidation parameters and the sensor operating conditions are optimized to arrive at a sensor device with high sensitivity and repeatable response for H2S. The plasma oxidized palladium/palladium oxide sensor shows a response of 43.1% at 3 ppm H2S at the optimum operating temperature of 200oC with response and recovery times of 24 s and 155 s, respectively. The limit of detection (LoD) of the plasma oxidised beam is 10 ppb. We further integrate hole-mask colloidal lithography, a bottom-up and cost-effective process, to create nanodiscs of fixed diameter of 100 nm and varying heights (10 nm, 15 nm and 20 nm) on 10 nm thin Pd beam which is subsequently plasma oxidized to improve the H2S sensing characteristics. The nanostructured Pd/PdOx sensor with nanodiscs of 100 nm diameter and 10 nm height shows an enhancement in sensing performance by 11.8% at same operating temperature and gas concentration. This nanostructured sensor also shows faster response and recovery times (15 s and 100 s, respectively) compared to the unstructured Pd/PdOx counterpart together with an experimental LoD of 10 ppb and the estimated limit going all the way down to 2 ppb. Material characterization of the fabricated Pd/PdOx sensors is done using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Core Level Shifts of Hydrogenated Pyridinic and Pyrrolic Nitrogen in the Nitrogen-Containing Graphene-Based Electrocatalysts: In-Plane vs Edge Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Matanovic, Ivana; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Strand, Matthew B.

    2016-12-07

    A combination of N 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and first principles calculations of nitrogen-containing model electrocatalysts was used to elucidate the nature of the nitrogen defects that contribute to the binding energy (BE) range of the N 1s XPS spectra of these materials above ~400 eV. Experimental core level shifts were obtained for a set of model materials, namely N-doped carbon nanospheres, Fe–N–carbon nanospheres, polypyrrole, polypyridine, and pyridinium chloride, and were compared to the shifts calculated using density functional theory. The results confirm that the broad peak positioned at ~400.7 eV in the N 1s XPS spectra of N-containingmore » catalysts, which is typically assigned to pyrrolic nitrogen, contains contributions from other hydrogenated nitrogen species such as hydrogenated pyridinic functionalities. Namely, N 1s BEs of hydrogenated pyridinic-N and pyrrolic-N were calculated as 400.6 and 400.7 eV, respectively, using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional. A special emphasis was placed on the study of the differences in the XPS imprint of N-containing defects that are situated in the plane and on the edges of the graphene sheet. Density functional theory calculations for BEs of the N 1s of in-plane and edge defects show that hydrogenated N defects are more sensitive to the change in the chemical environment in the carbon matrix than the non-hydrogenated N defects. In conclusion, calculations also show that edge-hydrogenated pyridinic-N and pyrrolic-N defects only contribute to the N 1s XPS peak located at ~400.7 eV if the graphene edges are oxygenated or terminated with bare carbon atoms.« less

  8. Seven 3d-4f coordination polymers of macrocyclic oxamide with polycarboxylates: Syntheses, crystal structures and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Na; Key Laboratory of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Functional Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules

    2016-11-15

    Seven new 3d–4f heterometallic coordination polymers, [Ln(CuL){sub 2}(Hbtca)(btca)(H{sub 2}O)]·2H{sub 2}O (Ln = Tb{sup III}1, Pr{sup III}2, Sm{sup III}3, Eu{sup III}4, Yb{sup III}5), [Nd(NiL)(nip)(Rnip)]·0·25H{sub 2}O·0.25CH{sub 3}OH (R= 0.6CH{sub 3}, 0.4H) 6 and [Nd{sub 2}(NiL)(nip){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)]·2H{sub 2}O 7(CuL or NiL, H{sub 2}L = 2, 3-dioxo-5, 6, 14, 15-dibenzo-1, 4, 8, 12-tetraazacyclo-pentadeca-7, 13-dien; H{sub 2}btca = benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid; H{sub 2}nip = 5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized by a solvothermal method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1–5 exhibit a double-strand meso-helical chain structures formed by [Ln{sup III}Cu{sup II}{sub 2}] units via the oxamide and benzotriazole-5-carboxylate bridges, while complex 6 exhibits amore » four-strand meso-helical chain formed by NdNi unit via the oxamide and 5-nitroisophthalate bridges. Complex 7 consists of a 2D layer framework formed by four-strand meso-helical chain via the nip{sup 2−} bridges. Moreover, the magnetic properties of them were investigated, and the best-fit analysis of χ{sub M}T versus T show that the anisotropic contribution of Ln(III) ions (arising from the spin-orbit coupling or the crystal field perturbation) dominates (weak exchange limit) in these complexes(for 3, λ = 214.6 cm{sup −1}, zj’ = −0.33 cm{sup −1}, g{sub av} = 1.94; for 5, Δ = 6.98 cm{sup −1}, zj’ = 1.53 cm{sup −1}, g{sub av} = 1.85). - Graphical-abstract: Seven novel oxamido-bridged 3d-4f heterometallic coordination polymers with benzotriazole-5-carboxylate or 5-nitroisophthalate co-ligands under solvothermal reaction conditions. Polymers 1–7 hold 1D or 2D framework structure, viz., double-strand meso-helical chain of 1–5, four-strand meso-helical chain of 6, and 2D net of 7 consisting of four-strand meso-helical chain. Moreover, the temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibilities of compounds 1–7 were also studied.« less

  9. Comparative secretome analysis of Trichoderma asperellum S4F8 and Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 during solid-state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lignocellulosic enzymes of Trichoderma species have received particular attention with regard to biomass conversion to biofuels, but the production cost of these enzymes remains a significant hurdle for their commercial application. In this study, we quantitatively compared the lignocellulolytic enzyme profile of a newly isolated Trichoderma asperellum S4F8 strain with that of Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, cultured on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Results Comparison of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of S4F8 and Rut C30 showed that S4F8 had significantly higher hemicellulase and β-glucosidase enzyme activities. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the two fungal secretomes enabled the detection of 815 proteins in total, with 418 and 397 proteins being specific for S4F8 and Rut C30, respectively, and 174 proteins being common to both strains. In-depth analysis of the associated biological functions and the representation of glycoside hydrolase family members within the two secretomes indicated that the S4F8 secretome contained a higher diversity of main and side chain hemicellulases and β-glucosidases, and an increased abundance of some of these proteins compared with the Rut C30 secretome. Conclusions In SCB SSF, T. asperellum S4F8 produced a more complex lignocellulolytic cocktail, with enhanced hemicellulose and cellobiose hydrolysis potential, compared with T. reesei Rut C30. This bodes well for the development of a more cost-effective and efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail from T. asperellum for lignocellulosic feedstock hydrolysis. PMID:24286470

  10. Comparative secretome analysis of Trichoderma asperellum S4F8 and Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 during solid-state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Marx, Isa Jacoba; van Wyk, Niël; Smit, Salome; Jacobson, Daniel; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda; Volschenk, Heinrich

    2013-11-29

    The lignocellulosic enzymes of Trichoderma species have received particular attention with regard to biomass conversion to biofuels, but the production cost of these enzymes remains a significant hurdle for their commercial application. In this study, we quantitatively compared the lignocellulolytic enzyme profile of a newly isolated Trichoderma asperellum S4F8 strain with that of Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, cultured on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Comparison of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of S4F8 and Rut C30 showed that S4F8 had significantly higher hemicellulase and β-glucosidase enzyme activities. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the two fungal secretomes enabled the detection of 815 proteins in total, with 418 and 397 proteins being specific for S4F8 and Rut C30, respectively, and 174 proteins being common to both strains. In-depth analysis of the associated biological functions and the representation of glycoside hydrolase family members within the two secretomes indicated that the S4F8 secretome contained a higher diversity of main and side chain hemicellulases and β-glucosidases, and an increased abundance of some of these proteins compared with the Rut C30 secretome. In SCB SSF, T. asperellum S4F8 produced a more complex lignocellulolytic cocktail, with enhanced hemicellulose and cellobiose hydrolysis potential, compared with T. reesei Rut C30. This bodes well for the development of a more cost-effective and efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail from T. asperellum for lignocellulosic feedstock hydrolysis.

  11. Core transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good news for all petroleum geoscientists, mining and environmental scientists, university researchers, and the like: Shell Oil Company has deeded its Midland core and sample repository to the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at the University of Texas at Austin. The Midland repository includes more than 1 million linear meters of slab, whole core, and prepared cuttings. Data comprising one of the largest U.S. core collections—the geologic samples from wells drilled in Texas and 39 other states—are now public data and will be incorporated into the existing BEG database. Both Shell and the University of Texas at Austin are affiliated with the American Geological Institute, which assisted in arranging the transfer as part of its goal to establish a National Geoscience Data Repository System at regional centers across the United States.

  12. Seven 3d-4f coordination polymers of macrocyclic oxamide with polycarboxylates: Syntheses, crystal structures and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Na; Sun, Ya-Qiu; Zheng, Yan-Feng; Xu, Yan-Yan; Gao, Dong-Zhao; Zhang, Guo-Ying

    2016-11-01

    Seven new 3d-4f heterometallic coordination polymers, [Ln(CuL)2(Hbtca)(btca)(H2O)]·2H2O (Ln = TbIII1, PrIII2, SmIII3, EuIII4, YbIII5), [Nd(NiL)(nip)(Rnip)]·0·25H2O·0.25CH3OH (R= 0.6CH3, 0.4H) 6 and [Nd2(NiL)(nip)3(H2O)]·2H2O 7(CuL or NiL, H2L = 2, 3-dioxo-5, 6, 14, 15-dibenzo-1, 4, 8, 12-tetraazacyclo-pentadeca-7, 13-dien; H2btca = benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid; H2nip = 5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized by a solvothermal method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-5 exhibit a double-strand meso-helical chain structures formed by [LnIIICuII2] units via the oxamide and benzotriazole-5-carboxylate bridges, while complex 6 exhibits a four-strand meso-helical chain formed by NdNi unit via the oxamide and 5-nitroisophthalate bridges. Complex 7 consists of a 2D layer framework formed by four-strand meso-helical chain via the nip2- bridges. Moreover, the magnetic properties of them were investigated, and the best-fit analysis of χMT versus T show that the anisotropic contribution of Ln(III) ions (arising from the spin-orbit coupling or the crystal field perturbation) dominates (weak exchange limit) in these complexes(for 3, λ = 214.6 cm-1, zj' = -0.33 cm-1, gav = 1.94; for 5, Δ = 6.98 cm-1, zj' = 1.53 cm-1, gav = 1.85).

  13. Synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties of LiNaCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}F fluoride-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, Stanislav S.; Skoltech Center for Electrochemical Energy Storage, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 143026 Moscow; Kuzovchikov, Sergey M.

    2016-10-15

    LiNaCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}F fluoride-phosphate was synthesized via conventional solid-state and novel freeze-drying routes. The crystal structure was refined based on neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and validated by electron diffraction (ED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The alkali ions are ordered in LiNaCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}F and the transition metals jointly occupy the same crystallographic sites. The oxidation state and oxygen coordination environment of the Fe atoms were verified by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Electrochemical tests of the LiNaCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}F cathode material demonstrated a reversible activity of the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} redox couple at the electrodemore » potential near 3.4 V and minor activity of the Co{sup 3+}/Co{sup 2+} redox couple over 5 V vs Li/Li{sup +}. The material exhibited the discharge capacity of more than 82% (theo.) regarding Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} in the 2.4÷4.6 V vs Li/Li{sup +} potential range. - Graphical abstract: The ball-polyhedral representation of the LiNaCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}F crystal structure. The MO{sub 4}F{sub 2} units are depicted as blue octahedra, PO{sub 4} units as orange tetrahedra, sodium atoms are designated as yellow (Na1), lithium – red and brown (Li2, Li3 resp.), fluorine – green, oxygen – violet spheres. - Highlights: • Freeze-drying method was successfully applied to the synthesis of LiNaCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}F. • The crystal structure of LiNaCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}F was refined based on NPD and validated by ED and HRTEM. • LiNaCo{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4}F demonstrated a reversible Li de/intercalation in the 2.5÷4.6 V vs Li/Li{sup +} range.« less

  14. Direct observation of the modulation of the 4f-electron orbital state by strong p-f mixing in CeSb.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Kazuaki; Hannan, Abdul; Kohgi, Masahumi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2002-05-20

    Low-temperature x-ray diffraction experiment has been carried out to investigate the 4 f-electron state of the low carrier density system CeSb which shows complicated magnetic phase diagrams at low temperatures. The scattering pattern of the satellite peaks observed in the magnetically ordered state AFP3 is explained well by the model which takes into account both the lattice and charge modulations corresponding to the complex magnetic structure. The present result gives direct evidence for the strong modulation of the 4 f-electron orbital state in CeSb due to the combined effect of the strong p-f mixing and carrier localization.

  15. An RNA electrophoretic mobility shift and mutational analysis of rnp-4f 5′-UTR intron splicing regulatory proteins in Drosophila reveals a novel new role for a dADAR protein isoform

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, G. Girija; Ghosh, Sushmita; Jones, Gabriel P.; Parikh, Roshni; Rawlins, Bridgette A.; Vaughn, Jack C.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing greatly enhances the diversity of proteins encoded by eukaryotic genomes, and is also important in gene expression control. In contrast to the great depth of knowledge as to molecular mechanisms in the splicing pathway itself, relatively little is known about the regulatory events behind this process. The 5′-UTR and 3′-UTR in pre-mRNAs play a variety of roles in controlling eukaryotic gene expression, including translational modulation, and nearly 4,000 of the roughly 14,000 protein coding genes in Drosophila contain introns of unknown functional significance in their 5′-UTR. Here we report the results of an RNA electrophoretic mobility shift analysis of Drosophila rnp-4f 5′-UTR intron 0 splicing regulatory proteins. The pre-mRNA potential regulatory element consists of an evolutionarily-conserved 177-nt stem-loop arising from pairing of intron 0 with part of adjacent exon 2. Incubation of in vitro transcribed probe with embryo protein extract is shown to result in two shifted RNA-protein bands, and protein extract from a dADAR null mutant fly line results in only one shifted band. A mutated stem-loop in which the conserved exon 2 primary sequence is changed but secondary structure maintained by introducing compensatory base changes results in diminished band shifts. To test the hypothesis that dADAR plays a role in intron splicing regulation in vivo, levels of unspliced rnp-4f mRNA in dADAR mutant were compared to wild-type via real-time qRT-PCR. The results show that during embryogenesis unspliced rnp-4f mRNA levels fall by up to 85% in the mutant, in support of the hypothesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel role for dADAR protein in rnp-4f 5′-UTR alternative intron splicing regulation which is consistent with a previously proposed model. PMID:23026215

  16. Leukotriene B₄ Metabolism and p70S6 Kinase 1 Inhibitors: PF-4708671 but Not LY2584702 Inhibits CYP4F3A and the ω-Oxidation of Leukotriene B₄ In Vitro and In Cellulo.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Anne-Sophie; Turcotte, Caroline; Martin, Cyril; Lefebvre, Julie S; Provost, Véronique; Laviolette, Michel; Flamand, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    LTB4 is an inflammatory lipid mediator mainly biosynthesized by leukocytes. Since its implication in inflammatory diseases is well recognized, many tools to regulate its biosynthesis have been developed and showed promising results in vitro and in vivo, but mixed results in clinical trials. Recently, the mTOR pathway component p70S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1) has been linked to LTC4 synthase and the biosynthesis of cysteinyl-leukotrienes. In this respect, we investigated if p70S6K1 could also play a role in LTB4 biosynthesis. We thus evaluated the impact of the p70S6K1 inhibitors PF-4708671 and LY2584702 on LTB4 biosynthesis in human neutrophils. At a concentration of 10 μM, both compounds inhibited S6 phosphorylation, although neither one inhibited the thapsigargin-induced LTB4 biosynthesis, as assessed by the sum of LTB4, 20-OH-LTB4, and 20-COOH-LTB4. However, PF-4708671, but not LY2584702, inhibited the ω-oxidation of LTB4 into 20-OH-LTB4 by intact neutrophils and by recombinant CYP4F3A, leading to increased LTB4 levels. This was true for both endogenously biosynthesized and exogenously added LTB4. In contrast to that of 17-octadecynoic acid, the inhibitory effect of PF-4708671 was easily removed by washing the neutrophils, indicating that PF-4708671 was a reversible CYP4F3A inhibitor. At optimal concentration, PF-4708671 increased the half-life of LTB4 in our neutrophil suspensions by 7.5 fold, compared to 5 fold for 17-octadecynoic acid. Finally, Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk plots indicate that PF-4708671 is a mixed inhibitor of CYP4F3A. In conclusion, we show that PF-4708671 inhibits CYP4F3A and prevents the ω-oxidation of LTB4 in cellulo, which might result in increased LTB4 levels in vivo.

  17. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, R; Rossier, G; Spindler, B; Meier, C; Kühn, L; Verrey, F

    1999-01-01

    Amino acid transport across cellular membranes is mediated by multiple transporters with overlapping specificities. We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporters. The novel heterodimers form exchangers which mediate the cellular efflux of cationic amino acids and the Na+-dependent uptake of large neutral amino acids. These transport characteristics and kinetic and pharmacological fingerprints identify them as y+L-type transport systems. The mRNA encoding my+LAT1 is detectable in most adult tissues and expressed at high levels in kidney cortex and intestine. This suggests that the y+LAT1-4F2hc heterodimer, besides participating in amino acid uptake/secretion in many cell types, is the basolateral amino acid exchanger involved in transepithelial reabsorption of cationic amino acids; hence, its defect might be the cause of the human genetic disease lysinuric protein intolerance. PMID:9878049

  18. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  19. Profound hyperglycemia in knockout mutant mice identifies novel function for POU4F2/Brn-3b in regulating metabolic processes.

    PubMed

    Bitsi, Stavroula; Ali, Houda; Maskell, Lauren; Ounzain, Samir; Mohamed-Ali, Vidya; Budhram-Mahadeo, Vishwanie S

    2016-03-01

    The POU4F2/Brn-3b transcription factor has been identified as a potentially novel regulator of key metabolic processes. Loss of this protein in Brn-3b knockout (KO) mice causes profound hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (IR), normally associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), whereas Brn-3b is reduced in tissues taken from obese mice fed on high-fat diets (HFD), which also develop hyperglycemia and IR. Furthermore, studies in C2C12 myocytes show that Brn-3b mRNA and proteins are induced by glucose but inhibited by insulin, suggesting that this protein is itself highly regulated in responsive cells. Analysis of differential gene expression in skeletal muscle from Brn-3b KO mice showed changes in genes that are implicated in T2D such as increased glycogen synthase kinase-3β and reduced GLUT4 glucose transporter. The GLUT4 gene promoter contains multiple Brn-3b binding sites and is directly transactivated by this transcription factor in cotransfection assays, whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirm that Brn-3b binds to this promoter in vivo. In addition, correlation between GLUT4 and Brn-3b in KO tissues or in C2C12 cells strongly supports a close association between Brn-3b levels and GLUT4 expression. Since Brn-3b is regulated by metabolites and insulin, this may provide a mechanism for controlling key genes that are required for normal metabolic processes in insulin-responsive tissues and its loss may contribute to abnormal glucose uptake. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Profound hyperglycemia in knockout mutant mice identifies novel function for POU4F2/Brn-3b in regulating metabolic processes

    PubMed Central

    Bitsi, Stavroula; Ali, Houda; Maskell, Lauren; Ounzain, Samir; Mohamed-Ali, Vidya

    2015-01-01

    The POU4F2/Brn-3b transcription factor has been identified as a potentially novel regulator of key metabolic processes. Loss of this protein in Brn-3b knockout (KO) mice causes profound hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (IR), normally associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), whereas Brn-3b is reduced in tissues taken from obese mice fed on high-fat diets (HFD), which also develop hyperglycemia and IR. Furthermore, studies in C2C12 myocytes show that Brn-3b mRNA and proteins are induced by glucose but inhibited by insulin, suggesting that this protein is itself highly regulated in responsive cells. Analysis of differential gene expression in skeletal muscle from Brn-3b KO mice showed changes in genes that are implicated in T2D such as increased glycogen synthase kinase-3β and reduced GLUT4 glucose transporter. The GLUT4 gene promoter contains multiple Brn-3b binding sites and is directly transactivated by this transcription factor in cotransfection assays, whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirm that Brn-3b binds to this promoter in vivo. In addition, correlation between GLUT4 and Brn-3b in KO tissues or in C2C12 cells strongly supports a close association between Brn-3b levels and GLUT4 expression. Since Brn-3b is regulated by metabolites and insulin, this may provide a mechanism for controlling key genes that are required for normal metabolic processes in insulin-responsive tissues and its loss may contribute to abnormal glucose uptake. PMID:26670484

  1. Coronal lines and the importance of deep-core-valence correlation in Ag-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumer, Jon; Zhao, Ruifeng; Brage, Tomas; Li, Wenxian; Huldt, Sven; Hutton, Roger; Zou, Yaming

    2014-06-01

    We report on large-scale and critically evaluated ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations of the wavelength and transition rate of the "coronal," M1 transition 4f2F5/2o-2F7/2o in Ag-like ions. The transition between these two fine-structure levels, which makes up the ground term for Z ≥62 in the isoelectronic sequence, has recently been observed in Yb23+ and W27+, where the latter could be of great importance for fusion plasma diagnostics. We present values for all members of the sequence between Z =50 and 94, which are supported by excellent agreement with values from recent experiments. The importance of including core-valence correlation with the n =3 shell in the theoretical model is emphasized. The results show close-to-spectroscopic accuracy for these forbidden lines.

  2. Application of Si and SiO2 Etching Mechanisms in CF4/C4F8/Ar Inductively Coupled Plasmas for Nanoscale Patterns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junmyung; Efremov, Alexander; Yeom, Geun Young; Lim, Nomin; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    An investigation of the etching characteristics and mechanism for both Si and SiO2 in CF4/C4F8/Ar inductively coupled plasmas under a constant gas pressure (4 mTorr), total gas flow rate (40 sccm), input power (800 W), and bias power (150 W) was performed. It was found that the variations in the CF4/C4F8 mixing ratio in the range of 0-50% at a constant Ar fraction of 50% resulted in slightly non-monotonic Si and SiO2 etching rates in CF4-rich plasmas and greatly decreasing etching rates in C4F8-rich plasmas. The zero-dimensional plasma model, Langmuir probe diagnostics, and optical emission spectroscopy provided information regarding the formation-decay kinetics for the plasma active species, along with their densities and fluxes. The model-based analysis of the etching kinetics indicated that the non-monotonic etching rates were caused not by the similar behavior of the fluorine atom density but rather by the opposite changes of the fluorine atom flux and ion energy flux. It was also determined that the great decrease in both the Si and SiO2 etching rates during the transition from the CF4/Ar to C4F8/Ar gas system was due to the deposition of the fluorocarbon polymer film.

  3. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 55 - Jurisdictions Covered Under Sections 4(f)(4) and 203(c) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as Amended

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Pt. 55, App. Appendix to Part 55—Jurisdictions Covered Under Sections 4(f...)(4) and 203(c) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as Amended [Applicable language minority group(s... (Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Vietnamese), Spanish heritage. Merced County Spanish heritage Monterey County...

  4. The roles of 4f- and 5f-orbitals in bonding: a magnetochemical, crystal field, density functional theory, and multi-reference wavefunction study

    DOE PAGES

    Lukens, W. W.; Speldrich, M.; Yang, P.; ...

    2016-01-01

    The electronic structures of 4f 3/5f 3Cp′′ 3M and Cp′′ 3M·alkylisocyanide complexes, where Cp′′ is 1,3-bis-(trimethylsilyl)cyclopentadienyl, are explored with a focus on the splitting of the f-orbitals, which provides information about the strengths of the metal–ligand interactions.

  5. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 55 - Jurisdictions Covered Under Sections 4(f)(4) and 203(c) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)(4) and 203(c) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as Amended [Applicable language minority group(s... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Pt. 55, App. Appendix to Part 55... language minority group(s)] Jurisdiction Coverage under sec. 4(f)(4) 1 Coverage under sec. 203(c) 2 1...

  6. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 55 - Jurisdictions Covered Under Sections 4(f)(4) and 203(c) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)(4) and 203(c) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as Amended [Applicable language minority group(s... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Pt. 55, App. Appendix to Part 55... language minority group(s)] Jurisdiction Coverage under sec. 4(f)(4) 1 Coverage under sec. 203(c) 2 1...

  7. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 55 - Jurisdictions Covered Under Sections 4(f)(4) and 203(c) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(4) and 203(c) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, as Amended [Applicable language minority group(s... PROVISIONS OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Pt. 55, App. Appendix to Part 55... language minority group(s)] Jurisdiction Coverage under sec. 4(f)(4) 1 Coverage under sec. 203(c) 2 1...

  8. Synthesis of carbon-coated Na2MnPO4F hollow spheres as a potential cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ling; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Jiequn; Zhu, Xing; Zhong, Shengkui

    2018-01-01

    Hollow sphere structure Na2MnPO4F/C composite is synthesized through spray drying, following in-situ pyrolytic carbon coating process. XRD results indicate that the well crystallized composite can be successfully synthesized, and no other impurity phases are detected. SEM and TEM results reveal that the Na2MnPO4F/C samples show intact hollow spherical architecture, and the hollow spherical shells with an average thickness of 150 nm-250 nm are composed of nanosized primary particles. Furthermore, the amorphous carbon layer is uniformly coated on the surface of the hollow sphere, and the nanosized Na2MnPO4F particles are well embedded in the carbon networks. Consequently, the hollow sphere structure Na2MnPO4F/C shows enhanced electrochemical performance. Especially, it is the first time that the obvious potential platforms (∼3.6 V) are observed during the charge and discharge process at room temperature.

  9. Interactions of y+LAT1 and 4F2hc in the y+l amino acid transporter complex: consequences of lysinuric protein intolerance-causing mutations.

    PubMed

    Toivonen, Minna; Tringham, Maaria; Kurko, Johanna; Terho, Perttu; Simell, Olli; Heiskanen, Kaisa M; Mykkänen, Juha

    2013-12-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inherited aminoaciduria caused by recessive mutations in the SLC7A7 gene encoding y+L amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), which combines with 4F2hc to generate an active transporter responsible for the system y+L amino acid transport. We have previously shown that the y+LAT1 proteins with point mutations are expressed in the plasma membrane, while those with frameshift mutations are retained in the cytoplasm. This finding has prompted us to study whether the difference in localization is due to the inability of the structurally altered mutant y+LAT1 proteins to heteromerize with 4F2hc. For this purpose, we utilized FACS technique to reveal fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in cells expressing wild type or LPI-mutant CFP-tagged y+LAT1 and YFP-tagged 4F2hc. The heteromerization of y+LAT1 and 4F2hc within the cell is not disrupted by any of the tested LPI mutations. In addition, the expression rate of the LPI mutant y+LAT1 proteins was significantly lower and cellular mortality was markedly increased than that of the wild type y+LAT1 in transfected samples. Our results indicate that the FACS-FRET method provides an alternative approach for screening of potential protein associations.

  10. Dodecanuclear 3d/4f-metal clusters with a 'Star of David' topology: single-molecule magnetism and magnetocaloric properties.

    PubMed

    Alexandropoulos, Dimitris I; Cunha-Silva, Luís; Lorusso, Giulia; Evangelisti, Marco; Tang, Jinkui; Stamatatos, Theocharis C

    2016-01-28

    A family of interwoven molecular inorganic knots, shaped like the 'Star of David', was prepared by the employment of naphthalene-2,3-diol in 3d/4f-metal cluster chemistry; the isoskeletal dodecanuclear compounds exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization and magnetocaloric properties, depending on the metal ion.

  11. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  12. A Green Route to a Na2FePO4F-Based Cathode for Sodium Ion Batteries of High Rate and Long Cycling Life.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiang; Shi, Wenxiang; Sunarso, Jaka; Liu, Meilin; Shao, Zongping

    2017-05-17

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) are considered one of the most promising alternatives for large-scale energy storage due largely to the abundance and low cost of sodium. However, the lack of high-performance cathode materials at low cost represents a major obstacle toward broad commercialization of SIB technology. In this work, we report a green route strategy that allows cost-effective fabrication of carbon-coated Na 2 FePO 4 F cathode for SIBs. By using vitamin C as a green organic carbon source and environmentally friendly water-based polyacrylic latex as the binder, we have demonstrated that the Na 2 FePO 4 F phase in the as-derived Na 2 FePO 4 F/C electrode shows a high reversible capacity of 117 mAh g -1 at a cycling rate of 0.1 C. More attractively, excellent rate capability is achieved while retaining outstanding cycling stability (∼85% capacity retention after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a rate of 4 C). Further, in operando X-ray diffraction has been used to probe the evolution of phase structures during the charge-discharge process, confirming the structural robustness of the Na 2 FePO 4 F/C cathode (even when charged to 4.5 V). Accordingly, the poor initial Coulombic efficiency of some anode materials may be compensated by extracting more sodium ions from Na 2 FePO 4 F/C cathode at higher potentials (up to 4.5 V).

  13. Synthesis and characterization of the crystal structure and magnetic properties of the new fluorophosphate LiNaCo[PO4]F.

    PubMed

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Shikano, Masahiro; Koike, Shinji; Tatsumi, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Avdeev, Maxim; Miiller, Wojciech; Ling, Chris D; Liu, Jia; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2012-08-20

    The new compound LiNaCo[PO(4)]F was synthesized by a solid state reaction route, and its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. The magnetic properties of LiNaCo[PO(4)]F were characterized by magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron powder diffraction measurements and also by density functional calculations. LiNaCo[PO(4)]F crystallizes with orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pnma, with a = 10.9334(6), b = 6.2934(11), c = 11.3556(10) Å, and Z = 8. The structure consists of edge-sharing CoO(4)F(2) octahedra forming CoFO(3) chains running along the b axis. These chains are interlinked by PO(4) tetrahedra forming a three-dimensional framework with the tunnels and the cavities filled by the well-ordered sodium and lithium atoms, respectively. The magnetic susceptibility follows the Curie-Weiss behavior above 60 K with θ = -21 K. The specific heat and magnetization measurements show that LiNaCo[PO(4)]F undergoes a three-dimensional magnetic ordering at T(mag) = 10.2(5) K. The neutron powder diffraction measurements at 3 K show that the spins in each CoFO(3) chain along the b-direction are ferromagnetically coupled, while these FM chains are antiferromagnetically coupled along the a-direction but have a noncollinear arrangement along the c-direction. The noncollinear spin arrangement implies the presence of spin conflict along the c-direction. The observed magnetic structures are well explained by the spin exchange constants determined from density functional calculations.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of the crystal structure, the magnetic and the electrochemical properties of the new fluorophosphate LiNaFe[PO4]F.

    PubMed

    Ben Yahia, Hamdi; Shikano, Masahiro; Sakaebe, Hikari; Koike, Shinji; Tabuchi, Mitsuharu; Kobayashi, Hironori; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Avdeev, Maxim; Miiller, Wojciech; Ling, Christopher D

    2012-10-14

    The new compound LiNaFe[PO(4)]F was synthesized by a solid state reaction route, and its crystal structure was determined using neutron powder diffraction data. LiNaFe[PO(4)]F was characterized by (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat capacity, and electrochemical measurements. LiNaFe[PO(4)]F crystallizes with orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pnma, with a = 10.9568(6) Å, b = 6.3959(3) Å, c = 11.4400(7) Å, V = 801.7(1) Å(3) and Z = 8. The structure consists of edge-sharing FeO(4)F(2) octahedra forming FeFO(3) chains running along the b axis. These chains are interlinked by PO(4) tetrahedra forming a three-dimensional framework with the tunnels and the cavities filled by the well-ordered sodium and lithium atoms, respectively. The specific heat and magnetization measurements show that LiNaFe[PO(4)]F undergoes a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic ordering at T(N) = 20 K. The neutron powder diffraction measurements at 3 K show that each FeFO(3) chain along the b-direction is ferromagnetic (FM), while these FM chains are antiferromagnetically coupled along the a and c-directions with a non-collinear spin arrangement. The galvanometric cycling showed that without any optimization, one mole of alkali metal is extractable between 1.0 V and 5.0 V vs. Li(+)/Li with a discharge capacity between 135 and 145 mAh g(-1).

  15. Effects of feedstock availability on the negative ion behavior in a C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Research group PLASMANT, Dept. Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp; Gao, Fei

    2015-07-21

    In this paper, the negative ion behavior in a C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is investigated using a hybrid model. The model predicts a non-monotonic variation of the total negative ion density with power at low pressure (10–30 mTorr), and this trend agrees well with experiments that were carried out in many fluorocarbon (fc) ICP sources, like C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, CHF{sub 3}, and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}. This behavior is explained by the availability of feedstock C{sub 4}F{sub 8} gas as a source of the negative ions, as well as by the presence of low energy electrons due tomore » vibrational excitation at low power. The maximum of the negative ion density shifts to low power values upon decreasing pressure, because of the more pronounced depletion of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} molecules, and at high pressure (∼50 mTorr), the anion density continuously increases with power, which is similar to fc CCP sources. Furthermore, the negative ion composition is identified in this paper. Our work demonstrates that for a clear understanding of the negative ion behavior in radio frequency C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma sources, one needs to take into account many factors, like the attachment characteristics, the anion composition, the spatial profiles, and the reactor configuration. Finally, a detailed comparison of our simulation results with experiments is conducted.« less

  16. Core-Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015 (N+1), 2020 (N+2), and 2025 (N+3) timeframes; SFW strategic thrusts and technical challenges; SFW advanced subsystems that are broadly applicable to N+3 vehicle concepts, with an indication where further noise research is needed; the components of core noise (compressor, combustor and turbine noise) and a rationale for NASA's current emphasis on the combustor-noise component; the increase in the relative importance of core noise due to turbofan design trends; the need to understand and mitigate core-noise sources for high-efficiency small gas generators; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about forthcoming updates to NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) core-noise prediction capabilities, two NRA efforts (Honeywell International, Phoenix, AZ and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, respectively) to improve the understanding of core-noise sources and noise propagation through the engine core, and an effort to develop oxide/oxide ceramic-matrix-composite (CMC) liners for broadband noise attenuation suitable for turbofan-core application. Core noise must be addressed to ensure that the N+3 noise goals are met. Focused, but long-term, core-noise research is carried out to enable the advanced high-efficiency small gas-generator subsystem, common to several N+3 conceptual designs, needed to meet NASA's technical challenges. Intermediate updates to prediction tools are implemented as the understanding of the source structure and engine-internal propagation effects is improved. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The

  17. Comparison of LiVPO4F to Li4Ti5O12 as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Shao, Lianyi; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Wang, Dongjie; Pan, Jianguo; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong; Shu, Jie

    2013-09-11

    In this paper, we reported on a comparison of LiVPO4F to Li4Ti5O12 as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Combined with powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, galvanostatic discharge/charge tests and in situ X-ray diffraction technologies, we explore and compare the insertion/extraction mechanisms of LiVPO4F based on the V3+/V2+/V+ redox couples and Li4Ti5O12 based on the Ti4+/Ti3+ redox couple cycled in 1.0-3.0 V and 0.0-3.0 V. The electrochemical results indicate that both LiVPO4F and Li4Ti5O12 are solid electrolyte interphase free materials in 1.0-3.0 V. The insertion/extraction mechanisms of LiVPO4F and Li4Ti5O12 are similar with each other in 1.0-3.0 V as proved by in situ X-ray diffraction. It also demonstrates that both samples possess stable structure in 0.0-3.0 V. Additionally, the electrochemical performance tests of LiVPO4F and Li4Ti5O12 indicate that both samples cycled in 0.0-3.0 V exhibit much higher capacities than those cycled in 1.0-3.0 V but display worse cycle performance. The rate performance of Li4Ti5O12 far exceeds that of LiVPO4F in the same electrochemical potential window. In particular, the capacity retention of Li4Ti5O12 cycled in 1.0-3.0 V is as high as 98.2% after 20 cycles. By contrast, Li4Ti5O12 is expected to be a candidate anode material considering its high working potential, structural zero-strain property, and excellent cycle stability and rate performance.

  18. The Common Core Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states…

  19. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  20. Self-assembled 3D architectures of Bi2TiO4F2 as a new durable visible-light photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Ya; Wu, Ling; Li, Hexing; Zhang, Dieqing; Li, Guisheng

    2012-01-01

    A new hierarchical visible-light-driven photocatalyst Bi2TiO4F2 was synthesized by a solvothermal method for the first time. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption (BET), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Such hierarchical Bi2TiO4F2 microspheres assembled by nanosheets were fabricated via an Ostwald ripening process in the absence of soft templates (surfactants). The as-prepared samples' bimodal pore-size distributions in the mesoporous region consisted of smaller intra-aggregated pores with peak pore diameter of ca. 4.6 nm and larger inter-aggregated pores with peak pore diameter of ca. 17.0 nm. The band gap of the obtained Bi2TiO4F2 was estimated to be about 2.71-3.06 eV for various solvothermal treatment time. Owing to the hierarchical structure with bimodal pores, low band gaps and high crystallinity, the Bi2TiO4F2 microspheres exhibited high photocatalytic performance and durability for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light (> 420 nm). It was proved that the photo-generated holes and &z.rad;OH radicals played an essential role for the oxidation of RhB.A new hierarchical visible-light-driven photocatalyst Bi2TiO4F2 was synthesized by a solvothermal method for the first time. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption (BET), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Such hierarchical Bi2TiO4F2 microspheres assembled by nanosheets were fabricated via an Ostwald ripening process in the absence of soft templates (surfactants). The as-prepared samples' bimodal pore-size distributions in the mesoporous region consisted of smaller intra-aggregated pores with peak pore diameter of ca. 4.6 nm and larger inter-aggregated pores with peak pore

  1. Facile synthesis of TiO2 nanocrystals using NH4F as morphology-controlling agent and its influences on photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xin; He, Meng; He, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Controllable synthesis of nanomaterials with different morphologies can significantly affect their properties. Here we report that the morphology and facet orientation of TiO2 nanocrystals can be readily modulated via a hydrothermal method using a simple morphology-controlling agent of NH4F. The photocatalytic activity of resultant TiO2 has been evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange. The results indicate that the introduction of NH4F can be used to modulate the mophology and, thereby, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The obtained TiO2 with high-energy facet, small size, and large surface area can exhibit an improved photocatalytic efficiency, which may be promising for real application.

  2. Recycling of aromatic amino acids via TAT1 allows efflux of neutral amino acids via LAT2-4F2hc exchanger.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Tamara; Camargo, Simone M R; Herzog, Brigitte; Bordin, Mauro; Pos, Klaas M; Verrey, Francois

    2007-06-01

    The rate of amino acid efflux from individual cells needs to be adapted to cellular demands and plays a central role for the control of extracellular amino acid homeostasis. A particular example of such an outward amino acid transport is the basolateral efflux from transporting epithelial cells located in the small intestine and kidney proximal tubule. Because LAT2-4F2hc (Slc7a8-Slc3a2), the best known basolateral neutral amino acid transporter of these epithelial cells, functions as an obligatory exchanger, we tested whether TAT1 (Slc16a10), the aromatic amino-acid facilitated diffusion transporter, might allow amino acid efflux via this exchanger by recycling its influx substrates. In this study, we show by immunofluorescence that TAT1 and LAT2 indeed colocalize in the early kidney proximal tubule. Using the Xenopus laevis oocytes expression system, we show that L-glutamine is released from oocytes into an amino-acid-free medium only when both transporters are coexpressed. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis reveals that several other neutral amino acids are released as well. The transport function of both TAT1 and LAT2-4F2hc is necessary for this efflux, as coexpression of functionally inactive but surface-expressed mutants is ineffective. Based on negative results of coimmunoprecipitation and crosslinking experiments, the physical interaction of these transporters does not appear to be required. Furthermore, replacement of TAT1 or LAT2-4F2hc by the facilitated diffusion transporter LAT4 or the obligatory exchanger LAT1, respectively, supports similar functional cooperation. Taken together, the results suggest that the aromatic amino acid diffusion pathway TAT1 can control neutral amino acid efflux via neighboring exchanger LAT2-4F2hc, by recycling its aromatic influx substrates.

  3. Fluorocarbon assisted atomic layer etching of SiO 2 and Si using cyclic Ar/C 4F 8 and Ar/CHF 3 plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Metzler, Dominik; Li, Chen; Engelmann, Sebastian; ...

    2015-11-11

    The need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing as smaller critical dimensions and pitches are required in device patterning. A flux-control based cyclic Ar/C 4F 8 ALE based on steady-state Ar plasma in conjunction with periodic, precise C 4F 8 injection and synchronized plasma-based low energy Ar + ion bombardment has been established for SiO 2. 1 In this work, the cyclic process is further characterized and extended to ALE of silicon under similar process conditions. The use of CHF 3 as a precursor is examined and compared to C 4F 8. CHF 3 is shown to enablemore » selective SiO 2/Si etching using a fluorocarbon (FC) film build up. Other critical process parameters investigated are the FC film thickness deposited per cycle, the ion energy, and the etch step length. Etching behavior and mechanisms are studied using in situ real time ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Silicon ALE shows less self-limitation than silicon oxide due to higher physical sputtering rates for the maximum ion energies used in this work, ranged from 20 to 30 eV. The surface chemistry is found to contain fluorinated silicon oxide during the etching of silicon. As a result, plasma parameters during ALE are studied using a Langmuir probe and establish the impact of precursor addition on plasma properties.« less

  4. Inhibition of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by the anti-CD82 monoclonal antibody 4F9 through regulation of lipid raft microdomains

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Sayaka; Iwata, Satoshi; Hatano, Ryo

    2016-05-20

    CD82 (also known as KAI1) belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily of type III transmembrane proteins, and is involved in regulating cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. In contrast to these well-established roles of CD82 in tumor biology, its function in endothelial cell (EC) activity and tumor angiogenesis is yet to be determined. In this study, we show that suppression of CD82 negatively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 effectively inhibits phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which is the principal mediator of the VEGF-induced angiogenic signaling process in tumor angiogenesis, by regulatingmore » the organization of the lipid raft microdomain signaling platform in human EC. Our present work therefore suggests that CD82 on EC is a potential target for anti-angiogenic therapy in VEGFR2-dependent tumor angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Knockdown of CD82 decreases EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •Anti-CD82 mAb 4F9 inhibits EC migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. •4F9 inhibits VEGFR2 phosphorylation via control of CD82 distribution in lipid rafts.« less

  5. Synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties of LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F fluoride-phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, Stanislav S.; Kuzovchikov, Sergey M.; Khasanova, Nellie R.; Drozhzhin, Oleg A.; Filimonov, Dmitriy S.; Karakulina, Olesia M.; Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M.; Antipov, Evgeny V.

    2016-10-01

    LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F fluoride-phosphate was synthesized via conventional solid-state and novel freeze-drying routes. The crystal structure was refined based on neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and validated by electron diffraction (ED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The alkali ions are ordered in LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F and the transition metals jointly occupy the same crystallographic sites. The oxidation state and oxygen coordination environment of the Fe atoms were verified by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Electrochemical tests of the LiNaCo0.5Fe0.5PO4F cathode material demonstrated a reversible activity of the Fe3+/Fe2+ redox couple at the electrode potential near 3.4 V and minor activity of the Co3+/Co2+ redox couple over 5 V vs Li/Li+. The material exhibited the discharge capacity of more than 82% (theo.) regarding Fe3+/Fe2+ in the 2.4÷4.6 V vs Li/Li+ potential range.

  6. High resolution photoabsorption spectrum of hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene (1,3-C4F6) as studied by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D.; Vasekova, E.; Drage, E.; Mason, N. J.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter we present a high resolution VUV photoabsorption spectrum of hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene (1,3-C4F6), over the wavelength range 113-247 nm (11.0-5.0 eV). The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. The assignment of the observed valence and Rydberg transitions and the associated vibronic series is presented based on our recent ab initio calculations on the vertical excitation energies of C4F6 isomers. The dominant excitation has been assigned to the υ1'(a) Cdbnd C stretching mode in the (51A ← 11A, 3pa ← πa(20a)) and (71A ← 11A, 3pb ← πb(19b)) transitions, with mean energies of 0.201 and 0.188 eV, respectively. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross section has been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of 1,3-C4F6 in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km).

  7. Dielectric and infrared properties of SrTiO3 single crystal doped by 3d (V, Mn, Fe, Ni) and 4f (Nd, Sm, Er) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletic, S.; Maletic, D.; Petronijevic, I.; Dojcilovic, J.; M. Popovic, D.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the effects of doping by 3d (V, Mn, Fe, Ni) and 4f (Nd, Sm, Er) ions on dielectric and infrared properties of SrTiO3 (STO) single crystals are investigated. It is well known that doping of the SrTiO3 can change the dielectric properties of the STO from an insulator to an n-type semiconductor, and even to a metallic conductor. Dielectric and infrared (IR) properties of the undoped STO and doped STO single crystals are analyzed using dielectric spectroscopy (80 kHz-5 MHz), transmission (200 cm-1-4000 cm-1), and reflection spectroscopy (50 cm-1-2000 cm-1). It is found that doping by the 3d ions reduces the value of dielectric permittivity, but the trend of temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity remains almost unchanged. On the other hand, dielectric spectroscopy measurements for samples doped by 4f ions show the anomalous behaviors of the dielectric permittivity at temperatures around the temperature of the structural phase transition. There are two fractures of temperature dependences of inverse dielectric permittivity ɛr-1(T). Transmittance spectroscopy measurements show that there are differences in the shape of the spectrum in the mid-IR region between the undoped STO and the one doped by 4f ions. The differences in the reflectance spectrum between the STO:Nd and STO are analyzed in detail.

  8. Effect of the chamber wall on fluorocarbon-assisted atomic layer etching of SiO2 using cyclic Ar/C4F8 plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Masatoshi; Metzler, Dominik; Li, Chen; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of the temperature and chemical state of the chamber wall on process performance for atomic layer etching of SiO2 using a steady-state Ar plasma, periodic injection of a defined number of C4F8 molecules, and synchronized plasma-based Ar+ ion bombardment. To evaluate these effects, the authors measured the quartz coupling window temperature. The plasma gas phase chemistry was characterized using optical emission spectroscopy. It was found that although the thickness of the polymer film deposited in each cycle is constant, the etching behavior changed, which is likely related to a change in the plasma gas phase chemistry. The authors found that the main gas phase changes occur after C4F8 injection. The C4F8 and the quartz window react and generate SiF and CO. The emission intensity changes with wall surface state and temperature. Therefore, changes in the plasma gas species generation can lead to a shift in etching performance during processing. During initial cycles, minimal etching is observed, while etching gradually increases with cycle number. PMID:27375342

  9. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  10. High-pressure synthesis and characterization of the first cerium fluoride borate CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F

    SciTech Connect

    Hinteregger, Ernst; Wurst, Klaus; Tribus, Martina

    2013-08-15

    CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F is the first cerium fluoride borate, which is exclusively built up of one-dimensional, infinite chains of condensed trigonal-planar [BO{sub 3}]{sup 3−} groups. This new cerium fluoride borate was synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 0.9 GPa and 1450 °C in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca (No. 61) with eight formula units and the lattice parameters a=821.63(5), b=1257.50(9), c=726.71(6) pm, V=750.84(9) Å{sup 3}, R{sub 1}=0.0698, and wR{sub 2}=0.0682 (all data). The structure exhibits a 9+1 coordinated cerium ion, one three-fold coordinated fluoride ion and a one-dimensional chain of [BO{sub 3}]{sup 3−}more » groups. Furthermore, IR spectroscopy, Electron Micro Probe Analysis and temperature-dependent X-ray powder diffraction measurements were performed. - Graphical abstract: A new rare-earth fluoride borate CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F could be synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 0.9 °GPa and 1450 °Cin a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The crystal structure represents a new structure type in the class of rare-earth fluoride borates. The structure exhibits a 9+1 coordinated cerium ion, one three-fold coordinated fluoride ion and a one-dimensional chain of [BO{sub 3}]{sup 3−} groups. A closer view on the ac-plane shows an interesting wave-like modulation of the borate chains. Highlights: • CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F is the first fluoride borate exclusively built up of one-dimensional, infinite chains of condensed trigonal-planar [BO{sub 3}]{sup 3−} groups. • CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F is the first cerium fluoride borate. • High-pressure conditions were necessary to synthesize CeB{sub 2}O{sub 4}F.« less

  11. Order–disorder phase transition in the antiperovskite-type structure of synthetic kogarkoite, Na{sub 3}SO{sub 4}F

    SciTech Connect

    Avdontceva, Margarita S.; Zolotarev, Andrey A.; Krivovichev, Sergey V., E-mail: s.krivovichev@spbu.ru

    2015-11-15

    High-temperature phase transition of synthetic kogarkoite, Na{sub 3}SO{sub 4}F, has been studied by high-temperature X-ray powder and single-crystal diffraction. The temperature of the phase transition can be estimated as 112.5±12.5 °C. The low-temperature phase, α-Na{sub 3}SO{sub 4}F, at 293 K, is monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/m, a=18.065(3), b=6.958(1), c=11.446(1) Å, β=107.711(1)°, Z=12. The structure contains thirteen symmetrically independent Na sites with coordination numbers varying from 6 to 8, and six independent S sites. The high-temperature β-phase at 423 K is rhombohedral, R-3m, a=6.94(1), c=24.58(4) Å, Z=9. The crystal structure of both polymorphs of Na{sub 3}SO{sub 4}F can be described as a 9Rmore » antiperovskite polytype based upon triplets of face-sharing [FNa{sub 6}] octahedra linked into a three-dimensional framework by sharing corners. In the α-modification, the SO{sub 4} tetrahedra are completely ordered and located in the framework cavities. In the β-modification, there are only two symmetrically independent Na atoms in the structure. The main difference between the structures of the α- and β-phases is the degree of ordering of the SO{sub 4} tetrahedra: in the α-modification, they are completely ordered, whereas, in the β-modification, the complete disorder is observed, which is manifested in a number of low-occupied O sites around fully occupied S sites. The phase transition is therefore has an order–disorder character and is associated with the decrease of structural complexity measured as an information content per unit cell [577.528 bits for the low- (α) and 154.830 bits for the high- (β) temperature modifications]. - Graphical abstract: High-temperature phase transition of synthetic kogarkoite, Na{sub 3}SO{sub 4}F, revealed the existence of the monoclinic-to-rhombohedral phase transition at 112.5±12.5 °C. The phase transition has an order–disorder character and is associated with the decrease of structural complexity

  12. Sea-level and provenance controlled clay mineral assemblage since the last 19 ka in the southern South China Sea: records of Core MD05-2894 off the Sunda Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Liu, Z.; Colin, C.; Sathiamurthy, E.; Hantoro, W. S.; Zhao, Y.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution clay mineral assemblage at Core MD05-2894 (7°2.25'N, 111°33.11'E, water depth 1982 m) in the southern South China Sea is used to investigate the provenance and transport process of fine-grained sediments since the last 19 ka. In order to perform the source analysis, clay minerals in surface sediments of various potential source areas are also analyzed, including the Mekong River, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Sunda Shelf. Clay mineralogical results at Core MD05-2894 indicate the sea level rise as the principal factor to drive provenance changes. During the late glacial stage, the Sunda Shelf was exposed. High values of smectite (average 32%) and kaolinite (27%) at the core suggest a large contribution of fine-grained sediments transported by the potential Sunda paleo-drainage system from Malaysia Peninsula and Sumatra, where kaolinite and smectite are rich. During the deglaciation when the sea level rises, illite and chlorite contents increased with a similar pattern, whereas kaolinite and smectite contents decreased, suggesting more sediment contribution from the Mekong River and Northwest Borneo. During the Holocene, variations in four clay mineral contents keep relatively stable with more illite and chlorite contents than those of the deglaciation and last glacial stage, indicating a mixture of various provenances.

  13. Atomic-level Pd-Pt alloying and largely enhanced hydrogen-storage capacity in bimetallic nanoparticles reconstructed from core/shell structure by a process of hydrogen absorption/desorption.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yamauchi, Miho; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki

    2010-04-28

    We have achieved the creation of a solid-solution alloy where Pd and Pt are homogeneously mixed at the atomic level, by a process of hydrogen absorption/desorption as a trigger for core (Pd)/shell (Pt) nanoparticles. The structural change from core/shell to solid solution has been confirmed by in situ powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectra, solid-state (2)H NMR measurement, and hydrogen pressure-composition isotherms. The successfully obtained Pd-Pt solid-solution nanoparticles with a Pt content of 8-21 atom % had a higher hydrogen-storage capacity than Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, the hydrogen-storage capacity of Pd-Pt solid-solution nanoparticles can be tuned by changing the composition of Pd and Pt.

  14. Performance and advantages of a soft-core based parallel architecture for energy peak detection in the calorimeter Level 0 trigger for the NA62 experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Barbanera, M.; Bizzarri, M.; Bonaiuto, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Checcucci, B.; De Simone, N.; Fantechi, R.; Federici, L.; Fucci, A.; Lupi, M.; Paoluzzi, G.; Papi, A.; Piccini, M.; Ryjov, V.; Salamon, A.; Salina, G.; Sargeni, F.; Venditti, S.

    2017-03-01

    The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS has started its data-taking. Its aim is to measure the branching ratio of the ultra-rare decay K+ → π+ν ν̅ . In this context, rejecting the background is a crucial topic. One of the main background to the measurement is represented by the K+ → π+π0 decay. In the 1-8.5 mrad decay region this background is rejected by the calorimetric trigger processor (Cal-L0). In this work we present the performance of a soft-core based parallel architecture built on FPGAs for the energy peak reconstruction as an alternative to an implementation completely founded on VHDL language.

  15. Mercury levels in sediments of central Mediterranean Sea: a 150+ year record from box-cores recovered in the Strait of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tranchida, Giorgio; Bellanca, Adriana; Neri, Rodolfo; Angelone, Massimo; Mazzola, Salvo

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the degree of anthropogenic mercury pollution, Hg contents have been measured for box-core sediments sampled along three nearshore-offshore transects in the Strait of Sicily and well constrained for their mineralogy, bulk geochemistry and TOC%. Hg values are generally low (from 15 to 70 microg kg(-1)); however, depth profiles clearly display upcore rising concentrations (up to 202 microg kg(-1) near the SE Sicily coast) that are attributed to anthropogenic load. Based on (210)Pb chronology, these trends are more dramatic across the last 20-30 years. Geogenic influence is thought to explain some anomalies related to volcanic emission and geothermal activity. Combined effects due to eastward flowing of the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW) and sea bottom morphology drove major anthropogenic accumulation.

  16. Core-shell H-ZSM-5/silicalite-1 composites: Brønsted acidity and catalyst deactivation at the individual particle level.

    PubMed

    Mores, Davide; Stavitski, Eli; Verkleij, Suzanna P; Lombard, Antoinette; Cabiac, Amandine; Rouleau, Loïc; Patarin, Joël; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2011-09-21

    A combination of in situ UV-Vis and confocal fluorescence micro-spectroscopy is applied to investigate the influence of an external silicalite-1 shell on the Brønsted acidity and coke formation process of individual H-ZSM-5 zeolite crystals. Three probe reactions were used: oligomerization of styrene, methanol-to-olefin (MTO) conversion and aromatization of light naphtha (LNA) derivatives. Oligomerization of styrene leads to the formation of optically active carbocationic oligomers. Different styrene substitutions indicate the conversion ability of the catalyst acid core, a preferred alignment of the oligomers within the straight zeolite channels and a Brønsted acidity gradient throughout the zeolite crystal. Both the MTO conversion and the LNA process lead to limited carbonaceous deposition within the external silicalite-1 layer. This outer shell furthermore prevents the growth of extended coke species at the zeolite external surface. During MTO, the formation of carbonaceous compounds initiates at the center of the H-ZSM-5 zeolite core and expands towards the zeolite exterior. This coke build-up starts with a 420 nm UV-Vis absorption band, assigned to methyl-substituted aromatic carbocations, and a second band around 550 nm, which is indicative of their growth towards larger conjugated systems. Aromatization of linear and branched C5 paraffins causes negligible darkening of the zeolite crystals though it forms fluorescent coke deposits and their precursors within the H-ZSM-5 catalyst. Olefin homologues on the contrary cause pronounced darkening of the zeolite composite. Methyl-branching of these reactants slows down the coke formation rate and produces carbonaceous species that are more restricted in their molecular size.

  17. Effects of additive C{sub 4}F{sub 8} during inductively coupled BCl{sub 3}/C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar plasma etching of TaN and HfO{sub 2} for gate stack patterning

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, J. H.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, M. S.

    2007-07-15

    In this work, the authors investigated the etching characteristics of TaN and HfO{sub 2} layers for gate stack patterning in BCl{sub 3}/Ar and BCl{sub 3}/C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/Ar inductively coupled plasmas and the effects of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} addition on the etch selectivity of the TaN to the HfO{sub 2} layer. Addition of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} gas to the BCl{sub 3}/Ar chemistry improved the TaN/HfO{sub 2} etch selectivity because adding the C{sub 4}F{sub 8} gas enhances the formation of the CF{sub x}Cl{sub y} passivation layer on HfO{sub 2} surface and decreased the HfO{sub 2} etch rate more rapidly than the TaNmore » etch rate in a disproportionate way. Reduction in the etch time for HfO{sub 2} layer also increases the TaN/HfO{sub 2} etch selectivity because the etch time gets closer to the initiation time for HfO{sub 2} etching.« less

  18. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-05-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples (Ivy et al., 2012). The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14,C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 andC6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude for C5F12. The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those estimated in this study. In addition, we present measured infrared absorption spectra for C7F16 and C8

  19. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-08-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples. The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement-based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude larger for C5F12 (with 2008 EDGARv4.2 estimates for C5F12 at 9.6 kg yr-1, as compared to 67±53 t yr-1 as derived in this study). The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those

  20. Impact of genetic factors (VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and EPHX1) on the anticoagulation response to fluindione

    PubMed Central

    Lacut, Karine; Ayme-Dietrich, Estelle; Gourhant, Lenaick; Poulhazan, Elise; Andro, Marion; Becquemont, Laurent; Mottier, Dominique; Le Gal, Gregoire; Verstuyft, Celine

    2012-01-01

    AIM Genetic variants of the enzyme that metabolizes warfarin, cytochrome P-450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and of a key pharmacologic target of vitamin K antagonists, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1), contribute to differences in patients' responses to coumarin derivatives. The role of these variants in fluindione response is unknown. Our aim was to assess whether genetic factors contribute to the variability in the response to fluindione. METHODS Four hundred sixty-five patients with a venous thromboembolic event treated by fluindione for at least 3 months with a target international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0 to 3.0 were studied. VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and EPHX1 genotypes were assessed. INR checks, fluindione doses and bleeding events were collected. RESULTS VKORC1 genotype had a significant impact on early anticoagulation (INR value ≥2 after the first two intakes) (P < 0.0001), on the time required to reach a first INR within the therapeutic range (P < 0.0001) and on the time to obtain a first INR value > 4 (P = 0.0002). The average daily dose of fluindione during the first period of stability was significantly associated with the VKORC1 genotype: 19.8 mg (±5.5) for VKORC1 CC, 14.7 mg (±6.2) for VKORC1 CT and 8.2 mg (±2.5) for VKORC1 TT (P < 0.0001). CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and EPHX1 genotypes did not significantly influence the response to fluindione. CONCLUSIONS VKORC1 genotype strongly affected anticoagulation induced by fluindione whereas CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and EPHX1 genotypes seemed less determining. PMID:21883387

  1. The apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, alleviates ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress and promotes endothelial repair through the eNOS/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Donghui; Ding, Zhenzhen; Wu, Mengzhang; Xu, Wenqi; Qian, Mingming; Du, Qian; Zhang, Le; Cui, Ye; Zheng, Jianlan; Chang, He; Huang, Caihua; Lin, Donghai; Wang, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide exerts many anti-atherogenic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms related to the endothelial protective effects remain elusive. In this study, the apoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, was used. Proliferation assay, wound healing, and transwell migration experiments showed that D-4F improved the impaired endothelial proliferation and migration resulting from ox-LDL. Endothelial adhesion molecules expression and monocyte adhesion assay demonstrated that D-4F inhibited endothelial inflammation. Caspase-3 activation and TUNEL stain indicated that D-4F reduced endothelial cell apoptosis. A pivotal anti-oxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated by D-4F. The Akt/AMPK/eNOS pathways were involved in the expression of HO-1 induced by D-4F. Moreover, the anti-oxidation, pro-proliferation, and pro-migration capacities of D-4F were diminished by the inhibitors of both eNOS (L-NAME) and HO-1 (Znpp). Additionally, downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) by siRNA abolished the activation of Akt, AMPK and eNOS, and reduced the upregulation of HO-1 triggered by D-4F. Furthermore, D-4F promoted the reendothelialization of injured intima in carotid artery injury model of C57BL/6J mice in vivo. In summary, these findings suggested that D-4F might be a powerful candidate in the protection of endothelial cells and the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Oral Apolipoprotein A‐I Mimetic D‐4F Lowers HDL‐Inflammatory Index in High‐Risk Patients: A First‐in‐Human Multiple‐Dose, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Movva, Rajesh; Bloedon, LeAnne T.; Duffy, Danielle; Norris, Robert B.; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A single dose of the apolipoprotein (apo)A‐I mimetic peptide D‐4F rendered high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) less inflammatory, motivating the first multiple‐dose study. We aimed to assess safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of daily, orally administered D‐4F. High‐risk coronary heart disease (CHD) subjects added double‐blinded placebo or D‐4F to statin for 13 days, randomly assigned 1:3 to ascending cohorts of 100, 300, then 500 mg (n = 62; 46 men/16 women). D‐4F was safe and well‐tolerated. Mean ± SD plasma D‐4F area under the curve (AUC, 0–8h) was 6.9 ± 5.7 ng/mL*h (100 mg), 22.7 ± 19.6 ng/mL*h (300 mg), and 104.0 ± 60.9 ng/mL*h (500 mg) among men, higher among women. Whereas placebo dropped HDL inflammatory index (HII) 28% 8 h postdose (range, 1.25–0.86), 300–500 mg D‐4F effectively halved HII: 1.35–0.57 and 1.22–0.63, respectively (P < 0.03 vs. placebo). Oral D‐4F peptide dose predicted HII suppression, whereas plasma D‐4F exposure was dissociated, suggesting plasma penetration is unnecessary. In conclusion, oral D‐4F dosing rendered HDL less inflammatory, affirming oral D‐4F as a potential therapy to improve HDL function. PMID:28795506

  3. Core Journal Lists: Classic Tool, New Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Robin A.; Jackson, Rose M.; Mullen, Laura Bowering

    2010-01-01

    Reviews the historical context of core journal lists, current uses in collection assessment, and existing methodologies for creating lists. Outlines two next generation core list projects developing new methodologies and integrating novel information/data sources to improve precision: a national-level core psychology list and the other a local…

  4. Skills core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Laura

    Constantly changing technology and increasing competition mean that private companies are aggressively seeking new employees with high levels of technological literacy, good judgment, and communication and team-building skills. Industry also needs workers educated in science, math, engineering, and technology. But which of these skills are most important? Researchers at Indian River Community College at Fort Pierce, Fla., will attempt to answer that question with an NSF grant of nearly $1 million.

  5. Geomagnetism of earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumentation, analytical methods, and research goals for understanding the behavior and source of geophysical magnetism are reviewed. Magsat, launched in 1979, collected global magnetometer data and identified the main terrestrial magnetic fields. The data has been treated by representing the curl-free field in terms of a scalar potential which is decomposed into a truncated series of spherical harmonics. Solutions to the Laplace equation then extend the field upward or downward from the measurement level through intervening spaces with no source. Further research is necessary on the interaction between harmonics of various spatial scales. Attempts are also being made to analytically model the main field and its secular variation at the core-mantle boundary. Work is also being done on characterizing the core structure, composition, thermodynamics, energetics, and formation, as well as designing a new Magsat or a tethered satellite to be flown on the Shuttle.

  6. Ground Penetrating Radar, Magnetic and Compositional Analysis of Sediment Cores and Surface Samples: The Relationships Between Lacustrine Sediments and Holocene Lake- Level and Climate Change at Deming Lake, Minnesota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, R.; Lascu, I.; Plank, C.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Lake is a small (<1 square km), deep (about 17m), meromictic kettle lake situated near the prairie- forest boundary, in Itasca State Park, MN. Because of the lake's location and morphology, the accumulated sediments comprise a high-resolution record of limnological and ecological changes in response to Holocene climate variations. We used a shore perpendicular transect of three cores (located in littoral, mid-slope, and profundal settings) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles to investigate Holocene lake-level variability at Deming. Cores were sampled continuously at a 1-2 cm resolution and sediment composition (in terms of percent organic matter, carbonate material, and minerogenic residue) was determined via loss on ignition (LOI). Isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) were used as proxies of magnetic mineral concentration and grain size. Four lithostratigraphic units were identified and correlated between cores based on these analyses. Changes in GPR facies corroborate the correlation between the two shallow cores. In order to inform our interpretation of down-core variations in magnetic properties and LOI values in terms of variations in lake depth, a suite of over 70 modern sediment samples were collected from the basin and analyzed. LOI compositional variability across the basin was high, with no clear trends related to depth or distance from shore. A sharp decrease in minerogenic content was observed at depths consistent with a predicted wave-base of 0.5 m, but aside from this trend it appears the steep slopes of much of the basin promote gravity driven slumping and mixing of sediments at depth. In the profundal sediments IRM values are routinely 5% higher than in the slope and littoral environments, while ARM/IRM ratios indicate an increase in magnetic grain size with water depth. We infer that an increase in coarse organic material in the shallow-water cores of Deming records a period of aridity

  7. Empirical Research on Ecological Development Level of Resource-based Industries-Base on the data of the Silk Road Economic Belt Core Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Yan, Min

    2017-11-01

    Industrial ecology is the epitome of sustainable development in industry level, is one effective gateway to realizing green transformation. On the basis of industrial ecology development, including resource efficiency and environmental efficiency of ecological evaluation index system, this paper evaluates the level of industrial ecology development of resource-based industries in Xinjiang using entropy method. Research shows that the overall ecological development level of resource-based industries has remained at continuous improved trend with slow improvement in resource efficiency, and relative faster improvement in environmental efficiency. With economic development entering into the period of new normal at the end of the “twelfth five year plan”, the resource efficiency of ecological development of resource-based industries demonstrated a downward trend. The overall level of industrial ecology also faced with certain fluctuations, various ecological development level of resource-based industries also presented a downward trend. To promote ecological development of resource-based industries in Xinjiang, countermeasures and suggestions are initiated.

  8. Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) levels in the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection in a large European cohort predominantly infected with genotypes A and D.

    PubMed

    Maasoumy, B; Wiegand, S B; Jaroszewicz, J; Bremer, B; Lehmann, P; Deterding, K; Taranta, A; Manns, M P; Wedemeyer, H; Glebe, D; Cornberg, M

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been suggested as an additional marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBcrAg combines the antigenic reactivity resulting from denatured hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV core antigen and an artificial core-related protein (p22cr). In Asian patients, high levels of HBcrAg have been suggested to be an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, while low levels could guide safe cessation of treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues. We here studied HBcrAg levels in different phases of HBV infection in a large European cohort predominantly infected with genotypes A and D: HBeAg-positive immune tolerance (n = 30), HBeAg-positive immune clearance (IC) (n = 60), HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH) (n = 50), HBeAg-negative inactive/quiescent carrier phase (c) (n = 109) and acute hepatitis B (n = 8). Median HBcrAg levels were high in the immune tolerance and immune clearance phases (8.41 and 8.11 log U/mL, respectively), lower in ENH subjects (4.82 log U/mL) but only 2.00 log U/mL in ENQ subjects. Correlation between HBcrAg and HBV DNA varied among the different phases of HBV infection, while HBcrAg moderately correlated with hepatitis B surface antigen in all phases. ENQ patients had HBcrAg levels <3 log U/mL in 79%, in contrast to only 12% in the ENH group. HBcrAg levels vary significantly during the different phases of HBV infection. HBcrAg may serve as valuable marker for virus replication and reflect the transcriptional activity of intrahepatic cccDNA. In HBeAg-negative patients, HBcrAg may help to distinguish between inactive carriers (ENQ) and those with active disease (ENH). Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution of the orbitals Dy-4f in the DyB2 compound using the LDA, PBE approximations, and the PBE0 hybrid functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasero Causil, Diego; Ortega López, César; Espitia Rico, Miguel

    2018-04-01

    Computational calculations of total energy based on density functional theory were used to investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the DyB2 compounds in the hexagonal structure. The calculations were carried out by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, employing the computational Wien2k package. The local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used for the electron-electron interactions. Additionally, we used the functional hybrid PBE0 for a better description the electronic and magnetic properties, because the DyB2 compound is a strongly-correlated system. We found that the calculated lattice constant agrees well with the values reported theoretically and experimentally. The density of states (DOS) calculation shows that the compound exhibits a metallic behavior and has magnetic properties, with a total magnetic moment of 5.47 μ0/cell determined mainly by the 4f states of the rare earth elements. The functional PBE0 shows a strong localization of the Dy-4f orbitals.

  10. Effects of disorder on the intrinsically hole-doped iron-based superconductor KC a2F e4A s4F2 by cobalt substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Junichi; Iimura, Soshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of cobalt substitution on the transport and electronic properties of the recently discovered iron-based superconductor KC a2F e4A s4F2 , with Tc=33 K , are reported. This material is an unusual superconductor showing intrinsic hole conduction (0.25 holes /F e2 + ). Upon doping of Co, the Tc of KC a2(Fe1-xC ox) 4A s4F2 gradually decreased, and bulk superconductivity disappeared when x ≥0.25 . Conversion of the primary carrier from p type to n type upon Co-doping was clearly confirmed by Hall measurements, and our results are consistent with the change in the calculated Fermi surface. Nevertheless, neither spin density wave (SDW) nor an orthorhombic phase, which are commonly observed for nondoped iron-based superconductors, was observed in the nondoped or electron-doped samples. The electron count in the 3 d orbitals and structural parameters were compared with those of other iron-based superconductors to show that the physical properties can be primarily ascribed to the effects of disorder.

  11. Magnetic ordering of hyperfine-coupled nuclear and 4f-electron moments in the clathrate compound Pr3Pd20Ge6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakami, O.; Namisashi, Y.; Abe, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Ano, G.; Akatsu, M.; Mitsumoto, K.; Nemoto, Y.; Takeda, N.; Goto, T.; Kitazawa, H.

    2014-09-01

    Complex ac susceptibility, χ =χ'-iχ'', measurements of the clathrate compound Pr3Pd20Ge6 were performed in static fields up to 10 mT for H ∥[001] and at temperatures down to 500 μK. Praseodymium (Pr) nuclear magnetic moments at the 8c site, where quadrupole moments of 4f electrons order at TQ1=250 mK, were found to order antiferromagnetically at 9 mK, as shown by a peak in χ' and a substantial increase in thermal relaxation time. The large enhancement factor (1+K8c) obtained by calculation of the hyperfine-enhanced nuclear susceptibility of Pr at the 8c site accounts for the high transition temperature of Pr nuclear magnetic moments and the large χ' below 30 mK. From analysis of the crystalline electric field and the mean-field approximation, we conclude that a χ peak at 77 mK can be ascribed to an antiferromagnetic ordering of magnetic moments of 4f electrons at the 4a site. We found that nuclear and f-electron moments order separately on two sublattices in this compound. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of χ' and χ'' between 30 and 60 mK are discussed in terms of dissipation phenomena.

  12. Investigation of the electronic structures of organolanthanide sandwich complex anions by photoelectron spectroscopy: 4f orbital contribution in the metal-ligand interaction.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Natsuki; Yada, Keizo; Masuda, Tomohide; Nakajo, Erika; Yabushita, Satoshi; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    The electronic structures of lanthanide (Ln) ions sandwiched between 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT), Ln(COT)2(-), have been investigated by anion photoelectron spectroscopy. Complexes of 12 Ln atoms were investigated (excluding promethium (Pm), europium (Eu), and ytterbium (Yb)). The 213 nm photoelectron (PE) spectra of Ln(COT)2(-) exhibit two peaks assignable to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO; e2u) and the next HOMO (HOMO-1; e2g) approximately at 2.6 and 3.6 eV, respectively, and their energy gap increases as the central metal atom progresses from lanthanum (La) to lutetium (Lu). Since lanthanide contraction shortens the distance between the Ln atom and the COT ligands, the widening energy gap represents the destabilization of the e2u orbital as well as the stabilization of the e2g orbital. Evidence for 4f orbital contribution in the metal-ligand interaction has been revealed by the Ln atom dependence in which the same e2u orbital symmetry enables an interaction between the 4f orbital of Ln atoms and the π orbital of COT.

  13. Uranium droplet core nuclear rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, Samim

    1991-01-01

    Uranium droplet nuclear rocket is conceptually designed to utilize the broad temperature range ofthe liquid phase of metallic uranium in droplet configuration which maximizes the energy transfer area per unit fuel volume. In a baseline system dissociated hydrogen at 100 bar is heated to 6000 K, providing 2000 second of Isp. Fission fragments and intense radian field enhance the dissociation of molecular hydrogen beyond the equilibrium thermodynamic level. Uranium droplets in the core are confined and separated by an axisymmetric vortex flow generated by high velocity tangential injection of hydrogen in the mid-core regions. Droplet uranium flow to the core is controlled and adjusted by a twin flow nozzle injection system.

  14. Now You See It, Now You Don't: Understanding High Conflict and High Ambiguity as Core Policy Dimensions through Field-Level Leaders' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialik, Gadi; Gibton, Dan; Dror, Yuval

    2018-01-01

    The study's target is to analyze how field-level coalition leaders, namely, the founding principals of Israeli specialized schools, perceive a "high-ambiguity and high-conflict" symbolic educational policy that apparently opposes the basic values that underlie the foundation of specialized schools. Based on an analysis of qualitative…

  15. The C 1s core level spectroscopy of carbon atoms at the surface SiC/Si(111)-4° layer and Cs/SiC/Si(111)-4° interface

    SciTech Connect

    Benemanskaya, G. V., E-mail: Galina.Benemanskaya@mail.ioffe.ru; Dementev, P. A.; Kukushkin, S. A.

    2016-10-15

    Photoemission studies of the electronic structure of the Cs/nano-SiC/Si(111)-4° nanointerface are for the first time carried out with the use of synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range 120–450 eV. The in situ experiments are conducted in the case of submonolayer Cs coating of the surface of an epitaxial SiC layer grown on the vicinal surface Si(111)-4° by a new method of substrate-atom substitution. Modification of the valence-band spectra and the C 1s and Si 2p core levels is studied. The appearance of Cs-induced surface states, with binding energies of 1.2 and 7.4 eV, and a sharp change in themore » spectrum of the C 1s core level with the appearance of two additional modes are found. The evolution of the spectra shows that the Cs/nano-SiC/Si(111)-4° interface is formed due to charge transfer from Cs adatoms to surface atoms at terraces and steps of the vicinal surface. It is found that the structure of the C layer is nontrivial and involves energetically different carbon states.« less

  16. Spectroscopic characterization of the isolated SF6- and C4F8- anions: observation of very long harmonic progressions in symmetric deformation modes upon photodetachment.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Joseph C; Roscioli, Joseph R; Johnson, Mark A; Miller, Thomas M; Viggiano, A A; Villano, Stephanie M; Wren, Scott W; Lineberger, W Carl

    2007-02-22

    Spectroscopic studies of the SF6- and c-C4F8- anions are reported to provide experimental benchmarks for theoretical predictions of their structures and electron binding energies. The photoelectron spectrum of SF6- is dominated by a long progression in the S-F stretching mode, with an envelope consistent with theoretical predictions that the anion preserves the Oh symmetry of the neutral, but has a longer S-F bond length. This main progression occurs with an unexpectedly strong contribution from a second mode, however, whose characteristic energy does not correspond to any of the neutral SF6 fundamental vibrations in its ground electronic state. The resulting doublet pattern is evident when the bare ion is prepared with low internal energy content (i.e., using N2 carrier gas in a free jet or liquid nitrogen-cooling in a flowing afterglow) but is much better resolved in the spectrum of the SF6-.Ar complex. The infrared predissociation spectrum of SF6-.Ar consists of a strong band at 683(5) cm(-1), which we assign to the nu3 (t1u) fundamental, the same mode that yields the strong 948 cm(-1) infrared transition in neutral SF6. One qualitatively interesting aspect of the SF6- behavior is the simple structure of its photoelectron spectrum, which displays uncluttered, harmonic bands in an energy region where the neutral molecule contains about 2 eV of vibrational excitation. We explore this effect further in the c-C4F8- anion, which also presents a system that is calculated to undergo large, symmetrical distortion upon electron attachment to the neutral. The photoelectron spectrum of this species is dominated by a long, single vibrational progression, this time involving the symmetric ring-breathing mode. Like the SF6- case, the c-C4F8- spectrum is remarkably isolated and harmonic in spite of the significant internal excitation of a relatively complex molecular framework. Both these perfluorinated anions thus share the property that the symmetrical deformation of the

  17. Heteropentanuclear Oxalato-Bridged nd–4f (n=4, 5) Metal Complexes with NO Ligand: Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Aqueous Stability and Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen; Cremer, Laura; Gavriluta, Anatolie; Jovanović, Katarina K; Filipović, Lana; Hummer, Alfred A; Büchel, Gabriel E; Dojčinović, Biljana P; Meier, Samuel M; Rompel, Annette; Radulović, Siniša; Tommasino, Jean Bernard; Luneau, Dominique; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    A series of heteropentanuclear oxalate-bridged Ru(NO)-Ln (4d–4f) metal complexes of the general formula (nBu4N)5[Ln{RuCl3(μ-ox)(NO)}4], where Ln=Y (2), Gd (3), Tb (4), Dy (5) and ox=oxalate anion, were obtained by treatment of (nBu4N)2[RuCl3(ox)(NO)] (1) with the respective lanthanide salt in 4:1 molar ratio. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, while 1, 2, and 5 were in addition analyzed by X-ray crystallography, 1 by Ru K-edge XAS and 1 and 2 by 13C NMR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that in 2 and 5 four complex anions [RuCl3(ox)(NO)]2− are coordinated to YIII and DyIII, respectively, with formation of [Ln{RuCl3(μ-ox)(NO)}4]5− (Ln=Y, Dy). While YIII is eight-coordinate in 2, DyIII is nine-coordinate in 5, with an additional coordination of an EtOH molecule. The negative charge is counterbalanced by five nBu4N+ ions present in the crystal structure. The stability of complexes 2 and 5 in aqueous medium was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The antiproliferative activity of ruthenium-lanthanide complexes 2–5 were assayed in two human cancer cell lines (HeLa and A549) and in a noncancerous cell line (MRC-5) and compared with those obtained for the previously reported Os(NO)-Ln (5d–4f) analogues (nBu4N)5[Ln{OsCl3(ox)(NO)}4] (Ln=Y (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9)). Complexes 2–5 were found to be slightly more active than 1 in inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa and A549 cells, and significantly more cytotoxic than 5d–4f metal complexes 6–9 in terms of IC50 values. The highest antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 20.0 and 22.4 μM was found for 4 in HeLa and A549 cell lines, respectively. These cytotoxicity results are in accord with the presented ICP-MS data, indicating five- to eightfold greater accumulation of ruthenium versus osmium in human A549 cancer cells. PMID:26260662

  18. Core-core and core-valence correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of (1s) core correlation on properties and energy separations was analyzed using full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations. The Be 1 S - 1 P, the C 3 P - 5 S and CH+ 1 Sigma + or - 1 Pi separations, and CH+ spectroscopic constants, dipole moment and 1 Sigma + - 1 Pi transition dipole moment were studied. The results of the FCI calculations are compared to those obtained using approximate methods. In addition, the generation of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as a method for contracting a primitive basis set for both valence and core correlation, is discussed. When both core-core and core-valence correlation are included in the calculation, no suitable truncated CI approach consistently reproduces the FCI, and contraction of the basis set is very difficult. If the (nearly constant) core-core correlation is eliminated, and only the core-valence correlation is included, CASSCF/MRCI approached reproduce the FCI results and basis set contraction is significantly easier.

  19. Arangasite, Al2(PO4)(SO4)F · 7.5H2O, a new mineral from the Alyaskitovy deposit, Eastern Yakutia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamyanin, G. N.; Zayakina, N. V.; Galenchikova, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    A new hydrous aluminum sulfate-phosphate-fluoride arangasite, Al2(PO4)(SO4)F · 7.5H2O, has been found in cassiterite-silicate-sulfide ore at the Alyaskitovy deposit, Indigirka River basin, eastern Sakha (Yakutia) (64°39' N, 142°70' E). The new mineral was named after its type locality, Arangas Creek. It belongs to the secondary minerals of the oxidation zone and occurs in cavities within quartz-muscovite-tourmaline-sulfide veins and adjacent greisen. Arangasite is associated with other secondary minerals: phosphorscorodite, fluellite, gypsum, colquiriite, strengite, mansfieldite, and sinkankasite. Arangasite forms white compact segregations composed of fine-lamellar aggregates. This paper reports data on its chemical composition, optical, radiographic, thermal, and IR-spectroscopic characteristics.

  20. Order Parameter Segregation in Ce0.7La0.3B6: 4f Octopole and 5d Dipole Magnetic Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannix, D.; Tanaka, Y.; Carbone, D.; Bernhoeft, N.; Kunii, S.

    2005-09-01

    The intriguing thermophysical properties of CeB6 have been subject to investigation for more than 20 years. In particular, an exotic ground state, phase IV, emerges under doping with La. We report resonant x-ray scattering results on the order parameter symmetries in phase IV of Ce0.7La0.3B6, which condenses below TIV=1.5K. The results reveal a degree of mesoscopic 5d dipole antiferromagnetic order, with propagation vector Q0=((1)/(2)(1)/(2)(1)/(2)), both below and above TIV. Below TIV, this polarization coexists with long-range 4f antiferro-octupole (AFO) order also at Q0. The marked differences in temperature dependence and spatial correlation suggest a state of order parameter segregation at low temperature. A simple model of AFO order, consistent with the polarization dependent azimuth symmetries, the Bragg angle, and temperature dependence is given.

  1. A Monte Carlo Sensitivity Analysis of CF2 and CF Radical Densities in a c-C4F8 Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Rauf, Shahid; Hash, D. B.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis is used to build a plasma chemistry model for octacyclofluorobutane (c-C4F8) which is commonly used in dielectric etch. Experimental data are used both quantitatively and quantitatively to analyze the gas phase and gas surface reactions for neutral radical chemistry. The sensitivity data of the resulting model identifies a few critical gas phase and surface aided reactions that account for most of the uncertainty in the CF2 and CF radical densities. Electron impact dissociation of small radicals (CF2 and CF) and their surface recombination reactions are found to be the rate-limiting steps in the neutral radical chemistry. The relative rates for these electron impact dissociation and surface recombination reactions are also suggested. The resulting mechanism is able to explain the measurements of CF2 and CF densities available in the literature and also their hollow spatial density profiles.

  2. Core and Off-Core Processes in Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian; Forsberg, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    An emerging methodology of organizing systems-engineering plans is based on a concept of core and off-core processes or activities. This concept has emerged as a result of recognition of a risk in the traditional representation of systems-engineering plans by a Vee model alone, according to which a large system is decomposed into levels of smaller subsystems, then integrated through levels of increasing scope until the full system is constructed. Actual systems-engineering activity is more complicated, raising the possibility that the staff will become confused in the absence of plans which explain the nature and ordering of work beyond the traditional Vee model.

  3. de Haas–van Alphen study of role of 4 f electrons in antiferromagnetic CeZn 11 as compared to its nonmagnetic analog LaZn 11

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, S. F.; Hodovanets, H.; McCollam, A.

    2016-12-02

    Here we present a de Haas–van Alphen study of the Fermi surface of the low-temperature antiferromagnet CeZn 11 and its nonmagnetic analog LaZn 11, measured by torque magnetometry up to fields of 33T and at temperatures down to 320 mK . Both systems possess similar de Haas–van Alphen frequencies, with three clear sets of features—ranging from 50 T to 4 kT —corresponding to three bands of a complex Fermi surface, with an expected fourth band also seen weakly in CeZn 11 . The effective masses of the charge carriers are very light (<1 m e) in LaZn 11 but amore » factor of 2–4 larger in CeZn 11, indicative of stronger electronic correlations. We perform detailed density functional theory (DFT) calculations for CeZn 11 and find that only DFT+ U calculations with U = 1.5 eV , which localize the 4 f states, provide a good match to the measured de Haas–van Alphen frequencies, once the presence of magnetic breakdown orbits is also considered. Finally, our study suggests that the Fermi surface of CeZn 11 is very close to that of LaZn 11 being dominated by Zn 3d , as the Ce 4 f states are localized and have little influence on its electronic structure, however, they are responsible for its magnetic order and contribute to enhance electronic correlations.« less

  4. The roles of 4f- and 5f-orbitals in bonding: A magnetochemical, crystal field, density functional theory, and multi-reference wavefunction study

    DOE PAGES

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Speldrich, Manfred; Yang, Ping; ...

    2016-05-31

    The electronic structures of 4f 3/5f 3 Cp" 3M and Cp" 3M·alkylisocyanide complexes, where Cp" is 1,3-bis-(trimethylsilyl)cyclopentadienyl, are explored with a focus on the splitting of the f-orbitals, which provides information about the strengths of the metal–ligand interactions. While the f-orbital splitting in many lanthanide complexes has been reported in detail, experimental determination of the f-orbital splitting in actinide complexes remains rare in systems other than halide and oxide compounds, since the experimental approach, crystal field analysis, is generally significantly more difficult for actinide complexes than for lanthanide complexes. In this study, a set of analogous neodymium(III) and uranium(III) tris-cyclopentadienylmore » complexes and their isocyanide adducts was characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. The crystal field model was parameterized by combined fitting of EPR and susceptibility data, yielding an accurate description of f-orbital splitting. The isocyanide derivatives were also studied using density functional theory, resulting in f-orbital splitting that is consistent with crystal field fitting, and by multi-reference wavefunction calculations that support the electronic structure analysis derived from the crystal-field calculations. The results highlight that the 5f-orbitals, but not the 4f-orbitals, are significantly involved in bonding to the isocyanide ligands. The main interaction between isocyanide ligand and the metal center is a σ-bond, with additional 5f to π* donation for the uranium complexes. As a result, while interaction with the isocyanide π*-orbitals lowers the energies of the 5f xz2 and 5f yz2-orbitals, spin–orbit coupling greatly reduces the population of 5f xz2 and 5f yz2 in the ground state.« less

  5. The roles of 4f- and 5f-orbitals in bonding: a magnetochemical, crystal field, density functional theory, and multi-reference wavefunction study.

    PubMed

    Lukens, W W; Speldrich, M; Yang, P; Duignan, T J; Autschbach, J; Kögerler, P

    2016-07-28

    The electronic structures of 4f(3)/5f(3) Cp''3M and Cp''3M·alkylisocyanide complexes, where Cp'' is 1,3-bis-(trimethylsilyl)cyclopentadienyl, are explored with a focus on the splitting of the f-orbitals, which provides information about the strengths of the metal-ligand interactions. While the f-orbital splitting in many lanthanide complexes has been reported in detail, experimental determination of the f-orbital splitting in actinide complexes remains rare in systems other than halide and oxide compounds, since the experimental approach, crystal field analysis, is generally significantly more difficult for actinide complexes than for lanthanide complexes. In this study, a set of analogous neodymium(iii) and uranium(iii) tris-cyclopentadienyl complexes and their isocyanide adducts was characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. The crystal field model was parameterized by combined fitting of EPR and susceptibility data, yielding an accurate description of f-orbital splitting. The isocyanide derivatives were also studied using density functional theory, resulting in f-orbital splitting that is consistent with crystal field fitting, and by multi-reference wavefunction calculations that support the electronic structure analysis derived from the crystal-field calculations. The results highlight that the 5f-orbitals, but not the 4f-orbitals, are significantly involved in bonding to the isocyanide ligands. The main interaction between isocyanide ligand and the metal center is a σ-bond, with additional 5f to π* donation for the uranium complexes. While interaction with the isocyanide π*-orbitals lowers the energies of the 5fxz(2) and 5fyz(2)-orbitals, spin-orbit coupling greatly reduces the population of 5fxz(2) and 5fyz(2) in the ground state.

  6. Syntheses, crystal structures and properties of series of 4d–4f ln(III)–Ag(I) heterometallic coordination polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ran, Xing-Rui; Wang, Ning; Xie, Wei-Ping

    2015-05-15

    By control of the experimental parameters such as ligands, pH value and reacting temperature, series of three-dimensional (3D) 4d–4f Ln(III)–Ag(I) porous coordination polymers (PCPs) with interesting chain-layer construction, namely, ([Ln{sup III}Ag{sup I}(na)(ina)(ox)]·2(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} [Ln=Sm(1), Eu(2), Gd(3), Tb(4), Dy(5), Ho(6), Y(7), Yb(8)], have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized. All the complexes are characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Furthermore, the luminescence properties of compounds 2 and 4 and the magsnetic properties of complexes 3 and 5 were also investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: Series of three-dimensional (3D)more » 4d–4f Ln(III)–Ag(I) porous coordination polymers (PCPs) with interesting chain-layer construction which are featured by tetranuclear Ln{sub 2}Ag{sub 2} and ‘non-linear’ N–Ag–N linkages. - Highlights: • Complexes 1–8 are first built by three kinds of organic ligands based on nicotinic acid and isonicotinic acid. • PCPs 1–8 are featured by tetranuclear Ln{sub 2}Ag{sub 2} and ‘non-linear’ N–Ag–N linkages. • The total solvent-accessible volume of PCP 2 comprises 11.6% of the crystal volume after dislodging the free water molecules. • Complexes 2 and 4 exhibit characteristic lanthanide-centered luminescence, while compounds 3 and 5 show antiferromagnetic behaviors.« less

  7. Precision calculations for h → WW/ZZ → 4 fermions in the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model with Prophecy4f

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenkamp, Lukas; Dittmaier, Stefan; Rzehak, Heidi

    2018-03-01

    We have calculated the next-to-leading-order electroweak and QCD corrections to the decay processes h → WW/ZZ → 4 fermions of the light CP-even Higgs boson h of various types of Two-Higgs-Doublet Models (Types I and II, "lepton-specific" and "flipped" models). The input parameters are defined in four different renormalization schemes, where parameters that are not directly accessible by experiments are defined in the \\overline{MS} scheme. Numerical results are presented for the corrections to partial decay widths for various benchmark scenarios previously motivated in the literature, where we investigate the dependence on the \\overline{MS} renormalization scale and on the choice of the renormalization scheme in detail. We find that it is crucial to be precise with these issues in parameter analyses, since parameter conversions between different schemes can involve sizeable or large corrections, especially in scenarios that are close to experimental exclusion limits or theoretical bounds. It even turns out that some renormalization schemes are not applicable in specific regions of parameter space. Our investigation of differential distributions shows that corrections beyond the Standard Model are mostly constant offsets induced by the mixing between the light and heavy CP-even Higgs bosons, so that differential analyses of h→4 f decay observables do not help to identify Two-Higgs-Doublet Models. Moreover, the decay widths do not significantly depend on the specific type of those models. The calculations are implemented in the public Monte Carlo generator Prophecy4f and ready for application.

  8. Kinetic mechanism for the binding of eIF4F and tobacco Etch virus internal ribosome entry site rna: effects of eIF4B and poly(A)-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mateen A; Yumak, Hasan; Goss, Dixie J

    2009-12-18

    The wheat germ eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4F binds tightly to the mRNA internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of tobacco etch virus (TEV) to promote translation initiation. When eIF4F is limiting, TEV is preferentially translated compared with host cell mRNA. To gain insight into the dynamic process of protein synthesis initiation and the mechanism of binding, the kinetics of eIF4F binding to TEV IRES were examined. The association rate constant (k(on)) and dissociation rate constant (k(off)) for eIF4F binding to IRES were 59 +/- 2.1 micro s(-1) and 12.9 +/- 0.3 s(-1), respectively, comparable with the rates for capped RNA. Binding of eIF4E or eIF4F to the cap of mRNA is the rate-limiting step for initiation of cap-dependent protein synthesis. The concentration dependence of the reactions suggested a simple one-step association mechanism. However, the association rate was reduced more than 10-fold when KCl concentration was increased from 50 to 300 mm, whereas the dissociation rate constant was increased 2-fold. The addition of eIF4B and poly(A)-binding protein enhanced the association rate of eIF4F approximately 3-fold. These results suggest a mechanism where eIF4F initially binds electrostatically, followed by a conformational change to further stabilize binding. Poly(A)-binding protein and eIF4B mainly affect the eIF4F/TEV association rate. These results demonstrate the first direct kinetic measurements of translation initiation factor binding to an IRES.

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and binding energies of Be 1s and O 1s core levels in clinobarylite, BaBe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, from Khibiny massif, Kola peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Atuchin, V.V.; Kesler, V.G.; Sapozhnikov, V.K.

    2008-09-15

    The electronic structure of BaBe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, clinobarylite, has been investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The valence band of the crystal is mainly formed by Ba 5p, Ba 3s and O 2s states. At higher binding energies the emission lines related to the Si 2p, Be 1s, Si 2s, O 1s and numerous Ba-related states were analyzed in the photoemission spectrum. The Si KLL Auger line has been measured under excitation by the bremsstrahlung X-rays from the Al anode. Chemical bonding effects for Be 1s core level have been considered by comparison with electronic parameters measuredmore » for other beryllium containing oxides.« less

  10. Reverse-engineering the atomic-scale structure of the TiO2/N3 interface in dye-sensitized solar cells using O1s core-level shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Christopher; Giustino, Feliciano

    2011-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells employing mesoporous titania films sensitized with ruthenium-based dyes have shown consistently good performance over the past two decades. Understanding the process of charge injection in these devices requires accurate atomistic models of the interface between the light-absorbing dye and the semiconducting substrate. Despite considerable efforts devoted to the experimental and theoretical investigation of such interfaces, their atomistic nature remains controversial. In this work we pursue a novel computational approach to the study of the semiconductor/dye interface which does not rely on the calculated adsorption energies. In our approach we reverse-engineer photoemission data through the first-principles calculation of O1s core-level spectra for a number of candidate interface models. Our calculations allow us to discard some of the adsorption geometries previously proposed and point to an interface model which reconciles conflicting assignments based either on photoemission or infrared data.

  11. Reactor core melt containment receptacle

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, P.; Hunt, K.

    1977-01-18

    A reactor core melt containment receptacle is described for use beneath a reactor core so that if the core overheats and melts and falls, the resulting core melt is contained by the receptacle, the latter having a bottom wall and an upstanding side wall, the latter being high enough so that the melt forms a melt level below its top. These walls are water-cooled to cool a melt in contact therewith. In addition, the receptacle has water-cooled elements extending upwardly from the bottom wall to above the melt level and spaced from the side wall. In this way heat ismore » removed from the core melt both internally within the melt as well as via the receptacle bottom and side walls. The water-cooled elements extending above the melt level absorb the heat radiated from the top surface of the melt, upward heat radiation being further reduced by transverse heat shields connected to the tops of the elements. Other features are included. 8 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures.« less

  12. Structure, stability, and photoluminescence in the anti-perovskites Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F (0≤x≤1)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Eirin, E-mail: esulliv@ilstu.edu; Avdeev, Maxim; Blom, Douglas A.

    2015-10-15

    Single-phase ordered oxyfluorides Na{sub 3}WO{sub 4}F, Na{sub 3}MoO{sub 4}F and their mixed members Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F can be prepared via facile solid state reaction of Na{sub 2}MO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O (M=W, Mo) and NaF. Phases produced from incongruent melts are metastable, but lower temperatures allow for a facile one-step synthesis. In polycrystalline samples of Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F, the presence of Mo stabilizes the structure against decomposition to spinel phases. Photoluminescence studies show that upon excitation with λ=254 nm and λ=365 nm, Na{sub 3}WO{sub 4}F and Na{sub 3}MoO{sub 4}F exhibit broad emission maxima centered around 485 nm. Thesemore » materials constitute new members of the family of self-activating ordered oxyfluoride phosphors with anti-perovskite structures which are amenable to doping with emitters such as Eu{sup 3+}. - Graphical abstract: Directed synthesis of the ordered oxyfluorides Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F (0≤x≤1) has shown that a complete solid solution is attainable and provides the first example of photoluminescence in these materials. - Highlights: • Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F is a complete solid solution with hexagonal anti-perovskite structure. • The presence of even small amounts of Mo stabilizes the structure against decomposition. • Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F has broad emissions centered ≈485 nm (λ{sub ex}=254 nm and λ{sub ex}=365 nm). • These materials constitute a new family of self-activated oxyfluoride phosphors. • Na{sub 3}W{sub 1−x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}F materials are amenable to doping with emitters such as Eu{sup 3+}.« less

  13. Inner Core Rotation from Geomagnetic Westward Drift and a Stationary Spherical Vortex in Earth's Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, C. V.

    1999-01-01

    The idea that geomagnetic westward drift indicates convective leveling of the planetary momentum gradient within Earth's core is pursued in search of a differentially rotating mean state, upon which various oscillations and secular effects might be superimposed. The desired state conforms to roughly spherical boundary conditions, minimizes dissipative interference with convective cooling in the bulk of the core, yet may aide core cooling by depositing heat in the uppermost core and lower mantle. The variational calculus of stationary dissipation applied to a spherical vortex within the core yields an interesting differential rotation profile akin to spherical Couette flow bounded by thin Hartmann layers. Four boundary conditions are required. To concentrate shear induced dissipation near the core-mantle boundary, these are taken to be: (i) no-slip at the core-mantle interface; (ii) geomagnetically estimated bulk westward flow at the base of the core-mantle boundary layer; (iii) no-slip at the inner-outer core interface; and, to describe magnetic locking of the inner core to the deep outer core, (iv) hydrodynamically stress-free at the inner-outer core boundary. By boldly assuming the axial core angular momentum anomaly to be zero, the super-rotation of the inner core is calculated to be at most 1.5 degrees per year.

  14. Inner Core Rotation from Geomagnetic Westward Drift and a Stationary Spherical Vortex in Earth's Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1998-01-01

    The idea that geomagnetic westward drift indicates convective leveling of the planetary momentum gradient within Earth's core is pursued in search of a differentially rotating mean state, upon which various oscillations and secular effects might be superimposed. The desired state conforms to roughly spherical boundary conditions, minimizes dissipative interference with convective cooling in the bulk of the core, yet may aid core cooling by depositing heat in the uppermost core and lower mantle. The variational calculus of stationary dissipation applied to a spherical vortex within the core yields an interesting differential rotation profile, akin to spherical Couette flow bounded by thin Hartmann layers. Four boundary conditions are required. To concentrate shear induced dissipation near the core-mantle boundary, these are taken to be: (i) no-slip at the core-mantle interface; (ii) geomagnetically estimated bulk westward flow at the base of the core-mantle boundary layer; (iii) no-slip at the inner-outer core interface; and, to describe magnetic locking of the inner core to the deep outer core; (iv) hydrodynamically stress-free at the inner-outer core boundary. By boldly assuming the axial core angular momentum anomaly to be zero, the super-rotation of the inner core relative to the mantle is calculated to be at most 1.5 deg./yr.

  15. Functional Screening of Core Promoter Activity.

    PubMed

    Even, Dan Y; Kedmi, Adi; Ideses, Diana; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    The core promoter is the DNA sequence that recruits the basal transcription machinery and directs accurate initiation of transcription. It is an active contributor to gene expression that can be rationally designed to manipulate the levels of expression. Core promoter function can be analyzed using different experimental approaches. Here, we describe the qualitative and quantitative analysis of engineered core promoter functions using the EGFP reporter gene that is driven by distinct core promoters. Expression plasmids are transfected into different mammalian cell lines, and the resulting fluorescence is monitored by live cell imaging , as well as by flow cytometry. In order to verify that the transcriptional activity of the examined core promoters is indeed a function of their activity, as opposed to differences in DNA uptake, real-time quantitative PCR analysis is performed. Importantly, the described methodology for functional screening of core promoter activity has enabled the analysis of engineered potent core promoters for extended time periods.

  16. cDNA cloning, expression analysis, and chromosomal localization of a gene with high homology to wheat eIF-(iso)4F and mammalian eIF-4G

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, J.D. Jr.; Jenkins, N.A.; Copeland, N.G.

    1997-01-15

    A novel mammalian gene, Eif4g2, with a high degree of homology to the p82 subunit of the wheat germ eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF-(iso)4F and mammalian eIF-4G has been isolated. Zoo blot analysis indicates that Eif4g2 is a single-copy gene that is highly conserved among vertebrates. Northern blot analysis shows that Eif4g2 is ubiquitously expressed at high levels in all human and mouse tissues examined. The 3810-nucleotide Eif4g2 cDNA contains a 907-amino-acid open reading frame that codes for a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 102 kDa. The Eif4g2 polypeptide exhibits an overall similarity to wheat p82 of 52%.more » A 248-amino-acid segment at the amino-terminal end of both peptides exhibits 63% similarity and contains conserved potential RNA binding domains and a phosphorylation site. The Eif4g2 polypeptide contains multiple potential N-linked glycosylation sites as well as protein kinase C and casein kinase II phosphorylation sites. Southern blot analysis of DNA from interspecific backcross mice shows that Eif4g2 is localized to distal mouse chromosome 7 in a region syntenic with human chromosome 11p15. 25 refs., 5 figs.« less

  17. Structural features and properties of the laser-deposited nickel alloy layer on a KhV4F tool steel after heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, V. S.; Dikova, Ts. D.; Stavrev, D. S.

    2017-07-01

    The study and application of the materials that are stable in the temperature range up to 1000°C are necessary to repair forming dies operating in this range. Nickel-based alloys can be used for this purpose. The structural state of a nickel alloy layer deposited onto a KhV4F tool steel and then heat treated is investigated. KhV4F tool steel (RF GOST) samples are subjected to laser deposition using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A nickel-based material (0.02C-73.8Ni-2.5Nb-19.5Cr-1.9Fe-2.8Mn) is employed for laser deposition. After laser deposition, the samples are subjected to heat treatment at 400°C for 5 h, 600°C for 1 h, 800°C for 1 h, and 1000°C for 1 h. The microstructure, the phase composition, and the microhardness of the deposited layer are studied. The structure of the initial deposited layer has relatively large grains (20-40 μm in size). The morphology is characterized by a cellular-dendritic structure in the transition zone. The following two structural constituents with a characteristic dendritic structure are revealed: a supersaturated nickel-based γ solid solution and a chromium-based bcc α solid solution. In the initial state and after heat treatment, the hardness of the deposited material (210-240 HV 0.1) is lower than the hardness of the base material (400-440 HV 0.1). Only after heat treatment at 600°C for 1 h, the hardness increases to 240-250 HV0.1. Structure heredity in the form of a dendritic morphology is observed at temperatures of 400, 600, and 800°C. The following sharp change in the structural state is detected upon heat treatment at 1000°C for 1 h: the dendritic morphology changes into a typical α + γ crystalline structure. The hardness of the base material decreases significantly to 160-180 HV 0.1. The low hardness of the deposited layer implies the use of the layer material in limited volume to repair the forming surfaces of dies and molds for die casting. However, the high ductility of the deposited layer of the nickel

  18. Multiplex pyrosequencing method to determine CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3 polymorphisms simultaneously: its application to a Korean population and comparisons with other ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Song, Wan-Geun; Lee, Hae-Mi; Joo, Hyun-Jin; Park, Ji-Young

    2014-11-01

    Warfarin is an anticoagulant that is difficult to administer because of the wide variation in dose requirements to achieve a therapeutic effect. CYP2C9, VKROC1, and CYP4F2 play important roles in warfarin metabolism, and their genetic polymorphisms are related to the variability in dose determination. In this study we describe a new multiplex pyrosequencing method to identify CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910), VKORC1*2 (rs9923231), and CYP4F2*3 (rs2108661) simultaneously. A multiplex pyrosequencing method to simultaneously detect CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3 alleles was designed. We assessed the allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in 250 Korean subjects using the multiplex pyrosequencing method. The results showed 100 % concordance between single and multiplex pyrosequencing methods, and the polymorphisms identified by pyrosequencing were also validated with the direct sequencing method. The allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in this population were as follows: 0.040 for CYP2C9*3, 0.918 for VKORC1*2, and 0.416 for CYP4F2*3. Although the allele frequencies of the CYP2C9*3 and VKROC1*2 were comparable to those in Japanese and Chinese populations, their frequencies in this Korean population differed from those in other ethnic groups; the CYP4F2*3 frequency was the highest among other ethnic populations including Chinese and Japanese populations. The pyrosequencing methods developed were rapid and reliable for detecting CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3. Large ethnic differences in the frequency of these genetic polymorphisms were noted among ethnic groups. CYP4F2*3 exhibited its highest allele frequency among other ethnic populations compared to that in a Korean population.

  19. Scalable waveguide design for three-level operation in Neodymium doped fiber laser

    DOE PAGES

    Pax, Paul H.; Khitrov, Victor V.; Drachenberg, Derrek R.; ...

    2016-12-12

    We have constructed a double clad neodymium doped fiber laser operating on the three-level 4F 3/2 → 4I 9/2 transition. The laser has produced 11.5 W at 925 nm with 55% slope efficiency when pumped at 808 nm, comparable to the best previous results for a double-clad fiber configuration on this transition. Higher power pumping with both 808 nm and 880 nm sources resulted in an output of 27 W, albeit at lower slope efficiency. In both cases, output power was limited by available pump, indicating the potential for further power scaling. To suppress the stronger four-level 4F 3/2 →more » 4I 11/2 transition we developed a waveguide that provides spectral filtering distributed along the length of the fiber, based on an all-solid micro-structured optical fiber design, with resonant inclusions creating a leakage path to the cladding. Furthermore, the waveguide supports large mode areas and provides strong suppression at selectable wavelength bands, thus easing the restrictions on core and cladding sizes that limited power scaling of previous approaches.« less

  20. Photocatalytic performance of freestanding tetragonal zirconia nanotubes formed in H2O2/NH4F/ethylene glycol electrolyte by anodisation of zirconium.

    PubMed

    Rozana, Monna; Soaid, Nurul Izza; Kian, Tan Wai; Kawamura, Go; Matsuda, Atsunori; Lockman, Zainovia

    2017-04-18

    ZrO 2 nanotubes (ZrNTs) were produced by anodisation of zirconium foil in H 2 O 2 /NH 4 F/ethylene glycol electrolyte. The as-anodised foils were then soaked in the anodising electrolyte for 12 h. Soaking weakens the adherence of the anodic layer from the substrate resulting in freestanding ZrNTs (FS-ZrNTs). Moreover, the presence of H 2 O 2 in the electrolyte also aids in weakening the adhesion of the film from the foil, as foil anodised in electrolyte without H 2 O 2 has good film adherence. The as-anodised FS-ZrNTs film was amorphous and crystallised to predominantly tetragonal phase upon annealing at >300 °C. Annealing must, however, be done at <500 °C to avoid monoclinic ZrO 2 formation and nanotubes disintegration. FS-ZrNTs annealed at 450 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic ability to degrade methyl orange (MO), whereby 82% MO degradation was observed after 5 h, whereas FS-ZrNTs with a mixture of monoclinic and tetragonal degraded 70% of MO after 5 h.

  1. Self-organized nanotubular oxide layers on Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V formed by anodization in NH4F solutions.

    PubMed

    Macak, Jan M; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki; Taveira, Luciano; Ghicov, Andrei; Schmuki, Patrik

    2005-12-15

    The present work reports the fabrication of self-organized porous oxide-nanotube layers on the biomedical titanium alloys Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-6Al-4V by a simple electrochemical treatment. These two-phase alloys were anodized in 1M (NH(4))(2)SO(4) electrolytes containing 0.5 wt % of NH(4)F. The results show that under specific anodization conditions self-organized porous oxide structures can be grown on the alloy surface. SEM images revealed that the porous layers consist of arrays of single nanotubes with a diameter of 100 nm and a spacing of 150 nm. For the V-containing alloy enhanced etching of the beta phase is observed, leading to selective dissolution and an inhomogeneous pore formation. For the Nb-containing alloy an almost ideal coverage of both phases is obtained. According to XPS measurements the tubes are a mixed oxide with an almost stoichiometric oxide composition, and can be grown to thicknesses of several hundreds of nanometers. These findings represent a simple surface treatment for Ti alloys that has high potential for biomedical applications.

  2. Analytical characterization of three cathinone derivatives, 4-MPD, 4F-PHP and bk-EPDP, purchased as bulk powder from online vendors.

    PubMed

    Apirakkan, Orapan; Frinculescu, Anca; Shine, Trevor; Parkin, Mark C; Cilibrizzi, Agostino; Frascione, Nunzianda; Abbate, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    Novel emerging drugs of abuse, also referred as new psychoactive substances, constitute an ever-changing mixture of chemical compounds designed to circumvent legislative controls by means of chemical modifications of previously banned recreational drugs. One such class, synthetic cathinones, namely β-keto derivatives of amphetamines, has been largely abused over the past decade. A number of new synthetic cathinones are detected each year, either in bulk powders/crystals or in biological matrices. It is therefore important to continuously monitor the supply of new synthetic derivatives and promptly report them. By using complementary analytical techniques (i.e. one- and two-dimensional NMR, FT-IR, GC-MS, HRMS and HPLC-UV), this study investigates the detection, identification and full characterization of 1-(4-methylphenyl)-2-(methylamino)pentanone (4-methylpentedrone, 4-MPD), 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)hexanone (4F-PHP) and 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(ethylamino)-1-pentanone (bk-EPDP), three emerging cathinone derivatives. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Direct observation of multivalent states and 4 f →3 d charge transfer in Ce-doped yttrium iron garnet thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasili, H. B.; Casals, B.; Cichelero, R.; Macià, F.; Geshev, J.; Gargiani, P.; Valvidares, M.; Herrero-Martin, J.; Pellegrin, E.; Fontcuberta, J.; Herranz, G.

    2017-07-01

    Due to their large magneto-optic responses, rare-earth-doped yttrium iron garnets, Y3F e5O12 (YIG), are highly regarded for their potential in photonics and magnonics. Here, we consider the case of Ce-doped YIG (Ce-YIG) thin films, in which substitutional C e3 + ions are magnetic because of their 4 f1 ground state. In order to elucidate the impact of Ce substitution on the magnetization of YIG, we have carried out soft x-ray spectroscopy measurements on Ce-YIG films. In particular, we have used the element specificity of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism to extract the individual magnetization curves linked to Ce and Fe ions. Our results show that Ce doping triggers a selective charge transfer from Ce to the Fe tetrahedral sites in the YIG structure. This, in turn, causes a disruption of the electronic and magnetic properties of the parent compound, reducing the exchange coupling between the Ce and Fe magnetic moments and causing atypical magnetic behavior. Our work is relevant for understanding magnetism in rare-earth-doped YIG and, eventually, may enable a quantitative evaluation of the magneto-optical properties of rare-earth incorporation into YIG.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of (C6N2H14)2(UVI2UIVO4F12), a mixed-valent one-dimensional uranium oxyfluoride.

    PubMed

    Allen, S; Barlow, S; Halasyamani, P S; Mosselmans, J F; O'Hare, D; Walker, S M; Walton, R I

    2000-08-21

    A new hybrid organic-inorganic mixed-valent uranium oxyfluoride, (C6N2H14)2(U3O4F12), UFO-17, has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using uranium dioxide as the uranium source, hydrofluoric acid as mineralizer, and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane as template. The single-crystal X-ray structure was determined. Crystals of UFO-17 belonged to the orthorhombic space group Cmcm (no. 63), with a = 14.2660(15) A, b = 24.5130(10) A, c = 7.201(2) A, and Z = 4. The structure reveals parallel uranium-containing chains of two types: one type is composed of edge-sharing UO2F5 units; the other has a backbone of edge-sharing UF8 units, each sharing an edge with a pendant UO2F5 unit. Bond-valence calculations suggest the UF8 groups contain UIV, while the UO2F5 groups contain UVI. EXAFS data give results consistent with the single-crystal X-ray structure determination, while comparison of the uranium LIII-edge XANES of UFO-17 with that of related UIV and UVI compounds supports the oxidation-state assignment. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements on UFO-17 and a range of related hybrid organic-inorganic uranium(IV) and uranium(VI) fluorides and oxyfluorides further support the formulation of UFO-17 as a mixed-valent UIV/UVI compound.

  5. La-related protein 1 (LARP1) binds the mRNA cap, blocking eIF4F assembly on TOP mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Roni M; Fonseca, Bruno D; Ciotti, Gabrielle E; Al-Ashtal, Hiba A; Jia, Jian-Jun; Niklaus, Marius R; Blagden, Sarah P; Alain, Tommy; Berman, Andrea J

    2017-01-01

    The 5’terminal oligopyrimidine (5’TOP) motif is a cis-regulatory RNA element located immediately downstream of the 7-methylguanosine [m7G] cap of TOP mRNAs, which encode ribosomal proteins and translation factors. In eukaryotes, this motif coordinates the synchronous and stoichiometric expression of the protein components of the translation machinery. La-related protein 1 (LARP1) binds TOP mRNAs, regulating their stability and translation. We present crystal structures of the human LARP1 DM15 region in complex with a 5’TOP motif, a cap analog (m7GTP), and a capped cytidine (m7GpppC), resolved to 2.6, 1.8 and 1.7 Å, respectively. Our binding, competition, and immunoprecipitation data corroborate and elaborate on the mechanism of 5’TOP motif binding by LARP1. We show that LARP1 directly binds the cap and adjacent 5’TOP motif of TOP mRNAs, effectively impeding access of eIF4E to the cap and preventing eIF4F assembly. Thus, LARP1 is a specialized TOP mRNA cap-binding protein that controls ribosome biogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24146.001 PMID:28379136

  6. VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 genetic-based algorithm for warfarin dosing: an Italian retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Pengo, Vittorio; Padrini, Roberto; Basso, Daniela; Schiavon, Stefania; Fogar, Paola; Nisi, Alessandra; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Moz, Stefania; Pelloso, Michela; Plebani, Mario

    2011-01-01

    A total of 371 patients under stable warfarin therapy were retrospectively selected to develop a pharmacogenetic algorithm to identify the individual maintenance dose. The variables that were entered into the algorithm were: VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 polymorphisms, body surface area and age. The percentage of cases whose predicted mean weekly warfarin dose was within 20% of the actual maintenance dose was 51.8% considering patients overall, and were 36.2, 66.2 and 55.4%, respectively, taking into account patients requiring low (≤25 mg/week), intermediate (25-45 mg/week) and high (≥45 mg/week) doses. The algorithm could correctly assign 73.8 and 63.2% of patients to the low- and high-dose regimens, respectively. We developed and validated a pharmacogenetic algorithm in a series of Italian patients, we then tested, in the same series of italian patients, the formulas of three published algorithms. These three algorithms were developed and validated by their authors in a series of patients different from our own. The performance of our algorithm in our patients series was slightly higher than that achieved when using the three other algorithms in our patients series. The high predictive accuracy of low and high warfarin requirements of our algorithm warrants its application in prospective studies for clinical validation.

  7. Luminescent properties of heterotrinuclear 3d-4f complexes constructed from a naphthalenediol-based acyclic bis(salamo)-type ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wen-Kui; Zheng, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Jin-Tong; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yin-Xia

    2017-09-01

    Heterotrinuclear 3d-4f complexes with a naphthalenediol-based acyclic bis(salamo)-type ligand have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Spectral titrations clearly show that the heterotrinuclear complexes [Zn2(L)La(OAc)3] (1), [Zn2(L)Ce(OAc)3] (2) and [Zn2(L)Dy(OAc)3(CH3OH)]·CH2Cl2 (3) are acquired by the substitution reaction of the obtained homotrinuclear Zn(II) complex with 1 equiv. of Ln(NO3)3 (Ln3 + = La3 +, Ce3 + and Dy3 +). Two Zn(II) ions are penta- and hexa-coordinated with geometries of distorted tetragonal pyramid and octahedron. La(III) ion is deca-coordinated, adopting a distorted bicapped square antiprism geometry. Ce(III) ion is nona-coordinated with geometry of distorted capped square antiprism as well as Dy(III) ion. The different coordination modes of acetate ions in complexes 1, 2 and 3 lead to different coordination numbers of the lanthanide(III) ions. Furthermore, the structures and fluorescence properties have been discussed.

  8. Atmospheric chemistry of C4F9OC2H5 (HFE-7200), C4F9OCH3 (HFE-7100), C3F7OCH3 (HFE-7000) and C3F7CH2OH: temperature dependence of the kinetics of their reactions with OH radicals, atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Iván; Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Smith, Kevin; Shine, Keith P; Marston, George

    2010-05-21

    The atmospheric chemistry of several gases used in industrial applications, C(4)F(9)OC(2)H(5) (HFE-7200), C(4)F(9)OCH(3) (HFE-7100), C(3)F(7)OCH(3) (HFE-7000) and C(3)F(7)CH(2)OH, has been studied. The discharge flow technique coupled with mass-spectrometric detection has been used to study the kinetics of their reactions with OH radicals as a function of temperature. The infrared spectra of the compounds have also been measured. The following Arrhenius expressions for the reactions were determined (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k(OH + HFE-7200) = (6.9(-1.7)(+2.3)) x 10(-11) exp(-(2030 +/- 190)/T); k(OH + HFE-7100) = (2.8(-1.5)(+3.2)) x 10(-11) exp(-(2200 +/- 490)/T); k(OH + HFE-7000) = (2.0(-0.7)(+1.2)) x 10(-11) exp(-(2130 +/- 290)/T); and k(OH + C(3)F(7)CH(2)OH) = (1.4(-0.2)(+0.3)) x 10(-11) exp(-(1460 +/- 120)/T). From the infrared spectra, radiative forcing efficiencies were determined and compared with earlier estimates in the literature. These were combined with the kinetic data to estimate 100-year time horizon global warming potentials relative to CO(2) of 69, 337, 499 and 36 for HFE-7200, HFE-7100, HFE-7000 and CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH, respectively.

  9. Charging/discharging of Au (core)/silica (shell) nanoparticles as revealed by XPS.

    PubMed

    Tunc, Ilknur; Demirok, U Korcan; Suzer, Sefik; Correa-Duatre, Miguel A; Liz-Marzan, Luis M

    2005-12-22

    By recording XPS spectra while applying external voltage stress to the sample rod, we can control the extent of charging developed on core-shell-type gold nanoparticles deposited on a copper substrate, in both steady-state and time-resolved fashions. The charging manifests itself as a shift in the measured binding energy of the corresponding XPS peak. Whereas the bare gold nanoparticles exhibit no measurable binding energy shift in the Au 4f peaks, both the Au 4f and the Si 2p peaks exhibit significant and highly correlated (in time and magnitude) shifts in the case of gold (core)/silica (shell) nanoparticles. Using the shift in the Au 4f peaks, the capacitance of the 15-nm gold (core)/6-nm silica (shell) nanoparticle/nanocapacitor is estimated as 60 aF. It is further estimated that, in the fully charged situation, only 1 in 1000 silicon dioxide units in the shell carries a positive charge during our XPS analysis. Our simple method of controlling the charging, by application of an external voltage stress during XPS analysis, enables us to detect, locate, and quantify the charges developed on surface structures in a completely noncontact fashion.

  10. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  11. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E.

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  12. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  13. Angle-resolved and core-level photoemission study of interfacing the topological insulator Bi1.5Sb0.5Te1.7Se1.3 with Ag, Nb, and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, N.; Frantzeskakis, E.; Zwartsenberg, B.; Huang, Y. K.; Wu, D.; Hlawenka, P.; Sańchez-Barriga, J.; Varykhalov, A.; van Heumen, E.; Golden, M. S.

    2015-08-01

    Interfaces between a bulk-insulating topological insulator (TI) and metallic adatoms have been studied using high-resolution, angle-resolved, and core-level photoemission. Fe, Nb, and Ag were evaporated onto Bi1 .5Sb0 .5Te1 .7Se1 .3 (BSTS) surfaces both at room temperature and 38 K. The coverage and temperature dependence of the adsorption and interfacial formation process have been investigated, highlighting the effects of the overlayer growth on the occupied electronic structure of the TI. For all coverages at room temperature and for those equivalent to less than 0.2 monolayer at low temperature all three metals lead to a downward shift of the TI bands with respect to the Fermi level. At room temperature Ag appears to intercalate efficiently into the van der Waals gap of BSTS, accompanied by low-level substitution for the Te/Se atoms of the termination layer of the crystal. This Te/Se substitution with silver increases significantly for low temperature adsorption, and can even dominate the electrostatic environment of the Bi/Sb atoms in the BSTS near-surface region. On the other hand, Fe and Nb evaporants remain close to the termination layer of the crystal. On room temperature deposition, they initially substitute isoelectronically for Bi as a function of coverage, before substituting for Te/Se atoms. For low temperature deposition, Fe and Nb are too immobile for substitution processes and show a behavior consistent with clustering on the surface. For both Ag and Fe/Nb, these differing adsorption pathways still lead to the qualitatively similar and remarkable behavior for low temperature deposition that the chemical potential first moves downward (p -type dopant behavior) and then upward (n -type behavior) on increasing coverage.

  14. Benefits of a High School Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2006

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk", ACT has recommended that students take a core curriculum in high school in order to be prepared for college-level work. ACT's recommended core curriculum consists of four years of English and three years each of mathematics, science, and social studies. The benefits to students of taking the right…

  15. Core stability exercise principles.

    PubMed

    Akuthota, Venu; Ferreiro, Andrea; Moore, Tamara; Fredericson, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Core stability is essential for proper load balance within the spine, pelvis, and kinetic chain. The so-called core is the group of trunk muscles that surround the spine and abdominal viscera. Abdominal, gluteal, hip girdle, paraspinal, and other muscles work in concert to provide spinal stability. Core stability and its motor control have been shown to be imperative for initiation of functional limb movements, as needed in athletics. Sports medicine practitioners use core strengthening techniques to improve performance and prevent injury. Core strengthening, often called lumbar stabilization, also has been used as a therapeutic exercise treatment regimen for low back pain conditions. This article summarizes the anatomy of the core, the progression of core strengthening, the available evidence for its theoretical construct, and its efficacy in musculoskeletal conditions.

  16. Core to College Evaluation: Exploring the Use of Multiple Measures for Placement into College-Level Courses. Seeking Alternatives or Improvements to the Use of a Single Standardized Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracco, Kathy Reeves; Dadgar, Mina; Austin, Kim; Klarin, Becca; Broek, Marie; Finkelstein, Neal; Mundry, Susan; Bugler, Dan

    2014-01-01

    "Core to College: Preparing Students for College Readiness and Success" is a three-year initiative. The initiative's mission is to "facilitate greater coordination between K-12 and postsecondary education systems around implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and aligned assessments." Its aim is to foster…

  17. Effects of gas flow rate on the etch characteristics of a low- k sicoh film with an amorphous carbon mask in dual-frequency CF4/C4F8/Ar capacitively-coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Bong-Soo; Lee, Hea-Lim; Lee, Nae-Eung; Kim, Chang-Young; Choi, Chi Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Highly selective nanoscale etching of a low-dielectric constant (low- k) organosilicate (SiCOH) layer using a mask pattern of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) amorphous carbon layer (ACL) was carried out in CF4/C4F8/Ar dual-frequency superimposed capacitively-coupled plasmas. The etching characteristics of the SiCOH layers, such as the etch rate, etch selectivity, critical dimension (CD), and line edge roughness (LER) during the plasma etching, were investigated by varying the C4F8 flow rate. The C4F8 gas flow rate primarily was found to control the degree of polymerization and to cause variations in the selectivity, CD and LER of the patterned SiCOH layer. Process windows for ultra-high etch selectivity of the SiCOH layer to the CVD ACL are formed due to the disproportionate degrees of polymerization on the SiCOH and the ACL surfaces.

  18. Challenges Regarding IP Core Functional Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, intellectual property (IP) cores have been incorporated into field programmable gate array (FPGA) and application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design flows. However, the usage of large complex IP cores were limited within products that required a high level of reliability. This is no longer the case. IP core insertion has become mainstream including their use in highly reliable products. Due to limited visibility and control, challenges exist when using IP cores and subsequently compromise product reliability. We discuss challenges and suggest potential solutions to critical application IP insertion.

  19. Novel phosphate halides BaMn{sup III}[PO{sub 4}]FCl and BaMn{sup III}[PO{sub 4}]F{sub 2}: Effects of mixed halides on crystal structures and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Da-Ting, E-mail: pdtcug@gmail.com; Sun, Wei, E-mail: 421221789@qq.com; Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 114 Science Place, Saskatoon, Canada SK S7N 5E2

    2016-02-15

    Two new phosphate halides BaMn{sup III}[PO{sub 4}]FCl (1) and BaMn{sup III}[PO{sub 4}]F{sub 2} (2), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Structural characterizations show that both new compounds adopt layered structures but with different polyhedral linkages. Introduction of Cl into Compound (1) results in isolated hemimorphic [MnO{sub 4}FCl] octahedra, different from the chain of [MnO{sub 4}F{sub 2}]/[MnO{sub 2}F{sub 4}] octahedra in Compound (2). These compounds have significantly different molecular vibration modes and thermal stabilities. Magnetic measurements reveal that Compound (2) has larger antiferromagnetic interactions than Compound (1), because the former has strong interactions between Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 3+} ions within corner-shared Mn{supmore » 3+}-octahedral chains whereas the latter only possesses isolated Mn{sup 3+}-octahedra. Both compounds transform to a new orthorhombic compound BaMn{sup II}(PO{sub 4})F (3) after thermal decomposition. - Graphical abstract: The large radius of Cl{sup -} ions makesBaMn{sup III}[PO{sub 4}]FCl to adopt isolated [MnO{sub 4}FCl] rather than corner-sharing octahedra as observed in BaMn{sup III}[PO{sub 4}]F{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Two novel phosphate halides BaMn[PO{sub 4}]FCl and BaMn[PO{sub 4}]F{sub 2} have been prepared. • These new compounds adopt different types of layered structures. • They have different molecular vibration modes and thermal stabilities. • BaMn[PO{sub 4}]FCl has weaker antiferromagnetic interactions than BaMn[PO{sub 4}]F{sub 2}. • The former adopts isolated octahedra whereas the latter adopts octahedral chains.« less

  20. Informatics-Aided Density Functional Theory Study on the Li Ion Transport of Tavorite-Type LiMTO4F (M(3+)-T(5+), M(2+)-T(6+)).

    PubMed

    Jalem, Randy; Kimura, Mayumi; Nakayama, Masanobu; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2015-06-22

    The ongoing search for fast Li-ion conducting solid electrolytes has driven the deployment surge on density functional theory (DFT) computation and materials informatics for exploring novel chemistries before actual experimental testing. Existing structure prototypes can now be readily evaluated beforehand not only to map out trends on target properties or for candidate composition selection but also for gaining insights on structure-property relationships. Recently, the tavorite structure has been determined to be capable of a fast Li ion insertion rate for battery cathode applications. Taking this inspiration, we surveyed the LiMTO4F tavorite system (M(3+)-T(5+) and M(2+)-T(6+) pairs; M is nontransition metals) for solid electrolyte use, identifying promising compositions with enormously low Li migration energy (ME) and understanding how structure parameters affect or modulate ME. We employed a combination of DFT computation, variable interaction analysis, graph theory, and a neural network for building a crystal structure-based ME prediction model. Candidate compositions that were predicted include LiGaPO4F (0.25 eV), LiGdPO4F (0.30 eV), LiDyPO4F (0.30 eV), LiMgSO4F (0.21 eV), and LiMgSeO4F (0.11 eV). With chemical substitutions at M and T sites, competing effects among Li pathway bottleneck size, polyanion covalency, and local lattice distortion were determined to be crucial for controlling ME. A way to predict ME for multiple structure types within the neural network framework was also explored.

  1. 23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A COREBLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A CORE-BLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE BOXES WITH RESIGN IMPREGNATED SAND AND CREATED A CORE THAT THEN REQUIRED BAKING, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Pm-1 Reactor Core Final Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, R. O.; Cox, F. H.; Carnasale, A.

    1962-01-01

    The PM-1 water cooled and moderated core contains 741 highly enriched stainless steel cermet tubular fuel elements and 90 lumped B stainless steel burnable poison elements, and it is controlled by 6 Y-shaped europium titanate movable control rods. The core has a lifetime of 1.95 years when operated at its design power level of 9.37 mw of thermal energy. The control of the core is designed so that there is a positive shutdown margin at all times with either one rod stuck completely out or the core or with two rods stuck in the operating condition. The core power ismore » removed by 2125 gpm of pressurized water at an average temperature of 463 deg F and pressure of 1300 psia. In reactors of this type, the core is stable with a negative temperature coefficient of approximately 2.5 x 10/sup -4/ DELTA K/K/ deg F.« less

  3. Mammalian target of rapamycin/eukaryotic initiation factor 4F pathway regulates follicle growth and development of theca cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao-Ran; Cao, Yong-Chun; Tian, Jin-Ling; Zhen, Di; Luo, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xin-Mei; Tian, Jian-Hui; Gao, Jian-Ming

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the roles of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway in follicular growth and development of thecal cells. Using in vivo-grown and in vitro-cultured ovaries, histological changes were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from 0 day post partum (d.p.p.) to 8 d.p.p. ovaries were screened by microarray and verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Forty-two DEGs related to cell proliferation and differentiation were screened out, with most DEGs being related to the to mTOR signalling pathway. Then, 3 d.p.p. ovaries were retrieved and used to verify the role of mTOR signalling in follicle and thecal cell development using its activators (Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) and GTP) and inhibitor (rapamycin). The development of follicles and thecal cells was significantly impaired in ovaries cultured in vitro Day 3 to Day 8. In in vitro-cultured ovaries, Rheb and GTP (is 100ngmL -1 Rheb and 500ngmL -1 GTP for 48h) significantly increased follicle diameter, the percentage of primary and secondary follicles and the umber of thecal cells, and upregulated expression of mTOR, phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4F and cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP17A1). Rapamycin (10nM rapamycin for 24h) had opposite effects to those of Rheb and GTP, and partly abrogated (significant) the effects of Rheb and GTP when added to the culture in combination with these drugs. Thus, mTOR signalling plays an important role in follicle growth and thecal cell development.

  4. Mechanism of relaxation enhancement of spin labels in membranes by paramagnetic ion salts: dependence on 3d and 4f ions and on the anions.

    PubMed

    Livshits, V A; Dzikovski, B G; Marsh, D

    2001-02-01

    Progressive saturation EPR measurements and EPR linewidth determinations have been performed on spin-labeled lipids in fluid phospholipid bilayer membranes to elucidate the mechanisms of relaxation enhancement by different paramagnetic ion salts. Such paramagnetic relaxation agents are widely used for structural EPR studies in biological systems, particularly with membranes. Metal ions of the 3d and 4f series were used as their chloride, sulfate, and perchlorate salts. For a given anion, the efficiency of relaxation enhancement is in the order Mn(2+) > or = Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Co(2+) approximately Dy(3+). A pronounced dependence of the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement on the anion is found in the order ClO(-)(4) > Cl(-) > SO(2-)(4). This is in the order of the octanol partition coefficients multiplied by spin exchange rate constants that were determined for the different paramagnetic salts in methanol. Detailed studies coupled with theoretical estimates reveal that, for the chlorides and perchlorates of Ni(2+) (and Co(2+)), the relaxation enhancements are dominated by Heisenberg spin exchange interactions with paramagnetic ions dissolved in fluid membranes. The dependence on membrane composition of the relaxation enhancement by intramembrane Heisenberg exchange indicates that the diffusion of the ions within the membrane takes place via water-filled defects. For the corresponding Cu(2+) salts, additional relaxation enhancements arise from dipolar interactions with ions within the membrane. For the case of Mn(2+) salts, static dipolar interactions with paramagnetic ions in the aqueous phase also make a further appreciable contribution to the spin-label relaxation enhancement. On this basis, different paramagnetic agents may be chosen to optimize sensitivity to different structurally correlated interactions. These results therefore will aid further spin-label EPR studies in structural biology. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Mechanism of Relaxation Enhancement of Spin Labels in Membranes by Paramagnetic Ion Salts: Dependence on 3 d and 4 f Ions and on the Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livshits, V. A.; Dzikovski, B. G.; Marsh, D.

    2001-02-01

    Progressive saturation EPR measurements and EPR linewidth determinations have been performed on spin-labeled lipids in fluid phospholipid bilayer membranes to elucidate the mechanisms of relaxation enhancement by different paramagnetic ion salts. Such paramagnetic relaxation agents are widely used for structural EPR studies in biological systems, particularly with membranes. Metal ions of the 3d and 4f series were used as their chloride, sulfate, and perchlorate salts. For a given anion, the efficiency of relaxation enhancement is in the order Mn2+ ≥ Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Co2+ ≈ Dy3+. A pronounced dependence of the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement on the anion is found in the order ClO-4 > Cl- > SO2-4. This is in the order of the octanol partition coefficients multiplied by spin exchange rate constants that were determined for the different paramagnetic salts in methanol. Detailed studies coupled with theoretical estimates reveal that, for the chlorides and perchlorates of Ni2+ (and Co2+), the relaxation enhancements are dominated by Heisenberg spin exchange interactions with paramagnetic ions dissolved in fluid membranes. The dependence on membrane composition of the relaxation enhancement by intramembrane Heisenberg exchange indicates that the diffusion of the ions within the membrane takes place via water-filled defects. For the corresponding Cu2+ salts, additional relaxation enhancements arise from dipolar interactions with ions within the membrane. For the case of Mn2+ salts, static dipolar interactions with paramagnetic ions in the aqueous phase also make a further appreciable contribution to the spin-label relaxation enhancement. On this basis, different paramagnetic agents may be chosen to optimize sensitivity to different structurally correlated interactions. These results therefore will aid further spin-label EPR studies in structural biology.

  6. The − 5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.starska@umed.lodz.pl; Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa

    2014-10-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was determinedmore » by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in laryngeal cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn and Cu levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels.« less

  7. Core-Cutoff Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gheen, Darrell

    2007-01-01

    A tool makes a cut perpendicular to the cylindrical axis of a core hole at a predetermined depth to free the core at that depth. The tool does not damage the surrounding material from which the core was cut, and it operates within the core-hole kerf. Coring usually begins with use of a hole saw or a hollow cylindrical abrasive cutting tool to make an annular hole that leaves the core (sometimes called the plug ) in place. In this approach to coring as practiced heretofore, the core is removed forcibly in a manner chosen to shear the core, preferably at or near the greatest depth of the core hole. Unfortunately, such forcible removal often damages both the core and the surrounding material (see Figure 1). In an alternative prior approach, especially applicable to toxic or fragile material, a core is formed and freed by means of milling operations that generate much material waste. In contrast, the present tool eliminates the damage associated with the hole-saw approach and reduces the extent of milling operations (and, hence, reduces the waste) associated with the milling approach. The present tool (see Figure 2) includes an inner sleeve and an outer sleeve and resembles the hollow cylindrical tool used to cut the core hole. The sleeves are thin enough that this tool fits within the kerf of the core hole. The inner sleeve is attached to a shaft that, in turn, can be attached to a drill motor or handle for turning the tool. This tool also includes a cutting wire attached to the distal ends of both sleeves. The cutting wire is long enough that with sufficient relative rotation of the inner and outer sleeves, the wire can cut all the way to the center of the core. The tool is inserted in the kerf until its distal end is seated at the full depth. The inner sleeve is then turned. During turning, frictional drag on the outer core pulls the cutting wire into contact with the core. The cutting force of the wire against the core increases with the tension in the wire and

  8. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the "a" determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003-2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some "a" determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive for HBV-DNA were seen to exhibit a ten-fold higher presence of anti

  9. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the “a” determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. Patients and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003–2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Results Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some “a” determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. Conclusions We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive

  10. Core sample extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, James; Cobb, Billy; Hart, Steve; Leaptrotte, Jeff; Milhollin, James; Pernik, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The problem of retrieving and storing core samples from a hole drilled on the lunar surface is addressed. The total depth of the hole in question is 50 meters with a maximum diameter of 100 millimeters. The core sample itself has a diameter of 60 millimeters and will be two meters in length. It is therefore necessary to retrieve and store 25 core samples per hole. The design utilizes a control system that will stop the mechanism at a certain depth, a cam-linkage system that will fracture the core, and a storage system that will save and catalogue the cores to be extracted. The Rod Changer and Storage Design Group will provide the necessary tooling to get into the hole as well as to the core. The mechanical design for the cam-linkage system as well as the conceptual design of the storage device are described.

  11. Identifying ELIXIR Core Data Resources.

    PubMed

    Durinx, Christine; McEntyre, Jo; Appel, Ron; Apweiler, Rolf; Barlow, Mary; Blomberg, Niklas; Cook, Chuck; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Lopez, Rodrigo; Redaschi, Nicole; Stockinger, Heinz; Teixeira, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The core mission of ELIXIR is to build a stable and sustainable infrastructure for biological information across Europe. At the heart of this are the data resources, tools and services that ELIXIR offers to the life-sciences community, providing stable and sustainable access to biological data. ELIXIR aims to ensure that these resources are available long-term and that the life-cycles of these resources are managed such that they support the scientific needs of the life-sciences, including biological research. ELIXIR Core Data Resources are defined as a set of European data resources that are of fundamental importance to the wider life-science community and the long-term preservation of biological data. They are complete collections of generic value to life-science, are considered an authority in their field with respect to one or more characteristics, and show high levels of scientific quality and service. Thus, ELIXIR Core Data Resources are of wide applicability and usage. This paper describes the structures, governance and processes that support the identification and evaluation of ELIXIR Core Data Resources. It identifies key indicators which reflect the essence of the definition of an ELIXIR Core Data Resource and support the promotion of excellence in resource development and operation. It describes the specific indicators in more detail and explains their application within ELIXIR's sustainability strategy and science policy actions, and in capacity building, life-cycle management and technical actions. The identification process is currently being implemented and tested for the first time. The findings and outcome will be evaluated by the ELIXIR Scientific Advisory Board in March 2017. Establishing the portfolio of ELIXIR Core Data Resources and ELIXIR Services is a key priority for ELIXIR and publicly marks the transition towards a cohesive infrastructure.

  12. High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells Based on a Wide-Bandgap Polymer Containing Pyrrolo[3,4-f]benzotriazole-5,7-dione with a Power Conversion Efficiency of 8.63.

    PubMed

    Lan, Liuyuan; Chen, Zhiming; Hu, Qin; Ying, Lei; Zhu, Rui; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Huang, Fei; Cao, Yong

    2016-09-01

    A novel donor-acceptor type conjugated polymer based on a building block of 4,8-di(thien-2-yl) - 6-octyl-2-octyl-5 H- pyrrolo[3,4- f ]benzotriazole-5,7(6 H )-dione (TZBI) as the acceptor unit and 4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-benzo-[1,2- b :4,5- b' ]dithiophene as the donor unit, named as PTZBIBDT, is developed and used as an electron-donating material in bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells. The resulting copolymer exhibits a wide bandgap of 1.81 eV along with relatively deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of -5.34 eV. Based on the optimized processing conditions, including thermal annealing, and the use of a water/alcohol cathode interlayer, the single-junction polymer solar cell based on PTZBIBDT:PC 71 BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C 71 -butyric acid methyl ester) blend film affords a power conversion efficiency of 8.63% with an open-circuit voltage of 0.87 V, a short circuit current of 13.50 mA cm -2 , and a fill factor of 73.95%, which is among the highest values reported for wide-bandgap polymers-based single-junction organic solar cells. The morphology studies on the PTZBIBDT:PC 71 BM blend film indicate that a fibrillar network can be formed and the extent of phase separation can be mani-pulated by thermal annealing. These results indicate that the TZBI unit is a very promising building block for the synthesis of wide-bandgap polymers for high-performance single-junction and tandem (or multijunction) organic solar cells.

  13. Core Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, Joshua; Adrian, Betty

    2009-01-01

    The Core Research Center (CRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), located at the Denver Federal Center in Lakewood, Colo., currently houses rock core from more than 8,500 boreholes representing about 1.7 million feet of rock core from 35 States and cuttings from 54,000 boreholes representing 238 million feet of drilling in 28 States. Although most of the boreholes are located in the Rocky Mountain region, the geologic and geographic diversity of samples have helped the CRC become one of the largest and most heavily used public core repositories in the United States. Many of the boreholes represented in the collection were drilled for energy and mineral exploration, and many of the cores and cuttings were donated to the CRC by private companies in these industries. Some cores and cuttings were collected by the USGS along with other government agencies. Approximately one-half of the cores are slabbed and photographed. More than 18,000 thin sections and a large volume of analytical data from the cores and cuttings are also accessible. A growing collection of digital images of the cores are also becoming available on the CRC Web site Internet http://geology.cr.usgs.gov/crc/.

  14. Role of Magnetic Exchange Interactions in the Magnetization Relaxation of {3d-4f} Single-Molecule Magnets: A Theoretical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Beg, Mohammad Faizan; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-11

    Combined density functional and ab initio calculations are performed on two isomorphous tetranuclear {Ni3 (III) Ln(III) } star-type complexes [Ln=Gd (1), Dy (2)] to shed light on the mechanism of magnetic exchange in 1 and the origin of the slow magnetization relaxation in complex 2. DFT calculations correctly reproduce the sign and magnitude of the J values compared to the experiments for complex 1. Acute ∢Ni-O-Gd bond angles present in 1 instigate a significant interaction between the 4fxyz orbital of the Gd(III) ion and 3d${{_{x{^{2}}- y{^{2}}}}}$ orbital of the Ni(II) ions, leading to rare and strong antiferromagnetic Ni⋅⋅⋅Gd interactions. Calculations reveal the presence of a strong next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni antiferromagnetic interaction in complex 1 leading to spin frustration behavior. CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations performed on complex 2 suggest that the octahedral environment around the Dy(III) ion is neither strong enough to stabilize the mJ |±15/2〉 as the ground state nor able to achieve a large ground-state-first-excited-state gap. The ground-state Kramers doublet for the Dy(III) ion is found to be the mJ |±13/2〉 state with a significant transverse anisotropy, leading to very strong quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). Using the POLY_ANISO program, we have extracted the JNiDy interaction as -1.45 cm(-1) . The strong Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions are found to quench the QTM to a certain extent, resulting in zero-field SMM behavior for complex 2. The absence of any ac signals at zero field for the structurally similar [Dy(AlMe4 )3 ] highlights the importance of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and the Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in the magnetization relaxation of complex 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the roles of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in magnetization relaxation of a {3d-4f} molecular magnet have been established. © 2016

  15. Analysis of the interacting partners eIF4F and 3'-CITE required for Melon necrotic spot virus cap-independent translation.

    PubMed

    Miras, Manuel; Truniger, Verónica; Querol-Audi, Jordi; Aranda, Miguel A

    2017-06-01

    We have shown previously that the translation of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, family Tombusviridae, genus Carmovirus) RNAs is controlled by a 3'-cap-independent translation enhancer (CITE), which is genetically and functionally dependent on the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E. Here, we describe structural and functional analyses of the MNSV-Mα5 3'-CITE and its translation initiation factor partner. We first mapped the minimal 3'-CITE (Ma5TE) to a 45-nucleotide sequence, which consists of a stem-loop structure with two internal loops, similar to other I-shaped 3'-CITEs. UV crosslinking, followed by gel retardation assays, indicated that Ma5TE interacts in vitro with the complex formed by eIF4E + eIF4G 980-1159 (eIF4F p20 ), but not with each subunit alone or with eIF4E + eIF4G 1003-1092 , suggesting binding either through interaction with eIF4E following a conformational change induced by its binding to eIF4G 980-1159 , or through a double interaction with eIF4E and eIF4G 980-1159 . Critical residues for this interaction reside in an internal bulge of Ma5TE, so that their mutation abolished binding to eIF4E + eIF4G 1003-1092 and cap-independent translation. We also developed an in vivo system to test the effect of mutations in eIF4E in Ma5TE-driven cap-independent translation, showing that conserved amino acids in a positively charged RNA-binding motif around amino acid position 228, implicated in eIF4E-eIF4G binding or belonging to the cap-recognition pocket, are essential for cap-independent translation controlled by Ma5TE, and thus for the multiplication of MNSV. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  17. Substituent effects in a series of 1,7-C[subscript 60](R[subscript F])[subscript 2] compounds (R[subscript F] = CF[subscript 3], C[subscript 2]F[subscript 5], n-C[subscrip 3]F[subscript 7], i-C[subscript 3]F[subscript 7], n-C[subscript 4]F[subscript 9], s-C[subscript 4]F[subscript 9], n-C[subscript 8]F[subscript 17]): electron affinities, reduction potentials and E(LUMO) values are not always correlated

    SciTech Connect

    Kuvychko, Igor V.; Whitaker, James B.; Larson, Bryon W.

    2013-04-08

    A series of seven structurally-similar compounds with different pairs of R{sub F} groups were prepared, characterized spectroscopically, and studied by electrochemical methods (cyclic and square-wave voltammetry), low-temperature anion photoelectron spectroscopy, and DFT calculations (five of the compounds are reported here for the first time). This is the first time that a set of seven R{sub F} groups have been compared with respect to their relative effects on E{sub 1/2}(0/-), electron affinity (EA), and the DFT-calculated LUMO energy. The compounds, 1,7-C{sub 60}(R{sub F}){sub 2} (R{sub F} = CF{sub 3}, C{sub 2}F{sub 5}, i-C{sub 3}F{sub 7}, n-C{sub 3}F{sub 7}, s-C{sub 4}F{sub 9},more » n-C{sub 4}F{sub 9} and n-C{sub 8}F{sub 21}), were found to have statistically different electron affinities (EA), at the {+-}10 meV level of uncertainty, but virtually identical first reduction potentials, at the {+-}10 mV level of uncertainty. The lack of a correlation between EA and E{sub 1/2}(0/-), and between E(LUMO) and E{sub 1/2}(0/-), for such similar compounds is unprecedented and suggests that explanations for differences in figures of merit for materials and/or devices that are based on equating easily measurable E{sub 1/2}(0/-) values with EAs or E(LUMO) values should be viewed with caution. The solubilities of the seven compounds in toluene varied by nearly a factor of six, but in an unpredictable way, with the C{sub 2}F{sub 5} and s-C{sub 4}F{sub 9} compounds being the most soluble and the i-C{sub 3}F{sub 7} compound being the least soluble. The effects of the different R{sub F} groups on EAs, E(LUMO) values, and solubilities should help fluorine chemists choose the right R{sub F} group to design new materials with improved morphological, electronic, optical, and/or magnetic properties.« less

  18. Fast‐Rate Capable Electrode Material with Higher Energy Density than LiFePO4: 4.2V LiVPO4F Synthesized by Scalable Single‐Step Solid‐State Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seongsu

    2015-01-01

    Use of compounds that contain fluorine (F) as electrode materials in lithium ion batteries has been considered, but synthesizing single‐phase samples of these compounds is a difficult task. Here, it is demonstrated that a simple scalable single‐step solid‐state process with additional fluorine source can obtain highly pure LiVPO4F. The resulting material with submicron particles achieves very high rate capability ≈100 mAh g−1 at 60 C‐rate (1‐min discharge) and even at 200 C‐rate (18 s discharge). It retains superior capacity, ≈120 mAh g−1 at 10 C charge/10 C discharge rate (6‐min) for 500 cycles with >95% retention efficiency. Furthermore, LiVPO4F shows low polarization even at high rates leading to higher operating potential >3.45 V (≈3.6 V at 60 C‐rate), so it achieves high energy density. It is demonstrated for the first time that highly pure LiVPO4F can achieve high power capability comparable to LiFePO4 and much higher energy density (≈521 Wh g−1 at 20 C‐rate) than LiFePO4 even without nanostructured particles. LiVPO4F can be a real substitute of LiFePO4. PMID:27774395

  19. Investigating the relationship between k-core and s-core network decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidsaa, Marius; Almaas, Eivind

    2016-05-01

    Network decomposition methods, such as the much used k-core analysis, are able to identify globally central regions of networks. The decomposition approaches are hierarchical and identify nested sets of nodes with increasing centrality properties. While most studies have been concerned with unweighted networks, i.e. k-core analysis, recent works have introduced network decomposition methods that apply to weighted networks. Here, we investigate the relationship between k-core decomposition for unweighted networks and s-core decomposition for weighted networks by systematically employing a link-weight scheme that gradually discretizes the link weights. We applied this approach to the Erdős-Rényi model and the scale-free configuration model for five different weight distributions, and two empirical networks, the US air traffic network and a Facebook network. We find that (1) both uniformly random and positively correlated link-weight distributions give rise to highly stable s-core decompositions with respect to discretization levels. (2) For negatively correlated link-weight distributions, the resulting s-core decomposition has no similarity to the k-cores. Since several combinations of network topology and link-weight distributions give rise to a core-structure that is highly similar to the full s-core for a large range of link-discretization levels, it is possible to significantly speed up the numerical s-core analysis for these situations.

  20. Phase equilibria in the NaF-CdO-NaPO{sub 3} system at 873 K and crystal structure and physico-chemical characterizations of the new Na{sub 2}CdPO{sub 4}F fluorophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Aboussatar, Mohamed; Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l’État Solide, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax; Mbarek, Aïcha

    2017-04-15

    Isothermal sections of the diagram representing phase relationships in the NaF-CdO-NaPO{sub 3} system have been investigated by solid state reactions and powder X-ray diffraction. This phase diagram investigation confirms the polymorphism of the NaCdPO{sub 4} side component and the structure of the ß high temperature polymorph (orthorhombic, space group Pnma and unit cell parameters a=9.3118(2), b=7.0459(1), c=5.1849(1) Å has been refined. A new fluorophosphate, Na{sub 2}CdPO{sub 4}F, has been discovered and its crystal structure determined and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. It exhibits a new 3D structure with orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pnma and unit cell parameters a=5.3731(1), b=6.8530(1),more » c=12.2691(2) Å. The structure is closely related to those of the high temperature polymorph of the nacaphite Na{sub 2}CaPO{sub 4}F and the fluorosilicate Ca{sub 2}NaSiO{sub 4}F but differs essentially in the cationic repartition since the structure is fully ordered with one Na site (8d) and one Cd site (4c). Relationships with other Na{sub 2}M{sup II}PO{sub 4}F (M{sup II}=Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) have been examined and the crystal-chemical and topographical analysis of these fluorophosphates is briefly reviewed. IR, Raman, optical and {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, {sup 31}P MAS NMR characterizations of Na{sub 2}CdPO{sub 4}F have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the compound Na{sub 2}CdPO{sub 4}F, discovered during the study of the phase relationships in the NaF-CdO-NaPO{sub 3} system, has been determined and compared with other Na{sub 2}M{sup II}PO{sub 4}F fluorophosphates. - Highlights: • XRD analysis of the isothermal section of the NaF-CdO-NaPO{sub 3} system at 923 K. • Rietveld refinement of the high temperature polymorph β-NaCdPO{sub 4}. • Crystal structure of the new Na{sub 2}CdPO{sub 4}F fluorophosphate determined from powder XRD. • Crystal structure - composition relationships of Na{sub 2}M{sup II}PO{sub 4}F

  1. Iowa Core Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    One central component of a great school system is a clear set of expectations, or standards, that educators help all students reach. In Iowa, that effort is known as the Iowa Core. The Iowa Core represents the statewide academic standards, which describe what students should know and be able to do in math, science, English language arts, and…

  2. Reconceptualising Core Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Roy

    2007-01-01

    The paper provides an analysis of Core Skill policy and practice in the UK. The author presents a conceptual basis for re-thinking generic Core Skills within educational approaches in teaching and learning. The discussion looks at whether universal notions of generic skills are appropriate when considering post-compulsory pedagogic approaches to…

  3. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  4. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  5. The fluffy core of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, James H.

    2015-09-01

    Enceladus is well known for its young south polar terrain, observed by Cassini to emit several GW of heat as well as plumes of vapor and ice. The source of this energy is believed to be tidal dissipation. However, the observed south polar heat flux cannot be sustained over the age of the Solar System. Furthermore, thermal evolution models suggest that any global subsurface ocean should freeze on a timescale of tens to hundreds of My, sharply reducing future tidal heating, unless large amounts of antifreeze are present in the ocean. Here I propose an alternative internal structure for Enceladus, in which the silicate core is fragmented, and that the tidal deformation of the core may be partially controlled by interstitial ice. I find that fragmentation of the core increases tidal dissipation by a factor of 20, consistent with the long-term dynamically sustainable level, even when the interior is completely frozen, but only if the interior starts out warm and tidal heating is strong from the beginning. If this is not the case, radioactive heating will be insufficient to prevent the interior from cooling. Although an ocean need not be present in order for the interior to experience significant tidal heating, all models that dissipate enough heat to prevent runaway cooling are also warm enough to have an ocean. Tidal dissipation in the weak core provides an additional source of heat that may prevent a global subsurface ocean from freezing.

  6. Internal core tightener

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1976-06-22

    An internal core tightener which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a "fixed" outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change.

  7. Protostellar core instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscharnuter, W. M.

    An axisymmetric collapse model for the formation of the presolar nebula and a spherically symmetric, Larson-type protostellar evolution is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the dynamical behavior of the starlike core. It has been found that, subsequent to their formation, protostellar core embryos containing only a few percents of a solar mass tend to undergo oscillations of large amplitudes. Dynamical oscillations and even disruptive core expansion ('hiccups') have also been observed to occur in spherically symmetric models. On the basis of Baker's (1966) one-zone-model, it can be argued that protostellar cores are vibrationally unstable and may even become dynamically unstable. Thus, oscillations of protostellar cores are to be expected, but their amplitudes, as observed in the model sequences, could be very sensitive to the accuracy achieved by the numerical solution of the discretized structure equations.

  8. Lunar Core and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  9. Mars' core and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D J

    2001-07-12

    The detection of strongly magnetized ancient crust on Mars is one of the most surprising outcomes of recent Mars exploration, and provides important insight about the history and nature of the martian core. The iron-rich core probably formed during the hot accretion of Mars approximately 4.5 billion years ago and subsequently cooled at a rate dictated by the overlying mantle. A core dynamo operated much like Earth's current dynamo, but was probably limited in duration to several hundred million years. The early demise of the dynamo could have arisen through a change in the cooling rate of the mantle, or even a switch in convective style that led to mantle heating. Presently, Mars probably has a liquid, conductive outer core and might have a solid inner core like Earth.

  10. Core muscle activity during suspension exercises.

    PubMed

    Mok, Nicola W; Yeung, Ella W; Cho, Jeran C; Hui, Samson C; Liu, Kimee C; Pang, Coleman H

    2015-03-01

    Suspension exercise has been advocated as an effective means to improve core stability among healthy individuals and those with musculoskeletal complaints. However, the activity of core muscles during suspension exercises has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the level of activation of core muscles during suspension exercises within young and healthy adults. The study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of core muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique/transversus abdominis, and superficial lumbar multifidus) during four suspension workouts (hip abduction in plank, hamstring curl, chest press, and 45° row) was investigated. Muscle activity during a 5-s hold period of the workouts was measured by sEMG and normalized to the individual's maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Different levels of muscle activation were observed during the hip abduction in plank, hamstring curl, and chest press. Hip abduction in plank generated the highest activation of most abdominal muscles. The 45° row exercise generated the lowest muscle activation. Among the four workouts investigated, the hip abduction in plank with suspension was found to have the strongest potential strengthening effect on core muscles. Also, suspension training was found to generate relatively high levels of core muscle activation when compared with that among previous studies of core exercises on stable and unstable support surfaces. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CoreTSAR: Core Task-Size Adapting Runtime

    DOE PAGES

    Scogland, Thomas R. W.; Feng, Wu-chun; Rountree, Barry; ...

    2014-10-27

    Heterogeneity continues to increase at all levels of computing, with the rise of accelerators such as GPUs, FPGAs, and other co-processors into everything from desktops to supercomputers. As a consequence, efficiently managing such disparate resources has become increasingly complex. CoreTSAR seeks to reduce this complexity by adaptively worksharing parallel-loop regions across compute resources without requiring any transformation of the code within the loop. Lastly, our results show performance improvements of up to three-fold over a current state-of-the-art heterogeneous task scheduler as well as linear performance scaling from a single GPU to four GPUs for many codes. In addition, CoreTSAR demonstratesmore » a robust ability to adapt to both a variety of workloads and underlying system configurations.« less

  12. Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Binds to the mRNA Cap-binding Eukaryotic Translation Initiation 4F (eIF4F) Complex and Up-regulates Host Translation Initiation Machinery through eIF4E-binding Protein 1 Inactivation*

    PubMed Central

    George, Anju; Panda, Swarupa; Kudmulwar, Devika; Chhatbar, Salma Pathan; Nayak, Sanjeev Chavan; Krishnan, Harinivas Harshan

    2012-01-01

    Initiation, a major rate-limiting step of host protein translation, is a critical target in many viral infections. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in hepatocellular carcinoma. Translation initiation, up-regulated in many cancers, plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. mTOR is a major regulator of host protein translation. Even though activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR by HCV non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) is known, not much is understood about the regulation of host translation initiation by this virus. Here for the first time we show that HCV up-regulates host cap-dependent translation machinery in Huh7.5 cells through simultaneous activation of mTORC1 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) by NS5A. NS5A, interestingly, overexpressed and subsequently hyperphosphorylated 4EBP1. NS5A phosphorylated eIF4E through the p38 MAPK-MNK pathway. Both HCV infection and NS5A expression augmented eIF4F complex assembly, an indicator of cap-dependent translation efficiency. Global translation, however, was not altered by HCV NS5A. 4EBP1 phosphorylation, but not that of S6K1, was uniquely resistant to rapamycin in NS5A-Huh7.5 cells, indicative of an alternate phosphorylation mechanism of 4EBP1. Resistance of Ser-473, but not Thr-308, phosphorylation of AKT to PI3K inhibitors suggested an activation of mTORC2 by NS5A. NS5A associated with eIF4F complex and polysomes, suggesting its active involvement in host translation. This is the first report that implicates an HCV protein in the up-regulation of host translation initiation apparatus through concomitant regulation of multiple pathways. Because both mTORC1 activation and eIF4E phosphorylation are involved in tumorigenesis, we propose that their simultaneous activation by NS5A might contribute significantly to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22184107

  13. Advocacy: Emphasizing the Uncommon about the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2014-01-01

    The author describes key issues and uncommon concerns about the Common Core State Standards that fit within two categories: philosophical and pedagogical. Philosophically, Common Core State K-12 Standards should not be expected to be mastered at a specific grade level but based on developmental readiness. Pedagogically, Common Core State Standards…

  14. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  15. Radiation Effects: Core Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicello, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided

  16. Core stability and bicycling.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Chad; Ross, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Bicycling is a popular fitness activity in the United States and around the world. Because of the nature of the bicycling position, the neck and back are at risk for injury. One method to prevent these injuries is to ensure that the body's "core" is strong and stable. A strong and stable core also provides a platform to maximize power transfer, improving performance. Core exercises also may enhance recovery from intense bicycling efforts. Simple stability exercises can improve performance and may prevent injuries in bicyclists.

  17. Global Core Plasma Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.; Craven, P. D.; Comfort, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) provides, empirically derived, core plasma density as a function of geomagnetic and solar conditions throughout the inner magnetosphere. It is continuous in value and gradient and is composed of separate models for the ionosphere, the plasmasphere, the plasmapause, the trough, and the polar cap. The relative composition of plasmaspheric H+, He+, and O+ is included in the GCPM. A blunt plasmaspheric bulge and rotation of the bulge with changing geomagnetic conditions is included. The GCPM is an amalgam of density models, intended to serve as a framework for continued improvement as new measurements become available and are used to characterize core plasma density, composition, and temperature.

  18. Core shroud corner joints

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Forsyth, David R.

    2013-09-10

    A core shroud is provided, which includes a number of planar members, a number of unitary corners, and a number of subassemblies each comprising a combination of the planar members and the unitary corners. Each unitary corner comprises a unitary extrusion including a first planar portion and a second planar portion disposed perpendicularly with respect to the first planar portion. At least one of the subassemblies comprises a plurality of the unitary corners disposed side-by-side in an alternating opposing relationship. A plurality of the subassemblies can be combined to form a quarter perimeter segment of the core shroud. Four quarter perimeter segments join together to form the core shroud.

  19. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    DOEpatents

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  20. Effects of lumbar artificial disc design on intervertebral mobility: in vivo comparison between mobile-core and fixed-core.

    PubMed

    Delécrin, Joël; Allain, Jérôme; Beaurain, Jacques; Steib, Jean-Paul; Huppert, Jean; Chataigner, Hervé; Ameil, Marc; Aubourg, Lucie; Nguyen, Jean-Michel

    2012-06-01

    Although in theory, the differences in design between fixed-core and mobile-core prostheses should influence motion restoration, in vivo kinematic differences linked with prosthesis design remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the rationale that the mobile-core design seems more likely to restore physiological motion since the translation of the core could help to mimic the kinematic effects of the natural nucleus. In vivo intervertebral motion characteristics of levels implanted with the mobile-core prosthesis were compared with untreated levels of the same population, levels treated by a fixed-core prosthesis, and normal levels (data from literature). Patients had a single-level implantation at L4L5 or L5S1 including 72 levels with a mobile-core prosthesis and 33 levels with a fixed-core prosthesis. Intervertebral mobility characteristics included the range of motion (ROM), the motion distribution between flexion and extension, the prosthesis core translation (CT), and the intervertebral translation (VT). A method adapted to the implanted segments was developed to measure the VT: metal landmarks were used instead of the bony landmarks. The reliability assessment of the VT measurement method showed no difference between three observers (p < 0.001), a high level of agreement (ICC = 0.908) and an interobserver precision of 0.2 mm. Based on this accurate method, this in vivo study demonstrated that the mobile-core prosthesis replicated physiological VT at L4L5 levels but not at L5S1 levels, and that the fixed-core prosthesis did not replicate physiological VT at any level by increasing VT. As the VT decreased when the CT increased (p < 0.001) it was proven that the core mobility minimized the VT. Furthermore, some physiologic mechanical behaviors seemed to be maintained: the VT was higher at implanted the L4L5 level than at the implanted L5S1 level, and the CT appeared lower at the L4L5 level than at the L5S1 level. ROM and motion distribution

  1. Contaminated Sediment Core Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the environmental risk of sites containing contaminated sediments often poses major challenges due in part to the absence of detailed information available for a given location. Sediment core profiling is often utilized during preliminary environmental investigations ...

  2. Biospecimen Core Resource - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Biospecimen Core Resource centralized laboratory reviews and processes blood and tissue samples and their associated data using optimized standard operating procedures for the entire TCGA Research Network.

  3. Numismatics: A Core Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnsberger, R. Scott

    1988-01-01

    This annotated bibliography selectively focuses on books in English dealing primarily with ancient, medieval European, and U.S. numismatics, outlining a core reference collection appropriate for a large research library. Thirty-two items are listed. (MES)

  4. INTEGRAL core programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Schoenfelder, V.; Ubertini, P.; Winkler, C.

    1997-01-01

    The International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission is described with emphasis on the INTEGRAL core program. The progress made in the planning activities for the core program is reported on. The INTEGRAL mission has a nominal lifetime of two years with a five year extension option. The observing time will be divided between the core program (between 30 and 35 percent during the first two years) and general observations. The core program consists of three main elements: the deep survey of the Galactic plane in the central radian of the Galaxy; frequent scans of the Galactic plane in the search for transient sources, and pointed observations of several selected sources. The allocation of the observation time is detailed and the sensitivities of the observations are outlined.

  5. The core helium flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, P. W.; Deupree, R. G.

    1980-12-01

    The role of convection in the core helium flash is simulated by two-dimensional eddies interacting with the thermonuclear runaway. These eddies are followed by the explicit solution of the two-dimensional conservation laws with a two-dimensional finite difference hydrodynamics code. Thus, no phenomenological theory of convection such as the local mixing length theory is required. The core helium flash is violent, producing a deflagration wave. This differs from the detonation wave (and subsequent disruption of the entire star) produced in previous spherically symmetric violent core helium flashes as the second dimension provides a degree of relief which allows the expansion wave to decouple itself from the burning front. The results predict that a considerable amount of helium in the core will be burned before the horizontal branch is reached and that some envelope mass loss is likely.

  6. Core assembly storage structure

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  7. Micro coring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, David; Brooks, Marshall; Chen, Paul; Dwelle, Paul; Fischer, Ben

    1989-01-01

    A micro-coring apparatus for lunar exploration applications, that is compatible with the other components of the Walking Mobile Platform, was designed. The primary purpose of core sampling is to gain an understanding of the geological composition and properties of the prescribed environment. This procedure has been used extensively for Earth studies and in limited applications during lunar explorations. The corer is described and analyzed for effectiveness.

  8. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  9. SLS Core Stage Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-02

    CHRISTOPHER CRUMBLY, MANAGER OF THE SPACECRAFT PAYLOAD INTEGRATION AND EVOLUTION OFFICE, GAVE VISITORS AN INSIDER'S PERSPECTIVE ON THE CORE STAGE SIMULATOR AT MARSHALL AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM. CHRISTOPHER CRUMBLY, MANAGER OF THE SPACECRAFT PAYLOAD INTEGRATION AND EVOLUTION OFFICE, GAVE VISITORS AN INSIDER'S PERSPECTIVE ON THE CORE STAGE SIMULATOR AT MARSHALL AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPACE LAUNCH SYSTEM.

  10. Emergency core cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schenewerk, William E.; Glasgow, Lyle E.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

  11. Structure of a viral cap-independent translation element that functions via high affinity binding to the eIF4E subunit of eIF4F.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Treder, Krzysztof; Miller, W Allen

    2009-05-22

    RNAs of many positive strand RNA viruses lack a 5' cap structure and instead rely on cap-independent translation elements (CITEs) to facilitate efficient translation initiation. The mechanisms by which these RNAs recruit ribosomes are poorly understood, and for many viruses the CITE is unknown. Here we identify the first CITE of an umbravirus in the 3'-untranslated region of pea enation mosaic virus RNA 2. Chemical and enzymatic probing of the approximately 100-nucleotide PEMV RNA 2 CITE (PTE), and mutagenesis revealed that it forms a long, bulged helix that branches into two short stem-loops, with a possible pseudoknot interaction between a C-rich bulge at the branch point and a G-rich bulge in the main helix. The PTE inhibited translation in trans, and addition of eIF4F, but not eIFiso4F, restored translation. Filter binding assays revealed that the PTE binds eIF4F and its eIF4E subunit with high affinity. Tight binding required an intact cap-binding pocket in eIF4E. Among many PTE mutants, there was a strong correlation between PTE-eIF4E binding affinity and ability to stimulate cap-independent translation. We conclude that the PTE recruits eIF4F by binding eIF4E. The PTE represents a different class of translation enhancer element, as defined by its structure and ability to bind eIF4E in the absence of an m(7)G cap.

  12. Structure of a Viral Cap-independent Translation Element That Functions via High Affinity Binding to the eIF4E Subunit of eIF4F*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaohui; Treder, Krzysztof; Miller, W. Allen

    2009-01-01

    RNAs of many positive strand RNA viruses lack a 5′ cap structure and instead rely on cap-independent translation elements (CITEs) to facilitate efficient translation initiation. The mechanisms by which these RNAs recruit ribosomes are poorly understood, and for many viruses the CITE is unknown. Here we identify the first CITE of an umbravirus in the 3′-untranslated region of pea enation mosaic virus RNA 2. Chemical and enzymatic probing of the ∼100-nucleotide PEMV RNA 2 CITE (PTE), and mutagenesis revealed that it forms a long, bulged helix that branches into two short stem-loops, with a possible pseudoknot interaction between a C-rich bulge at the branch point and a G-rich bulge in the main helix. The PTE inhibited translation in trans, and addition of eIF4F, but not eIFiso4F, restored translation. Filter binding assays revealed that the PTE binds eIF4F and its eIF4E subunit with high affinity. Tight binding required an intact cap-binding pocket in eIF4E. Among many PTE mutants, there was a strong correlation between PTE-eIF4E binding affinity and ability to stimulate cap-independent translation. We conclude that the PTE recruits eIF4F by binding eIF4E. The PTE represents a different class of translation enhancer element, as defined by its structure and ability to bind eIF4E in the absence of an m7G cap. PMID:19276085

  13. Cumulative Brain Injury from Motor Vehicle-Induced Whole-Body Vibration and Prevention by Human Apolipoprotein A-I Molecule Mimetic (4F) Peptide (an Apo A-I Mimetic)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; Yan, Yuhui; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Jaradeh, Safwan S.; Havlik, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Insidious cumulative brain injury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (MV-WBV) has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study is to validate whether whole-body vibration for long periods causes cumulative brain injury and impairment of the cerebral function. We also explored a preventive method for MV-WBV injury. Methods A study simulating whole-body vibration was conducted in 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 9 groups (N = 8): (1) 2-week normal control; (2) 2-week sham control (in the tube without vibration); (3) 2-week vibration (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and .5 G acceleration for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks; vibration parameters in the present study are similar to the most common driving conditions); (4) 4-week sham control; (5) 4-week vibration; (6) 4-week vibration with human apolipoprotein A-I molecule mimetic (4F)-preconditioning; (7) 8-week sham control; (8) 8-week vibration; and (9) 8-week 4F-preconditioning group. All the rats were evaluated by behavioral, physiological, and histological studies of the brain. Results Brain injury from vibration is a cumulative process starting with cerebral vasoconstriction, squeezing of the endothelial cells, increased free radicals, decreased nitric oxide, insufficient blood supply to the brain, and repeated reperfusion injury to brain neurons. In the 8-week vibration group, which indicated chronic brain edema, shrunken neuron numbers increased and whole neurons atrophied, which strongly correlated with neural functional impairment. There was no prominent brain neuronal injury in the 4F groups. Conclusions The present study demonstrated cumulative brain injury from MV-WBV and validated the preventive effects of 4F preconditioning. PMID:26433438

  14. Cumulative Brain Injury from Motor Vehicle-Induced Whole-Body Vibration and Prevention by Human Apolipoprotein A-I Molecule Mimetic (4F) Peptide (an Apo A-I Mimetic).

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; Yan, Yuhui; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Jaradeh, Safwan S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Insidious cumulative brain injury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (MV-WBV) has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study is to validate whether whole-body vibration for long periods causes cumulative brain injury and impairment of the cerebral function. We also explored a preventive method for MV-WBV injury. A study simulating whole-body vibration was conducted in 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 9 groups (N = 8): (1) 2-week normal control; (2) 2-week sham control (in the tube without vibration); (3) 2-week vibration (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and .5 G acceleration for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks; vibration parameters in the present study are similar to the most common driving conditions); (4) 4-week sham control; (5) 4-week vibration; (6) 4-week vibration with human apolipoprotein A-I molecule mimetic (4F)-preconditioning; (7) 8-week sham control; (8) 8-week vibration; and (9) 8-week 4F-preconditioning group. All the rats were evaluated by behavioral, physiological, and histological studies of the brain. Brain injury from vibration is a cumulative process starting with cerebral vasoconstriction, squeezing of the endothelial cells, increased free radicals, decreased nitric oxide, insufficient blood supply to the brain, and repeated reperfusion injury to brain neurons. In the 8-week vibration group, which indicated chronic brain edema, shrunken neuron numbers increased and whole neurons atrophied, which strongly correlated with neural functional impairment. There was no prominent brain neuronal injury in the 4F groups. The present study demonstrated cumulative brain injury from MV-WBV and validated the preventive effects of 4F preconditioning. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of the chamber wall on fluorocarbon-assisted atomic layer etching of SiO{sub 2} using cyclic Ar/C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Masatoshi; Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: oehrlein@umd.edu

    2016-07-15

    The authors studied the effect of the temperature and chemical state of the chamber wall on process performance for atomic layer etching of SiO{sub 2} using a steady-state Ar plasma, periodic injection of a defined number of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} molecules, and synchronized plasma-based Ar{sup +} ion bombardment. To evaluate these effects, the authors measured the quartz coupling window temperature. The plasma gas phase chemistry was characterized using optical emission spectroscopy. It was found that although the thickness of the polymer film deposited in each cycle is constant, the etching behavior changed, which is likely related to a change inmore » the plasma gas phase chemistry. The authors found that the main gas phase changes occur after C{sub 4}F{sub 8} injection. The C{sub 4}F{sub 8} and the quartz window react and generate SiF and CO. The emission intensity changes with wall surface state and temperature. Therefore, changes in the plasma gas species generation can lead to a shift in etching performance during processing. During initial cycles, minimal etching is observed, while etching gradually increases with cycle number.« less

  16. Packing in protein cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  17. Core values for vaccine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Timmis, James Kenneth; Rigat, Fabio; Rappuoli, Rino

    2017-01-20

    Currently, most health economic modelling approaches tend to inadequately incorporate crucial disease-specific criteria and other attributes of benefit resulting from vaccination, which limits their utility for evaluating vaccines and, in consequence, for optimally guiding vaccine decision-making. Additionally, vaccine evaluation methods are frequently poorly standardised and non-transparent, leading to a potentially low level of accountability that can hinder acceptance of resulting decisions. To address these issues, we have considered whether it is possible to identify a set of universal vaccine-disease considerations, which we have called Core Values. To begin to identify such a set of criteria, and to establish whether strong agreement around such core values exists, we conducted two studies based on the Delphi technique. Both studies surveyed a cohort consisting of expert members of the global vaccine community with diverse professional backgrounds. Formal statistical analysis of both studies identified four attributes with strong agreement: 1. Incidence disease cases prevented per year, 2. Cost-effectiveness (including cost-benefit and cost-utility analysis), 3. High mortality disease (case-fatality-rate), and 4. Severity of target disease (risk of morbidity and mortality). These results suggest the feasibility of identifying a clear consensus on a specific set of Core Values for Vaccine Evaluation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. CONFIGURATION INTERACTION IN THE RARE EARTHS AND ITS EFFECT ON THE STARK LEVELS OF PrCl$sub 3$ AND GdCl$sub 3$ /center dot/ 6H$sub 2$O (thesis)

    SciTech Connect

    Rajnak, K.E.

    1962-11-01

    The techniques of Racah were used to obtain expressions for the matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction between the configuration 4f/sup 2/ and the excited configurations 4f6p and 4f5f, and between 4f/sup 7/ and 4f/sup 6/6p. Approximate SCF radial wave functions were computed for Pr/sup +3/ and Tm/sup +3/ and used to calculate the necessary radial integrals. A second-order crystal field interaction between the corfigurations 4f/sup 2/ and 4f5d was also considered. While these mechanisms lead to rather large shifts in some of the Stark levels of Pr/sup +3/ in PrClsub 3/, no one mechanism gives shifts large enough tomore » explain the observed discrepancy between the experimental levels of the /sup 1/D/sub 2/ and those calculated by Margolis. The interaction of 4f/sup 7/ with 4f/sup 6/6p is not large enough to explain the splitting of the /sup 1/P/sub 7/2/, and /sup 6/P/sub 5/2/ levels of GdCl/sub 3/. 6H/sub 2/O/ observed by Dieke and Leopold. (auth)« less

  19. Mars' Inner Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows a cross-section of the planet Mars revealing an inner, high density core buried deep within the interior. Dipole magnetic field lines are drawn in blue, showing the global scale magnetic field that one associates with dynamo generation in the core. Mars must have one day had such a field, but today it is not evident. Perhaps the energy source that powered the early dynamo has shut down. The differentiation of the planet interior - heavy elements like iron sinking towards the center of the planet - can provide energy as can the formation of a solid core from the liquid.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  20. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  1. Core stability: the centerpiece of any training program.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Lisa S; Teeple, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Core strengthening and stability exercises have become key components of training programs for athletes of all levels. The core muscles act as a bridge between upper and lower limbs, and force is transferred from the core, often called the powerhouse, to the limbs. Stability initially requires maintenance of a neutral spine but must progress beyond the neutral zone in a controlled manner. Some studies have demonstrated a relationship between core stability and increased incidence of injury. A training program should start with exercises that isolate specific core muscles but must progress to include complex movements and incorporate other training principles.

  2. The chemistry of transient dense cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, R. T.; Williams, D. A.; Hartquist, T. W.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Viti, S.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the chemistry of a transient density fluctuation, with properties similar to those of a dense core within a molecular cloud. We run a multipoint chemical code through a core's condensation from a diffuse medium to its eventual dispersion, over a period of ~1 Myr. We find a significant enhancement of the chemical composition of the core material on its return to diffuse conditions, whilst the expansion of the core as it disperses moves this material out to large distances from the core centre. This process transports molecular species formed in the high-density regions out into the diffuse medium. Chemical enrichment of the cloud as a whole also occurs, as other cores of various sizes, life-spans and separations evolve throughout. Enrichment is strongly affected by freeze-out on to dust grains, which takes place in high-density, high visual extinction regions. As the core disperses after reaching its peak density and the visual extinction drops below a critical value, grain mantles are evaporated back into the gas phase, initiating more chemistry. The influence of the sizes, masses and cycle periods of cores will be large both for the level of chemical enrichment of a dark cloud and ultimately for the low-mass star formation rate. We also consider the case of a self-gravitating core, by holding its peak density conditions for a further 0.4 Myr. We find that the differences are generally small, and the resultant column densities do not provide definitive criteria for detection of this condition. However, increases in fractional abundances due to reinjection of mantle-borne species may provide a criterion for a negative detection.

  3. University City Core Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia City Planning Commission, PA.

    A redevelopment plan for an urban core area of about 300 acres was warranted by--(1) unsuitable building conditions, (2) undesirable land usage, and (3) faulty traffic circulation. The plan includes expansion of two universities and creation of a regional science center, high school, and medical center. Guidelines for proposed land use and zoning…

  4. Utah's New Mathematics Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…

  5. The Earth's Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanloz, Raymond

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the earth's core is described. Indirect evidence (such as that determined from seismological data) indicates that it is an iron alloy, solid toward its center but otherwise liquid. Evidence also suggests that it is the turbulent flow of the liquid that generates the earth's magnetic field. (JN)

  6. Life from the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, Carlo; Coleman, Max; Pignatti, Johannes; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2010-05-01

    Life on Earth is the result of the chaotic combination of several independent chemical and physical parameters. One of them is the shield from ionizing radiation exerted by the atmosphere and the Earth's magnetic field. We hypothesise that the first few billion years of the Earth's history, dominated by bacteria, were characterized by stronger ionizing radiation. Bacteria can survive under such conditions better than any other organism. During the Archean and early Proterozoic the shield could have been weaker, allowing the development of only a limited number of species, more resistant to the external radiation. The Cambrian explosion of life could have been enhanced by the gradual growth of the solid inner core, which was not existent possibly before 1 Ga. The cooling of the Earth generated the solidification of the iron alloy in the center of the planet. As an hypothesis, before the crystallization of the core, the turbulence in the liquid core could have resulted in a lower or different magnetic field from the one we know today, being absent the relative rotation between inner and external core.

  7. Authentic to the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukral, Nicole; Spector, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    When educators think about what makes learning relevant to students, often they narrow their thinking to electives or career technical education. While these provide powerful opportunities for students to make relevant connections to their learning, they can also create authentic experiences in the core curriculum. In the San Juan Unified School…

  8. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  9. Nucleosome Core Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Nucleosome Core Particle grown on STS-81. The fundamental structural unit of chromatin and is the basis for organization within the genome by compaction of DNA within the nucleus of the cell and by making selected regions of chromosomes available for transcription and replication. Principal Investigator's are Dr. Dan Carter and Dr. Gerard Bunick of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE DESIGN

    DOEpatents

    Mahlmeister, J.E.; Peck, W.S.; Haberer, W.V.; Williams, A.C.

    1960-03-22

    An improved core design for a sodium-cooled, graphitemoderated nuclear reactor is described. The improved reactor core comprises a number of blocks of moderator material, each block being in the shape of a regular prism. A number of channels, extending the length of each block, are disposed around the periphery. When several blocks are placed in contact to form the reactor core, the channels in adjacent blocks correspond with each other to form closed conduits extending the length of the core. Fuel element clusters are disposed in these closed conduits, and liquid coolant is forced through the annulus between the fuel cluster and the inner surface of the conduit. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the moderator blocks are in the form of hexagonal prisms with longitudinal channels cut into the corners of the hexagon. The main advantage of an "edge-loaded" moderator block is that fewer thermal neutrons are absorbed by the moderator cladding, as compared with a conventional centrally loaded moderator block.

  11. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  12. Renewing the Core Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2007-01-01

    The core curriculum accompanied the development of the academic discipline with multiple names such as Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Science, and Health and Human Performance. It provides commonalties for undergraduate majors. It is timely to renew this curriculum. Renewal involves strategic reappraisals. It may stimulate change or reaffirm the…

  13. Modeling Core Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Core collapse supernovae, or the death throes of massive stars, are general relativistic, neutrino-magneto-hydrodynamic events. The core collapse supernova mechanism is still not in hand, though key components have been illuminated, and the potential for multiple mechanisms for different progenitors exists. Core collapse supernovae are the single most important source of elements in the Universe, and serve other critical roles in galactic chemical and thermal evolution, the birth of neutron stars, pulsars, and stellar mass black holes, the production of a subclass of gamma-ray bursts, and as potential cosmic laboratories for fundamental nuclear and particle physics. Given this, the so called ``supernova problem'' is one of the most important unsolved problems in astrophysics. It has been fifty years since the first numerical simulations of core collapse supernovae were performed. Progress in the past decade, and especially within the past five years, has been exponential, yet much work remains. Spherically symmetric simulations over nearly four decades laid the foundation for this progress. Two-dimensional modeling that assumes axial symmetry is maturing. And three-dimensional modeling, while in its infancy, has begun in earnest. I will present some of the recent work from the ``Oak Ridge'' group, and will discuss this work in the context of the broader work by other researchers in the field. I will then point to future requirements and challenges. Connections with other experimental, observational, and theoretical efforts will be discussed, as well.

  14. Some Core Contested Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  15. The Uncommon Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This author contends that the United States neglects creativity in its education system. To see this, he states, one may look at the Common Core State Standards. If one searches the English Language Arts and Literacy standards for the words "creative," "innovative," and "original"--and any associated terms, one will…

  16. Lunar Polar Coring Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, David; Bealmear, David; Benarroche, Patrice; Henry, Alan; Hudson, Raymond; Rivellini, Tommaso; Tolmachoff, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Plans to build a lunar base are presently being studied with a number of considerations. One of the most important considerations is qualifying the presence of water on the Moon. The existence of water on the Moon implies that future lunar settlements may be able to use this resource to produce things such as drinking water and rocket fuel. Due to the very high cost of transporting these materials to the Moon, in situ production could save billions of dollars in operating costs of the lunar base. Scientists have suggested that the polar regions of the Moon may contain some amounts of water ice in the regolith. Six possible mission scenarios are suggested which would allow lunar polar soil samples to be collected for analysis. The options presented are: remote sensing satellite, two unmanned robotic lunar coring missions (one is a sample return and one is a data return only), two combined manned and robotic polar coring missions, and one fully manned core retrieval mission. One of the combined manned and robotic missions has been singled out for detailed analysis. This mission proposes sending at least three unmanned robotic landers to the lunar pole to take core samples as deep as 15 meters. Upon successful completion of the coring operations, a manned mission would be sent to retrieve the samples and perform extensive experiments of the polar region. Man's first step in returning to the Moon is recommended to investigate the issue of lunar polar water. The potential benefits of lunar water more than warrant sending either astronauts, robots or both to the Moon before any permanent facility is constructed.

  17. The ADNI PET Core

    PubMed Central

    Jagust, William J.; Bandy, Dan; Chen, Kewei; Foster, Norman L.; Landau, Susan M.; Mathis, Chester A.; Price, Julie C.; Reiman, Eric M.; Skovronsky, Daniel; Koeppe, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Background This is a progress report of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) PET Core. Methods The Core has supervised the acquisition, quality control, and analysis of longitudinal [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) data in approximately half of the ADNI cohort. In an “add on” study, approximately 100 subjects also underwent scanning with [11C]PIB-PET for amyloid imaging. The Core developed quality control procedures and standardized image acquisition by developing an imaging protocol that has been widely adopted in academic and pharmaceutical industry studies. Data processing provides users with scans that have identical orientation and resolution characteristics despite acquisition on multiple scanner models. The Core labs have used a number of different approaches to characterize differences between subject groups (AD, MCI, controls), to examine longitudinal change over time in glucose metabolism and amyloid deposition, and to assess the use of FDG-PET as a potential outcome measure in clinical trials. Results ADNI data indicate that FDG-PET increases statistical power over traditional cognitive measures, might aid subject selection, and could substantially reduce the sample size in a clinical trial. PIB-PET data showed expected group differences, and identified subjects with significant annual increases in amyloid load across the subject groups. The next activities of the PET core in ADNI will entail developing standardized protocols for amyloid imaging using the [18F]-labeled amyloid imaging agent AV45, which can be delivered to virtually all ADNI sites. Conclusions ADNI has demonstrated the feasibility and utility of multicenter PET studies and is helping to clarify the role of biomarkers in the study of aging and dementia. PMID:20451870

  18. Identification of 5g and 6g terms and revised ionization energies in the Yb II 4f/sup 14/nl isoelectronic sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Sugar, J.; Kaufman, V.

    1979-01-01

    The 5f-5g transitions in Lu III through Os VIII and the 5f-6g transitions in Hf IV through W VI were identified and used to redetermine the ionization energies of Yb II, Lu III, W VI, Re VII, and Os VIII. Complete line-lists and energy levels are given for the one-electron spectra Hf IV, W VI and Os VIII.

  19. A concise, efficient and versatile synthesis of amino-substituted benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepines: synthesis and spectroscopic characterization, together with the molecular and supramolecular structures of three products and one intermediate.

    PubMed

    Acosta Quintero, Lina M; Burgos, Isidro; Palma, Alirio; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    A concise, efficient and versatile synthesis of amino-substituted benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepines is described: starting from a 5-allyl-4,6-dichloropyrimidine, the synthesis involves base-catalysed aminolysis followed by intramolecular Friedel-Crafts cyclization. Four new amino-substituted benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepines are reported, and all the products and reaction intermediates have been fully characterized by IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and the molecular and supramolecular structures of three products and one intermediate have been determined. In each of N,2,6,11-tetramethyl-N-phenyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepin-4-amine, C 22 H 24 N 5 , (III), 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-6,11-dimethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, which crystallizes as a 0.374-hydrate, C 21 H 19 N 5 ·0.374H 2 O, (VIIIa), and 6,7,9,11-tetramethyl-4-(5-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, C 24 H 25 N 5 , (VIIIc), the azepine ring adopts a boat conformation, but with a different configuration at the stereogenic centre in (VIIIc), as compared with (III) and (VIIIa). In the intermediate 5-allyl-6-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-N-methyl-N-(4-methylphenyl)pyrimidin-4-amine, C 22 N 21 N 5 , (VIIb), the immediate precursor of 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)-6,8,11-trimethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]pyrimido[5,4-f]azepine, (VIIIb), the allyl group is disordered over two sets of atomic sites having occupancies of 0.688 (5) and 0.312 (5). The molecules of (III) are linked into chains by a C-H...π(pyrimidine) hydrogen bond, and those of (VIIb) are linked into complex sheets by three hydrogen bonds, one of the C-H...N type and two of C-H...π(arene) type. The molecules of the organic component in (VIIIa) are linked into a chain of rings by two C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds, and these chains are linked into sheets by the water components; a single weak C-H...N hydrogen bond links molecules of (VIIIc

  20. 12W laser amplification at 1427nm on the 4F 3/2 to 4I 13/2 spectral line in an Nd 3+ doped fused silica optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Dawson, Jay W.; Pax, Paul H.; Allen, Graham S.; ...

    2016-12-08

    A 9.3dB improvement in optical gain and a 100x improvement in total optical power over prior published experimental results from the 4F 3/2 to 4I 13/2 transition in an Nd 3+ doped fused silica optical fiber is demonstrated. This is enabled via an optical fiber waveguide design that creates high spectral attenuation in the 1050-1120nm-wavelength range, a continuous spectral filter for the primary 4F 3/2 to 4I 11/2 optical transition. A maximum output power at 1427nm of 1.2W was attained for 43mW coupled seed laser power and 22.2W of coupled pump diode laser power at 880nm a net optical gainmore » of 14.5dB. Reducing the coupled seed laser power to 2.5mW enabled the system to attain 19.3dB of gain for 16.5W of coupled pump power. Four issues limited results; non-optimal seed laser wavelength, amplified spontaneous emission on the 4F 3/2 to 4I 9/2 optical transition, low absorption of pump light from the cladding and high spectral attenuation in the 1350-1450nm range. Lastly, future fibers that mitigate these issues should lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of the laser amplifier, though the shorter wavelength region of the transition from 1310nm to >1350nm is still expected to be limited by excited state absorption.« less

  1. Fluorocarbon assisted atomic layer etching of SiO{sub 2} and Si using cyclic Ar/C{sub 4}F{sub 8} and Ar/CHF{sub 3} plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, Dominik; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: oehrlein@umd.edu; Li, Chen

    2016-01-15

    The need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing as smaller critical dimensions and pitches are required in device patterning. A flux-control based cyclic Ar/C{sub 4}F{sub 8} ALE based on steady-state Ar plasma in conjunction with periodic, precise C{sub 4}F{sub 8} injection and synchronized plasma-based low energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment has been established for SiO{sub 2} [Metzler et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 32, 020603 (2014)]. In this work, the cyclic process is further characterized and extended to ALE of silicon under similar process conditions. The use of CHF{sub 3} as a precursor is examined and comparedmore » to C{sub 4}F{sub 8}. CHF{sub 3} is shown to enable selective SiO{sub 2}/Si etching using a fluorocarbon (FC) film build up. Other critical process parameters investigated are the FC film thickness deposited per cycle, the ion energy, and the etch step length. Etching behavior and mechanisms are studied using in situ real time ellipsometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Silicon ALE shows less self-limitation than silicon oxide due to higher physical sputtering rates for the maximum ion energies used in this work, ranged from 20 to 30 eV. The surface chemistry is found to contain fluorinated silicon oxide during the etching of silicon. Plasma parameters during ALE are studied using a Langmuir probe and establish the impact of precursor addition on plasma properties.« less

  2. Anti-adhesive characteristics of CHF{sub 3}/O{sub 2} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}/O{sub 2} plasma-modified si