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  1. Chronic Dietary Supplementation of 4% Figs on the Modification of Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Vaishnav, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the changes in the plasma Aβ, oxidative stress/antioxidants, and membrane bound enzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice (Tg2576) after dietary supplementation of Omani figs fruits for 15 months along with spatial memory and learning test. AD Tg mice on control diet without figs showed significant impairment in spatial learning ability compared to the wild-type mice on same diet and figs fed Tg mice as well. Significant increase in oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were observed in AD Tg mice. 4% figs treated AD Tg mice significantly attenuated oxidative damage, as evident by decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls and restoration of antioxidant status. Altered activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na+ K+ ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) in AD Tg mice brain regions and was restored by figs treatment. Further, figs supplementation might be able to decrease the plasma levels of Aβ (1–40, 1–42) significantly in Tg mice suggesting a putative delay in the formation of plaques, which might be due to the presence of high natural antioxidants in figs. But this study warrants further extensive investigation to find a novel lead for a therapeutic target for AD from figs. PMID:25050360

  2. Experience gained from treating facial injuries due to civil unrest

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, R I H

    1981-01-01

    During the past 10 years of civil unrest in Northern Ireland a wide variety of facial injuries have been treated at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast. The causes and nature of these injuries are described and the experience gained in their management is reviewed. Imagesp[35]-ap[42]-aFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:7247260

  3. Cerebral involvement in multiple myeloma: case report.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, J; Proctor, S J

    1978-01-01

    Cerebral myeloma in a 49-year-old white man took the form of diffuse arachnoid infiltration, intracerebral perivascular cuffing, and frank intracerebral invasion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:417093

  4. The morbid anatomy of high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Donald

    1979-01-01

    The morbid anatomical changes which take place in man and animals exposed to the chronic hypoxia of residence at high altitude are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:493205

  5. Innervation of alveolar walls in the human lung: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Guz, A

    1980-01-01

    Unmyelinated nerve fibres, probably sensory in type, are present in the human alveolar wall. It is possible that these fibres may be associated with juxta-capillary receptors which have been identified on physiological grounds in animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7216905

  6. Haemangioendothelioma (Kupffer cell angiosarcoma), myelofibrosis, splenic atrophy, and myeloma paraproteinaemia after parenteral thorotrast administration.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, R C; Priestley, S E

    1978-01-01

    A case of thorotrastosis occurred 25 years after thorotrast angiography, with the previously unrecorded association of myeloma type paraproteinaemia. The relationship between haemangioendothelioma due to thorotrast and other vascular sarcomas of the liver is briefly reviewed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:748384

  7. The radiological investigation of urinary infections in children

    PubMed Central

    Starer, F.

    1970-01-01

    One hundred children with urinary tract infections were fully investigated radiologically. More than half showed abnormalities of the urinary tract. It is concluded that full investigation of the urinary tract is justifiable at any age; it should be carried out in boys at the first infection, and in girls at the latest after the second infection, or if treatment did not produce the expected cure. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5412561

  8. The last illnesses of Robert and Horace Walpole.

    PubMed Central

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Urinary lithiasis and gout were uncommonly prevalent in the eighteenth century. This essay considers the history of both afflictions and especially tells of the last illnesses of Sir Robert Walpole, who died from complications of stone, and his son, Horace, who throughout his life was a sufferer of gout. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:6356637

  9. The Limping Child

    PubMed Central

    Tredwell, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    The challenge of the limping child demands that the primary care physician identify those problems which are urgent, when neglect can harm the child, and to provide appropriate supportive care for those which are not. The approach to the limping child should consider the child's age, whether or not the limp is painful, and certain key physical findings. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7b PMID:21297725

  10. PubMed Central

    Beraud, R.; Bilodeau, B.; Sirois, J.; Reinhardt, G.; Cote, J.

    1966-01-01

    Two cases of post-traumatic thrombosis of the internal carotid artery are presented, which are of interest because of their relative rarity. A detailed understanding of the pathogenesis and variety of clinical presentations, an adequate appraisal of the diverse proposed treatments, and an improvement in the prognosis, which is poor even in young patients-these await further enquiry and research. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5904926

  11. Occlusive Peripheral Arteriosclerosis: Treatment by Percutaneous Transluminal Recanalization—“The Dotter Procedure”

    PubMed Central

    Palayew, M. J.; Sedlezky, I.; Sigman, H. H.; Sheiner, N. M.

    1969-01-01

    We have performed 17 percutaneous transluminal dilatations in 15 patients with segmental stenoses of the femoral and popliteal arteries. Initial success was achieved in 14 instances. This technique must be considered a useful adjunct in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease in selected patients. Its use along with endarterectomy has not been previously reported and warrants further investigation. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11 PMID:5353151

  12. The application of laser microscopy to the spectrochemical analysis of fungal tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Thibaut, M.; Ansel, M.; Saez, H.

    1981-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis by means of a laser microscope was employed to detect, in fungal tissue, some elements of Mendeleev's classification. Such a method allows all the necessary information to be obtained from the same sample, and permits the detection of 74 elements in the periodic system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Figs. 3-4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7295539

  13. Mal del pinto in Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Francisco; Rein, Charles R.; Arias, Oswaldo

    1955-01-01

    This report deals with the geographical distribution, prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, serological, clinical, and histopathological features, and treatment of mal del pinto, or pinta, in Mexico. Repository penicillin preparations (PAM and Panbiotic) have been found highly effective in the treatment of this endemic, non-venereal treponematosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13260889

  14. Angiographic studies of quinton—scribner arteriovenous cannulae

    PubMed Central

    Dathan, J. R.; Thompson, J. M. A.; Worthington, B. S.

    1969-01-01

    An analysis of 86 angiographic studies of Quinton–Scribner shunts has shown that these may be very useful in determining the cause and helping in the management of poorly functioning cannulae in patients on regular haemodialysis treatment. ImagesFig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5822081

  15. Hyperparathyroidism: retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.

    1976-01-01

    The history of hyperparathyroidism is outlined and the diagnosis and treatment of its various causes reviewed with reference to a series of 153 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism in the past 20 years. In 119 cases the condition was primary, being due to a tumour or hyperplasia. Future developments in this field are briefly considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:782326

  16. Ultrastructural changes in the parenchymal liver cells of rats treated with high doses of rifampicin.

    PubMed Central

    Piriou, A.; Maissiat, R.; Jacqueson, A.; Warnet, J. M.; Claude, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of hepatic parenchyma was carried out in female Wistar rats after they had received high doses (400 mg X kg-1) of rifampicin for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Morphological changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were observed as early as day 1 of intoxication. These changes corroborate the biochemical data available regarding RFP-induced fatty liver. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 & 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3580280

  17. Clothing for Sports: Part 2: Stridalongapos Loses Shorts, Wins in Style

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for sports must take into account the climate, movement, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 2 of this two-part article describes the clothing needed for running, cycling, skiing, windsurfing, triathlon, aerobic dancing and hot air ballooning. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274232

  18. Yale-China association exchange programs in medical sciences: past, present, and future.

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, G. D.; Morris, J. M.; Starr, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    There has been a close association between Yale University and educational institutions in China for almost 80 years. Although this relationship was interrupted during the early years of the People's Republic of China, collaboration between Yale and medical institutions in China is in the process of being resumed. The history of this collaboration and the opening phases of its resumption are described. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:7245805

  19. The ultrastructure of N-dibutylnitrosamine induced pulmonary tumours (adenocarcinomata) in European hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Reznik-Schüller, H.; Mohr, U.

    1975-01-01

    N-dibutyl-nitrosamine induced pulmonary adenocarcinoma in European hamsters were studied electron microscopically. The tumours were composed of light and dark cells, which, due to their lamellar bodies, resembled alveolar epithelial cells Type II. As cells containing lamellar bodies also occasionally occurred with the epithelial lining of tumour associated peripheral bronchi, a possible bronchiolar origin of the neoplasms is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1212352

  20. Cardiac Trauma: Clinical and Experimental Correlations of Myocardial Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Donald B.; Anderson, Alan E.; Rose, Earl F.; Go, Raymundo T.; Chiu, Chiang L.; Ehrenhaft, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Clinical and experimental observations in myocardial contusion have been correlated. Cardiac arrhythmia is always an important consequence and may be fatal. Reduction in cardiac output often accompanies significant cardiac injury. The coronary arterial circulation is not interrupted and is generally enhanced to the area of injury. Healing of the injury under these circulatory conditions may result in patchy scarring and peculiar adynamic areas of myocardium. Early diagnosis of myocardial contusion may be aided using radionuclide imaging with 99mTc-Sn-polyphosphate. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4412327

  1. Order and disorder in fluid motion.

    PubMed Central

    Gollub, J P

    1995-01-01

    The development of complex states of fluid motion is illustrated by reviewing a series of experiments, emphasizing film flows, surface waves, and thermal convection. In one dimension, cellular patterns bifurcate to states of spatiotemporal chaos. In two dimensions, even ordered patterns can be surprisingly intricate when quasiperiodic patterns are included. Spatiotemporal chaos is best characterized statistically, and methods for doing so are evolving. Transport and mixing phenomena can also lead to spatial complexity, but the degree depends on the significance of molecular or thermal diffusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:11607563

  2. Corrugation of the skull in Paget's disease of bone.

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, N. K.; Das, S. K.; Kataria, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    Paget's disease of bone has been known for about 100 years and the usual deformities of bone, e.g. bowed tibia, large head, are well described in medical text books. However, there does not appear to have been a description of corrugation of the skull as a recognized deformity in Paget's disease. Three cases are now described to illustrate this deformity as an unusual but valuable sign in this disease. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 7 and 8 PMID:876912

  3. Tumours of the nasal cavity*

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Hauser, B.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the nasal cavity are rare in domestic animals, most cases occurring in the dog. Epithelial tumours are the most common type in carnivores (dogs and cats). In general, the same types of tumour occur in domestic animals as occur in man. There was no significant predisposition for breed in dogs, but in both dogs and cats far more males than females were affected. Metastases occurred only rarely. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:1086156

  4. The respiratory epithelium of the lung in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, S E; Purton, M

    1984-01-01

    The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:6490523

  5. Ultrastructural visualisation of carbohydrate groups in the surface coating of hamster alveolar macrophages and pneumonocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Meban, C

    1986-01-01

    The surface coating of the alveolar macrophages and pneumonocytes of hamster lung was studied using an electron microscopy technique. Slices of lung tissue were fixed in aldehyde, labelled with a battery of lectin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates, incubated in a diaminobenzidine-hydrogen peroxide medium and then postfixed in an osmium tetroxide solution. The results of the study suggest that the surface coating of the pneumonocytes and macrophages contains the following carbohydrate groups: N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, D-mannose, L-fucose, D-galactose and sialic acid. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:2447050

  6. Langerhans-like cells in amphibian epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Castell, A; Pérez, A; Rondán, A

    1990-01-01

    Langerhans cells have been described in epidermis and other stratified epithelia of mammals. In other vertebrates equivalent cells have not been found. Amphibians show skin graft rejection, so it is possible that these animals have epidermal cells homologous to Langerhans cells. In this work we demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in frog epidermis that are similar ultrastructurally to mammalian Langerhans cells, except for the absence of Birbeck granules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2148747

  7. A Mini-Atlas of Ear-drum Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Michael; Kwok, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The authors provide a number of ear-drum pictures and identify and discuss diseases affecting the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane and middle ear. They also deal with the removal of foreign bodies from the external canal, perforation of the tympanic membrane, and the use of an artificial ventilation tube. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:21263886

  8. Pseudocyst of the head of the pancreas: relationship to the duct of Santorini.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, M C

    1979-01-01

    A series of 14 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis is presented which illustrates that cysts originating in the superior segment of the head of the pancreas communicate with the duct of Santorini which normally drains this area of the gland. Cysts in this location do not communicate with the major pancreatic duct (Wirsung) in most instances, and therefore may be overlooked in the standard retrograde drainage procedures employed to relieve pancreatic exocrine obstruction. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:518172

  9. Failure of articular process (zygaphophyseal) joint development as a cause of vertebral fusion (blocked vertebrae).

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S

    1987-01-01

    Examination of congenitally fused (blocked) vertebrae in this study suggests that non-development of the joint between articular facets results in fusion of the vertebral arches which in turn leads to secondary fusion of the bodies and hypoplasia of the intervertebral discs. The presence of independent pedicles and transverse processes do not favour the concept that such an abnormality is the result of non-segmentation of the sclerotome. The condition is probably linked to a defect of an inductor substance which influences normal morphogenesis of the vertebral arch in the embryonic period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3429327

  10. Striatal degeneration in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Erdohazi, M; Marshall, P

    1979-01-01

    The clinical features, and the radiological and neuropathological findings of 3 unrelated children with striatal degeneration are presented. In one case the father had recently developed choreiform movements while in the other two the family history was negative for neurological disorders. Two patients had juvenile onset of psychiatric symptoms, seizures, and rigidity. The 3rd child presented with focal seizures at 9 weeks of age. The neuropathological findings are virtually identical in all 3 cases. The classification of striatal degeneration in childhood is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:434899

  11. Acne Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Acne surgery consists of comedone extraction of non-inflamed lesions, triamcinolone acetate injections of some inflamed lesions, and extraction of milia. Prevention is a very important part of comedone treatment, especially avoidance of picking, moisturizers and harsh soaps. Instruments are also very important: even the finest may be too thick and may have to be filed down. Acne surgery is only an adjunct of good medical therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21283373

  12. Glomus tissue in the vicinity of the human carotid sinus.

    PubMed Central

    Garfia, A

    1980-01-01

    Three of 60 cadavers have shown, in the adventitia or in the adipose tissue from the human carotid sinus region, small islands of tissue richly and typically vascularized and with nerve endings contacting cells like the tissue of the principal carotid body. In two of the cases such 'miniglomera' were single but in the third there were several all on the same side. A modified en bloc silver nitrate reduction stain was used to demonstrate the microvascular arrangements and the nerve endings by light microscopy of serial tangential sections of the carotid bifurcation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7364653

  13. PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Marcellin; Gaumond, Emile

    1965-01-01

    Eight cases of xeroderma pigmentosum are described-six in family B. and two in family T. The criteria used in making this diagnosis are indicated. The occurrence of epitheliomas and melanoma was observed. In family B. five of the six patients are alive at time of reporting, their ages varying from 40 to 55 years. In family T. the two affected children died at ages 8 and 14 years. The differential diagnosis between xeroderma pigmentosum and other conditions is briefly discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:14261153

  14. Foreign Bodies in the Aerodigestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Victor G.; Middleton, William G.

    1986-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the aerodigestive tract are common. They may cause minimal disturbance of function, severe morbidity or even sudden death. They enter the aerodigestive tract because of haste during eating, disturbances in physical function, impairments due to extreme youth or age, or contamination of food with foreign bodies. Common symptoms are pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, cough, airway distress, hemoptysis and hematemesis. Signs include point tenderness, respiratory distress and surgical emphysema. Clinical, radiological and endoscopic investigations are described, as are principles of crisis and elective management. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:21267132

  15. Pathology of Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection in Newborn Mice. Muscle, Heart and Brown Fat Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, G.

    1974-01-01

    Newborn mice were inoculated intracerebrally with murine cytomegalovirus and studies were made of the pathological changes in the striate and cardiac muscle and brown fat. Widespread necrosis was seen in muscle and brown fat in the early stages of the infection. Necrotic lesions became calcified. By 56 days lesions were not resolved in the heart and brown fat but were completely resolved in skeletal muscle. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4363374

  16. Hypothalamic hypopituitarism in a patient with a basal encephalocoele--treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, D. V.; Mason, W. P.; Wilson-Holt, N.; Adams, J.; Keene, M.; Tanner, J.; Jacobs, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A 20-year-old patient presented with primary amenorrhoea and growth hormone deficiency caused by a basal encephalocoele. She was found to have developed diabetes insipidus in the 8 years following diagnosis. Gonadotrophin release in response to bolus injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was normal, as was thyrotrophin and adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretion. Pulsatile administration of LHRH by the subcutaneous route resulted in normal ovulation and subsequent menstruation. The investigation and management of patients with basal encephalocoeles are discussed in the light of these findings. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6384984

  17. Apical disease: an analysis of diagnosis and management with special reference to root lesion resection and pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Winstock, D.

    1980-01-01

    Apical disease is discussed against a background of a hitherto assumed high percentage of cystic and bacteriologically sterile lesions, both these concepts being challenged by the author's own investigations. Techniques are described for posterior root resection with emphasis on the conservability of apically diseased teeth, even in the presence of systemic diseases. Open operation is suggested for the diagnosis and treatment of apical disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7396345

  18. Effect of a deproteinized blood extract on the recovery of blood circulation in an ischaemic skin lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Smahel, J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental model was used to study the revascularization of an ischaemic skin lesion and the effect on this process of the blood extract Solcoseryl. Under the conditions given in the experiment, restoration of the circulation was by 2 modes--re-flow in the original vessels, and neovascularization. Solcoseryl given daily i.p. encouraged the re-flow phenomenon and therefore, by improving the microcirculation and nutrition, the healing of the ischaemic lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6176254

  19. The evaluation of fabrics in relation to their use as protective garments in nursing and surgery. I. Physical measurements and bench tests.

    PubMed Central

    Lidwell, O. M.; Mackintosh, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven fabrics selected to provide a representative range of yarns and weaves have been examined microscopically and subjected to a series of tests. The observations were directed towards assessing the potential ability of each fabric to resist penetration by particles, such as skin scales, which might carry micro-organisms. The number, size and shape of pores penetrating through the material were estimated and the penetration of test dusts assessed in several ways. While, generally, the relative merits of the fabrics are similar whatever test or measurement is considered there are a number of significant exceptions which reflect peculiarities of the test system or of a fabric. Comparison with the results of dispersal experiments with volunteers wearing garments made of the fabrics is made in a following paper. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Plate 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:731024

  20. Beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthetic genes have been conserved in clusters in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D J; Burnham, M K; Bull, J H; Hodgson, J E; Ward, J M; Browne, P; Brown, J; Barton, B; Earl, A J; Turner, G

    1990-01-01

    A cosmid clone containing closely linked beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthetic genes was isolated from a gene library of Flavobacterium sp. SC 12,154. The location within the cluster of the DNA thought to contain the gene for delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS), the first step in the beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthetic pathway, was identified by a novel method. This DNA facilitated the isolation, by cross-hybridization, of the corresponding DNA from Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064, Penicillium chrysogenum Oli13 and Aspergillus nidulans R153. Evidence was obtained which confirmed that the cross-hybridizing sequences contained the ACVS gene. In each case the ACVS gene was found to be closely linked to other beta-lactam biosynthetic genes and constituted part of a gene cluster. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2107074

  1. New structural aspects of the synaptic contacts on Purkinje cells in an elasmobranch cerebellum.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Otero, R; Regueira, S D; Anadon, R

    1993-01-01

    Nerve fibre contacts on Purkinje cell perikarya in the cerebellum of the small-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were studied using the Cajal reduced silver technique, Golgi methods and electron microscopy. Silver staining revealed axons with thick swellings close to the base of Purkinje cells. Golgi methods demonstrated the presence of 'pincushions' of somatic spines on Purkinje cells. Electron microscopy revealed flattened fibres that formed extensive synaptic contacts with the Purkinje cell 'pincushions'. It is proposed, on the basis of the ultrastructural features, that these fibres are climbing fibres. Their possible significance in terms of the evolution of cerebellar circuitry is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8509296

  2. Histological changes in the nasal ventral conchae of piglets infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed Central

    Martineau-Doizé, B; Trépanier, H; Martineau, G P

    1991-01-01

    Piglets infected intranasally with Bordetella bronchiseptica were injected with two fluorochrome markers. Transverse sections of undecalcified nasal conchae (cut between the third incisor and the third premolar teeth) were examined by microradiography and fluorescence microscopy; surface-stained sections were evaluated by light microscopy. The fluorescent surface of the nasal ventral conchae from the infected piglets was increased as compared with the controls. This was due to an increased amount of fluorescent mineralization fronts as well as to the presence of abnormal fluorescent areas within trabeculae. Trabecular mineral content of the microradiographs was irregular and varied from hypo- to hypermineralized. When compared with the corresponding surface-stained sections, no correlation could be made between the mineral content and the type of tissue. These findings suggest that an increased number of osteoblasts which secrete prebone matrix but are modified so that mineralization does not occur normally. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1884283

  3. Anatomical variations in human carotid bodies.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Q; Heath, D; Smith, P

    1988-01-01

    The variations in anatomical structure and position of both carotid bodies were noted in 100 consecutive subjects who came to necropsy. Considerable variations in form were found. Although most carotid bodies (83% on the right and 86% on the left) were of the classic ovoid type, an appreciable minority was bilobed (9% on the right and 7% on the left) or double (7% on the right and 6% on the left); 1% were leaf shaped. All these anatomical variants have to be distinguished from the pathologically enlarged carotid body that may have a smooth or finely nodular surface. Anatomical variants (such as the bilobed) may themselves enlarge as a consequence of carotid body hyperplasia. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 PMID:3209707

  4. Functional tumors of the organ of Zuckerkandl.

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, F; Gray, G F

    1976-01-01

    Chromaffin-reacting pheochromocytomas of the adrenal medulla are the most frequently encountered functional paraganglionic neoplasms. However, extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas as well as non-chromaffin paragangliomas, including those of the carotid body and glomus jugulare, may produce symptoms from catecholamine secretion. One of the extra-adrenal sites from which these tumors arise is from a collection of para-aortic, paraganglion cells around the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery. This collection of paraganglia was described in fetuses by Zuckerkandl in 1901 and has subsequently been referred to as the organ of Zuckerkandl. The diagnosis and management of these neoplasms differ somewhat from that of adrenal pheochromocytomas, but excellent results are often obtained by excision of these lesions. Four patients with functional tumors of the organ of Zuckerkandl are reviewed together with the other reported cases in the literature. Images Figs. 1a and b. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:179483

  5. Aortic Valvular Replacement: Clinical Experience With 13 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Grondin, Pierre; Lepage, Gilles; Castonguay, Yves

    1964-01-01

    Acquired aortic disease is now currently corrected by total prosthetic replacement of the aortic valve. Aortic valve replacement was performed in 13 cases at the Montreal Heart Institute in 1963. In the first four cases, Bahnson aortic leaflets were used; in the remaining nine, the Starr-Edwards semirigid aortic valve prosthesis. The surgical technique employed is described. There were two operative deaths and two late deaths. The results have been excellent in all of the survivors but one. They have returned to full-time activities and four of them to strenuous physical work. It is the contention of the authors that aortic valve replacement is a surgical procedure with acceptable risks, offering hope for a near-normal life to patients crippled by severe aortic valvular lesions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14179061

  6. Smooth muscle in the wall of the developing human urinary bladder and urethra.

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, S A; Gosling, J A

    1983-01-01

    A series of human fetal and neonatal specimens ranging in age from the second month of intrauterine development to 4 1/2 years after birth has been examined using histological and histochemical techniques. In both sexes histologically differentiated smooth muscle cells were evident in the bladder wall from the 52 mm crown-rump length stage onwards--urethral smooth muscle was not distinguishable until 119 mm crown-rump length. In addition to relatively late differentiation, urethral smooth muscle was histochemically distinct from the urinary bladder detrusor muscle. Sex differences in the arrangement and innervation of smooth muscle in the proximal urethra have also been observed, and these findings lend support to the presence of a pre-prostatic urethra sphincter. It seems likely that this sphincter acts principally to prevent reflux of ejaculate into the bladder during seminal emission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6654742

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  8. Fractures and Soft Tissue Injuries of the Feet and Ankle

    PubMed Central

    English, Edward

    1985-01-01

    An accurate clinical diagnosis of foot and ankle pain can be made by a history, physical examination and routine X-rays of the affected part. Each problem has a specific treatment; however, fractures and dislocations around the foot and ankle can be thought of in an organized fashion by proper physical examination and then the appropriate treatment. Fractures and soft tissue injuries can be treated rationally by understanding the mechanism of injury and the possibility of subsequent deformity. This article classifies specific injuries as a group and indicates a treatment program for each problem. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7bFig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274230

  9. Pseudocyanotic pigmentation of the skin induced by amiodarone: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Delage, C.; Lagacé, R.; Huard, J.

    1975-01-01

    An unusual bluish discolouration of the nose was noticed in a woman 9 months after she had begun treatment with a coronary vasodilator, amiodarone hydrochloride. Cutaneous biopsies of the nose were obtained 6 and 9 months later for light and electron microscopic studies. In the dermis were histiocytes containing cytoplasmic yellow-brown granules with histochemical properties of melanin and lipofuscin. Ultrastructurally the granules appeared as lysosomal membrane-bound dense bodies similar to lipofuscin. Similar granules were observed at diascopy in both corneas. The pathogenesis is obscure. A storage disease involving the drug or its metabolites cannot be ruled out. Another possibility is that amiodarone accelerates the normal cellular autophagocytosis, resulting in increased production of lipofuscin, which then accumulates in lysosomes because of a deficiency in lipolytic enzymes. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:47784

  10. Comparison of albendazole, mebendazole and praziquantel chemotherapy of Echinococcus multilocularis in a gerbil model.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D H; Morris, D L; Reffin, D; Richards, K S

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of albendazole (50 mg/kg/d), mebendazole (50 mg/kg/d) and praziquantel (500 mg/kg/d) against established intraperitoneal infections of Echinococcus multilocularis in gerbils was compared by monitoring parasite weight and making ultrastructural observations on treated and untreated material. Praziquantel was the most active protoscolicidal agent, reducing protoscolex viability to less than 2%, although it did not inhibit cyst growth. Albendazole was the most effective agent in reducing cyst growth and was, when compared with other regimes significantly more effective than mebendazole (p less than 0.05), praziquantel (p less than 0.01) or untreated controls (p less than 0.01). Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:2583567

  11. Structure and innervation of extraocular muscles of Carassius.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, D F; Mark, R F; Marotte, L R; Proske, U

    1975-01-01

    The extraocular muscles of the carp Carassius contain two types of muscle fibre. Large white fibres have ribbon-shaped peripheral myofibrils and triads located at the Z line. Small red fibres, rich in mitochondria, have polygonal-shaped myofibrils and triads at the A-I junction. Silver- and cholinesterase-stained preparations show that the large fibres are innervated by axons which spiral around them and exhibit intense cholinesterase activity over long distances. Axons supplying small muscle fibres run across bundles of fibres, making one contact with each fibre. By electron microscopy the nerve endings on each fibre type appear identical, both having a smooth post-junctional muscle membrane. The differences in structure and innervation pattern of the two fibre types are discussed in relation to their possible functional roles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1184453

  12. Electrical apparatus used in medicine before 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Cambridge, N A

    1977-01-01

    The Ancients had at their disposal torpedo fish, amber and magnets. It was not until the sixteenth century that ideas on the strange behaviour of amber and magnets were put forward. The eighteenth century saw the application of Newton's theories of matter and the introduction of the electrostatic machine, Galvanism and Volta's battery. In the nineteenth century there was extensive application of electricity in medical practice, with the development of electrocautery apparatus and illuminated cystoscopes, the pioneering of the electrocardiogram and the discovery of X-rays. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 PMID:335397

  13. Pulmonary Changes in Lung Purpura and Some of the Other Collagen Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Herbert W.; Hargraves, Malcolm M.; Andersen, Howard A.; Daugherty, Guy W.

    1963-01-01

    The physician who specializes in pulmonary diseases has a most helpful aid in the form of chest roentgenography. This examination is secured routinely in many hospitals and clinics today. The roentgenogram is very accurate in finding pulmonary lesions. Accuracy in determining the type of lesion depends on the experience of the physician who is studying the patient. Pulmonary lesions occur in many systemic diseases. They may occur in some of the collagen diseases and at times they may be the first and also the most striking findings noted during the examination of a patient. For this reason, attention is called to some of the pulmonary findings encountered in certain of these diseases. Some of the clinical, roentgenologic and pathologic manifestations of necrotizing alveolitis, periarteritis nodosa, glomerulonephritis, disseminated lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:13991999

  14. Pathogenesis and pathology of respiratory tularaemia in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Baskerville, A.; Hambleton, P.

    1976-01-01

    The development of pathological lesions in the organs of rabbits was examined at intervals from 1 h to 4 days after aerosol infection with Francisella tularensis. The earliest change, accumulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) in ulmonary alveolar ducts, occurred at 19 h. From the 2nd day multiple foci of necrosis and PMN infiltration were present in large airways and alveoli throughout the lungs and progressively increased in size. Pulmonary arteritis was a prominent feature of the infection. Areas of necrosis were present in the nasal mucosa, pharynz and trachea, and pyogranolomatous lesions consistently developed in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:952731

  15. Achondrogenesis type I. A familial subvariant?

    PubMed Central

    Lauder, I; Ellis, H A; Ashcroft, T; Burridge, A

    1976-01-01

    The clinical, pathological, and radiological features of 2 male sibs with a severe and lethal form of micromelic dwarfism are desribed. The family also includes 2 normal sibs. The histological and radiological appearances suggested a diagnosis of achondrogenesis type I, but the markedly deficient ossification of the skull and the presence of intrauterine rib fractures were atypical. These changes have been observed in two other families with 2 or more infants with suspected achondrogenesis, raising the possibility that these familial cases may be a subvariant of achondrogesis or even a distinct disease entity. The disease appears to be inherited as an autosomal recessive and death occurs shortly after birth because of severe pulmonary hypoplasia. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:962365

  16. Immunochemical detection of proteins related to the human c-myc exon 1.

    PubMed Central

    Gazin, C; Rigolet, M; Briand, J P; Van Regenmortel, M H; Galibert, F

    1986-01-01

    Published sequence data of the human c-myc gene indicate the presence of a coding capacity for a polypeptide of 188 residues within the first exon. Using antibodies raised against five synthetic peptides corresponding to different non-over-lapping parts of this polypeptide, two proteins of 32 kd and 58 kd antigenically related to the synthetic peptides have been detected in extracts of human cells. The confidence of this detection has been reinforced by showing that epitopes corresponding to different peptides were indeed located on the same molecule and that the 58 kd protein appears to be a dimeric form of the 32 kd protein. That these proteins originate from the first exon was indicated by: hybrid-arrested translation experiments followed by immunodetection of the translation products; in vitro translation of messenger RNA derived from cloned exon 1 by SP6 polymerase transcription. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2430795

  17. Ia antigens are expressed on ATPase-positive dendritic cells in chicken epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Torres, A; Millan Aldaco, D A

    1994-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells located in mammalian epidermis and in other stratified epithelia. We recently demonstrated the presence of Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken using ultrastructural histochemistry for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The aim of the present study was to test whether ATPase-positive dendritic cells also express class II histocompatibility molecules (Ia antigens) encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), using a double staining technique, in separated chicken epidermal sheets. We concluded that the epidermal dendritic cells observed are the LC of the chicken, based on their morphology and spatial distribution, but mainly on the complete overlap for ATPase reaction and Ia antigen expression, these being reliable markers for the identification of mammalian LC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs 7,8 Figs 9,10 Figs 11,12 PMID:7928646

  18. Adenosine triphosphatase-positive Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Farga, J; Pérez Torres, A; Castell Rodríguez, A; Antuna Bizarro, S

    1991-01-01

    In mammalian epidermis a population of ATPase-positive dendritic cells, identified as Langerhans cells, has been found. Such cells are bone marrow-derived and participate in the immunological functions of the skin. We demonstrate the existence of ATPase-positive dendritic cells in separated epidermal sheets of chicken skin, by means of light and electron microscopy. They have a mean distribution of 688 +/- 265 cells/mm2 and showed several features in common with Langerhans cells. Since chickens can develop contact dermatitis, the finding is taken as the first formal demonstration of the presence of Langerhans cells in this group of vertebrates. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1717417

  19. Polyerositis and Arthritis Due to Escherichia coli in Gnotobiotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Waxler, G. L.; Britt, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Forty gnotobiotic pigs from six litters were exposed orally to Escherichia coli 083:K·:NM at 69 to 148 hours of age, while 17 pigs from the same litters served as unexposed controls. Clinical signs of infection included fever, anorexia, diarrhea, lameness, and reluctance to move. Eighty-four percent of the exposed pigs in four litters died, while only 13% in two litters died. Gross and microscopic lesions included serofibrinous to fibrinopurulent polyserositis in 96% of the exposed pigs in four litters and 33% of the exposed pigs in two litters. A few pigs had gross and/or microscopic lesions of arthritis. Escherichia coli was routinely isolated from the serous and synovial cavities of infected pigs. Anti-hog cholera serum administered orally as a colostrum substitute gave partial protection against E. coli infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4261837

  20. Immunopathology of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D. B.; Castleden, M.; Smith, J. L.; Mepham, B. L.; Wright, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Eight patients with angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy have been studied by a variety of immunological and pathological techniques. They exhibited a spectrum of immunological reactivities that, in this small series, could be roughly correlated with survival. Those patients with relative B-cell predominance as shown by cell marker studies, histologically showed large numbers of plasma cells, and this pattern was associated in 3 of our patients with a survival of 3 years or more. T-cell predominance or both B- and T-cell depletion was associated histologically with large numbers of blast cells and eosinophils, but with few plasma cells. These patients responded poorly to therapy and had short survival times. One patient with B-cell predominance subsequently died of a histiocytic lymphoma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:678427

  1. Replacement of histone H1 by H5 in vivo does not change the nucleosome repeat length of chromatin but increases its stability.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, J M; Ali, Z; Lurz, R; Ruiz-Carrillo, A

    1990-01-01

    In vivo competition between histones H1 and H5 for chromatin has been studied in rat sarcoma XC10 cells transfected with a glucocorticoid responsive MMTV-H5 gene. Activation of H5 expression results in accumulation of H5 in the nuclei where it partially replaces H1. H5 displaces H1 from its primary binding sites presumably during chromatin replication and also binds with high affinity to secondary chromatin sites normally not occupied by H1. Replacement of H1 by H5 to levels similar to those of mature chicken erythrocytes does not alter the nucleosome repeat length of chromatin. This indicates that H5 is not solely responsible for the increase in nucleosome spacing of maturing erythroid cells. Exchange of H1 by H5 in vivo or in vitro results in a higher compaction/stability of chromatin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2328730

  2. The development and differentiation of human seminal vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, S F

    1985-01-01

    The development and differentiation of the human seminal vesicles has been studied using 14 human male fetuses and 4 postnatal specimens. Earlier accounts of the morphogenesis of the seminal vesicle have been reviewed and commented upon in the light of the present findings. Previously undocumented observations include the movements of the mesenchyme, the formation of epithelial folds and the development of the lamina propria and tunica muscularis. Epithelial differentiation is also described. The function of the basal cells and the possible prepubertal secretory activity of the seminal vesicle are discussed. More work is required on the differentiation of the vesicle between birth and puberty. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3870731

  3. The evolution of surgery at the New York Hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Leitman, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    Surgery evolved from colonial times through many innovations and developments. During this time it was transformed from a dangerous practice to a delicate and scientific art. Many of these early developments continue to be a part of modern surgical therapy. Although European discoveries have had a profound effect on this evolution, American advances solidified the link between the laboratory and the operating room. The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, like other medical centers around the country, made important contributions to this evolution. Because the hospital has spanned American history, it also has paralleled surgical development in the United States. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:1933072

  4. Candida albicans group A-specific soluble antigens demonstrated by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Guinet, R M; Gabriel, S M

    1980-01-01

    Soluble cytoplasmic extracts of Candida albicans groups A and B were prepared and compared by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis experiments performed with a commercial anti-C. albicans group A immune serum. Although crossed immunoelectrophoresis, tandem crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and line immunoelectrophoresis revealed many cross-reactions between the two groups, some components seemed to be specific to group A. However, the complexity of the extracts studied did not allow us to demonstrate specific constituents with these methods. Crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis with and without absorption of antibodies in situ was then used, and four specific antigens unique to group A cytoplasmic extract were demonstrated, one of which appeared to be quantitatively important. The value of various quantitative immunoelectrophoretic methods applied to complex antigenic preparations is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6159327

  5. The action of very low concentrations of sodium pentachlorophenate on freshly laid eggs of Australorbis glabratus*

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Louis; Haskins, Willard T.; Gurian, Joan

    1962-01-01

    This paper describes experiments to test the action of low concentrations of sodium pentachlorophenate against freshly laid eggs of Australorbis glabratus, the principal intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in the western hemisphere. Techniques for collecting the eggs without damage and for conducting the tests are described. This compound was found to be 4-10 times more toxic for the eggs than for the adult snails. Strain differences in susceptibility of the eggs were also found. The demonstration of greater susceptibility of the eggs to the compound suggests that snail control might be accomplished more economically in some situations if the chemical were directed primarily against the eggs. The possibility of using eggs instead of adults for screening potential molluscicides is also discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:14481844

  6. A role of amphiphysin in synaptic vesicle endocytosis suggested by its binding to dynamin in nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    David, C; McPherson, P S; Mundigl, O; de Camilli, P

    1996-01-01

    Amphiphysin, a major autoantigen in paraneoplastic Stiff-Man syndrome, is an SH3 domain-containing neuronal protein, concentrated in nerve terminals. Here, we demonstrate a specific, SH3 domain-mediated, interaction between amphiphysin and dynamin by gel overlay and affinity chromatography. In addition, we show that the two proteins are colocalized in nerve terminals and are coprecipitated from brain extracts consistent with their interactions in situ. We also report that a region of amphiphysin distinct from its SH3 domain mediates its binding to the alpha c subunit of AP2 adaptin, which is also concentrated in nerve terminals. These findings support a role of amphiphysin in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8552632

  7. Localisation of thiamine pyrophosphatase in the amoeboid microglial cells in the brain of postnatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, C; Ling, E A; Wong, W C

    1987-01-01

    The activity of TPPase in amoeboid microglial cells has been studied in postnatal rats. When examined with the light microscope such cells in 1-10 days old rats perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde were round and showed a dark brown reaction in their cytoplasm. In older rats (10-30 days), the reactive amoeboid microglial cells were oval, flattened or branched. Electron microscopic examination revealed that the reaction product was seen on the plasma membrane, in the subplasmalemmal vacuoles, in tubular invaginations of plasma membrane and in the transface of the Golgi saccules. In rats perfused with the mixed aldehyde solution, the amoeboid microglial cells did not show a positive TPPase reaction with the light microscope but at the ultrastructural level a weak reaction was seen in some cytoplasmic vacuoles and in the Golgi saccules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2820912

  8. Joubert's syndrome with retinal dysplasia: neonatal tachypnoea as the clue to a genetic brain-eye malformation.

    PubMed Central

    King, M D; Dudgeon, J; Stephenson, J B

    1984-01-01

    Five children with features of Joubert's syndrome and Leber's amaurosis are described. The presenting symptoms were panting tachypnoea in the newborn, prolonged apnoeic attacks in the neonatal period (in both of identical twins), global developmental delay, and failure to develop vision. Three children had multiple hemifacial spasms, such as have been seen in Joubert's syndrome, and the same three had cystic dysplasia of the kidneys. Necropsy confirmed the retinal and renal pathology, together with agenesis of the vermis and brainstem dysgenesis in the identical twins. It is concluded that a gene for Leber's amaurosis may commonly manifest itself as the specific hind brain malformation underlying Joubert's syndrome. In infants with respiratory irregularities (especially rapid panting), hemifacial spasms, or developmental delay, absence of the cerebellar vermis should be specifically sought by ultrasound and computed tomography, and the electroretinogram measured, whether or not impaired vision is clinically evident. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6476867

  9. Rehabilitation of the Patient with a Fractured Hip

    PubMed Central

    Austman, Mardie; Higgins, Patty; Rosenberg, Gilbert

    1979-01-01

    Fracture of the hip is a common traumatic event in the elderly. Surgical repair is the treatment of choice for most patients, but represents only the first phase in the total rehabilitation of the patient. A comprehensive team approach, involving the patient, the family, the physician, nursing personnel and rehabilitation staff, is mandatory if the elderly person is to achieve maximal recovery and hopefully return to his normal lifestyle. Lack of a team approach leads to ineffectual therapy, with the likelihood that the patient will become unnecessarily institutionalized. However, some patients will be very poor candidates for rehabilitation if already at a non-ambulatory, heavy care level, with a variety of complicated medical conditions such as congestive heart failure, diabetes and obstructive lung disease. Realistic, individual goals must be set. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21297729

  10. The fine structure of pulmonary contusion and the effect of various drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Eckert, P.; Földi-Börcsök, E.

    1976-01-01

    The results of contusion were examined by electron and light microscopy in the lungs of rats. It was found that the results here were very similar to those elsewhere in the body, with a few minor modifications due to the unique structure of the lung. Densitometry of protein concentration and visual estimation of oedema were used to quantitate the effects on the injury. The benzo-pyrone drug Venalot had a considerable effect in reducing the protein concentration in the air spaces and the interstitial tissue, and of the oedema in the latter. Neither the proteinase inhibitor Trasylol nor the pectin-based plasma expander HAS had any significant effect on the fine structural alterations of pulmonary contusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1087159

  11. Connective tissue responses to some heavy metals. II. Lead: histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G.; Ham, K. N.

    1987-01-01

    Lead loaded ion exchange resin beads implanted into the loose connective tissue of the rat pinna induced local lesions which differed widely from those of the control (sodium loaded) beads (Ellender & Ham 1987). These lesions were characterized by changes in the granulation tissue and the approximating connective tissue. Granulation tissue contained mononuclear phagocytes in various guises, and some cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies. The matrix of the granulation tissue contained collagen fibrils having a wide range of diameters suggestive of altered collagen biosynthesis. Foci of collagen mineralization occurred in zones of combined trauma and lead impregnation. Once mineralized they became enveloped by giant cells and epithelioid cells. Lead in damaged tissues is thought to modify the protective mechanism of calcification inhibition and the biosynthesis of the matrix. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3040063

  12. Functional Plyometric Exercises for the Throwing Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Pezzullo, David J.; Karas, Steven; Irrgang, James J

    1995-01-01

    In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13.Fig 14.Fig 15. PMID:16558304

  13. Traumatic vasospastic disease in chain-saw operators.

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, G. P.

    1976-01-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is commonly induced in chain-saw operators by vibration; the hand guiding the tool is the more severely affected. The condition tends to persist after use of the chain-saw is stopped but compensation is rarely sought. Among 17 cases of Raynaud's phenomenon in lumberjacks the condition was found to be related to use of the chain-saw in 14, 10 of whom had to give up their work in colder weather because the disease was so disabling. Two criteria essential to establish the condition as vibration-induced Raynaud's phenomenon are the presence of symptoms for at least 2 years and a history of at least 1 year's constant use of the chain-saw. Careful physical examination and simple tests of vascular function will provide objective evidence of permanent damage by which the patients may be classified and compensated. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:1000455

  14. Incidence and structure of the appendices of the testis and epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, D; Jit, I; Joshi, K; Sanjeev

    1996-01-01

    In paired tests obtained from 425 adults, 50 children and 10 neonates, the incidence of testicular appendices was 76% in adults (93.3% sessile) and 83.3% in neonates/children (88% sessile). An epididymal appendix was present in 21.9% of adults and 20% of neonates/children, out of which 79% were stalked in both types of specimen. Three sessile testicular appendices and 11 epididymal appendices were double. The microscopic structure of the appendices and the ultrastructure of their epithelia are described. Testicular or epididymal appendices were not present in any domestic or laboratory animal examined except the horse. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8886956

  15. Structure of the intra-chorionic blood sinus in the chick embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Narbaitz, R

    1977-01-01

    Portions of the chorio-allantoic membranes from 15 day old chick embryos were processed for electron microscopical examination. The analysis of both 1 micrometer thick sections stained with toluidine blue, and of thin sections stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, showed that the lumen of the intraepithelial vascular spaces in the chorion constitutes a single cavity extending over the whole membrane. The vascular arrangement can thus best be described as a single blood sinus, and not as a network of capillaries or sinusoids. The large lumen of the sinus is interrupted by cylindrical columns connecting its floor with its roof. Each column is enveloped in a layer of endothelium, a basal lamina intervening. The core of the column is formed by cytoplasm from two to five different cells ('villuscavity' cells, 'capillary-covering' cells or various combinations of both). Images Figs. 2-3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:591432

  16. A village-sclae trial with dichlorvos as a residual fumigant insecticide in southern Nigeria*

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Bracha, P.; Carmichael, A.

    1963-01-01

    Hut and village-scale trials with solid and liquid-type dichlorvos dispensers were carried out in 1961 in the vicinity of Lagos, Nigeria, by the WHO Insecticide Testing Unit. Bioassay results indicated that with a single application satisfactory mortalities of caged mosquitos could be obtained for a period of 12-13 weeks in mud-walled huts, whether with galvanized corrugated-iron roofs or with thatched roofs. Chemical analysis of air samples showed that satisfactory concentrations of dichlorvos vapour were maintained throughout the huts for about 12 weeks, after which time sublethal concentrations were observed first near the floors of the dwellings. No depression in blood or plasma cholinesterase was noted in the exposed inhabitants ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:14056280

  17. The endocrine polypeptide cells of the human stomach, duodenum, and jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, A. G. E.; Coulling, I.; Weavers, B.; Friesen, S.

    1970-01-01

    Thirty specimens of stomach, duodenum, and jejunum, removed at operation, were examined by optical microscopical, cytochemical, and electron microscopical techniques. The overall distribution of four types of endocrine polypeptide cell in the stomach, and three in the intestine, was determined. The seven cell types are described by names and letters belonging to a scheme for nomenclature agreed upon at the 1969 Wiesbaden conference on gastrointestinal hormones. The gastrin-secreting G cell was the only cell for which firm identification with a known hormone was possible. Although there was wide variation in the distribution of the various cells, from one case to another, striking differences were nevertheless observable, with respect to the G cell, between antra from carcinoma and from ulcer cases. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:4919258

  18. An account of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations of the human tracheo-bronchial tree, with observations on those of some animals.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S; Whimster, W F

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the distribution of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations in the human tracheo-bronchial tree. It has been shown that they are made up of elastic tissue in a collagen matrix, and that the elastic fibres continue into the smallest bronchioles beyond where the corrugations are no longer visible. An examination has also been made of the tracheo-bronchial trees of the hen, rat, raccoon, pig, sheep, llama and tiger. Corrugations are present in all these animals, except the hen and the raccoon, and they have been compared and contrasted with the condition in Man. The functional significance of these corrugations remains unknown, but, they could be important in equalizing tension in the tracheo-bronchial tree during inspiration, as well as in providing elastic recoil during expiration. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1010796

  19. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. I. Non-specific esterase activity and regional histology of the epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, S R; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    As a base line for future cell genetical studies the authors record the distribution of non-specific esterase reaction in the various histologically distinguishable cell types of the mouse epididymis. The findings are correlated with previous descriptions of the lobar structure of the organ. Assuming the sequence of lobes of the head to be as implied in these classical descriptions, the esterase activity of the epithelial cells gradates between strong to weak several times along the length of the epididymal duct. The relationship of the lobes to each other, as seen in transverse sections, is described. Methodological studies using different fixatives indicate that apparent similarity of esterase reaction at different sites may camouflage an underlying difference in the nature of the esterases at these sites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:564339

  20. A collagen and elastic network in the wing of the bat.

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, K A; Odland, G F

    1978-01-01

    Bundles of collagen fibrils, elastic fibres and fibroblasts are organized into a network that lies in the plane of a large portion of the bat wing. By ultrastructural (TEM and SEM) and biochemical analyses it was found that individual bundles of the net are similar to elastic ligaments. Although elastic fibres predominate, they are integrated and aligned in parallel with small bundles of collagen. A reticulum of fibroblasts, joined by focal junctions, forms a cellular framework throughout each bundle. Because of the unique features of the fibre bundles of the bat's wing, in particular their accessibility, and the parallel alignment of the collagen fibrils and elastic fibres in each easily isolatable fibre bundle, they should prove a most valuable model for connective tissue studies, particularly for the study of collagen-elastin interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:649500

  1. C-type and intracisternal A-type virus particles during epidermal carcinogenesis by tobacco smoke condensate in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, M. C.; Smith, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Electron microscopic observations of sequential stages of skin carcinogenesis induced by tobacco smoke condensate (SC) and a cyclohexane fraction of tobacco smoke condensate (G) revealed an increase in incidence of intracisternal A particles within the epidermal cells. Tumours induced by SC also contained C-type particles, but these were not seen in G-induced tumours or after irritant or solvent treatment. There was no evidence of an increase in intracisternal A particles after irritant or solvent treatment. A direct relationship between the proliferation of A particles and neoplastic growth of BALB/c mouse epidermis appears likely. The data suggest possible activation of a latent C-type virus by SC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:194615

  2. Malakoplakia of the testis and its relationship to granulomatous orchitis.

    PubMed Central

    McClure, J

    1980-01-01

    The chance finding of two cases of undiagnosed malakoplakia in the files of the Department of Pathology, Queen's University Belfast prompted a systematic study of all cases of inflammatory testicular and epididymal disease diagnosed in that department during a 43-year period from 1934 to 1977. A total of 71 cases was studied, and no additional example of malakoplakia was found. In the Belfast collection, there is one other example of testicular malakoplakia and therefore a total of three cases in 74 examples of inflammatory testicular and epididymal disease (4.3% incidence). In the series there were 10 cases of granulomatous disease (13.5%). The world literature on testicular malakoplakia has been reviewed, and typical and atypical features have been determined. Also a comparison has been made between testicular malakoplakia and granulomatous orchitis, and the relationship between these conditions is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7430373

  3. British surgical aid to Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. A.; Barry, N. A.; Davies, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    The surgical commitment of No. 2 Field Hospital, R.A.M.C., during its stay in Jordan is presented. The majority of patients that were admitted had sustained war wounds, many of which were infected due to the delay in treatment. The difficulties encountered in their subsequent management are discussed. Special reference is made to the use of ketamine (Ketalar) and mafenide acetate (Sulphamylon) in the treatment of those burns cases under our care. It is the first time for many years that a British field hospital has been employed in an active rôle. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 8Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:5114910

  4. The anterobithorax and bithorax mutations of the bithorax complex.

    PubMed Central

    Peifer, M; Bender, W

    1986-01-01

    The anterobithorax (abx) and bithorax (bx) genes together direct the development of the posterior second and anterior third thoracic segments of the fruit fly. We have characterized the phenotypes and DNA lesions of 19 abx and bx alleles. abx and bx mutations differ both in the nature and location of their DNA lesions, forming two clusters within a relatively small region of the Ultrabithorax transcription unit. Correlation between phenotype and DNA lesion suggests the presence of two or more genetic elements in this region distinct from the Ultrabithorax transcript. Mutant transformations do not strictly obey segmental or parasegmental boundaries. Most of the bx mutations result from insertions of the mobile element gypsy. The strength of these alleles varies in a regular way dependent on the position and orientation of the gypsy element. We propose models for gypsy element action and bithorax complex expression in the light of these results. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3023068

  5. Light and scanning electron microscopical study of the cavernous sinus of the monkey, Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, K; Ling, E A

    1985-01-01

    The cavernous sinus of Macaca fascicularis is in many respects similar to the human sinus. It consists predominantly of one main venous channel that, together with the internal carotid artery, occupies a meningo-endocranial compartment lateral to the pituitary gland. Trabeculae are few and do not in any way cause the sinus to appear cavernous. They are mostly flattened in the direction of the main venous channel. Cranial nerves three, four, six and the ophthalmic division of five are all located in the lateral wall of the meningo-endocranial compartment with cranial nerve six located most medially adjacent to the internal carotid artery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:4077687

  6. Functional anatomy of the thymic microenvironment.

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, M D

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a review of our current understanding of the nature of the thymic microenvironment, after briefly considering the major role of the gland. The epithelial cells and their products are of fundamental importance, and other cells of the macrophage series are implicated in most functional events. The embryological origin of the epithelium is still not clear, although disease conditions would suggest a single origin. Immigration and emigration of thymocytes is considered, and also the passage of antigens into the gland. The events within the thymus are under the control of the CNS acting through the innervation or via hormonal pathways. Both of these areas are considered in detail, especially thymic hormone origins, functions and interactions. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 PMID:1769884

  7. Intermediate hosts of Schistosoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandahl-Barth, G.

    1957-01-01

    This study is an attempt to classify all described species of African Bulinus. It is based upon the author's examination of a great number of specimens collected from many parts of Africa. The variations attributable to age, environment and genetic factors which may be noted in the taxonomic characters are discussed, and some new species and subspecies are established. For each recognized species and subspecies the author states the distinguishing characters, indicates the geographical distribution, and gives a list of synonyms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 2(concluded)Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5(continued)Fig. 5(concluded)Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 16(concluded)Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 22(concluded)Fig. 23 PMID:13479773

  8. Clinical presentations of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, F M; Narcisi, P; Nicholls, A C; Liberman, M; Oorthuys, J W

    1988-01-01

    Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV is an often lethal disease caused by various mutations of type III collagen genes. It presents in infancy and childhood in several ways, and the symptoms and signs include low birth weight, prematurity, congenital dislocation of the hips, easy inappropriate bruising (sometimes suspected as child battering), and a diagnostic facial phenotype. These features predict a lethal adult disease often complicated by fatal arterial rupture in early or middle adult life. Most affected patients can be diagnosed from radiolabelled collagen protein profiles by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Prenatal diagnosis by specific type III collagen restriction fragment length polymorphisms is possible in some families, and will become increasingly important. Prenatal diagnosis and prevention of the disease in selected families is already possible and will be widely available in the future. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 PMID:3178263

  9. The surgical management of the arthritic hand.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S. H.

    1979-01-01

    The surgical management of the arthritic hand is very largely concerned with rheumatoid arthritis and Still's disease and less frequently with psoriatic and degenerative arthritis. In the rheumatoid hand the surgeon may be called upon to intervene at any point in the chain reaction leading to total deformity, performing synovectomies of joints or tendons to relieve pain or prevent further deformity, repairing ruptured tendons, restoring the mechanism of injured joints, and correcting deformities when they have been allowed to occur. The great variety of operations that may be necessary to achieve these ends, with varying degrees of success, are discussed with reference to a personal series of 970 cases and 2002 operations. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 PMID:420491

  10. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  11. A light and electron microscope study of rat abducens nucleus neurons projecting to the cerebellar flocculus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodella, L; Rezzani, R; Corsetti, G; Simonetti, C; Stacchiotti, A; Ventura, R G

    1995-01-01

    Injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the cerebellar flocculus of the rat was employed to identify neurons in the abducens nucleus that project to the flocculus. The number, ultrastructural features and precise localisation of these neurons in the nucleus were examined. They were present bilaterally and represented about 7% of the total neuronal population of each nucleus. They were localised principally in the dorsomedial area of the cranial half of each nucleus and did not display the typical ultrastructural features of motoneurons. It is concluded that the localisation and ultrastructural characteristics of these HRP-positive neurons are useful for distinguishing them from other neuronal populations within the nucleus. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7649835

  12. Synaptic endfeet in the 'acoustic nerve nucleus' of the rat. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Bolado, G; Merchán, J

    1988-01-01

    The medial portion of the cochlear nerve of the rat contains astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These neurons form what has been called the 'acoustic nerve nucleus'. This nucleus has been studied here at the electron microscopic level. Its neurons are large and round, showing an eccentric nucleus, fibrillary bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum which is not arranged in stacks. The somata and dendrites receive synaptic endfeet which can be classified into three groups according to vesicle size and shape. In general, the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are similar to those of bushy cells as reported by other authors. The 'acoustic nerve nucleus' can be considered to be the most peripheral part of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3248967

  13. Bioactive conformation of stromelysin inhibitors determined by transferred nuclear Overhauser effects.

    PubMed Central

    Gonnella, N C; Bohacek, R; Zhang, X; Kolossváry, I; Paris, C G; Melton, R; Winter, C; Hu, S I; Ganu, V

    1995-01-01

    The transferred nuclear Overhauser effect has been used to determine the biologically active conformations of two stromelysin inhibitors. Both inhibitors used in this study were hydroxamic acids generated via chemical synthesis. These structures, representing the conformation of each inhibitor bound to stromelysin, superimposed with excellent agreement. The study also provided information on the shape and orientation of the S2' and S1' pockets of the enzyme relative to thermolysin. Comparisons were made between stromelysin and thermolysin inhibitors to critically examine thermolysin as a template for stromelysin-inhibitor design. The enzyme-bound conformations of these stromelysin inhibitors were determined for use as a template in conformationally restricted drug design. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7831311

  14. Common injuries of the athlete's hand.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Hand injuries are among the most frequent accidents seen in sports medicine. All too commonly they are considered trivial since the athlete may continue to participate actively and neglect his injury. The consequent delay in diagnosis and proper treatment may result in long-standing or even permanent disability. This paper describes the more commonly encountered hand injuries, their diagnosis and their optimal treatment. Included are soft-tissue injuries, ligamentous injuries, fractures and tendon avulsions. The basic principles applicable to skeletal and soft-tissue trauma of the hand, which physicians at all levels of sports medicine may encounter, are stressed. Images FIG. 1A FIG. 1B FIG. 1C FIG. 2A FIG. 2B FIG. 2C FIG. 2D FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8A FIG. 8B FIG. 9 FIG. 10A FIG. 10B PMID:332313

  15. An electron microscope and immunohistochemical study of the intracellular location of Toxoplasma tissue cysts within the brains of mice with congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sims, T. A.; Hay, J.; Talbot, I. C.

    1989-01-01

    The wall of intact Toxoplasma tissue cysts within the brains of mice with congenital toxoplasmosis was investigated. Smaller cysts were identified within the soma of neurones. With larger cysts, the contained cystozoites were shown by ultrastructural examination to be surrounded by a layer of microtubules; immunohistochemical staining revealed that this layer contained neurofilament protein. Interior to this layer was a much convoluted parasitophorus vacuole membrane; exterior was the host cell membrane. In most cases, synaptic plates were noted on the outer plasma membrane. In no instance were tissue cysts observed either within neuroglial cells or in the absence of host cells. These observations are discussed in relation to the pathogenesis of congenital toxoplasmosis in the brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2504268

  16. Diaphragm disease: pathology of disease of the small intestine induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, J; Price, A B; Levi, A J; Burke, M; Gumpel, J M; Bjarnason, I

    1988-01-01

    Operative small bowel resection specimens received over a period of 16 years were reviewed to assess whether any intestinal disease could be directly attributed to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Seven cases of intestinal disease associated with the use of NSAID were identified, all of which occurred in the final six years of the survey, which may reflect the increasing use of these compounds. A spectrum of patterns was found from multiple pathognomonic ileal mucosal diaphragms to broad strictures similar to those seen as a complication of enteric potassium. It seems likely that the formation of diaphragm lesions requires an additional factor, but what is not known as yet is whether the effects of NSAID are local or systemic. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 PMID:3384981

  17. Major Hepatic Resection Using Vascular Isolation and Hypothermic Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, J. G.; Shiu, M. H.; Kinne, D. W.; Kim, D. K.; Castro, E. B.; Watson, R. C.; Howland, W. S.; Beattie, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The technique and results of 29 major hepatic resections using the method of complete vascular isolation and hypothermic perfusion of the liver are reported. The method enables the surgeon to perform otherwise difficult or impossible resections through chilled bloodless hepatic parenchyma. Major intrahepatic vascular structures can thus be recognized and controlled readily under clear vision. Direct neoplastic involvement of, or tumor thrombi in the portal vein, hepatic vein or vena cava, can be successfully dealt with by appropriate surgical measures. The operative mortality was 10.3% for this series which included many tumors previously deemed unresectable. The technical detail and intraoperative physiologic monitoring crucial to success in the use of the method are described. It is hoped that with the widened scope of resectability afforded by this technique, and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy, the currently experienced low cure rates for hepatic cancer can be improved. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 8. PMID:4414545

  18. The nucleus of the tractus solitarius of the dog. A morphological and morphometric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Pesini, P; Cifuentes, J M; Fernandez-Troconiz, P

    1991-01-01

    The neuronal and fibrous architecture of the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) of the dog has been studied in transversely cut Nissl, myelin and reduced silver stained serial sections. Eight distinct subdivisions, clearly delimited both by their cytoarchitectonic and fibrous characteristics, have been identified. They are: the commissural, gelatinous, lateral, interstitial, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, intermediate and medial subdivisions. Their rostrocaudal extensions and locations in relation to the obex are summarised in Table 1. A morphometric analysis was additionally done. The frequency distributions of cell areas and cell form factor of each subdivision are represented by histograms in Figures 8 and 9 respectively. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1717419

  19. The susceptibility of rodents to schistosome infection, with special reference to Schistosoma haematobium

    PubMed Central

    Gear, J. H. S.; Davis, D. H. S.; Pitchford, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    In this investigation the susceptibility of several species of rodents—Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis, Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus, Aethomys chrysophilus, Tatera brantsi and the white mouse (SAIMR 200 strain)—to Schistosoma haematobium was determined and the pathology studied. From the results it is clear that these rodents are susceptible to infection with Schistosoma haematobium. For various reasons, notably adaptability to laboratory conditions, the most suitable as laboratory animals for the study of bilharziasis are Saccostomus campestris, Arvicanthus niloticus and Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis. These three species breed readily in the laboratory and show a high susceptibility to S. haematobium, with characteristic lesions involving several organs, including the lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas and intestine. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 16FIG. 17FIG. 18FIG. 19FIG. 20FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15 PMID:5297005

  20. Uveitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kazdan, Jerome J.; McCulloch, J. Clement; Crawford, John S.

    1967-01-01

    Endogenous uveitis in 117 children aged 15 years or under was investigated at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, in a 12-year period from 1953 to 1964. This group included 55 children with anterior uveitis, 59 with posterior uveitis, and three with diffuse uveitis. An etiologic diagnosis could be made or the uveitis recognized as part of a definite clinical syndrome in approximately 47% of the 117 children. The commonest cause of posterior uveitis was toxoplasmosis and the commonest associated finding in anterior uveitis was juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic cyclitis of unknown etiology was a relatively common disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:6066889

  1. Causation and Disease: The Henle-Koch Postulates Revisited 1

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Alfred S.

    1976-01-01

    The Henle-Koch postulates are reviewed in terms of their full validity in Koch's day and in light of subsequent developments. The changing guidelines developed for viral diseases, for viruses in relation to cancer and to chronic central nervous system infection, and for causative agents in chronic diseases are discussed chronologically. A set of guidelines for both acute infectious and chronic diseases is presented. The need for recognizing the role of the host and the spectrum of host responses, for sound biologic sense in evaluating causal roles of agents in disease, and for flexibility in adapting our guidelines to new knowledge are emphasized. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:782050

  2. Cell death during the development of the truncus and conus of the chick embryo heart.

    PubMed Central

    Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L

    1979-01-01

    The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:500497

  3. Morphological and Biochemical Effects of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine and 1-Methylhydrazine in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hawks, A.; Hicks, R. M.; Holsman, J. W.; Magee, P. N.

    1974-01-01

    Single toxic doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced mild centrilobular necrosis of the liver in rats and mice. Ultrastructural studies showed hepatic nuclear changes including nucleolar microsegregation and changes in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. 1-Methylhydrazine caused little morphological change in the liver. Tumours of the colon and kidney and also massive cystic hyperplasia of the liver were found in some of the rats and tumours of the anal margin and kidney in some of the mice, following single doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Incorporation of amino acids into rat liver proteins was inhibited by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, which also caused disaggregation of hepatic polysomes. No effects on hepatic protein synthesis by 1,1-dimethylhydrazine or 1-methylhydrazine were observed. Similarities between the effects of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, cycasin and dimethylnitrosamine are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4469195

  4. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Gregory R.

    1994-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a neuropathy resulting from compression of the median nerve as it passes through a narrow tunnel in the wrist on its way to the hand. The lack of precise objective and clinical tests, along with symptoms that are synonymous with other syndromes in the upper extremity, cause carpal tunnel syndrome to appear to be a rare entity in athletics. However, it should not be ruled out as a possible etiology of upper extremity paralysis in the athlete. More typically, carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy encountered in industry. Treatment may include rest and/or splinting of the involved wrist, ice application, galvanic stimulation, or iontophoresis to reduce inflammation, and then transition to heat modalities and therapeutic exercises for developing flexibility, strength, and endurance. In addition, an ergonomic assessment should be conducted, resulting in modifications to accommodate the carpal tunnel syndrome patient. ImagesFig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7. PMID:16558255

  5. The innervation of the adrenal gland. IV. Innervation of the rat adrenal medulla from birth to old age. A descriptive and quantitative morphometric and biochemical study of the innervation of chromaffin cells and adrenal medullary neurons in Wistar rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, A; Coupland, R E

    1990-01-01

    The innervation of the adrenal medulla has been investigated in normal Wistar rats from birth to old age and ultrastructural findings compared with biochemical markers of the cholinergic innervation of the adrenal gland and catecholamine storage. Morphological evidence of the immaturity of the innervation during the first postnatal week is provided and using quantitative morphometry the innervation of chromaffin cells is shown to reach a mean total of 5.4 synapses per chromaffin cell during the period 26 days to 12 weeks of age. The variation in contents of synaptic profiles is discussed in the light of recent work that demonstrates a major sensory as well as visceral efferent innervation of the gland. Adrenal medullary neurons usually occur in closely packed groups, intimately associated with Schwann cells. Axodendritic and axosomatic synapses on these neurons are described and the likely origin of axonal processes innervating the neurons discussed. In old age the density of innervation remains the same as in young adult animals even though the medulla shows evidence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of individual chromaffin cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:2384334

  6. Stereological studies of differentiation in hamster cheek pouch epithelium: variations in the volume and frequency of mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    White, F H; Gohari, K

    1983-01-01

    The present report describes quantitative studies of mitochondria from stratified squamous epithelial cells from hamster cheek pouch mucosa in differentiating compartments. Mucosa was processed for electron microscopy and, using strict sampling procedures, electron micrographs of epithelium from defined basal, spinous and granular strata were acquired. Using stereological and other morphometric methods, the volume density, numerical density and volume-to-surface ratio of mitochondria were estimated in each cellular layer, and these data were transformed into absolute values characterising the average cell in these layers. The results suggest that both volumetric and numerical densities of mitochondria decreased progressively during epithelial differentiation; conversely, the total volume and number of mitochondria present in granular cells were consistently higher than in basal cells, as was the volume of individual mitochondria. These quantitative changes may reflect functional alterations in the metabolism of epithelial cells during differentiation and provide a base line for further work on experimental epithelial biology and pathology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6350250

  7. The surgical conservation of the neuropathic foot.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, A. G.

    1989-01-01

    Basic surgical principles applied when caring for neuropathic limbs can result in the maintenance or restoration of a useful ulcer-free limb. It is possible to help many patients with neuropathy to become ulcer-free and to remain ulcer-free and mobile, with surgical procedures. Recommended methods of management are briefly outlined. These include the débridement of the osteomyelitic, metatarsal head in order to save the adjacent toe, removal of bony irregularities that predispose to ulceration, and the use of wedge osteotomies and arthrodeses to improve the functional shape of the affected foot. The emphasis is on the removal of high pressure points from the weight-bearing surface and to increase the total area available for weight-bearing. Adequate rest and protection are essential, and include the use of splints or total contact plaster casts in all cases of ulceration of weight-bearing surfaces. All patients with reduced sensory perception should learn daily self-examination and care to reduce the chances of recurrent ulceration. Healing after surgical reconstruction will occur, and the healed tissues, if adequately cared for, will maintain their integrity for years. Images fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3 fig. 4 fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7 fig. 8 fig. 9 fig. 10 PMID:2549839

  8. A new pattern of spinal-cord demyelination in guinea pigs with acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mimicking multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Colover, J.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described for producing large demyelinating lesions of the spinal cord in the guinea pig. Guinea pigs were pretreated by immunization with ovalbumin and water-soluble adjuvant (N-acetyl-muramyl L-alanyl D-isoglutamine, MDP) in water-in-oil emulsion (Freund's incomplete adjuvant). They were given a large dose (10 mg) of ovalbumin i.p. one month later. After a few weeks the animals were sensitized with guinea-pig basic protein in Freund's complete adjuvant. Five out of 11 animals developed large, distinctive, sharply demarcated, symmetrical demyelinating lesions within 30 days. These lesions occurred in the dorsal and anterior columns, root entry zones and subpial region of the spinal cord. Histology showed a considerable amount of free lipids. There were also infiltrative lesions of classical experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) of normal severity in the same animals. The demyelinating lesions resembled those seen in multiple sclerosis in their location and extent in the spinal cord and in the presence of free lipids. Control experiments indicated that pretreatment with ovalbumin/MDP and the second injection of ovalbumin was necessary for all the demyelination; moreover guinea pigs immunized with basic protein in Freund's complete adjuvant or Freund's incomplete adjuvant plus MDP without pretreatment only developed classical EAE with minimal or no demyelination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7426390

  9. Dark-induced and organ-specific expression of two asparagine synthetase genes in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, F Y; Coruzzi, G M

    1990-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNAs for asparagine synthetase (AS) of Pisum sativum has uncovered two distinct AS mRNAs (AS1 and AS2) encoding polypeptides that are highly homologous to the human AS enzyme. The amino-terminal residues of both AS1 and AS2 polypeptides are identical to the glutamine-binding domain of the human AS enzyme, indicating that the full-length AS1 and AS2 cDNAs encode glutamine-dependent AS enzymes. Analysis of nuclear DNA shows that AS1 and AS2 are each encoded by single genes in P.sativum. Gene-specific Northern blot analysis reveals that dark treatment induces high-level accumulation of AS1 mRNA in leaves, while light treatment represses this effect as much as 30-fold. Moreover, the dark-induced accumulation of AS1 mRNA was shown to be a phytochrome-mediated response. Both AS1 and AS2 mRNAs also accumulate to high levels in cotyledons of germinating seedlings and in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. These patterns of AS gene expression correlate well with the physiological role of asparagine as a nitrogen transport amino acid during plant development. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1968003

  10. The A- and B-type cyclins of Drosophila are accumulated and destroyed in temporally distinct events that define separable phases of the G2-M transition.

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, W G; Gonzalez, C; Maldonado-Codina, G; Glover, D M

    1990-01-01

    We show that the sequence of Drosophila cyclin B has greater identity with B-type cyclins from other animal phyla than with Drosophila cyclin A, suggesting that the two cyclins have distinct roles that have been maintained in evolution. Cyclin A is not detectable in unfertilized eggs and is present at low levels prior to cellularization of the syncytial embryo. In contrast, the levels of cyclin B remain uniformly high throughout these developmental stages. In cells within cellularized embryos and the larval brain, cyclin A accumulates to peak levels in prophase and is degraded throughout the period in which chromosomes are becoming aligned on the metaphase plate. The degradation of cyclin B, on the other hand, does not occur until the metaphase-anaphase transition. In cells arrested at c-metaphase by treating with microtubule destabilizing drugs to prevent spindle formation, cyclin A has been degraded in the arrested cells, whereas cyclin B is maintained at high levels. These observations suggest that cyclin A has a role in the G2-M transition that is independent of spindle formation, and that entry into anaphase is a key requirement for the degradation of cyclin B. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2142452

  11. Radiographic features of bone in several strains of laboratory mice and of their tumours induced by bone-seeking radionuclides.

    PubMed Central

    Loutit, J F; Corp, M J; Ardran, G M

    1976-01-01

    The natural radiographic appearance of the various bones of the skeleton are described for several strains of laboratory mice. The Harwell substrains of CBA, A and 101 are generally similar and become osteoporotic on ageing. Harwell C57BL have similar, but more delicately chiseled, bones. Harwell C3H mice have bones with stouter cortices and may show osteosclerosis on ageing. CF1 females (donated by Dr M. Finkel) showed osteosclerosis and osteophytic outgrowths when aged. NMRI mice (donated by Dr A. Luz) appeared larger than the pure-strain Harwell mice. In general, mouse bones are simple tubular structures with an ivory cortex and a marrow cavity. Cancellous trabecular bone is scanty, even in vertebrae, flat bones and the metaphyses of long bones. Bone-seeking radionuclides administered to mice lead to skeletal tumours: (a) osteosarcomata, which are commonly radio-opaque to a variable degree owing to calcified tumour bone, but which may be osteolytic, (b) primitive mesenchymal (angio-) sarcomata which are non-osteogenic and osteolytic, (c) fibrosarcomata--which also are osteolytic--and to local or general lymphomata from irradiation of parental cells in bone marrow, but no special radiological features have been found associated with these last-named tumours. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1069700

  12. Experimental Tetracycline Labeling in Avian Osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, V. L.; Holt, J. A.

    1965-01-01

    Osteopetrosis was experimentally produced and lesion development in time was studied by fluorescent illumination of tetracycline labels in the bone. Bones from birds 84, 115, 186 and 354 days of age were examined by ground section under ultraviolet light. Periosteal activity of the tibia and femur was present in normal bones at 84 days of age but had stopped at 115 days. Focal periosteal activity of osteopetrotic lesions was present at 186 days but not at 354 days of age. Slight endosteal activity of osteopetrotic bones was present at 354 days of age. Osteopetrotic bone formed at a rate of 1.26 mm. per week or 6 times faster than normal bone in some of these lesions. Tetracycline diffused throughout the 354-day-old osteopetrotic lesion but not normal compact bone indicating that the osteopetrotic bone is porous and spongy. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13. PMID:4221759

  13. The effect of Pasteurella haemolytica and the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica on bovine lung explants.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, I W; Fallding, M H; Shewen, P E; Yager, J A

    1990-01-01

    Bovine lung explants were used in a study designed to compare the pathogenic effects of Pasteurella haemolytica type 1, a nonpathogenic organism Neisseria subflava, or the crude leukotoxin of P. haemolytica on alveolar macrophages and lung parenchymal cells. Concentrated, purified peripheral blood neutrophil suspensions were added with the bacteria to some explants. Duplicate pairs of cultures from each treatment group were fixed at regular intervals up to 24 hours after seeding and morphological changes were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Pasteurella haemolytica caused deterioration of alveolar macrophages within one hour but did not affect parenchymal cells for more than 12 hours. Neisseria subflava did not affect alveolar macrophages initially, but caused an accelerated deterioration after four hours. After 24 hours, bacterial overgrowth caused similar deterioration of all cells in explants seeded with either bacterium. Alveolar macrophages phagocytosed large numbers of N. subflava but rarely ingested P. haemolytica. Added neutrophils did not have any discernible effect on any of the explants and did not potentiate bacterial effects. Addition of crude leukotoxin of P. haemolytica to the culture medium significantly accelerated alveolar macrophage deterioration without apparent effect on parenchymal cell survival. These results support the hypothesis that the severe tissue destruction of fulminant pneumonic pasteurellosis is not a direct result of bacterial infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2306666

  14. The urease locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its utilization for the demonstration of allelic exchange in Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed Central

    Reyrat, J M; Berthet, F X; Gicquel, B

    1995-01-01

    The ureABC genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were cloned. By using a set of degenerate primers corresponding to a conserved region of the urease enzyme (EC 3.5.1.5), a fragment of the expected size was amplified by PCR and was used to screen a M. tuberculosis cosmid library. Three open reading frames with extensive similarity to the urease genes from other organisms were found. The locus was mapped on the chromosome, using an ordered M. tuberculosis cosmid library. A suicide vector containing a ureC gene disrupted by a kanamycin marker (aph) was used to construct a urease-negative Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin mutant by allelic exchange involving replacement of the ureC gene with the aph::ureC construct. To our knowledge, allelic exchange has not been reported previously in the slow-growing mycobacteria. Homologous recombination will be an invaluable genetic tool for deciphering the mechanisms of tuberculosis pathogenesis, a disease that causes 3 x 10(6) deaths a year worldwide. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7568014

  15. Helminthic pseudotumours of the bowel: Thirty-four cases of helminthoma

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, P. P.; McAdam, I. W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Human infestation with nematode worms of the superfamily Strongyloidea has been recorded from time to time to give rise to serious surgical complications. Worms of the genus Oesophagostomum are most frequently responsible. These are common parasites of ruminants, monkeys, and apes in which their histotropic phase is confined to the bowel wall and sometimes results in multiple inflammatory nodules. Man is an accidental host and it seems an abnormal one. The worm fails to return to the bowel lumen, migrates further and persists in the tissues. The commonest manifestation is a solitary tumour-like inflammatory mass or abscess (`helminthoma') in the ileocaecal region. The ileum, transverse and sigmoid colons are affected less commonly and the lesions are occasionally multiple. Patients may also present with abscesses of the abdominal wall. The clinical diagnosis is difficult, even at laparotomy. Carcinoma, appendicitis, ileocaecal tuberculosis are frequently simulated and unnecessary radical surgery is often the result, particularly in expatriate Europeans. In this communication 34 cases from Uganda are reviewed with emphasis on histopathology as responsibility for the correct diagnosis is likely to fall on pathologists. Three characteristic appearances are described and related to phases in the natural history of the disease. Current knowledge on parasitology is reviewed. The disease affects Africans as well as Europeans and it is anticipated that cases will be seen in those returning from the tropics. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4258523

  16. The fine structure of the proximal growth plate of the avian tibia: vascular supply.

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, C R; Dickson, M; Sheridan, A K

    1984-01-01

    The vascular supply to the proximal tibial growth plate of the 7 weeks old chicken is described using various vascular markers. In addition the ultrastructure of metaphyseal and epiphyseal vessels as well as their supporting tissue is reported. The metaphyseal arterioles terminate in large calibre vessels which have occasional endothelial gaps and no basement membrane or supporting cells, and therefore could be classified as venous sinusoids. In contrast the epiphyseal arteriole terminates in a capillary-venule plexus lined by an attenuated and fenestrated but continuous endothelium. This paper definitively establishes that communication of epiphyseal and metaphyseal vessels across the avian growth plate does not occur. The eosinophilic streaks which often join these two vascular supplies have been described ultrastructurally and would appear to be remnants of the 'retreating' epiphyseal vessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6469851

  17. Histopathological changes in the epithelial cells of rat duodenum following chronic dietary exposure to cadmium, with particular reference to Paneth cells.

    PubMed Central

    Phillpotts, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Male and female rats 8 weeks old were exposed for 360 days to a sole source of drinking water containing 0.2 g/l cadmium as the chloride salt. Control rats were exposed for the same period to deionized water. At 90, 180, 270 and 360 day intervals a proportion of the rats from both test and control groups were killed and the duodenums removed. The histopathology was assessed by both light and electron microscopy. In cadmium treated rats the duodenums were enlarged and there was a significant reduction in the percentage of crypts containing Paneth cells. Remaining Paneth cells appeared vacuolated. By both light and electron microscopy changes were noted in the epithelial cells covering the villus tips. These were swollen and protruded towards the duodenal lumen to give a 'cobblestone' appearance by scanning electron microscopy. It is suggested that these histopathological appearances will be seen in chronic dietary exposure to cadmium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 3 Fig. 8 PMID:3741776

  18. Meckel's cartilage in Xenopus laevis during metamorphosis: a light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, D A

    1986-01-01

    Meckel's cartilage, in Xenopus laevis prior to metamorphosis, is a tissue exhibiting very large lacunae, separated by thin rims of matrix, presenting a net-like appearance, similar to that of cartilage in invertebrates. The cells on the periphery of the tissue are rather more flattened, and more closely packed. On the lateral aspects of the cartilage distinct columns of apparently dividing cells are evident. During metamorphic climax, the amount of matrix separating the lacunae increases, with an associated decrease in lacunar size, and some of the deeper cells develop cilia, which are not seen either before or after climax. By the end of metamorphic climax there is a considerable increase in the amount of matrix present in the tissue, while many cells at all depths in the cartilage show the presence of lysosome-like structures, possibly associated with the changing shape of the cartilage. Intramembranous ossification is proceeding around Meckel's cartilage, but there is no evidence of endochondral ossification up to the end of metamorphosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:3693112

  19. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  20. Tumours of bones and joints

    PubMed Central

    Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157

  1. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  2. A microscopic study of the lung of Testudo graeca (Chelonia).

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M; Ballesta, J; Castells, M T; Perez-Tomas, R; Marin, J A; Madrid, J F

    1989-01-01

    The lung of the tortoise, Testudo graeca (Chelonia) was studied by means of light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunocytochemistry. The lung showed the typical faviform structure of the reptilian lung. Three orders of trabeculae were observed. The epithelium of primary and secondary trabeculae was composed of ciliated, mucous, basal and endocrine cells. Mucous cells contained sialo- and sulpho-mucins and were reactive to the lectins Con-A, WGA, DBA, PNA and SBA. Endocrine cells were observed as solitary cells or forming neuroepithelial bodies. By means of immunocytochemistry, endocrine cells were demonstrated to contain serotonin. In the gas-exchange area Types I and II pneumonocytes and undifferentiated cells were observed. Free macrophages were detected in the faveolar lumen. The lung interstitium contained smooth muscle cells, fibrocytes, pigment cells, myelinated and unmyelinated nerves and intrapulmonary ganglia. Nerve terminals containing clear and dense-cored vesicles were observed in the adventitia of the blood vesicles and interspersed between the smooth muscle bands. The lung of the hibernating specimens showed a marked vacuolisation of pneumonocytes. In conclusion, the lung of Testudo graeca showed a complex histological organisation. Marked differences from mammalian lung were found. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 1 Fig. 7 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:2606791

  3. Liver disease and “natural” hepatotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Schoental, R.

    1963-01-01

    The author discusses the role of “natural” hepatotoxic substances, derived from plants and fungi, in the etiology of liver disease, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The hazards involved in even the occasional use of natural hepatotoxins and the difficulty in tracing the causative factors of chronic diseases are illustrated by the example of the pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloids. The ingestion by rats of a single dose of these alkaloids can induce chronic liver lesions and even hepatoma which, however, may not become apparent for 1½-2½ years. It is suggested that, however varied the chemical structures of the various hepatocarcinogens, they may all affect an essential cell constituent (e.g., a “mitotic hormone”), possibly of a steroidal nature, each substance interfering with a particular stage of its biosynthesis. “Natural” toxic factors may also be responsible for some other chronic diseases, especially those which are mainly encountered in, or restricted to, certain pastoral communities. In view of the greater susceptibility of the suckling young and the foetus than of adults to hepatotoxins, it would appear more promising to attempt to trace the causative agents of liver disease in children than in adults, in whom disease takes much longer to develop. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:14107756

  4. Renal scintiscanning. A review

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E. Rhys

    1970-01-01

    Renal scintiscanning is a simple investigation that does not require special preparation and is well tolerated by patients. Radiopharmaceuticals used in linear scanning are accumulated in the renal cortex. This accumulation is diminished: (a) when the cortex is destroyed, e.g. by pyelonephritis, injury, etc.; and (b) when the amount available to the cortex is reduced, e.g. by ischaemia. The scintigram depicts the kidneys unimpeded by bowel contents, gives a qualitative assessment of renal function and shows the distribution of zones of normal function. Recent technical improvements show great promise in deriving a quantitative measure of renal function in some circumstances. The location of normally functioning cortex is often important in the management of renal diseases and the value of scintiscanning is then considerable. It is occasionally useful in planning surgery. The anatomy of the renal collecting system can be shown only by urography. High dose techniques achieve this even in the face of renal failure, and scintiscanning has few indications in investigating lesions that distort the renal anatomy, e.g. tumours and cysts. Renal scintiscanning is a very valuable additional method to urography, arteriography and renography in investigation of renal disorders. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4905447

  5. Natural involution of muscle in the proximal sesamoidean ligament in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, F; Rowlerson, A

    1995-01-01

    In sheep, the muscle component of the proximal sesamoidean ligament, which is well developed at birth, undergoes a progressive involution postnatally. The development of muscle fibres in the proximal sesamoidean ligament was compared with masseter and semimembranosus muscles from before birth into adult life, using histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. Neonatal myosin (a marker for developmental immaturity) disappeared earlier, and the adult pattern of myosin expression and fibre type composition was reached earlier in the proximal sesamoid ligament than masseter and semimembranosus. Proximal sesamoid ligament muscle fibres therefore complete normal development, but with a faster time course than the other muscles. Invasion of fibrous connective tissue between muscle fibres of the proximal sesamoidean ligament adjoining the tendinous component (one feature of the involution) was found to begin perinatally, eventually resulting in a marked fibrosis and atrophy of peripheral fibres. Regeneration of muscle fibres was absent or abortive, even near areas of fibre necrosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7649819

  6. Structure and expression of the Drosophila ubiquitin-52-amino-acid fusion-protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, H L; Barrio, R; Arribas, C

    1992-01-01

    Ubiquitin belongs to a multigene family. In Drosophila two members of this family have been previously described. We report here the organization and expression of a third member, the DUb52 gene, isolated by screening a Drosophila melanogaster genomic library. This gene encodes an ubiquitin monomer fused to a 52-amino acid extension protein. There are no introns interrupting the coding sequence. Recently, it has been described that this extension encodes a ribosomal protein in Saccharomyces, Dictyostelium, and Arabidopsis. The present results show that the 5' regulatory region of DUb52 shares common features with the ribosomal protein genes of Drosophila, Xenopus and mouse, including GC- and pyrimidine-rich regions. Moreover, sequences similar to the consensus Ribo-box in Neurospora crassa have been identified. Furthermore, a sequence has been found that is similar to the binding site for the TFIIIA distal element factor from Xenopus laevis. The DUb52 gene is transcribed to a 0.9 kb mRNA that is expressed constitutively throughout development and is particularly abundant in ovaries. In addition, the DUb52 gene has been found to be preferentially transcribed in exponentially growing Drosophila cells. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1381584

  7. Cardiac lesions in rats fed rapeseed oils.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, K M; Corner, A H; Davey, K; Kramer, J K; Mahadevan, S; Sauer, F D

    1975-01-01

    Fully refined rapeseed oils containing different amounts of erucic acid (1.6%, 4.3% and 22.3%) were fed, at 20% by weight of diet, to weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for periods up to 112 days. Transient myocardial lipidosis characterized by accumulation of fat droplets in myocardial fibers was marked in male and female rats fed oxidized and unoxidized rapeseed oil containing 22.3% erucic acid, moderate with rapeseed oil containing 4.3% erucic acid and very slight in rats fed rapeseed oil containing 1.6% erucic acid. Peak intensity of myocardial lipidosis occurred at three to seven days and regressed thereafter. Focal myocardial necrosis and fibrosis occurred in male rats fed rapeseed oils containing different levels of erucic acid for 112 days. The incidence of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis was markedly lower in female rats, and the incidence of these lesions in either sex was not affected by the state of oxidation of these oils. In a second experiment, male rats were fed diets containing crude, partially refined or fully refined rapeseed oils. There was no correlation between the number of foci of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis and the state of refinement of the oils, but there were generally fewer lesions in rats fed those oils having the lowest levels of erucic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:1170010

  8. The fine structure of developing elastic cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, R W; Peacock, M A

    1977-01-01

    The fine structure of the elastic cartilage of the pinna has been examined in young rabbits aged from 1 day to 1108 days. Changes associated with growth and development are related not only to age but also to the actual situation in the pinna. In the midline, progressive changes are seen from the tip to the base. The changes in the chondroblasts with time are compared with those described in hyaline cartilage. Structures occur that, except for the presence of crystals, are apparently morphologically identical with the matrix vesicles of calcifying cartilage. These matrix vesicles, however, become very prominent with age, and aggregations of them appear to be released into the intercellular tissue from vacuoles at the periphery of the chondroblasts. There is no obvious association with calcification. Occasional single cilia, desmosomes and giant mitochondria are seen. Elastica is present at birth, and eventually every cell is separated from its neighbours by a partial investment of elastica. The quantity of matrix seems to increase with time, and with distance from the tip of the ear. This is accompanied by a marked increase in cell size with time. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:870470

  9. Comparison of human rotaviruses isolated in Mexico City and in Santiago, Chile, by electrophoretic migration of their double-stranded ribonucleic acid genome segments.

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, R T; Avendaño, L F; Muñoz, O; Romero, P; Eternod, J G; Lopez, S; Moncaya, J

    1980-01-01

    During the period October to December 1979, rotaviruses were obtained from infants and young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Mexico City and were compared by analysis of the migration of their double-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome segments in gel electrophoresis. Comparison of the results of this analysis and of those of similar studies carried out in 1977 and 1978 showed that the two rotavirus electropherotypes designated 2s and 21 have been continuously present and that the proportion in which these two types have been found in hospitalized patients has varied greatly year to year. The RNAs from rotaviruses 2s and 21 differed in the electrophoretic migraton of at least eight genome segments. However, RNAs from virus assigned to the same electrophoreotypes were not necessarily identical: on the basis of small but significant differences in the migration of segment 7, 8, or 9, isolates of types 2s and 21 could be assigned to two and three different subtypes, respectively. Human rotaviruses obtained in a distant geographical region, Santiago, Chile, in July 1979 had RNA electrophoretic patterns similar to that of electropherotype 21 but different from it in the migration of one or two of the larger RNA segments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6254887

  10. Idiopathic duodenal obstruction: an unappreciated complication of pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, E L; Clements, J L

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction as a complication of pancreatitis is infrequently recognized. Only four cases of idiopathic duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis have been previously reported. In a three-year study of 878 patients with pancreatitis, nine cases of idiopathic duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis have been found. Each of the nine cases was characterized by frank obstruction in the second or third portions of the duodenum and an intact mucosa in the area of stricture. Four patients gave an abrupt history of moderately severe pancreatitis. Resolution of the duodenal obstruction occurred by three weeks in each of these four cases. Surgical exploration in one of these patients revealed marked duodenal edema with intramural hematoma. The remaining five patients reported a chronic history of obstruction. Inadequate resolution of the obstruction after four weeks of hyperalimentation led to surgical bypass. Duodenal biopsy specimens revealed inflammation, muscle destruction, and extensive fibrosis. Duodenal involvement in the inflammatory process of moderately severe pancreatitis was discovered in 25% of the upper gastrointestinal studies, but was usually self-limiting and of a mild degree. Since contiguous duodenal edema is common and fibrosing pancreatoduodenitis only occurs in an occasional patient, surgical intervention for duodenal obstruction associated with pancreatitis should only be considered after demonstrated failure of conservative management. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:7235767

  11. Spatial arrangement of the heart muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue in the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus).

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quintana, D; Climent, V; Garcia-Martinez, V; Rojo, M; Hurlé, J M

    1994-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of the muscle fascicles and intramyocardial connective tissue was examined in the ventricles of the heart of the Spanish fighting bull (Bos taurus). In both ventricles, the muscle fascicles of the myocardium are arranged in 3 main directions, forming 3 muscle layers within the ventricular wall. The preferentially vertical arrangement of the muscle fascicles in the superficial and deep layers at the level of the fibrous aortic rings and the base of the semilunar valve leaflets suggests that these fascicles are actively involved in valvular dynamics. After controlled digestion of myocytes and elastic fibres with NaOH, a 3-dimensional arrangement of the scaffolding of connective tissue that supports the muscle fascicles and myocytes was observed. The arrangement and structure of this scaffolding may influence the order of contraction of muscle fascicles in different layers of the ventricle. In addition, differences were observed between the connective tissue scaffolding surrounding the myocytes of the 2 ventricles; these variations were correlated with the different biomechanical properties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8014119

  12. Nodule-Specific Polypeptides from Effective Alfalfa Root Nodules and from Ineffective Nodules Lacking Nitrogenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Lang-Unnasch, Naomi; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to leghemoglobin, at least nine nodule-specific polypeptides from the alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-Rhizobium meliloti symbiosis were identified by immune assay. Some of these polypeptides may be subunits of larger proteins but none appeared to be subunits of the same multimeric protein. All nine of the nodule-specific polypeptides were localized to within the plant cytosol; they were not found in extracts of bacteroids or in the peribacteroid space. At least one of these nodule-specific polypeptides was found to be antigenically related to nodule-specific polypeptides in pea and/or soybean. Ineffective nodules elicited by R. meliloti strains containing mutations in four different genes required for nitrogenase synthesis contained reduced concentrations of leghemoglobin and of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. Other nodule-specific polypeptides were unaltered or actually enriched in the ineffective nodules. Many of the differences between the ineffective and effective nodules were apparent in nodules harvested shortly after the nodules became visible. These differences were greatly amplified in older nodules. When the four ineffective nodule types were compared to one another, there were clear quantitative differences in the concentrations of several of the nodule-specific polypeptides. These differences suggest that lack of a functional nitrogenase does not have a single direct effect on nodule development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664146

  13. Nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts before and after DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, C; Gutierrez, C; Burhans, W C; DePamphilis, M L; Koller, T; Sogo, J M

    1990-01-01

    Protein-free DNA in a cytosolic extract supplemented with SV40 large T-antigen (T-Ag), is assembled into chromatin structure when nuclear extract is added. This assembly was monitored by topoisomer formation, micrococcal nuclease digestion and psoralen crosslinking of the DNA. Plasmids containing SV40 sequences (ori- and ori+) were assembled into chromatin with similar efficiencies whether T-Ag was present or not. Approximately 50-80% of the number of nucleosomes in vivo could be assembled in vitro; however, the kinetics of assembly differed on replicated and unreplicated molecules. In replicative intermediates, nucleosomes were observed on both the pre-replicated and post-replicated portions. We conclude that the extent of nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts is not dependent upon DNA replication, in contrast to previous suggestions. However, the highly sensitive psoralen assay revealed that DNA replication appears to facilitate precise folding of DNA in the nucleosome. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2167837

  14. Translational efficiency of polycistronic mRNAs and their utilization to express heterologous genes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, R J; Murtha, P; Davies, M V

    1987-01-01

    The translation of polycistronic mRNAs in mammalian cells was studied. Transcription units, constructed to contain one, two or three open reading frames (ORFs), were introduced stably into Chinese hamster ovary cells and transiently into COS monkey cells. The analysis of mRNA levels and protein synthesis in these cells demonstrated that the mRNAs transcribed were translated to generate multiple proteins. The efficiency of translation was reduced approximately 40- to 300-fold by the insertion of an upstream ORF. The results support a modified 'scanning' model for translation initiation which allows for translation initiation at internal AUG codons. High-level expression of human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor was achieved utilizing a vector that contains a polycistronic transcription unit encoding an amplifiable dihydrofolate reductase marker gene in its 3' end. Thus, polycistronic expression vectors can be exploited to obtain high-level expression of foreign genes in mammalian cells. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3582359

  15. Ultrastructural and biochemical observations on proteoglycans and collagen in the mutable connective tissue of the feather star Antedon bifida (Echinodermata, Crinoidea).

    PubMed Central

    Erlinger, R; Welsch, U; Scott, J E

    1993-01-01

    Mutable connective tissue, unique to echinoderms, changes its mechanical behaviour within seconds of nervous stimulation. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In this study proteoglycans and collagen of the brachial ligaments connecting neighbouring ossicles of the arms of the feather star Antedon bifida have been investigated by biochemistry, light and electron microscopy and the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) technique using the dye Cupromeronic Blue (CB). The ligaments consist mainly of parallel cross-striated collagen fibrils, 82 +/- 12 nm in diameter, with a characteristic banding pattern and a D-period of 52.8 +/- 3.2 nm. Some fibrils were disaggregated into bundles of 10-11 nm protofibrils, lying between the normal fibrils. Proteoglycans occur at the surface of the fibrils with 2 binding sites (each with a different CEC) per D-period and also inside the fibrils. The surface proteoglycans are more highly sulphated (i.e. their CECs are > 1.3 M) than the intrafibrillar proteoglycans (CEC < 0.9 M). The glycosaminoglycans consist of a highly sulphated chondroitin sulphate, possibly with fucose residues. The results are consistent with the theory that disaggregation of the fibrils into protofibrils and reaggregation might be a mechanism of mutability, without excluding the possibility that fibrils may slide alongside each other during movements in the viscous phase of the ligament. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8270464

  16. New perspectives in the management of severe cranio-facial deformity.

    PubMed Central

    David, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is postulated that craniosynostosis is due to a growth abnormality in all or part of the cranial capsule. Release of the stenosed part in the first months of life will re-establish the balance between the rapidly growing brain and eye, and the cranial capsule. Three periods for operative treatment are described: early, intermediate and late. Only in the early period can operative treatment restore normal growth dynamics; in the late period the aim is correction of an established deformity. The relationship between cranial clefts and frontonasal encephaloceles is explored. If the space-occupying encephalocele is removed early, the distorted facial bones adopt a more normal position, whereas cranial clefts do not respond to early operation by remoulding. The treatment of the acquired deformities of acute cranio-facial trauma have taken on new perspectives with the application of the multi-disciplinary approach and surgical techniques developed in the treatment of congenital deformities resulting in considerable reduction in the period of hospitalisation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6742741

  17. The regions of the retinoblastoma protein needed for binding to adenovirus E1A or SV40 large T antigen are common sites for mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Q J; Dyson, N; Harlow, E

    1990-01-01

    The protein product of the retinoblastoma (RB) gene is thought to function in a pathway that restricts cell proliferation. Recently, transforming proteins from three different classes of DNA tumor viruses have been shown to form complexes with the RB protein. Genetic studies suggest that these interactions with the RB protein are important steps in transformation by these viruses. In order to understand better the function of the RB-viral oncoprotein complexes, we have mapped the regions of the RB protein that are necessary for these associations. Two non-contiguous regions of RB were found to be essential for complex formation with adenovirus E1A or SV40 large T antigen. These two regions are found between amino acids 393 and 572 and 646 and 772. Interestingly, these binding sites on RB overlap with the positions of naturally occurring, inactivating mutations of the RB gene. These results strongly suggest that these viral oncoproteins are targeting a protein domain that is an important site in the normal function of the RB protein. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. PMID:2138977

  18. A review of recent advances in scientific knowledge of the symptomatology, pathology and pathogenesis of onchocercal infections*

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, F. C.

    1962-01-01

    In this review, the author discusses separately the cutaneous and the ocular aspects of the symptomatology, pathology and pathogenesis of onchocercal infections. Original results are also reported on dermal onchocerciasis. The less well known lesions are described in greater detail than the better-known. Among the former are the association of cutaneous tumours with dermal onchocerciasis, depigmentation of the skin, and the posterior ocular lesions. In dealing with the pathology of dermal onchocerciasis, the author demonstrates that the main effect of the death of the parasites is on the blood vessels, causing them to become atrophic so that the consequent anoxia gives rise to the better-known, more obvious changes of pachyderma. The relationship of allergic and nutritional factors with the different lesions is discussed. It is pointed out that the evidence connecting the symptomatology with allergy is not very conclusive while the evidence connecting nutritional factors with the ocular manifestations continues to mount. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13974619

  19. Testicular Biopsy in Evaluation of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Meinhard, Elizabeth; McRae, C. U.; Chisholm, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Testicular biopsy findings in 100 infertile men were correlated with the clinical findings. Mild or moderately severe tubular lesions were seen in 57 cases and severe changes in 43. Clinical examination and semen analysis were no guide to the severity of the testicular lesion. Though patients with normal sized testes more commonly had mild tubular lesions, many were severe. Patients with small testes more often had severe lesions but some had only mild tubular changes. Biopsy findings in both aspermic and oligospermic patients ranged from normal to a complete loss of germinal tissue. Testicular biopsy is advocated in infertile men for the complete assessment of the case and for identifying those which are potentially treatable. Patients with a severe lesion can be spared further investigations. The choice and results of treatment are discussed, particularly the surgical treatment of varicocele or obstruction. Only patients with a mild or moderate testicular tubular lesion should participate in future trials with drugs for male infertility. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:4726930

  20. A mechanism for differential release of acrosomal enzymes during the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, D M; Oda, M N; Friend, D S; Huang, T T

    1991-01-01

    To study the organization of fertilization enzymes in the sperm acrosome, we isolated and characterized two physicochemically distinct acrosomal fractions of guinea-pig spermatozoa. A soluble fraction contained the 25,000-Mr acrosomal autoantigen, AA1, and most of the acrosomal hyaluronidase and dipeptidyl peptidase II activity. A particulate fraction, designated acrosomal matrix (AM), consisted of membraneless crescent-shaped structures, and contained most of the acrosomal proacrosin. The AM also contained a 28,000-Mr putative proacrosin-binding protein, and a very-high-Mr component which, on reduction, was dissociated into 48,000-Mr and 67,000-Mr subunits. Autoproteolytic dissolution of the AM correlated with proteolysis by acrosin of the 28,000-Mr and 48,000-Mr AM molecules. Components of both the AM and the soluble fraction were localized by immuno-electron microscopy to the electron-dense region of the guinea-pig sperm acrosome. We conclude that acrosomal molecules are segregated into soluble and matrix compartments. This segregation is a function of disulphide bonding and non-covalent interactions among the relatively few components of the AM. Association of acrosin with the AM may be the mechanism by which this enzyme's release from the spermatozoon during the acrosome reaction is delayed relative to the release of other acrosomal molecules. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1903927

  1. Developmental and comparative aspects of brine shrimp tubulin.

    PubMed Central

    Macrae, T H; Ludueña, R F

    1984-01-01

    Tubulin from embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia has been purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatography on phosphocellulose P11 and DEAE-cellulose, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and assembly-disassembly of microtubules. Peptide mapping indicated that Artemia and bovine brain tubulin were very similar in spite of differences in the electrophoretic behaviour of tubulin from these two organisms. Isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were used to resolve and identify several Artemia isotubulins . The isotubulin composition and the quantity of tubulin did not change during pre-emergence development of Artemia embryos. Formation of microtubules with tubulin purified from embryos at different stages of development did not require glycerol or microtubule-associated proteins and formation of structurally normal microtubules was actually hindered by glycerol and Mg2+. The characteristics of Artemia tubulin, in concert with the unusual life history of Artemia, suggest that this organism will be very useful for the study of tubulin gene expression and tubulin utilization during embryo development. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6721849

  2. The interaction of antigen and antibody in agglutination

    PubMed Central

    Elek, S. D.; Smith, B. V. Kingsley; Highman, Wilma

    1964-01-01

    Flagellar fragments are thin cylinders that are particularly suitable for the study of agglutination by electron microscopy. Their shape leads to a characteristic pattern of agglutination and thus the early stages can be studied. Measurement of interflagellar distances under conditions of negative staining, suggest that the minimum length of the rabbit antibody molecules is about 180 Å. The molecules carry the specific sites at the ends of the long axis, and become attached radially to the surface of the flagella, resembling the bristles of a bottle-brush. To explain this orientation it is postulated that the antibody is inserted into the surface of the flagellum in such a manner that surrounding molecules give it a fixed direction. Geometrically this hypothesis corresponds to an insertion into pits. Pepsin-treated (5S) rabbit antibody behaves in a like manner, but the molecule appears to be shorter. No information could be obtained about the thickness and actual shape of antibody molecules by the techniques employed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 9FIG. 11FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15 PMID:14210767

  3. Chronic Actinic Keratopathy—A Condition Associated with Conjunctival Elastosis (Pingueculae) and Typified by Characteristic Extracellular Concretions

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1972-01-01

    Morphologic observations on a peculiar type of corneal reaction with a predisposition for the superficial stroma of the interpalpebral portion of the cornea are reviewed. Histochemical evidence is provided which indicates that the corneal concretions, though not homogenous, are proteinaceous in nature and contain amino acids not normally detectable in the cornea. The corneal concretions were associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) in all 22 instances in which the eyes were sectioned in the horizontal plane. Identical concretions were identified within these associated pingueculae, as well as in a large percentage of other pingueculae and cutaneous lesions with actinic elastosis. The findings suggest that the abnormal material arises in the pericorneal conjunctival connective tissue from whence it diffuses into, and deposits in, the superficial corneal stroma. The data also raise the possibility that the concretions may be derived, at least in part, from altered elastic tissue. Morphologic and epidemiologic observations on the condition taken together strongly suggest that this unique reaction is a sequel to the cumulative effect of chronic actinic irradiation. Further observations on this keratopathy are needed to establish whether this unique response can be provoked by other noxious stimuli. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15 PMID:5021106

  4. Hematuria and rectal bleeding in the child with Klippel and Trenaunay syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Servelle, M; Bastin, R; Loygue, J; Montagnani, A; Bacour, F; Soulie, J; Andrieux, J B

    1976-01-01

    We have operated upon 588 patients with Klippel and Trenaunay syndrome. The underlying factor is a congenital malformation of the deep veins: agenesis, atresia or compression by fibrovascular bands of the popliteal, femoral or iliac veins. Of these 588 patients, 6 children between 15 months and 4 years of age had severe rectal bleeding and hematuria. One of these children died from massive bleeding of the rectum with septicemia. Another boy was saved by rectal resection and the last one by subtotal cystectomy. The important venogram shows an absence of the anterior venous pathway (superficial femoral vein) compensated by the abnormal development of 2 venous groups, the vein of the sciatic nerve and large veins along the external aspect of the inferior limb. These 2 venous groups penetrate into the pelvis by the sciatic and gluteal notches and terminate in the internal iliac vein which becomes enormous and has a very high flow. This overflow hinders drainage of the venous collateral from the rectum, the bladder and the vagina. The retro adductor vein, prolongated by the deep femoral vein, represents an anastomosis between the sciatic nerve vein and the common femoral vein. The surgeon must try to widen this pathway. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. PMID:178278

  5. Ascaris suum Infection in Calves I. Clinical Signs

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, J. A.; McCraw, B. M.

    1970-01-01

    Clinical signs consistent with those of atypical interstitial pneumonia (AIP) were induced in calves sensitized with infective Ascaris suum eggs at seven to 20 weeks of age and challenged at three-week intervals one or more times. These signs usually appeared on the sixth or seventh day postinfection and reached maximum severity between the tenth and 13th days following infection. Prominent signs were: dyspnea, often with expiratory grunt, coughing, mouth breathing and emphysema as well as increased respiration and heart rates. In general, the intensity of signs was dependent upon dose size, although a single small dose resulted in acute signs and death in one calf. Intermittent coughing and vesicular sounds were induced in calves given A. suum eggs continually over prolonged periods. No respiratory abnormalities resulted from challenge with Toxocara canis after sensitization with A. suum. Antihistamine therapy did not alter the clinical signs in A. suum infected calves. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4394225

  6. Immunodiagnosis of alpha chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Doe, W F; Danon, F; Seligmann, M

    1979-01-01

    Since the early diagnosis of alpha chain disease (alphaCD)) is essential to successful treatment and to epidemiological studies, the available immunodiagnostic techniques were compared for their sensitivity, specificity and ease of performance on a panel of sixteen sera, comprising ten alphaCD sera and six control sera containing either IgA myeloma protein or high levels of polyclonal IgA. Immunoselection by immunoelectrophoresis into gel containing a specially developed anti-Fabalpha antiserum provided the most sensitive and specific detection system for alphaCD protein. The same technique using anti-light chain antiserum for immunoselection was also highly sensitive, but proved less specific, being prone to false positives with difficult IgA myeloma proteins. Somewhat less sensitive, but specific and simple to perform, was immunoelectrophoresis using an antiserum recognizing the conformational specificities of Fabalpha as well as those of the constant region of alpha chains. Immunoselection using the Ouchterlony or rocket techniques proved to be less sensitive and prone to false positives when some IgA myeloma sera were tested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:113152

  7. A better model of acute pancreatitis for evaluating therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J; Rattner, D W; Lewandrowski, K; Compton, C C; Mandavilli, U; Knoefel, W T; Warshaw, A L

    1992-01-01

    Existing models of acute pancreatitis have limitations to studying novel therapy. Whereas some produce mild self-limited pancreatitis, others result in sudden necrotizing injury. The authors developed an improved model providing homogeneous moderately severe injury by superimposing secretory hyperstimulation on minimal intraductal bile acid exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 231) received low-pressure intraductal glycodeoxycholic acid (GDOC) at very low (5 or 10 mmol/L) concentrations followed by intravenous cerulein. Cerulein or GDOC alone caused only very mild inflammation. However, GDOC combined with cerulein was uniformly associated with more edema (p less than 0.0005), acinar necrosis (p less than 0.01), inflammation (p less than 0.006), and hemorrhage (p less than 0.01). Pancreatic injury was further increased and death was potentiated by increasing volume and duration of intraductal low-dose GDOC infusion. There was significant morphologic progression between 6 and 24 hours. The authors conclude that (1) combining minimal intraductal bile acid exposure with intravenous hyperstimulation produces homogeneous pancreatitis of intermediate severity that can be modulated at will; (2) the injury is progressive over at least 24 hours with finite mortality rate; (3) the model provides superior opportunity to study innovative therapy. Images FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. PMID:1731649

  8. A second hepatitis C virus-encoded proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Grakoui, A; McCourt, D W; Wychowski, C; Feinstone, S M; Rice, C M

    1993-01-01

    Host and viral proteinases are believed to be required for the production of at least nine hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific polyprotein cleavage products. Although several cleavages appear to be catalyzed by host signal peptidase or the HCV NS3 serine proteinase, the enzyme responsible for cleavage at the 2/3 site has not been identified. In this report, we have defined the 2/3 cleavage site and obtained evidence which suggests that this cleavage is mediated by a second HCV-encoded proteinase, located between aa 827 and 1207. This region encompasses the C-terminal portion of the 23-kDa NS2 protein, the 2/3 cleavage site, and the serine proteinase domain of NS3. Efficient processing at the 2/3 site was observed in mammalian cells, Escherichia coli, and in plant or animal cell-free translation systems in the absence of microsomal membranes. Cleavage at the 2/3 site was abolished by alanine substitutions for NS2 residues His-952 or Cys-993 but was unaffected by several other substitution mutations, including those that inactivate NS3 serine proteinase function. Mutations abolishing cleavage at the 2/3 site did not block cleavage at other sites in the HCV polyprotein. Cotransfection experiments indicate that the 2/3 site can be cleaved in trans, which should facilitate purification and further characterization of this enzyme. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8248148

  9. cDNA sequence and expression pattern of the putative pheromone carrier aphrodisin.

    PubMed Central

    Mägert, H J; Hadrys, T; Cieslak, A; Gröger, A; Feller, S; Forssmann, W G

    1995-01-01

    The cDNA sequence for aphrodisin, a lipocalin from hamster vaginal discharge which is involved in pheromonal activity, has been determined. Corresponding genomic clones were isolated and the promoter region was identified. Primer extension analysis revealed an adenosine residue as the main transcription initiation site, located 50 bp upstream of the translation start codon ATG, which is surrounded by a typical Kozak sequence. However, data from polymerase chain reaction analysis suggest the existence of at least one alternative transcription initiation site. The aphrodisin cDNA is 732 bp long and codes for the mature 151-aa aphrodisin and an additional N-terminal 16-aa secretory signal peptide. The 3' nontranslated region is 228 bp long. Among the known sequences, the aphrodisin cDNA shares the highest homology with the rat odorant-binding protein cDNA (45%), which verifies the protein data. Vaginal tissue and Bartholin's glands are the main aphrodisin gene-expressing tissues of the female hamster genital tract, as demonstrated by Northern blot analysis. Under less stringent hybridization conditions, RNA isolated from rat Bartholin's glands also showed a signal, indicating the occurrence of aphrodisin-related mRNA in this species. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7892229

  10. The olfactory apparatus of the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus): fine structure and presence of a septal olfactory organ.

    PubMed Central

    Kratzing, J E

    1978-01-01

    The structure and extent of olfactory epithelium in the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) were examined by light and electron microscopy. Sensory epithelium covers most of the dorsal conchae, though non-sensory epithelium lines ventrally facing scrolls. The middle conchae are partly covered by olfactory epithelium, the proportion of olfactory to ciliated respiratory epithelium increasing caudally. Ventral conchae are lined by non-sensory ciliated epithelium. The nasal septum ends short of the floor of the nasal cavity in its caudal two thirds. It is covered dorsally by olfactory epithelium. The ventral margin has rounded lateral extensions which carry the isolated strips of olfactory epithelium which form the septal olfactory organ. The fine structure of the olfactory epithelium is the same in all areas. Cell types include olfactory receptors, supporting cells, two types of basal cell and rarer pale and brush cells. There is considerable morphological variation in olfactory cells, and evidence suggestive of continuing turnover in the receptor cell population. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:640961

  11. Erythroid expression and DNAaseI-hypersensitive sites of the carbonic anhydrase 1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, J; Edwards, M; Morrison, K; Butterworth, P H; Edwards, Y H

    1992-01-01

    The carbonic anhydrase 1 gene is expressed in adult human and mouse erythroid cells and colon epithelia from two distinct promoters. We have explored the erythroid promoter for cis-acting sequences involved in transcription using DNAaseI as a probe. Two DNAaseI-hypersensitive sites (DHS-1 and DHS-2) have been identified in the distal erythroid promoter in CA1-expressing erythroleukaemic cells. These sites are present at low levels in K562 cells, which have a foetal/embryonic phenotype and do not express CA1. DHS-1 and DHS-2 are not present in non-erythroid cells, including colon cells, which express CA1 from the proximal colon promoter. DHS-1 and DHS-2 were also generated in an heterologous CA1 gene containing 5 kb of erythroid promoter sequence after transfection into erythroid cells, including K562 cells. These transfection studies showed that both this fragment, and an abbreviated 817 bp promoter fragment which contains only DHS-1, were sufficient to confer erythroid-specific expression to a reporter gene. These promoters were active in cell lines expressing CA1 and in K562 cells. This latter observation implies that a developmental repressor factor is both present in K562 cells and binds to a cis-acting sequence that is absent from the sequence 5 kb upstream of the erythroid transcription start site. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1463458

  12. New prospects for the study of leprosy in the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Rees, R. J. W.

    1969-01-01

    Although Mycobacterium leprae was identified earlier than Myco. tuberculosis, it has still not been cultured in vitro and only in 1960 was an infection obtained in laboratory animals. However, important advances have been made in the field of experimental leprosy in the last decade due to the development of new techniques and models for studying Myco. leprae in vivo, thus overcoming the limitations imposed by a non-cultivable mycobacterium. Quantitative techniques using Myco. lepraemurium provided the first model for developing an indirect method for distinguishing dead (non-infectious) from living (infectious) bacilli, based on morphological differences in organisms stained by the Ziehl—Neelsen method. However, the most important advances resulted from the limited and localized growth of Myco. leprae when inoculated into the foot pads of mice and, later, the more substantial and generalized multiplication of Myco. leprae in immunologically deficient mice (thymectomized and irradiated with a dose of 900 r). Moreover, in the immunologically deficient animals, the infection eventually resulted in a disease replicating that of lepromatous type leprosy in man, including the involvement of peripheral nerves. The results from these studies and the future prospects for the study of leprosy in the laboratory are reviewed in this article. ImagesFIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 4FIG. 7 PMID:4898388

  13. Positive and negative functional interactions between promoter elements from different classes of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, H D; Mattaj, I W

    1990-01-01

    Consensus tRNA gene promoter elements, A and B boxes, were introduced into the coding sequence of a Xenopus U6 gene. Combinations in which A and B boxes were coupled to wild-type or mutant U6 promoters were made. In this way information about both the functions of individual promoter elements and functional relationships between different classes of RNA polymerase III promoter element were obtained. Mutants in which the U6 PSE was non-functional were rescued by the presence of a B box, indicating a degree of functional relationship between these two elements. Moreover, the B box acted to increase the transcriptional activity and competitive strength of the wild-type U6 promoter. In contrast, no evidence was obtained to suggest that a tRNA A box can interact productively with U6 promoter elements in the absence of a B box. Data obtained suggest that the U6 PSE functions as an 'adaptor', being necessary to enable the basal U6 promoter to respond to upstream enhancement. Certain combinations of U6 and tRNA promoter elements are shown to be mutually antagonistic by a mechanism which is likely to involve blockage of transcription initiation. In summary, the U6 and tRNA promoters are shown to consist of functionally related, but distinct, promoter elements whose interactions shed new light on their normal roles in transcription. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2323333

  14. Detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus infected cells with cloned DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, E

    1992-01-01

    A genomic library of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) DNA BamH1 fragments was prepared and two cloned fragments were evaluated for their potential as probes for the detection of ILTV infected cells. The virus was purified by a modified sucrose density gradient procedure for the isolation of pure ILTV DNA. A genomic library was constructed using BamH1-digested ILTV DNA and pGEM7 as a vector. A 1.1 kb cloned BamH1 fragment of ILTV DNA was tested in a slot or dot blot assay for the detection of ILTV infected cells. The limit of detection for this probe was at least 0.12 ng of pure ILTV DNA. The probe was able to identify both chicken embryo liver (CELi) cells and choriallantoic membranes infected with ILTV. Chicken embryo liver cells infected with several field isolates and a vaccine strain of ILTV were positive by dot blot analysis using this probe. Some qualitative differences in the degree of hybridization to cells infected by different ILTV isolates were observed. Uninfected cells and cells infected with fowlpox virus, turkey herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus or Newcastle disease virus were negative by the same assay. Compared with the 1.1 kb fragment, a larger 6 kb cloned BamH1 fragment of ILTV DNA showed a stronger hybridization signal to DNA from ILTV infected cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1316798

  15. Management of asthma: a consensus statement.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J O; Götz, M; Landau, L I; Levison, H; Milner, A D; Pedersen, S; Silverman, M

    1989-01-01

    In developing these international guidelines there were several unifying themes in the diagnosis and simple management of childhood asthma. For the purposes of the meeting, asthma was operationally defined as 'episodic wheeze and/or cough in a clinical setting where asthma is likely and other rarer conditions have been excluded'. In making a diagnosis of asthma, a full history is a prerequisite. Additional tests are only used to support clinical impression and to provide objective evidence for therapeutic recommendations. General features of a multidisciplinary approach include an appreciation of the importance of psychosocial factors, counselling, and education. Drugs should be prescribed in a rational sequence: beta 2-stimulants for mild episodic wheeze; sodium cromoglycate for mild to moderate asthma; inhaled steroids for moderate to severe asthma; with xanthines, ipratropium bromide, and oral steroids having their place in more persistent and severe cases. Children and their parents should be reassured that if asthma is properly controlled there is no reason why the child should not lead a normal and physically active life. The management of asthma is rewarding and return to 'normal' lifestyle is nearly always possible with active participation in sporting activities. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:2698121

  16. Grass Pollen Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens are shown to remain associated with protein material and a yellow pigment during paper chromatography and during dialyses and ultrafiltrations of various types. Dialysable* allergens comprise only a fraction of 1 per cent of the total activity and the amount of activity extractable by diethylene glycol (DEG) and similar solvents is of the same order. Besides the allergens, the DEG and aqueous extracts contain large amounts of inositol, glucose and fructose, also some yellow pigments and phosphates. Larger amounts of free and combined amino acids are found in the aqueous than in the DEG extracts, but the reverse is true for sucrose. In addition the DEG extracts contain a yellow glucoside different from the dactylen of the aqueous extracts, a glucosan and an arabinose-galactose-pigment complex, only the latter being associated with any activity. The spontaneous release of the crystalline dactylen from originally clear aqueous pollen extracts is found not to be caused by enzymes. The washed crystals are found to be chromatographically and electrophoretically homogeneous and devoid of allergenic activity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:13640676

  17. Electron Microscopy of the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, T. S.

    1965-01-01

    The use of the electron microscope has added much to our knowledge of the cell. The fine structure of the component parts of the nucleus and the cytoplasm is described, and their functions are indicated. The nature and structural modifications of the plasma membrane are illustrated with particular reference to function. To illustrate the interrelationships of the nucleus and cytoplasm, the theory of protein secretion is discussed, the secretion of a particular protein or polypeptide being determined by a particular nucleotide sequence in the desoxyribonucleic acid of a chromosome, that is, by a gene. This information is transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm. It is in the cytoplasm that the majority of the work is performed while the nucleus directs the work of the cell. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:5829410

  18. Amyloidogenesis in Healing Wound

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ken; Brownstein, Martin H.

    1972-01-01

    Clinically and histologically typical skin lesions of macular and lichenoid amyloidoses were biopsied. Rebiopsies were performed after 2 to 16 weeks, and the sequence of amyloid reproduction in granulation tissue was followed. Initially, medium electron-dense proteinaceous substance with fine filaments was produced within or in close relation to the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum of fibroblasts and subsequently discharged. Typical amyloid filaments emerged within and in the vicinity of this substance. A significant number of collagen fibrils were admixed in the centers of some amyloid islands. Predominantly amorphous amyloid substance was seen in contact with the basal laminae. No plasma cells were observed in foci of amyloid. Nonepithelialized wounds did not contain amyloid. It was suggested that, in the primary skin amyloidoses, abnormal dermal fibroblasts produce amyloid precursors under the influence of the epidermis. ImagesFig 9Fig 10Fig 4Fig 5Fig 11Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 8Fig 3 PMID:5049430

  19. Expression of amphiphysin I, an autoantigen of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, S.; Butler, M. H.; Cremona, O.; David, C.; Freyberg, Z.; Zhang, X.; Solimena, M.; Tokunaga, A.; Ishizu, H.; Tsutsui, K.; De Camilli, P.

    1998-01-01

    Amphiphysin I is a 128 kD protein highly concentrated in nerve terminals, where it has a putative role in endocytosis. It is a dominant autoantigen in patients with stiff-man syndrome associated with breast cancer, as well as in other paraneoplastic autoimmune neurological disorders. To elucidate the connection between amphiphysin I autoimmunity and cancer, we investigated its expression in breast cancer tissue. We report that amphiphysin I was expressed as two isoforms of 128 and 108 kD in the breast cancer of a patient with anti-amphiphysin I antibodies and paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathy. Amphiphysin I was also detectable at variable levels in several other human breast cancer tissues and cell lines and at low levels in normal mammary tissue and a variety of other non-neuronal tissues. The predominant amphiphysin I isoform expressed outside the brain in humans is the 108 kD isoform which represents an alternatively spliced variant of neuronal amphiphysin I missing a 42 amino acid insert. Our study suggests a link between amphiphysin I expression in cancer and amphiphysin I autoimmunity. The enhanced expression of amphiphysin I in some forms of cancer supports the hypothesis that amphiphysin family members may play a role in the biology of cancer cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 PMID:9513187

  20. Mathematical textbook of deformable neuroanatomies.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M I; Christensen, G E; Amit, Y; Grenander, U

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical techniques are presented for the transformation of digital anatomical textbooks from the ideal to the individual, allowing for the representation of the variabilities manifest in normal human anatomies. The ideal textbook is constructed on a fixed coordinate system to contain all of the information currently available about the physical properties of neuroanatomies. This information is obtained via sensor probes such as magnetic resonance, as well as computed axial and emission tomography, along with symbolic information such as white- and gray-matter tracts, nuclei, etc. Human variability associated with individuals is accommodated by defining probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system, the transformations forming mathematical translation groups of high dimension. The ideal is applied to the individual patient by finding the transformation which is consistent with physical properties of deformable elastic solids and which brings the coordinate system of the textbook to that of the patient. Registration, segmentation, and fusion all result automatically because the textbook carries symbolic values as well as multisensor features. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8265653

  1. Formation of a fibrin based gelatinous coat over repairing rat gastric epithelium after acute ethanol damage: interaction with adherent mucus.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, L A; Allen, A; Bennett, M K

    1987-01-01

    A gelatinous coat, heterogeneous in appearance, was formed over damaged rat gastric mucosa recovering from acute ethanol injury. This coat, in places 1.6 mm thick (median thickness 680 microns), was 10 times thicker than the translucent layer of adherent mucus (median thickness 70 microns) covering the undamaged mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and periodic acid Schiff staining showed this gelatinous coat to be predominantly a fibrin gel with an exterior layer rich in mucus and necrotic cells. The plasma clotting time was significantly decreased in vitro by pig gastric mucus gel and soluble mucus glycoprotein (90% and 13% respectively) suggesting that in vivo the mucus layer remaining after epithelial damage could act as a template for fibrinogen-fibrin conversion. These results show that a fibrin based gelatinous coat, quite distinct from the adherent mucus layer and with considerable protective potential could be formed over the repairing rat gastric mucosa after acute ethanol damage. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3653751

  2. Light microscopic identification of immature glial cells in semithin sections of the developing mouse corpus callosum.

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, R R

    1976-01-01

    Four distinct types of glial cell were recognized in the corpus callosum of young postnatal mice: the early glioblast; the small glioblast; the large glioblast; and the young astrocyte. As well as these, mature microglia could be recognized from birth. In semithin, toluidine blue stained sections early glioblasts had large, fair to moderately stained nuclei, and a thin rim of pale cytoplasm; small glioblasts had small, dark nuclei and a rim of darkly stained cytoplasm; large glioblasts had moderately unevenly stained nuclei and a thin rim of moderately stained cytoplasm; and young astrocytes had fairly small nuclei, moderately stained cytoplasm, and one or more processes, which could usually be seen extending for 5 mum or more from the perikaryon. Differential glial counts using the criteria described above, in conjunction with electron microscopic analysis, suggested that early glioblasts gave rise to small glioblasts and large glioblasts; that small glioblasts gave rise directly to astrocytes, large glioblasts, oligodendrocytes and possibly microglia; that large glioblasts formed oligodendrocytes only, and might be immature light oligodendrocytes; and that part of the microglial population might arise from vascular pericytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:795801

  3. A 40 kd protein binds specifically to the 5'-untranslated regions of yeast mitochondrial mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, B; Dekker, P; Blom, J; Grivell, L A

    1990-01-01

    Using a gel mobility shift assay we show that a 40 kd protein (p40), present in extracts of yeast mitochondria, binds specifically to the 5'-untranslated leader of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II mRNA. Binding of p40 to coxII RNA protects an 8-10 nucleotide segment from diethylpyocarbonate modification, indicating that the protein interacts with only a restricted region of the 5'-leader. This segment is located at position -12 with respect to the initiation AUG. Deletion of 10 nucleotides encompassing this site completely abolishes protein binding. Nevertheless, Bal31 deletion analysis within the coxII leader shows that a major part of the leader is essential for p40 binding, suggesting that binding of the protein is also dependent on secondary structural features. p40 binds to other mitochondrial leader mRNAs including those for coxI, coxIII and cyt b. p40 is present in a cytoplasmic (rho0) petite mutant lacking mitochondrial protein synthesis. It is therefore presumably nuclear encoded. The possible biological function of the protein is discussed. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:1701144

  4. Fluorescence histochemical study of the localisation and distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites in the spinal cord and cerebellum of the chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Bondok, A A; Botros, K G; el-Mohandes, E A

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites has been studied in chicken spinal cord and cerebellum using a fluorescent analogue of propranolol, 9-amino-acridin-propranolol (9-AAP). In the cervical and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, beta-adrenoceptor sites were concentrated on cell bodies of alpha-motor neurons of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral nuclear groups of the ventral horn. In the thoracic region, they were present on cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic nucleus (dorsal commissural nucleus). In the dorsal horn, the receptor sites were present mainly on cell bodies of columna dorsalis magnocellularis. Sparse distribution of fluorescence was present in other regions of the gray matter. In the cerebellum, a dense distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites was observed on Purkinje cell bodies and their apical dendrites. Sparse distribution of receptor sites was present on fine ramifications of Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer. Receptor sites were absent in the granule cell layer and the white matter. These observations indicate that alpha-motor neurons, preganglionic sympathetic neurons, neurons of columna dorsalis magnocellularis, and Purkinje cells are adrenoceptive, while granule cells are non-adrenoceptive. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2855328

  5. The embryological development of primary visual centres in the turtle Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Hergueta, S; Lemire, M; Pieau, C; Ward, R; Repérant, J

    1993-01-01

    The development of the primary visual centres was studied in a series of embryos of the turtle, Emys orbicularis, incubated at 25 degrees C. The differentiation of both visual and nonvisual diencephalic and mesencephalic structures takes place entirely within the 2nd quarter of the period of incubation; this finding appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the embryology of 2 other chelonian species, Lepidochelys and Chelydra. Two successive waves of migration, each dividing into internal and external sheaves, are involved in the formation of the structures of the diencephalon and mesencephalon. The primary visual centres, which comprise 2 hypothalamic, 5 thalamic and 5 pretectal zones of retinal projections, together with the 2 superficial layers of the tectum and a single tegmental projection zone, all have their origin in the external sheaf of the 1st wave of migration. The finding that the adult nucleus geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, pars ventralis arises from one of the migrations of the dorsal thalamus is discussed in the context of the debate over the possible homologues of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 Fig. 3 (cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 (cont.) Fig. 5 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 (cont.) Fig. 8 Fig. 9 (cont.) Fig. 9 Fig. 10 (cont.) Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8300423

  6. A fine structural study of the removal of the effectiveness of benzo-pyrone treatment of lymphoedema by the destruction of the macrophages by silica.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; Földi, M.

    1978-01-01

    Macroscopical, light microscopical and electronmicroscopical observations were made of the diaphragm, skin and brain of rats, some of which were treated with intraperitoneal silica for 8 days (after being given it i.v. for 2 days). The diaphragms showed a most remarkable increase in fibroblast activity and fibrosis beneath the peritoneal mesothelium (which was disintegrating). Deep to this there were many disintegrating macrophages, and much oedema and increased protein concentration. Ligation of the cervical lymphatics produced the usual changes of lymphoedema in the skin and brain. This was greatly reduced in the animals treated with a mixture of benzo-pyrones. However, in those animals also treated with silica, the benzo-pyrones had no effect on the amount of oedema or of protein. In all the animals except those treated with silica, lymphoedema was accompanied by considerable numbers of macrophages entering the affected tissues; in those treated with silica, these numbers were greatly reduced. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:207299

  7. The prelymphatic pathways of the brain as revealed by cervical lymphatic obstruction and the passage of particles.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börsök, E.; Földi, M.

    1976-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy was used to examine portions of the brain, the circle of Willis, and the internal carotid arteries of normal cats and rabbits, of sham-operated ones, and of those whose cervical lymphatics had been ligated. Carbon was injected into the cerebral cortex of some lymphoedematous animals. It was found that lymphatic ligation produced oedema of the brain, and a dilatation of the prelymphatic spaces around the vessels. Carbon was traced in these from the injection site, around the minor and major vessels, in the adventitia of the internal carotid artery, entering lymphatics adjacent to it, and finally in the draining lymph nodes. The oedema and dilated spaces were not present in the control animals. This was taken to indicate that there is a continuous system of non-endothelialized spaces and potential spaces-the prelymphatics-draining the brain into the cervical lymphatics. The protein in these spaces appeared to be increased if the lymph-oedema had lasted three weeks as compared to 24 hours, indicating that one of the major roles of this system is the removal of protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:773400

  8. Selenium toxicity and porcine focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia: description of a field outbreak and experimental reproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T M; Scholz, R W; Drake, T R

    1983-01-01

    An acute afebrile paretic condition was diagnosed in 18 of 225 feeder pigs between eight to ten weeks of age. Nine pigs died acutely, seven pigs were euthanatized and two appeared to recover. Macroscopic lesions in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements consisted of focal, bilateral, depressed areas. Histopathologically, the lesion consisted of endothelial proliferation, glial cell reaction and microcavitation. Similar lesions were observed in some brain stem motor nuclei. High selenium levels were detected in the pig feed and in pig tissues and blood. Two of five experimental pigs fed a commercial grower ration and supplemented with 52 ppm selenium as sodium selenite developed paresis and paralysis after a 29 day feeding trial. Histopathological lesions of focal symmetrical poliomyelomalacia confined to the cervical and lumbar/sacral spinal cord enlargements, and identical to those in the field cases, were produced. Select brain stem motor nuclei were also affected. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:6667430

  9. The reaction of the dura to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in repair of skull defects.

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, K; Urist, M R

    1982-01-01

    Trephine defects in the adult rat skull 0.8 cm in diameter, which do not spontaneously heal, were filled with a bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) fraction. The defects healed not only by bony ingrowth from the trephine rim, but also by proliferation of pervascular mesenchymal-type cells (pericytes) of the dura mater. Under the influence of BMP, dural pericytes differentiated into chondroid and woven bone. Between three and four weeks postimplantation, sinusoids formed and the woven bone remodelled into lamellar bone. Concurrently, blood-borne bone marrow cells colonized the bone deposits, and the diploe were restored. Demonstrating that it is soluble in interstitial fluid, and diffusible across a nucleopore membrane (which isolated the bony margins of the skull), BMP induced new bone formation in the underlying dura and complete repair of the defect. The response of the dura to the BMP fraction produced more new bone than the response to allogeneic bone matrix. The BMP-induced repair was dose dependent; the quantity of new bone was proportional to the dose of the implanted BMP. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 1c. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:7092346

  10. The cellular changes during osteogenesis in bone and bone marrow composite autografts.

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, P V; Gray, J C

    1975-01-01

    Osteogenesis in and around autografts has been studied in the hope of identifying the osteoblast precursor. Fresh autografts of cortical bone with its constituent bone marrow were implanted into intramuscular sites in rats. The grafts were removed at intervals over a four week period and examined by light and electron microscopy. A chronological sequence of degenerative, reparative and differentiative events was found and described. The relative contributions of the host and graft components to post-grafting osteogenesis are discussed and the problem of the origin of the osteoblast cells is examined, taking into account present views about the interrelationships between skeletal connective tissue cells and their precursors. It is concluded that, in the investigation described, the presence of host granulation tissue was necessary for osteogenesis and it is postulated that osteoblast progenitor cells can arise from this granulation tissue, their differentiation along the osteogenic line being stimulated in some way by the presence of the graft bone. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:1102503

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of the endometrium during the secretory phase.

    PubMed Central

    Motta, P M; Andrews, P M

    1976-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface morphology of the rabbit endometrium during the secretory phase of the oestrous cycle. The free surfaces of ciliated and of inactive active secretory cells are described. Changes in secretory cell surface morphology resulting from accumulation and secretion of material involve the apparent retraction of microvilli and the formation of one or more bulbous protrusions of the cell's apical surface. These protrusions may be relatively smooth surfaced or exhibit long slender micro-extensions. The protrusions grow in size and are eventually pinched off. Loss of the bulbous protrusions often leaves behind crater-like invaginations of the cell's surface. Secretory cells adjacent to the endometrial glands are the first to exhibit signs of mucin accumulation and secretion. The single cilium of a secretory cell is not apparently affected by the secretory process. Signs of ciliated and secretory cell degeneration, and possible sloughing, are also described. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1033932

  12. Pathology of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in the Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Timothy G.; Stookey, James L.; Eddy, Gerald A.; Kastello, Michael D.

    1973-01-01

    Gross and microscopic lesions associated with Bolivan hemorrhagic fever virus infection in the rhesus monkey were studied in 10 animals which died following inoculation. Gross lesions included skin rash, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, meningeal edema, hydropericardium and enlarged friable livers. Hemorrhagic manifestations of the infection were not consistently observed, but hemorrhages were present in the skin, heart, brain and nares in some monkeys. Histopathologic lesions were fairly consistent. Hepatic necrosis with the presence of acidophilic hyaline bodies, necrotizing enteritis, epithelial necrosis and adrenal cortical necrosis were present in all monkeys. Those monkeys which died after the seventeenth day of infection had nonsupurative meningoencephalitis; lymphoid necrosis was present in 3 monkeys that died after day 18. Other microscopic lesions included myocardial degeneration, lymphoid and reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia and lymphoid depletion. Most of the histopathologic lesions described in human autopsy material were reproduced; however, the necrosis in the skin and oral mucosa, mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and the adrenal cortex have not been described in man. Despite these apparent discrepancies the results of this investigation indicate that the rhesus monkey is a good experimental model for the study of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever infection. ImagesFig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:4202335

  13. A scanning electron microscope study of the pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans): possible involvement of melanosomes in protecting the pecten against damage by ultraviolet light.

    PubMed Central

    Kiama, S G; Bhattacharjee, J; Maina, J N; Weyrauch, K D

    1994-01-01

    The pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans), a diurnally active bird of prey, has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. In this species the pecten consists of 12 highly vascularised pleats, held together apically by a heavily pigmented 'bridge' and projects freely into the vitreous body in the ventral part of the eye cup. Ascending and descending blood vessels of varying calibre, together with a profuse network of capillaries, essentially constitute the vascular framework of the pecten. A distinct distribution of melanosomes is discernible on the pecten, the concentration being highest at its apical end, moderate at the crest of the pleats and least at the basal and lateral margins. Overlying and within the vascular network, a close association between blood vessels and melanocytes is evident. It is conjectured that such an association may have evolved to augment the structural reinforcement of this nutritive organ in order to keep it firmly erectile within the gel-like vitreous. Such erectility may be an essential prerequisite for its optimal functioning, as well as in its overt use as a protective shield against the effects of ultraviolet light, which otherwise might lead to damage of the pectineal vessels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7649799

  14. Reversal of methylcholanthrene-induced changes in mouse prostates in vitro by retinoic acid and its analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Lasnitzki, I.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of vitamin A-related compounds on hyperplasia and metaplasia induced by methylcholanthrene was studied in mouse prostate glands in organ culture. Methylcholanthrene was found to cause extensive hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia of the prostatic epithelium which persisted after withdrawal of the carcinogen. The retinoids included retinoic acid and 6 of its structural analogues synthesized in an attempt to enhance the anticarcinogenic action and reduce the toxicity of the parent compound. These where the cyclopentenyl analogus 7699, A2-retinoic acid, 13-cis-alpha-retinoic acid and 3 aromatic analogues. Administration of the compounds following the carcinogen reduced the extent and incidence of hyperplasia significantly and with the exception of one compound reversed the squamous metaplasia. Two of the aromatic analogues, one with a terminal ethylamide group (1430), and the other with a terminal ethylester group (9369), proved to be the most potent inhibitors, followed by compound 7699 and (9369), proved to be the most potent inhibitors, followed by compound 7699 and retinoic acid. A2-retinoic acid and 13-cis-alpha-retinoic acid showed the lowest activity. The inhibition of hyperplasia appeared to be mediated via a reduction of DNA synthesis. It seemed unrelated to either the biological growth-promoting activity of the compounds or their surface-active properties. It is tentatively suggested that vitamin A and its analogues may act as hormones. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:987794

  15. An analysis of implantation in Indian hipposiderid bats.

    PubMed Central

    Bhiwgade, D A

    1979-01-01

    The meagre information on the early developmental stages and the evolutionary and taxonomic position of hipposiderid bats has stimulated the present study. The cranial segment of the uterus forms a balloon-like enlargement at the time of implantation, and the antimesometrial part of its huminal slit expands into a spacious implantation chamber. Implantation is superficial and circumferential and the embryonic disc is orientated towards the side of the uterus which lies between the lateral and the antimesometrial sides. Reichert's membrane develops early, and the formation of a symplasma is described. A comparative account of implantation in the four species of hipposiderid bats of the family Hipposideridae is given, and the taxonomic position of this family is discussed on the basis of the present observations and earlier work on the embryology of Chiroptera. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:438094

  16. The effect of smoke inhalation on pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, G F; Clark, W R; Wax, S D; Webb, S R

    1980-01-01

    This paper details efforts to define the primary pathophysiology of acute smoke inhalation without the variables of infection, burns, or fluid resuscitation. A standard dose of smoke (wood and kerosene) was delivered at 37 C to mongrel dogs. The parameters studied included blood gases, carboxyhemoglobin, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics, surface tension area curves as an indication of surfactant activity, and in vivo photomicroscopy. The FiO2 of the smoke was 17 volumes per cent; the carbon monoxide 17,000 ppm. Immediately following smoke exposure, dense, nonsegmental atelectasis developed. Hemodynamic changes were insignificant, but the PaO2 fell to 49 mmHg; the right to left shunt rose from 5 to 41%. Surfactant reduction was significant: enough to cause an increase in the minimum surface tension from 7 to 22 dynes/cm. This surfactant loss may explain the atelectasis seen and the marked instability of subpleural alveolar walls. The data collected are consistent and support the acute inactivation of surfactant as one of the primary pathophysiologic events in smoke inhalation. The clinical correlation is good; surfactant loss may explain why victims of smoke inhalation are so vulnerable to fluid administration if they have thermal burns as well effectiveness of medical devices. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6892674

  17. Comparison of Body Weights, Organ Weights and Histological Features of Selected Organs of Gnotobiotic, Conventional and Isolator-reared Contaminated Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Waxler, G. L.; Drees, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-seven pigs from three litters were used in a comparison of body weights, organ weights, and selected histological features of germfree, conventional and isolator-reared contaminated pigs. At three weeks of age conventional pigs were heavier than pigs of the other two groups. The mandibular lymphnodes, stomachs, and small intestines of contaminated pigs were significantly heavier than the same organs of germfree pigs. This difference was not found in superficial inguinal or prefemoral lymph nodes. Other statistically significant organ weight differences were found. Histologically, the lymph nodes of conventional and contaminated pigs were much more active than those of germfree pigs, although secondary nodules were occasionally found in lymph nodes of germfree pigs. Greater quantities of iron-containing pigment were found in the spleens of germfree pigs than in spleens of the other two groups. Hepatic interlobular septa were somewhat more developed in conventional pigs than in germfree or contaminated pigs. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4261841

  18. The ACTH cells in the pituitary gland of the nine-spined stickleback, Pungitius pungitius L.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M

    1982-01-01

    The ACTH cells form a layer 1-8 cells thick, dorsal to the prolactin cells in the rostral pars distalis. They react only mildly with a variety of stains including PAS-lead haematoxylin. Their nuclear diameters vary seasonally in a manner that closely parallels that of the prolactin cells. The relative volumes of the ACTH and prolactin cell zones are remarkably constant in animals of different sizes. It is suggested that the two hormones may act synergistically at various body sites and that this accounts for the related morphological features of the ACTH and prolactin cells. There are no changes in the surface density of the ACTH zone with increasing animal size. Consequently, the ACTH/neurohypophysial border is highly convoluted in large animals. The proximity of the neurohypophysis also influences cell ultrastructure, as small processes, packed with secretory granules are more numerous near the basal lamina separating the adeno- and neurohypophyses. A morphometric analysis of ACTH cells provides base-line ultrastructural data for experimental studies and for comparisons with other teleosts. The cells have small, secretory granules, 100-300 nm in diameter, and of variable electron density. There is little rough endoplasmic reticulum and a small Golgi apparatus. There is no evidence of granule release by exocytosis and various explanations for this are suggested. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6290440

  19. On the ovarian bursa of the golden hamster. II. Intercellular connections in the bursal epithelium and passage of ferritin from the cavity into lymphatics.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, T; Shinohara, H; Matsuda, T

    1986-01-01

    Cell abutments in the ovarian bursal epithelium of the golden hamster included tight junctions, desmosome-like junctions, gap junctions and zonulae adhaerentes. The plasma membranes of adjacent epithelial cells were often closely apposed forming a zonula adherens at the apex of the intercellular space, but these did not fuse along the entire length of the intercellular space. Gap junctions and other intercellular junctions did not allow diffusion of ferritin into the junctional areas, but failed to prevent ferritin from filling the intercellular space basal to the junction. This suggested that these junctions were not continuous around the entire circumference of the cell. In general, intercellular connections in the bursal epithelium may be labile and this lability, as well as periodic distention of the bursa, may give rise to separation of epithelial cells. Ferritin injected into the bursal cavity reached lymphatics via three routes: (1) via stomata; (2) via gaps and pores; (3) via intercellular spaces. Transcellular transport did not make a major contribution to permeation of ferritin across the bursal epithelium, and ferritin particles did not enter fenestrated blood vessels within 30 minutes after injection. The variety of routes may facilitate rapid and complete drainage of fluid and cellular components from the bursal cavity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Figs. 17-18 PMID:3693080

  20. Role of cartilage canals in osteogenesis and growth of the vertebral centra.

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S; Briggs, C A

    1988-01-01

    Bone formation in the vertebral centra commences within the centrum and is in this respect analogous to the secondary ossification which occurs in the epiphysis of a long bone. Bone tissue first appears at about the 85 mm C.R. stage and not in the 55 mm C.R. length embryo; at the latter stage blood vessels and calcification alone were observed. The connective tissue cells within the cartilage canal appear to assist osteogenesis by providing osteogenic cells which lay down bone in the walls of the cartilage canal, and provide cells which remove calcified cartilage found at the periphery of the canal; they assist growth by producing an appreciable number of chondrocytes that permit lateral expansion of the centra. Osteogenesis appears to occur in multiple foci within the growth plate of the older embryos and could account for the rapid rate of growth of vertebrae. Bone formation occurs in both mineralised and unmineralised matrix (as seen on the walls of the cartilage canals). The blood vessels within the growing vertebra tend to follow the zone of cartilage hypertrophy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3225216

  1. The uterine vascular system of the golden hamster and its changes during the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, A; Nishida, T

    1988-01-01

    The vascular pattern of the hamster uterus and its changes during the oestrous cycle were studied by using the corrosion vascular casting method. The vascular system of the hamster uterus has two main division, the circumferential division and the medial arterial division. The former consists of circumferential and radial vessels and supplies the major part of the uterus. In this system the arteries and veins run parallel to each other throughout the uterus except for the inner circumferential plexus to which veins are predominantly distributed. The latter division has a delicate arterial system which supplies the mesometrial are of the endometrium. It forms a conglomerate structure along the mesometrial surface of the circular muscle layer. The arrangement of the vessels, especially those in the circumferential division, evidently changes during the oestrous cycle. From the evening of dioestrus II to the evening of pro-oestrus most of the circumferential and radial vessels are enormously dilated and subepithelial capillaries make an elaborate network without blind endings. These changes in the vascular structure are associated with those in the external and internal (or luminal) aspects of the uterus: the uterine horns are markedly swollen and the luminal surface becomes much more irregular due to the indentations in the endometrium. No new vascular formation is found in the uterus throughout the four days cycle. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:3225224

  2. The fine structure of the human fetal urinary bladder. Development and maturation. A light, transmission and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J; Antonakopoulos, G N

    1989-01-01

    The urinary bladders of 27 human fetuses, aged 7 weeks to full term, were studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy to establish the sequence of events in the development and maturation of the organ during fetal life. In the early specimens, 7-12 weeks old, the urinary bladder was lined by a bilayered, cuboidal and glycogen-rich epithelium. During the 13-17th weeks the epithelium thickened, a third layer developed and by light microscopy it now resembled urothelium. By 21 weeks this had evolved into a 3-4 layer thick epithelium with typical ultrastructural urothelial characteristics. Smooth muscle cells emerged from the condensed mesenchyme of the bladder wall by the 12th week of gestation, initially in the cephalic part of the organ but spreading within a week into the caudal end. Our findings indicate that the human fetal bladder undergoes a series of vital developmental changes during 13-21 weeks of gestation finally acquiring the typical urothelial lining and a well-developed muscular coat. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:2621133

  3. Oxygen consumption by the isolated smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bülbring, Edith; Golenhofen, K.

    1967-01-01

    1. An apparatus is described for simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and electrical and mechanical activity of isolated smooth muscle preparations. 2. The mean oxygen uptake by the isolated taenia coli of the guinea-pig was 10-20 μl./g/min. 3. In spontaneously active preparations, adrenaline (10-8-10-7 g/ml.) caused, with the inhibition of electrical and mechanical activity, a reduction in oxygen uptake. 4. After prolonged exposure to substrate free solution spontaneous activity ceased periodically. Adrenaline, when applied during a silent period, had no detectable effect on resting oxygen consumption, while readmission of substrate, either glucose or β-hydroxybutyrate, increased oxygen uptake. 5. Adrenaline did not modify the increased oxygen uptake during the initial recovery period when it was given simultaneously with the substrate. However, adrenaline shortened the time interval which elapsed from the addition of substrate until spontaneous activity was resumed, indicating an acceleration of the recovery process. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:16992285

  4. Relevance of density, size and DNA content of tumour cells to the lung colony assay.

    PubMed Central

    Grdina, D. J.; Hittelman, W. N.; White, R. A.; Meistrich, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    Mouse fibrosarcoma tumours were dissociated and divided into subpopulations of viable cells by centrifugation in linear density gradients of Renografin. Two of these subpopulations, designated Band 2 and Band 4, differed in their clonogenic ability in lung colony assay. The less dense Band 2 cells were significantly more clonogenic than the Band 4 cells (2.9 percent vs 1.4 percent respectively). Each band was further separated on the basis of cell size by centrifugal elutriation. Each size class of cells comprising Band 2 showed higher clonogenic ability than the corresponding size class in Band 4. Thus cell size differences were not responsible for the clonogenic differences between these bands. To determine whether cell-cycle distribution of the tumour cells was responsible for differences in cloning efficiency, flow microfluorometric and premature chromosome condensation methods were utilized. The unseparated and Band 4 populations showed a higher percentage of cells in S and G2 than did the Band 2 populations, but many of the S and G2 tumour cells showed extensive chromosome damage. From this study we conclude that the increased clonogenic ability of the lighter tumour cells is not due to differences in cell size or cell-cycle parameters. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:563726

  5. Mass and number of fibres in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung disease in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. M.; Beckett, S. T.; Bolton, R. E.; Collings, P.; Middleton, A. P.

    1978-01-01

    Five groups of rats were treated by inhalation for 12 months, with the U.I.C.C. preparations of the 3 main commercially used asbestos types, chrysotile, crocidolite and amosite. The experiment was designed so that the effects of both fibre mass and fibre number could be examined. The results indicated that chrysotile dust caused far more lung fibrosis than either amphibole type even when the fibre numbers in the dust clouds were similar. All malignant pulmonary neoplasms found during this study occurred in animals treated with chrysotile. The fibre-number calculations used for the generation of dust clouds were evaluated using the parameters recommended by the Health and Safety Executive in 1976, by which all fibres over 5 microgram long are counted using a phase-contrast light microscopy. When fibre-length distributions were calculated using a scanning electron microscope, however, it was found that the chrysotile clouds used in this study contained many more fibres over 20 microgram long than either of the amphibole clouds. The results, therefore, support previous suggestions that long asbestos fibres are more dangerous than short. They also indicate that neither a single mass standard, nor the present fibre-number standards are satisfactory. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs. 9 and 10 PMID:656299

  6. Ultrastructural Localization of Peroxidase Activity in Human Platelets and Megakaryocytes

    PubMed Central

    Breton-Gorius, Janine; Guichard, Josette

    1972-01-01

    Normal human platelets and megakaryocytes were examined for peroxidase activity by the diaminobenzidine (DAB) cytochemical technic. When the fixation and the incubation were adequate, a strong reaction was present in the dense tubular system of platelets suspended in plasma or spread on carbon. The black reaction product was ascribed to enzyme activity, since the reaction was completely eliminated when H2O2 or DAB were omitted, or when H2O2 was in excess. In addition, the reaction was inhibited by aminotriazole, cyanide and azide. In the human megakaryocytes, the reaction was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum including the perinuclear envelope. The Golgi complex and the clear vacuolar system were negative for the reaction. After platelet release, the reaction was always seen in the perinuclear space. The nature and function of the enzyme, as well as its possible relationships with catalase, are discussed. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16 PMID:5009974

  7. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of peripheral T cell lymphomas: a proposal for their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Suchi, T; Lennert, K; Tu, L Y; Kikuchi, M; Sato, E; Stansfeld, A G; Feller, A C

    1987-01-01

    Based on the results of histological and immunohistochemical observations of a large number of peripheral T cell lymphomas from China, England, Germany and Japan, histological and cytological morphology were correlated with immunophenotype, aetiological association with HTLV-1, and clinical behaviour to produce a working classification of the T cell lymphomas. This classification, based mainly on cytological criteria, divides the peripheral T cell lymphomas into tumours of low grade and high grade malignancy. Adult T cell lymphoma/leukaemia (ATLL) is caused by HTLV-1 and belongs chiefly to the high grade category. Some tumours are characterised by an admixture of other cells (epithelioid cells, follicular dendritic cells, etc) and structures (high endothelial venules, follicles), which may indicate the secretion of lymphokines by the tumour cells. Clear cells seem to be specific for T cell lymphomas and may occur in various types of peripheral T cell lymphoma. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 PMID:3312308

  8. Occult Carcinoma of the Bronchus

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, F. G.; Thompson, D. W.

    1966-01-01

    The term “occult carcinoma” is applied to those patients with carcinoma of the bronchus at an in situ or early invasive stage who have carcinoma cells in their sputum but have no recognizable evidence of tumour in the chest radiograph. In eight such patients at the Toronto General Hospital, the lesion was localized and treatment instituted. Our experience with these eight patients can be compared with that of 27 patients described in two similar studies. The lesions were commonly symptomatic. Localization, although sometimes difficult, was accomplished using information obtained during bronchoscopy and bronchography. The prognosis following adequate resection appeared excellent. No patient died of carcinoma during the post-treatment follow-up period, which was continued for a minimum of 18 months. Pathological evidence indicates that bronchial carcinoma at this occult stage can be diagnosed cytologically, is rarely multifocal and, as a localized neoplasm, is amenable to curative therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:5929532

  9. Candida albicans Ultrastructure: Colonization and Invasion of Oral Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Julie A.; Squier, Christopher A.

    1980-01-01

    The colonization and invasion of various animal oral mucosae by Candida albicans were examined in an organ culture model. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the oral epithelium between 12 and 30 h after inoculation with the fungus revealed the morphological relationships between host and parasite. Examination of the fungi in thin sections showed five distinct layers in the cell wall of C. albicans within the epithelium, but changes were evident in the organization and definition of the outer cell wall layers in budding hyphae and in hyphae participating in colonization and invasion of the epithelial cells. Adherence of the fungus to the superficial cells of the oral mucosa appeared to involve intimate contact between the epithelial cell surface and the deeper layers of the fungal cell wall. During invasion a close seal was maintained between the invading hyphae and the surrounding epithelial cell envelope, there being no other evidence of damage to the host cell surface except at the site of entry. Within the epithelial cells there was only occasional loss of cytoplasmic components in the vicinity of the invading hyphae. These findings would suggest that enzymatic lysis associated with the invasive process is localized and that the mechanical support provided by surface adherence and the intimate association between the fungus and the epithelial cell envelope may permit growth of Candida on through the epithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6995338

  10. Some Observations on the Surgical Treatment of Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Millin, Terence

    1939-01-01

    Types: A. Essential. B. Paradoxical. C. False. D. True. True incontinence.—A. Congenital: (a) Developmental abnormalities. (b) Malformations of nervous system. B. Acquired: (a) Local abnormalities. (b) False passages. (c) Disturbance of innervation. Anatomy of sphincteric mechanism in male and female. Diagnosis: Need for careful investigation including cysto-urethroscopy, cysto-urethrography, and cysto-manometry. Treatment: A. Physiotherapy. B. Direct surgical repair. C. Surgical diversion of urine. Types of true incontinence amenable to direct surgical repair: A. Epispadias. B. Aberrant ureteric ostia. C. Fistulæ. D. Congenital or acquired defective sphincteric mechanism. Operative treatment of vesico-vaginal fistulæ. Transvesical operation for cure of congenitally defective sphincteric mechanism—report of seven cases. Stress incontinence.—Value of urethrograms to ascertain nature of defect. Operative treatment. Incontinence following prostatic surgery.—Types of operation advocated. New operative procedure utilizing ribbon catgut with demonstrative moving picture. ImagesFig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19991939

  11. Placental agenesis, embryonal hydraemia, embryolethality and acute hypervitaminosis A in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Love, A. M.; Vickers, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    Acute maternal hypervitaminosis A established on Day 9 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats caused a dose-related increase in the resorption of implants. The median embryolethal dose was 189,000 i.u./kg. In addition to suppression of the allantois leading to placental agenesis, damaged embryos showed retarded somatic development and hydraemia, all apparent 24 h after treatment. At about Day 11 the hydraemia involved the visceral wall of the yolk sac causing death of the embryo soon after. The fluid in the vitelline vessels continued to collect until Day 13 when it absorbed following necrosis of the wall of the yolk sac. Two mechanisms are suggested for the embryonal hydraemia: either the excess fluid resulted from a permeability disorder induced by the vitamin A; or it was retained metabolic water or water specifically absorbed to inflate the allantois and, being unused for this purpose, it pooled in the blood vessels of the embryo. The yolk sac hydraemia is more likely to have followed injury to the proximal endoderm. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 PMID:999789

  12. Detection of leptospiral antigen (L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae) by immunoelectron microscopy in the liver and kidney of experimentally infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    De Brito, T.; Prado, M. J.; Negreiros, V. A.; Nicastri, A. L.; Sakata, E. E.; Yasuda, P. H.; Santos, R. T.; Alves, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    Guinea-pigs were experimentally infected with L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and their liver and kidney were studied by immunoelectron microscopy using the post embedding indirect immunogold labelling technique. Primary antibody was a purified rabbit anti-serum produced against the same leptospiral strain used in the inoculum. Gold-labelled leptospiral antigen (LAg) was found close to cell membranes of hepatocytes, kidney tubular cells and endothelial cells of the interstitial capillaries of the kidney. Afterwards it was internalized by hepatic and tubular cells, and eventually found in lysosomes. Phagolysosomes of Kupffer cells were also found to contain remnants of degraded leptospires and gold-labelled LAg. Gold-labelled intact leptospires were detected at the enlarged intercellular spaces between hepatocytes at the areas of hepatic cell plate disarray, showing the potential for leptospiral migration during the septicaemic phase of the disease potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the lesions. The affinity of leptospiral antigenic material for cell membranes suggests an initial interaction with cell surface proteins followed by its internalization and cell damage. The nature of antigenic material detected, however, remains undefined; it may be a toxin, an enzyme or any other factor/s involved in leptospiral virulence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1419779

  13. Fibrosis in the lymph nodes in primary lymphoedema. Histological and clinical studies in 74 patients with lower-limb oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Kinmonth, J. B.; Wolfe, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    There are many different clinical and lymphographic groups of patients with primary lymphoedema. Improved lymphographic techniques have emphasised the importance of changes in the nodes as well as in the lymph vessels. A systematic histological study has been made of nodes removed during therapeutic operations or investigations on patients with primary lymphoedema. Many nodes showed a marked fibrotic process. This, in its distribution in the node and its histological appearance, was quite different from that which might have arisen from attacks of infection and inflammation. The majority of patients had no clinical history of such attacks. It may be regarded as primary fibrosis in the nodes. Associated clinical features suggest strong genetic or familial factors in its aetiology. Many of the changes found in the lymph vessels may follow obstructive effects from fibrosis in the nodes. The histological findings have been related to the clinical and lymphographic features in different types of primary lymphoedema. The degree of fibrosis and its distribution have important bearings on the prognosis, clinical course, and treatment of the patient. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 Fig. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:7436291

  14. Comparative morphology, cytochemistry and innervation of chromaffin tissue in vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Scheuermann, D W

    1993-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were observed singly or in clusters in the heart and sympathetic cord of 2 genera of dipnoan fish, Protopterus and Lepidosiren. They were invariably found in close association with the autonomic sympathetic nervous system and at sites where chromaffin cells or their precursors are situated in mammals during ontogenetic development. X-ray microanalysis demonstrated that they contained a primary catecholamine which was identified microspectrofluorometrically as dopamine. The chromaffin cells were innervated by efferent axons with typical preganglionic sympathetic terminals which were acetylcholinesterase-positive. Although the general morphology and cytochemistry agree with those of developing intra-adrenal chromaffin cells in mammals, the morphological characteristics implicate them as active secretory gland cells. The dopamine transmitter phenotype seems to be determined by the maintenance throughout life of the separate and distant location of steroidogenic interrenal tissue from suprarenal elements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 14 PMID:8300420

  15. Early Development of and Pathology Associated with Strongylus edentatus

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B. M.; Slocombe, J. O. D.

    1974-01-01

    Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were monitored for clinical signs and selected blood changes and were examined at necropsy from two to 56 days postinfection. Larvae penetrated the intestine and reached the liver intravenously before 40 hours postinfection. Occasional thrombi and larval tracks associated with the intima of cecal and colic veins suggested aberrant paths. Larvae in the liver doubled in width between seven and 15 days postinfection and a sudden increment in circulating eosinophils occurred between 11 and 15 days. These changes were probably associated with the third molt. At 30 days fourth stage larvae were migrating in the liver; at 42 days they were present in the hepatorenal ligament. White foci were observed in the liver from two to 56 days. They contained mononuclear cells and eosinophils and later necrotic cores of eosinophils. By one month foci were overshadowed by tortuous tracks of migrating larvae. Aberrant larvae in the lungs were confined in granulomas. Massive granulomas in the wall of the cecum and colon contained small larvae which were probably inhibited by antibody associated with the third molt. Severe disruption of omental architecture and adhesions involving the intestine occurred several weeks after infection. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20.Fig. 21.Fig. 22.Fig. 23.Fig. 24. PMID:4274818

  16. Anatomical aspects of the lacrimal gland of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella).

    PubMed Central

    Veiga Neto, E R; Tamega, O J; Zorzetto, N L; Dall Pai, V

    1992-01-01

    In the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella) the main lacrimal gland is composed of 2 distinct portions with an intraorbital and extraorbital localisation, interconnected by a bridge of glandular tissue which crosses the lateral orbital wall through the lateral orbital fissure located in the sphenozygomatic suture. The intraorbital lacrimal gland is flattened and extremely thin, with a variable outline. It lies on the upper and outer third of the globe of the eye, and the aponeurosis and the belly of the lateral rectus muscle, extending antero-posteriorly from the upper lateral angle of the orbit midway along the orbital cavity. The extraorbital lacrimal gland is compact, halfmoon-shaped, with 3 surfaces, 3 borders and 2 extremities. It lies in the temporal fossa between the temporalis muscle and the temporal surface of the zygomatic bone, fitting into a depression in this bone, and totally surrounded by adipose tissue. The secretory cells have a flocculent appearance and either low or high density. They possess a basal region containing the nucleus and rich in granular endoplasmic reticulum, and an apical region filled with secretory granules varying in size, form and density. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1452484

  17. De Lange Syndrome: Report of 20 Cases

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, R. G.; Edwards, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Typus Degenerativus Amstelodamensis or Amsterdam dwarfism, a syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by mental retardation, a distinctive face, characteristic hands and feet, defective growth and other minor malformations, was first described by Cornelia de Lange in 1933. Approximately 69 cases, including nine autopsies, have been reported in the literature. In this paper we present a further 20, with illustrations of the syndrome from infancy to puberty (including de Lange's original three cases). The historical, physical, laboratory and radiographic findings of de Lange's three patients and our 20 are tabulated. Autopsy findings in one of our patients are reported and the literature is briefly reviewed. Although some observers have recently reported chromosome abnormalities in de Lange's syndrome, we feel that the diagnosis is made from the history and physical examination and that there are no definitive laboratory aids which can confirm the diagnosis. Chromosome studies in all 20 of our patients were normal and the genetic implications are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 9Fig. 11p1197-a PMID:6022788

  18. The Nature of D-Serine-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ganote, Charles E.; Peterson, Darryl R.; Carone, Frank A.

    1974-01-01

    Renal structural changes were studied sequentially between 1 hour and 6 days in rats treated with D-serine. Extensive necrosis of proximal straight tubules was rapid in onset and was followed by complete tubular regeneration 6 days post-treatment. The apparent progression of cellular changes was initial shrinkage, followed either by swelling and loss of apical cytoplasm or immediate lysis of cytoplasmic and nuclear contents. Tubular damage left only the basement membrane as a barrier between interstitial and luminal fluids. In similarly treated rats, proteinuria and glucosuria developed at the onset of tubular necrosis and disappeared when the tubules were completely relined by epithelium suggesting that they are due to diffusion of protein and glucose from interstitium into tubular fluid across the denuded basement membranes and that epithelial cells, under normal conditions, act as a barrier to diffusion of certain substances between the interstitium and tubular fluid. ImagesFig 10Fig 11Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9 PMID:4447130

  19. Early Pathological Changes Associated with Fasciola hepatica Infection in White-tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Presidente, P. J. A.; McCraw, B. M.; Lumsden, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Three white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were inoculated with 1000 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica and examined on days 7, 14, and 28 postinoculation to determine the early response of a resistant host to this infection. It was concluded that only small numbers of the metacercariae penetrated the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. Flukes that migrated to the liver penetrated through Glisson's capsule, primarily on the parietal surface. Marked fibroplasia and cellular infiltration of the capsule were induced and flukes were killed and destroyed in granulomas immediately beneath the capsule. Migration in hepatic parenchyma was minimal and immature flukes or migratory tracks were not found. There were infiltrations of eosinophils and mononuclear cells, bile duct hyperplasia and fibroplasia in portal areas. A few flukes penetrated through the diaphragm within 14 days postinoculation and on day 28 granulomas were observed on the dorsal surface of the lung where F. hepatica had penetrated this organ. The early reaction of Glisson's capsule to F. hepatica infection in white-tailed deer has not been described in cattle, sheep or swine infected with this fluke. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:4277445

  20. Distribution of otic postganglionic and recurrent mandibular nerve fibres to the cavernous sinus plexus in monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Ruskell, G L

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of dorsal rami of the otic ganglion was traced on one or both sides of 1 rhesus and 15 cynomolgus monkeys using interrupted serial sections. From 15 to 24 fine rami containing unmyelinated and small myelinated nerve fibres entered the cranial cavity with the mandibular nerve through the foramen ovale. Most rami contributed to a plexus positioned in the crotch of the mandibular and maxillary nerves adjacent to the trigeminal ganglion. The plexus was augmented by an accessory otic ganglion. Rami then continued dorsally on each side of or through the maxillary nerve and joined the cavernous sinus plexus. The pathway described probably gives otic parasympathetic fibres access to the cerebral arteries and may share a wider distribution in common with other nerves contributing to the cavernous sinus plexus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Figs. 13,15 Fig. 14 PMID:8376193

  1. A novel upstream element compensates for an ineffectual octamer motif in an immunoglobulin V kappa promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Atchison, M L; Delmas, V; Perry, R P

    1990-01-01

    The octamer (or dc/cd) motif is considered to be a critical component of all immunoglobulin (Ig) promoters. Although the sequence of this motif is highly conserved among most Ig promoters, there are some notable examples in which efficiently expressed Ig genes contain divergent octamers with base substitutions that are demonstrably deleterious when tested with heterologous proximal promoter elements. To elucidate the mechanisms that enable these naturally occurring Ig genes to cope with divergent octamers, we analyzed two such promoters with regard to their ability to interact with relevant transcription factors. We found that the divergent octamer in the kappa O germline promoter strongly binds both Oct-1 and Oct-2 factors, presumably because of compensatory contributions by flanking DNA sequences. A more surprising result was obtained with the V kappa 19 promoter. In this case, the divergent octamer is a very weak Oct factor binding site and, without help from another upstream element, is inadequate for efficient promoter function. This additional element, termed kappa Y because of its high pyrimidine content (CTTCCTTA), serves as a binding site for a novel lymphoid-specific factor. When the divergent V kappa 19 octamer was converted to a strong Oct factor binding site by a single point mutation, the need for kappa Y was obviated. Interestingly, VH promoters that contain the same divergent octamer also contain an upstream element that is very similar to kappa Y. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2120037

  2. The ultrastructure of bovine ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells during the perinatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Asari, M; Kano, Y; Wakui, S; Nishita, T; Matsushita, H; Oshige, H

    1989-01-01

    The ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells in bovine fetuses and neonates were examined by light and electron microscopy. In 7-9 months old fetuses (68, 82 and 86 cm CRL) the dome epithelium was usually a little thinner than elsewhere and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. FAE cells were already distinguishable by their being more cuboidal and eosinophilic than the other epithelial cells. The cytoplasm of the FAE cells bulged noticeably into the lumen and contained numerous mitochondria and vacuoles. At 18 hours and 21 hours after birth, the dome epithelium was more columnar and eosinophilic than previously and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. The FAE cells showed characteristic bulging of large cytoplasmic processes into the lumen, as seen in the previous stage. In the cytoplasm, moderate numbers of mitochondria, numerous vesicles and microtubules could be seen. Frequently degenerated FAE cells could also be found among normal FAE cells in the epithelium. After this stage the cytoplasmic processes almost disappeared but distribution of the other organelles was similar to that seen at the previous stage except that multivesicular bodies were frequently seen in the apical cytoplasm. These histological results suggest that bovine ileal FAE cells are histologically and functionally mature by birth and that at birth they seem to be able to react against the penetration of pathogenic substances from the extrauterine environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2606783

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA showing negative regulation in v-src-transformed 3Y1 rat fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, T; Sakiyama, S

    1993-01-01

    A differential screening procedure was used to isolate genes that are specifically down-regulated in transformed cells. After screening a cDNA library derived from normal rat fibroblast (3Y1) cells, we obtained several independent cDNAs whose mRNA level was substantially lower in 3Y1 cells transformed with Rous sarcoma virus than in untransformed 3Y1 cells. Among them, N03 cDNA has been characterized extensively. N03 mRNA was also absent from v-mos- or simian virus 40-transformed 3Y1 cells but was present in v-Ha-ras-transformed 3Y1 cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the N03 protein is composed of 178 amino acid residues and does not have any sequence similarities with proteins in the data base. A putative zinc-finger domain is located in the central part of the sequence and a proline-rich domain is in the C-terminal region. N03 mRNA was detected by Northern blot analysis in several tissues, including lung, kidney, intestine, and brain, but not in liver. Genomic Southern blot hybridization revealed that the N03 gene exists as a single copy in the rat genome and that closely related, single-copy genes are also present in chicken and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8385338

  4. Shape and motion from image streams: a factorization method.

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, C; Kanade, T

    1993-01-01

    Inferring scene geometry and camera motion from a stream of images is possible in principle, but it is an ill-conditioned problem when the objects are distant with respect to their size. We have developed a factorization method that can overcome this difficulty by recovering shape and motion without computing depth as an intermediate step. An image stream can be represented by the 2F x P measurement matrix of the image coordinates of P points tracked through F frames. Under orthographic projection this matrix is of rank 3. Using this observation, the factorization method uses the singular value decomposition technique to factor the measurement matrix into two matrices, which represent object shape and camera motion, respectively. The method can also handle and obtain a full solution from a partially filled-in measurement matrix, which occurs when features appear and disappear in the image sequence due to occlusions or tracking failures. The method gives accurate results and does not introduce smoothing in either shape or motion. We demonstrate this with a series of experiments on laboratory and outdoor image streams, with and without occlusions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:11607434

  5. A secretory protease inhibitor requires androgens for its expression in male sex accessory tissues but is expressed constitutively in pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J S; Needham, M; Parker, M G

    1987-01-01

    A full length cDNA clone encoding a mouse prostatic secretory glycoprotein (p12) whose synthesis is dependent upon testicular androgens has been cloned and characterized. The predicted amino acid sequence of p12 shares extensive homology with several members of the Kazal family of secretory protease inhibitors, in particular the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors. In agreement with sequence data, prostatic secretory p12, purified from mouse ventral prostate secretion, exhibits anti-trypsin activity. Steady-state levels of protease inhibitor mRNA in ventral prostate are reduced from approximately 0.06% in normal mice to undetectable after androgen withdrawal but are inducible within 4 h by re-administration of testosterone. Androgen-dependent expression of the secretory protease inhibitor mRNA was also observed in coagulating gland and seminal vesicle. In seminal vesicle, a tissue of different embryonic origin to the prostate, the kinetics of secretory protease inhibitor mRNA loss after castration are not as rapid as in the ventral prostate and coagulating gland. Low-level androgen independent expression was also observed in the pancreas. There appears to be a single gene for this secretory protease inhibitor and yet expression is markedly stimulated by testosterone in the sex accessory tissues and unaffected by this hormone in the pancreas. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3428272

  6. Mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Elling, F.; Møller, T.

    1973-01-01

    In Denmark a nephropathy in pigs characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis has been identified frequently during the last 5 decades in the course of meat inspection in slaughterhouses. The disease was first described by Larsen, who recognized the connexion between feeding mouldy rye to pigs and the development of the nephropathy. In this study kidneys were examined from 19 pigs coming from a farm with an outbreak of nephropathy. The barley fed to the pigs was contaminated with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Histological examination revealed different degrees of change ranging from slight regressive changes in the tubular epithelium and periglomerular and interstitial fibrosis to tubular atrophy, thickened basement membranes, glomerular sclerosis, and marked fibrosis. These differences were considered to be due to differences in the length of time of exposure to the mouldy barley and differences in the amount of mycotoxin consumed by the individual pig. However, it will be necessary to carry out experiments using crystalline ochratoxin A in order to prove such a relationship. Mycotoxins have also been suggested as etiological factors in Balkan nephropathy in man, which in the initial stages is characterized by tubular lesions similar to those seen in mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4546872

  7. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  8. Integrin engagement mediates tyrosine dephosphorylation on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, T T; Yan, L G; Madri, J A

    1996-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is a 130-kDa member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily expressed on endothelial cells, platelets, neutrophils, and monocytes and plays a role during endothelial cell migration. Phosphoamino acid analysis and Western blot analysis with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody show that endothelial PECAM-1 is tyrosine-phosphorylated. Phosphorylation is decreased with endothelial cell migration on fibronectin and collagen and with cell spreading on fibronectin but not on plastic. Cell adhesion on anti-integrin antibodies is also able to specifically induce PECAM-1 dephosphorylation while concurrently inducing pp125 focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of dephosphorylation with sodium orthovanadate suggests that this effect is at least partially mediated by phosphatase activity. Tyr-663 and Tyr-686 are identified as potential phosphorylation sites and mutated to phenylalanine. When expressed, both mutants show reduced PECAM-1 phosphorylation but Phe-686 mutants also show significant reversal of PECAM-1-mediated inhibition of cell migration and do not localize PECAM-1 to cell borders. Our results suggest that beta 1-integrin engagement can signal to dephosphorylate PECAM-1 and that this signaling pathway may play a role during endothelial cell migration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876219

  9. The fine structure of normal lymphocyte subpopulations--a study with monoclonal antibodies and the immunogold technique.

    PubMed Central

    Matutes, E; Catovsky, D

    1982-01-01

    The ultrastructural characteristics of normal lymphocyte subpopulations, identified by monoclonal antibodies and visualized by a colloidal gold labelled anti-mouse IgG were analysed. Our study demonstrates: (1) the major T lymphocyte subsets (OKT4+ and OKT8+) have distinct ultrastructural morphology. The majority of OKT4+ cells have a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) and few cytoplasmic organelles whilst most OKT8+ cells have a low N/C ratio and numerous organelles, namely a well developed Golgi apparatus, lysosomal granules and parallel tubular arrays (PTA); (2) a unique subtype with irregular nuclear outline that resembles Sézary cells was seen in 5-10% of OKT4+ lymphocytes; (3) OKM1, a reagent that reacts with monocytes and granulocytes, is positive in a small lymphocyte subset which appears to be negative with the OKT reagents and is morphologically identical to OKT8+ cells; (4) 'hand-mirror' cells were only seen labelled with OKT8 and OKM1; (5) B lymphocytes labelled with FMC4 (anti-IA) could be distinguished from OKT3+ lymphocytes by having numerous profiles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ribosomes; these were particularly prominent in lymphoplasmacytoid cells. Morphological similarities between normal T lymphocyte subsets and T neoplasias of the same membrane phenotype suggest that these disorders arise from specific T cell types present in normal peripheral blood or from common precursors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6185261

  10. Suprarenal vena caval occlusion. Principles of operative management.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B M; Mulherin, J L; Sawyers, J L; Turner, B I; Prager, R L; Dean, R H

    1984-01-01

    Retrohepatic occlusion of the inferior vena cava caused by tumor complicates complete resection and not infrequently is associated with life-threatening symptoms that accelerate the lethality of the underlying malignant process. This report summarizes our experience with caval thrombectomy and reconstruction that allowed complete removal of all gross tumor in seven patients with malignant occlusion of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava. Included in this group are five patients with renal cell carcinoma and extension of tumor into the retrohepatic vena cava. Three of these patients had extension of tumor thrombus into the right atrium. A sixth patient had recurrent right adrenal cortical carcinoma with tumor invasion of the vena cava and occlusion to the right atrium. Associated hepatic vein occlusion and secondary Budd-Chiari syndrome also was successfully managed in this patient. The final patient with occlusion of the entire suprarenal vena cava required caval reconstruction after resection of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the retrohepatic portion of the vena cava. Careful planning of the operative procedure, adequate exposure, complete mobilization of the retrohepatic vena cava, and control of the hepatic venous effluent will allow patients with retrohepatic vena caval occlusions to be managed with safety and success. Images Figs. 1A and B. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:6732311

  11. The formation of abdomino-perineal sacs by the fasciae of Scarpa and Colles, and their clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B F

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown that the membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue, known as Scarpa's fascia, is confined to an oval area on each side of the abdominal wall. By its attachment to the deep fascia it encloses an obliquely directed oval sac which extends into the perineum by three pocket-like diverticulae. The fascial extension which forms the pockets is known as the fascia of Colles. Medially, the sac blends with the fundiform ligament, so that the sacs do not communicate with each other or with the interfascial space deep to the penile dartos. Laterally, the inferior margin creates the crease-line of the groin by its attachment to the fascia lata. Between these attachments the pockets arise from the sac. The lateral pocket continues into the superficial perineal pouch. The medial pocket, together with the intermediate, occupies the scrotum or labium majus. The intermediate pocket is associated with the spermatic cord or the round ligament of the uterus and blends with their coverings posteriorly. In the male it terminates just above the testis. The significance of the fascial arrangements in relation to urinary extravasation is discussed, and also the relationship of the intermediate pocket to an indirect inguinal hernia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:6235202

  12. Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens II. Pathology and Proposed Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, J. R.; Barnum, D. A.; Pettit, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The intestines from 124 dead, sick and normal broiler chickens from 24 cases of necrotic enteritis were subjected to histological examination. Tissue sections from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca from each broiler were examined histologically for lesions of necrotic enteritis and the presence of coccidia. Lesions of necrotic enteritis were present in one or more areas of the intestine in all but six of 94 dead or sick birds and they were most common and severe in the jejunum. Coccidia were found in only small numbers in both diseased and normal birds. Brown and Brenn stained sections showed Gram-positive bacilli intimately associated with early necrotic lesions on the tips of villi. Tissue sections from the intestines of sick birds permitted a proposed pathogenesis for this disease with the lesion starting at the tips of villi. The similarity in pathogenesis and pathological lesions in this disease of broilers and Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in baby pigs is discussed. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4373152

  13. Do the Purkinje cells have a special type of oligodendrocyte as satellites?

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, R A

    1983-01-01

    Two types of oligodendrocytes considered to be a constant feature in the cerebellar cortex of the rat are described. One cell type (I) exhibits rounded or elliptical nuclei, whereas the other type (II) presents more irregular nuclear and cellular contours and wider perinuclear cisternae. The latter cell type shows a more electron-dense cytoplasm with more heavily clumped heterochromatin, contrasting strongly with the euchromatin; also long and parallel cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum are more frequent. The percentages of both types of oligodendrocytes in relation to the total population of common glial cell types were calculated in the cortical layers and at several levels in these layers. The distribution of oligodendrocytes in the associated white matter was also carried out for purposes of comparison. The results provide evidence the the Purkinje cells may have a special kind of oligodendrocyte (Type II) as satellites. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6630036

  14. The suspensory muscle of the duodenum and its nerve supply.

    PubMed Central

    Jit, I; Grewal, S S

    1977-01-01

    The gross anatomy, microscopic structure and nerve supply of the suspensory muscle of the duodenum and Hilfsmuskel have been studied in cadavers of 88 adults, 5 children, 1 infant and 6 neonates. The suspensory muscle of the duodenum, consisting of plain muscle fibres, arose from the connective tissue around the stems of the coeliac and superior mementeric arteries. It was inserted into the third and fourth parts of the duodenum in 53%, and into the duodeno-jejunal flexure in addition in 40%. It was innervated by non-myelinated fibres arising from the coeliac and superior mesenteric plexuses. Although both the longitudinal and circular muscle coats of the duodenum extended into the suspensory muscle, it was not supplied by Auerbach's plexus. The Halfsmuskel, which is a slip of the diaphragm is attached above to the margin of the oesophageal hiatus and below to the connective tissue in the region of the stem of the coeliac artery, sometimes extending to the stem of the superior mesenteric artery. The Hilfmuskel and the suspensory muscle of the duodenum are separate entities. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:870476

  15. The ultrastructure of the paratympanic organ in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed Central

    Giannessi, F; Pera, L

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the paratympanic organ in chickens was investigated by means of the transmission electron microscope. The epithelium lining the lumen of the paratympanic organ consists of sensory and non-sensory components. The sensory epithelium is composed of supporting and hair cells. The hair cells are similar to the type II receptor cells present in the neuroepithelia of the vestibule and of the lateral line organs. The afferent synapses at the bases of the hair cells are also described. The non-sensory epithelium is made up of cells with a clear cytoplasm and arranged in a single layer. It also contains dark, flattened cells which sometimes possess motile cilia. Special emphasis is given to the fact that the results agree with Vitali's theory that the paratympanic organ and the lateral line organs are homologous. It is concluded, therefore, that present knowledge about this structure is not yet sufficient to allow a definitive functional interpretation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693071

  16. Alternative splicing in the human gene for the core protein A1 generates another hnRNP protein.

    PubMed Central

    Buvoli, M; Cobianchi, F; Bestagno, M G; Mangiarotti, A; Bassi, M T; Biamonti, G; Riva, S

    1990-01-01

    The human hnRNP core protein A1 (34 kd) is encoded by a 4.6 kb gene split into 10 exons. Here we show that the A1 gene can be differentially spliced by the addition of an extra exon. The new transcript encodes a minor protein of the hnRNP complex, here defined A1B protein, with a calculated mol. wt of 38 kd, that coincides with a protein previously designated as B2 by some authors. In vitro translation of the mRNAs selected by hybridization with A1 cDNA produced two proteins of 34 and 38 kd; Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from HeLa cells revealed that the abundance of the A1B mRNA was approximately 5% that of A1. The A1B protein was detected by Western blotting with an anti-A1 monoclonal antibody both in enriched preparations of basic hnRNP proteins and in 40S hnRNP particles. The A1B protein exhibits a significantly higher affinity than A1 for ssDNA. The recombinant A1B protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, shows the same electrophoretic mobility and charge as the cellular one. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1691095

  17. Experimental bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. I. Prevention of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, P H; Langford, E V; Darcel, C

    1979-01-01

    Fifteen three- to six-month old Hereford-cross calves were divided into three groups. The first group was inoculated with bovid herpersvirus 1 (Strain 108), the second with a commercial intranasal vaccine against bovid herpesvirus 1 and the third group acted as controls. At least three weeks after vaccination, all calves were weaned, placed in an environmental chamber at 25.0 degrees C (days) and -13.3 degrees C (nights) and challenged with an aerosol of bovid herpesvirus 1 followed four days later by an aerosol of Pasteurella haemolytica. All surviving calves were sacrificed four days after the second aerosol. None of the calves inoculated with bovid herpesvirus 1 virus or the commercial vaccine developed a generalized pneumonia, although there were one or two nodules (4--8 mm diameter) in two of the calves given the commercial vaccine. Four of the five control calves had extensive lobar pneumonia at necropsy, two of the five died from the disease. Details of the clinical, pathological, bacteriological, virological and some of the serological findings are reported. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:487247

  18. Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.

    1967-01-01

    Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771

  19. An immunohistochemical study of the middle ear muscles of some carnivores and primates, with special reference to the IIM and slow-tonic fibre types.

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, F; Veggetti, A; Cerpenè, E; Rowlerson, A

    1983-01-01

    The middle ear muscles of several species of carnivores (cat, dog, fox, ferret and stone-marten) and some New World monkeys (Callithrix, Saimiri) and Old World monkeys (Cercopithecus, Macaca) were examined. The fibre type compositions of these muscles were determined by a combination of the standard histochemical myofibrillar ATPase method, and immunohistochemical techniques using myosintype-specific antisera. Immunohistochemically slow-tonic fibres were found in the stapedius muscles of only two carnivores, the ferret and stone-marten. In all the carnivores and the New World monkeys, tensor tympani muscle contained IIM, slow-tonic and slow-twitch fibres, but in the Old World monkeys it resembled stapedius muscle, and contained only Type I (slow-twitch) and IIA fibres. Thus, because all the species examined had IIM fibres in the jaw-closer muscles, this means that the common embryological origin of tensor tympani muscle and the jaw-closers does not necessarily result in tensor tympani muscle containing this fibre type even though IIM fibres occur only in first branchial arch muscles. This fact, together with other species differences in the fibre type composition of these muscles, shows that there is no typical composition of middle ear muscles in general, and suggests that the differences are related to very different functional requirements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6415024

  20. Intrapulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos: ultrastructural features.

    PubMed Central

    Oghiso, Y.; Kagan, E.; Brody, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Although all commercial types of asbestos can cause pulmonary fibrosis, little is known about ultrastructural differences in the evolution of pulmonary lesions induced by amphiboles and serpentines. The present study was designed to compare the histological and ultrastructural effects produced by chronic inhalation of either crocidolite (amphibole) or chrysotile (serpentine) asbestos in the rat. Animals, exposed by intermittent inhalation for 3 months, were killed after 2 to 16 months. When inhaled, both types of asbestos caused thickened alveolar duct bifurcations associated with macrophage aggregates. Crocidolite inhalation also produced subpleural collections of alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes. Electron microscopy revealed some similarities, but also distinct differences, in the pulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite. Whereas both asbestos varieties were identified within the pulmonary interstitium, only crocidolite was detected inside alveolar macrophages. Chrysotile fibres were seen infrequently within the vascular compartment. Microcalcifications were noted after chrysotile inhalation, but were never observed following crocidolite exposure. Both asbestos types induced slight pulmonary fibrosis. These findings indicate that crocidolite and chrysotile produce different pathogenetic features, although both are fibrogenic. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:6087872

  1. Transhepatic Cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Birch, John R.; Shea, John; Currie, Donald J.

    1964-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is a method of visualizing the biliary tree by the injection of radio-opaque medium through the abdominal wall and liver into an intrahepatic bile duct. The procedure is indicated in the immediate preoperative evaluation of patients with obstructive jaundice of unknown etiology and is usually diagnostic in these cases. It may also be of value in avoiding operation in poor-risk patients with obstructive jaundice. Biliary leak resulting in chemical peritonitis is a complication in about 5% of these procedures. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage is a complication in less than 1%. Death results from the procedure in less than 0.5% of cases. Transhepatic cholangiography during surgical operation is of value in demonstrating obstructive lesions of the bile ducts. However, preoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is preferred, since it makes possible adequate preparation for technically difficult repairs and resections. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:14158553

  2. Intranuclear inclusions in Schwann cells of aged fowl ciliary ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, M G

    1987-01-01

    Schwann cells in ciliary ganglia of fowls aged five to seven years were found to contain numerous intranuclear inclusions and pseudo-inclusions. Similar inclusions were usually absent from both neurons and non-neuronal cells, including connective tissue cells, and were rare in Schwann cells of chickens aged less than five years. Inclusions were of two different types: filamentous bundles and granulofibrillar bodies. Individual nuclei contained one to three inclusions. Pseudo-inclusions, i.e. cytoplasmic pockets invaginated into the nuclei, were found more rarely and accompanied one or both types of 'true' inclusions. The possible significance of these findings in relation to ageing phenomena is discussed. It is concluded that intranuclear inclusions appear to be a consequence of nuclear/cellular activation and may be regarded as aggregates of previously dispersed intranuclear proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Figs. 11-12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-19 PMID:2833482

  3. Elevated glucose and angiotensin II increase 12-lipoxygenase activity and expression in porcine aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, R; Gu, J L; Rossi, J; Gonzales, N; Lanting, L; Xu, L; Nadler, J

    1993-01-01

    The lipoxygenase (LO) pathway of arachidonate metabolism has been suggested to play a key role in atherosclerosis and in mediating several actions of angiotensin II (AII). However, the relationship between LO activation and factors linked to accelerated diabetic vascular disease such as hyperglycemia and AII is not known. We have investigated the effect of high glucose (HG; 25 mM) and AII on LO activity as well as LO protein and mRNA expression in porcine aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs). We observed that cells cultured in HG had significantly higher levels of the cell-associated LO products 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). AII added to cells grown in HG specifically further increased only cell-associated 12-HETE levels. Using immunoblot analysis and reverse transcriptase PCRs, we demonstrated the presence in PVSMCs of porcine leukocyte-type 12-LO protein and mRNA, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of both were markedly upregulated by AII as well as by HG. These studies suggest that enhanced 12-LO activity and expression are mechanisms for accelerated vascular disease produced by HG and AII in diabetes mellitus. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8506339

  4. Morphometric study on the development of magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus utilising immunohistochemical methods.

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano, M A; Bentura, M L; Toledano, A

    1990-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)- and oxytocin (OXY)-producing neurons, components of the rat supraoptic nucleus, have been located with immunohistochemical methods, with the purpose of studying their morphofunctional characteristics during different phases of life (embryonic, juvenile, adult and senile). To carry out this study, an IBAS I (Kontron) computerised image analyser has been utilised. The hormone VP is first detected in the neuronal cytoplasm of 21 days old rat embryos and the hormone OXY appears in the neuronal cytoplasm later, in the newborn phase. The neuronal area with a positive reaction for the two neurohormones has been evaluated and it has been found that the quantity of reaction substance is proportional to the age. In the adult period, VP neurons possess a reaction area (198 microns 2) greater than that of OXY neurons (153 microns 2). In the SON, there are two neuronal shapes, fusiform and round; these shapes coexist in both hormonal types of neurons. Until Day 15 of postnatal development, the SON neurons are intermixed in the interior of the nucleus but in this period a neuronal redistribution is initiated. In the adult phase, OXY neurons are situated preferentially in the anterior, posterior and dorsal parts and VP neurons in the ventral and posterior parts, with both neurons being present in the intermediate part of the SON. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:2182586

  5. Immunofluorescent localization of enteroglucagon cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Julia M.; Bloom, S.; Coulling, I.; Pearse, A. G. E.

    1971-01-01

    Localization of the endocrine polypeptide cells responsible for `glucagon-like immunoreactivity' in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog has been achieved with an immunofluorescent technique using antibodies raised against porcine pancreatic glucagon. The cells, for which we prefer the term `enteroglucagon', could only be demonstrated by this technique in tissues fixed in carbodiimide. The enteroglucagon cells possess cytological, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics in common with those of the pancreatic α2 cell and they are equivalent in the stomach to the A cell and in the intestine to the L cell of the Wiesbaden terminology. Their distribution, predominantly in fundus and jejunum, correlates precisely with the distribution of glucagon-like immunoreactivity by radioimmunoassay and bioassay. The storage form of enteroglucagon differs in many respects from that of pancreatic glucagon although there are some close resemblances between the two forms of specific hormone-containing granule. Elucidation of the role of enteroglucagon should be assisted by the ability to demonstrate enteroglucagon cells. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:4930155

  6. Immune complex glomerulonephritis in experimental kala-azar. II: Detection and characterization of parasite antigens and antibodies eluted from kidneys of Leishmania donovani-infected hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, A; Roque-Barreira, M C; Coe, J; Campos-Neto, A

    1992-01-01

    In a previous report analysing kidney sections by immunofluorescence we showed that hamsters infected with L. donovani develop a glomerulonephritis (GN) associated with deposition of hamster immunoglobulins and parasite antigens in the glomeruli. In this study we characterize these immune components eluted from the kidneys. The eluted immunoglobulins showed specificity for L. donovani antigens and hamster immunoglobulins (rheumatoid factor-like activity). The four isotypes IgG1, IgG2, IgA and IgM were detected. Several L. donovani antigens were detected in the renal eluates by Western blot and immunoprecipitation using 125I-labelled eluates. Proteins with mol. wt of 134, 82, 52, 31, and 26 kD were detected by Western blot and proteins with 134, 110, 93, 89 and 48 kD were detected by immunoprecipitation. With the exception of the 134 kD protein which was recognized by both rabbit anti-promastigote and rabbit anti-amastigote sera all the others were recognized only by the anti-amastigote serum. The 134 kD protein was the only one isolated from the kidneys of infected hamster immunocomplexed with IgG and was the only one detected in a promastigote lysate using IgG from L. donovani-infected hamsters. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:1544224

  7. Hepatitis Due to Equine Abortion Virus. Comparison Between the Liver Histology in Human, Canine, Duckling, and Equine Viral Hepatitis1

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, W. M.; Nilsson, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    Five livers of equine fetuses, aborted due to the action of equine abortion virus, five livers from men, two of whom died of epidemic hepatitis and three obtained by needle biopsies, 5 livers of dogs with infectious canine hepatitis and 7 livers of ducklings that had hepatitis, were studied histopathologically. The foals' livers were studied by several staining methods and the others by H. E. only. The results indicate that the lesions are quite similar in the four species with the appearance of nuclear inclusion bodies only in foals and dogs. The strong staining properties of the nuclear inclusion bodies in infectious canine hepatitis and the weak staining properties of the equine virus abortion reveal that the protein-DNA association is different resulting in a different electropolarity. The lesions in foals are of two main types, one a Necrotic-Mosaic Type in which the hepatocyte degeneration is irregularly distributed within the hepatic lobules and the other an Hyperplastic Type in which marked regeneration occurs. In the Hyperplastic Type the practical absence of plasmocytes in foals' livers might suggest that if the newborn is a female, abortions may occur later in life because the virus remained alive in colts which were born in an immune tolerance state. Histologically the picture in the livers of aborted foals assume features of a viral hepatitis similar to the viral hepatitis in men, dogs and ducklings. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4225286

  8. Blood Vessel Tumorigenesis by 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine Dihydrochloride (Symmetrical)

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Bela; Wilson, Richard B.

    1971-01-01

    Administration of 0.001% 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, symmetrical, in the drinking water of 7-week-old randomly bred Swiss mice for the remainder of their lifetime induced blood vessel tumors and enhanced the incidence of lung neoplasms. Ninety-eight percent of the females and 92% of the males developed vascular lesions, whereas among the controls the incidence was 3% in the females and 1% in the males. In addition, the incidence of lung tumors rose from 12 to 44% in the females and from 10 to 24% in the males, as compared with the controls. The occurrence of the vascular tumors in order of decreasing frequency was as follows: muscle, pararenal, fat, liver, parametrial, paraepididymal tissues, etc. Gross, light and electron microscopic examinations of vascular lesions revealed the characteristic appearance of angiosarcomas. The type and extent of macroscopic and histologic involvements of the various tissues by the tumors are presented. The ultrastructural descriptions of hemorrhagic areas, vascular spaces, neoplastic endothelial cells, their cytoplasms and organelles are illustrated in detail. In conclusion, whereas hydrazine enhanced the development of lung tumors, when the dimethyl group was attached to it at symmetrical positions, it evoked vascular tumors. Thus, the present study provides evidence for the possible relationship between chemical structure and tumor induction at specific organ sites. ImagesFig 10Fig 9Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8 PMID:5133519

  9. Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Contents List of Figures iv 1. Introduction 1 2. Development 1 2.1 Hardware Platform 1 2.2 Software Platform 3 2.3 Adaptive Filter Algorithm 3 3...4 Fig. 4 Adaptive filter length of 1 ......................................................................6 Fig. 5 Adaptive filter length...of 2 ......................................................................7 Fig. 6 Adaptive filter length of 3

  10. Titanium Cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, D. S.; Blair, G. A. S.

    1974-01-01

    The technique of repairing defects of the skull with titanium is described. The skull contour can be accurately reproduced. The technique is simpler than wiring or suturing methods. The material is inert, radiolucent, and rigid. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4834099

  11. Personnel and Vehicle Data Collection at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and its Distribution for Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    5 Fig. 5 Day 3 walker’s diamond pattern ............................................................6 Fig. 6 Day 3...walker’s double wedge pattern ....................................................8 Fig. 10 Day 3 walker’s diamond in front and 2 men behind pattern...8 Fig. 11 Day 3 walker’s point man slack man pattern .........................................9 Fig. 12 Day 3 walker’s diamond

  12. Preferential expression of an ammonium transporter and of two putative nitrate transporters in root hairs of tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Lauter, F R; Ninnemann, O; Bucher, M; Riesmeier, J W; Frommer, W B

    1996-01-01

    Root hairs as specialized epidermal cells represent part of the outermost interface between a plant and its soil environment. They make up to 70% of the root surface and, therefore, are likely to contribute significantly to nutrient uptake. To study uptake systems for mineral nitrogen, three genes homologous to Arabidopsis nitrate and ammonium transporters (AtNrt1 and AtAmt1) were isolated from a root hair-specific tomato cDNA library. Accumulation of LeNrt1-1, LeNrt1-2, and LeAmt1 transcripts was root-specific, with no detectable transcripts in stems or leaves. Expression was root cell type-specific and regulated by nitrogen availability. LeNrt1-2 mRNA accumulation was restricted to root hairs that had been exposed to nitrate. In contrast, LeNrt1-1 transcripts were detected in root hairs as well as other root tissues under all nitrogen treatments applied. Analogous to LeNrt1-1, the gene LeAmt1 was expressed under all nitrogen conditions tested, and root hair-specific mRNA accumulation was highest following exposure to ammonium. Expression of LeAMT1 in an ammonium uptake-deficient yeast strain restored growth on low ammonium medium, confirming its involvement in ammonium transport. Root hair specificity and characteristics of substrate regulation suggest an important role of the three genes in uptake of mineral nitrogen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8755617

  13. Tissue-specific ceruloplasmin gene expression in the mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, J L; Shimizu, N; Gitlin, J D

    1991-01-01

    Using a ceruloplasmin cDNA clone in RNA blot analysis, a single 3.7 kb ceruloplasmin-specific transcript was detected in rat mammary gland tissue from pregnant and lactating animals. Ceruloplasmin gene expression in the mammary gland was tissue-specific, with no evidence of expression in brain, heart or other extrahepatic tissues. Ceruloplasmin mRNA was also detected in mammary gland tissue from male, virgin female and non-pregnant/multiparous animals, and the abundance of ceruloplasmin-specific transcripts in virgin female rats was independent of their stage of oestrus. In virgin female mammary gland the content of ceruloplasmin mRNA was 20% of that in hepatic tissue from these animals and approx. 2-3-fold greater than that found in mammary gland tissue of pregnant or lactating animals. Development studies revealed ceruloplasmin gene expression in male and female mammary gland by only 2 weeks of age, prior to the onset of puberty. Biosynthetic studies indicated that the ceruloplasmin mRNA in mammary gland tissue was translated into a 132 kDa protein qualitatively similar to that synthesized in liver. By in situ hybridization, ceruloplasmin gene expression was localized to the epithelium lining the mammary gland alveolar ducts, without evidence of expression in the surrounding mesenchyme. Ceruloplasmin gene expression was also detected in a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line and in biopsy tissue from women with invasive ductal carcinoma. Taken together, these data indicate that the mammary gland is a prominent site of extrahepatic ceruloplasmin gene expression and add to the evidence that ceruloplasmin biosynthesis is associated with growth and differentiation in non-hepatic tissues. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1764031

  14. Mutual attraction between emigrant cells from transected denervated nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, D A; Thomas, P K; Rud, A; King, R H

    1994-01-01

    It is known that regenerating axons emerging from the proximal stump of a transected nerve are attracted towards the distal stump. It is not certain whether this neurotropic effect is on the axons themselves or whether it is on supporting cells such as Schwann cells that the axons then follow. In order to investigate this question in rats, segments of the sciatic nerve were either isolated or removed and reinserted as grafts, and then sutured into the opposing ends of double-Y silicone tubes. In these tubes, a central conduit was formed by connecting the centrally facing limb of each Y tube. The nerve segments were sutured into one of the limbs at either end. The third limbs of the Y tubes formed side arms, one of which was left open; a plug of mobilised fatty connective tissue was sutured into the other. A gap of 6 mm was left between the cut ends and the fat pads (or openings from the side arms). After 2-3 wk a significantly greater outgrowth (P < 0.001) was found to link the nerve segments than to invade the side arms. The major cell component in the outgrowth was Schwann cells, supported by fibroblasts and capillaries and surrounded by a lamellated layer of flattened fibroblasts. The growth into the side arms had a looser cellular architecture and contained considerably fewer Schwann cells. The results strongly suggest the existence of mutual attraction between emigrant Schwann cells, or possibly endoneurial fibroblasts, from the 2 cut ends of transected nerves. This conclusion has implications for the guidance of axons across gaps in nerves. It does not exclude an additional neurotropic effect from the distal stump on axons. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8014117

  15. Observations on Diseased Pigs with High Sulfate Intake and Normal Tissue Copper Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K. W. F.; Strausz, K. I.; Martin, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Disease in a large pig herd reared intensively and kept on sulfate-rich drinking water is described. It is the first report of diseased progeny of sows with high sulfate intake. Results of two surveys are presented, one for water with sulfate in excess of 2000 ppm and one for water with less than 1000 ppm. The management practices are described in detail. Disease of Survey I was manifested by high morbidity and mortality (50% of 600) in piglets, incoordination in piglets and some adult stock and osteopathy in piglets and weaners. In Survey II disease was less severe and restricted to piglets. Detailed histopathological studies revealed myelin deficiency in brain and spinal cord of sows and piglets, interferred endochondreal ossification of long bones of piglets and weaners, fatty changes of livers and interstitial nephritis in piglets and weaners. The changes in the nervous tissue were considered due to delayed fixation as tissue was only immersed in fixative and not perfused with it immediately after death. Similar changes have been described for pigs deficient in copper. Copper content of tissue and body fluids of pigs of this study were normal, as were the serum inorganic phosphate and total calcium levels. The bone changes observed have also been reported for rats given dextran sulfate injections, for pigs on experimental low-copper sulfate-enriched diet and for pigs reported low in copper and fed a diet supplemented with sulfide. The cause of the locomotor disturbance and mortality in piglets was not established. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4270430

  16. The morphological tissue response of the piglet oesophagus to experimental irradiation by 1320 nm Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, U; Schaarschmidt, K; Lehmann, R R; Schürenberg, M; Willital, G H; Berens, A

    1995-01-01

    The oesophagus of 18 minipiglets was exposed to endoscopic intraluminal irradiation with a 1320 nm Nd:YAG laser (10 W, 20 s) via a radial applicator with strictly radially symmetric light distribution. Immediately and at 2, 3, 4 and 8 wk after irradiation, the oesophagus was perfusion-fixed and filled with contrast solution. Radiographs were taken for evaluation by microradiometry. The specimens were subsequently prepared for light and transmission electron microscopy. The immediate reaction to irradiation was a morphological gradient of damage extending from the centre of the laser exposure where there was cellular thermonecrosis in all layers of the wall and condensation of the extracellular matrix, to a peripheral zone (at a distance of up to 8 mm from the region where the laser was centred) which showed only minor tissue damage manifested by intracellular vacuolation. In this zone dilatation of most vascular lumina was prominent. In the period between 2 and 8 wk after irradiation all phases of wound healing were observed and resulted in occlusion of the lumen of the oesophagus by early scar tissue after an interval of more than 3 wk at the former centre of laser exposure. Peripherally, epithelial regeneration resulted in a new luminal lining. Both the process of epithelial regeneration and that of fibrous repair indicated a good reparative capacity of laser-irradiated oesophageal wall tissues resembling the phases of normal wound healing. The immediate laser interaction with tissue indicated that the noncellular matrix components of tissues are more resistant to the photothermal effect than the cellular components. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:8586565

  17. Insect immunity: expression of the two major inducible antibacterial peptides, defensin and diptericin, in Phormia terranovae.

    PubMed Central

    Dimarcq, J L; Zachary, D; Hoffmann, J A; Hoffmann, D; Reichhart, J M

    1990-01-01

    Injections of low doses of bacteria into larvae of Phormia terranovae induce the appearance of potent bactericidal peptides in the blood, among which predominate the anti-Gram positive insect defensins and the anti-Gram negative diptericins. Insect defensins show significant homologies to mammalian (including human) microbicidal peptides present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. We report the molecular cloning of cDNAs and primer extension studies which indicate that insect defensin is produced as a prepro-peptide yielding mature defensin A (40 residues) after cleavage of a putative signal peptide (23 residues) and a prosequence (34 residues). Previous studies have established that diptericin (82 residues) is matured from a pre-peptide by cleavage of a putative signal peptide (19 residues) and C-terminal amidation. Using oligonucleotide probes complementary to the sequences of the mRNAs for defensin and diptericin, we show by in situ hybridization that both antibacterial peptides are concomitantly synthesized by the same cells: thrombocytoids, a specialized blood cell type, and adipocytes. Transcriptional studies based on hybridization of RNAs to cDNAs of defensin and diptericin indicate that the transcription of both genes is induced regardless of the nature of the stimulus (injection of Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharides). Even a sterile injury applied to axenically raised larvae is efficient in inducing the transcription of both genes suggesting that the local disruption of the integument aspecifically initiates a signalling mechanism which the thrombocytoids and the adipocytes are able to interpret. The transcription of immune genes is relatively short lived and a second challenge yields a response similar to that of the first stimulus, indicating that the experimental insects do not keep a 'memory' of their first injection. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2369900

  18. Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

  19. Histopathology of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mesenchymal tumours of the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Kunze, E.; Ruschitzka, F.; Schwalbe, K.

    1990-01-01

    The present study reports the induction, histopathology, immunocytochemistry, growth pattern and proliferative behaviour of mesenchymal tumours of the urinary bladder of rats induced by a single intravesical dose (5 mg/kg/body weight) of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). In 14 of 283 female Wistar rats (incidence: 4.9%). 16 non-epithelial tumours had developed after an experimental period of 14 months. The most common histological type induced was of fibrohistiocytic origin (eight benign-appearing and three malignant fibrous histiocytomas). Furthermore, two pure histiocytomas (one benign and one malignant) and three capillary and cavernous haemangiomas were produced. Since no metastases occurred and no clear-cut distinction between a merely expansive and a truly invasive growth was possible, the diagnosis of malignancy was based on the degree of cellular atypia and the mitotic activity. The benign-appearing fibrous histiocytomas showed a mean mitotic index of 0.06% and the malignant fibrous histiocytomas of 0.34%. The mitotic activity of the malignant histiocytoma was threefold (0.78%) as high as in the benign-appearing histiocytoma (0.25%). There exist close morphological similarities between the induced mesenchymal tumours in the rat and those occurring in the human bladder. Although the spectrum of histological types of mesenchymal tumours seen in the rat bladder was narrower than that encountered in man, MNU seems suitable for further studying the histogenesis, histopathology and biology of experimentally induced non-epithelial bladder neoplasms to gain information for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of human disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:2164825

  20. Localization of the Antennapedia protein in Drosophila embryos and imaginal discs

    PubMed Central

    Wirz, Johannes; Fessler, Liselotte I.; Gehring, Walter J.

    1986-01-01

    Antibodies have been raised against a fusion protein containing the 3' region of the coding sequence of the Antennapedia (Antp) gene fused to β-galactosidase. The distribution of the protein on whole mount embryos and imaginal discs of third instar larvae was examined by immunofluorescence. In young embryos, expression of the Antp protein was limited to the thoracic segments in the epidermis, whereas it was found in all neuromeres of head, thorax and abdomen. At the end of embryogenesis, the Antp protein mainly accumulated in the ventral nervous system in certain parts of the thoracic neuromeres, from posterior T1 to anterior T3, with a gap in posterior T2. Comparison of Antp protein distribution in nervous systems from wild-type and Df P9 embryos, lacking the genes of the Bithorax-complex (BX-C), revealed a pattern of expression which indicated that the BX-C represses Antp in the posterior segments with the exception of the last abdominal neuromeres (A8-9) which are regulated independently. The protein pattern in nervous systems from Sex combs reduced(ScrxF9) mutant embryos was indistinguishable from that found in wild-type embryos; thus, neurogenic expression of Antp in T1 and the more anterior segments does not appear to be under the control of Scr+. All imaginal discs derived from the three thoracic segments express Antp protein. The distribution was distinct in each disc; strongest expression was observed in the proximal parts of the discs. In the leg discs the protein distribution seemed to be compartmentally restricted, whereas in the wing disc this was not the case. Antp protein was not detected in the eye-antennal disc. In embryos, as well as in imaginal discs, the protein is localized in the nucleus. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig.4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:16453732

  1. Remodelling of bone and bones: effects of translation and strain on transplants.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, A. W.; Feik, S. A.; Storey, E.

    1984-01-01

    Tail segments, from 4-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats, consisting of caudal vertebrae (CV) approximately 7-9 were impaled on 0.23-mm diameter Elgiloy wire and transplanted subcutaneously into 50-70 g male hosts to study the effects on transplants of (a) impaling (b) strain and (c) translation. The CV were impaled onto straight lengths of wire to serve as controls (a); onto a wire curved to form a loop and exert a bending force (b) and onto the arms of a spring which moved bones through the surrounding tissues, i.e. translation (c). Tissue changes were studied up to 28 days by radiographic and histological techniques. Control bones grow relatively normally along the straight wire. The CV subjected to strain bend initially and then grow in an arc along the curve of the wire. The outer bone shaft usually becomes straighter while the inner one becomes concave and rarefied. In the translated bones remodelling occurs in a direction generally opposite to the direction of movement but this is modified by the influence of soft tissue tension and pressure. Bone resorbs on the outer leading side under continuous pressure and forms on the inner trailing side under continuous tension. The process is essentially the same as that seen in 'cortical drift'; however, since translation is rapid there is an alteration in the shape of the translated bones as formation on the trailing side is faster than resorption on the leading side.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:6388616

  2. Expression dynamics of the pea rbcS multigene family and organ distribution of the transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Fluhr, Robert; Moses, Phyllis; Morelli, Giorgio; Coruzzi, Gloria; Chua, Nam-Hai

    1986-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of two members (rbcS-3A and -3C) of the pea nuclear gene family encoding the small subunit (rbcS) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Both rbcS-3A and -3C are interrupted by two introns located at the same positions as those of the other three pea rbcS genes. Compared with the other pea rbcS genes the rbcS-3C gene has the most divergent 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences while the rbcS-3A gene has a larger and highly divergent intron 1. All five pea rbcS genes are conserved in their coding regions but show considerable sequence differences in their 3'-untranslated portion. The 3' sequence divergence of the rbcS genes has allowed us to use S1 nuclease mapping procedures to compare their expression levels in different organs and during light induction. All the rbcS genes are differentially expressed in various organs of the pea plants; moreover, specific rbcS transcripts are under-represented in seeds and petals. In leaves there is a 10-fold difference between the highest and lowest specific rbcS transcript levels. By quantitating the distribution of rbcS transcripts during light, phytochrome and blue light induction of immature (etiolated), and mature (green), pea leaves, we show that the genes are differentially activated during leaf development. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:16453702

  3. WHO Co-operative studies on a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav

    1963-01-01

    Tuberculosis surveys are in progress in many countries that do not have adequate laboratory facilities for carrying out complicated bacteriological procedures. As part of a WHO co-operative research programme, studies have been undertaken with a view to developing a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria that does not require elaborate equipment. This paper is the first report on these co-operative studies. Storage and transport are known to affect adversely the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological specimens, thus giving rise to poor culture results and indicating the advisability of culturing such specimens on the spot. The preparation of the efficient and widely used Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture medium, however, requires materials and facilities that are not easy available in developing countries. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague has developed a semi-synthetic liquid medium that can be prepared in bulk, concentrated and lyophilized, and sent even to distant laboratories. The present paper describes in detail the preparation of this lyophilized medium, which can be stored at room temperature for at least 6-12 months and is easy to reconstitute, and discusses the growth characteristics of mycobacteria multiplied in it. Experience in Czechoslovakia, where between 1953 and 1962 nearly 21 million cultures have been made with the medium, has shown that it is quite satisfactory and even slightly superior to L-J medium in certain respects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 & 4FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16 PMID:14102036

  4. The role of NF-kappaB in the angiogenic response of coronary microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, R A; Abraham, N G; Laniado-Schwartzman, M

    1996-01-01

    The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB by 12(R)-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid [12(R)-HETrE], an arachidonic acid metabolite with potent stereospecific proinflammatory and angiogenic properties, was examined and its role in the angiogenic response was determined in capillary endothelial cells derived from coronary microvessels. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay of nuclear protein extracts from cells treated with 12(R)-HETrE demonstrated a rapid and stereospecific time- and concentration-dependent increase in the binding activity of NF-kappaB, which was inhibitable by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine, butylated hydroxyanisole, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and was partially attenuated by the protein kinase C inhibitors, staurosporine and calphostin C. Neither 12(S)-HETrE nor other related eicosanoids--e.g., 12(R)-HETE, 12(S)-HETE, and leukotriene B4--stimulated the activation of NF-kappaB relative to 12(R)-HETrE, substantiating the claim for a specific receptor-mediated mechanism. 12(R)-HETrE stimulated the formation of capillary-like cords of microvessel endothelial cells distinguishable from a control; this effect was comparable to that observed with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation resulted in inhibition of capillary-like formation of endothelial cells treated with 12(R)-HETrE by 80% but did not affect growth observed with bFGF. It is suggested that 12(R)-HETrE's angiogenic activity involves the activation of NF-kappaB, possibly via protein kinase C stimulation and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates for downstream signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8610127

  5. Haemopoietic phagocytes in the early differentiating avian retina.

    PubMed Central

    Cuadros, M A; García-Martín, M; Martin, C; Ríos, A

    1991-01-01

    The existence of specialised phagocytic cells is described in regions of the retinal neuroepithelium undergoing intense cell death during early differentiation of the avian embryo retina (2.5-5 days of incubation). These results were obtained using routine techniques for light microscopy, acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunocytochemical staining with antibodies MB-1 and QH-1, both specific for quail endothelial cells and all blood cells except mature erythrocytes. Specialised phagocytes were distinguishable from neuroepithelial cells on the basis of morphological criteria: in the former, the nucleus was not oval in shape and was not oriented perpendicular to basement membrane neuroepithelium. The cytoplasm of the specialised phagocytes was often filled with dead cell fragments. In contrast to neuroepithelial cells, the specialised phagocytes showed acid phosphatase activity and were labelled with both MB-1 and QH-1 antibodies in normal quail embryos and chick----quail yolk sac chimeras. Moreover, some acid phosphatase positive and MB-1/QH-1 positive cells also appeared in the presumptive vitreous body, at the edges of the optic cup and in the surrounding mesenchyme. As the vitreal cells and the specialised phagocytes of the neural retina were immunolabelled in chick----quail yolk sac chimeras, we conclude that they are derived from haemopoietic cells in the yolk sac. Some images suggest that these cells enter the vitreous body from the surrounding mesenchyme and traverse the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium in the optic disc region to give rise to the specialised phagocytes of the retinal neuroepithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:1769889

  6. Immunocytochemical Localization and Time Course of Appearance of an Anionic Peroxidase Associated with Suberization in Wound-Healing Potato Tuber Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Espelie, Karl E.; Franceschi, Vincent R.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Thin sections of wound-healing potato tuber tissue were stained with rabbit antibody prepared against a suberization-associated anionic peroxidase and then stained with a goat anti-rabbit antibody-fluorescein conjugate. When these sections were examined with an epiilluminating fluorescence microscope, bright green fluorescent linear deposits were observed on the inner side of cell walls in the periderm layer. Initial deposits which were often not contiguous throughout the wall were first observed in some cells after 3 days of wound-healing and subsequently these layers became more pronounced so that all 6 day old periderm cells had green fluorescent layers on their inner walls. This fluorescence was not present in the walls of parenchyma cells or in the walls of periderm cells treated with preimmune serum and anti-rabbit IgG-FITC conjugate. Thin sections of wound-healing potato tissue which were stained with anti-peroxidase antibody and a goat anti-rabbit antibody-rhodamine conjugate exhibited a similar time course of development with a bright reddish-orange fluorescent layer observed on the inside wall of periderm cells. The production of this suberization-associated anionic peroxidase in wound-healing tissue was also demonstrated by an immunobinding dot blot assay which showed that the largest increase in the enzyme level occurred between 4 and 6 days of wound-healing. The present results support the hypothesis that this anionic peroxidase is involved in the deposition of the aromatic polymeric domain of suberin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 and 15 PMID:16664843

  7. Proteins Associated with Adaptation of Cultured Tobacco Cells to NaCl 1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra K.; Handa, Avtar K.; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Bressan, Ray A.

    1985-01-01

    Cultured tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Wisconsin 38) adapted to grow in medium containing high levels of NaCl or polyethylene glycol (PEG) produce several new or enhanced polypeptide bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensities of some of the polypeptide bands (molecular weights of 58, 37, 35.5, 34, 26, 21, 19.5, and 18 kilodaltons) increase with increasing levels of NaCl adaptation, while the intensities of other polypeptide bands (54, 52, 17.5, and 16.5 kilodaltons) are reduced. Enhanced levels of 43- and 26-kilodalton polypeptides are present in both NaCl and PEG-induced water stress adapted cells but are not detectable in unadapted cells. In addition, PEG adapted cells have enhanced levels of 29-, 17.5-, 16.5-, and 11-kilodalton polypeptides and reduced levels of 58-, 54-, 52-, 37-, 35.5-, 34-, 21-, 19.5-, and 18-kilodalton polypeptide bands. Synthesis of 26-kilodalton polypeptide(s) occurs at two different periods during culture growth of NaCl adapted cells. Unadapted cells also incorporate 35S into a 26-kilodalton polypeptide during the later stage of culture growth beginning at midlog phase. The 26-kilodalton polypeptides from adapted and unadapted cells have similar partial proteolysis peptide maps and are immunologically cross-reactive. During adaptation to NaCl, unadapted cells synthesize and accumulate a major 26-kilodalton polypeptide, and the beginning of synthesis corresponds to the period of osmotic adjustment and culture growth. From our results, we suggest an involvement of the 26-kilodalton polypeptide in the adaptation of cultured tobacco cells to NaCl and water stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:16664357

  8. Splenorrhaphy. The alternative.

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, D V; Spjut-Patrinely, V; Burch, J M; Mattox, K L; Bitondo, C G; Cruse-Martocci, P; Jordan, G L

    1990-01-01

    From 1980 to 1989, 240 adult patients underwent splenorrhaphy at one urban trauma center. This represents 43.4% of all splenic injuries seen during this time interval. Splenic injuries were graded I to V, and splenorrhaphy was attempted except when the spleen was shattered or when multiple injuries with associated hypotension were present. Penetrating wounds, blunt trauma, or iatrogenic/unknown etiologies were present in 54.2%, 41.6%, and 4.2% of patients, respectively. Grade I or II injuries were present in 51.7% of patients, grade III in 34.6%, grade IV or V in 9.6%, and unknown grade in 4.1%. The technique of splenorrhaphy was simple suture (usually chromic) with or without the addition of topical hemostatic agents in 200 patients (83.3%), topical agents alone in 12 (5%), unknown type of repair in 12 (5%), compression, cautery, or nonbleeding injury in 9 (3.8%), and partial or hemisplenectomy in 7 (2.9%). Postoperative rebleeding occurred in three patients (1.3%) with grade II, III, and IV injuries, respectively, and led to splenectomy at reoperation. In another patient who had a hemisplenectomy performed for a grade IV injury, subphrenic abscesses and septic shock led to the death of the patient. Splenorrhaphy can be safely performed in properly selected adult patients after a variety of injuries. The risk of rebleeding is practically nil when the spleen is fully mobilized and visualized during repair. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2339918

  9. The Budd-Chiari syndrome. Treatment by mesenteric-systemic venous shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J L; Herlong, H F; Sanfey, H; Boitnott, J; Kaufman, S L; Gott, V L; Maddrey, W C

    1983-01-01

    Twelve patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome have been managed surgically. Ten of the patients were female, two were male, with a mean age of 40 years. Three of the patients had polycythemia vera, two had pre-existing cirrhosis, one had ingested estrogens, one had an occult tumor, and in four there were no associated factors. Ten patients presented with ascites and two with bleeding esophageal varices. The diagnosis was confirmed in all 12 patients by liver biopsy and hepatic vein catheterization. Inferior vena cavography revealed the abdominal vena cava to be thrombosed in six patients. The superior mesenteric vein was used to decompress the congested liver in all 12 patients. In five patients, a mesocaval shunt (MCS) was performed and in seven patients, a mesoatrial shunt (MAS) was carried out. There were four hospital deaths (two MCS, two MAS). One late death (MAS) occurred from liver failure following shunt thrombosis. Two additional patients (one MCS, one MAS) re-developed ascites immediately following surgery and angiography revealed a thrombosed shunt. Ascites has been controlled with a LeVeen shunt in these two patients, but liver biopsies showed progression to cirrhosis. The remaining five patients (three MAS, two MCS) did well, and angiography revealed patent shunts. Two of these patients, however, re-developed ascites at 4 and 10 months following MAS and required a second MAS. Follow-up ranges from 6 to 68 months. In three of the patients (two MCS, one MAS) with patent shunts, liver biopsy shows a remarkable return toward normal liver architecture and histology. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6615056

  10. The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, H S; McGadey, J; Thompson, G G; Moore, M R; Payne, A P

    1983-01-01

    The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content were examined in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). The gland consisted of tubules lined by a single layer of epithelial cells and a myoepithelial network. The tubule cells were often binucleate and possessed lipid vacuoles in the apical half of the cell, a corona of granular endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus, and cytoplasmic 'slashes'. The latter are probably derived from dense membranous couplets and may be precursors of the lipid vacuoles. Holocrine and merocrine secretion was observed. Interstitial cells included plasma cells, mast cells and (predominantly) melanocytes which render the gland black. The gland was surrounded by a collagen capsule and an outer layer of highly attenuated (possibly endothelioid) cells. Within the gland, the secretory duct was lined by a single layer of normal tubule cells. Outside the gland, the duct enlarged to form an ampulla, from which clefts led off to deep crypts. The ampulla and clefts were lined by cells with small dense apical granules and stubby microvilli; some possessed lipid vacuoles. The crypts were lined by serous cells with active Golgi regions. At the duct opening, ampullary cells became squamous and goblet cells occurred. Geometric crystalloid deposits (with a layered structure of 7.6 nm periodicity) occurred at cleft-crypt junctions. Islets of extra-glandular ductal tissue were occasionally found within the gland. Porphyrins were detectable both by chemical assay and fluorescence microscopy. There was a trend for female glands to have a higher content than males. Solid intraluminal accretions of porphyrin and/or lipid were present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6654750

  11. The orbital glands of the chelonians Pseudemys scripta and Testudo graeca: comparative histological, histochemical and ultrastructural investigations.

    PubMed Central

    Chieffi Baccari, G; DiMatteo, L; Minucci, S

    1992-01-01

    The orbital glands of the chelonians Pseudemys scripta and Testudo graeca were investigated at the histological, histochemical and ultrastructural levels. Four acinar cell types were seen in the harderian gland of P. scripta on the basis of histochemical reactions and ultrastructure. Secretory granules were of 2 types, one showing moderate electron density with an electronlucent core, the other being smaller and more osmiophilic with an electron-dense core. In the harderian gland of T. graeca only 2 glandular cell types were found; one type contained secretory granules with a dense core surrounded by a wide zone of lower density. Acinar cells of the anterior lacrimal gland in both species were of 2 types, one being of mucous type. In the harderian gland and in the lacrimal gland of both species, one cell type appeared not to be involved in the secretion of organic material. These cells contained numerous tightly packed mitochondria among which were abundant clumps of glycogen; the cell membrane was specialised at both edges. This cell type was similar ultrastructurally to the 'salt cells' described in the salt-secreting glands of various marine vertebrates, i.e. of the cells involved in transport processes. These combined histological, histochemical and ultrastructural studies have allowed us to distinguish orbital glands. In the past, the harderian and lacrimal glands in chelonians have often been mistaken for one another. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:1452463

  12. The EGF receptor family--multiple roles in proliferation, differentiation, and neoplasia with an emphasis on HER4.

    PubMed Central

    Earp, H. Shelton; Calvo, Benjamin F.; Sartor, Carolyn I.

    2003-01-01

    The EGF Receptor (EGFR), the first transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase cloned and sequenced, and its closely related family members HER2, HER3, and HER4, play myriad roles in mammalian growth and development. Receptor activation involves ligand binding to separate receptors followed by formation of active dimers. These receptors can signal as homodimers or they can subtly alter signaling output by heterodimerizing with other family members. Adding complexity, these receptors with varying specificity bind at least 10 ligands from two ligand families, the EGF and neuregulin/heregulin families. This signaling system's impact on human neoplasia is underscored by the following: i.) EGFR is overexpressed or activated by autocrine or paracrine growth factor loops in at least 50% of epithelial malignancies; ii.) HER2 is amplified and dramatically overexpressed in approximately 20%-25% or breast cancers; iii) HER3 and HER4 are variably expressed in breast and other cancers. Overexpression and/or activation of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 has been correlated with poor tumor prognosis; antibody and small molecule inhibitors of their activity are being tested as therapy in cancer patients. However, the signaling complexity engendered by four interacting receptors and ten ligands makes it difficult to definitively measure receptor signaling output in human tumors and even makes mechanistic studies of the family's role in normal physiology and neoplastic transformation a challenge. In spite of the literature's emphasis on growth control, activation by some EGF receptor family member ligands can produce tumor cell differentiation, characterized by growth cessation and differentiation gene product synthesis. The present work delineates a role for HER4 in breast cancer cell differentiation and demonstrates that HER4 is both necessary and sufficient to produce an anti-proliferative signal. These Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:12813928

  13. The Aspergillus nidulans npeA locus consists of three contiguous genes required for penicillin biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    MacCabe, A P; Riach, M B; Unkles, S E; Kinghorn, J R

    1990-01-01

    Clones of Aspergillus nidulans genomic DNA spanning 20 kb have been isolated and shown by a combination of classical and molecular genetic means to represent the npeA locus, previously found to be one of four loci (npeA, npeB, npeC and npeD) involved in the synthesis of penicillin. As well as containing the gene encoding the second enzyme for penicillin biosynthesis, namely isopenicillin N synthetase (IPNS) (designated ipnA), our results show that these clones (pSTA200, pSTA201 and pSTA207) contain two more genes to form a cluster of three contiguous penicillin biosynthetic genes. Our evidence suggests that these genes encode delta (L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) and acyl transferase (ACYT) (designated acvA and acyA respectively), the first and third enzymes required for penicillin biosynthesis, with the gene order being acvA-ipnA-acyA. Transcripts have been identified for the three genes and their approximate sizes determined--acvA 9.5 kb, ipnA 1.4 kb and acyA 1.6 kb. All three mRNA species are observed in cells grown in fermentation medium but not in cells grown in minimal medium, suggesting that the control of penicillin biosynthesis is, in part, at the level of mRNA accumulation. Finally our results show that acvA and ipnA genes are divergently transcribed, whilst acyA is transcribed in the same orientation as ipnA. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2403928

  14. The liver of the brown trout, Salmo trutta fario: a light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, E; Monteiro, R A; Pereira, C A

    1994-01-01

    A qualitative study by light and electron microscopy was undertaken on the liver of the brown trout, Salmo trutta fario. Vessels and bile ducts were observed to be scattered without any apparent order within the parenchyma. Venous profiles appeared either isolated or included in 'venous-arteriolar tracts' (VAT) and 'venous-biliary-arteriolar tracts' (VBAT). Bile ducts also appeared either isolated or in groups which often included an arteriole. The parenchyma was organised in tubules of hepatocytes encircling biliary passages radially. Those cells were uninucleate and contained large cytoplasmic areas of rough endoplasmic reticulum; lipid droplets and dense bodies sometimes also occupied a considerable portion of the cytoplasm. Microvilli extended from hepatocytes into biliary passages and towards the space of Disse. Other cell types encountered comprised biliary epithelial cells, macrophages (including melanin laden cells), fat-storing cells and endothelial cells. The biliary tree was formed sequentially by intra- and intercellular canaliculi, preductules, ductules and ducts. Canaliculi without microvilli are described for the first time in fishes. Structural differences between the brown trout and other fishes were noted. In contradistinction to other fishes, in brown trout the triads (i.e. the VBAT) are not just occasional structures; also, they probably transmit portal veins. Our observations support the concept of a tubular arrangement of hepatocytes in fish. The possibility that the axis of the tubule may be a sinusoid instead of a biliary passage is questioned. Homology between, on one hand, the segment formed by preductules and ductules and, on the other, the canal of Hering of mammals is defended. It is concluded that among salmonids notable interspecific differences do not seem to exist. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7961130

  15. Experimental Induction of Atheroarteriosclerosis by the Synergy of Allergic injury to Arteries and Lipid-Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Minick, C. Richard; Murphy, George E.

    1973-01-01

    Rabbits fed a lipid-rich, cholesterol-poor diet and given concomitant injections of foreign protein, over a period as long as 17 months, developed in their coronary arteries both a) proliferative fibromuscular intimal thickening closely resembling the diffuse intimal thickening that commonly occurs in coronary arteries of man, and b) fatty-proliferative fibromuscular intimal thickening that closely resembles coronary atherosclerosis in man. In contrast, rabbits of another group that were concurrently fed the same diet for as long as 22 months without injections of foreign protein developed changes in arteries of their hearts that resemble neither coronary atherosclerosis nor diffuse intimal thickening in man. Fatty-proliferative changes in aortas of the first group of rabbits are strikingly greater and more closely resemble human aortic atherosclerosis than those in the latter group. In the course of the experiments, the average serum cholesterol was not significantly different in the two groups of rabbits. It was approximately 200 to 250 mg%, which is the average serum cholesterol in adult humans in the United States. These experiments support the hypothesis that the synergy of arterial injury, in particular immunologic injury, and a diet rich in lipid can lead to atherosclerosis in man. ImagesFig 24Fig 25Fig 26,27Fig 28Fig 29Fig 30Fig 31Fig 32Fig 33Fig 34Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 35Fig 36Fig 37Fig 38Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20Fig 21Fig 22Fig 23 PMID:4758786

  16. Distribution of catecholamine and indoleamine neurons in the brain of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, S P; Dixson, A F

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of monoamine neurons in the brains of ten common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) was examined by means of the Falck-Hillarp formaldehyde histofluorescence technique. Large populations of catecholamine and indoleamine neurons were found throughout the brain stem. Catecholamine cell bodies corresponded essentially to th noradrenaline and dopamine groups defined as A1-A7 and A8-A14, respectively. In contrast to Old World primate species, however, the noradrenaline cell populations (particularly the pontine coeruleal A6 group) were less numerous. Ascending catecholamine fibre pathways were not observed within the medulla or pons, although numerous axons were found near the mesodiencephalic border. These were fine and smooth in appearance in contrast to those of other species and this finding may represent a significant morphological difference. The catecholamine terminal innervation of the diencephalon was modest in the marmoset and was less dense than in other primates. In contrast, limbic areas and the striatum contained very large numbers of terminals. Indoleamine cell bodies, equivalent to the serotonin groups defined as B1-B9, were also observed. The most rostral cell populations (B7-9) were large. In addition, pontine and medullary indoleamine neurons extended laterally through the tegmentum as noted in other primates, such that they often adjacent to catecholamine neurons. A prominent bundle of indoleamine axons was observed in the mesencephalon and corresponded to a fibre pathway seen in rodents and other primates. No terminal varicosities were noted. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6804424

  17. Localization of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptors in normal and psoriatic skin: epidermal cells express the 55-kD but not the 75-kD TNF receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, M; Chu, C Q; Eedy, D J; Feldmann, M; Brennan, F M; Breathnach, S M

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of TNF-alpha, p55 TNF receptor (TNF-R) and p75 TNF-R in normal skin and uninvolved and lesional skin from psoriasis patients has been investigated, using specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies. In normal skin, and uninvolved and lesional skin from psoriasis patients, p55 TNF-R is associated with epidermal keratinocytes and a network of upper dermal dendritic cells. This suggests that the actions of TNF-alpha on epidermal cells in vivo are mediated by binding to the p55 TNF-R. In lesional psoriasis skin, there was staining of the parakeratotic stratum corneum and increased expression of p55 TNF-R in association with upper dermal blood vessels. Staining for p75 TNF-R in normal skin was restricted to eccrine sweat ducts and dermal dendritic cells, and was absent from the epidermis. In lesional psoriasis skin, there was staining for p75 TNF-R in association with upper dermal blood vessels and perivascular infiltrating cells. TNF-alpha in normal skin was predominantly localized to the basal cell layers of the epidermis, and was seen in association with eccrine ducts and sebaceous glands. In lesional psoriasis skin, and to a lesser extent in uninvolved psoriasis skin, TNF-alpha was distributed throughout the epidermis, and was also specifically localized to upper dermal blood vessels. Up-regulation of TNF-alpha, p55 TNF-R and p75 TNF-R on dermal blood vessels in psoriasis may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition by promoting cutaneous recruitment of inflammatory cells. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8222328

  18. Diffusely infiltrated lymphoid areas of the bursa of Fabricius (DIA) and of the cloaca: an embryological study with morphological analogies.

    PubMed Central

    Dolfi, A; Lupetti, M; Bianchi, F; Michelucci, S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to verify whether the origin of the DIA is ectodermal or endodermal. A rabbit serum against the epithelial cells of the final portion of the cloaca was prepared. The indirect immunofluorescence method was applied to strips obtained with a cryostat, carefully cut in such a way as to include a part of the cloaca, the burso-cloacal stalk, the DIA, and the bursal plicae. In this way, it was possible to demonstrate that the epithelium of the cloaca, of the burso-cloacal stalk, and of the DIA exhibited an intense fluorescence that could not be observed at the level of the epithelium of the bursal plicae. These findings would appear to indicate that the DIA, like the cloaca and the burso-cloacal stalk, is ectodermal in origin. Furthermore, histological study revealed that the DIA exhibits close structural analogies with the dorsal wall of the cloaca. In both areas, unorganized lymphoid infiltrations of the tunica propria can be seen, and the epithelium does not show any follicle-associated epithelial cells. The glands often assume the aspect of dilated crypts containing intestinal transit material. The epithelium of these glands reveals lymphoid infiltrations at various points, and it is not uncommon to detect accumulations of cells in their lumina. Several groups of eosinophilic granulocytes can also be observed in the tunica propria of these two areas, with a clear predominance at the level of the DIA. These similarities between the cloaca and the DIA might lead one to suppose the existence of a functional as well as a morphological correspondence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3417544

  19. Effect of the 21-bp repeat upstream element on in vitro transcription from the early and late SV40 promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Vigneron, M; Barrera-Saldana, H A; Baty, D; Everett, R E; Chambon, P

    1984-01-01

    The role of the 21-bp repeat region [simian virus 40 (SV40) coordinates 40-103] on early and late SV40 promoter functions has been investigated in vitro using a variety of mutated templates. Using either a HeLa whole cell extract or a S100 extract, we analyzed the transcripts by quantitative S1 nuclease mapping. GC-rich motifs contained in the 21-bp direct repeat constituted an essential element for efficient early transcription in vitro in agreement with previous in vivo results. These GC-rich motifs act in a non-polar fashion, since inversion of the 21-bp region did not reduce early transcription. Some point mutations in the 22-bp imperfectly repeated sequence, that drastically reduce initiations from the early promoter in vivo, had little effect in vitro, indicating that all the functions of these GC-rich motifs cannot be reproduced in vitro at present. The requirement for the 21-bp repeat region was less stringent when the concentration of the early promoter sequence was increased, which suggests that its function may be to facilitate the recognition of the 'weak' SV40 early TATA box. The multiple late start sites were accurately used in vitro and the GC-rich motifs contained in the 21-bp repeat region were an important element for efficient in vitro initiation of transcription from the late promoter, irrespective of their orientation. However, the effect of the 21-bp repeat region on late initiations decreased strikingly with increasing distance to the start sites, although it was still detectable over a distance of 220 bp. Under the present in vitro conditions, the 72-bp repeat region stimulates weakly both early and late transcription. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6094181

  20. Comparisons of the pathogenicity of long and short fibres of chrysotile asbestos in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. M.; Jones, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term inhalation and intraperitoneal injection studies were undertaken with laboratory rats treated with a specially prepared short-fibre sample of Canadian chrysotile asbestos. This was compared, at an equal mass dose, to dust generated from the same chrysotile batch so as to contain the highest possible number of long fibres. The long-fibre cloud contained roughly five times more fibres greater than 5 micron in length as seen by phase contrast optical microscopy (PCOM). For increasing lengths, the ratio between the dust clouds increased progressively, reaching over 80: 1 for fibres greater than 30 microns in length. Rats treated with long-fibre chrysotile developed six times more advanced interstitial fibrosis (asbestosis) than animals treated with short-fibre chrysotile and three times more pulmonary tumours. At the end of the 12-month dusting period, three times more short chrysotile than long had been retained in the rat lung tissues. During the following 6 months, however, the short-fibre chrysotile was removed from the lungs much more rapidly than the long. Following intraperitoneal injection at a mass dose of 25mg of dust, both long and short chrysotile produced mesotheliomas in more than 90% of rats. At a dose level of 2.5mg of dust, the short-fibre chrysotile produced mesotheliomas in only one-third as many rats as the long-fibre dust which still produced mesotheliomas in more than 90% of animals injected. At a dose level of 0.25mg of dust, the short-fibre chrysotile produced no mesotheliomas while the long-fibre chrysotile still produced these tumours in 66% of rats. In the two highest doses, where short-fibre chrysotile produced mesotheliomas, the mean tumour induction period was significantly longer than for tumours produced by long chrysotile. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2848570

  1. The pathology of Tangier disease. A light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrans, V. J.; Fredrickson, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    Tangier disease (deficiency of high density plasma lipoproteins) is characterized clinically by: low levels of plasma cholesterol; enlarged, orange-yellow to yellow-gray tonsils and, frequently, peripheral neuropathy. Histologic and ultrastructural studies were made of various tissues from 5 patients with Tangier disease, and comparisons were made of these findings with those in the 12 other patients thus far known to have this disease. Deposits of cholesteryl esters were found in: reticuloendothelial cells (foam cells) in tonsils, bone marrow, skin and jejunal submucosa; Schwann cells in peripheral nerves and myenteric plexus; and in nonvascular smooth muscle cells. These deposits appeared electron lucent and intensely birefringent, varied from spherical to crystalline in shape, often were extensively confluent throughout large areas of cytoplasm, and were not limited by membranes. Certain foam cells in bone marrow also contained membrane-limited clusters of lipid particles resembling chylomicrons. The foam cells in Tangier disease differ morphologically from those in numerous lysosomal enzyme deficiency states, particularly Wolman's disease and cholesteryl ester stroage disease, and in proliferative diseases of the reticuloendothelial system in which cholesteryl esters also accumulate in abnormal histiocytes. Morphologic and biochemical data suggest several hypotheses to explain the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in tissues of patients with Tangier disease. Among these hypotheses, the most likely are considered to be the presence in plasma of abnormal lipoprotein particles that are subject to phagocytic removal by reticuloendothelial cells, and the failure of a process that normally removes locally synthesized cholesterol from cells to plasma. (Am J Pathol 78:101-158, 1975) Images Fig 28 Fig 40 Figs 12-15 Fig 16 Figs 17 and 18 Figs 29 and 30 Fig 19 Fig 31 Fig 20 Fig 32 Fig 21 Fig 33 Fig 22 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3 and 4 Fig 34 Fig 35 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 36 Figs

  2. Haloalkylamine-induced renal papillary necrosis: a histopathological study of structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C. J.; Grasso, P.; Ioannides, C.; Wilson, J.; Bridges, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    The haloalkylamine 2-bromoethanamine (BEA) causes necrosis of renal papillae of rats within 24 h of a single intraperitoneal dose greater than or equal to 100 mg/kg. Nine structural analogues of BEA, differing by halide substitution, alkyl chain elongation or amine substitution, were tested for their ability to induce renal papillary lesions in rats. Three compounds (2-chloroethanamine, 3-bromopropanamine and 2-chloro-N,N-dimethylethanamine) induced lesions which were morphologically indistinguishable from those of BEA. All the molecular structural variations investigated reduced papillotoxicity compared with BEA, the parent compound. A variety of non-renal lesions including hepatic, adrenal, testicular and lymphoid necroses were also encountered. The most toxic compound was 2-fluorethanamine, a 5 mg/kg dose of which was lethal and induced renal corticomedullary mineralization and centrilobular hepatic necrosis. One analogue, 3-bromo-2-hydroxypropanamine, caused rapid and extensive necrosis of the adrenal pars fasciculata and reticularis, simulating human Waterhouse Friderichsen syndrome. The three newly identified renal papillotoxins are all theoretically capable of generating direct-acting alkylating species in solution and their activity as direct-acting mutagens in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity test with TA100 (indicating base pair substitution) closely correlated with their potency as papillotoxins. We therefore hypothesize that non-enzymically formed direct-acting alkylating species mediate these papillary lesions, and that the target selectivity of haloalkylamine toxicity most probably results from the accumulation of these alkylating species in papillary tissue. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1768609

  3. Eimeria tenella (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, A. E.

    1962-01-01

    Complete immunity to a challenge dose of 100,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella was developed in fowls 14 days after they had received the last of three graded doses of oocysts of this species, whereas uninfected fowls of comparable age were fully susceptible. In fowls similarly immunized, no detectable first-generation schizogony developed from challenge doses of 10 million oocysts administered to each fowl 21 days after the last of the three graded doses had been administered. Precipitating antibodies were demonstrated in some but not all of these immune fowls by the agar-gel diffusion technique. Precipitin bands, developed as the result of infection, showed a reaction of identity with those induced by parenteral injection of schizont antigen and most of the bands appeared to be directed against protein antigens. Cross reactions were observed between E. tenella antiserum and antigens prepared from the species of coccidia, E. tenella from the fowl and the species E. stiedae from the rabbit. Electrophoretic analysis of serum from immune birds showed an albumin component and four globulin fractions (I-IV); antibody activity was confined to the fraction with the slowest mobility (IV). No significant differences were shown between the electrophoretic analyses at comparable ages of serum from the infected and control groups of fowls between 7 and 63 days of age. The components in both groups altered significantly with time, showing a general rise in protein concentrations. Infected fowls repeatedly showed numerous pyroninophilic cells in the gut mucosa and cells closely resembling globular leucocytes in the deep glands of the caeca. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:14486445

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis in a dog: clinical, hematological and pathological observations.

    PubMed Central

    Tryphonas, L; Zawidzka, Z; Bernard, M A; Janzen, E A

    1977-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed in a dog that had been living with his owners in Spain for two years. Clinical diagnosis was somewhat delayed as the disease is largely unknown to Canada and was manifested by a nonresponsive anemia which was not easily explained on peripheral blood evaluation alone, and concomitant interstitial nephritis. On post mortem examination splenomegaly was the main gross pathological finding. Light microscopic examination of bone marrow aspirates and subsequent electron microscopic examination of splenic and hepatic tissues revealed numerous Leishman-Donovan bodies in cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Parasitized reticuloendothelial cells were seen singly or forming granulomata. These latter did not contain giant cells and were confined mainly to the liver and spleen, being sparse and single in the first but extremely numerous and coalescing in the latter. Accumulation of intrafollicular hyaline material was seen in a small number of splenic follicles. Leishman-Donovan bodies on electron microscopic examination had a trilaminar periplast, a large round nucleus with heavy blocks of marginated chromatin and two nucleoli, a short flagellum and a kinetoplast. Lymph nodes and bone marrow had numerous parasitized macrophages but no granulomata. Leishman-Donovan bodies were not detected in the lungs and kidneys both of which exhibited a chronic intersitital reaction. The comparative hematological profile as well as the importance of bone marrow and electron microscopic examinations of the spleen and liver in diagnosis are discussed. The potential public health hazard of leishmaniasis to North America and particularly to Canada is considered. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. PMID:832183

  5. Effects of excess iodine in chick embryo thyroid follicles: initial inhibition and subsequent hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Z; Narbaitz, R; Fryer, J N

    1991-01-01

    The effects of excess iodine on the development of the thyroid gland of chick embryos was assessed following injections of potassium iodide prior to incubation. Iodide injection resulted in a significantly greater thyroid gland weight (goitre) on Day 18 of incubation and a delay in hatching. Histological studies of the thyroid gland on Day 12 of incubation revealed that iodide injection had inhibited thyroid follicle development. On Day 14, however, the thyroid glands of the iodide-treated embryos were indistinguishable from controls and on Day 18 the thyroid follicles of the iodide-injected embryos were clearly hypertrophied. In agreement with these light microscopical observations, electron microscopical examination showed conspicuous development of rough endoplasmic reticulum in the follicle cells of both iodide-treated 14 and 18 days old embryos and in those of the corresponding controls. Immunocytochemical studies of the pituitary of 18 days old embryos revealed a depletion of immunoreactive TSH suggesting that the iodide-induced hypertrophy of the thyroid was mediated by an activation of the thyrotropes. Iodide treatment was without effect on plasma levels of T3 and T4 for Day 18 embryos suggesting that the compensatory hypertrophy of the thyroid gland was sufficient to maintain circulating levels of thyroid hormones. The present results demonstrate that, in the embryonic chick thyroid, excess iodine produces effects which occur in two phases. The first phase consists of a transitory inhibition of the formation of follicles; it is followed by a second phase of compensatory hypertrophy resulting in goitre. The first phase probably results from a direct inhibitory effect of iodine on the developing thyroid whereas the second phase probably reflects a stimulation of the thyroid by TSH. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1917670

  6. Age changes in the triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist joint.

    PubMed Central

    Mikić, Z D

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a study of 180 wrist joints from 100 fresh cadavers of individuals ranging in age from fetuses to 94 years, it is concluded that the triangular fibro-cartilage is very liable to degenerative alterations associated with ageing. Degeneration begins in the third decade and progressively increases in frequency and severity in subsequent decades. The changes comprise reduced cellularity, loss of elastic fibres, mucoid degeneration of the ground substance, exposure of collagen fibres, fibrillation, erosion, ulceration, abnormal thinning, and, ultimately, disc perforation. The changes are more frequent and more intense on the ulnar surface, and they are always situated in the central part of the disc. It appears that disc perforation is degenerative and age-related: thus there were no perforations in the first two decades of life; in the third there were 7.6%, in the fourth 18.1%, in the fifth 40.0%, in the sixth 42.8%, and in the over sixties 53.1%. There was an associated pattern of degenerative changes in the wrist joint as a whole. The structures adjacent to the articular disc (discal surface of the ulnar head, discal part of the lunate) were much more often involved, and the changes were much more advanced, than on non-discal surfaces. It is argued that this is because of more intensive biomechanical forces, particularly rotational forces, in the disc compartment of the joint. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 (cont.) Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:670069

  7. Secretion of a soluble class I molecule encoded by the Q10 gene of the C57BL/10 mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, J J; Lew, A M; Flavell, R A; Coligan, J E

    1985-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the Q10 genes appears to be highly conserved amongst strains of mice and has only been found to be transcribed in the liver. An examination of the nucleotide sequence of the exon that normally encodes the transmembrane domain of class I molecules suggested that the Q10 gene encodes a secreted protein. We have established this by showing that L cells transformed with an expression vector containing the Q10 gene secrete a class I molecule which was identified with an antiserum raised against a peptide predicted by the Q10 transmembrane exon. Both the L cell-derived Q10 molecule and a class I protein immunoprecipitated from serum with this anti-peptide antiserum have mol. wts. of approximately 38 000; the Q10 molecule secreted by L cells is heterogeneous in mol. wt. This heterogeneity was drastically reduced after endoglycosidase F treatment, suggesting that Q10 molecules secreted into the serum by the liver may be glycosylated differently from those secreted by L cells. Endoglycosidase F treatment of both the L cell and serum forms of the soluble molecule yielded two products with mol. wts. of approximately 32 000 and 35 000; this is consistent with the observation that the predicted Q10 protein sequence has two potential glycosylation sites. In contrast to previous published results, the Q10 molecule reacted with rabbit anti-H-2 antisera which is consistent with its greater than 80% homology to the classical transplantation antigens. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:4018029

  8. Innervation of the gall bladder and biliary pathways in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W Q; Gabella, G

    1983-01-01

    The innervation of the gall bladder and the biliary pathways was studied in guinea-pigs by means of histochemical methods for catecholamines and for acetylcholinesterase on whole mount preparations, on cryostat sections and on sections of plastic-embedded tissues. The gall bladder contains on average 367 neurons in a ganglionated plexus which lies at the outer surface of the muscle coat. The overall appearance of this plexus is rather similar to that of the submucosal plexus of the duodenum. From the gall bladder the plexus extends into the cystic duct, the hepatic duct and the common bile duct, but from the middle portion of the common bile duct downwards, it is positioned at or near the inner surface of the muscle coat. Concurrently with the marked increase in muscle thickness in the lower parts of the common bile duct, another ganglionated plexus appears, which is truly intramuscular. The latter plexus is highly developed, lies usually between longitudinal and circular muscle and resembles in appearance the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, with which it is in continuity. Throughout the biliary system, the extent of the ganglionated plexus is roughly related to the extent of the musculature. An exchange of adrenergic fibres between the ganglionated plexus and perivascular nerves is observed in the gall bladder. Another nerve plexus, without ganglia but rich in adrenergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive fibres, lies between the mucosa and the muscle coat. Very few nerve fibres run into the musculature of the gall bladder. On the other hand, in the thick musculature of the lower portion of the common bile duct, several intramuscular nerve fibres are found. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6833124

  9. Coordinate, Organ-Specific and Developmental Regulation of Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Gene Expression in Amaranthus hypochondriacus1

    PubMed Central

    Nikolau, Basil J.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    1987-01-01

    The expression of the genes encoding the large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU) of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) was examined in roots, stems, cotyledons, and leaves of amaranth during the development of these tissues. The highest accumulation of LSU and SSU polypeptides occurred in cotyledons and leaves. Their steady state levels were approximately 20-fold lower in stems, while in roots neither LSU and SSU polypeptides nor their respective mRNAs could be detected. In cotyledons and leaves accumulation of these two polypeptides reached peak levels during the expansion stage of each tissue and then declined, reflecting changes in the synthesis, not turnover, of these proteins. In cotyledons and stems, the rates of synthesis of LSU and SSU polypeptides correlated with the levels of their respective mRNA, suggesting regulation primarily at the transcriptional level. In contrast, the dramatic and specific decrease in the synthesis of these two proteins during the last stages of development of the leaves could only partially be accounted for by the modest reduction in their mRNAs. Neither the translatability of these mRNAs, as assayed in cell-free systems, nor the stability of LSU and SSU polypeptides were altered, thus implying that control was being exerted at the translational level. During the development of these different organs, the expression of the LSU and SSU genes were generally coordinately regulated both at the levels of protein synthesis and mRNA accumulation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16665651

  10. A comparison of alcoholic pancreatitis in rat and man

    PubMed Central

    Sarles, H.; Lebreuil, G.; Tasso, F.; Figarella, C.; Clemente, F.; Devaux, M. A.; Fagonde, B.; Payan, H.

    1971-01-01

    Acute ethanol intoxication was studied in 38 Wistar rats, 18 on a balanced diet and 20 on a high fat diet, fed by gavage on 47% ethanol in a dosage of from 3 to 12 g/kg body weight daily for periods ranging from three to 16 days. No macroscopic changes in pancreas or liver were found in any of these animals. Histological changes (venous congestion of the pancreas, the liver, and the kidneys) were found in rats given 4 g or more per kilogram. The only difference between the findings in rats given a balanced diet and those given a high fat diet was the development of fatty livers in the latter group. Chronic ethanol intoxication was studied in 45 Wistar rats, on a balanced diet, which were given 20% ethanol freely for 20 to 30 months. More than half the animals developed pancreatic lesions very similar to those of human chronic pancreatitis. The pathological changes, in foci surrounded by normal pancreatic tissue, were a reduction in acini, duct multiplication (probably by neogenesis), protein plugs, sometimes calcified in the ducts and sclerosis. Samples of pancreatic juice from four animals exposed to ethanol contained significantly higher protein concentrations than samples taken from two control animals. Protein precipitates appeared spontaneously in the pancreatic juice of the animals exposed to ethanol, but not in that of the controls. These findings are very similar to those in alcoholic pancreatitis in man, which has thus been reproduced for the first time in experimental animals. Beta-cell adenomata of the islets of Langerhans were observed in four of the rats exposed to ethanol. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:4329553

  11. Electrophoretic analysis of polypeptides immune precipitated from cytomegalovirus-infected cell extracts by human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, L; Hoffman, M; Cremer, N

    1982-01-01

    Serodiagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection by complement fixation tests depends on showing a fourfold rise in antibody titer from acute- to convalescent-phase sera. Freeze-thaw and glycine-extracted, infected cell culture antigens used for these tests give markedly different titers in reactions with the same sera. In this study, we characterized the CMV-infected cell polypeptides contained in freeze-thaw and glycine-extracted antigens and identified the proteins precipitated by 23 pairs of human acute and convalescent sera. Our results were as follows. First, freeze-thaw and glycine-extracted antigens prepared from infected cells radiolabeled with [35S]methionine and subjected to electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels yielded similar patterns, and the bulk of the label was contained in late structural proteins and glycoproteins. Glycine-extracted preparations contained a greater proportion of soluble 66,000- and 50,000-molecular-weight proteins than did freeze-thaw antigens. Second, convalescent sera precipitated proteins migrating with apparent molecular weights of 150,000, 130,000, 110,000, 96,000, 74,000, 66,000, 50,000, 34,000, 32,000, and 25,000. Of these the 130,000-, 110,000-, 96,000-, 66,000-, 50,000-, and 25,000-molecular-weight proteins comigrated with glucosamine-labeled polypeptides. Both immunoglobulin G and M antibodies in human sera precipitated these proteins from CMV-infected cell preparations. Implications of the results for serodiagnosis of CMV infections are discussed. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 PMID:6284646

  12. Annual changes in the number, testosterone content and ultrastructure of glandular tissue cells of the testis in the marbled newt Triturus marmoratus.

    PubMed Central

    Fraile, B; Paniagua, R; Rodríguez, M C; Sáez, F J; Jimenez, A

    1989-01-01

    The testes of 8 specimens of Triturus marmoratus were collected during each month of 1987 and processed for electron microscopy and light microscopy demonstration of testosterone (T) following the ABC (avidin-biotin peroxidase complex) method. According to their staining affinity for anti-T antibodies, the glandular tissue cells were classified as T-, T+, T++, and T and the annual changes in the numbers of these cell populations, as well as in the volume occupied by the glandular tissue, were calculated. The volume occupied by the glandular tissue increases from September to December; it begins to decrease in April and disappears from June to August. The glandular tissue is formed from the interstitial cells that surround the lobules containing differentiating germ cells. During the spermatogenic process, the interstitial cells do not show staining affinity for anti-T antibodies. In August-September, the interstitial cells around the lobules that have completed spermatogenesis become positively stained (T+) and form the glandular tissue when the spermatozoa leave the testis. The numbers of intensely stained cells in the glandular tissue (T++ and T ) increase from September to November; begin to decrease in December; disappear in January-February; increase again in March and decrease again in April until they disappear in June-September. The interstitial cells, before their transformation in glandular tissue, are ultrastructurally similar to fibroblasts. After their transformation these cells increase in size and develop abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria with tubular cristae and lipid droplets. This morphological pattern is maintained in the glandular tissue from September to April in spite of the changes in staining affinity during this period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2630543

  13. The pathological changes caused by Eimeria falciformis var pragensis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, G M; Bellamy, J E; Stockdale, P H

    1978-01-01

    Groups of Swiss white mice weighing 25-28 grams were infected orally with 500, 2,000, 5,000 or 20,000 oocysts of Eimeria falciformis var pragensis. Depression, anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea or dysentery, and dehydration were most pronounced at eight to ten days postinfection. The highest mortality, 31%, occurred in mice infected with 20,000 oocysts. None of the mice infected with 500 oocysts died. The pathological findings were equally severe in mice infected with 5,000 and 20,000 oocysts. The enteric lesions, most pronounced at eight to ten days postinfection, were restricted mainly to the large intestine and consisted initially of both cryptal and absorptive epithelial cell destruction and submucosal edema. These changes were followed in 12 to 24 hours by a transient influx of neutrophils into the lamina propria followed by mononuclear cell infiltration which lasted for five to ten days. As the infective dose decreased, the inflammatory response occurred later and was less extensive. When seen, hemorrhage occurred seven to 11 days postinfection. In 50% of the mice infected with 5,000 and 20,000 oocysts, varying degrees of a nonselective mucosal necrosis were seen at eight to 12 days postinfection. In mice infected with 500 oocysts, mucosal destruction was restricted to the epithelium. Neutrophils predominated when necrosis was extensive, otherwise, mononuclear cells were the main inflammatory cells. Two to three days following necrosis, crypt hyperplasia was marked and mucosal integrity was restored. Ulcers, some of which extended into the submucosa, healed by days 14 to 20. Localized granulomatous colitis, induced by trapped oocysts within the lamina propria, was seen until the experiment was terminated at 25 days postinfection. Infection was followed by lymphoid hyperplasia in the lymph nodes and the spleen. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:743602

  14. Human chromosome variation: the discriminatory power of Q-band heteromorphism (variant) analysis in distinguishing between individuals, with specific application to cases of questionable paternity.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, S B; Magenis, R E; Lovrien, E W

    1986-01-01

    The chromosomes from 57 persons were analyzed by means of quinacrine fluorescent staining in order to assess the amount of variation and the discriminatory power of Q-band heteromorphism analysis. Chromosomes 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, and Y of each person were visually compared to those of 56 others, for a total of 1,596 comparisons. No two persons were found to have the same set of variants. The number of differences between chromosomes for each comparison ranged from 2 to 12 out of a possible total of 14 for females and 15 for males. Relatives were also distinguishable, and differences ranged from two to seven. We used the frequency with which each chromosome was useful for telling two people apart, and estimated the probability of finding two persons with the same set of quinacrine variants as .0003. Distinctly different heteromorphisms were found in the 39 unrelated persons for each of the chromosomes examined. In this small population, the number of different sets of variants observed for chromosomes 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, and Y were six, seven, 27, 16, 20, 15, 24, and five, respectively, for a total number of possible combinations of 1.14 X 10(15). As a test of the usefulness of chromosome heteromorphisms in paternity cases, 12 father-mother-child trios of virtually certain paternity, owing to the father-child segregation of a rare structural rearrangement, were coded and recombined at random to produce 120 cases of uncertain paternity. When the code was broken, 108 "alleged fathers" had been excluded correctly and the 12 biological fathers had been included correctly. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3946425

  15. Expression of TNF and TNF receptors (p55 and p75) in the rat brain after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Botchkina, G. I.; Meistrell, M. E.; Botchkina, I. L.; Tracey, K. J.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia induces a rapid and dramatic up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) protein and mRNA, but the cellular sources of TNF in the ischemic brain have not been defined. The diverse activities of TNF are mediated via ligand interaction with two distinct receptors, p55 and p75, which activate separate intracellular signal transduction pathways, leading to distinct biological effects. Since the effects of cerebral ischemia on TNF receptor (TNFR) expression are unknown, we examined the cellular localization and protein expression of TNF and its two receptors in the rat cerebral cortex in response to permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The results indicate that focal. cerebral ischemia up-regulates expression of TNF and both TNFRs within the ischemic cortex. The most abundant type of TNF immunoreactivity (IR) was a punctate and filamentous pattern of transected cellular processes; however, cell bodies of neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, as well as infiltrating polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes also showed TNF IR. Brain vasculature displayed TNF IR not only within endothelial cells but also in the perivascular space. MCA occlusion induced significant up-regulation of TNF receptors, with p55 IR appearing within 6 hr, significantly before the appearance of p75 IR at 24 hr after the onset of ischemia. Since p55 has been implicated in transducing cytotoxic signalling of TNF, these results support the proposed injurious role of excessive TNF produced during the acute response to cerebral ischemia. Images FIG. 7 FIG. 3 FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:9407552

  16. Caspase-mediated apoptosis in neuronal excitotoxicity triggered by nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Leist, M.; Volbracht, C.; Kühnle, S.; Fava, E.; Ferrando-May, E.; Nicotera, P.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excitotoxicity and excess generation of nitric oxide (NO) are believed to be fundamental mechanisms in many acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Disturbance of Ca2+ homeostasis and protein nitration/nitrosylation are key features in such conditions. Recently, a family of proteases collectively known as caspases has been implicated as common executor of a variety of death signals. In addition, overactivation of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been observed in neuronal excitotoxicity. We therefore designed this study to investigate whether triggering of caspase activity and/or activation of PARP played a role in cerebellar granule cell (CGC) apoptosis elicited by peroxynitrite (ONOO-) or NO donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CGC from wild-type or PARP -/- mice were exposed to various nitric oxide donors. Caspase activation and its implications for membrane alterations, Ca2+ homeostasis, intracellular proteolysis, chromatin degradation, and cell death were investigated. RESULTS: CGC exposed to NO donors undergo apoptosis, which is mediated by excess synaptic release of excitotoxic mediators. This excitotoxic mechanism differs from direct NO toxicity in some other neuronal populations and does not involve PARP activation. Inhibition of caspases with different peptide substrates prevented cell death and the related features, including intracellular proteolysis, chromatin breakdown, and translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer surface of the cell membrane. Increased Ca2+ influx following N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDA-R) activation was not inhibited by caspase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: In CGC, NO donors elicit apoptosis by a mechanism involving excitotoxic mediators, Ca2+ overload, and subsequent activation of caspases. Images Fig. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:9407551

  17. The periepiglottic space: topographic relations and histological organisation.

    PubMed Central

    Reidenbach, M M

    1996-01-01

    Important aspects of histological organisation and topographic relations of the pre-epiglottic space are not fully understood. This region was therefore reinvestigated in plastinated serial sections of 19 human adult specimens. The cranial part of the pre-epiglottic space is homogenously filled with adipose tissue and extends around the epiglottis in a horseshoe fashion. Therefore, the term periepiglottic space (PES) is a more accurate description of this region. The cranial border of the PES is constituted by the hyoepiglottic membrane, which extends between the epiglottis and the tongue, and the hyoepiglottic ligament. The ligament consists of a cranial fibre layer anchored within the lingual muscles, and a caudal layer attached to the hyoid bone. Anterior to the lingual surface of the epiglottis, both fibre layers become apposed to form a dense collagenous mass, which may stabilise the epiglottis during deglutition. Contractions of the infrahyoid muscles will be transmitted to the thyrohyoid membrane anterior to the PES by numerous collagenous septa which originate from the membrane and radiate into the muscles. In contrast, the pre-epiglottic adipose tissue is not connected to the thyrohyoid membrane. The caudal part of the PES is subdivided by two paramedian sagittal collagenous septa. They include a medial compartment bordered by the epiglottis posteriorly and the thyroepiglottic ligament inferiorly. The two lateral subdivisions of the PES extend between the glands of the vestibular folds and towards the aryepiglottic folds, but a distinct confining collagenous layer is absent there. Posterolaterally, the PES is separated from the paraglottic space by the thyroarytenoid muscle and by a cranial extension of the fibrous sheet of the muscle. This collagenous tissue is often split into several layers and displays gaps which may facilitate the spread of malignancies. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8655405

  18. Towards a rational terminology in the study of the gubernaculum testis: arguments in support of the notion that the cremasteric sac should be considered the gubernaculum in postnatal rats and other mammals.

    PubMed Central

    van der Schoot, P

    1996-01-01

    differences occur in the extent of initial development of an intra-abdominal conus inguinalis and later cremaster muscles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8771400

  19. An enzymatic assay reveals that proteins destined for the apical or basolateral domains of an epithelial cell line share the same late Golgi compartments.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, S D; Bravo, R; Simons, K

    1985-01-01

    The expression of viral envelope proteins on the plasma membrane domains of the epithelial cell line, MDCK, is polar. Influenza virus infection of these cells leads to expression of the viral haemagglutinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins on the apical domain of the plasma membrane while vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection yields basolateral expression of the sialic acid-bearing G protein. We have exploited the ability of the influenza neuraminidase to desialate the G protein of VSV to test for contact between these proteins during their intracellular transport to separate plasma membrane domains. We were able to select for VSV-G protein expression in doubly-infected cells because VSV protein production was accelerated in cells pre-infected with influenza virus. During double infection the envelope proteins of both viruses displayed the same polar localization as during single infection but the VSG-G protein was undersialated due to the action of the influenza neuraminidase. Incubation of singly-infected cells at 20 degrees C blocked the transport of VSV-G protein to the cell surface and resulted in increased sialation of the protein over that seen at 37 degrees C. This suggests that G protein is held in contact with the sialyl transferase at this temperature. 20 degrees C incubations of doubly-infected cells also produced the undersialated G protein characteristic of interaction with the neuraminidase. We conclude that most of the newly synthesised basolaterally-directed G protein is in physical contact with the majority of the neuraminidase through the terminal steps of Golgi processing. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2990898

  20. The Use of Specific Antibodies to Demonstrate the Glycocalyx and Spatial Relationships of a K99-, F41- Enterotoxigenic Strain of Escherichia coli Colonizing the Ileum of Colostrum-deprived Calves

    PubMed Central

    Chan, R.; Lian, C.J.; Costerton, J.W.; Acres, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to study the interaction between the glycocalyx of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain 210 (09:K30+;K99-;F41-:H-) and the glycocalyx of epithelial cells in then ileum of experimentally infected newborn colostrum-deprived calves. Fixation of tissues in anti-K30 antibody and ruthenium red was used to stabilize the bacterial glycocalyx so that the spatial relationship between the bacteria and the intestinal epithelial cells could be characterized. When strain 210 was grown in vitro and reacted with anti-K30 antibody prior to staining with ruthenium red, the extensive glycocalyx could be clearly visualized surrounding the bacterial cells. By negative staining, an unidentified pilus was also seen. Sections of ileum from infected calves, which were not fixed in antibody nor stained with ruthenium red, revealed attached bacteria which were surrounded by an electron-translucent zone and no visible bacterial glycocalyx. When ruthenium red staining was used, the bacterial glycocalyx partially collapsed during the dehydration steps of fixation, but could be seen as either a fibrous capsule or an electron-dense accretion on the bacterial cell surface. When ileal tissue was reacted for one hour in anti-K30 antibody before staining with ruthenium red, the bacterial glycocalyx was seen as a discrete electron-dense structure up to 1.0µm thick which was in intimate contact with the glycocalyx of the epithelial cells. The importance of the bacterial exopolysaccharide to microcolony formation on the villi could be clearly visualized. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:6349756

  1. Pathological changes in the brains of mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii: a histological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; Graham, D. I.; Hutchison, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The pathological changes in the brains of mice infected with T. gondii were studied at various intervals between 7 days and 22 months post-infection using histology, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Initially, a few single parasites were observed (day 7) but necrotic lesions and microglial and inflammatory nodules rapidly appeared (9-I4 days). The majority of the lesions between days 9 and I4 contained proliferating toxoplasma and early cyst formation but from 2I days onwards the vast majority of nodules contained neither parasites nor Toxoplasma antigen. Intact intracellular cysts persisted throughout the period of study eliciting no host response. A generalized meningoencephalitis developed by day II and persisted with varying degrees of severity throughout the 22 months studied. At first, the inflammatory cells consisted of lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages but during the chronic phase plasma cells predominated. In chronic infections, the number of microglial/inflammatory nodules was relatively constant with only a few containing toxoplasmic material resulting from recent cyst rupture. A few brains contained small nodules of dystrophic calcification. This study shows that in these asymptomatic animals, the major feature is perivascular cuffing by mononuclear cells and localized microglial/inflammatory nodules. After the development of the chronic state, there is no obvious increase or decrease in the severity of the pathological changes with time. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs. 8-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:1883744

  2. The laryngeal primordium and epithelial lamina. A new interpretation.

    PubMed Central

    Sañudo, J R; Domenech-Mateu, J M

    1990-01-01

    The laryngeal primordium is present in both the laryngotracheal sulcus (LTS) and the primitive pulmonary sac (PPS). Its early period of development may be subdivided into two phases. The first phase (Stage 11) is represented by what is traditionally referred to as the LTS, located directly beneath the PP4 on the ventral wall of the foregut (primary segment), and by the PPS which is situated at its caudal end. The LTS will represent the primordium of the upper or membranous infraglottic cavity region; whereas the PPS, will give rise not only to the bronchial tree, but also to the primordium of the trachea and the lower or cartilaginous region of the infraglottic cavity. The second phase (Stages 13 and 14) is distinguished by the cranial growth of the LTS above the PP4 and therefore by its absorption into the floor of the primitive pharynx in the mesobranchial area (secondary segment), which will develop into the primordium of the vestibule of the larynx. Similarly, we observed that in the development of the laryngeal cavity there are two temporally and spatially separate epithelial structures: the epithelial septum and the epithelial lamina. In this respect we differ from other authors who are of the opinion that there is a single structure (the epithelial lamina). The epithelial septum is a primary structure responsible for the final configuration of the LTS, as it contributes to the development of the lower end of the primary segment of the LTS and also to the creation of the secondary segment. The epithelial lamina is a secondary structure which appears inside the LTS as a result of pressure exerted by the mesenchyme on its lateral walls, without having any effect on the morphogenesis of the LTS. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2081706

  3. Degenerative and regenerative changes in murine skeletal muscle after injection of venom from the snake Bothrops asper: a histochemical and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Arce, V.; Brenes, F.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The degenerative and regenerative changes in murine skeletal muscle after injection of Bothrops asper venom were studied by histological, lectin histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. According to our observations, the process was divided into four main stages: (a) During the first 3 days prominent degenerative events took place in skeletal muscle fibres, capillaries, arteries, veins and intramuscular nerves. An inflammatory infiltrate was abundant after the first day and removal of necrotic material was well advanced by the third day. (b) Muscle regeneration was evident by the fourth day. From 4 to 6 days there were two populations of regenerating muscle fibres, one of apparently normal fibres located in areas where capillary vessels were abundant, and another population of groups of regenerative fibres showing signs of degeneration. This second type of fibre was predominant in areas where the number of capillaries was greatly reduced. (c) One and 2 weeks after envenomation areas of small regenerative fibres of normal morphology and areas of degenerating regenerative fibres were observed. The latter were abundant in regions of dense fibrotic tissue and scarce capillaries. (d) Finally, at 4 and 8 weeks after envenomation there were both areas of fibrosis and areas where regenerating muscle fibres predominated. However, the diameter of these fibres was abnormally small, an indication that they may have been atrophic fibres. It is suggested that muscle regeneration is partially impaired after myonecrosis induced by Bothrops asper venom, probably due to the damage induced by this venom on muscle microvasculature and nerves. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:1707650

  4. Regression of atherosclerosis by the intravenous infusion of specific biochemical nutrient substrates in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Dudrick, S J

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary studies in 400 New Zealand albino rabbits produced a reliable animal model of nutrient-induced atherosclerosis that simulated that observed in humans. Atherosclerosis was then induced in an additional 1600 rabbits in sets of 40 animals each, maintaining plasma cholesterol concentrations between 1000 and 2000 mg/dL for 6-20 weeks. In each set, 10 control rabbits were killed to document baseline atherosclerosis, and the other 30 rabbits were assigned randomly to one of three groups of 10 rabbits. Groups of 10 rabbits were either continued on the atherogenic diet (group I), given standard laboratory rabbit pellets (group II), or infused continuously with specially formulated anticholesterol solutions via central venous catheters (group III) for 6 weeks. At autopsy, atherosclerotic lesions consistently involved 85-95% of the aorta in group I. In group II, atherosclerosis was comparable with the baseline control group with no regression. In group III, regression of atherosclerosis by 90-95% was consistently documented. Correlations between plasma amino acids and plasma cholesterol concentrations were established in four humans with severe atherosclerosis to maximize the cholesterol reduction capacity of the amino acid formulation. Infusion of the modified total parenteral nutrition solution induced prompt reduction in plasma cholesterol levels by 40-60% regardless of the initial level and was accompanied by evidence of regression of atherosclerosis after a 90-day infusion therapy period. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. PMID:3115205

  5. The gubernaculum during testicular descent in the human fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Heyns, C F

    1987-01-01

    This study of 178 male human fetuses and infants demonstrates that descent of the testis through the inguinal canal is a rapid process, with 75% of testes descending between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. The gubernaculum is a cylindrical, gelatinous structure attached cranially to the testis and epididymis. While the testis is in the abdomen, the caudal tip of the gubernaculum is firmly attached to the region of the inguinal canal. In a few fetuses prior to descent the globular tip of the gubernaculum can be seen bulging through the external inguinal ring, covered by superficial fascia, with no macroscopically discernible extensions to the scrotum or any other area. Once the testis has passed through the inguinal canal, the bulbous lower tip of the gubernaculum is no longer firmly attached to any structure, nor does it extend to the bottom of the scrotum. Histologically the gubernaculum consists of undifferentiated mesenchymatous tissue. Prior to descent of the testis, there is an increase in the length of the intra-abdominal gubernaculum. The wet mass of the gubernaculum relative to the fetal mass increases rapidly prior to descent, while the relative wet mass of the testis remains constant during this period. There is also an increase in the wet/dry mass ratio of the gubernaculum, denoting an increase in its water content prior to descent. This indicates that a combination of growth processes is responsible for testicular descent, with the increase in the size of the gubernaculum playing the most important role in passage of the testis through the inguinal canal. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2892824

  6. A re-investigation of the centres of ossification in the avian skeleton at and after hatching.

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, D A

    1980-01-01

    The centres of ossification occurring in the skeleton of the domestic fowl from hatching onwards have been re-investigated in groups of birds from the same hatches, reared under standardised conditions and sampled at intervals from hatching to 182 days. Selected areas have been surveyed in adult birds. The numerous centres which are already present at hatching have been identified. Those first appearing around the time of hatching were for the uncinate processes and the phalanx of digit IV. The centres appearing after hatching were those for metacarpal II, four carpal centres, the orbitosphenoid, rostal and caudal basibranchials, epibranchials, entoglossal, proximal tibial centre, patella and tarsal sesamoid. These have been illustrated and the mean time of appearance and range of time of appearance of each calculated. Some evidence of slight variation in sequence of appearance was detected. The proximal tibial centre was concluded to be the only true secondary centre in the long bones and to correspond to the traction epiphysis of this region in the mammal. In adults, the phalangeal formula of the manus was found usually to be 2:2:1, but occasionally it was reduced to 1:2:1. The only sesamoidean centre found, other than the patella and the tarsal sesamoid, was in the carpal region and was termed the dorsal carpal sesamoid. Some of the many controversies existing in the previous literature have been assessed in the light of the findings of this study. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7429964

  7. Further Studies on Induction of Stomach Cancer in Hamsters by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine*

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, K.; Sasadaira, H.; Kawachi, T.; Shimosato, Y.; Tokunaga, A.; Fujimura, S.; Sugimura, T.

    1974-01-01

    Oral administration of N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) to hamsters at a concentration of 50-83 μg/ml in the drinking water resulted in a high incidence of tumours in the glandular stomach. Short-term administration of MNNG for 4-6 months resulted in more adenocarcinomata in the glandular stomach than long-term administration for 7-8 months. One case of metastasis of an adenocarcinoma of the glandular stomach to the liver and 2 cases of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes were found. Spindle cell sarcomata in the glandular stomach and adenocarcinomata in the duodenum were also often produced. Oral administration of MNNG at the very high concentration of 500-2000 μg/ml induced a hepatic cell carcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct carcinomata, bile duct cystadenomata and cystic dilatation, and a haemangioma in the liver but no tumour in the glandular stomach. Sequential morphological studies on the glandular stomach of hamsters receiving 50 μg/ml of MNNG in the drinking water showed 3 stages of change of the mucosa. The mucosa became atrophic and eroded in the first 16 weeks. Irregular atypical glands developed at the margins of erosions and proliferation of spindle cells in the submucosa were found after 18 weeks. Spindle cell sarcomata developed in animals after 20 weeks. Adenocarcinomata developed between 25 and 32 weeks. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4830138

  8. Prolonged administration of antithymocyte serum in mice. II. Histopathological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth; Nehlsen, Sandra L.

    1971-01-01

    Prolonged administration of ATS to mice resulted in depletion of small lymphocytes in the thymus-dependent (paracortical) areas of lymph nodes in all mice. Small lymphocyte depletion of the thymus-dependent periarteriolar region of the spleen was present in most mice, although this feature was masked by plasmacytosis in this region in some. Depletion of small lymphocytes in the thymus-dependent areas of Peyer's patches was evident in some of the younger mice. None of these changes in lymphoid organs were seen in control mice, untreated or given NRS. The thymus was unaffected except in some ATS- or NRS-treated mice which were sick and/or old, in which the narrowing of the thymic cortex was attributed to non-specific stress. Plasmacytosis was seen in the medullae of lymph nodes of both ATS- and NRS-treated mice, although it was more intense in the latter. In non-lymphoid organs the most striking changes were seen in the kidneys of mice treated both with ATS and NRS. Complex-type nephritis followed by amyloidosis was seen in a large proportion of mice over 6 months old in both these groups and in these mice amyloid was seen frequently in other organs, including spleen and liver. Tumours occurred in fifty-four ATS-treated mice, but in no other group. Fifty-two of these tumours were attributable to polyoma virus; two other were lymphoblastomas. Reticulum cell hyperplasia was seen in two further mice. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:4326920

  9. Muscle-spindle distribution in relation to the fibre-type composition of masseter in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Rowlerson, A; Mascarello, F; Barker, D; Saed, H

    1988-01-01

    The various parts of the masseter muscle complex (pars superficialis, pars profunda, zygomaticomandibularis, maxillomandibularis) in the rat, guinea-pig, rabbit, cat and macaque monkey were examined to discover whether they showed any relationship between the distribution of muscle spindles and extrafusal fibre types. Intrafusal (spindle) and extrafusal fibre types in masseter were compared with those in limb muscles and were identified by a combination of standard histochemical methods and indirect immunoperoxidase staining with antibodies specific for the various isoforms of myosin characteristic of fibre types in mammalian muscle. In general, the fibre-type properties of intrafusal fibres in masseter resembled those in limb muscle spindles, but the extrafusal fibre-type composition was unlike that in most limb muscles. In the rat masseter, most of the spindles were clustered together in a few very restricted areas. Extensive fusion of the external capsules of adjacent spindles, resulting in the formation of giant spindles, was seen in the cat and monkey masseter; this was sometimes accompanied by the enclosure of extrafusal fibres within the fused spindles. Common to all species, but strongest of all in the rat, was a close association between the distributions of muscle spindles and extrafusal Type I (slow twitch) fibres within the masseter complex. Muscle spindles and Type I fibres were either absent or rarest in the superficial part of masseter, but were most common in the deep layer (pars profunda) or zygomaticomandibularis. The functional significance of these observations is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2978294

  10. Murine T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin 2 correlates with a transient increase in p56lck kinase activity and the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 97-kDa protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y H; Buchholz, M J; Nordin, A A

    1993-01-01

    The addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to anti-CD3-activated murine G0 phase T cells results in an increased level of tyrosine phosphorylation of a single 97-kDa protein. The degree of tyrosine phosphorylation paralleled the amount of rIL-2 added and correlated with the extent of DNA synthesis. IL-2 treatment resulted in a transient increase in p56lck kinase activity without detectable modification of its level of tyrosine phosphorylation and gel mobility. When G0 T cells were activated by phorbol dibutyrate in the absence of IL-2, the high-affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expressed failed to induce a proliferative signal, and neither the tyrosine phosphorylation of the 97-kDa protein nor the transient increase in p56lck kinase activity was detected. Northern analysis of the total RNA extracted from these cells showed the accumulation of IL-2R alpha chain-specific mRNA but neither c-myc nor cdc2 mRNA was expressed. The addition of 100 nM rIL-2 to T cells activated by phorbol dibutyrate was able to induce a proliferative response, and under these conditions tyrosine phosphorylation of the 97-kDa protein, the transient increase in p56lck kinase activity, and specific mRNA for IL-2R alpha chain, c-myc, and cdc2 were detected. Unstimulated G0 T cells responded to 100 nM rIL-2 in the same manner as phorbol dibutyrate-activated cells. Irrespective of the signal-transducing structures involved, the IL-2-induced proliferative response closely correlates with an increase in p56lck kinase activity along with the tyrosine phosphorylation of a 97-kDa protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7682694

  11. The role of transforming growth factor alpha in rat craniofacial development and chondrogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, L; Solursh, M; Sandra, A

    1996-01-01

    To explore the possible role of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in craniofacial development, its expression in the craniofacial region of rat embryos from embryonic day (d) 9 to d 20 was examined by in situ hybridisation and immunostaining. The TGF-alpha transcripts were first detected in the neural fold of embryonic d 9 and 10 embryos. In the craniofacial region, the TGF-alpha transcripts were not detected until embryonic d 16 in mesenchyme surrounding the olfactory bulb, within the olfactory bulb, the nasal capsule, vomeronasal organ, and vibrissal follicle. In addition, TGF-alpha message was detected in mesenchyme in the vicinity of Meckel's cartilage, and in the dental epithelium and lamina. This expression pattern of TGF-alpha transcripts persisted until embryonic d 17 but disappeared by d 18. The presence of TGF-alpha protein largely coincided with TGF-alpha message although, unlike the message, it persisted throughout later embryogenesis in the craniofacial region. The possible function of TGF-alpha in chondrogenesis was explored by employing the micromass culture technique. Cartilage nodule formation in mesenchymal cells cultured from rat mandibles in the presence of TGF-alpha was significantly inhibited. This inhibitory effect of TGF-alpha on chondrogenesis was reversed by addition of antibody against the EGF receptor, which crossreacts with the TGF-alpha receptor. The inhibitory effect of TGF-alpha on chondrogenesis in vitro was further confirmed by micromass culture using mesenchymal cells from rat embryonic limb bud. Taken together, these results demonstrate the involvement of TGF-alpha in chondrogenesis during embryonic development, possibly by way of a specific inhibition of cartilage formation from mesenchymal precursor cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 9 PMID:8771398

  12. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    PubMed Central

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  13. Translational control by cytoplasmic polyadenylation during Xenopus oocyte maturation: characterization of cis and trans elements and regulation by cyclin/MPF.

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, L L; Richter, J D

    1990-01-01

    The expression of certain maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation. To understand this process, we have focused on a maternal mRNA from Xenopus termed G10. This mRNA is stored in the cytoplasm of stage 6 oocytes until maturation when the process of poly(A) elongation stimulates its translation. Deletion analysis of the 3' untranslated region of G10 RNA has revealed that two sequence elements, UUUUUUAU and AAUAAA were both necessary and sufficient for polyadenylation and polysomal recruitment. In this communication, we have defined the U-rich region that is optimal for polyadenylation as UUUUUUAUAAAG, henceforth referred to as the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE). We have also identified unique sequence requirements in the 3' terminus of the RNA that can modulate polyadenylation even in the presence of wild-type cis elements. A time course of cytoplasmic polyadenylation in vivo shows that it is an early event of maturation and that it requires protein synthesis within the first 15 min of exposure to progesterone. MPF and cyclin can both induce polyadenylation but, at least with respect to MPF, cannot obviate the requirement for protein synthesis. To identify factors that may be responsible for maturation-specific polyadenylation, we employed extracts from oocytes and unfertilized eggs, the latter of which correctly polyadenylates exogenously added RNA. UV crosslinking demonstrated that an 82 kd protein binds to the U-rich CPE in egg, but not oocyte, extracts. The data suggest that progesterone, either in addition to or through MPF/cyclin, induces the synthesis of a factor during very early maturation that stimulates polyadenylation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 Fig.8 Fig.9 PMID:2145153

  14. Treatment of spontaneous tumours by temporary local ligation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Frederick M.; Kaplan, Martin M.; Meranze, David R.; Gradess, Morton

    1960-01-01

    Previous work in some human cases and in laboratory animals has indicated that temporary local ligation of spontaneous tumours has a selective destructive effect on these tumours, with only temporary inflammation resulting in normal tissues. In the experiments described in this paper, 49 spontaneous accessible tumours in dogs were treated by this method, with periods of ligation of from 4 to 11 hours. Success, as measured by selective necrosis of tumour tissue as compared with normal tissue, was achieved in 29 out of 41 benign tumours, including lipomas, angiomas, adenomas and mixed mammary tumours. Treatment failures were encountered in two cases each of papillomas and fibromas, six mixed mammary tumours and two testicular tumours. Total necrosis of tumour cells occurred in all eight malignant tumours encountered in this series. The outstanding feature was the specific destruction of tumour tissue by a bodily process without participation of any outside agent. Emphasis was placed on an adequate inflammatory response following temporary anoxia, although a precise definition of this inflammation could not be offered. Post-ligation bacterial multiplication, which may be expected to occur in necrotic tumour tissue, is considered to be a secondary effect rather than a possible primary cause of regression and disappearance of the tumour. If ligation treatment can be shown to be successful for a particular type of tumour, it may be possible to apply it to human patients for the treatment of areas not amenable to surgery. The results reported here warrant new experimental approaches to the study of neoplasms at the cellular level to define more precisely the anoxic and inflammatory processes involved in the selective lethal effect on tumour tissues; and the authors suggest that trials should be undertaken of combinations of chemotherapy or irradiation with ligation to reduce ligation time and extend the possible benefits. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7

  15. Quantitative studies of the regeneration of rat myelinated nerve fibres: variations in the number and size of regenerating fibres after repeated localized freezings.

    PubMed Central

    Mira, J C

    1979-01-01

    The number and size of myelinated nerve fibres were determined in the nerve to the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles of rats whose left sciatic nerve was repeatedly frozen (one to five times at three weekly intervals). The contralateral nerve was used as a control. Results varied according to the number of freezings performed and, for a given number of freezings, according to the period of regeneration. When measurements were completed 1 month after the last of several localized freezings, the number of regenerating myelinated nerve fibres increased regularly up to the third freezing, reaching to about 220% of the control value, but no higher values were recorded after four or five freezings. The nerve fibre distribution was unimodal in all the nerves studied. The mean diameter of all myelinated fibres decreased with the number of freezings from 50% of the control value after the first to 36% after the fifth. When measurements were made 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after the third and final freezing, the number of regenerating myelinated nerve fibres decreased by about 30% between the first and third month and then stabilized at 190% of the control value. Nerve fibre distribution became bimodal from the third month onwards, and the mean diameter of all myelinated fibres increased regularly. However, by the eighteenth month, the size of regenerated myelinated nerve fibres had only reached 70% of the normal contralateral value. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:511774

  16. Health and Disease in Rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Finseth, Katherine Alden; Finseth, Frederick

    1975-01-01

    Ethiopia, among the world's poorest countries, suffers from a full spectrum of health problems. A plastic surgeon and a public health physician present their experiences in Sidamo province in the Rift Valley. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:1173955

  17. Study of the Phenomena of Hypervelocity Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-06-01

    4.4 Fig. 4A. 3 Multiple-Sheet Target Impacted by 3/16-In. Aluminum Sphere at 5. 4 km/sec ......................... 4.6 Fig. 4A. 4 X - Ray ...mentioned previ- ously. Shadowgraph stations, velocity screens, and high-speed framing cameras have recorded projectile velocities. Flash X - ray units...4 which shows a series of flash X - ray pictures of impacts under various conditions. The thin target, or shield, has effectively fragmented the

  18. Raman Scattering from Tin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    semiconductor and tin metallic allotropes, and we are developing a fundamental understanding of the spectra. The research has identified that BaF2 is an...semiconductor and tin metallic allotropes, and we are developing a fundamental understanding of the spectra. The research has identified that BaF2 is an...deposited on SiO2 .........................................5 Fig. 6 Raman spectrum from the metallic Sn lump at 300 K ...........................6 Fig

  19. The avian egg and the retina

    PubMed Central

    MALCOLM, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for study of blood flow has been derived from the avian egg, utilizing the theories of crystallography and photosynthesis. The model is employed to explain the form of the eye and the function of the cells of the human retina, with special reference to colour vision and the pathology of migraine. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4736600

  20. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy associated with Fallot's tetralogy—a case report

    PubMed Central

    George, B. Olu.; Mabayoje, J. Olu.

    1975-01-01

    A case of Fallot's tetralogy associated with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a young Nigerian female is described. The clinical spectrum of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is reviewed. The rarity of this syndrome is stressed. Some other aspects of the clinical manifestation of cyanotic congenital heart disease which may mimic the skeletal syndrome are mentioned. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:1197165

  1. Presidential Address: The Woman in the Case Jane Todd Crawford, 1763-1842

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 Presidential Address of the Southern Surgical Association is dedicated to the wives of the members, past and present, in acknowledgment and appreciation of the enduring contribution that they have made to the quality and character of this association. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20. PMID:375854

  2. Tinea Incognito

    PubMed Central

    Ive, F. Adrian; Marks, Ronald

    1968-01-01

    Fourteen cases are described in which the local application of corticosteroid preparations to ringworm infections of the skin have resulted in unusual clinical pictures. A kerion-like lesion due to Trichophyton rubrum, intertriginous infections simulating candidiasis and due to Epidermophyton floccosum, and pictures resembling poikiloderma, papular rosacea, and indeterminate leprosy are among the changes that were seen in these patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5662546

  3. Development of peptide-containing nerves in the human fetal prostate gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jen, P Y; Dixon, J S

    1995-01-01

    -ENK-IR nerves together with a few m-ENK-IR nerves. Occasional smooth muscle-associated varicose nerve fibres showed immunoreactivity for SP, CGRP, VIP or BOM although the majority of these types of nerve formed perivascular plexuses. Also at 26 wk numerous varicose nerve fibres were observed in association with the prostatic acini, the majority of such nerves containing NPY with a few showing immunoreactivity to VIP, l-ENK, SP or CGRP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7591978

  4. The morphology of the lung of the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis (Reptilia: Ophidia: Elapidae). A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1989-01-01

    evolution of the lungs of the air-breathing vertebrates from lower through to higher vertebrates. The gross and ultrastructural heterogeneity of the organisation of the ophidian lung is illustrated and the dearth of pulmonary morphological data in this taxon is pointed out. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2630539

  5. Protection of Hamster Lung Cultures by L-Cysteine or Vitamin C Against Carcinogenic Effects of Fresh Smoke from Tobacco or Marihuana Cigarettes*

    PubMed Central

    Leuchtenberger, C.; Leuchtenberger, R.

    1977-01-01

    growth and malignant transformation occurring either in aged controls (1-2 years old) or in young cultures (3-6 months old) after repeated exposure to smoke from tobacco or marihuana cigarettes. The increase of lysosomes after L-cysteine or vitamin C also points to the possible importance of lysosomes in protecting the cultures against the enhancement of carcinogenesis by smoke. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8a, bFig. 9a, bFig. 10 PMID:607984

  6. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    had been diagnosed clinically, but in only 6 of 31 patients in Nzara. The possibility of the indirect immunofluorescent test not being sufficiently sensitive is discussed. Of Maridi case contacts, in hospital and in the local community, 19% had antibodies. Very few of them gave any history of illness, indicating that Ebola virus can cause mild or even subclinical infections. Of the cloth room workers in the Nzara cotton factory, 37% appeared to have been infected, suggesting that the factory may have been the prime source of infection. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 3Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:307455

  7. The pathogenicity of long versus short fibre samples of amosite asbestos administered to rats by inhalation and intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. M.; Addison, J.; Bolton, R. E.; Donaldson, K.; Jones, A. D.; Smith, T.

    1986-01-01

    . From this it would appear that while very short fibres exhibit little carcinogenicity to either lung or mesothelial tissues, mesotheliomas can be produced by dust preparations consisting of shorter fibres than are needed to produce tumours. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2872911

  8. Cytochemical localisation and characterisation of proteoglycans (glycosaminoglycans) in the epithelial-stromal interface of the seminal vesicle of the guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, L; Wong, Y C

    1992-01-01

    The proteoglycans (PGs) in the guinea pig seminal vesicle were demonstrated ultrastructurally by both cuprolinic blue (CB) and ruthenium red (RR) staining. The PGs appeared as electron-dense granules with RR, but were filamentous following CB staining using the critical electrolyte concentration method. Three major types of PGs (T1, T2, T3) have been described according to their different locations and sizes. T1 filaments were short and were found mostly on both sides of the lamina densa of the basal lamina of the glandular epithelium (40-60 nm long) and also on the basal laminae of smooth muscle cells and capillary endothelial cells (20-30 nm long). In the epithelial basal lamina they were regularly spaced at an interval of 40-60 nm. T1 filaments in the lamina densa were smaller and more randomly distributed. Cytochemical characterisation of these PGs by various GAG degrading enzymes showed that T1 PGs are rich in heparan sulphate. T2 filaments were 30-40 nm long and closely associated with the collagen fibrils. They were arranged perpendicular to the long axis of collagen fibrils, also at intervals of about 60 nm. T2 filaments were removed by chondroitinase (Ch)-ABC, Ch-ABC plus Streptomyces (S)-hyaluronidase and pronase, but resistant to nitrous acid, heparitinase, heparinase, neuraminidase and S-hyaluronidase. These show that T2 filaments are rich in dermatan sulphate. T3 filaments (60-100 nm) were widely distributed in the stroma at sites such as the interstitial spaces of the lamina propria, the reticular layer below the basal lamina, around individual collagen fibrils or bundles of such fibres, and on the cell surfaces of fibroblasts. The T3 filaments were removed by Ch-ABC, Ch-AC and pronase but were resistant to heparitinase, heparinase, S-hyaluronidase, neuraminidase and nitrous acid. They are therefore rich in chondroitin sulphate. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig

  9. An Experimental Investigation of the Lymphatic System of the Teeth and Jaws

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Alexander

    1936-01-01

    are given, and the lines on which further experiments are being continued are indicated. Finally, the application of the results to the pathology of infection in this region, particularly paradontal disease, is given, and also their application to the phenomena of injection anæsthesia. ImagesFig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19990818

  10. Oxygen free radical induced damage in kidneys subjected to warm ischemia and reperfusion. Protective effect of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, G L; Corry, R J; Autor, A P

    1985-01-01

    after reoxygenation, 45 min. ischemic rat kidneys were treated with allopurinol. All of the animals treated with allopurinol (N = 12) were alive at 7 days. Serum creatinine values returned to normal after the episode of ischemia and reperfusion but more slowly than after SOD treatment. Histologic evaluation of kidney tissue taken from animals after ischemia alone showed extensive renal tubular damage, which was essentially absent in kidneys from SOD-treated animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. PMID:3840348

  11. Pathogenesis of myonecrosis induced by coral snake (Micrurus nigrocinctus) venom in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, J. M.; Arroyo, O.; Chaves, F.; Lomonte, B.; Cerdas, L.

    1986-01-01

    levels of lactate dehydrogenase. Isozymes LDH-3, LDH-4, and LDH-5 increased markedly, suggesting that the systemic pathology of coral snake envenoming may be more complex than previously thought. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 PMID:3947530

  12. Splenic trauma. Choice of management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, C E

    1991-01-01

    severely shattered spleen; these patients usually are treated best by early operative intervention. Following splenectomy for injury, polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine decreases the likelihood of OPSI and should be used routinely. The role of prophylactic penicillin is uncertain but the use of antibiotics for minor infectious problems is indicated after splenectomy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:1992948

  13. Axonal and vascular changes following injury to the rat's optic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, J A

    1985-01-01

    seventh to the fourteenth postoperative week. The responses of the optic nerve of the rat to axotomy contrast markedly with those of the goldfish, in which the blood vessels become permeable to protein throughout the optic pathway and the axons regenerate successfully. Various attempts were made to increase or prolong the opening of the blood-optic nerve barrier in the rat, in the hope of enhancing axonal regeneration, but these endeavours were all unsuccessful. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:4077712

  14. Molecular cloning of chicken aggrecan. Structural analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, L; Tanzer, M L

    1992-01-01

    domain. Thus different variants of chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate domains may have evolved separately to fulfil specific biochemical and physiological functions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1339285

  15. The Otosclerosis Problem: including Reports of Two Cases Pathologically Examined (Dalby Memorial Lecture)

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Albert A.

    1934-01-01

    other nerve-structures in the body. If, therefore, structural changes occur as a result of defective functioning of those nerves, such structural changes will naturally be bilaterally symmetrical in their distribution. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:19989872

  16. Endemic syphilis in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J. F.; Merriweather, A. M.; Freedman, M. L.

    1956-01-01

    A form of endemic syphilis exists in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate known by the local name of “dichuchwa”. It is similar to bejel, njovera and the endemic syphilis reported elsewhere in the world. The Government of the Protectorate, with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF, began in November 1953 a mass campaign in the Reserve to control this disease and, at the same time, to study its epidemiological, clinical, social and therapeutic aspects. The seropositivity rate in the Reserve was found to be 37%. Dichuchwa is a childhood and family disease, usually spread non-venereally. The early lesions are similar to secondary lesions of sporadic venereal syphilis, and are often followed by tertiary lesions affecting mainly the skin, nasopharynx and long bones. Primary lesions are rare but may occur under certain epidemiological conditions if the inoculum is sufficiently large; thus a mother may develop primary sores on the nipples through suckling an infected infant. Lesions of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and congenital syphilis are also rare. Superinfection of an already infected and allergic host is probably the chief reason for the frequency of the tertiary lesions. Treatment of the disease with penicillin is very effective, and the authors believe that mass treatment of cases and contacts combined with an improvement in the standards of hygiene could eradicate the disease. ImagesFig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 57Fig. 58Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42 PMID:13404470

  17. Periosteal response in translation-induced bone remodelling.

    PubMed Central

    Feik, S A; Ellender, G; Crowe, D M; Ramm-Anderson, S M

    1990-01-01

    reflected in the periosteum which functions as an integrated unit modulating the signal transmitted to the osteoblasts which play a key role in events occurring at the bone surface. Changes are not attributable to internal bone strain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2081711

  18. Tissue Specificity of the Heat-Shock Response in Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Pam; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Hauptmann, Randal M.

    1984-01-01

    The tissue specificity of the heat-shock response in maize was investigated. The ability to synthesize heat shock proteins (hsp) at 40°C, as well as the intensity and duration of that synthesis, was analyzed in coleoptiles, scutella, green and etiolated leaves, suspension-cultured cells, germinating pollen grains, and primary root sections at different stages of development. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of extracted proteins revealed that most of the tissues synthesized the typical set of 10 hsp, but that the exact characteristics of the response depended upon the tissue type. While elongating portions of the primary root exhibited a strong heat shock response, the more mature portions showed a reduced ability to synthesize hsp. Leaves, whether green or etiolated, excised or intact, constitutively synthesized a low level of hsp at 25°C, and high levels could be induced at 40°C. Suspension-cultures of Black Mexican sweet corn synthesized, besides the typical set of hsp, two additional polypeptides. In contrast to all the other tissues, germinating pollen grains could not be induced to synthesize the typical set of hsp but did synthesize two new polypeptides of 92 and 56 kD molecular weight. The heat shock response was transient for most of the tissues which synthesized the standard set of hsp. Hsp synthesis was detected up to 2 to 3 hours, but not at 10 hours of continuous 40°C treatment. The exception was suspension cultured cells, in which hsp synthesis showed only a slight reduction after 10 hours at 40°C. Tissue-specific differences in the heat-shock response suggest that there are differences in the way a given tissue is able to adapt to high temperature. We have confirmed the previous suggestion that maize hsp do not accumulate in substantial quantities. Using two-dimensional gel analysis, hsp could be detected by autoradiography but not by sensitive silver staining techniques. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

  19. Light and Electron Microscopic Studies of the Rat Kidney After Administration of Inhibitors of the Citric Acid Cycle In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Elizabeth M.

    1972-01-01

    2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17Fig 18Fig 19 PMID:4258508

  20. Bilateral cryptorchidism in a dog with persistent cranial testis suspensory ligaments and inverted gubernacula: report of a case with implications for understanding normal and aberrant testis descent.

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, W; Molenaar, G J; Emmen, J M; van der Schoot, P

    1996-01-01

    human cryptorchidism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:8771408

  1. Pacesetters of the American image or (a case for a pleasant diversion).

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    Regardless of how you resolve the morality of our history, the fact is that Currier and Ives documented in their own special and often biased way the iconography of the growth and development of the United States of America (Fig. 88) in some of the most eventful years of its history from about 1840 through 1895. Now, as we near our 500th anniversary commemoration of Columbus' voyage to the Americas, it seems especially appropriate to review--to think about all of this. I think you have sensed, as we have gone along, that learning about Currier and his colleagues--these pacesetters of the American Image--has meant, as Osler predicted, a pleasant diversion for me. These activities have carried me into new areas of interest, expanding my perspective of the American Image--of people, of medicine, of life in general, and aiding in the identification of values, my own, as well as those of others. All along, my knowledge has been enhanced, especially of the history of this wonderful complex country of ours. Furthermore, and of considerable importance, this endeavor has sharpened my power of observation. I have, like a good doctor should do, learned to look better! Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 19 Fig. 18 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 23 Fig. 25 Fig. 27 Fig. 26 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54 Fig. 55 Fig. 56 Fig. 57 Fig. 58 Fig. 59 Fig. 60 Fig. 61 Fig. 62 Fig. 63 Fig. 64 Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 68 Fig. 67 Fig. 69 Fig. 70 Fig. 71 Fig. 72 Fig. 73 Fig. 74 Fig. 75 Fig. 76 Fig. 77 Fig. 78 Fig. 79 Fig. 80 Fig. 82 Fig. 81 Fig. 83 Fig. 84 Fig. 85 Fig. 86 Fig. 87 Fig. 88 PMID:1413369

  2. The value of needle renal allograft biopsy. I. A retrospective study of biopsies performed during putative rejection episodes.

    PubMed Central

    Matas, A J; Sibley, R; Mauer, M; Sutherland, D E; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S

    1983-01-01

    infiltrate had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased survival at six to 24 months. 5) Kidneys with moderate chronic vascular rejection (MCV) without an acute infiltrate (ATI) had significantly better survival than those having both MCV and ATI. 6) Similarly, kidneys having severe ATI alone had better survival than those with ATI plus vascular rejection. It was concluded that a) percutaneous allograft biopsy can be done without graft loss or infection; b) biopsy represents changes throughout the kidney; c) biopsy aids in deciding when to treat for rejection and in deciding when to withhold increased immunosuppression, and d) allograft biopsy predicts the outcome of treatment of a rejection episode. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:6297416

  3. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c. PMID:4606330

  4. A light and electron microscopic study of the changes in the duodenal mucosa induced by sustained pentagastrin stimulation of gastic acid secretion in young rats.

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, W. J.; Denham, D.; Hawkins, W.; Forrest, A. P.

    1975-01-01

    The histological and electron microscopic changes in the duodenal mucosa have been studied over an 8-week experimental period in rats whose gastric acid secretion was stimulated by pentagastrin in a medium of beeswax and mineral oil, and in controls that received injections of beeswax and mineral oil only. The changes leading of final disintegration of the epithelium are described in detail. The main aim of the experiment--to induce mucous change in the duodenal mucosa--was not realized. Images Figs. 1-2 Figs. 3-4 Figs. 5-6 Figs. 7-8 Fig. 9 PMID:1222117

  5. Clothing for Sports: Part 1: Fashion Foils Phidippides, Proves Fatal At Finish

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for any particular sport can be made on a reasonably scientific basis, taking into account hot, cold or wet conditions, effects on temperature regulating mechanism, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 1 of this two-part article discusses the selection of garments for any sports activity according to specific properties of certain fabrics and also covers safety gear, sports brassieres and shoes. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5 and 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:21274113

  6. Burn sepsis and burn toxin

    PubMed Central

    Allgöwer, Martin; Städtler, Karl; Schoenenberger, Guido A

    1974-01-01

    The salient steps of a 20-year programme of research into the nature of burn disease are described. By burn disease we mean the late mortality and morbidity following burns. We have isolated a burn toxin which is derived from a thermal polymerization of cell membrane lipoproteins within the dermis and have studied its influence on the effects of sepsis. We have also used it in the development of active and passive immunization therapy of severe burns. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4429330

  7. Ectopic ACTH syndrome due to pheochromocytoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Forman, B. H.; Marban, E.; Kayne, R. D.; Passarelli, N. M.; Bobrow, S. N.; Livolsi, V. A.; Merino, M.; Minor, M.; Farber, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    A 51-year-old female was diagnosed preoperatively to have a pheochromocytoma producing ACTH. This diagnosis was based upon her paroxysmal hypertension, hyperpigmentation, and hypokalemia. Elevated levels of serum and urine corticosteroids, plasma ACTH, urinary VMA, and catecholamines fell after a right adrenal pheochromocytoma was removed. Subsequently this tumor was found to have a high content of ACTH. Review of the literature indicates a mortality rate of 57% for this syndrome. Proper preoperative recognition and management can result in total cure. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:222080

  8. Removal of Atmospheric Particulates by Urban Vegetation: Implications for Human and Vegetative Health

    PubMed Central

    Smith, William H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals considerable evidence to support the suggestion that vegetative surfaces remove particulate matter from the atmosphere. Preliminary observations of the leaf surfaces of an important urban tree indicate the presence of numerous particulate contaminants. In view of the medical importance of fine particles in urban atmospheres, it is important to assess the efficiency of tree surfaces in particle retention. Can particulate loads be reduced below biologically significant thresholds by vegetation? Are trees acutely injured or subtly influenced in the process of this removal? A brief assessment of research needs is provided. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:331695

  9. Subfibrillar architecture and functional properties of collagen: a comparative study in rat tendons.

    PubMed Central

    Raspanti, M; Ottani, V; Ruggeri, A

    1990-01-01

    Collagen fibrils from different rat tendons have been investigated by freeze-fracture and transmission electron microscopy. In all cases, marked differences in both fibril morphology and subfibrillar organisation have been consistently found between the tendon core (composed of large and heterogeneous fibrils comprising tightly-packed, straight, parallel molecules) and sheath (showing small, uniform collagen fibrils with a helical arrangement of the molecules). The bio-mechanical requirements to which these tissues are subjected suggest, as do previous observations on other tissues, that a causal correlation exists between substructure and collagen fibril function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2272900

  10. Bleeding and cupping.

    PubMed Central

    Turk, J. L.; Allen, E.

    1983-01-01

    Bleeding and cupping have been used in medicine since ancient times in the treatment of fevers and local inflammatory disorders. Local bleeding, by 'wet cupping', was effected by a scarificator or by leeches. John Hunter recommended venesection in moderation but preferred leeches for local bleeding. Bleeding as an accepted therapeutic practice went out of vogue in the middle of the nineteenth century as a result of the introduction of modern scientific methods. Dry cupping and the use of leeches, as counter irritants, persisted until the middle of this century. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6338802

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Early Radiology in Acute Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Allan, R. N.; Dykes, P. W.; Toye, D. K. M.

    1972-01-01

    The accuracy of early radiology in patients with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage has been studied by a comparison of the radiological opinion with the established diagnosis. A full examination has proved safe and uncomplicated with a high degree of accuracy and no false-positive results. Analysis of the errors shows that the presence of residue discourages the radiologist from making the correct diagnosis, and modification of the standard bariummeal technique may be needed to overcome this difficulty. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4538882

  12. Autoimmune myocarditis: a clinical entity.

    PubMed Central

    Dragatakis, L. N.; Klassen, J.; Hüttner, I.; Fraser, D. G.; Poirier, N. L.; Klassen, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    In a case of myocarditis electron microscopic and immunoflourescent studies of a transmural myocardial biopsy specimen indicated an autoimmune process. Extensive inflammatory cell infiltration, immunoglobulin and complement deposition along the sarcolemma and in the interstitium, and capillary endothelial injury were found. After a short course of immunosuppressive therapy the inflammatory process was replaced by collagenous scarring and lymphocytic depletion; the blood vessels were then normal. Earlier therapy in such cases may be lifesaving. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:427670

  13. Pathological Changes Following the Inoculation of Chick Embryos with Adult Cells

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, P. M.; Payne, L. N.

    1961-01-01

    The pathological changes in the livers and spleens which occur after the inoculation of adult fowl blood into fifteen-day-old embryos have been followed for about 7 weeks. Three consecutive histological stages were noticed. The first two stages, termed the splenomegaly syndrome and the stage of lymphoid hyperplasia, closely resembled those described following the injection of adult spleen cells into fifteen-day-old embryos (Biggs and Payne, 1960). The third stage was found in chicks in the terminal stages of runt disease, and was characterized by involution of the lymphoid tissues. The significance of these changes is discussed. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6

  14. Effect of toxin A and B of Clostridium difficile on rabbit ileum and colon.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, T J; Ketley, J M; Haslam, S C; Stephen, J; Burdon, D W; Candy, D C; Daniel, R

    1986-01-01

    The effect of purified toxin A and partially purified toxin B on rabbit ileum and colon was investigated. Toxin A caused tissue damage which was followed by permeability changes and fluid accumulation in both tissues. Toxin A did not increase the permeability of the colon to the extent observed for ileum; secreted fluid contained less protein of plasma origin. Toxin B had no effect on either tissue. Secretory and tissue damaging properties of crude C difficile toxins were found to be due to toxin A. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3949240

  15. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty in Peripheral Vascular Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Eugene L. St.; Provan, John L.; Gray, Robin R.; Grosman, Harvey; Ameli, F. Michael; Elliott, David S.

    1982-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is a relatively new technique employed in the treatment of stenoses or occlusions of peripheral arteries. While the longterm success rates have yet to be determined, short-term results have been excellent. The procedure has greatest value in the dilatation of localized lesions, avoiding surgery and its attendant risks. However, PTA and surgery are complementary, not competing, modes of therapy. PTA complements the traditional therapy of peripheral vascular disease, which remains reconstructive surgery. ImagesFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:21286052

  16. Detection of unsuspected ovarian pregnancy by wedge resection

    PubMed Central

    Helde, M. D.; Campbell, J. S.; Himaya, A.; Nuyens, J. J.; Cowley, F. C.; Hurteau, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Five follicular ovarian implantations occurred among 200 ectopic pregnancies encountered during a 14-year period. Abortions from impregnated follicles may cause hemoperitoneum more often than is generally suspected. Wedge resection or cystectomy to ensure hemostasis provides tissue for histological examination, without which ruptured ovarian pregnancy may masquerade as rupture of a corpus luteum with hemorrhage (“ovarian apoplexy”). Including patients reported here, IUCD users have within the past five years accounted for about 10% of all ovarian pregnancies recorded in English. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5057958

  17. Characterization and evolution of distant planetary atmospheres using stellar occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, L. A.

    2008-09-01

    Ground-based or near-Earth (e.g., HST) stellar occultations of every atmosphere in our solar system has been observed: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, Uranus, Neptune, Triton, and Pluto [1]. These observations probe the atmospheres at roughly 0.1 to 100 microbar. I will talk about three aspects of stellar occultations: one-dimensional vertical profiles of the atmosphere, two- or three-dimensional atmospheric states, and the time evolution of atmosphere. In all three, I will draw on recent observations, with an emphasis on Pluto. Occultations are particularly important for the study of Pluto's atmosphere, which is impossible to study with imaging, and extremely difficult to study with spectroscopy. It was discovered by stellar occultation in 1988 [2]. No subsequent Pluto occultations were observed until two events in 2002 [3]. Pluto is now crossing the galactic plane, and there have been several additional occultations observed since 2006. These include a high signal-to-noise observation from the Anglo Australian Observatory in 2006 [4] (Fig 1), densely spaced visible and infrared observations of Pluto's upper atmosphere from telescopes in the US and Mexico in March, 2007 [5] (Fig. 2), and a dualwavelength central flash observation from Mt. John in July, 2007 [6] (Fig 3). The flux from a star occulted by an atmosphere diminishes primarily due to the increase in refraction with depth in the atmosphere, defocusing the starlight, although absorption and tangential focusing can also contribute. Because the atmospheric density, to first order, follows an exponential, it is feasible to derive a characteristic pressure and temperature from isothermal fits to even low-quality occultation light curves. Higher quality light curves allow fits with more flexible models, or light curve inversions that derive temperatures limited by the resolution of the data. These allow the derivation of one-dimensional profiles of temperature and pressure vs. altitude, which are critical

  18. Biosynthesis of bone proteins [SPP-1 (secreted phosphoprotein-1, osteopontin), BSP (bone sialoprotein) and SPARC (osteonectin)] in association with mineralized-tissue formation by fetal-rat calvarial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, T; Bellows, C G; Kasugai, S; Butler, W T; Sodek, J

    1991-01-01

    specifically cleaved into 28 and 26 kDa fragments. The fragments were labelled uniformly with [35S]methionine, but the 28 kDa fragment incorporated more 35SO4(2-), but less 32PO4(3-), than the 26 kDa fragment. These studies demonstrate that SPP-1 and BSP are the major osteoblast-derived bone proteins to bind to the bone mineral. That BSP also binds to the collagenous bone matrix indicates a potential role for this protein in linking the hydroxyapatite with collagen. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2006915

  19. Protein-synthesis-dependent induction of annexin I by glucocorticoid.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, W T; Frost, S C; Nick, H S

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that annexin I/lipocortin I (lipo I) gene expression is regulated by dexamethasone (DEX) in mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and LA-4 lung epithelial cells. We have characterized this induction further in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. At 24 h after addition of DEX, the levels of lipo I mRNA and protein increased 5-fold and 1.5-fold respectively. Time-course experiments revealed that the induction was delayed by 2-4 h after DEX addition. Half-maximal induction of both lipo I mRNA and protein was achieved with 10 nM-DEX. Both actinomycin D and cycloheximide blocked the DEX effect on lipo I mRNA expression. These results indicate that the induction of lipo I by DEX has a transcriptional component and requires protein synthesis de novo. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1827255

  20. Comparison of "early gastric cancer" in Britain and Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D M; Craven, J L; Murphy, F; Cleary, B K

    1978-01-01

    Before the introduction of endoscopy, four out of 720 cases of gastric cancer were diagnosed before the cancer had breached the muscularis propia, an incidence of 0.5%. Using endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy, 10 out of 101 cases of gastric cancer were diagnosed at this "early" stage, an incidence of 10%. Their clinical, morphological, and histological characteristics are compared with those of Japanese "early gastric cancers" and reveal a remarkable similarity. The results of this study suggest that a higher proportion of British gastric cancers could be diagnosed at an "early" stage by more intensive investigation of dyspeptic patients using up to date radiological techniques, fibreoptic endoscopy, and endoscopic biopsy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:624498

  1. The use of oxidation ditches for treatment of sewage for small communities*

    PubMed Central

    Baars, J. K.

    1962-01-01

    The system of prolonged aeration in an oxidation ditch permits the full treatment of sewage from small communities at the same proportionate cost as that of the conventional activated-sludge system for large communities. It must be considered an important means of abating surface-water pollution. The treatment may be continuous or discontinuous, depending on the local situation and the quantity of sewage to be purified. Several plants are at present in operation, ranging in capacity from 200 to 4000 population-equivalent. The system may be used not only for the purification of domestic sewage, but also for the treatment of wastes from dairies and other industrial activities, even when these contain phenols, thiocyanides or peak loads of cyanides. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:13863606

  2. Orthotics in Sports Shoes

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1983-01-01

    We are all born with a varying assortment of biomechanical discrepancies. Ordinarily these may be of no consequence, but to those who try to achieve excellence in a certain sport these discrepancies can spell the difference between success and failure. Some athletes may have to accept the fact that biomechanically the odds are against them ever becoming excellent and that intensive training may in fact be detrimental to their wellbeing. However, the majority can be helped with advice on proper shoe wear and orthotic correction. This article highlights the role of foot orthotics as indicated for various biomechanically-related problems commonly encountered in athletes. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23 PMID:21283401

  3. Ischaemic colitis in the experimental animal. II. Role of hypovolaemia in the production of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, J G; Parks, T G

    1976-01-01

    Hypovolaemia alone did not lead to ischaemic colitis but when venesection was induced immediately after the acute ligation of the common colic artery large bowel ischaemia ensued. Similarly, hypovolaemia induced one month after two major blood vessels had been occluded led to ischaemic colitis. These findings suggest that states of low blood flow in the presence of previous arterial constriction or blockage may lead to enough reduction in mesenteric perfusion for intestinal ischaemia to develop. Using an electromagnetic flowmeter placed in the cranial mesenteric artery of the dog, it was shown that hypovolaemia may lead to 50-75% reduction in mesenteric blood flow without producing any significant change in the systemic blood pressure. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:976807

  4. Clinical and epidemiological study of chronic heart involvment in Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Suárez, J. A.; Yépez, C. Gil

    1966-01-01

    It has been estimated that, in vast areas of the American continent, there is a high prevalence of human infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Such infection can lead to a variety of heart diseases, predominantly with involvement of the myocardium. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of heart disease in two rural areas of Venezuela with a high endemicity of Chagas' disease and to try to determine the natural history of the disease. It is shown that a form of chronic myocardial disease in patients with positive specific serology and good functional capacity is highly prevalent. Electrocardiographic patterns typical of the initial and developing stages of the disease, as well as early abnormalities of the cardiac rhythm, are described and illustrated. The present work forms part of a longitudinal study still in progress. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 4 PMID:4957485

  5. The Electron Microscopy of the Effects of Treatment with Coumarin (Venalot) and by Thoracic Duct Cannulation on Thermal Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; FÖldi, M.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of coumarin (Venalot) and of external lymphatic drainage were examined with the electron microscope in rat hind legs and mouse ears that were injured by heat. Coumarin, especially when lymph drainage was added, greatly reduced the amounts of protein in the tissues and the concomitant oedema fluid, lymphatic dilatation, open interendothelial junctions and lymph protein concentration. While there were crude indications that the increased blood vascular permeability was unchanged, it was considered that there was insufficient evidence to decide between the various hypotheses as to the modes of action of these treatments. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4689821

  6. The effect of uranyl acetate on human lymphoblastoid cells (RPMI 6410) and HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, F. N.; Yang-Steppuhn, S. E.; Lalonde, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    RPMI 6410 cells and HeLa cells were exposed to uranyl acetate. In RPMI 6410 cell cultures this produced single-membrane-bound presumably lysosomal bodies (called "uraniosomes") containing electron-dense crystals in the cultured cells and crystalline deposits in extracellular locations. Neither uraniosomes nor extracellular uranium deposits were found in HeLa cell cultures. All uraniosomes and extracellular uranium deposits analysed by electron-probed X-ray analysis were found to contain uranium, potassium and phosphorus. Traces of sulphur were detected in some but not all uraniosomes and extracellular uranium deposits. Traces of calcium were found in all extracellular uranium deposits and in some uraniosomes also. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7093141

  7. The Rheumatoid Arthritic At Home

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    Most management of rheumatoid arthritis must take place in the patient's own home with only intermittent professional help. With good planning and instruction it is possible to create in the home a milieu appropriate not only for possible inducement of remission, but also for continuing care during even protracted disability. The mainstay of treatment in all stages of this disease is the achievement of a right balance between rest and activity. In the initial stages, proper rest and support, including splinting of the joints with other simple measures, will greatly relieve pain and help control the inflammatory process. A variety of therapeutic exercises can reduce the likelihood of secondary immobility and promote restoration of strength and function. For the patient in whom the disease has become chronic and disabling a wide variety of self-help devices can be prescribed, together with appropriate home modifications. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Figs. 4 & 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21307997

  8. The salivary gland chromosomes of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis pseudopunctipennis*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard H.; Kitzmiller, J. B.; Chowdaiah, B. N.

    1965-01-01

    The authors present a salivary chromosome map of Anopheles p. pseudopunctipennis, an important malaria vector in the Americas. The salivary chromosomes appear as a short metacentric X and two metacentric autosomes. The arms of chromosome 2 are of almost equal length, but the right arm of chromosome 3 is almost twice as long as the left. The metacentric X is the first to be described in the subgenus Anopheles. The banding patterns of the autosomes show many similarities to those of the North American maculipennis complex and to those of the Central American A. vestitipennis and A. neomaculipalpus. Three chromosomal aberrations, one in the X and two in the right arm of chromosome 3, occur commonly in several different populations. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:5295407

  9. Overproduction of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli and expression of the engineered C-terminal DNA-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M

    1986-01-01

    Overproduction of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) from Escherichia coli, up to 25% of the soluble cell protein, has been achieved in an inducible host-vector system under transcriptional control of the lambda promoter PL. This system is ideally suited for large scale production and purification of CRP. In addition, a structural gene for the DNA-binding domain of CRP has been constructed. To this end the nucleotide sequence coding for the C-terminus was fused to the sequence coding for the first 10 N-terminal amino acids and cloned into suitable vectors. Good expression was achieved using the lambda PL promoter. The gene product, beta CRP, is recognized by anti-CRP antibodies. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3539103

  10. Prader-Willi Syndrome after age 15 years.

    PubMed Central

    Laurance, B M; Brito, A; Wilkinson, J

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four patients, all of them over 15 years, with the Prader-Willi syndrome are described. Obesity, often extreme, associated with an insatiable appetite, was their principal handicap and this was made worse by educational subnormality and hypogonadism. Three of the them developed diabetes. Each attended a special school or an adult training centre. Although most of them were of short stature and had scoliosis, 2 were tall but they even more severely mentally retarded than is usually the case. Nine other patients died aged between 3 and 23 years. The most common cause of death was cor pulmonale. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7212756

  11. Pax-6 is essential for lens-specific expression of zeta-crystallin.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J; Cvekl, A; Wistow, G

    1995-01-01

    Pax-6 is essential for normal eye development and has been implicated as a "master gene" for lens formation in embryogenesis. Guinea pig zeta-crystallin, a taxon-specific enzyme crystallin, achieves high expression specifically in lens through use of an alternative promoter. Here we show that Pax-6 binds a site in this promoter, which is essential for lens-specific expression. Lens and lens-derived cells exhibit a tissue-specific pattern of alternative splicing of Pax-6 transcripts and Pax-6 is expressed in adult lenses and cells that support zeta-crystallin expression. These results suggest that zeta-crystallin is a natural target gene for Pax-6 and that this Pax family member has a direct role in the continuing expression of tissue-specific genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7753863

  12. E. coli recA protein possesses a strand separating activity on short duplex DNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, M; Riboli, B; Magni, G

    1985-01-01

    RecA protein was found to catalyze the dissociation of the strands of a DNA substrate consisting of a 20-nucleotide primer annealed to circular single-stranded M13mp DNA. The strand separation reaction requires ATP hydrolysis and the presence of single-stranded DNA flanking the duplex DNA region to be unwound. RecA-catalyzed strand separation is effective only for very short duplexes, not exceeding 30 bp, and is not stimulated by single-stranded DNA-binding protein. These results are consistent with the ability of recA protein to disrupt regions of secondary structure in single-stranded DNA and to incorporate large non-homologies into heteroduplex DNA. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 3. PMID:3905387

  13. Current Concepts in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert

    1963-01-01

    Many systemic diseases have cutaneous manifestations. In some diseases skin involvement is the predominant factor (Behçet's syndrome, urticaria pigmentosa, discoid lupus erythematosus and pseudoxanthoma elasticum); in others the skin manifestations, when present, are an important part of the condition (sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hypersensitivity angiitis, porphyria). This report includes descriptions of and comments on these cutaneous manifestations. Erythema nodosum and erythema multiforme are reaction patterns of the skin and mucous membrane which may have many causes. The relationship between discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus is discussed. There is little doubt that these are variations of the same basic disease process, even though the prognoses are very different. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14063940

  14. Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Spranger, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Any review of the metaphyseal chondrodysplasias is complicated by their variety and mainly unknown pathogenesis. The more familiar types display considerable clinical and radiological diversity: even more so the rarer disorders which still require complete definition, but differences in their mode of inheritance make diagnostic precision mandatory. These dysplasias present in infancy or in childhood, when the patient, usually dwarfed, may be proportionate, so that some forms may be confused with rickets or other lesions. Mental retardation is unusual, but the skin, hair, nails and facies provide valuable diagnostic features. Radiological abnormalities mainly affect the metaphyses of the shortened limb bones, less often the skull, vertebrae, pelvis, ribs and extremities, and sometimes their distribution may indicate the specific type of dysplasia. In a further complex group multiple systems are involved, notably the pancreas, intestine and lympho-reticular, causing malabsorption and haematological or immunological disorders. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:335375

  15. Viruses of Spiroplasma citri and their possible effects on pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, R.

    1983-01-01

    Strains of Spiroplasma citri are persistently infected by viruses which have been separated into three groups on the basis of their morphology. The properties of each group are reviewed. Viruses normally only appear in spiroplasma cultures but recently all three types of particle have been identified in cells of a single strain of S. citri within an infected plant. Replication of a short-tailed polyhedral virus SP-V3 (ai) appears to be correlated with unusually mild symptom expression. Introduction of the virus with its host into plants already infected with a severe and potentially lethal strain of S. citri results in a marked suppression of symptoms and a reduction in the number of spiroplasmas. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:6382829

  16. Silica-induced malignant histiocytic lymphoma: incidence linked with strain of rat and type of silica.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, M. M.; Wagner, J. C.; Davies, R.; Griffiths, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    It has already been established that a single intrapleural inoculation of crystalline silica (quartz) produces malignant lymphomas of histiocytic type (MLHT) in Wistar-derived rats. It has now been shown that after treatment with Min-U-Sil, rats of the Alderley Park strain have a tumour incidence of 35%, whereas the incidence in Agus rats is 5% and in PVG 8%. There was also a significant difference in the incidence of MLHT caused by injecting different samples of crystalline silica, particularly of tridymite. There was correlation between cytotoxicity to mouse peritoneal macrophages and tumour incidence, except for one dust (DQ12). Zeta potential, number of particles and their size range were considered, but the incidence does not show a clear correlation with these measurements. The results are discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:6252921

  17. Microvessel and astroglial cell densities in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, M; Akagi, N; Goto, H; Watanabe, H; Nakanishi, M; Hirose, Y; Watanabe, M

    1992-01-01

    In order to study the factors responsible for glucose uptake in the mouse hippocampus, microvessel and astroglial cell densities were measured and compared in each laminal region. Microvessel density was examined on histologically prepared sections after injection of Indian ink and measured by means of an image analyser. Astroglial cell density was determined after the cells were stained immunohistochemically. Microvessel and astroglial cell densities were determined in 10 different hippocampal structures. Microvessel and astroglial cell densities were strongly correlated in all layers except the pyramidal cell layers. The highest density of perfused microvessels was found in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare, compared with other regions, and the lowest values were found in the stratum lucidum and dentate granular cell layer. Among pyramidal cell layers, microvessel density in sector CA3a was significantly higher than that in CA1. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1452486

  18. Hematologic and oncologic complications in the critically ill child.

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, S.

    1984-01-01

    Admission of a patient to an intensive care unit for management of direct consequences of a hematologic or oncologic disease is occasionally necessary. Such problems included exchange transfusion, sepsis, compression of vital structures by malignant tumor, metabolic derangements, leukostasis, post-operative care, major sickling episodes in vital organs, and disseminated coagulopathy. More often, however, hematologic complications arise in the child critically ill from other causes, such as trauma or infections. The first two sections of this review address blood transfusion and hemostasis, topics likely to have wide application in the care of critically ill children. The last portion discusses problems unique to patients with sickling or malignant disease. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:6382836

  19. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a syndrome of intravascular platelet consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Neame, P. B.; Hirsh, J.; Browman, G.; Denburg, J.; D'Souza, T. J.; Gallus, A.; Brain, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    In four of five patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in whom serial tests of hemostatic function were performed, severe thrombocytopenia, normal plasma fibrinogen concentrations and mildly increased concentrations of fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products were observed. Widespread platelet thrombi were found in arterioles and capillaries. Fibrin could be seen around some of the platelet clumps and was the main component in a small number of the thrombi in two patients. The observations show that TTP is a disorder in which intravascular platelet consumption results in disseminated platelet thrombosis. The coagulation system is apparently activated secondarily to platelet aggregation and variable quantities of fibrin are incorporated into the thrombi. Clinical improvement resulted from combined therapy with corticosteroids, heparin and drugs that suppress platelet function. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1084215

  20. A morphological study of the tracheal epithelium of the snake Natrix maura.

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M

    1990-01-01

    The epithelium of the trachea of the Natrix maura snake was studied by conventional light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The epithelium is formed of basal, ciliated, endocrine and secretory cells. It shows different thickness and distribution of the cells, depending on the area (covering the cartilaginous or the membranous zone). Secretory cells show a morphology similar to that found in lizards but it is different from the mucous cells reported in the extrapulmonary airways of turtles, birds and mammals. The ultrastructure of the secretory cells is similar to that reported for serous cells in the airways of mammals. Intra-epithelial plasma cells are also found within the epithelium. The present results show that there are marked morphological differences between the tracheal epithelium of lizards and snakes and that of turtles, birds and mammals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2272908

  1. Characteristic views of E. coli and B. stearothermophilus 30S ribosomal subunits in the electron microscope.

    PubMed Central

    van Heel, M; Stöffler-Meilicke, M

    1985-01-01

    Large sets of electron microscopic images of the 30S ribosomal subunits of Bacillus stearothermophilus (914 molecules) and Escherichia coli (422 molecules) were analysed with image processing techniques. Using computer alignment and a new multivariate statistical classification scheme, three predominant views of the subunit were found for both species. These views, which together account for approximately 90% of the population of images, were determined to a reproducible resolution of up to 1.7 nm, thus elucidating many new structural details. The angular spread of the molecular orientations around the three main stable positions is remarkably small (less than 8 degrees). Some of the current models for the small ribosomal subunit are incompatible with our new results. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3908096

  2. Bio-assays for microchemical environmental contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    A solution of the problem of environmental contamination must be based on accurate measurement of the extent of the contamination and of the resulting hazards. This paper reviews the methods for the estimation of microchemical contaminants in water with the aid of living organisms. The methods are grouped according to the nature of the response of the organism to the contaminant—namely, acute response (usually death), behavioural change, physiological change, biochemical and histochemical change, ecological change, embryological and regenerational change, growth change, histological change and perception by man or aquatic organisms. Finally, the following problems are discussed: selection of appropriate tests and standardization, the dangers of sequential concentration and the need for multi-parametric assays (assays involving several responses of a single organism, or responses of several organisms) for complete characterization of the effects of a contaminant on the environment. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:5299747

  3. Hybrid restriction enzymes: zinc finger fusions to Fok I cleavage domain.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y G; Cha, J; Chandrasegaran, S

    1996-01-01

    A long-term goal in the field of restriction-modification enzymes has been to generate restriction endonucleases with novel sequence specificities by mutating or engineering existing enzymes. This will avoid the increasingly arduous task of extensive screening of bacteria and other microorganisms for new enzymes. Here, we report the deliberate creation of novel site-specific endonucleases by linking two different zinc finger proteins to the cleavage domain of Fok I endonuclease. Both fusion proteins are active and under optimal conditions cleave DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Thus, the modular structure of Fok I endonuclease and the zinc finger motifs makes it possible to create "artificial" nucleases that will cut DNA near a predetermined site. This opens the way to generate many new enzymes with tailor-made sequence specificities desirable for various applications. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8577732

  4. Suppurative Thyroiditis: An Unusual Case Caused by Actinomyces naeslundi

    PubMed Central

    Leers, Wolf D.; Dussault, Jean; Mullens, J. Edward; Volpé, Robert

    1969-01-01

    A case of suppurative thyroiditis due to A.naeslundi is recorded. The clinical features (including the difficulty in establishing a clinical diagnosis) have been noted. This is the first instance of A.naeslundi being considered the etiological agent of actinomycosis of the thyroid. It is also the first report incriminating A.naeslundi as a pathogen, since up to now it was considered only a saprophyte. The etiological role of A.naeslundi in this case of suppurative thyroiditis is strongly supported by the following findings: 1. A.naeslundi was isolated without the presence of other pathogenic micro-organisms. 2. A sulphur granule was demonstrated in the caseous pus after incision of the abscess. 3. There was a favourable response to specific antibiotic therapy. ImagesFIG. 1(a)FIG. 1(b)FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:5362302

  5. Serine phosphorylation of human P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity: implications for adrenarche and the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L H; Rodriguez, H; Ohno, S; Miller, W L

    1995-01-01

    Microsomal cytochrome P450c17 catalyzes both steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity and scission of the C17-C20 steroid bond (17,20-lyase) on the same active site. Adrenal 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity is needed to produce cortisol throughout life, but 17,20-lyase activity appears to be controlled independently in a complex, age-dependent pattern. We show that human P450c17 is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphorylation of P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity, while dephosphorylation virtually eliminates this activity. Hormonally regulated serine phosphorylation of human P450c17 suggests a possible mechanism for human adrenarche and may be a unifying etiologic link between the hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance that characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479852

  6. Subacute toxic effects of dietary T-2 toxin in young mallard ducks.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, M A; Wobeser, G A

    1983-01-01

    Young Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing purified T-2 toxin at levels of 20 or 30 ppm for two or three weeks. Ingestion of T-2 toxin was associated with reduced weight gain and delayed development of adult plumage. Affected ducks developed caseonecrotic plaques throughout the upper alimentary tract, especially in oropharynx and ventriculus. Several ducks also developed severe ulcerative, proliferative esophagitis and proventriculitis. Generalized atrophy of all lymphoid tissues consistently occurred. The manifestations of T-2 mycotoxicosis in Mallard ducks were mostly attributable to irritant toxicity to the alimentary mucosa. The T-2 toxin caused neither hematopoietic suppression nor a hemorrhagic syndrome in ducks. These alimentary lesions of T-2 mycotoxicosis in ducks do not resemble diseases of native waterfowl presently being recognized in routine surveillance of waterfowl mortality in Saskatchewan. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6883185

  7. Staged treatment of lymphedema praecox

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, A. R.; Douglas, L. G.

    1974-01-01

    Lymphedema of the lower extremities poses a challenging problem in management. Gross deformities may be encountered in patients with filarial infestation. This degree of involvement is rare in native North Americans suffering from primary lymphedema. A case is presented of a patient with changes similar to those seen in filariasis, due to several episodes of acute lymphangitis over a period of years. The involved tissue was excised and the defects skin-grafted, employing a modified Charles procedure. The magnitude of the excision was such that it was carried out in three widely spaced stages. The result was satisfactory from a functional viewpoint, and also represented a marked cosmetic improvement. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4590797

  8. Alpha-chain disease with involvement of the respiratory tract in a Dutch child

    PubMed Central

    Stoop, J. W.; Ballieux, R. E.; Hijmans, W.; Zegers, B. J. W.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of an 8-year-old girl of pure Dutch extraction who, since age 4, has shown unclassifiable skin changes, marked eosinophilia and diffuse infiltrative pulmonary changes with enlarged mediastinal lymph glands, dyspnoea and impaired diffusion. The patient's serum contained a large amount of proteins related to the Fc-fragment of IgA. She developed a pharyngeal tumour with the histological characteristics of a paragranuloma. The mucosa of the lower air passages is regarded as a possible site of origin of the abnormal serum protein. The disease was therefore interpreted as a disorder of the secretory IgA system, and this patient could well represent the respiratory form of the alpha-chain disease, described so far. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:4111693

  9. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the bowel in primary hypogammaglobulinaemia: study of in vivo and in vitro lymphocyte function.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, A D; Kenwright, S; Ballard, J; Shiner, M; Slavin, G; Levi, A J; Loewi, G; Asherson, G L

    1977-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo lymphocyte function was studied in six patients with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) of the bowel. Lymphocyte transformation, numbers of circulating T and B lymphocytes, and delayed hypersensitivity skin tests did not significantly differ when compared with hypogammaglobulinaemic patients without NLH. However, patients with NLH had higher jejunal juice IgM concentrations and a tendency to higher serum IgM concentrations than those without NLH. The morphological features of NLH are similar to the germinal centres of lymph nodes but more closely resemble the follicle zone of Peyer's patches. These findings suggest that NLH represents a local immune response to antigens originating in the gut lumen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3(a)-3(b) Fig. 3(c) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:873321

  10. Structure and expression of the human haptoglobin locus.

    PubMed Central

    Bensi, G; Raugei, G; Klefenz, H; Cortese, R

    1985-01-01

    Human genomic clones of the haptoglobin Hp1F and the "haptoglobin related' gene (Hpr) have been isolated. The two genes are adjacent, spanning a region of approximately 21 kb. A comparison of their coding sequences shows that Hpr differs from Hp1F at 28 codons. Northern blot and primer elongation analyses with human liver RNA show that the haptoglobin gene Hp1F appears to be transcribed some 1000-fold less in fetal than in adult liver. In adult liver the amount of Hpr mRNA is at the lower limit of detection, therefore the extent of its expression is at most less than 1000-fold that of the Hp1F gene. No Hpr mRNA can be detected in fetal liver. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:4018023

  11. The effect of cyclophosphamide on MSV-H oncogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Branca, M.; Nicoletti, L.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of cyclophosphamide on MSV-H oncogensis and the immune response of young mice has been investigated. A single, sublethal dose (100 and 50 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide) in 8-day-old mice given 24 h before or after MSV-H infection led to an earlier and lower incidence of tumours in comparison with controls infected only with MSV-H. The protective effect of cyclophosphamide, and the mechanism of action of both cyclophosphamide and MSV-H on the target cells, mesenchymal cells in rapid replication, as well the immunological implications of the findings are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:201258

  12. Investigations leading to the identification of members of the Anopheles umbrosus group as the probable vectors of mouse deer malaria

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, R. H.; Eyles, Don E.; Warren, M.; Moorhouse, D. E.; Sandosham, A. A.

    1963-01-01

    Although mosquitos of the Anopheles umbrosus group have long been recognized as important vectors of human malaria in Malaya, there have been doubts about the origin of some of the malaria infections found, especially in A. umbrosus and A. letifer. Investigations have accordingly been carried out in the Malayan swamp-forest, in conjunction with laboratory studies, into the nature of malaria infections in wild-caught mosquitos, the biting behaviour of anophelines and the presence of malaria infection in man and animals. The authors conclude from the results reported in this paper that A. umbrosus is a vector of mouse deer malaria and rarely, if ever, transmits primate malaria; that A. letifer transmits both human and mouse deer malaria; and that A. baezai and A. roperi are probably vectors of mouse deer malaria. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:14058228

  13. The lung of the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae: a microscopic and morphometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N; King, A S

    1989-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative characteristics suggest that the lung of the emu is poorly adapted for gas exchange when compared with that of other birds. The granular epithelial cells extend over the air capillaries, and the squamous epithelial cells have microvilli indicating a poor differentiation of the epithelium of the exchange tissue. The surface area of the blood-gas tissue barrier per unit body mass was only 5.4 cm2/g, the volume of the pulmonary capillary blood per unit body mass was only 0.93 cm3/kg, and the tissue barrier was unusually thick (0.232 micron). These parameters produce a relatively small total morphometric pulmonary diffusing capacity for oxygen of 0.014 ml O2/sec/mbar/kg. The findings conform to the evolution of a very large flightless bird in a warm environment lacking effective predators. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2606782

  14. Multimedia instruction of cardiac auscultation.

    PubMed Central

    Criley, J. M.; Criley, D.; Zalace, C.

    1997-01-01

    The cardiac physical examination is in itself a multimedia experience. It is an amalgamation of visible, palpable, and audible sensations, preceded by the collection of an appropriate historical context in which to place these multiple sensations. It is unlikely that any electronic media could ever replace the real life experience of admitting, examining, diagnosing, and effectively treating a patient with mitral stenosis who has decompensated because of the onset of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response, or a patient with sudden, severe aortic regurgitation due to endocarditis. These potentially fatal conditions can be effectively treated only if the suspicion of their presence is seriously raised. Although there is no substitute for first-hand experience, attempts to provide an effective surrogate experience are worth pursuing. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:9108683

  15. Distribution patterns of the muscular branch of the median nerve in the thenar region.

    PubMed Central

    Olave, E; Prates, J C; Del Sol, M; Sarmento, A; Gabrielli, C

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the distribution patterns of the muscular branch of the median nerve to the thenar muscles are scarce. Available accounts give only general descriptions. To establish the distribution pattern more precisely, we dissected 60 palmar regions from 30 cadavers of adult individuals, ranging in age from 23 to 77 y. The distribution pattern of the muscular branch was classified into 3 types. In 50% of subjects there were branches to the superficial head of flexor pollicis brevis (FPB), abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and opponens pollicis (OP) (type I). In 40% there were branches only to APB and OP (type II). In the remainder (type III) the muscular branch provided independent branches to APB, OP and FPB, to APB and OP, or to APB and FPB, after dividing precociously. Types I and II were further subdivided according to the site, direction and number of the individual branches. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7649846

  16. Experimental parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, L N; Jones, J B; Patton, C S; Webb-Martin, T A

    1981-01-01

    Five eight week old dogs were inoculated orally and intranasally with cell culture origin canine parvovirus. Three dogs became depressed and anorectic and developed a mild (one dog) to severe diarrhea five days postinfection. The remaining dogs had subclinical infections but developed a lymphopenia followed by a transient lymphocytosis. The ill dogs developed mild (one dog) to severe neutropenia and a moderate lymphopenia. One died nine days postinfection. Recovery was associated with cessation of viral excretion and with lymphocytosis and antibody production. Two of three dogs challenged intragastrically developed mild clinical signs and a moderate panleukopenia four to eight days postinfection. The pathological changes of the experimental disease were very similar to that of spontaneous disease. Bone marrow changes included a severe granulocytic and mild erythroid depletion. The pathogenesis of canine parvovirus infection is discussed. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7340906

  17. Puvalluttuq

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P. E.

    1964-01-01

    An explosive epidemic of tuberculosis in a small isolated settlement is described. This outbreak, in a population of 329 Eskimos and 16 whites, produced 80 cases of active tuberculosis, involving 55% of all the house-holds. Forty-five of these patients were children under 10 years of age and only five were persons over 30. These patients probably were infected by one highly infectious individual. The contributing causes of poor housing, overcrowding and poor nutrition, coupled with the debilitating effect of recent epidemics of virus diseases, measles, mumps and German measles, are discussed. Since this article was written, a third resurvey in the same year, conducted in November 1963, revealed 11 more cases among the 279 members of the population who underwent radiological examination; all are hospitalized. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14144539

  18. A new cell line from a human chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    de Man, J. C.; Snoep, M. P.; Huiskens-van der Meij, J. W.; Warnaar, S. O.; Schaberg, A.

    1977-01-01

    Morphological and growth characteristics are described of a rapidly growing cell line with epithelioid and giant-cell characteristics derived from a chondrosarcoma in a male patient 65 years of age. This cell line is of considerable interest because in these cells cross-reacting antigens with known animal oncorna-viruses are present. Biochemically, the cells contain particles with a density of 1-16 with "cores" of density 1'23 associated with a reverse-transcriptase-like enzyme and with 70S RNA. Occasionally, virus-like particles were demonstrated by electron microscope in material derived from the culture medium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:857824

  19. Functional homology between the sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins nuclear factor I from HeLa cells and the TGGCA protein from chicken liver.

    PubMed Central

    Leegwater, P A; van der Vliet, P C; Rupp, R A; Nowock, J; Sippel, A E

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear factor I from HeLa cells, a protein with enhancing function in adenovirus DNA replication, and the chicken TGGCA protein are specific DNA-binding proteins that were first detected by independent methods and that appeared to have similar DNA sequence specificity. To test whether they are homologous proteins from different species we have compared (i) their DNA binding properties and (ii) their function in reconstituted adenovirus DNA replication systems. Using deletion and substitution mutants derived from the DNA binding site on the adenovirus 2 inverted terminal repeat, it was found that the two proteins protect the same 24-nucleotide region of both strands against DNase I digestion and that they have identical minimal recognition sequences of 15 bp containing dyad symmetry. Like nuclear factor I, the TGGCA protein enhances the initiation reaction of adenovirus 2 DNA replication in vitro in a DNA recognition site-dependent manner. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3709517

  20. Rethinking cell structure.

    PubMed Central

    Penman, S

    1995-01-01

    Cell structure, emerging from behind the veil of conventional electron microscopy, appears far more complex than formerly realized. The standard plastic-embedded, ultrathin section can image only what is on the section surface and masks the elaborate networks of the cytoplasm and nucleus. Embedment-free electron microscopy gives clear, high-contrast micrographs of cell structure when combined with removal of obscuring material such as soluble proteins. The resinless ultrathin section is the technique of choice; it is simple and inexpensive, and it uses ordinary electron microscopes. The resulting pictures reveal a world of complex cell structure and function. These images necessarily change our conception of the cytoskeleton, nuclear matrix, mitosis, and the relation of membranes to cytostructure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7777493

  1. Synthesis of immunoglobulins by human endocervix in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, M. E.; Buchan, A.; Skinner, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of immunoglobulins by the uterine cervix was investigated in an endocervical organ-culture system. Using Ouchterlony immunodiffusion gels immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A and secretory piece were detected in washings of endocervical explants and in explant incubation medium. Synthesis of immunoglobulin in the organ-culture system was investigated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of radiolabelled polypeptides; 2 polypeptides co-migrated with the heavy and light chains of a reference polyclonal immunoglobulin G and were confirmed, by use of anti-human globulin and iodinated staphylococcal protein A, to be the heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin G. This experimental system will provide a useful model in future investigations of the efficacy of a local vaccine in human subjects. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6803822

  2. Polypeptide synthesis in columnar and squamous explants of human uterine cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, M. E.; Ward, K.; Woodman, C. B.; Skinner, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the in-vitro synthesis of 3 polypeptides between squamous and columnar epithelial explants of human cervix. One cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 50,000 was synthesized and phosphorylated by squamous but not by columnar explants; a second cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 52,000, which was present in larger amounts in squamous than columnar explants, was both glycosylated and phosphorylated during in-vitro explantation of squamous tissue; a third polypeptide of mol. wt 25,200 which was keratin-like but not cross-linked, was synthesized in squamous-tissue explants but in only 4% of columnar-tissue explants. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6184064

  3. Fibreoptic choledochoscopy in common bile duct surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, B. S.

    1978-01-01

    Fibreoptic choledochoscopy permits visual examination of the interior of the bile ducts during operations for gallstones. But it does not replace operative cholangiography, and the common bile duct should not be opened simply to perform choledochoscopy. Operative choledochoscopy following conventional exploration and removal of stones ensures that the ducts are clear before insertion of a T tube and closure, avoiding the problem of the retained stone. Exploratory choledochoscopy with stone retrieval under direct vision is less traumatic to the ducts than conventional blind methods, and visual confirmation that the lower end of the duct is clear and the papilla patent may allow the common bile duct to be closed without a T tube, shortening the patient's convalescent period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:697297

  4. CrkII signals from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras.

    PubMed Central

    Kizaka-Kondoh, S; Matsuda, M; Okayama, H

    1996-01-01

    A rat fibroblast mutant defective in oncogenic transformation and signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras has been isolated. The mutant contains dominant negative-type point mutations in the C-terminal SH3 domain of one crkII gene. Among the adapters tested, the mutant is complemented only by crkII cDNA. Expression of the mutated crkII in parent cells generates the phenotype indistinguishable from the mutant cell. Yet overexpression or reduced expression of Grb2 in the mutant before and after complementation with crkII have little effect on its phenotype. We conclude that adapter molecules are highly specific and that the oncogenic growth signal from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras is predominantly mediated by CrkII in rat fibroblast. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8901553

  5. Ecdysone-inducible gene expression in mammalian cells and transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    No, D; Yao, T P; Evans, R M

    1996-01-01

    During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, a cascade of morphological changes is triggered by the steroid hormone 20-OH ecdysone via the ecdysone receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In this report, we have transferred insect hormone responsiveness to mammalian cells by the stable expression of a modified ecdysone receptor that regulates an optimized ecdysone responsive promoter. Inductions reaching 4 orders of magnitude have been achieved upon treatment with hormone. Transgenic mice expressing the modified ecdysone receptor can activate an integrated ecdysone responsive promoter upon administration of hormone. A comparison of tetracycline-based and ecdysone-based inducible systems reveals the ecdysone regulatory system exhibits lower basal activity and higher inducibility. Since ecdysone administration has no apparent effect on mammals, its use for regulating genes should be excellent for transient inducible expression of any gene in transgenic mice and for gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8622939

  6. Skin Temperature Recording with Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Ray N.; Alt, Leslie L.

    1965-01-01

    New knowledge of temperature irregularities associated with various disease states has resulted in increasing interest in the recording of heat radiation from the human body. Infrared radiation from the skin is a surface phenomenon and the amount of such radiation increases with temperature. Previous recording techniques have been not only crude but difficult and expensive. An unconventional thermal imaging system is described which gives superior temperature patterns and is also simpler and cheaper than any of the other available procedures. This system is based on the employment of thermally sensitive phosphors which glow when exposed to ultraviolet illumination, in inverse proportion to the underlying temperature. The thermal image can be directly observed or more critically analyzed and photographed on a simple closed-circuit television monitor. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14270208

  7. The Reflexes of the Fundus Oculi

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, A. J.

    1940-01-01

    fragmented” surface reflexes, or as evidence of the presence of some highly refractile substance, such as cholesterin or calcium carbonate, in a retinal exudate or other lesion. It is characteristic of the pathological reflexes that they come and go and change their character according to the progress of the pathological condition. The linear reflexes in particular may change from one from to another, and may be finally transformed into surface reflexes of physiological character. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:19992307

  8. Rock friction and its implications for earthquake prediction examined via models of Parkfield earthquakes.

    PubMed Central

    Tullis, T E

    1996-01-01

    The friction of rocks in the laboratory is a function of time, velocity of sliding, and displacement. Although the processes responsible for these dependencies are unknown, constitutive equations have been developed that do a reasonable job of describing the laboratory behavior. These constitutive laws have been used to create a model of earthquakes at Parkfield, CA, by using boundary conditions appropriate for the section of the fault that slips in magnitude 6 earthquakes every 20-30 years. The behavior of this model prior to the earthquakes is investigated to determine whether or not the model earthquakes could be predicted in the real world by using realistic instruments and instrument locations. Premonitory slip does occur in the model, but it is relatively restricted in time and space and detecting it from the surface may be difficult. The magnitude of the strain rate at the earth's surface due to this accelerating slip seems lower than the detectability limit of instruments in the presence of earth noise. Although not specifically modeled, microseismicity related to the accelerating creep and to creep events in the model should be detectable. In fact the logarithm of the moment rate on the hypocentral cell of the fault due to slip increases linearly with minus the logarithm of the time to the earthquake. This could conceivably be used to determine when the earthquake was going to occur. An unresolved question is whether this pattern of accelerating slip could be recognized from the microseismicity, given the discrete nature of seismic events. Nevertheless, the model results suggest that the most likely solution to earthquake prediction is to look for a pattern of acceleration in microseismicity and thereby identify the microearthquakes as foreshocks. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:11607668

  9. Tumours of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Mackey, L. J.; Misdorp, W.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequent renal tumours of animals are renal cell carcinoma and nephroblastoma. Renal cell carcinomas are seen mainly in dogs and cattle and nephroblastoma is encountered in pigs, puppies, and calves. Renal cell carcinomas are usually papillary in the dog. They show a marked propensity for vascular invasion, penetration of the posterior vena cava, and subsequent pulmonary metastasis. Nephroblastoma, which is morphologically identical to Wilms' tumour of children, is almost always a benign tumour in animals. It is one of the most frequent neoplasms of pigs, possibly owing to the fact that most pigs are slaughtered (and examined) when a few months old. Lymphosarcoma involving the kidney is particularly frequent in the cat, but is also seen in other species as part of a generalized disease. ImagesFig. 5,6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 1,2Fig. 3,4Fig. 16,17,18,19Fig. 9,10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14,15 PMID:1086154

  10. In vitro phagocytosis of exogenous collagen by fibroblasts from the periodontal ligament: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, E L; Brunette, D M; Melcher, A H

    1979-01-01

    There have been numerous electron microscopic reports of apparent phagocytosis of collagen by fibroblasts and other cells in vivo. We have developed an in vitro system which, to the best of our knowledge, will permit for the first time the study of regulatory mechanisms governing phagocytosis and digestion of collagen fibres. Cells were cultured from explants of monkey periodontal ligament, subcultured, and grown to confluence in alpha-MEM plus 15% fetal calf serum plus antibiotics. The confluent cells were then cultured together with minced rat tail tendon collagen in alpha-MEM lacking proline, lysine, glycine and fetal calf serum for up to 7 days, after which they were processed for electron microscopy. Intracellular collagen profiles could be seen in cultured cells that were associated with exogenous collagen fibrils as early as 24 hours after addition of the collagen. Through electron microscopic examination of serial sections of the culture, we have demonstrated: (1) that fibroblasts can phagocytose collagen; (2) that the observed intracellular collagen is not the result of aggregation of endogenous synthesized collagen; (3) that it is not possible to base a decision as to whether a collagen fibril has been phagocytosed in whole or in part by the type of vesicle with which it is associated; (4) that cleavage of collagen into small pieces may not be a necessary prelude to its phagocytosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:108237

  11. Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified SV40 minichromosomes: the liquid drop model.

    PubMed Central

    Dubochet, J; Adrian, M; Schultz, P; Oudet, P

    1986-01-01

    The structure of SV40 minichromosomes has been studied by cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified thin layers of solution. In high-salt buffer (130 mM NaCl), freshly prepared minichromosomes are condensed into globules 30 nm or more in diameter. On the micrograph, they appear to be formed by the close packing of 10 nm granules which give rise to a 10 nm reflection in the optical diffractogram. The globules can adopt many different conformations. At high concentration, they fuse into a homogeneous 'sea' of closely packed 10 nm granules. In low-salt buffer (less than 10 mM NaCl), the globules open, first into 10 nm filaments, and then into nucleosome-strings. The 'liquid drop' model is proposed to explain the condensed structure of the minichromosome in high-salt buffer: nucleosomes stack specifically on top of one another, thus forming the 10 nm filaments. 10 nm filaments in turn, tend to aggregate laterally. Optimizing both these interactions results in the condensation of 10 nm filaments or portions thereof into a structure similar to that of a liquid. Some implications of this model for the structure of cellular chromatin are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 11. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. PMID:3011410

  12. An axosomatic and axodendritic multipolar neuron in the lizard cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Bernabeu, A; Martinez-Guijarro, F J; de la Iglesia, J A; Lopez-Garcia, C

    1994-01-01

    The morphology and synaptic organisation of a type of multipolar neuron of the lizard cerebral cortex were studied by Golgi impregnation, intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry. It is a GABA-immunoreactive interneuron and most likely parvalbumin-immunoreactive. Its conspicuous axonal arbor is characterised by an initial segment arising from the soma or from a juxtasomatic dendritic segment. The initial axon segment ramifies and gives rise to thick myelinated segments that terminate in short unmyelinated branches studded with thick boutons 'en passant' that (1) make axosomatic synapses on bipyramidal neuronal somata and (2) synapse on initial apical dendritic segments of bipyramidal neurons forming climbing-like cartridges. The dendrites extend throughout the thickness of the cortex, receiving synaptic input from a variety of sources of which the most prominent is that of zinc-positive boutons coming from granule cells of the medial cortex. According to its synaptology, this interneuron may play a role in regulating the activity of bipyramidal neurons by both feed-forward and feed-back inhibition mechanisms. From a comparative standpoint, it may be related to the sparsely spiny or nonspiny multipolar neurons of the stratum oriens of the mammalian hippocampus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7928645

  13. Management of adult choledochal cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H

    1981-01-01

    A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

  14. Ultrastruct of the hypothalamic neurosecretory nuclei of the dormouse (Eliomys quercinus L.) in the awakening and hibernating states.

    PubMed Central

    Machín-Santamaría, C

    1978-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the chief neurosecretory nuclei, supraoptic, (SON), parventricular, (PVN) and infundibular (IN), of the dormouse (Eliomys quercinus L.) has been studied during active and hibernating states. In the active state all three nuclei contained light, dark and intermediate type neurons. In hibernation the SON showed only a single light type which differed from the light neurons of the active state; the endoplasmic reticulum was vacuolized and sometimes grouped in 'honey-comb' structures; the cytoplasm contained accumulations of filamentous 'crystalline' material. None of these features occurred in the active state neurons. In the PVN and IN during hibernation both a light and a dark type neuron were present. 'Honey-comb' structures were seen in neurons of the PVN during hibernation, but never in those of the IN. Thus specific morphological features in the SON and PVN appear to be associated with the physiological changes of hibernation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:721686

  15. Infant malnutrition in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Oomen, H. A. P. C.

    1953-01-01

    Infant malnutrition, resulting frequently in the death of children of pre-school age, is a problem requiring urgent solution in Indonesia. Children suffering from malnutrition show a variety of symptoms, the most characteristic being emaciation, growth retardation, liver changes, dyspigmentation of skin and hair, other skin lesions, oedema, muscular wasting, anaemia, and xerophthalmia. The indicative value of xerophthalmia, which often leads to the development of keratomalacia, in the diagnosis of malnutrition is stressed by the author. Further research is required to determine the causes—and particularly the part played by diet—of the clinical differences observed in malnutrition cases. Far greater interest in the problem of malnutrition must be shown by the entire medical profession in Indonesia if treatment is to be carried out successfully. The specific symptom, xerophthalmia, is easily curable with cod-liver oil. General malnutrition can be prevented only if sufficient amounts, both quantitatively and qualitatively, of protein, vitamin A, and calories are provided for every child. The Indonesian must be taught, by practical example, the necessity of adequate feeding, and be encouraged to make maximum use of locally available foods. It is hoped that the centres to deal with malnutrition, envisaged by the Ministry of Health, will provide both curative and preventive treatment and facilities for propaganda and research. ImagesFIG. 1-2FIG. 3-4FIG. 5-6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13106702

  16. Purification and characterization of a high-Mr carbonic anhydrase from sheep parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Fernley, R T; Coghlan, J P; Wright, R D

    1988-01-01

    Approximately half the carbonic anhydrase activity of sheep parotid-gland homogenate is derived from a high-Mr protein [Fernley, Wright & Coghlan (1979) FEBS Lett. 105, 299-302]. This enzyme has now been purified to homogeneity, and its properties were compared with those of the well-characterized sheep carbonic anhydrase II. The protein has an apparent Mr of 540,000 as measured by gel filtration under non-denaturing conditions and an apparent subunit Mr of 45,000 as measured by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. After deglycosylation with the enzyme N-glycanase the protein migrates with an apparent Mr of 36,000 on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The CO2-hydrating activity was 340 units/mg compared with 488 units/mg for sheep carbonic anhydrase II measured under identical conditions. This enzyme does not, however, hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl acetate. The enzyme contains 0.8 g-atom of zinc/mol of protein subunit. The peptide maps of the two carbonic anhydrases differ significantly from one another, indicating they are not related closely structurally. Unlike the carbonic anhydrase II isoenzyme, which has a blocked N-terminus, the high-Mr enzyme has a free glycine residue at its N-terminus. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3124821

  17. Variations in structure and function during the life cycle of malarial parasites*

    PubMed Central

    Aikawa, M.

    1977-01-01

    The fine structure of malarial parasites is reviewed and the function of the intracellular organelles is discussed. When the erythrocytic, exoerythrocytic, and mosquito stages of plasmodia are compared, substantial differences are seen. The major differences involve the amount of surface coat of the motile forms, the structure and function of the mitochondria, and the ingestion and digestion of nutrients. Significant structural differences are also observed between comparable stages of mammalian and avian parasites. These differences indicate that malarial parasites adapt themselves to the different environments in which the parasite resides. When host cell changes induced by malarial parasite infection are reviewed, alterations characteristic of the infecting plasmodia are observed in erythrocytes. Erythrocyte changes include caveola—vesicle complexes, excrescences, and clefts. The caveola—vesicle complexes possess malarial antigens and exhibit pinocytotic activities. The excrescences form focal junctions with adjacent cells and may be responsible for infected erythrocyte sequestration in organs. The significance of these host cell changes specific to certain species of malarial parasite is still unknown. ImagesFig. 9Fig. 8Fig. 2Fig. 6Fig. 3Fig. 1Fig. 7Fig. 4Fig. 10Fig. 5 PMID:338177

  18. Xenopus myc proto-oncogene during development: expression as a stable maternal mRNA uncoupled from cell division.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M V; Gusse, M; Evan, G I; Dathan, N; Mechali, M

    1986-01-01

    A Xenopus cDNA clone highly homologous to the proto-oncogene c-myc has been isolated and used to derive a homologous probe to study myc expression during embryonic development. Myc RNA is identified as a member of the class of maternal mRNAs expressed before fertilisation. It is highly accumulated from early oogenesis and an unfertilised egg contains 8 pg, about 10(5)-fold the myc content of proliferative somatic cells. After fertilisation a post-transcriptional regulation of the gene is induced and the accumulated myc RNA is degraded (t1/2 = 4 h 20 min) to reach a level at gastrula of 10 transcripts per cell; a value maintained during subsequent embryonic development. The Xenopus myc protein has also been identified by both myc-specific antibodies and hybrid selection experiments. Translation in vitro of Xenopus myc RNA shows that it encodes a 62-kd protein which is also recognised by myc antibodies in oocyte extracts. This protein is accumulated in late oogenesis. The results indicate an unusual uncoupling of myc expression and cell proliferation linked to a stabilisation of the RNA product. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3549280

  19. The En/Spm transposable element of Zea mays contains splice sites at the termini generating a novel intron from a dSpm element in the A2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Menssen, A; Höhmann, S; Martin, W; Schnable, P S; Peterson, P A; Saedler, H; Gierl, A

    1990-01-01

    The A2 locus of Zea mays, identified as one of the genes affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis, was cloned using the transposable elements rcy and dSpm as gene tags. The A2 gene encodes a putative protein of 395 amino acids and is devoid of introns. Two a2-m1 alleles, containing dSpm insertions of different sizes, were characterized. The dSpm element from the original state allele has perfect termini and undergoes frequent transposition. The element from the class II state allele is no longer competent to transpose. It has retained the 13 bp terminal inverted repeat but has lost all subterminal sites at the 5' end, which are recognized by tnpA protein, the most abundant product of the En/Spm transposable element system. The relatively high A2 gene expression of one a2-m1 allele is due to removal of almost all dSpm sequences by splicing. The slightly altered A2 enzyme is still functional as shown by complementation of an a2 mutant with the corresponding cDNA. The 5' and 3' splice sites are constituted by the termini of the dSpm element; it therefore represents a novel intron of the A2 gene. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:2170105

  20. Localization of tissue plasminogen activator in relation to morphologic changes in human saphenous veins used as coronary artery bypass autografts.

    PubMed Central

    Glas-Greenwalt, P; Dalton, B C; Astrup, T

    1975-01-01

    Employing the histochemical fibrin slide technique, we studied the localization of fibrinolytically active sites in relation to morphologic changes in saphenous veins used as coronary artery bypass autografts. Of veins from 100 patients undergoing surgery for coronary heart disease, 63 samples revealed well-demarcated intimal fibrinolytic activity. Distinct foci of lysis were present in the media and adventitia of all vein samples corresponding to the distribution of the vasa vasorum. Graft specimens obtained by autopsy from 13 patients surviving from 30 minutes to 13 days revealed considerable intimal damage with loss of fibrinolytic activity. Medial fibrinolytic activity disappeared early concomitant with disorganization of the medial muscle fibers, followed by necrosis, atrophy and fibrous transformation of the muscular structures. Adventitial activity disappeared later. One reoperation sample obtained after 8 weeks in situ showed moderate proliferative intimal fibrosis without an apparent neo-intima and without fibrinolytic activity, and one section showed evidence of valve cusp fibrosis, while most of the media had been replaced by fibrous tissue. Numerous foci of "medial" -adventitial fibrinolytic activity indicated presence of vascular structures in the venous wall. The fibrin slide technique is a convenient tool for studying the process of revascularization. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Figs. 5a-d. Fig. 6. Figs. 7a and b. Figs. 8a and b. PMID:1079445

  1. In vivo transformation of factor-dependent hemopoietic cells: role of intracisternal A-particle transposition for growth factor gene activation.

    PubMed Central

    Dührsen, U; Stahl, J; Gough, N M

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or multi-lineage colony stimulating factor (Multi-CSF) dependent line FDC-P1 undergo leukemic transformation after injection into irradiated DBA/2 mice. About one third of factor-independent FDC-P1 variants isolated from leukemic animals express GM-CSF or Multi-CSF, assessed either by bioassay or by sensitive RNA detection using the polymerase chain reaction. All of the GM-CSF-secreting lines studied had a rearrangement in one allele of the GM-CSF gene, three of four Multi-CSF-secreting lines had Multi-CSF gene rearrangements, while factor-independent lines lacking evidence of growth factor production had no demonstrable CSF gene alterations. All rearrangements were characterized by insertions of novel DNA in the 5'-flanking regions of the CSF genes. The inserted segments of DNA varied in size between 0.35 and 6.5 kb and displayed restriction enzyme cleavage maps reminiscent of intracisternal A-particle (IAP) genomes. This was confirmed in two cases by molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis. In these instances, the insertion consisted of solitary IAP long terminal repeats. The transformation system described provides a model for the study of IAP transpositions and their effects on gene activation. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 9. PMID:2108861

  2. Maspin acts at the cell membrane to inhibit invasion and motility of mammary and prostatic cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, S; Carey, J; Seftor, E A; Dias, L; Hendrix, M J; Sager, R

    1996-01-01

    Maspin, a novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin), inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis of mammary carcinoma. We show here that recombinant maspin protein blocks the motility of these carcinoma cells in culture over 12 h, as demonstrated by time-lapse video microscopy. Lamellopodia are withdrawn but ruffling continues. Both exogenous recombinant maspin and maspin expressed by tumor transfectants exhibit inhibitory effects on cell motility and cell invasion as shown in modified Boyden chamber assays. In addition, three prostatic cancer cell lines treated with recombinant maspin exhibited similar inhibition of both invasion and motility, suggesting a similar mode of maspin action in these two glandular epithelial cancers. When mammary carcinoma cells were treated with recombinant maspin, the protein was shown by immunostaining to bind specifically to the cell surface, suggesting that maspin activity is membrane associated. When pretreated with antimaspin antibody, maspin loses its inhibitory effects on both invasion and motility. However, when maspin is added to these cells preceding antibody treatment, the activity of maspin is no longer inhibited by subsequent addition of the antibody. It is concluded therefore that the inhibition of invasion and motility by maspin is initially localized to the cell surface. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876194

  3. Remodelling of bone and bones: growth of normal and transplanted caudal vertebrae.

    PubMed Central

    Feik, S A; Storey, E

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the rate of growth, shape and structure of the 8th, 16th and 22nd caudal vertebrae of 4 and 24-27 days old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in situ and in three different non-functional transplantation sites for 12 weeks. With increasing size, maturity and age the three vertebrae showed progressively decreasing growth, changes in shape and structural abnormalities. The smallest anlages grew faster and matured sooner than normal, so that their length equalled that of controls. Central endochondral necrosis in older bones was associated with decreased longitudinal growth but in some younger ones, despite a perforation of the cartilage and herniation of the nucleus pulposus into the marrow cavity of the shaft, growth proceeded at near normal rates. The free ends of older, larger transplants grew faster than the abutting ends joined by joint connective tissue, indicating that central necrosis of cartilage resulted from impaired nutrient diffusion. The results suggest that the cartilage model may possess an inherent capacity to produce a certain limited amount of bone tissue which may be distributed either in the form of long and thin or short and inwaisted bones, depending on the balance of forces between interstitial cartilage expansion and the restraining ensheathing periosteal-perichondrial tissues. This basic form may be modified further by functional forces. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 9 PMID:6339456

  4. Isolation and characterization of the rat tryptophan oxygenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, W; Scherer, G; Danesch, U; Zentgraf, H; Matthias, P; Strange, C M; Röwekamp, W; Schütz, G

    1982-01-01

    Tryptophan oxygenase (TO, EC 1.13.1.12) from rat liver is subject to glucocorticoid and developmental control. To study the mechanism of regulation, TO mRNA sequences and the chromosomal TO gene were cloned. From a cDNA library prepared from rat liver poly(A)+ RNA enriched for TO mRNA, a recombinant plasmid containing TO cDNA sequences was identified by translation of hybrid-selected RNA and immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against TO. This cDNA clone hybridizes to a mRNA 2000 bases long that is inducible by dexamethasone. With this clone as probe we isolated from a bacteriophage lambda rat DNA library genomic clones which together span a region of 32 kilobase pairs (kb). Heteroduplex analysis revealed that the gene extends over 19 kb and is interrupted by at least 11 introns. To characterize the presumptive control region the DNA sequence around the 5' end of the TO gene was determined. S1 nuclease protection experiments revealed two separate start sites for TO mRNA transcription within this region. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6327261

  5. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1452481

  6. Tyrosine phosphorylation of two cytosolic proteins of 50 kDa and 35 kDa in rat liver by insulin-receptor kinase in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Y C; Yip, C C

    1987-01-01

    Insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase can phosphorylate a variety of artificial substrates in vitro. Its physiological substrate(s), however, remains unknown. In the present study, we show that immobilized insulin receptors phosphorylate tyrosine residues of two cytosolic proteins of 50 kDa and 35 kDa in rat liver. Phosphorylation of these two proteins required Mn2+- or Mg2+-ATP as the phosphate donor. Phosphorylation was time- and temperature-dependent. Furthermore, the rate of phosphorylation of the two proteins was related to the autophosphorylated state of the insulin receptor. The pI of the phosphorylated 50 kDa and 35 kDa proteins was 5.4 and 5.6 respectively. These proteins were present in low abundance. They were not related to each other, nor to the insulin receptor, as demonstrated by in-gel proteolytic digestion and by immunoprecipitation using antibodies produced against them. They were specific substrates for the insulin receptor kinase, since they were not phosphorylated by epidermal-growth-factor-receptor kinase. These observations suggest that the 50 kDa and 35 kDa cytosolic proteins may be endogenous substrates for the insulin-receptor kinase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2829823

  7. The sequence and topology of human complement component C9.

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, K K; Kocher, H P; Luzio, J P; Jackson, P; Tschopp, J

    1985-01-01

    A partial nucleotide sequence of human complement component C9 cDNA representing 94% of the coding region of the mature protein is presented. The amino acid sequence predicted from the open reading frame of this cDNA concurs with the amino acid sequence at the amino-terminal end of three proteolytic fragments of purified C9 protein. No long stretches of hydrophobic residues are present, even in the carboxy-terminal half of the molecule which reacts with lipid-soluble photoaffinity probes. Monoclonal antibody epitopes have been mapped by comparing overlapping fragments of C9 molecule to which the antibodies bind on Western blots. Several of these epitopes map to small regions containing other surface features (e.g., proteolytic cleavage sites and N-linked oligosaccharide). The amino-terminal half of C9 is rich in cysteine residues and contains a region with a high level of homology to the LDL receptor cysteine-rich domains. A model for C9 topology based on these findings is proposed. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:4018030

  8. Characterization and localization of the even-skipped protein of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, M; Hoey, T; Rushlow, C; Doyle, H; Levine, M

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of homeo box cross-homology we have isolated the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) of Drosophila. The eve transcription unit appears to be less than 1.5 kb in length, and encodes a single mRNA of approximately 1.4 kb. The nucleotide sequence of genomic and cDNA clones indicates that the eve protein is composed of 376 amino acid residues, and that its homeo domain shares only approximately 50% amino acid identity with the homeo domains of previously characterized genes. Using antibodies raised against a beta-galactosidase fusion protein we show that the eve protein is distributed in a series of seven transverse stripes at the cellular blastoderm stage, and is localized primarily within the nuclear regions of those embryonic cells that express the gene. After gastrulation, seven weakly stained stripes of eve expression appear, resulting in a transient pattern that consists of a total of 14 evenly spaced stripes. Both the original and new stripes gradually disappear during germ band elongation. A second expression pattern emerges during neurogenesis, whereby eve protein is detected in discrete subsets of neurons in each of the ventral ganglia. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2884106

  9. The ventricular system of the pigeon brain: a scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Mestres, P; Rascher, K

    1994-01-01

    The fine structural features and regional differences of the ependyma in adult pigeons have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Pigeons of either sex were fixed with buffered glutaraldehyde (3%) and formaldehyde (0.5%) by intravascular perfusion. The brain was dissected using section planes adequate to expose each part of the ventricular system. The specimens were then dehydrated, critical point dried and sputtered with gold. Depending upon the distribution of cilia, microvilli and single cilia, different areas were recognised in the 4 ventricles. The topographic locations of these areas were determined using the atlas of Karten & Hodos (1967). The medial surfaces of the 1st and 2nd lateral ventricles are more densely ciliated than the lateral surfaces. In the floor of the 4th ventricle the medial part is less ciliated than the lateral parts. The circumventricular organs (subseptal organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, infundibulum, choroid plexus, subcommissural organ, area postrema) show very characteristic surfaces and are surrounded by a transitional zone with the nonspecialized ependyma. In contrast, in the paraventricular organ the transition to the nonspecialized ependyma is rather abrupt. The ependyma covering the trochlear nucleus appears densely ciliated, differing from that of the classic circumventricular organs. Finally, the existence of openings in the caudal medullary velum, which represent direct communications between the ventricles and the subarachnoid space, was demonstrated. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:8157492

  10. Factors controlling pancreatic islet neogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Vinik, A.; Pittenger, G.; Rafaeloff, R.; Rosenberg, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have established a model in which cellophane wrapping induces reiteration of the normal ontogeny of beta-cell differentiation from ductal tissue. The secretion of insulin is physiologic and coordinated to the needs of the animal. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in hamsters can be "cured" at least half the time. There appears to be activation of growth factor(s) within the pancreas, acting in an autocrine, paracrine, or juxtacrine manner to induce ductal cell proliferation and differentiation into functioning beta cells. Given the results of our studies to date, it does not seem premature to envisage new approaches to the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Identification of the factor(s) regulating islet-cell proliferation and differentiation in our model may permit islets to be grown in culture. This concept could be extended to induce endocrine cell differentiation in vitro as well. Furthermore, islet-cell growth factors could be used to provide "trophic support" to islet transplants as a means of maintaining graft viability. There may also be greater scope for gene therapy when the growth factor(s) have been isolated, purified, sequenced, and cloned. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 9 PMID:1364089

  11. Prolongation and enhancement of Nippostrongylus infection in the laboratory rat by a heterologous antiserum to rat peritoneal cells—A possible role for pharmacologically-active cells in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth-Scott, R. S.; Bingley, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    A rabbit anti-rat peritoneal cell (APCS) serum significantly suppresses (P<0.001) the immune response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in the rat and the infection can be prolonged by such an antiserum. The antiserum appeared to contain antibodies directed against the surface antigens of pharmacologically-active cells such as the mast cell. Prolongation of infection following treatment with APCS was accompanied by a reduction in the number of eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils in the peripheral circulation. The number of circulating peripheral lymphocytes was not significantly affected by the antiserum, nor did the antiserum affect the homograft response. This antiserum, however, suppressed the homologous PCA reaction and the response to an intradermal injection of histamine, and also provoked the complement-dependent release of histamine from mast cells in vitro up to a dilution of 1:512. It was estimated that the average rat mast cell contains 19.8 pg of histamine. These results provide evidence for the importance of eosinophils, basophils and mast cells, i.e. pharmacologically-active cells, in allowing the host to mount a homocytotropic antibody-allergen mediated reaction as part of the immune response. ImagesFIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 8 PMID:4104289

  12. A New Electrocardiograph Employing the Cathode Ray Oscillograph as the Recording Device

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Douglas

    1934-01-01

    The advantages of the cathode ray tube as an electrical recording instrument are unique. It has no inherent inertia, so that there is no distortion from this source as there is in every known electro-mechanical recorder. The workings of the cathode ray oscillograph are explained and discussed. Immediate visual observation of the electrocardiogram is obtained by the use of a new fluorescent screen, which is described, and the mechanism of a suitable “time base” circuit for this purpose is explained. Some of the problems associated with the design of an amplifier, distortionless as far as electrocardiography is concerned, are dealt with, including the use of long “time constants” and the employment of a suitable filter circuit. The design of a suitable camera unit (for photographic recording) is discussed. A method of neutralizing interference picked up from alternating current electric light mains is explained and illustrated. The apparatus consists of four easily portable, and mechanically robust, units. The Recorder Unit, the Amplifier Unit, the H.T. (high tension) Supply Unit, and the Camera Unit. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:19989971

  13. Mucosal tears at the oesophagogastric junction (the Mallory-Weiss syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Michael; Bottrill, M. B.; Edwards, A. T.; Mitchell, Winifred M.; Peet, B. Gadsby; Williams, R. E.

    1961-01-01

    This is a re-appraisal of the supposedly rare Mallory-Weiss syndrome in which 11 patients with mucosal tears at the oesophagogastric junction are described. The fact that these cases were collected from general hospitals within a short period suggests that the condition is more common than supposed and may account for a considerable proportion of the 20 to 25% of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding in whom no radiological abnormality can subsequently be found. Of the 11 patients, eight presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, two with mediastinitis, and one without relevant symptoms. The classical history of antecedent vomiting before the bleeding was obtained in only four patients, its absence not excluding the diagnosis. The presence of a small hiatal hernia in four patients appeared to predispose to mucosal tears as did mucosal atrophy occurring with advancing age. Some experimental findings pertaining to the mechanism of the tears are presented. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIGS. 4 and 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:13684977

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

  15. Association of interstitial nephritis with tubule cell injury and proliferation in NZB/NZW mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, E R; Ziff, M

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between renal interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration and renal tubule cell (TC) proliferation has been examined in (NZB X NZW) F1 hybrid (B/W) and control mice. TC proliferation was measured by tritiated thymidine ([3H]TdR) injection, autoradiographic examination of kidney sections and enumeration of labelled tubule cells. In B/W mice interstitial infiltration began at 5 months and reached a peak at 9 months. Proliferation of TC began at 7 months and also reached a peak at 9 months. Control mice consisting of NZB, CBA/J and C57Bl/6J mice showed no increase with age. When the percentages of labelled TC in areas adjacent to interstitial infiltrates and distant from them were compared, the TC adjacent to infiltrates showed an approximately four-fold greater amount of labelling. Ultrathin light and electron microscopic sections demonstrated TC injury in areas in close proximity to infiltrates. These studies suggest that mononuclear cells in the interstitial infiltrate may be injurious to TC, leading to a sequence of injury and subsequent regeneration of these cells. In diseases in which interstitial nephritis is present, such as Sjögren's syndrome, the interstitial infiltrate may contribute to the observed TC dysfunction. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 PMID:668188

  16. A major stylar matrix polypeptide (sp41) is a member of the pathogenesis-related proteins superclass.

    PubMed Central

    Ori, N; Sessa, G; Lotan, T; Himmelhoch, S; Fluhr, R

    1990-01-01

    A novel stylar-specific glycosylated protein, sp41, was characterized. Sp41 constitutes greater than 12% of the transmitting tract tissue soluble proteins and is mainly localized in the extracellular matrix. Two cDNA clones corresponding to sp41 mRNA were isolated and sequenced. The decoded sequences are, respectively, 80% and 49% homologous to acidic and basic pathogen-induced (1-3)-beta-glucanases of the leaf. Thus a subfamily of (1-3)-beta-glucanase pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins constitutes one of the major stylar matrix proteins. The accumulation of sp41 transcripts in normally developing and elicitor-treated styles and leaves was followed using an RNase protection assay. During development sp41 transcript accumulation starts well after carpel differentiation. It is first detected in styles at 8 days before anthesis. The maximal level of accumulation is reached during anthesis. Elicitor-treated styles do not accumulate the leaf-type (1-3)-beta-glucanase transcript, although they retain the capacity to synthesize leaf-type pathogenesis-related proteins such as the pathogen-induced acidic chitinase. The developmental regulation of sp41 expression points to a role for them in the normal processes of flowering and reproductive physiology. Images Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 Fig.8 Fig.9 PMID:2120041

  17. Human genes and pseudogenes for the 7SL RNA component of signal recognition particle.

    PubMed Central

    Ullu, E; Weiner, A M

    1984-01-01

    Of the several hundred 7SL RNA-like sequences that are dispersed in human DNA, no more than four are likely to represent genes for 7SL RNA; the majority are 7SL pseudogenes which appear to result from the reverse flow of genetic information from 7SL RNA back into genomic DNA. We present the sequence of five 7SL pseudogenes displaying an unprecedented diversity of structures. All are truncated copies of 7SL RNA, but the site of truncation can occur at either the 5' end, the 3' end or at both ends of the RNA sequence. We suggest that such diverse 7SL pseudogenes are generated by different but related pathways. In particular, we argue that two of the loci are secondary 7SL pseudogenes which derive from RNA polymerase III transcripts of primary (preexisting) 7SL pseudogenes. We also report the isolation and characterisation of a human genomic clone carrying two linked 7SL RNA coding regions, 7L30.1 and 7L30.2. The 7L30.2 locus differs by several single base changes from the known human 7SL RNA sequences and does not appear to be expressed at a detectable level in HeLa cells. The 7L30.1 locus is an authentic 7SL RNA gene encoding one of the three sequence variants of human 7SL RNA. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6084597

  18. Isolation of a differentially regulated splicing isoform of human NF-E2.

    PubMed Central

    Pischedda, C; Cocco, S; Melis, A; Marini, M G; Kan, Y W; Cao, A; Moi, P

    1995-01-01

    The transcription factor NF-E2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2), interacting via DNA motifs within regulatory regions of several hematopoietic genes, is thought to mediate the enhancer activity of the globin locus control regions. By screening a human fetal liver cDNA library with probes derived from mouse NF-E2, we have isolated a splicing variant of the NF-E2 gene (fNF-E2) that differs in the 5' untranslated region from the previously reported cDNA (aNF-E2). The fNF-E2 isoform is transcribed from an alternative promoter located in the 3' end of the first intron and joined by alternative splicing to the second and third exons, which are shared by both RNA isoforms. Although the two forms produce the same protein, they are expressed in different ratios during development. fNF-E2 is more abundant in the fetal liver and less abundant in the adult bone marrow compared to the previously described form. Their distribution apparently follows the differential expression of fetal and adult hemoglobins. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7724591

  19. Minimizing Liability Risks of Head and Neck Injuries in Football

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Jonathan F.; Weis, Michael P.; Gartland, James M.; Weis, Craig R.

    1994-01-01

    Although catastrophic head and neck injuries in football occur infrequently, their occurrence is almost always followed by litigation. The athletic trainer has to be sure he/she has adequate liability insurance to cover the costs of a defense and a possible judgment. General claims filed against athletic staffs usually deal with instruction, equipment, matching of participants, supervision, and/or postinjury care. The defenses to these claims include: statutory immunity, assumption of risk, releases or waivers, and the reckless disregard standard. The athletic trainer plays a key role in head and neck injury prevention and care, and must be aware of litigation possibilities, along with methods of risk management. We present recommendations aimed at minimizing the risk of head and neck injuries and the risk of liability. The areas covered are: preparing for head and neck lawsuits, preventing head and neck injuries, and postcatastrophic injury care. We base these recommendations on principles that the athletic trainer can easily apply to other areas, broadening the risk management concept presented. ImagesFig 1.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7. PMID:16558275

  20. The refined 2.4 A X-ray crystal structure of recombinant human stefin B in complex with the cysteine proteinase papain: a novel type of proteinase inhibitor interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, M T; Laber, B; Bode, W; Huber, R; Jerala, R; Lenarcic, B; Turk, V

    1990-01-01

    A stoichiometric complex of human stefin B and carboxymethylated papain has been crystallized in a trigonal crystal form. Data to 2.37 A resolution were collected using the area detector diffractometer FAST. The crystal structure of the complex has been solved by Patterson search techniques using papain as search model. Starting from the structure of chicken cystatin, the stefin structure was elucidated through cycles of model building and crystallographic refinement. The current crystallographic R factor is 0.19. Like cystatin, the stefin molecule consists of a five stranded beta-sheet wrapped around a five turn alpha-helix, but with an additional carboxy terminal strand running along the convex side of the sheet. Topological equivalence of stefin and cystatin reveal the previous sequence alignment to be incorrect in part, through deletion of the intermediate helix. The conserved residues form a tripartite wedge, which slots into the papain active site as proposed through consideration of the tertiary structures of the individual components (Bode et al., 1988). The main interactions are provided by the amino terminal 'trunk' (occupying the 'unprimed' subsites of the enzyme), and by the first hairpin loop, containing the highly conserved QVVAG sequence, with minor contributions from the second hairpin loop. The carboxyl terminus of stefin provides an additional interaction region with respect to cystatin. The interaction is dominated by hydrophobic contacts. Inhibition by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors is fundamentally different to that observed for the serine proteinase inhibitors. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:2347312

  1. Neurotransmitter receptors and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels encoded by mRNA from the adult corpus callosum.

    PubMed Central

    Matute, C; Miledi, R

    1993-01-01

    The presence of mRNAs encoding neurotransmitter receptors and voltage-gated channels in the adult human and bovine corpus callosum was investigated using Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes injected with mRNA extracted from the corpus callosum expressed functional receptors to glutamate, acetylcholine, and serotonin, and also voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, all with similar properties in the two species studied. Acetylcholine and serotonin elicited oscillatory Cl- currents due to activation of the inositol phosphate-Ca2+ receptor-channel coupling system. Glutamate and its analogs N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate, quisqualate, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) induced smooth currents. The non-NMDA responses showed a strong inward rectification at positive potentials and were potently blocked by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, as observed for the AMPA/kainate glutamate receptors GLUR1 and GLUR3. Furthermore, in situ hybridization experiments showed that GLUR1 and GLUR3 mRNAs are present in corpus callosum cells that were labeled with antiserum to glial fibrillary acid protein and that, in primary cell cultures, had the morphology of type 2 astrocytes. These results indicate that glial cells in the adult corpus callosum possess mRNA encoding functional neurotransmitter receptors and Ca2+ channels. These molecules may provide a mechanism for glial-neuronal interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7682696

  2. Abdominal trauma at the Southern Surgical Association, 1888-1987.

    PubMed Central

    Nance, F C

    1988-01-01

    Since 1888 98 papers have been presented to the Southern Surgical Association (SSA) dealing directly or indirectly with abdominal trauma. The papers reflect the progress over the century in the management of this injury. Almost two-thirds of the papers have originated from the major city hospitals of the south. An interest in abdominal trauma has been manifest among the officers of SSA. Twenty-two presidents have presented papers or taken part in discussions. Four 25-year eras were identified. In the earliest, exploration of abdominal wounds was firmly established as a principle. The second period was characterized by consolidation of principles and strengthening of supportive care. The third era encompassing World War II marked a nadir in productivity. In the last 25 years a reawakened interest has resulted in a marked increase in the number and quality of presentations, which have increasingly focused on specific organ injuries. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3291795

  3. Evidence for autonomic paraneurons in sympathetic ganglia of a shrew (Tupaia glis).

    PubMed Central

    Heym, C; Williams, T H

    1979-01-01

    The morphological relationships between blood vessels and the small monoamine-storing cells have been studied in the superior sympathetic ganglia of Tupaia. Substantial clusters of these cells were found to be associated anatomically with vascular loops or glomeruli. Blood from these glomeruli enters the capillary bed that supplies principal ganglionic neurons. Thus the vascular path for catecholamine transportation is rather clearly defined in Tupaia, providing new morphological evidence for the existence of a portal system for conveying catecholamine from clusters of paraneurons to principal ganglionic neurons. On the basis of vesicle criteria, two populations of small, granule-containing cell were distinguished, and both were encountered in the same cluster. On the basis of fluorescence microscopy, the relatively small number (14.3%) of solitary SIF cells may be true interneurons because, although there has been no electron microscopic identification of efferent synapses, their processes are much longer than those of the paraneurons. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:511759

  4. Experimental frost-bite in Hanford Miniature Swine. II. Vascular changes.

    PubMed Central

    Schoning, P.; Hamlet, M. P.

    1989-01-01

    Frost-bite lesions were produced in five Hanford Miniature Swine exposed to - 75 degrees C air for 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 min. Biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and 1 and 2 weeks. Two hundred slides were evaluated microscopically: superficial and deep hyperaemia, vascular inflammation, medial degeneration, and thrombosis were graded from 0 to 5; 0, no change; 5, severe change. Haemorrhage was recorded as present or absent. Hyperaemia was the earliest change seen, both grossly and microscopically. Leucocyte emigration and vasculitis were intermediate stages seen most commonly in the 6, 12, and 24 h biopsies. Medial degeneration and thrombosis, the most severe vascular changes, were not seen until 1-2 weeks following frost-bite injury. These findings show that the outcome of frost-bite can not be accurately predicted from early frost-bite lesions, because thrombosis and medial degeneration are not evident in early lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:2923789

  5. Ultrastructural Changes in Chick Cerebellum Induced by Polyinosinic Polycytidylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mang C.; Young, Paul A.; Yu, Wan-Hua Amy

    1971-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes in cerebellar encephalopathy induced by intravenous injection of poly I:C in young chickens were studied. The neuroglia and the small blood vessels showed the most severe injury. In the astroglia, initial alterations consisted of a mild cytoplasmic swelling whereas terminally, evagination of the outer nuclear membrane, formation of large vacuoles, and mitochondrial swelling occurred. In the cortex, oligodendroglial alterations consisted of dilatation of the nuclear membranes and of the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas in the white matter, the interfascicular oligodendroglia exhibited clumping and coagulation of the chromatin material. Some small blood vessels appeared normal, while others showed massive erosion of the endothelium resulting in aneurysm-like ballooning of the vascular wall. The granule cells displayed marked edema. The myelin of nerve fibers showed an accumulation of fluid initially, with splitting occurring in the terminal stages. These studies indicated a severe cytotoxic effect of poly I:C on the cerebella of young chickens. ImagesFig 16Fig 17Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:5142269

  6. A morphological and morphometric study of the prosimian lung: the lesser bushbaby Galago senegalensis.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1990-01-01

    The lung of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis) has been investigated morphologically and morphometrically using the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Grossly and microscopically, the bushbaby lung was found to be essentially similar to that of the other primates and the mammals in general. Subtle morphometric differences were, however, observed, with the bushbaby lung being generally structurally less sophisticated than that of the other primates on which comparable data are available, except for man. The weight-specific surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier in G. senegalensis was 25 cm2 g-1. The thickness of the blood-gas barrier was 0.355 micron and the weight specific total anatomical pulmonary diffusing capacity 0.045 mlO2 sec-1 mbar1 kg-1. The morphological similarity of the galago lung to that of man gives sufficient grounds to justify its possible use in human pulmonary studies but caution has been called for in the general utilisation of primate tissues without first establishing their morphological characteristics, just because the primates are taken to be evolutionally close to man. The dearth of morphological studies on the various organ systems of the prosimians is pointed out. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2272898

  7. A necrotizing pneumonia in lambs caused by pseudorabies virus (Aujesky's disease virus).

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, S P; Pirtle, E C; Hagemoser, W A; Wages, D P

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of pseudorabies occurred in sheep housed with swine in the same building. Although the sheep and swine were not in physical contact, the lambs and ewes were exposed to air from the sows' section. Three dead lambs were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. Grossly there were pulmonary congestion and multifocal pulmonary hemorrhages. Microscopic lesions were severe acute multifocal necrotizing bronchopneumonia with necrotizing vasculitis and intranuclear inclusion bodies within the neurons of the parabronchial ganglia. Bacterial cultures were negative for pathogenic agents; pseudorabies virus was isolated from ovine brain tissue. Viral antigen was demonstrated in the neurons of the parabronchial ganglia by immunoperoxidase staining. Electron microscopy revealed nucleocapsids in the parabronchial ganglionic neurons which contained basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Viral DNA prepared from the ovine pseudorabies virus isolate was found by restriction endonuclease analysis to be related to the Indiana Funkhauser strain of pseudorabies virus. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3032388

  8. The evolution of the management of penetrating wounds of the heart.

    PubMed Central

    Blatchford, J W; Anderson, R W

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to neurological surgery, which has its origins in the treppaned skulls of Neolithic man, the realization of cardiac surgery awaited the successful suture of a wound of the heart, an accomplishment of the nineteenth century. While the problem of pneumothorax has been cited as contributing to the delay in the development of surgery of the chest, exposure of the heart can be accomplished extrapleurally: hence, the late development of cardiac suture can be traced more to the ancient premise of the inviolability of the heart, a view which persisted up to the time of the first cardiorrhaphy. The successful demonstration of the heart suture in man quickly led to its widespread adoption. Subsequently, two schools of thought regarding the initial management of penetrating cardiac wounds developed, one advocating conservative treatment with pericardiocentesis, the other prompt cardiorrhaphy. The increasing safety of thoracotomy, along with an appreciation of the unpredictable and frequently catastrophic course following an initial favorable response to pericardiocentesis resulted in the gradual emergence of cardiorrhaphy as the procedure of choice, relegating pericardiocentesis to a diagnostic or temporizing measure. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. PMID:3901944

  9. Biochemical and histological effects of feeding thermally oxidized rapeseed oil and lard to rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, H G; Alexander, J C; Valli, V E

    1977-01-01

    Four groups of weanling rats were fed semisynthetic diets containing 15 percent by weight of dietary fats for 28 days. Two groups received thermally oxidized low-erucic acid rapeseed oil (OLE) or lard (OLA) and the other two groups received the respective fresh fats (FLE, FLA) as controls. Average daily feed consumption and feed efficiency were not affected by either OLE or OLA, however final body weights were depressed by the OLA in the diet. The relative heart weights and heart total lipids were significantly increased in both the OLE and OLA groups. A majority of the animals in both the OLE and OLA groups exhibited various gross symptoms attributable to heated fat toxicity such as seborrhea, diarrhea and polyuria. Excessive hair loss was noted in all the animals fed the heated fats. Tissue fatty acid changes due to OLA were confined largely to the polar liver lipids, whereas OLE produced dramatic changes in both the neutral heart lipids as well as in the neutral and polar liver lipids. Histological evaluation of the hearts, livers and kidneys indicated that OLA was very injurious to the kidneys, whereas OLE caused greater damage to both the hearts and livers. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:832196

  10. Expansion of CD3+CD4-CD8- T cell population expressing high levels of IL-5 in Omenn's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, I; Cohen, A; Roifman, C M

    1994-01-01

    Omenn's syndrome is a fatal, autosomal-recessive combined immune deficiency characterized by several erythematous exfoliative eruptions, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and elevated eosinophil count. In some of these patients an expansion of CD3+CD4-CD8- double negative (DN) T cell population was observed. We show here that the DN population represents a clonal expansion of T cells which preferentially use V beta 14 in their T cell receptor complex. Using polymerase chain reaction, we show that patient's DN cells express spontaneously high levels of IL-5, thus possibly explaining the abundance of eosinophils in this disorder. The increase of IgE observed in patients with Omenn's syndrome is unlikely to be related to IL-4 production, as IL-4 levels in patient samples were low. However, patient's low expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), which has been reported to inhibit IgE production, may explain the elevated levels of IgE in this patient. The results thus highlight the importance of the inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma on regulation of IgE production. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8287598

  11. The regulatory gene areA mediating nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations affecting specificity of gene activation alter a loop residue of a putative zinc finger.

    PubMed Central

    Kudla, B; Caddick, M X; Langdon, T; Martinez-Rossi, N M; Bennett, C F; Sibley, S; Davies, R W; Arst, H N

    1990-01-01

    The regulatory gene areA mediating nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans has been sequenced and its transcript mapped and orientated. A single ORF can encode a protein of 719 amino acids. A 52 amino acid region including a putative 'zinc finger' strongly resembles putative DNA binding regions of the major regulatory protein of erythroid cells. The derived protein sequence also contains a highly acidic region possibly involved in gene activation and 22 copies of the motif S(T)PXX, abundant in DNA binding proteins. Analysis of chromosomal rearrangements and transformation with deletion clones identified 342 N-terminal and 124 C-terminal residues as inessential and localized a C-terminal region required for nitrogen metabolite repressibility. A -1 frameshift eliminating the inessential 122 C-terminal amino acids is a surprising loss-of-function mutation. Extraordinary basicity of the replacement C terminus might explain its phenotype. Mutant sequencing also identified a polypeptide chain termination and several missense mutations, but most interesting are sequence changes associated with specificity mutations. A mutation elevating expression of some structural genes under areA control whilst reducing or not affecting expression of others is a leucine to valine change in the zinc finger loop. It reverts to a partly reciprocal phenotype by replacing the mutant valine by methionine. Images Fig.2 Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:1970293

  12. Major Complications of Small Bowel Diverticula

    PubMed Central

    Donald, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Complications of diverticula of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, exclusive of Meckel's diverticula are extremely rare but can produce major diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Major reported complications include hemorrhage, perforation, biliary and pancreatic obstruction, and inflammation with intestinal obstruction. The mortality of complicated duodenal diverticula is reported from 33 to 48%. Our experience with some of these complications is reported. This experience and a review of other reported cases have led to the following recommendations for surgical treatment. 1) Massively bleeding duodenal diverticulum. Precise localization of the bleeding point by endoscopy and/or arteriography is highly desirable. Excision or partial excision of the diverticulum with suture ligation of the bleeding point is necessary. 2) Perforated duodenal diverticulum. Excision or partial excision, secure closure and drainage are necessary. If peri-Vaterian, a probe should be passed through the ampulla of Vater via the common duct. Unless an entirely satisfactory closure is achieved, complete diversion of the enteric stream from the duodenum by vagotomy, antrectomy with closure of duodenal stump, and Billroth II anastomosis is recommended. 3) Choledochal obstruction due to duodenal diverticulum. Choledocho-duodenostomy. 4) Perforation, bleeding, or obstruction due to jejunal or ileal diverticulum. In rare cases, local excision of the diverticulum is feasible. Usually, resection of the involved segment with primary anastomosis is indicated. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:111637

  13. Identification of the human papilloma virus-1a E4 gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Doorbar, J; Campbell, D; Grand, R J; Gallimore, P H

    1986-01-01

    Antibodies prepared against a human papilloma virus-1 (HPV-1) E4/beta-galactosidase fusion protein identified several polypeptides in HPV-1, but not HPV-2 or 4, induced papillomas. The major E4 protein, that represented up to 30% of total cellular protein, was a 16/17-K doublet which was purified by column chromatography and analysed for amino acid content. A peptide derived by chymotryptic digestion was purified by h.p.l.c. and subjected to amino acid sequencing. The unique sequence obtained, Gly-His-Pro-Asp-Leu-Ser-Leu, identified the 16/17-K doublet as a product of the HPV-1 E4 gene region. Antibodies to both the E4/beta-galactosidase fusion protein and the 16/17-K doublet identified two smaller polypeptides (10/11-K) which may represent spliced products of E4. We propose that the products of the HPV-1 E4 gene region are not classical DNA tumor virus early proteins and suggest that they play a role in virus maturation. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3011404

  14. Mechanical exsufflation, noninvasive ventilation, and new strategies for pulmonary rehabilitation and sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed Central

    Bach, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Manual and mechanical exsufflation are important but underutilized ways to clear airway secretions. These methods are especially useful when used in concert with noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance to facilitate extubation and ventilator weaning. This can be used as much as 24 hours a day as an alternative to tracheostomy ventilation or body ventilator use for patients with paralytic restrictive ventilatory insufficiency. These techniques expedite community management of ventilator assisted individuals by avoiding tracheostomy and need for invasive suctioning and ongoing wound care. For these techniques to be effective and to prevent further suppression of ventilatory drive, supplemental oxygen administration must be avoided unless pO2 is less than 60 mm Hg despite normalization of pCO2. Custom molded interfaces for the delivery of noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance can also be used to facilitate the delivery of variable inspiratory expiratory positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Noninvasive intermittent positive airway pressure ventilatory assistance or body ventilator use can rest the respiratory muscles of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This and pulmonary rehabilitation programs geared to exercise reconditioning are therapeutic options that significantly improve the quality of life of these patients. For both paralytic restrictive and obstructive pulmonary patients, these techniques decrease cost and frequency of hospitalizations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1586868

  15. Purification and characterization of the invertase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A comparative analysis with the invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, S; Sanchez, Y; Rodriguez, L

    1990-01-01

    Invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) was purified to homogeneity from exponentially growing cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe fully de-repressed for synthesis of the enzyme, and was shown to be a high-molecular-mass glycoprotein that can be dissociated in the presence of 8 M-urea/1% SDS into identical subunits with an apparent molecular mass of 205 kDa. The carbohydrate moiety, accounting for 67% of the total mass, is composed of equimolar amounts of mannose and galactose. There is a small amount of glucosamine, which is probably involved in the linkage to the protein moiety, since the enzyme is sensitive to treatment with endoglycosidase H. The composition of the carbohydrate moiety resembles that found in higher-eukaryotic glycoproteins and differs from glycoproteins found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein portion of each subunit is a polypeptide of molecular mass 60 kDa, very similar to the invertase of Sacch. cerevisiae. Both proteins cross-react with antibodies raised against the protein fractions of the other, indicating that the two enzymes are similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2187435

  16. A conditionally replicating HIV-1 vector interferes with wild-type HIV-1 replication and spread.

    PubMed Central

    Dropulić, B; Hĕrmánková, M; Pitha, P M

    1996-01-01

    Defective-interfering viruses are known to modulate virus pathogenicity. We describe conditionally replicating HIV-1 (crHIV) vectors that interfere with wild-type HIV-1 (wt-HIV) replication and spread. crHIV vectors are defective-interfering HIV genomes that do not encode viral proteins and replicate only in the presence of wt-HIV helper virus. In cells that contain both wt-HIV and crHIV genomes, the latter are shown to have a selective advantage for packaging into progeny virions because they contain ribozymes that cleave wt-HIV RNA but not crHIV RNA. A crHIV vector containing a triple anti-U5 ribozyme significantly interferes with wt-HIV replication and spread. crHIV vectors are also shown to undergo the full viral replicative cycle after complementation with wt-HIV helper-virus. The application of defective interfering crHIV vectors may result in competition with wt-HIVs and decrease pathogenic viral loads in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8855316

  17. The thalamic projection to the sensory neocortex of the porpoise, Phocoena phocoena.

    PubMed Central

    Revishchin, A V; Garey, L J

    1990-01-01

    Retrograde tracers were injected in various parts of the neocortex of the porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Labelled thalamic neurons were plotted in three-dimensional reconstructions. The lateral geniculate nucleus projects to the visually excitable part of the lateral gyrus. Ventral parts of the medial geniculate nucleus project to the auditory area of the suprasylvian gyrus, while dorsal medial geniculate projects to the 'secondary' auditory area of the ectosylvian gyrus and to the temporal operculum. The ventrobasal and ventropostero-inferior complex projects to cortex anterior to the suprasylvian auditory area, corresponding to somatosensory function. The main projection of the inferior pulvinar is to the suprasylvian gyrus, that of the medial pulvinar to the ectosylvian gyrus, and of the lateral pulvinar to the border of the lateral and suprasylvian gyri. The lateral and posterior complexes project to perisylvian cortex. Throughout the thalamus there is a rough topographic organisation. Lateral to medial through the thalamus represents progression from medial to lateral over the cortex from lateral gyrus to perisylvian cortex. Anterior in cortex is represented by anteroventral in thalamus, and posterior in cortex by posterodorsal in thalamus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2384340

  18. A 36 kDa monomeric protein and its complex with a 10 kDa protein both isolated from bovine aorta are calpactin-like proteins that differ in their Ca2+-dependent calmodulin-binding and actin-severing properties.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, F; Derancourt, J; Capony, J P; Watrin, A; Cavadore, J C

    1988-01-01

    Interaction of plasma membrane with the cytoskeleton involves a large number of proteins, among them a 36 kDa protein that was found to be involved in the interaction with actin filaments. We have isolated a 36 kDa protein from bovine aorta as a monomer and in a complex with a 10 kDa protein. Partial amino acid sequence determinations show that the 36 kDa and 10 kDa proteins isolated from bovine aorta are analogous to or identical with corresponding proteins purified from bovine intestine already described by Kristensen, Saris, Hunter, Hicks, Noonan, Glenney & Tack [(1986) Biochemistry 25, 4497-4503]. We report here that the association of the 10 kDa protein with the 36 kDa protein confers specific calmodulin-binding and actin-severing properties on the complex that are not possessed by the 36 kDa monomer alone. These findings suggest that the protein complex could be involved in thin-filament-related structures or could modulate some Ca2+-regulated events mediated by calmodulin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:2970844

  19. Military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, C J

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479718

  20. Catalytic unit-independent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of type II regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Z; Luo, Y; Vereb, G

    1986-01-01

    Rat liver plasma membranes contain a 55 kDa protein which proved to be identical with type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (kinase A) by several criteria (gel electrophoretic behaviour, peptide map, position of the autophosphorylated site). Analysis of phosphopeptide maps revealed that the membrane-bound RII was phosphorylated by a kinase which is unrelated to the catalytic unit (C) of kinase A. Dephosphorylation of the membrane-bound RII by an endogenous phosphatase was stimulated by both cyclic AMP and fluoride. Addition of C did not stimulate dephosphorylation even in the presence of ADP; moreover, protein inhibitor of C did not modify the effects of cyclic AMP or fluoride. The effects of both cyclic AMP and fluoride were, however, inhibited by C. Results indicate that rat liver plasma membranes contain a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation system for which RII is a relatively specific substrate. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3010951

  1. Disruption of the keratin filament network during epithelial cell division.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, E B; Goodman, S L; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of keratin filaments during cell division was examined in a wide range of epithelial lines from several species. Almost half of them show keratin disruption as described previously: by immunofluorescence, filaments are replaced during mitosis by a 'speckled' pattern of discrete cytoplasmic dots. In the electron microscope these ' speckles ' are seen as granules around the cell periphery, just below the actin cortical mesh, with no detectable 10 nm filament structure inside them and no keratin filament bundles in the rest of the cytoplasm. A time course of the filament reorganization was constructed from double immunofluorescence data; filaments are disrupted in prophase, and the filament network is intact again by cytokinesis. The phenomenon is restricted to cells rich in keratin filaments, such as keratinocytes; it is unrelated to the co-existence of vimentin in many of these cells, and vimentin is generally maintained as filaments while the keratin is restructured. Some resistance to the effect may be conferred by an extended cycle time. Filament reorganization takes place within minutes, so that a reversible mechanism seems more likely than one involving de novo protein synthesis, at this metabolically quiet stage of the cell cycle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6202508

  2. A serine proteinase inhibitor locus at 18q21.3 contains a tandem duplication of the human squamous cell carcinoma antigen gene.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, S S; Schick, C; Fish, K E; Miller, E; Pena, J C; Treter, S D; Hui, S M; Silverman, G A

    1995-01-01

    The squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) is a member of the ovalbumin family of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins). A neutral form of the protein is found in normal and some malignant squamous cells, whereas an acidic form is detected exclusively in tumor cells and in the circulation of patients with squamous cell tumors. In this report, we describe the cloning of the SCCA gene from normal genomic DNA. Surprisingly, two genes were found. They were tandemly arrayed and flanked by two other closely related serpins, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI2) and maspin at 18q21.3. The genomic structure of the two genes, SCCA1 and SCCA2, was highly conserved. The predicted amino acid sequences were 92% identical and suggested that the neutral form of the protein was encoded by SCCA1 and the acidic form was encoded by SCCA2. Further characterization of the region should determine whether the differential expression of the SCCA genes plays a causal role in development of more aggressive squamous cell carcinomas. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7724531

  3. Catalytic editing properties of DNA polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Canard, B; Cardona, B; Sarfati, R S

    1995-01-01

    Enzymatic incorporation of 2',3'-dideoxynucleotides into DNA results in chain termination. We report that 3'-esterified 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates (dNTPs) are false chain-terminator substrates since DNA polymerases, including human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase, can incorporate them into DNA and, subsequently, use this new 3' end to insert the next correctly paired dNTP. Likewise, a DNA substrate with a primer chemically esterified at the 3' position can be extended efficiently upon incubation with dNTPs and T7 DNA polymerase lacking 3'-to-5' exonuclease activity. This enzyme is also able to use dTTP-bearing reporter groups in the 3' position conjugated through amide or thiourea bonds and cleave them to restore a DNA chain terminated by an amino group at the 3' end. Hence, a number of DNA polymerases exhibit wide catalytic versatility at the 3' end of the nascent DNA strand. As part of the polymerization mechanism, these capabilities extend the number of enzymatic activities associated with these enzymes and also the study of interactions between DNA polymerases and nucleotide analogues. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479898

  4. Pheromone action regulates G-protein alpha-subunit myristoylation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Dohlman, H G; Goldsmith, P; Spiegel, A M; Thorner, J

    1993-01-01

    Myristic acid (C14:0) is added to the N-terminal glycine residue of the alpha subunits of certain receptor-coupled guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins). The G alpha subunit (GPA1 gene product) coupled to yeast pheromone receptors exists as a pool of both myristoylated and unmyristolyated species. After treatment of MATa cells with alpha factor, the myristoylated form of Gpa1p increases dramatically, and the unmyristoylated form decreases concomitantly. This pheromone-stimulated shift depends on the function of STE2 (alpha-factor receptor), STE11 (a protein kinase in the response pathway), and NMT1 (myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase) genes and uses the existing pool of fatty acids (is not blocked by cerulenin). Myristoylated Gpa1p persists long after pheromone is removed. Because myristoylation is essential for proper G alpha-G beta gamma association and receptor coupling, pheromone-dependent stimulation of Gpa1p myristoylation may be an important contributing factor in adaptation after signal transmission. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8415763

  5. The dose dependence of glucocorticoid-inducible gene expression results from changes in the number of transcriptionally active templates.

    PubMed Central

    Ko, M S; Nakauchi, H; Takahashi, N

    1990-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones induce the transcription of genes having glucocorticoid response elements in a dose dependent manner. To determine whether this dose dependence represents a response of individual templates or of the mass of templates, we introduced a bacterial beta-galactosidase gene linked to the glucocorticoid-inducible enhancer/promoter of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MTV) into Ltk- cells and obtained stable transformants containing a single or a few templates per cell. Visual inspection and flow cytometry analysis by enzyme histochemistry assay for beta-galactosidase revealed that individual cells showed very heterogeneous beta-galactosidase activity after 48 h induction with dexamethasone. When the glucocorticoid concentration was increased, an increasing cell population producing beta-galactosidase was observed. These phenomena were probably not due to heterogeneity of template copy number or to a predetermined cellular state among individual cells, since cells forming a single small colony gave similar results. This was also supported by data showing that recloned cells retained both their responsiveness to the glucocorticoid hormone and their digestion pattern in Southern blotting analyses. These results indicate that the dose dependent increase of glucocorticoid-inducible gene expression is caused by an increase in the number of transcriptionally active templates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 8. PMID:2167833

  6. Immuno-histological diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases by selected combinations of antisera and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Janossy, G.; Thomas, J. A.; Pizzolo, G.; Granger, S. M.; McLaughlin, J.; Habeshaw, J. A.; Stansfeld, A. G.; Sloane, J.

    1980-01-01

    Tissue sections of frozen biopsy specimens obtained from normal and hyperplastic human lymphoid tissues, 33 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas as well as various forms of immunoregulatory disorders (angioimmunoblastic and dermatopathic lymphadenopathy) were analysed in immunofluorescence tests (using red TRITC and green FITC double-labelling). A panel of antisera including well-characterized conventional reagents to immunoglobulin classes, T lymphoid and Ia-like antigens, and monoclonal antibodies was used. In selected cases the results were compared with the observations of membrane-marker staining on viable cells in suspension. the findings show that the immunological methods can give a very accurate analysis of the normal and malignant lymphoid cells, and can provide complementary information to conventional histology. The investigator can choose the reagent combinations which give answers to various specific questions: e.g. antisera to light chains establish the monoclonality of lymphomas, whilst staining combinations for human T and Ia-like antigens are particularly useful in various immunoregulatory disorders. Monoclonal antibodies will be particularly useful in various immunoregulatory disorders. Monoclonal antibodies will be particularly useful reagents for analysing the tissue distribution of lymphoid subpopulations and ancillary cells in tissue biopsy specimens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6775656

  7. Axotomized neonatal motoneurons overexpressing the bcl2 proto-oncogene retain functional electrophysiological properties.

    PubMed Central

    Alberi, S; Raggenbass, M; de Bilbao, F; Dubois-Dauphin, M

    1996-01-01

    Bcl2 overexpression prevents axotomy-induced neuronal death of neonatal facial motoneurons, as defined by morphological criteria. However, the functional properties of these surviving lesioned transgenic neurons are unknown. Using transgenic mice overexpressing the protein Bcl2, we have investigated the bioelectrical properties of transgenic facial motoneurons from 7 to 20 days after neonatal unilateral axotomy using brain-stem slices and whole cell patch-clamp recording. Nonaxotomized facial motoneurons from wild-type and transgenic mice had similar properties; they had an input resistance of 38 +/- 6 M omega and fired repetitively after injection of positive current pulses. When cells were voltage-clamped at or near their resting membrane potential, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), or vasopressin generated sustained inward currents. In transgenic axotomized mice, facial motoneurons could be found located ipsilaterally to the lesion; they had an input resistance of 150 +/- 30 M omega, indicating that they were smaller in size, fired repetitively, and were also responsive to AMPA, NMDA, and vasopressin. Morphological measurements achieved 1 week after the lesion have shown that application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevented the reduction in size of axotomized transgenic motoneurons. These data indicate that Bcl2 not only prevents morphological apoptotic death of axotomized neonatal transgenic motoneurons but also permits motoneurons to conserve functional electrophysiological properties. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8633001

  8. A human and a plant intron-containing tRNATyr gene are both transcribed in a HeLa cell extract but spliced along different pathways.

    PubMed Central

    van Tol, H; Stange, N; Gross, H J; Beier, H

    1987-01-01

    tRNA splicing enzymes had been identified in mammalian and plant cells long before homologous intron-containing tRNA genes were detected. The tRNATyr gene presented here is the first intron-containing, human tRNA gene for which transcription and pre-tRNA maturation has been studied in a homologous system. This gene is disrupted by a 20-bp long intron and encodes one of the two major human tRNAsTyr which have been purified and sequenced. A tRNATyr gene recently isolated from Nicotiana also contains an intron and codes for a functional, major cytoplasmic tRNATyr. Both tRNA genes are efficiently transcribed in a HeLa cell nuclear extract. Each of them produces two independent primary transcripts because of two initiation and termination sites, respectively. The maturation of the tRNATyr precursors proceeds along different pathways. The intervening sequence of the human pre-tRNATyr is excised first, followed by ligation of the tRNA halves and maturation of the flanks, as has been shown for all intron-containing tRNA genes transcribed in HeLa extract. The order of maturation steps is reversed for the plant pre-tRNATyr: processing of the flanking sequences precedes intron excision. This maturation pathway corresponds to that observed in vivo for tRNA biosynthesis in Xenopus oocytes and yeast. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3502708

  9. Macrophages related to leptomeninges and ventral nerve roots. An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Fraher, J P; McDougall, R D

    1975-01-01

    In immature rats active macrophages were frequently seen projecting into the subarachnoid space from the surface of the leptomeninges. They also occurred between the layers of the pia and within the nerve roots. They were most frequent during the first two weeks after birth, which is a period of rapid neural growth and myelination in ventral roots. In contrast, they were much fewer at later stages. The ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are described. It is suggested that these cells take part in tissue growth and remodelling by the removal of material which degenerates or becomes redundant during development. For example, they may ingest effete leptomeningeal cells or fragments of them. Those within the ventral roots may phagocytose abnormal Schwann cells, or the myelin of sheaths which have failed to develop normally. It is also suggested that macrophages may be involved in the excavation of the subarachnoid space. Another possible function in which they may be involved is the ingestion of material, possibly of a protein nature, from the cerebrospinal fluid. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:1213953

  10. Autosomal Trisomies and Partial Trisomy Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, W. A.

    1963-01-01

    The establishing of 46 chromosomes as the normal complement in man and the report of the sex chromatin bodies in buccal smears were followed by reports of trisomies and other abnormal patterns of the X and Y chromosomes in Klinefelter's and Turner's syndromes. Abnormal autosomal complements were described in mongolism, in the E-trisomy syndrome, the D-trisomy syndrome, in the Sturge-Weber syndrome, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, benign congenital hypotonia, atrial septal defect and in the schizoid personality. Certain of these conditions, as well as the “oral-facial-digital” syndrome, were also found to exist as partial trisomies. The mechanism of a trisomy is one of non-disjunction and of partial trisomy translocation or insertion. Two cases of the partial trisomy in the E group are described; these are of especial interest because of the familial incidence, longer survival and male sex occurrence, features which are rarely seen in the full E-trisomy syndrome. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:20327419

  11. Early regenerative responses induced by monoclonal antibodies directed against a surface glycoprotein of goldfish retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, M; Eshhar, N

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed primarily against antigenic determinants associated with the goldfish optic nerve were prepared and characterized. One selected clone 23-4-C(IgG2a), detected antigenic determinants of glycoprotein nature with an apparent mol. wt. of 140 000. Following injury the level of these molecules increased with a peak at 5-7 days after the lesion (2- to 3-fold higher than the basal level). The results strongly suggest that the increase derives, at least partially, from a real increment in the level of these molecules in the retinal ganglion cells rather than from changes in accessibility. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that the retinal ganglion cells carry the antigenicity. Intraocular injection of the monoclonal antibodies, concomitantly with crush injury, resulted in an earlier and higher regenerative response, reflected by sprouting capacity, protein synthesis and accumulation of radiolabeled material in the tectum contralateral to the side of injury. This may indicate that the antibodies directly activate retinal cells via interaction with surface molecules. Alternatively, the antibodies may be directed against surface molecules which are associated with axonal growth inhibitors, and may therefore mask these surface antigens from further interaction with their native substrate. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:6204857

  12. Transcription factor TFIID is a direct functional target of the adenovirus E1A transcription-repression domain.

    PubMed Central

    Song, C Z; Loewenstein, P M; Toth, K; Green, M

    1995-01-01

    The 243-amino acid adenovirus E1A oncoprotein both positively and negatively modulates the expression of cellular genes involved in the regulation of cell growth. The E1A transcription repression function appears to be linked with its ability to induce cellular DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cell transformation, as well as to inhibit cell differentiation. The mechanism by which E1A represses the transcription of various promoters has proven enigmatic. Here we provide several lines of evidence that the "TATA-box" binding protein (TBP) component of transcription factor TFIID is a cellular target of the E1A repression function encoded within the E1A N-terminal 80 amino acids. (i) The E1A N-terminal 80 amino acids [E1A-(1-80)protein] efficiently represses basal transcription from TATA-containing core promoters in vitro. (ii) TBP reverses completely E1A repression in vitro. (iii) TBP restores transcriptional activity to E1A-(1-80) protein affinity-depleted nuclear extracts. (iv) The N-terminal repression domain of E1A interacts directly and specifically with TBP in vitro. These results may help explain how E1A represses a set of genes that lack common upstream promoter elements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479778

  13. Nucleotide sequencing and characterization of Pseudomonas putida catR: a positive regulator of the catBC operon is a member of the LysR family.

    PubMed Central

    Rothmel, R K; Aldrich, T L; Houghton, J E; Coco, W M; Ornston, L N; Chakrabarty, A M

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida utilizes the catBC operon for growth on benzoate as a sole carbon source. This operon is positively regulated by the CatR protein, which is encoded from a gene divergently oriented from the catBC operon. The catR gene encodes a 32.2-kilodalton polypeptide that binds to the catBC promoter region in the presence or absence of the inducer cis-cis-muconate, as shown by gel retardation studies. However, the inducer is required for transcriptional activation of the catBC operon. The catR promoter has been localized to a 385-base-pair fragment by using the broad-host-range promoter-probe vector pKT240. This fragment also contains the catBC promoter whose -35 site is separated by only 36 nucleotides from the predicted CatR translational start. Dot blot analysis suggests that CatR binding to this dual promoter-control region, in addition to inducing the catBC operon, may also regulate its own expression. Data from a computer homology search using the predicted amino acid sequence of CatR, deduced from the DNA sequence, showed CatR to be a member of a large class of procaryotic regulatory proteins designated the LysR family. Striking homology was seen between CatR and a putative regulatory protein, TfdS. Images FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1688844

  14. Brain-specific tropomyosins TMBr-1 and TMBr-3 have distinct patterns of expression during development and in adult brain.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Lees-Miller, J P; Helfman, D M

    1993-01-01

    In this study we report on the developmental and regional expression of two brain-specific isoforms of tropomyosin, TMBr-1 and TMBr-3, that are generated from the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene via the use of alternative promoters and alternative RNA splicing. Western blot analysis using an exon-specific peptide polyclonal antibody revealed that the two isoforms are differentially expressed in development with TMBr-3 appearing in the embryonic brain at 16 days of gestation, followed by the expression of TMBr-1 at 20 days after birth. TMBr-3 was detected in all brain regions examined, whereas TMBr-1 was detected predominantly in brain areas that derived from the prosencephalon. Immunocytochemical studies on mixed primary cultures made from rat embryonic midbrain indicate that expression of the brain-specific epitope is restricted to neurons. The developmental pattern and neuronal localization of these forms of tropomyosin suggest that these isoforms have a specialized role in the development and plasticity of the nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7694294

  15. Procurement and Maintenance of Germ-Free Swine for Microbiological Investigations1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, R. C.; Bohl, E. H.; Kohler, E. M.

    1964-01-01

    Germ-free swine were routinely procured by both hysterectomy and hysterotomy (Caesarian section). By means of light-weight portable equipment, piglets could be obtained and transported to the laboratory (without contamination) over distances in excess of 100 miles. The isolators employed in rearing were constructed of stainless steel and flexible plastic film. At weekly intervals, fecal swabs and waste from the floor of the isolator were cultured on blood-agar and in thioglycolate broth, as well as being examined microscopically for the presence of bacteria, yeast, and fungi. The presence of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) and viruses in such material was not demonstrable, either by the use of enriched PPLO media or primary porcine-kidney cell cultures. Tissues, body fluids, and cecal contents of piglets sacrificed specifically for microbiological examination were also negative for PPLO, viruses, bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Prenatal infestations by ascarids were not observed. Nutritional problems related to rearing of germ-free piglets, such as hypoglycemia, were not encountered, and the use of an autoclaved commercial sow's milk replacer proved quite satisfactory. The temperature to which piglets were subjected during the first few days of life, however, was very important. The isolator design and application of gnotobiotic techniques to the procurement and rearing of a large germ-free animal such as the pig proved feasible and less difficult than anticipated. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:14199016

  16. Sexual and somatic determinants of the human Y chromosome: studies in a 46,XYp- phenotypic female.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, R G; Luzzatti, L; Hintz, R L; Miller, O J; Koo, G C; Wachtel, S S

    1979-01-01

    A case of a 46,XYp- phenotypic female provided an opportunity to evaluate both sexual and somatic determinants for the Y chromosome. The patient had multiple stigmata of Turner syndrome, but normal stature. Laparotomy revealed a normal uterus and tubes, with 1.5 cm undifferentiated gonads. Serological tests for H-Y antigen (ostensibly the product of Y-chromosomal testis-determining genes) indicated absence of the H-Y+ phenotype normally associated with the intact Y chromosome. We conclude that genes exist on the short arm of the human Y chromosome which both suppress some of the somatic stigmata of Turner syndrome and determine normal expression of H-Y antigen and testicular differentiation of the primitive gonad. Our data are consistent with the view that H-Y genes comprise a family of testis-determinants, and that loss of a critical moiety is inconsistent with normal development of the male gonad. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:573550

  17. Gap junctions in several tissues share antigenic determinants with liver gap junctions.

    PubMed Central

    Dermietzel, R; Leibstein, A; Frixen, U; Janssen-Timmen, U; Traub, O; Willecke, K

    1984-01-01

    Using affinity-purified antibodies against mouse liver gap junction protein (26 K), discrete fluorescent spots were seen by indirect immunofluorescence labelling on apposed membranes of contiguous cells in several mouse and rat tissues: pancreas (exocrine part), kidney, small intestine (epithelium and circular smooth muscle), Fallopian tube, endometrium, and myometrium of delivering rats. No reaction was seen on sections of myocardium, ovaries and lens. Specific labelling of gap junction plaques was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy on ultrathin frozen sections through liver and the exocrine part of pancreas after treatment with gold protein A. Weak immunoreactivity was found on the endocrine part of the pancreas (i.e., Langerhans islets) after glibenclamide treatment of mice and rats, which causes an increase of insulin secretion and of the size as well as the number of gap junction plaques in cells of Langerhans islets. Furthermore, the affinity purified anti-liver 26 K antibodies were shown by immunoblot to react with proteins of similar mol. wt. in pancreas and kidney membranes. Taken together these results suggest that gap junctions from several, morphogenetically different tissues have specific antigenic sites in common. The different extent of specific immunoreactivity of anti-liver 26 K antibodies with different tissues is likely due to differences in size and number of gap junctions although structural differences cannot be excluded. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6209130

  18. UBC1 encodes a novel member of an essential subfamily of yeast ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes involved in protein degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Seufert, W; McGrath, J P; Jentsch, S

    1990-01-01

    The covalent attachment of ubiquitin to cellular proteins is catalyzed by members of a family of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes. These enzymes participate in a variety of cellular processes, including selective protein degradation, DNA repair, cell cycle control, and sporulation. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two closely related ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, UBC4 and UBC5, have recently been shown to mediate the selective degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. We have now identified a third distinct member of this class of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, UBC1. UBC1, UBC4 and UBC5 are functionally overlapping and constitute an enzyme family essential for cell growth and viability. All three mediate selective protein degradation, however, UBC1 appears to function primarily in the early stages of growth after germination of spores. ubc1 mutants generated by gene disruption display only a moderate slow growth phenotype, but are markedly impaired in growth following germination. Moreover, yeast carrying the ubc1ubc4 double mutation are viable as mitotic cells, however, these cells fail to survive after undergoing sporulation and germination. This specific requirement for UBC1 after a state of quiescence suggests that degradation of certain proteins may be crucial at this transition point in the yeast life cycle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2265617

  19. Response of mink, skunk, red fox and raccoon to inoculation with mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus and prevalence of antibody to parvovirus in wild carnivores in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, I K; Povey, R C; Voigt, D R

    1983-01-01

    Mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus-2 were inoculated separately into groups of raccoon, mink, red fox and striped skunk. Raccoons were highly susceptible to mink virus enteritis and feline panleukopenia, with animals developing clinical illness, and several dying within six to ten days of inoculation with lesions typical of parvovirus infection. Both viruses were shed in high titre in the feces of infected raccoons, and high antibody titres were stimulated. Raccoons inoculated with canine parvovirus-2 showed no signs; shedding of virus was sporadic though moderate titres of antibody developed. Mink inoculated with mink virus enteritis and feline panleukopenia developed signs and lesions of early parvovirus infection. No signs or significant lesions followed canine parvovirus-2 inoculation. Shedding of virus was heavy (mink virus enteritis) or sporadic (feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus-2), though good serological responses were elicited to all three viruses. Red fox showed no signs of infection, shed all three viruses only sporadically, and the serological response was strong only to feline panleukopenia. Skunks developed low antibody titres, but no signs, and did not shed virus. Antibody to parvovirus was found in 79.2% of 144 wild red foxes; 22.3% of 112 wild raccoons; 1.3% of 157 wild skunks and 6/7 coyotes in southern Ontario. The likely significance of these viruses to wild and captive individuals and populations of these carnivores is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6309349

  20. Zoonotic aspects of filarial infections in man

    PubMed Central

    Dissanaike, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    This article gives an account of the filarial parasites found in man and their potential transmissibility to and from other vertebrate animals under natural and experimental conditions. Those species that are regarded as being primarily parasites of other vertebrates, but which also infect man, are then dealt with in greater detail. These include the subperiodic strain of Brugia malayi and perhaps also B. pahangi, both of which are found in wild and domestic carnivores and monkeys, and Dirofilaria species of dogs and racoons. The Brugia parasites develop to maturity with the production of microfilaraemia and clinical manifestations in man similar to those caused by periodic B. malayi in man. Human dirofilariasis, on the other hand, represents a transmission cul-de-sac for the parasite. Clinical manifestations are mild or absent and generally the worms do not mature and, even if they do, they rarely give rise to microfilaraemia. D. immitis causes pulmonary dirofilariasis, and D. repens and D. tenuis give rise to subcutaneous nodules in man. The diagnosis of dirofilariasis depends on an awareness of the infection in the animal reservoirs and of the possibility of man being exposed to bites of infected vectors. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:314349

  1. PubMed Central

    Fouron, J.-C.; Favreau-Ethier, M.; Marion, P.; Davignon, A.

    1967-01-01

    Sixteen cases of peripheral pulmonary stenosis have been studied clinically and by cardiac catheterization. Diagnosis has been proved in all cases by manometric measurements and/or cineangiocardiography. All patients except two were below 2 years of age. Ten cases were of type I, i.e. the stenosis was localized to the pulmonary trunk or its main branches. Six patients were of type III, i.e. they had diffuse stenosis of the pulmonary arterial tree. The physical findings, which in many cases are typical and include the presence of a systolic murmur over both lung fields, should alert the physician to the diagnosis at the bedside. At cardiac catheterization the configuration of the pressure tracing in the main pulmonary artery is typical, showing an abrupt rise and fall of the systolic wave followed by a low situated dicrotic notch. There is no doubt that in the past many cases of peripheral pulmonary stenosis have been wrongly diagnosed as “essential pulmonary hypertension”. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:6021054

  2. Regeneration of Human Liver After Hepatic Lobectomy Studied by Repeated Liver Scanning and Repeated Needle Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tien-Yu; Lee, Chue-Shue; Chen, Chiou-Chiang; Liau, Kuong-Yi; Lin, Wen-Shih-Jen

    1979-01-01

    Regeneration of the residual lobe of the liver after hepatic lobectomy in humans was studied by repeated liver scanning in seven noncirrhotic and three cirrhotic patients. Each patient was studied for several months during the study which lasted from 1-12 years. Regeneration was apparent in noncirrhotic liver remnants following hepatic lobectomy. In the case of a long standing, space occupying lesions such as benign giant cysts, the liver remnant would complete its regeneration process rather early, usually within a few months of hepatic lobectomy. In hepatoma cases, however, regeneration of the residual lobe after hepatic resection usually took five or six months for completion. On the contrary, no definite increase in the size of the liver remnant was seen on repeated liver scanning in cirrhotic patients. Histologic study of the residual lobe was repeated on needle biopsy specimens in two noncirrhotic and four cirrhotic patients. Regenerative hyperplasia of liver cells with large hyperchromatic, or double nuclei never seen in the preresection liver appeared in the liver remnant five, 11, and 27 days after hepatic lobectomy in noncirrhotic patients. In cirrhotics, however, there were no histologic changes between the preresection liver and the postresection remnant studied three, five, 15, 40 days or even two years and 8 months after hepatic lobectomy. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:464678

  3. Cavernous portion of the trochlear nerve with special reference to its site of entrance.

    PubMed Central

    Bisaria, K K

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 80 cavernous sinuses in 40 cadavers, the trochlear nerve entered the cavernous sinus in 87.5% of cases before the crossing, in 7.5% at the crossing and in 5.0% after the crossing of the free and the attached margins of the tentorium cerebelli. In 77.5% of specimens the trochlear nerve showed a marked bend with flattening at the site of its entrance into the cavernous sinus. The nerve ran between the superficial and deep layers of dura, partly between them, in the thickness of the deeper layer, or deep to the deep layer but adherent to it. These findings do not conform with the description of its course by other workers in the past. In 72.5% of specimens the size of the trochlear nerve was larger during its course in the cavernous sinuses but in 20.0% of specimens such an increase in thickness was noted even in the posterior cranial fossa. Only in one specimen was the trochlear nerve adherent to the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Cases showing the trochlear nerve entering the cavernous sinus after the crossing of the two margins of tentorium cerebelli and the splitting and branching of the trochlear nerve in the cavernous sinus have not hitherto been reported. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3248970

  4. Activation of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation during meiotic maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes: in vitro ordered appearance of S6 phosphopeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Pérez, J; Rudkin, B B; Siegmann, M; Thomas, G

    1986-01-01

    During meiotic maturation of Xenopus laevis stage 6 oocytes into unfertilized eggs, 40S ribosomal protein S6 undergoes multiple phosphorylation. Extracts prepared from unfertilized eggs are up to 10-fold more efficient in phosphorylating S6 than those prepared from immature oocytes. When analyzed by DEAE chromatography the S6 kinase activity elutes as a single peak. If extracts from unfertilized eggs are prepared in the absence of beta-glycerol phosphate, a putative phosphatase inhibitor, there is a severe reduction in recovered S6 kinase activity. Under optimal conditions, incubation of unfertilized egg extracts with 40S ribosomes in the presence of ATP leads to the average incorporation of 3.5 mol of phosphate/mol of S6. Prior incubation of these extracts with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor does not inhibit S6 phosphorylation indicating that another kinase is responsible. Analysis of the in vitro phosphorylated peptides demonstrates that they migrate to the equivalent position of those observed previously in vivo and in vitro. More strikingly, if each of the increasingly phosphorylated derivatives of S6 is analyzed independently, it is found that the phosphopeptides appear in a specific order. Images Fig.1. Fig.4. Fig.5. Fig.6. PMID:3709523

  5. Malaria in the African highlands: past, present and future.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, S. W.; Martens, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Many of the first European settlers in Africa sought refuge from the heat and diseases of the plains by moving to the cool and salubrious highlands. Although many of the highlands were originally malaria free, there has been a progressive rise in the incidence of the disease over the last 50 years, largely as a consequence of agroforestry development, and it has been exacerbated by scarce health resources. In these areas of fringe transmission where the malaria pattern is unstable, epidemics may be precipitated by relatively subtle climatic changes. Since there is little immunity against the disease in these communities, outbreaks can be devastating, resulting in a substantial increase in morbidity and death among both children and adults. We present here the results obtained using a mathematical model designed to identify these epidemic-prone regions in the African highlands and the differences expected to occur as a result of projected global climate change. These highlands should be recognized as an area of special concern. We further recommend that a regional modelling approach should be adopted to assess the extent and severity of this problem and help improve disease surveillance and the quality of health care delivered in this unstable ecosystem. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:9615495

  6. Transposon tools for recombinant DNA manipulation: characterization of transcriptional regulators from yeast, Xenopus, and mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, B A; Conlon, F L; Manzanares, M; Millar, J B; Kanuga, N; Sharpe, J; Krumlauf, R; Smith, J C; Sedgwick, S G

    1996-01-01

    Transposon Tn1000 has been adapted to deliver novel DNA sequences for manipulating recombinant DNA. The transposition procedure for these "tagged" Tn1000s is simple and applicable to most plasmids in current use. For yeast molecular biology, tagged Tn1000s introduce a variety of yeast selective markers and replication origins into plasmids and cosmids. In addition, the beta-globin minimal promoter and lacZ gene of Tn(beta)lac serve as a mobile reporter of eukaryotic enhancer activity. In this paper, Tn(beta)lac was used to localize a mouse HoxB-complex enhancer in transgenic mice. Other tagged transposons create Gal4 DNA-binding-domain fusions, in either Escherichia coli or yeast plasmids, for use in one- and two-hybrid tests of transcriptional activation and protein-protein interaction, respectively. With such fusions, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Swi6 G1/S-phase transcription factor and the Xenopus laevis Pintallavis developmental regulator are shown to activate transcription. Furthermore, the same transposon insertions also facilitated mapping of the Swi6 and Pintallavis domains responsible for transcriptional activation. Thus, as well as introducing novel sequences, tagged transposons share the numerous other applications of transposition such as producing insertional mutations, creating deletion series, or serving as mobile primer sites for DNA sequencing. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8610121

  7. Antibodies to spermatozoa. III. Responses in rabbits and guinea-pigs to immunization with guinea-pig sperm cells

    PubMed Central

    Hekman, Annemarie; Shulman, S.

    1971-01-01

    The antigens of guinea-pig sperm cells, of both the epididymal and ejaculated (or seminal) types, have been studied, using rabbit and guinea-pig antisera. Several antigens could be revealed by gel diffusion studies, using well-washed but non-ruptured sperm cells, indicating that intentional cell breaking is not essential for demonstrating the antigens. This release of soluble antigen was followed as a function of time and temperature, both as total protein in supernatants and in increasing strength of precipitation. With rabbit antiserum, epididymal sperm showed two antigens, that were also demonstrated in epididymal and testicular extract and in seminal sperm. These other materials revealed additional antigens with these antisera. Immunofluorescent staining was limited to the acrosomes. With guinea-pig antibodies, no precipitating antigen that was characteristic of sperm could be seen. These antisera showed immunofluorescent staining of the acrosomes. The staining could be distinguished, in terms of thermostability, from the staining produced by normal serum. No evidence was found for the occurrence of any sperm-coating antigens in the guinea-pig, especially since both antiseminal plasma and antivesicular fluid antisera failed to give immunofluorescent staining of the sperm cells. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4998924

  8. A guinea pig model of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Morck, D W; Costerton, J W; Bolingbroke, D O; Ceri, H; Boyd, N D; Olson, M E

    1990-01-01

    The induction of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) was examined. Specific pathogen free male guinea pigs were anesthetized and a tracheostomy performed to introduce 10(5), 10(4) or 10(3) Pasteurella haemolytica-A1 into the left principal bronchus. The surgical site was closed with tissue adhesive and staples and the animals were monitored for signs of respiratory tract infection. Within 24 hours after inoculation they became depressed, anorectic, pyretic and dyspneic. Fibrinous pleuropneumonia with prominent areas of necrosis and hemorrhage was present. Pericardial effusion was a frequent finding. There was infiltration of the pleura and alveoli with degenerate heterophils and macrophages, a hyperplastic mesothelium and fibrin exudation on the pleura and within alveoli. Hemorrhage, congestion, consolidation, edema and fibrin exudation were prominent in the hilar region of the lungs. Bacterial colonies were evident in all airways. More bacteria were recovered from infected lungs than were inoculated (p less than 0.05) indicating P. haemolytica was actively multiplying in the lungs. Hematological and clinical chemistry data were consistent with fibrinous pneumonia, however, blood cultures were positive for P. haemolytica in 61% (11/18) of animals sampled. Examination of pneumonic pasteurellosis in guinea pigs may be useful in studying pathogenetic and pathological features applicable to bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever pneumonia). Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2306663

  9. A Discussion of the Issue of Football Helmet Removal in Suspected Cervical Spine Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Segan, Ross D.; Cassidy, Christine; Bentkowski, Jamie

    1993-01-01

    In some areas, it is a commonly accepted emergency medical technician protocol to remove a helmet during the initial management of suspected cervical spine injures. After a comprehensive survey of relevant literature, four primary reasons why Emergency Medical Services professionals would desire to remove a helmet emerge. Sources suggest that the presence of a helmet might: 1) interfere with immobilization of the athlete; 2) interfere with the ability to visualize injuries; 3) cause hyperflexion of the cervical spine; and 4) prevent proper airway management during a cardiorespiratory emergency. Many available protocols are designed for the removal of closed chamber motorcycle helmets that do not have removable face masks. There are a great number of differing viewpoints regarding this issue. The varying viewpoints are results of the failure of many emergency medical technician management protocols to address the unique situation presented by a football helmet. We: 1) demonstrate that football helmet removal is potentially dangerous and unnecessary, 2) suggest that cardiorespiratory emergencies can be effectively managed without removing the helmet, and 3) provide sports medicine professional with information that may be used to establish a joint Emergency Medical Services/Sports Medicine emergency action plan. ImagesFig. 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6. PMID:16558244

  10. Cyclosporin A suppresses the expression of the interleukin 2 gene by inhibiting the binding of lymphocyte-specific factors to the IL-2 enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Randak, C; Brabletz, T; Hergenröther, M; Sobotta, I; Serfling, E

    1990-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA), a powerful immunosuppressive drug, inhibits the synthesis of lymphokines in T lymphocytes at the level of gene transcription. Using protein extracts from El4 lymphoma cells we show that the binding of lymphocyte-specific factors interacting with the two so-called purine boxes (Pu-boxes) of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) enhancer are missing in CsA-treated cells. The CsA-sensitive factors are newly synthesized upon induction. The most prominent factor consists of 45 kd polypeptides and contacts both Pu-boxes at the two central G residues within the identical core sequence AAGAGGAAAA. The CsA-mediated suppression of factor binding to the Pu-boxes correlates well with functional studies in which the inducible, T cell-restricted proto-enhancer activity of Pu-boxes was selectively repressed by CsA. These observations support the conclusion that the suppression of factor binding to the Pu-boxes by CsA impairs the activity of IL-2 and of further lymphokine genes, thereby inhibiting the synthesis of lymphokines in T lymphocytes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2369902

  11. Ovine Haemophilus somnus: experimental intracisternal infection and antigenic comparison with bovine Haemophilus somnus.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, V W; Yates, W D; Corbeil, L B

    1994-01-01

    Experimental infection was produced by two of four isolates of ovine Haemophilus somnus given by intracisternal inoculation into two to three-month-old lambs. Isolate 2041 (originally obtained from a septicemic lamb in Alberta) caused lethal infection in eight of nine lambs, isolate 67p from the prepuce of a normal lamb produced less acute disease in four of nine lambs, and the other two isolates (93p and 1190) caused no detectable disease. Significant lesions were limited to the brain and spinal cord. Purulent meningitis was characteristic but vasculitis or septicemia were not detected, perhaps due to the route of inoculation. Since a difference in virulence was noted among strains, we analyzed surface proteins thought to be virulence factors of bovine H. somnus. Protein profiles of bovine and ovine H. somnus done by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed similar patterns for virulent bovine isolates and ovine septicemic isolates. Preputial isolates showed a lower molecular mass major outer membrane protein than septicemic isolates. Antigenic analysis revealed that outer membrane proteins p270, p78, p76, p40, and p39 were detected in both ovine and bovine isolates except for 1190, which was probably not a true H. somnus isolate. Thus the preputial and septicemic isolates of ovine H. somnus were similar to bovine H. somnus in pathogenicity and in surface antigens. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7954123

  12. Annexin-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana rescues delta oxyR mutant of Escherichia coli from H2O2 stress.

    PubMed Central

    Gidrol, X; Sabelli, P A; Fern, Y S; Kush, A K

    1996-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are common causes of cellular damages in all aerobic organisms. In Escherichia coli, the oxyR gene product is a positive regulator of the oxyR regulon that is induced in response to H2O2 stress. To identify genes involved in counteracting oxidative stress in plants, we transformed a delta oxyR mutant of E. coli with an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library and selected for clones that restored the ability of the delta oxyR mutant to grow in the presence of H2O2. Using this approach, we isolated a cDNA that has strong homology with the annexin super-gene family. The complemented mutant showed higher catalase activity. mRNA expression of the annexin gene in A. thaliana was higher in roots as compared with other organs and was also increased when the plants were exposed to H2O2 stress or salicylic acid. Based on the results presented in this study, we propose a novel physiological role for annexin in counteracting H2O2 stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8855345

  13. A mutant cytochrome b5 with a lengthened membrane anchor escapes from the endoplasmic reticulum and reaches the plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Pedrazzini, E; Villa, A; Borgese, N

    1996-01-01

    Many resident membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) do not have known retrieval sequences. Among these are the so-called tail-anchored proteins, which are bound to membranes by a hydrophobic tail close to the C terminus and have most of their sequence as a cytosolically exposed N-terminal domain. Because ER tail-anchored proteins generally have short (< or = 17 residues) hydrophobic domains, we tested whether this feature is important for localization, using cytochrome b5 as a model. The hydrophobic domain of cytochrome b5 was lengthened by insertion of five amino acids (ILAAV), and the localization of the mutant was analyzed by immunofluorescence in transiently transfected mammalian cells. While the wild-type cytochrome was localized to the ER, the mutant was relocated to the surface. This relocation was not due to the specific sequence introduced, as demonstrated by the ER localization of a second mutant, in which the original length of the membrane anchor was restored, while maintaining the inserted ILAAV sequence. Experiments with brefeldin A and with cycloheximide demonstrated that the extended anchor mutant reached the plasma membrane by transport along the secretory pathway. We conclude that the short membrane anchor of cytochrome b5 is important for its ER residency, and we discuss the relevance of this finding for other ER tail-anchored proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8633042

  14. Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs that render yeasts tolerant toward the thiol-oxidizing drug diamide.

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, S; Babiychuk, E; Kampfenkel, K; Belles-Boix, E; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1995-01-01

    Diamide oxidizes cellular thiols and induces oxidative stress. To isolate plant genes which may, when overexpressed, increase tolerance of plants toward oxidative damage, an in vivo diamide tolerance screening in yeasts was used. An Arabidopsis cDNA library in a yeast expression vector was used to transform a yeast strain with intact antioxidant defense. Cells from approximately 10(5) primary transformants were selected for resistance to diamide. Three Arabidopsis cDNAs which confer diamide tolerance were isolated. This drug tolerance was specific and no cross tolerance toward hydroperoxides was found. One cDNA (D3) encodes a polypeptide which has an amino-terminal J domain characteristic of a divergent family of DnaJ chaperones. Another (D18) encodes a putative dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase. Surprisingly, the third cDNA (D22) encodes a plant homolog of gamma-glutamyltransferases. It would have been difficult to predict that the expression of those genes would lead to an improved survival under conditions of depletion of cellular thiols. Hence, we suggest that this cloning approach may be a useful contribution to the isolation of plant genes that can help to cope with oxidative stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479844

  15. Inhalation and injection studies in rats using dust samples from chrysotile asbestos prepared by a wet dispersion process.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. M.; Addison, J.; Bolton, R. E.; Donaldson, K.; Jones, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    Long term inhalation studies and intraperitoneal injection studies in rats were undertaken with a series of chrysotile asbestos dusts. Three dust samples were generated from chrysotile modified by the wet dispersion process (WDC) and one was from unmodified chrysotile. Following a 1 year inhalation period, all the chrysotile samples proved extremely fibrogenic and carcinogenic and there were no significant differences between the WDC dusts and normal chrysotile. In all experimental groups approximately 25% of animals developed pulmonary carcinomas and in the oldest rats advanced interstitial fibrosis occupied on average 10% of all lung tissue. In the injection studies all the dust samples produced mesotheliomas in over 90% of animals. Very little chrysotile remained in the lungs of the animals that survived longest following dust inhalation and what there was was present as individual chrysotile fibrils. It is suggested that chrysotile is potentially the most harmful variety of asbestos as shown in these and other animal studies but that it is removed from lung tissue quite rapidly. In the long lived human species this may mean that except where exposure levels are very high and of long duration, chrysotile should be less hazardous than other asbestos types. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3004552

  16. Plasmid-determined resistance to serum bactericidal activity: a major outer membrane protein, the traT gene product, is responsible for plasmid-specified serum resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Moll, A; Manning, P A; Timmis, K N

    1980-01-01

    Resistance to the bactericidal activity of serum appears to be an important virulence property of invasive bacteria. The conjugative multiple-antibiotic-resistance plasmid R6-5 was found to confer upon Escherichia coli host bacteria increased resistance against rabbit serum. Gene-cloning techniques were used to localize the serum resistance determinant of R6-5 to a segment of the plasmid that encodes conjugal transfer functions, and a pACYC184 hybrid plasmid, designated pKT107, that contains this segment was constructed. The generation and analysis of deletion and insertion mutant derivatives of the pKT107 plasmid that no longer specify serum resistance permitted precise localization of the serum-resistance cistron on the R6-5 map and demonstrated that this locus is coincident with that of traT, one of the two surface exclusion genes of R6-5. Examination of the proteins synthesized in E. coli minicells of pKT107 and its serum-sensitive mutant derivative plasmids confirmed that the serum-resistance gene product of R6-5 is the traT protein and showed that this protein is a major structural component (about 21,000 copies per cell) of the bacterial outer membrane. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6995306

  17. Eye Injuries in Canadian Racquet Sports

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Thomas J.; Bishop, Patrick J.; Easterbrook, W. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Racquet sports eye injuries have increased steadily in recent years. To determine the magnitude of the problem, the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) Athletic Eye Injury Committee has sent questionnaires to COS members since 1976 to be completed for all racquet sports eye injuries treated. In the first year of the questionnaire 48 injuries were reported, including three legally blind eyes. From July 1978 to May 1981, 154 squash and 91 racquetball eye injuries were reported. Half the injured players required hospitalization and surgery was frequent; some players had permanent vision loss. These findings led to assessment of available eye protectors. Open-type protectors can be penetrated by balls and some closed-type protectors are not sufficiently sturdy. Steps are underway to write a Canadian standard for racquet sports eye protectors. Meanwhile the public must be informed of the danger of racquet sports eye injuries and the importance of wearing closed-type protectors. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:21286105

  18. Gene expression of calpains and their specific endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, in skeletal muscle of fed and fasted rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ilian, M A; Forsberg, N E

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the role of calpains in myofibrillar protein degradation in skeletal muscle and the regulation of their activity in vivo, we studied the effects of fasting on gene expression of calpains and calpastatin in the skeletal muscle of rabbits. In response to fasting, myofibrillar protein degradation increased 2-fold and mRNA levels of calpain I, calpain II and calpastatin were also increased. However, calpain and calpastatin activities remained unchanged. To investigate this discrepancy, we analysed polysomal calpain mRNA. Results indicated that fasting caused a 2-fold increase in the loading of calpain I and II mRNAs on ribosomes. Thus transcription of genes encoding calpain may be increased during fasting to ensure adequate synthesis of the proteinases needed to mobilize muscle protein reserves. The effect of fasting on calpain and calpastatin mRNA expression is shared by cathepsin D and proteasome C2 but not by beta-actin, implying that fasting invokes control of several proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle and underscores the possibility that each proteolytic system plays a role in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to the fasted state. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1417770

  19. Evaluation of biocompatible osteoconductive polymer shelf arthroplasty for the surgical correction of hip dysplasia in normal dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, B; Lanthier, T; Martineau-Doizé, B

    1994-01-01

    Biocompatible osteoconductive polymer (BOP) shelf arthroplasty was performed on ten nondysplastic dogs, divided into five groups. Each group was evaluated at 6, 13, 17, 26 or 39 weeks postsurgery. Evaluation consisted of clinical, radiological and histological studies. The dogs were injected with three fluorochrome markers, 28 days, 14 days and 6 hours before euthanasia. Transverse sections of undecalcified arthroplasty site were examined by microradiography and fluorescence microscopy; surface-stained sections were evaluated by light microscopy. The BOP shelf arthroplasty was not technically difficult. Minimal mineralization of the shelf was noted by radiography, 26 and 39 weeks postop. A moderate to large amount of fibrous mature connective tissue was observed around the BOP fibers throughout the study. Bone ingrowth occurred around the BOP fibers, but was minimal within them. This osseous proliferation of the arthroplasty was very slow to take place; it was first noted microscopically 17 weeks postsurgery and was still minimal 39 weeks after surgery. These findings suggest that there may be interference to the osteoconductive properties of BOP by fibrous tissue. Ossification of the shelf arthroplasty was too unsatisfactory to recommend its use for the treatment of canine hip dysplasia. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7954118

  20. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed Central

    King, Talmadge E.

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has a worse response to therapy and prognosis. New insight into the pathophysiology of usual interstitial pneumonia suggests a distinctly fibroproliferative process, and antifibrotic therapies show promise. While the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias can be made confidently in some cases, many patients require surgical lung biopsy to determine their underlying histopathology. A structured, clinical-radiological-pathological approach to the diagnosis of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, with particular attention to the identification of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, insures proper therapy, enhances prognostication, and allows for further investigation of therapies aimed at distinct pathophysiology. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:17060957

  1. Electron-microscopic and electrophoretic studies of bovine femoral-head cartilage proteoglycan fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, D J; Nieduszynski, I A; Oates, K; Sheehan, J K

    1986-01-01

    Proteoglycans (A1D1) extracted from bovine femoral-head cartilage were examined by electron microscopy using benzyldimethylammonium chloride as a spreading agent. The preparation contained a mixture of particles, some with a 'beaded' structure and a contiguous filamentous 'tail' at one end and others which appeared as round 'blobs', some of which also had filamentous tails. Previous electron-microscopic studies of proteoglycan monomers have indicated that their length distributions were apparently unimodal, a finding that contrasted with agarose/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis results, which generally indicated two bands. In the present study proteoglycans isolated from the slowly migrating electrophoretic band were shown to be predominantly the larger molecules of beaded appearance, whereas the rapidly migrating proteoglycans were predominantly molecules with the 'blob-like' appearance. Gel-filtration, isopycnic-density-gradient-centrifugation and rate-zonal-centrifugation techniques were evaluated as means of proteoglycan fractionation by electron microscopy and agarose-gel electrophoresis. Rate-zonal centrifugation in mixed-salt gradients of caesium chloride/4 M-guanidinium chloride yielded the most effective fractionation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3827853

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens in the peribacteroid membrane from Rhizobium-induced root nodules of pea cross-react with plasma membranes and Golgi bodies

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, N. J.; Robertson, J. G.; Wood, E. A.; Wells, B.; Larkins, A. P.; Galfre, G.; Butcher, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    Three rat hybridoma lines that produced monoclonal antibodies reacting with the peribacteroid membrane from Pisum sativum were isolated, and these all appeared to recognise the same antigenic structure. Using one of these monoclonal antibodies, AFRC MAC 64, electron microscopy of immunogold-stained thin sections of nodule tissue revealed that the antigen, present in the peribacteroid membrane, was also found in the plant plasma membranes and in the Golgi bodies, but not in the endoplasmic reticulum. When peribacteroid membrane proteins were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose by electro-blotting, it was found that MAC 64 bound to a series of protease-sensitive bands that migrated in the mol. wt. range 50-85 K. The epitope was sensitive to periodate oxidation and its structure may therefore involve the carbohydrate component of a membrane glycoprotein. We suggest that this structure originates in the Golgi apparatus and is subsequently transferred to the peribacteriod membranes and plasma membranes. The monoclonal antibody also reacted with peribacteroid membranes from nodules of Vicia and lupin, and with plasma membranes and Golgi membranes from uninfected plant cells, including root tip cells from onion (Allium cepa), indicating that the antigen is highly conserved in the plasma membranes of plant cells. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:15926221

  3. Coupled transcription and processing of mouse ribosomal RNA in a cell-free system.

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Y; Mitsuma, T; Ogata, K

    1985-01-01

    An in vitro processing system of mouse rRNA was achieved using an RNA polymerase I-specific transcription system, (S100) and recombinant plasmids consisting of mouse rRNA gene (rDNA) segments containing the transcription initiation and 5'-terminal region of 18S (or 41S) rRNA. Pulse-chase experiments showed that a specific processing occurred with transcripts of the plasmid DNAs when the direction of transcription was the correct orientation relative to the 18S rRNA coding sequence, but not with transcripts of the DNA templates in which this coding sequence was in the opposite orientation. From the S1 nuclease protection analyses, we concluded that there are several steps of endonucleolytic cleavage including one 105 nucleotides upstream from the 5' end of 18S rRNA. Intermediates cleaved at this site were identified in in vivo processing of rRNA. This result indicates that endonucleolytic cleavage takes place 105 nucleotides upstream from the 5' terminus of 18S rRNA prior to the formation of mature 18S rRNA. Trimming or cleavage of the 105 nucleotides may be involved in the formation of the 5' terminus of mature 18S rRNA. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3004977

  4. Interstitial Pulmonary Edema Following Bromocarbamide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, H.; Hagedorn, M.; Bōttcher, D.; Neuhof, H.; Mittermayer, Ch.

    1974-01-01

    Bromocarbamides are sleep-inducing drugs which can lead, in man, to intoxication and death due to respiratory failure. To prove whether hemodynamic factors or the changed endothelial permeability induce pulmonary edema, animal experiments were performed. The fine structural changes in pulmonary edema in rabbits were observed at 60, 90 and 120 minutes after oral administration. The major findings were a) large blebs between capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium and b) interstitial edema of the vessel wall. The bleb contents were much less electron dense than the blood contents in the capillary. Colloidal carbon did not enter the bleb or the edematous interstitial tissue. Exogenous peroxidase uptake in pinocytotie vesicles increased in pathologic cases. The hemodynamic measurements in animal receiving artificial respiration which maintained the blood pO2 at a steady state showed similar blebs in the pulmonary vessels, indicating that anoxia is not the major cause of the vascular lesion. Moreover, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance could be held in the normal range in artificially respirated animals under bromocarbamide intoxication. Thus, hemodynamic factors are not likely to play a pathogenetic role in bringing about pulmonary edema. The chief, early factor is the increased endothelial permeability due to increased cytoplasmic transport. From this a practical suggestion for treating patients with bromocarbamide intoxication is derived: the usual fluid replacement in shock patients should be handled with great care to avoid fluid overload of the lung. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4835993

  5. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  6. Cell-type preference of immunoglobulin kappa and lambda gene promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Picard, D; Schaffner, W

    1985-01-01

    Immunoglobulin gene constant regions are known to be associated with strictly tissue-specific enhancer elements. Until recently the promoter of the variable region, which becomes linked to the constant region by somatic rearrangement, could have been viewed as a passive recipient of the enhancer stimulus. Here we show that the promoters of the immunoglobulin kappa and lambda light chain genes are approximately 20-30 times more active in lymphoid cells than in non-lymphoid cells. To avoid the problem of differential mRNA stability upon transfection of immunoglobulin genes into non-lymphoid cells we have constructed chimeric genes. All kappa mRNA sequences were progressively deleted to fuse the kappa gene promoter to a globin gene coding body. A similar chimeric gene was constructed with the promoter of the lambda gene. The cell-type preference of the promoter may be exploited during B-lymphocyte differentiation to regulate the immunoglobulin gene promoter independently from the enhancer. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2998757

  7. Synergistic trans-activation of the human C-reactive protein promoter by transcription factor HNF-1 binding at two distinct sites.

    PubMed Central

    Toniatti, C; Demartis, A; Monaci, P; Nicosia, A; Ciliberto, G

    1990-01-01

    The promoter region of the human C-reactive protein (CRP) gene comprises two distinct regions (APREs, for Acute Phase Responsive Elements) each one containing information necessary and sufficient for liver specific and IL-6 inducible expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells. In this paper we show that both APREs contain a low affinity binding site for the liver specific transcription factor HNF-1/LF-B1. The two sites are separated by approximately 80 bp. Mutations in either of the two sites abolish inducible expression. The same effect is specifically obtained in cotransfection competition experiments when the human albumin HNF-1 site is used as competitor. However, HNF-1 is not the intranuclear mediator of IL-6 because synthetic promoters formed by multimerized copies of different HNF-1 binding sites are not transcriptionally activated by this cytokine. An expression vector encoding full length HNF-1 is capable of trans-activating transcription from the wild-type CRP promoter but not from mutants which have lost the ability to bind HNF-1. Moreover, the level of trans-activation observed with the natural promoter containing both HNF-1 binding sites is far greater than the level of mutated variants containing only one of the two sites. This result strongly suggests that two HNF-1 molecules bound simultaneously to sites distant from each other can act synergistically to activate gene expression. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:2265613

  8. The ultrastructure of the sensory nerve endings in the articular capsule of the knee joint of the domestic cat (Ruffini corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles).

    PubMed Central

    Halata, Z

    1977-01-01

    Two types of mechanoreceptor have been found in the articular capsule of the knee joint of the domestic cat--Ruffini corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles. Ruffini corpuscles are situated in the stratum fibrosum and consist of 2 to 6 cylinders. Each cylinder is made up of an afferent axon (diameter 3-4 micrometer), its swellings and terminal processes, Schwann cells enveloping the nerve swellings and terminal processes, endoneural connective tissue and a perineural capsule. The perineural capsule is incomplete in Ruffini corpuscles. The Pacinian corpuscles are 20 to 40 micrometer wide and 150-250 micrometer long. They are situated in groups of up to five at the boundary between the stratum synoviale and the stratum fibrosum. The afferent axon is myelinated (diameter 3-5 micrometer). Its terminal portion is inside the inner bulb which is formed of modified Schwann cells. Each corpuscle is enveloped by a perineural capsule (4-8 layers). The ultrastructure of the Pacinian corpuscles is compared with the ultrastructure of the skin receptors in the cat. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:604339

  9. Mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 and blocking antireceptor monoclonal antibody bind to the N-terminal domain of cellular receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Dveksler, G S; Pensiero, M N; Dieffenbach, C W; Cardellichio, C B; Basile, A A; Elia, P E; Holmes, K V

    1993-01-01

    Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain A59 uses as cellular receptors members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family in the immunoglobulin superfamily. Recombinant receptor proteins with deletions of whole or partial immunoglobulin domains were used to identify the regions of receptor glycoprotein recognized by virus and by antireceptor monoclonal antibody CC1, which blocks infection of murine cells. Monoclonal antibody CC1 and MHV-A59 virions bound only to recombinant proteins containing the entire first domain of MHV receptor. To determine which of the proteins could serve as functional virus receptors, receptor-negative hamster cells were transfected with recombinant deletion clones and then challenged with MHV-A59 virions. Receptor activity required the entire N-terminal domain with either the second or the fourth domain and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Recombinant proteins lacking the first domain or its C-terminal portion did not serve as viral receptors. Thus, like other virus receptors in the immunoglobulin superfamily, including CD4, poliovirus receptor, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, the N-terminal domain of MHV receptor is recognized by the virus and the blocking monoclonal antibody. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8383324

  10. Pressure-Driven Extrusion of Intracellular Substances from Bean and Pea Cotyledons during Imbibition 1

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    Intracellular substances leak from imbibing cotyledons of grain legumes during imbibition. This work reports the discovery of a biophysical process by which intracellular substances are driven from cotyledons during imbibition. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) cotyledons and the material released from them into imbibition water. A large fraction of the visible materials released from excised bean and pea cotyledons during the first 30 minutes of imbibition consisted of convoluted or helical streams of material which rapidly emerged from the cotyledons surfaces. Large streams of material from bean cotyledons contained starch grains and protein bodies, and smaller streams from bean and pea cotyledons probably contained protein bodies. The forms of streams were characteristic of a viscous fluid which had been forced by pressure through irregular orifices. The sites of extrusion from bean cotyledons were multicellular blisters which formed on the surfaces of imbibing cotyledons. In 6 hours, pea and bean cotyledons leaked from 1 to 11 micrograms protein per milligram of seed dry weight. The quantities of protein leaked primarily depended on cultivar. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665661

  11. Homeotic transformation of cervical vertebrae in Hoxa-4 mutant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Horan, G S; Wu, K; Wolgemuth, D J; Behringer, R R

    1994-01-01

    Hoxa-4 (previously known as Hox-1.4) is a mouse homeobox-containing gene that is expressed in the presumptive hindbrain and spinal cord, prevertebrae, and other tissues during embryogenesis. To understand the role of Hoxa-4 during development, we generated Hoxa-4 mutant mice. Homozygous mutants were viable and fertile. Analysis of neonatal skeletons revealed the development of ribs on the seventh cervical vertebra at variable penetrance and expressivity. A low frequency of alterations in sternal morphogenesis was also observed. In addition, we analyzed the skeletons of transgenic mice that overexpress Hoxa-4 and found that the formation of the small rib anlagen that often develop on the seventh cervical vertebra was suppressed. Analysis of adult homozygous mutant skeletons revealed that the dorsal process normally associated with the second cervical vertebra was also found on the third cervical vertebra. These results demonstrate that Hoxa-4 plays a role in conferring positional information along the anteroposterior axis to specify the identity of the third and the seventh cervical vertebrae. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7809093

  12. Effect of some blocking drugs on the pressor response to physostigmine in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, S. D.; Gulati, O. D.; Joshi, N. Y.

    1963-01-01

    Bretylium and guanethidine blocked the pressor effect of physostigmine and potentiated the responses to adrenaline and noradrenaline on the blood pressure of the rat. Morphine and atropine in small doses blocked the pressor effect of physostigmine without interfering with the actions of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Chlorpromazine in small doses (0.5 to 2.5 mg/kg) blocked the pressor effect of physostigmine and potentiated the responses to noradrenaline whilst those to adrenaline remained unaltered. 3,6-Di(3-diethylaminopropoxy)pyridazine di(methiodide) (Win 4981) blocked the pressor effect of physostigmine and, in its early stages, this block was partially reversed by choline chloride. N-Diethylaminoethyl-N-isopentyl-N'N'-diisopropylurea (P-286), in a dose that reduced the effect of dimethylphenylpiperazinium, had no effect on the pressor response to physostigmine or on the responses to adrenaline and noradrenaline. Hexamethonium, even in large doses (100 mg/kg), only blocked partially the effect of physostigmine while mecamylamine produced a complete block; the responses to adrenaline and noradrenaline were potentiated in both instances. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14081658

  13. Transcription of a yeast ribosomal RNA minigene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Quincey, R V; Arnold, R E

    1984-01-01

    A transcription system using intact yeast has been developed for investigating which sequences are implicated in the initiation of transcription of yeast rRNA genes. The system employs an rRNA minigene that consists of the initiation and termination sites for rRNA biosynthesis separated by approx. 700 base pairs of vector DNA in the Escherichia coli-yeast shuttle vector, pJDB207. Two recombinants containing this minigene were constructed; one retained all of the nontranscribed spacer DNA upstream from the initiation site, the other retained 208 base pairs of this DNA. Transcripts of this structurally unique minigene in RNA from yeast transformed with these recombinants were readily detected by nuclease S1 mapping. These transcripts were initiated at the site used by the host rRNA genes, were approx. 3-fold more abundant in the recombinant retaining all of the nontranscribed spacer and were less abundant when the yeast was not growing. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6097222

  14. Temporary immobilisation facilitates repair of chemically induced articular cartilage injury.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J M; Brandt, K D

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that immobilisation of the lower limb may prevent surface fibrillation and osteophyte formation, and reduce cell depletion, following injection of iodoacetate into the ipsilateral knee of the guinea-pig. The present study shows that temporary immobilisation also facilitates repair of the damaged cartilage during a subsequent period of remobilisation in which the animal is permitted to move 'on all fours'. Thus, in animals killed six weeks after a single intra-articular injection of iodoacetate (0.3 mg in 0.1 ml saline), and in which the injected knee had been immobilised for three weeks, Safranin-O staining of the articular cartilage was more intense, chondrocyte density greater, and osteophytosis much less marked than in animals injected with iodoacetate but killed immediately after the three weeks immobilisation period. By contrast, immobilisation for only one week failed to protect against degenerative changes and osteophytes caused by iodoacetate injection. Immobilisation alone produced no apparent pathological changes in animals which did not receive iodoacetate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6735906

  15. Expression of murine and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in S. cerevisiae: mutagenesis of the potential glycosylation sites.

    PubMed Central

    Miyajima, A; Otsu, K; Schreurs, J; Bond, M W; Abrams, J S; Arai, K

    1986-01-01

    Murine (m) and human (h) granulocyte--macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSF) have been expressed in large quantities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a secretion vector containing the promoter and leader sequences of the mating pheromone alpha-factor. Functionally active mGM-CSF was identified by a proliferation assay with a factor-dependent cell line and by a granulocyte--macrophage colony formation assay using bone marrow cells. The activity of hGM-CSF was confirmed by stimulation of granulocyte--macrophage colony formation using human cord blood cells. Murine GM-CSF with various apparent mol. wts (13, 18, 24, 34 and 40 kd, as well as a smear of higher mol. wts) was detected in yeast culture medium by protein blotting using a rat monoclonal antibody specific for the mGM-CSF N-terminal region peptide. Protein blotting using a rat monoclonal antibody specific for the hGM-CSF N-terminal region demonstrated that a 15.6-kd and higher mol. wt heterogeneous species were secreted. Mutations introduced at each of the two potential N-linked glycosylation sites in mGM-CSF showed that the 13-kd protein is not glycosylated and the major 18-kd protein is mainly glycosylated at the more C-terminal site, whereas the heterogeneous higher mol. wt species were not affected by the mutations. The N-terminal amino acid of the 13-kd protein was shown to be Ser which was four amino acids in the C-terminal direction from the fusion point. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:3525148

  16. Preparation, characterization and biological properties of biotinylated derivatives of calmodulin.

    PubMed Central

    Polli, J W; Billingsley, M L

    1991-01-01

    Biotinylated derivatives of calmodulin (CaM) were prepared and their biological properties characterized by using enzyme assays, affinity and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography. Several N-hydroxysuccinimidobiotin derivatives [sulphosuccinimidobiotin (sulpho-NHS) and sulphosuccinimido-6-(biotinamido)hexanoate (BNHS-LC)] differing in spacer arm length were used to modify CaM. The shorter-spacer-arm CaM derivative (sulpho-CaM) activated CaM-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and CaM-dependent protein kinase II; preincubation with avidin blocked its ability to activate these enzymes. The extended-spacer-arm derivative (BNHS-LC-CaM) activated CaM-dependent enzymes both in the presence and in the absence of avidin, suggesting that the longer spacer arm diminished steric effects from avidin preincubation. Other biotinylated CaM derivatives were prepared with biotinylated tyrosine and/or histidine residues (diazobenzoylbiocytin; DBB-CaM) or nucleophilic sites (photobiotin acetate; photo-CaM). These derivatives activated CaM-dependent enzymes in the presence and in the absence of avidin. Oriented affinity columns were constructed with covalently immobilized avidin complexed to each biotinylated CaM derivative. The chromatographic profiles obtained revealed that each column interacted with a specific subset of CaM-binding proteins. Elution profiles of biotinyl CaM derivatives on phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic-interaction chromatography suggested that several derivatives displayed diminished binding to the matrix in the presence of Ca2+. Development and characterization of a series of biotinylated CaM molecules can be used to identify domains of CaM that interact with specific CaM-dependent enzymes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1645521

  17. The ultrastructure of the epithelium of the ductuli efferentes testis in the common starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, S J; Kendall, M D

    1985-01-01

    The ductuli efferentes of male common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were prepared for light and electron microscopy. The epithelium of breeding birds was pseudostratified, consisting of ciliated cells, which were of the same type throughout the ductules, and of two types of non-ciliated cells: an electron-dense form with complex lateral invaginations, long microvilli and apical invaginations found in proximal ductuli efferentes (Type 1 a) and a less dense, taller, seemingly more secretory cell found distally (Type 1 b). Both types contained crystal-like structures in granular and transitional endoplasmic reticulum, which were occasionally seen in ciliated cells and not elsewhere. These 'intracisternal bodies' were probably proteinaceous in nature. The ciliated cells were typically more electron-lucent than the non-ciliated cells. They adopted the height and interdigitation characteristics of the surrounding epithelium. Occasional annulate lamellae were encountered. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were seen occasionally, notably in non-breeding birds. The epithelial morphology of the non-breeding common starling is briefly mentioned. The tubules were collapsed and apparently inactive, although signs of proliferative activity were seen in birds killed in February. The distinction of the epithelial cells into one ciliated and two non-ciliated types in this study is discussed in the light of previous work, as differences were found to exist. It is suggested that care should be taken in the use of mammalian tubule nomenclature when it is applied to birds. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:4077685

  18. A monoclonal anti-peptide antibody reacting with the insulin receptor beta-subunit. Characterization of the antibody and its epitope and use in immunoaffinity purification of intact receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Ganderton, R H; Stanley, K K; Field, C E; Coghlan, M P; Soos, M A; Siddle, K

    1992-01-01

    available and for which a peptide epitope or 'mimotope' can be identified. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 10 PMID:1280110

  19. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  20. Interaction between `sensitized lymphocytes' and antigen in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pick, E.; Krejči, J.; Čech, K.; Turk, J. L.

    1969-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate lymphocytes (PEL), purified on glass beads and lymph node (LN) cells from guinea-pigs immunized with tubercle bacilli were cultured for 24 hours, in serum-free medium, without and with various concentrations of Tuberculin PPD. Supernatants obtained from cultures with 10 μg PPD/107 lymphocytes provoked an intense inflammatory reaction, when injected into the skin of normal guinea-pigs. PEL were more active than LN cells from the same animals. The reaction was characterized by erythema and induration, with a peak between 3 and 6 hours and histologically a mixed polymorphonuclear—mononuclear infiltrate in the dermis was seen. When fractionated on Sephadex G-200, skin activity of both PEL and LN supernatants was concentrated in a peak corresponding to the molecular weight of serum albumin, while in LN material some activity was also present in a small molecular weight peak. The active material could be separated from albumin by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of skin reactive peaks detected a slow α-globulin in both PEL and LN supernatants. PPD in the form of a complex with a protein precipitated by anti-γG antiserum, was detected in the skin-active Sephadex peak III of LN supernatants, by radioimmunoelectrophoresis. Skin activity was precipitated with ammonium sulphate at 66 per cent saturation and was destroyed by pepsin treatment. Formation of the skin-active material was depressed by Puromycin and Actinomycin-D and the development of skin inflammation was suppressed by pretreatment of the recipient with anti-lymph node extract serum. Evidence for antigen induced specific synthesis and release of an α-globulin in PEL and LN cultures was found but its relation to the skin active material is unknown. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 6FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 12 PMID:4187522