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  1. Common Dermatoses of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Irv

    1986-01-01

    Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297

  2. ACUTE HYDRONEPHROSIS MIMICKING RENAL COLIC

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Donald C.; Kaufman, Joseph J.

    1964-01-01

    Hydronephrosis may be acute, recurrent and related to ingestion of fluid. Frequently a lower polar vessel is an etiological factor. The condition is amenable to corrective operation by a variety of surgical techniques, as in the six cases here reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:14154288

  3. Durability of ceramic and novel man-made mineral fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, I C; Brown, R C; Jubb, G A; Pickering, P; Hoskins, J A

    1994-01-01

    In vitro solubility testing is an important means of assessing the likely behavior of fibers that are respired and accumulate in the lung. The problem has been that such tests often do not mirror the dissolution and removal mechanisms seen in vivo. Comparison of iron and silica solubility values of various types of mineral fiber showed no obvious correlation. Treating a mineral fiber containing high levels of calcium with normal balanced salt solutions produces a precipitate of calcium phosphate on the fiber surface. This deposit was not seen in fibers isolated from the lung of exposed animals. New solutions have been developed and with variations in the methods of exposing fibers, results similar to those seen in vivo have been obtained. Suitable fluid phases have been examined in static and flow-through systems. The relationship of solubility to biological activity is discussed. Images Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 6. Figure 6. Figure 6. PMID:7882958

  4. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale: the first one hundred fifty years, from Nathan Smith to Lee Buxton.

    PubMed Central

    Kohorn, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913

  5. Primary Schwannoma of the Petrous Apex

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Karl L.; Hankinson, Hal L.; Nissen, Alan J.; McDaniel, Shawna L.

    1995-01-01

    We present two patients with primary petrous apex schwannoma. These tumors were centered on the petrous carotid artery and are thought to have originated from the deep petrosal nerve. This would account for the paucity of neurologic deficits in these patients. Imaging findings and surgical treatment of primary petrous apex schwannomas are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:17170967

  6. Extended-Field Isocentric Irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Pradeep; Good, Roger R.; Jones, Ernest O.; Somers, James E.; McAnulty, Bruce E.; McCaul, Gayle F.; Rogers, Sally S.; Reeves, Michael A.; Sanders, Cheryl K.

    1987-01-01

    Extended-field therapeutic irradiation is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients diagnosed with pathologic stages I and II Hodgkin's disease, and total nodal irradiation can be effectively used to treat selected stage III Hodgkin's patients. Standard 100-cm source-to-axis distance extended-field isocentric technique and results are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:3312619

  7. A Desktop Computer Based Workstation for Display and Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Bradley J.; Robb, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    While great advances have been made in developing new and better ways to produce medical images, the technology to efficiently display and analyze them has lagged. This paper describes design considerations and development of a workstation based on an IBM PC/AT for the analysis of three and four dimensional medical image data. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Central Nervous System—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Brant-Zawadzki, Michael; Norman, David; Newton, T. Hans; Kucharczyk, Walter

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has developed rapidly and now has superior ability to detect and to characterize disease in the central nervous system without any significant biologic hazard. It is becoming the screening method of choice in the diagnosis of neoplasm, ischemia, hemorrhage, infection and degenerative and demyelinating diseases involving the central nervous system. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:3976220

  9. Rubeosis iridis generated by insulin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Shabo, A L; Maxwell, D S; Kreiger, A E; Straatsma, B R

    1976-01-01

    There are important similarities between human and experimental monkey rubeosis iridis. We believe that we have developed a useful primate model to study iris neovascularization and that the possible role of immunity to insulin in the pathogenesis of human diabetic rubeosis iridis warrants further detailed consideration. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 1. 1 FIGURE 1. 2 FIGURE 1. 3 FIGURE 1. 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:405785

  10. Reproducible acquisition of Escherichia coli porin surface topographs by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Schabert, F A; Engel, A

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline membranes reconstituted from Escherichia coli OmpF porin and phospholipids were adsorbed to freshly cleaved mica and imaged in solution by the atomic force microscope. The extracellular as well as the periplasmic side of the porin trimers could be identified and the conditions to record topographs at 1-nm lateral and 0.1-nm vertical resolution were established. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:7696479

  11. Geographical Aspects of Cancer in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, George A.

    1983-01-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to the Tanzanian Cancer Registry, which records all histologically confirmed malignant tumors, the number of reported cancer cases has increased significantly over the past three decades. The most commonly diagnosed tumors are cervix cancer, skin cancer, primary liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma. Geographical and tribal variations exist in disease frequency. Environmental factors appear to have a major role in the distribution. Through elimination of these factors, cancer in Tanzania could be reduced if not totally prevented. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:6631988

  12. Observations on chronic polyarthritis in monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Bywaters, E G L

    1981-01-01

    Erosion and inflammatory changes in the carpus, fingers and toes of a rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, are described; this was one of 152 animals in each of which four fixed limbs were available for examination. The histological changes resembled closely those found in adult human rheumatoid arthritis. The limited literature is reviewed (including cases with amyloid disease). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:7299780

  13. Dynamic Structures through Microdifferential Holography

    PubMed Central

    Sharnoff, Mark; Brehm, Lawrence P.; Henry, Richard W.

    1986-01-01

    The principles of microdifferential holography are developed primarily from nonmathematical argument, and the method's capabilities are compared with those of x-ray and optical diffraction. Microdifferential holography is very sensitive to small displacements of strongly scattering elements of a specimen whether or not they can be optically resolved. We present and interpret differential images of electrical activity of neurons and of contractile activity of isolated skeletal fibers. The latter confirm the suggestion of earlier work that the dynamic regions of contracting muscle are organized along myofibrillar segments rather than by sarcomeres. ImagesFIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 4FIGURE 5FIGURE 6FIGURE 7 PMID:19431634

  14. Giant Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis of the Temporomandibular Joint with Intracranial Extension

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Salú, José L.; Lázaro, Rafael; Aldasoro, José; Gonzalez-Darder, José M.

    1998-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis are rare entities but are well-described lesions in the literature that can affect many joint areas of the body. A case of tumoral synovial chondromatosis involving the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension through mandibular fossa is reported. As long as there was significant infratemporal and extradural invasion of the middle and posterior fossa, a transtemporal and infratemporal approach was performed and total removal of the lesions was achieved. A brief review of skull base synovial chondromatosis is presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171059

  15. Nonpenetrating Clips Successfully Replacing Sutures in Base of Skull Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Wolff M.; Zhu, Yong Hua; Hardesty, Robert A.; Petti, George; Furnas, David

    1993-01-01

    Reconstructive challenges engendered by skull base surgery are critical determinants of outcome. A novel nonpenetrating, arcuate-legged clip has proven to be both technically and biologically effective for management of these difficult closures. Clips have facilitated reconstructions associated with the surgical management of eight skull base cases: leiomyosarcoma of the orbit, middle fossa, ptyergopalatine fossa, two meningiomas (petrotentorial, cavernous sinus), vagus nerve paraganglioma, complex traumatic orbital dural tear, and one basilar and two vertebral artery aneurysms. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 14Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170909

  16. Pulmonary Complications of Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Leon S.; Boylen, Thomas C.

    1974-01-01

    Complications resulting from drug abuse more frequently affect the lung than any other organ. The spectrum of pulmonary complications associated with drug abuse is wide. The current practice of using mixtures of drugs is mainly responsible for the increase in pulmonary complications. The chief complications observed in a series of 241 drug abuse patients were aspiration pneumonitis (12.9 percent), pulmonary edema (10.0 percent), and pneumonia (7.5 percent). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4812215

  17. BLACK LESIONS OF THE SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Becker, S. William

    1958-01-01

    Benign melanocytic lesions include lentigo, ephelid (freckle), pigmented nevus, sacral spot, blue nevus, and combined nevus and blue nevus. Malignant melanocytic lesions are melanomas, which arise from melanocytes at the epidermodermal junction, or, rarely, from blue nevi. They usually originate in brown plaques known as lentigo maligna, in pigmented nevi, or in normal skin. Melanoma is diagnosed clinically in less than 50 per cent of instances. Biopsy is therefore of great importance, since practically all melanoma can be cured by adequate early resection. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:13511215

  18. A review of alternative approaches in the management of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, G. J.; Ray, S. A.; Lewis, J. S.; Lopez, A. J.; Powell, B. W.; Moss, A. H.; Dormandy, J. A.; Belli, A. M.; Buckenham, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    The management of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms (IPAs) demands close co-operation between radiologist, vascular surgeon and plastic surgeon. Ideally, each patient should be reviewed employing a team approach. Many IPAs require only observation; those with a volume greater than 6 cm3 will require treatment as spontaneous thrombosis is uncommon. Radiological treatment options include ultrasound guided compression repair (UGCR), embolisation, and covered stenting. Occasionally, these are unsuccessful or contra-indicated, and the vascular surgical approach is discussed in detail. Finally, the role of the plastic surgeon in dealing with skin ischaemia is detailed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10615187

  19. The Haemophilus somnus disease complex (Hemophilosis): A review

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Frederick W.; Janzen, Eugene D.

    1989-01-01

    Haemophilus somnus has long been associated with thrombotic meningoencephalomyelitis but has also been identified as the agent responsible for other clinical diseases including respiratory disease, reproductive problems, myocarditis, otitis, conjunctivitis, mastitis, and polyarthritis. Exposure to the bacteria is widespread and infection may occur via the respiratory tract from urogenital excretions and secretions. Diagnosis and treatment of hemophilosis may be easy or difficult depending on the manifestation presented, and special procedures must be taken to facilitate isolation of the organism. Satisfactory control measures are not available; vaccination is the only preventive measure demonstrating a beneficial effect. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17423440

  20. An outbreak of cysticercosis in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, Adam; Finley, Gordon G.; Easton, Kenneth L.

    1988-01-01

    An outbreak of cysticercosis (infestation with the larvae of Taenia saginata) occurred in feedlot cattle in Ontario in 1986. Two hundred and thirty-three of 271 steers were confirmed histologically to be positive for cysticerci. Nineteen (8.2%) animals had viable cysticerci, 87 (37.3%) had degenerated cysticerci, 77 (33.0%) had mineralized cysticerci, and 50 (21.5%) steers had lymphoid granulomas consistent with cysticercosis. Three viable cysticerci were partly evaginated and one degenerate cysticercus was fully evaginated. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6., Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., F PMID:17423200

  1. Do Waste Incinerators Induce Adverse Respiratory Effects? An Air Quality and Epidemiological Study of Six Communities

    PubMed Central

    Shy, Carl M.; Degnan, Darrah; Fox, Donald L.; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Hazucha, Milan J.; Boehlecke, Brian A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Briggs, Patsy M.; Devlin, Robert B.; Wallace, Dennis D.; Stevens, Robert K.; Bromberg, Philip A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented here was to simultaneously measure air quality and respiratory function and symptoms in populations living in the neighborhood of waste incinerators and to estimate the contribution of incinerator emissions to the particulate air mass in these neighborhoods. We studied the residents of three communities having, respectively, a biomedical and a municipal incinerator, and a liquid hazardous waste-burning industrial furnace. We compared results with three matched-comparison communities. We did not detect differences in concentrations of particulate matter among any of the three pairs of study communities. Average fine particulate (PM2.5) concentrations measured for 35 days varied across study communities from 16 to 32 μg/m3. Within the same community, daily concentrations of fine particulates varied by as much as eightfold, from 10 to 80 μg/m3, and were nearly identical within each pair of communities. Direct measurements of air quality and estimates based on a chemical mass balance receptor model showed that incinerator emissions did not have a major or even a modest impact on routinely monitored air pollutants. A one-time baseline descriptive survey (n = 6963) did not reveal consistent community differences in the prevalence of chronic or acute respiratory symptoms between incinerator and comparison communities, nor did we see a difference in baseline lung function tests or in the average peak expiratory flow rate measured over a period of 35 days. Based on this analysis of the first year of our study, we conclude that we have no evidence to reject the null hypothesis of no acute or chronic respiratory effects associated with residence in any of the three incinerator communities. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 4.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 5.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:7588484

  2. The history and evolution of surgical instruments. VI. The surgical blade: from finger nail to ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, J.

    1995-01-01

    Elective surgery requires planned incisions and incisions require appropriate blades. In the prehistoric era, division of the umbilical cord and other minor procedures were probably undertaken with human teeth and nails, and later with plant, animal and mineral substitutes, as witnessed by studies of primitive societies still surviving or recently extinct. More efficient metallic blades appeared in historic times and ultimately generated five specific shapes which are analysed in detail. Today, as minimally invasive techniques, endoscopes, laser and ultrasound sources evolve, many hallowed incisions of surgical access diminish in length or disappear entirely. In historical terms, elective surgery of the twentieth century will be recalled as an interlude characterised by maximally invasive incisions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7486768

  3. Phalangeal and Navicular Bone Hypoplasia and Hoof Malformation in the Hind Limbs of a Foal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D. R. K.; Leach, D. H.; Bell, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Anatomical anomalies in the hind feet of a seven month old Appaloosa foal were identified and investigated through the use of gross anatomical dissection, radiography and angiography. Abnormalities were restricted to the distal aspect of both hind legs, the right hind leg being more severely affected. Anatomically the right foot resembled that of an equine fetus of approximately 120 days gestational age. Disruption of vascular perfusion to hoof structures was evident in both hind legs and was related to areas of abnormal bone conformation as well as to areas of abnormal ossification and calcification. Phalangeal and navicular bone hypoplasia were apparent as were soft tissue and joint anomalies. Although the etiology of the defects identified remains obscure, several theories are suggested, namely heritability, acquired defects and the possible teratogenic effects of clenbuterol. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422612

  4. A new crystalline phase of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monohydrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fringeli, U P

    1981-01-01

    A new phase transition of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monohydrate from the "biaxial" phase to a crystalline phase (C phase) has been found at 71 degrees C by means of infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy. The transition is characterized by drastic conformational changes in the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety, which led on the one hand to an alignment of the turn near the ester group in the hydrocarbon chain at glycerol C(2) position. On the other hand a uniform conformation of the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety is found to be typical for the C phase, in contrast to nonuniform head group conformations of DPPC in other regions of the DPPC/water phase diagram investigated so far. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 PMID:6894555

  5. Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Hemrend, Bernard; Altuna, Gurkan; Tompson, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    The authors of this article offer an introduction to the field of orthodontics. They present the latest advances in orthodontic appliances and some of the possible consequences of orthodontic treatment. They discuss a number of cases and offer examples of some of the more common problems that the orthodontist is asked to treat. Such cases include severe Class II, division 1 malocclusion, surgical orthodontics, “long-face” syndrome, adult orthodontics-TMJ-periodontics, late adult growth, and post-retention changes. Practical information useful to the physician who encounters patient with these disorders is balanced with good research data to support the various claims. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:21249042

  6. Confirmation of destruction of salmonellae within murine peritoneal exudate cells by immunocytochemical technique.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, F R; Hsu, H S; Mumaw, V R; Moncure, C W

    1989-01-01

    A procedure was developed with which peritoneal exudate cell (PEC) preparations were fixed in a glutaraldehyde-picric acid mixture, post-fixed with osmium tetroxide, embedded in LR White resin and then stained with immunogold probe. It provided tissue sections showing both well-defined ultrastructures as well as specifically labelled Salmonella O antigens by electron microscopy. Inbred, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 2 x 10(7) virulent Salmonella typhimurium. Peritoneal exudate cells were harvested at 16 and 20 hr after infection. Disintegrating intracellular bacteria were identified as salmonellae by the immunogold markers. Deposition of gold particles in the cytoplasm of phagocytes also indicated that intracellular debris contained digested pathogen. This investigation therefore confirms previous findings of the destruction of salmonellae within inflammatory polymorphs and macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2668159

  7. Trauma on the Isle of Man.

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, R G; Varley, G; Stevens, D; Green, A

    1993-01-01

    The Isle of Man Tourist Trophy motorcycle races remain one of the most popular venues for motorcycle races. This is despite the reduced status of the event. The reason for the loss of world championship and formula one status is the nature of the road racing circuit itself. The twisting narrow roads are only closed to the public at certain times during the practice and race weeks. Motorcycling visitors to the event attempt to emulate their heroes on machines capable of high speeds. Casualties from both visitors and racers are dealt with efficiently by an expanded medical service. This includes the use of an aeromedical evacuation helicopter. Casualties from the visitors exceeded those from the racers themselves during the period reported. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8457818

  8. Morphogenic role for acetylcholinesterase in axonal outgrowth during neural development.

    PubMed Central

    Bigbee, J W; Sharma, K V; Gupta, J J; Dupree, J L

    1999-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the enzyme that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses and neuromuscular junctions. However, results from our laboratory and others indicate that AChE has an extrasynaptic, noncholinergic role during neural development. This article is a review of our findings demonstrating the morphogenic role of AChE, using a neuronal cell culture model. We also discuss how these data suggest that AChE has a cell adhesive function during neural development. These results could have additional significance as AChE is the target enzyme of agricultural organophosphate and carbamate pesticides as well as the commonly used household organophosphate chlorpyrifos (Dursban). Prenatal exposure to these agents could have adverse effects on neural development by interfering with the morphogenic function of AChE. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10229710

  9. The Middle Fossa Transpetrous Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Paul S.; Hankinson, Hal L.; Horn, Karl L.

    1997-01-01

    Surgical access to lesions of the temporal bone anterior to the internal auditory canal and medial to the petrous carotid artery has concerned surgeons for nearly a century. A variety of approaches have been developed to gain access to this region. We report our experience with the middle fossa transpetrous approach for the treatment of a variety of petroclival and/or prepontine lesions. Tentorial transection and the retrolabyrinthine approach to extend this technique is also discussed. In properly selected cases, the middle fossa transpetrous approach is successful in maintaining hearing, labyrinthine and facial function without compromising surgical exposure. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171001

  10. A proposal for a standardized system of reporting human lymph node morphology in relation to immunological function

    PubMed Central

    Cottier, H.; Turk, J.; Sobin, L.

    1972-01-01

    This Memorandum proposes a standardized system of reporting the histology of human lymph nodes based on commonly used simple staining techniques. The purpose is to provide a uniform, internationally acceptable system by which the histological structure of lymph nodes can be correlated with other parameters of immunological status. The proposed protocols are intended to provide information that is not available in conventional written reports, that use such terms as “hyperplasia” or “nonspecific lymphadenitis”. ImagesFigure 22Figure 13Figure 5Figure 4Figure 3Figure 14Figure 15Figure 9Figure 21Figure 8Figure 12Figure 17Figure 16Figure 2Figure 7Figure 6Figure 20Figure 19Figure 11Figure 10Figure 18 PMID:4539822

  11. Musical Stimulation in the Developmentally Delayed Child: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nanelle Lavina; Molnar, Eva T.; Knasel, Anne L.

    1987-01-01

    Music is a convenient way of bypassing barriers of communication and eliciting responses that may be helpful in the diagnoses and treatment of illness. The use of background music in elevators, in doctors' offices, and in stores are good examples of how music can be used to affect the subconscious mind. In this pilot study drums were used to better define the effects of particular elements of music and sound. When repetitive rhythms are presented as background music to a group of severely developmentally delayed children, three out of four subjects show a definite change in level of development in the unstructured task of free drawing. To discover more about the effects of the various elements of music and to better identify patterns in the environment that are conducive to optimal functioning, further studies are indicated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:2468780

  12. Maggots, mutilations and myth: Patterns of postmortem scavenging of the bovine carcass

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. Nick; Williams, Elisabeth S.

    1989-01-01

    Based upon what is known about the habits of common carrion eaters in Alberta, we review the patterns of postmortem scavenging of carcasses of cattle. We then compare with these patterns those reported in the lay press and by veterinarians investigating cattle mutilations in Alberta. We conclude that the so-called “mutilation” of cattle in Alberta was due to scavenging of carcasses and further conclude that claims of human involvement in such incidents require, as a first condition, that postmortem scavenging of the carcass be excluded. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:17423422

  13. Monocyte/macrophage-specific monoclonal antibody Ki-M1 recognizes interdigitating reticulum cells.

    PubMed Central

    Radzun, H. J.; Parwaresch, M. R.; Feller, A. C.; Hansmann, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, Ki-M1, was produced, and its immunoreactivity was tested by light and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry. Ki-M1 was found to react with monocytes, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), interdigitating reticulum cells (IDC), and the so-called indeterminate dendritic cells of lymphoid tissue. No reactivity was seen in other human tissues or other hematopoietic cells, including granulocytes and cells of the unstimulated promyelocyte cell line HL-60. Thus, Ki-M1 is the first of the monoclonal antibodies to MPS cells to react with both human IDC and MPS cells. This suggests that IDC and MPS cells may have a common cytogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6391190

  14. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  15. Chemotherapy of eyelid and peritorbital tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Luxenberg, M N; Guthrie, T H

    1985-01-01

    Eight patients with nine histologically proven BCC or SCC involving the eyelids and periorbital tissues were treated with systemic and/or local (iontophoresis) chemotherapy using cisplatin and doxorubicin. All patients had either refused surgery, would have required extensive procedures, or had medical problems contraindicating surgery. Systemic chemotherapy induced a CR or PR in eight of nine lesions. No patient has required maintenance chemotherapy and no significant toxic side effects were encountered. The length of follow-up ranges from 2 to 50 months. Iontophoretic therapy with cisplatin was used to treat five small foci of new, recurrent or persistent tumor(s) in three of these patients, and resulted in a partial response in all five lesions. Systemic or local chemotherapy offers an alternative to current standard forms of treatment for BCC and SCC in selected cases. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:3832525

  16. Recurrent Pneumothorax Associated with a Pulmonary Emphysematous Bulla in a Dog: Surgical Correction and Proposed Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stogdale, L.; O'Connor, C.D.; Williams, M.C.; Smuts, M.M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A three year old dog was affected with recurrent dyspnea for two months, due to a recurrent pneumothorax. This followed an episode of mild blunt trauma to the thorax and transient strangulation. Conservative therapy of aspiration of air by repeated thoracentesis gave only temporary relief. Thoracic radiographs indicated the presence of a bulla in the right middle lung lobe. An exploratory thoracotomy confirmed the diagnosis, and a lobectomy was successfully performed. The pathogenesis of acquired pulmonary bullae is postulated. Reasons for the predisposition of the right middle lung lobe are outlined. These are related to the anatomy of the right middle bronchus, and include its position between the right pulmonary artery and vein, its oval shape, and the absence of cartilagenous support at its origin. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:17422186

  17. Persistent or Slow Viral Infections and Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Adams, John M.

    1975-01-01

    The discovery of persistent transmissible agents by veterinarians has led to striking advances in the infectious cause of neuropathies of human beings. There is evidence for persisting infection in congenital rubella and the herpes group of viruses including cytomegalovirus infections. Hepatitis types A and B are candidates for inclusion in the category of persisting viral infections. The rubeola or measles virus is established as a persistent virus which causes elevated antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of many patients with severe demyelinating disease such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis. Elevated antibodies against vaccinia virus have been found in the cerebrospinal fluid of some patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica, a rare form of multiple sclerosis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:165638

  18. Ultrasonographic scan in knee pain in athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, N; Regine, R; Carrillo, F; Minelli, S; Beaconsfield, T

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-two knees were examined using real-time high-definition ultrasonography with a 7.5 MHz probe. The extra-articular structures were easily visualized and diagnosis of patellar tendon lesions and Baker's cysts formulated. While the meniscal cartilages were shown as a homogeneous triangular structure between the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau, no lesions were detected. Deeper intra-articular structures, such as the cruciate ligaments, were not shown by the scan, thus their evaluation was not possible. Given its low cost, wide availability, non-invasiveness and patients' acceptability of the technique, ultrasonography may play an important role in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in and around the knee joint. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1623366

  19. A Malaysian Experience with Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Little, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The report summarizes a one year period of investigation of death losses in West Malaysian livestock. Lesions and etiological agents are mentioned for cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry and companion animals as well as some miscellaneous species. Special observations related to a common paramphistome induced hepatic biliary infestation in cattle, a serious malignant head catarrh outbreak in which possible cattle to cow aerosol transmission occurred. Trismus observed in some cattle with malignant head catarrh was associated with arteriolitis and ganglioneuritis of the V cranial nerve. Parasitic, bacterial, viral toxic and neoplastic diseases are recorded in the various species. The occurrence of fatal chronic fluorosis in laboratory guinea pigs and cerebral nematodiasis in a Thoroughbred racehorse are documented. ImagesFigure 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 5.FIGURE 6.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 8.FIGURE 9.FIGURE 10.FIGURE 11. PMID:761153

  20. Effects of Microgravitation on Electrofusion of Plant Cell Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Mehrle, Werner; Hampp, Rüdiger; Naton, Beatrix; Grothe, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    Electrofusion of evacuolated with vacuolated mesophyll protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum was performed as part of the German Sounding Rocket Program (TEXUS 17, 1988). The results indicate a significant increase not only in the yield of 1:1 hybrids, but also in homo- and multifusion products. Hybrids obtained under microgravity have been shown to be viable to a higher degree with respect to their ability for light-dependent O2-evolution (independent of other substrates than bicarbonate). This finding is of interest for fusion experiments were only limited numbers of fusion partners are available (e.g. protoplasts from embryogenic tissues) or where fusion yields are extemely low under 1 × gravity (e.g. protoplasts of different specific density). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:11537445

  1. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and biphenylenes after an electrical panel and transformer accident in an office building in Binghamton, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T

    1985-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and tri- and tetrachlorinated benzene-containing electrical transformer was involved in an explosion and fire in a modern office building in Binghamton, New York, on February 5, 1981. Because of an unusual system of air shafts the entire building and adjacent garage became contaminated with toxic chemicals. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenylenes were formed as pyrolytic by-products. Before the extent of the chemical contamination was appreciated workers were exposed to these chemicals. Four years after the explosion and after the expenditure of over $22 million for cleaning and other expenses, the building remains closed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:3928358

  2. Roentgen Examination of Soft Tissues of the Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Charles D.

    1964-01-01

    With meticulous preparation of the patient and with careful technique, the soft tissues of the pelvis are identifiable in most cases. Search should be made for the traces of abnormal pelvic structures on plain-film studies. Once the normal is recognized, any variations are easily identified. The fundamental differences between various radiologic densities—air, fat, fluid, muscle, calcium, bone and metal—should be observed. Special procedures can be used to enhance the contrasts after adequate evaluation of the simplest and, on many occasions, the invaluable, plain-film study of the soft tissues of the pelvis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:14232160

  3. A historical perspective of thirteen unheralded contributors to medicodental progress.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    Brief highlights of the careers of 13 Afro-American dentists have been presented. Their professional lives demonstrated both a commitment to the advancement of dentistry and a dedication to the betterment of humanity. Of the 13, three spent their professional lives exclusively in dental education, research, and public health. The remaining 10 were dental clinicians who served patients with competence, care, and concern. Additionally, they contributed to dentistry's image and progress by improving medicodental relations, pioneering in university dental education, engaging in philanthropy, qualifying for dental specialties, exerting leadership in dental professional organizations, integrating dentistry in hospital care, solving community health problems, and participating in all aspects of dental journalism. A sizable portion of their energies was expended in enhancing the quality of life in their communities and the nation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2651678

  4. From socialist principles to motorcycle maintenance: the origin and development of the salaried physician model in the Israeli Public Health Services, 1918 to 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Shvarts, S; de Leeuw, D L; Granit, S; Benbassat, J

    1999-01-01

    For more than 70 years, physicians in the Israeli health care system have been employed on a fixed salary rather than on a fee-for-service basis. The present report is a brief review of the origin and development of this unique salaried physician model and its effect on the terms of physicians' employment. Archival documents were reviewed. The salaried physician model was introduced to ensure egalitarian health care for patients rather than equal payment for physicians. It was accepted by physicians because it guaranteed their employment and income. However, over the years, the salaried physician model has evolved into a complex wage scale, with multiple fringe benefits that bypass formal agreements in order to reward individual physicians. In addition, the salaried physician model has encouraged illegal private practice, which is viewed today as one of the major problems of the Israeli Public Health Services. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:9949759

  5. Manipulative management of back pain in patients with spondyloisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, J. D.; Potter, G. E.; Kirkaldy-Willis, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors see a large number of back problems, many with complicating features, and are involved in an ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of various treatment modalities, particularly spinal manipulation. This paper deals with spondylolisthesis. Included is a discussion of the definition, classification, etiology and epidemiology of spondylolisthesis. Pain mechanisms are discussed along with the role of conservative and surgical management. Results are presented in a series of cases managed by manipulative methods. The authors conclude that spinal manipulation is of great value in selected cases of back pain in which there is radiographic evidence of spondylolisthesis. No claim is made that such treatment is influencing the spondylolisthesis itself, but that in most cases the spondylolisthesis is an incidental finding, and no contraindication to manipulative therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10

  6. Indication for Interstitial Brachytherapy in Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Pradeep; Taylor, Judith; Scott, Joseph C.; Jacobs, Allan J.; Rojas, John

    1984-01-01

    More than 40 patients with gynecological, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal malignancies, both primary and recurrent but confined to the pelvis, were treated with interstitial irradiation over a four-year period. Interstitial irradiation was the choice of treatment for early carcinoma of the prostate, carcinoma of the anal canal less than T2, recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and carcinoma of the cervical stump. The authors' experience in treating recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix with interstitial irradiation is the basis for the indications for selecting the technique of interstitial irradiation presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:6471113

  7. Methods in molecular cardiology: the polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemans, D.G.P.; de Windt, L.J.; de Muinck, E.D.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques are described in this review to give insight into the potential applications for cardiovascular research. Although PCR can be performed in several ways, all applications are based on the same general principle, the amplification of DNA or RNA by the enzyme polymerase. This amplification provides the opportunity to detect, identify and multiply a single copy of DNA or RNA, in or outside the cell. This powerful technique can be used in several directions of DNA and RNA research resulting in the ability to specifically detect the presence and activity of genes. The use of these techniques in cardiovascular research is discussed here. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:25696037

  8. The Catheter—How to Use and When Not to Use

    PubMed Central

    Prentiss, R. J.; Mullenix, R. B.; Feeney, M. J.; Howe, G. E.; Steel, J. F.; Cole, J. W.; Flynn, V. J.; Walther, A. B.; Sorensen, M. B.

    1969-01-01

    Catheterization should not be used without true indication. Careful control of hydration, sedation, anesthesia and use of anticholinergic agents before, during and after operation can do a great deal to prevent the need for catheterization. When the procedure is necessary, simple, inexpensive measures of care usually are sufficient. Prophylactic antisepsis before and after, with reexamination of the urine after discontinuance of antiseptic drugs to make sure there is no recrudescence, prevents acute and chronic infections. The catheter recommended for routine male and female catheterization is the 14-16 (French) olive tip coude (Tieman) catheter or the Tieman-Foley. Closed drainage systems are the best. Continuous irrigation is without value. Water is an excellent irrigant. Calcium deposits are prevented by Renacidin® instillation and acetic acid irrigation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:5347199

  9. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: still more questions than answers.

    PubMed Central

    Tatu, C A; Orem, W H; Finkelman, R B; Feder, G L

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799184

  10. Covalent binding of biological samples to solid supports for scanning probe microscopy in buffer solution.

    PubMed Central

    Karrasch, S; Dolder, M; Schabert, F; Ramsden, J; Engel, A

    1993-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy allows imaging of biological molecules in their native state in buffer solution. To this end samples have to be fixed to a flat solid support so that they cannot be displaced by the scanning tip. Here we describe a method to achieve the covalent binding of biological samples to glass surfaces. Coverslips were chemically modified with the photoactivatable cross-linker N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide. Samples are squeezed between derivatized coverslips and then cross-linked to the glass surface by irradiation with ultraviolet light. Such samples can be imaged repeatedly by the scanning force microscope without loss of image quality, whereas identical but not immobilized samples are pushed away by the stylus. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8312482

  11. Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

  12. Anaerobic orbital cellulitis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D

    1991-01-01

    In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813

  13. Modification of calcite crystal growth by abalone shell proteins: an atomic force microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Walters, D A; Smith, B L; Belcher, A M; Paloczi, G T; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    1997-01-01

    A family of soluble proteins from the shell of Haliotis rufescens was introduced over a growing calcite crystal being scanned in situ by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Atomic step edges on the crystal surface were altered in shape and speed of growth by the proteins. Proteins attached nonuniformly to the surface, indicating different interactions with crystallographically different step edges. The observed changes were consistent with the habit modification induced by this family of proteins, as previously observed by optical microscopy. To facilitate further studies in this area, AFM techniques and certain AFM imaging artifacts are discussed in detail. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:9138588

  14. Tissue damage and nutritional factors in experimental respiratory tract (Co-)carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Reuzel, P G; Feron, V J; Spit, B J; Beems, R B; Kroes, R

    1983-01-01

    Cofactors involved in respiratory tract carcinogenesis were studied in Syrian golden hamsters or in rats using benzo(a)pyrene as the carcinogenic agent. These factors included severe tissue damage induced by electro-coagulation, glass fibers administered by intratracheal instillation, acetaldehyde as irritant vapor, food restriction, and nutrients such as vitamin A and saturated and unsaturated fats. In addition, the effects of a combined exposure to four different major gaseous cigarette smoke components--methyl nitrate, isoprene, methyl chloride and acetaldehyde--and to one solid cigarette smoke component--norharman--were examined in short- and long-term inhalation studies. An interesting finding was the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde, of which the possible mechanism is briefly discussed. Another conspicuous observation was the substantial increase in number and size of lipid droplets in alveolar fibroblasts of hamsters fed a high vitamin A diet. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:6307680

  15. Computer Man Simulation of Incapacitation: An Automated Approach to Wound Ballistics and Associated Medical Care Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Clare, V.; Ashman, W.; Broome, P.; Jameson, J.; Lewis, J.; Merkler, J.; Mickiewicz, A.; Sacco, W.; Sturdivan, L.

    1981-01-01

    Wound ballistics assessments traditionally have been based on correlations between some quantification of “ballistic dose” and an empirical/subjective medical quantification of human functional degradation. Although complicated by the highly inhomogeneous nature of the human body and by the voluminous data handling requirements these correlation values were obtained by manual methods. The procedure required a substantial commitment of time and resources, thereby restricting the data base from which incapacitation evaluations were made. The obvious advantages of automated wound ballistics analyses have been realized in the ARRADCOM Computer Man System, capable of duplicating the results of the manual system while reducing the time required for each analysis from three months to less than one day. The versatility of the system also makes it readily adaptable to other ballistic, medical, and paramedical assessment tasks. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 2FIGURE 3FIGURE 4FIGURE 5FIGURE 6FIGURE 7FIGURE 8FIGURE 9FIGURE 10FIGURE 11FIGURE 12FIGURE 13

  16. Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed Central

    Garg, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. Varied clinical manifestations occur, due to deposition of larvae of the parasite Taenia solium in cerebral parenchyma, meninges, spinal cord, muscles, eyes and skin. The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis can be made with a fairly high degree of accuracy with the help of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Serological tests and histopathological examination of subcutaneous nodules provide additional support in establishing the diagnosis. The anticysticercal drugs albendazole and praziquantel have been extensively used, and found to be effective for all types of neurocysticercosis. However, recently controversy has been raised about their safety, and long-term clinical usefulness. Preventive health measures, such as provision of safe drinking water and excretion disposal, still offer the best ways to manage this disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799883

  17. Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696244

  18. Effects of in utero exposure to nonsteroidal estrogens on mouse testis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, C; Ferreras-Estrada, M C; García-Iglesias, M J; Bravo-Moral, A M; Espinosa-Alvarez, J; Escudero-Diez, A

    1997-01-01

    Male mice exposed in utero to alpha-zearalanol (zeranol) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) were analyzed postnatally to evaluate the possible changes on their testicular morphology as part of an examination of the effects of transplacental exposure to non-steroidal estrogens on sensitive tissues. Pregnant NMRI mice were injected subcutaneously with ethyl oleate (0.1 mL) alone (negative control) or with 150 micrograms/kg of body weight of zeranol or DES (positive control) on days 9 and 10 of gestation. Experimental and control male offspring were euthanized at days 45 (n = 47), 90 (n = 44), 180 (n = 40) and 365 (n = 26) after birth and their gonads were examined by light and electron microscopy. The results suggested that prenatal zeranol or DES exposure induced more severe and earlier (at 45 d) testicular abnormalities than in negative control (at 6 mo). These age-related alterations were characterized by regressive changes in the germinal epithelium and Sertoli's cells as well as foci of Leydig's cells around atrophied seminiferous tubules and dysplasia of the rete testis epithelium. On the contrary, the presence of Leydig's cells with immature morphology and their arrangement in sheet could be attributable exclusively to estrogen treatment. The presence of no neoplasm was confirmed. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9114959

  19. Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Taube H.

    1992-01-01

    The combination of mammography and clinical examination provides the best means available to detect breast cancer. This article attempts to familiarize the family physician with mammographic terms and to clarify the role of mammography in detecting breast cancer. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figures 3-4Figure 5Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21229125

  20. Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Female Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Arrigo, Christopher; Andrews, James R.; Clancy, William G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the female athlete. In addition, we will discuss 8 unique characteristics identified in the female athlete and specific training drills to address and correct the potentially deleterious effects of these unique characteristics. Background: The female athlete appears to be more susceptible to noncontact ACL injuries than the male athlete. There seem to be many differences between the female and male athlete that may contribute to the increased injury rate in the female athlete. These variations include anatomical and neuromuscular considerations and differences. Description: Based on the unique characteristics of the female athlete and the anatomical and neuromuscular dissimilarities, a specially designed rehabilitation program has been established for the female athlete after ACL surgery. Clinical Advantages: The rehabilitation drills discussed in this article challenge the neuromuscular system through proprioception, kinesthesia, dynamic joint stability, neuromuscular control, and perturbation training activities. Improving the female athlete's neuromuscular system will, we believe, expedite the injured athlete's recovery after ACL injury or surgery. Although the concepts discussed are part of a postoperative rehabilitation program after ACL surgery, these concepts may also be implemented as a preventive program to assist in reducing the incidence of ACL injuries in the female athlete. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13.Figure 14.Figure 15.Figure 16.Figure 17.Figure 18.Figure 19.Figure 20.Figure 21.Figure 22.Figure 23. PMID:16558561

  1. The image and advocacy of public health in American caricature and cartoons from 1860 to 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, B

    1997-01-01

    The decades just before and after the founding of the American Public Health Association in 1872 saw an efflorescence of political cartooning and caricature in national-circulation weeklies. Part of the political and social critique that cartoonists and their editors provided the public focused on needs or opportunities for preventing illness and accidents. This paper presents a small selection of editorial cartoons that agitated in support of public health activities over 4 decades. The goals are to illustrate several concerns that rose to national prominence in that era, to examine the kinds of imagery that newspapers and magazine editors offered their readers, and to observe how frequently the public was encouraged to see politicians and commercial interests as responsible for preventable health problems. This discussion focuses exclusively on propagandistic images, leaving aside the reportorial depictions of events in the news and the neutral illustrations of methods and machines in scientific and technical publications. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:9366637

  2. Expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor in the vascular wall. Analysis of human tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Multhaupt, H. A.; Gåfvels, M. E.; Kariko, K.; Jin, H.; Arenas-Elliot, C.; Goldman, B. I.; Strauss, J. F.; Angelin, B.; Warhol, M. J.; McCrae, K. R.

    1996-01-01

    The recently cloned very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor binds triglyceride-rich, apolipoprotein-E-containing lipoproteins with high affinity. The observation that VLDL receptor mRNA is abundantly expressed in extracts of tissues such as skeletal muscle and heart, but not liver, has led to the hypothesis that this receptor may facilitate the peripheral uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. However, little information is available concerning the types of cells that express this receptor in vivo. As expression of the VLDL receptor in the vascular wall might have important implications for the uptake and transport of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and perhaps facilitate the development of atherosclerosis in hypertriglyceridemic individuals, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to determine whether VLDL receptor mRNA and protein was expressed in human vascular tissue. We observed expression of the receptor by both endothelial and smooth muscle cells within normal arteries and veins, as well as within atherosclerotic plaques. In the latter, the VLDL receptor was also expressed by macrophage-derived foam cells. The widespread distribution of the VLDL receptor in vascular tissue suggests a potentially important role for this receptor in normal and pathophysiological vascular processes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8669483

  3. Inflammatory sequences in acute pulmonary radiation injury.

    PubMed Central

    Slauson, D. O.; Hahn, F. F.; Benjamin, S. A.; Chiffelle, T. L.; Jones, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The histopathologic events in the developing acute pulmonary inflammatory reaction to inhaled particles of Yttrium 90 are detailed. In animals that died or were sacrificed during the first year after inhalation exposure, microscopic findings of acute inflammation predominated and included vascular congestion; stasis, focal hemorrhage; edema; various inflammatory cell infiltrates; cytolysis and desquamation of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium followed by regeneration; vascular injury and repair; and the eventual development of pulmonary fibrosis. Accumulation of alveolar fibrin deposits was an additional characteristic, though not a constant feature of the early stages of radiation pneumonitis. In addition to the direct effects of radiation on pulmonary cell populations, the histopathologic findings were suggestive of diverse activation of various cellular and humoral mediation systems in their pathogenesis. The potential interrelationships of systems responsible for increased vascular permeability, coagulation and fibrinolysis, chemotaxis, and direct cellular injury were discussed and related to the pathogenesis of the microscopic findings characteristic of early pulmonary radiation injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1258976

  4. The ultrastructure of spontaneous coronary arterial lesions in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed Central

    House, E. W.; Benditt, E. P.

    1981-01-01

    Electron-microscopic examination of spontaneously occurring coronary arterial lesions in adult spawning steelhead trout showed them to be subendothelial accumulations of modified smooth muscle cells covered by an intact endothelium. Some of the cells in the nodules appeared highly vacuolated and seemed to be associated with varying amounts of collagen and elastin. The internal elastic lamina was often doubled with smooth muscle cells between the layers. The thickness of the internal elastica was altered and, in some lesions, penetrated by smooth muscle cells. In the smallest lesions, smooth muscle cells appeared to be penetrating the internal elastic lamina and were usually close to a highly vacuolated intimal endothelial cell. The underlying medial layer frequently exhibited altered orientation of the cells, with the frequent appearance of increased collagen and amorphous extracellular material. No lipid was present in any lesion. Although vacuolation of endothelial cells suggested some alteration in endothelial cells, at least in developed lesions, no evidence of endothelial denudation over lesions was observed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:7294154

  5. Some properties of dendritic macrophages from peripheral lymph.

    PubMed Central

    Barfoot, R; Denham, S; Gyure, L A; Hall, J G; Hobbs, S M; Jackson, L E; Robertson, D

    1989-01-01

    Peripheral lymph was collected from the skin and liver of sheep, and from the intestine of rats. The dendritic macrophages contained in it were isolated by centrifuging the lymph over a layer of 'Nycodenz'. Similar cells were produced by culturing mononuclear cells from venous blood, but the yields were very small. The numbers of dendritic cells in the lymph from the legs of sheep increased five-fold after xylene had been applied to the skin. Dendritic macrophages displayed abundant class II histocompatibility antigens on their surfaces, as well as immunoglobulins. Although the latter were probably acquired passively, they remained present for several days on cells cultured in vitro. When in vitro, dendritic cells could be shown to phagocytose marker particles, such as latex beads, but their performance was unimpressive compared to macrophages from the peritoneal cavities of rats. In contrast, their ability to phagocytose rapidly T4 phage or influenza viruses unequivocal and striking. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2807381

  6. Evolution of foam cells in subcutaneous rabbit carrageenan granulomas: I. Light-microscopic and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, C. J.; Ghidoni, J. J.; Kelley, J. L.; Sprague, E. A.; Valente, A. J.; Suenram, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    With an increasing interest in the role of the monocyte-macrophage in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and as a progenitor of plaque intimal foam cells, a model for the study of foam-cell differentiation in an extravascular environment has been developed. Granulomas were induced in 25 normocholesterolemic (NC) and 28 hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits by the subcutaneous injection of 15 ml of 1% carrageenan. Granuloma tissue was harvested at 4, 7, 14, and 28 days and studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Macrophages and foam cells were isolated by enzymic dispersion with collagenase and cultured for further characterization by scanning electron microscopy, nonspecific esterase (NSE), and oil red O (ORO) staining. Granuloma macrophages from NC rabbits were consistently ORO-negative, contrasting with those from HC rabbits which were strongly ORO-positive, even at 4 and 7 days. With an increasing duration of exposure to hypercholesterolemia, macrophages accumulated increasing amounts of stainable lipid, and in the 28-day HC granulomas, large foam cells distended by lipid inclusions accounted for 70% of the cells present. This model has established that NSE-positive macrophages in HC granulomas accumulate lipid and assume the morphologic characteristics of atheromatous intimal foam cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:3966533

  7. Familial canine dermatomyositis. Initial characterization of the cutaneous and muscular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Haupt, K. H.; Hegreberg, G. A.; Prieur, D. J.; Moore, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Familial canine dermatomyositis is a recently identified disease of collie dogs that resembles human juvenile dermatomyositis. The lesions in the skin and muscles obtained by biopsy from two litters of dogs were characterized for the purpose of determining the similarity of the lesions to those of human dermatomyositis. The cutaneous lesions began between 7 and 11 weeks of age and were present on the face, lips, ears, and skin over bony prominences of the limbs, feet, sternum, and tip of the tail. Histologically the cutaneous lesions frequently consisted of vesicles, pustules, and ulcers on the lips, face, and ears. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophages were present throughout the dermis. Neutrophils and lymphocytes were also present in and around vessels. Between 13 and 19 weeks of age generalized muscle atrophy was noted. The muscle lesions consisted of interstitial lymphocyte, plasma cell, macrophage, and neutrophil accumulation; myofiber degeneration, regeneration, and atrophy; and fibrosis. Perivascular neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were also seen. Histologically, the lesions resembled those present in human juvenile dermatomyositis; and these observations, coupled with clinical, immunologic, and clinical pathologic observations presented elsewhere, suggest that familial canine dermatomyositis is an appropriate and potentially useful model for human juvenile dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:6465285

  8. Exposure to mercury alters early activation events in fish leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougal, K C; Johnson, M D; Burnett, K G

    1996-01-01

    Although fish in natural populations may carry high body burdens of both organic and inorganic mercury, the effects of this divalent metal on such lower vertebrates is poorly understood. In this report, inorganic mercury in the form of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is shown to produce both high-dose inhibition and low-dose activation of leukocytes in a marine teleost fish, Sciaenops ocellatus. Concentrations of inorganic mercury > or = 10 microM suppressed DNA synthesis and induced rapid influx of radiolabeled calcium, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous cellular proteins. Lower concentrations (0.1-1 microM) of HgCl2 that activated cell growth also induced a slow sustained rise in intracellular calcium in cells loaded with the calcium indicator dye fura-2, but did not produce detectable tyrosine phosphorylation of leukocyte proteins. These studies support the possibility that subtoxic doses of HgCl2 may inappropriately activate teleost leukocytes, potentially altering the processes that regulate the magnitude and specificity of the fish immune response to environmental pathogens. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8930553

  9. Juvenile ceroid lipofuscinosis. Evidence for methylated lysine in neural storage body protein.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, M. L.; Rodrigues, M.

    1991-01-01

    Juvenile ceroid lipofuscinosis, or Batten disease, is a hereditary disorder characterized by progressive visual loss, seizures, cognitive and psychomotor deterioration, and early death, usually between 15 and 35 years of age. Individuals with this disease have massive deposits of autofluorescent inclusion bodies in cells of most tissues. The accumulation of these intracellular deposits suggests that juvenile ceroid-lipofuscinosis is a storage disease resulting from the inability of cells to metabolize some normal cellular constituent. It has been reported that the storage material is largely protein, much of which is a specific mitochondrial protein that apparently is not properly metabolized in subjects with Batten disease. The storage bodies were partially purified from the retinas of two siblings who died as a result of juvenile ceroid lipofuscinosis, as well as from the cerebral cortex of an unrelated individual with this disorder. Chromatographic analysis of storage body protein acid hydrolysates indicated that they contained a large amount of the modified amino acid epsilon-N-trimethyllysine. The abundance of this amino acid in the storage protein suggests that the disease may result from excessive methylation or from a failure to demethylate intermediate forms of the stored proteins. Acid hydrolysis also solubilized a fluorescent component from the retinal storage material, suggesting that the stored protein has a bound fluorescent adduct. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1899540

  10. Movement and self-control in protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, D L

    1980-01-01

    Purposeful switching among different conformational states exerts self-control in the construction and action of protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence, conceived to explain icosahedral virus structure, arises by differentiation of identical protein subunits into different conformations that conserve essential bonding specificity. Mechanical models designed to represent the energy distribution in the structure, rather than just the arrangement of matter, are used to explore flexibility and self-controlled movements in virus particles. Information about the assembly of bacterial flagella, actin, tobacco mosaic virus and the T4 bacteriophage tail structure show that assembly can be controlled by switching the subunits from an inactive, unsociable form to an active, associable form. Energy to drive this change is provided by the intersubunit bonding in the growing structure; this self-control of assembly by conformational switching is called "autostery", by homology with allostery. A mechanical model of the contractile T4 tail sheath has been constructed to demonstrate how self-controlled activation of a latent bonding potential can drive a purposeful movement. The gradient of quasi-equivalent conformations modelled in the contracting tail sheath has suggested a workable mechanism for self-determination of tail tube length. Concerted action by assemblies of identical proteins may often depend on individually differentiated movements. Images Figure 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6894706

  11. Xylanase, a Novel Elicitor of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins in Tobacco, Uses a Non-Ethylene Pathway for Induction 1

    PubMed Central

    Lotan, Tamar; Fluhr, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Antisera to acidic isoforms of pathogenesis-related proteins were used to measure the induction of these proteins in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Endo-(1-4)-β-xylanase purified from culture filtrates of Trichoderma viride was a strong elicitor of pathogenesis-related protein synthesis in tobacco leaves. The synthesis of these proteins was localized to tissue at the area of enzyme application. The inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene action, 1-aminoethoxyvinylglycine and silver thiosulfate, inhibited accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins induced by tobacco mosaic virus and α-aminobutyric acid, but did not inhibit elicitation by xylanase. Likewise, the induction of these proteins by the tobacco pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci was not affected by the inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and action. The leaf response to tobacco mosaic virus and α-aminobutyric acid was dependent on light in normal and photosynthetically incompetent leaves. In contrast, the response of leaves to xylanase was independent of light. Tobacco mosaic virus and α-aminobutyric acid induced concerted accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. However, xylanase elicited the accumulation of only a subset of these proteins. Specifically, the plant (1-3)-β-glucanases, which are normally a part of the concerted response, were underrepresented. These experiments have revealed the presence of a novel ethylene-independent pathway for pathogenesis-related protein induction that is activated by xylanase. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16667541

  12. Physiological and toxicological aspects of smoke produced during the combustion of polymeric materials.

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, I N

    1975-01-01

    Normally one expects that flame contact is the major cause of injury and death during fires. Analysis of the factors involved in numerous fires has revealed that most deaths were not due to flame contact, but were a consequence of the production of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and other combustion products, such as aldehydes, low molecular weight alcohols, hydrogen cyanide, and other noxious species. The major emphasis within the scope of this paper relates to the physiological and toxicological aspects of smoke produced during the combustion of materials. Special emphasis is directed toward laboratory procedures which have been developed to determine the qualitative and quantitative analysis of smoke, factors pertaining to smoke development, and to measure the response of laboratory animals exposed to smoke. The effects that fire retardants, incorporated into polymeric materials as a means of improving flammability characteristics, may have on smoke development, the mechanism of polymer degradation, and on the survival response of laboratory animals are also considered. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. PMID:170077

  13. Chondrosarcoma of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Tadashi; Sasaki, Tomio; Takakura, Kintomo; Ishida, Tsuyoshi

    1992-01-01

    Five patients with chondrosarcoma, grade I or II, and one with mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the skull base were treated at our clinic between 1967 and 1991. The patients were three men and three women who ranged in age from 21 to 39 years. The presenting symptoms were diplopia, decreased visual acuity, or symptoms of involvement of VIIIth and lower cranial nerves. The duration of the symptoms ranged from 18 months to 14 years. A plain skull x-ray and tomography of the skull, computed tomographic (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed a calcified mass. Angiograms showed an occlusion of the arteries or venous sinuses, or both, in four patients, and a distinct tumor stain in one. The tumors were subtotally removed in all six cases. Two patients received postoperative irradiation for the residual tumor. In one patient, extraocular movement was compromised postoperatively, although in the other five patients there was no aggravation of the neurologic signs. Follow-up CT scans and MRI demonstrated no recurrent tumors nor any enlargement of residual tumors. Based on these findings, we advocate aggressive surgical removal of these tumors, which should be augmented by radiation therapy if the postoperative CT scans or MRI reveal residual tumors. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:17170863

  14. Characterization of human vascular smooth muscle cells transformed by the early genetic region of SV40 virus.

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, A.; Greenspan, P.; Nagpal, M. L.; Nachtigal, S. A.; Nachtigal, M.

    1991-01-01

    Human arterial smooth muscle cells transfected with the plasmid pSV3-neo, which contains the SV40 virus early region and the neor gene, developed colonies of morphologically transformed cells. Five cell strains were initiated from these colonies and could be subcultivated for up to 9 months before entering a stage of crisis that ended their life span. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules containing viral sequences were found free and integrated in the transformed cells. The intranuclear SV40 large T antigen and the p53 cellular protein were expressed in the transformed cells. Most of the transformed cells were spindle shaped but some were large and multinucleated. The modal chromosome numbers were in the triploid range, and aberrations, particularly dicentrics, were common. The transcripts for smooth muscle actins were significantly reduced and there were less alpha-actin filaments detected by immunofluorescence. Cytochemical staining disclosed a large accumulation of lipid droplets in the transformed cells incubated with rabbit hypercholesterolemic beta-very-low-density lipoprotein. Chemical analysis showed that cholesteryl esters were significantly elevated in these cells. Phenotypic changes induced in human vascular smooth muscle cells by SV40 early genes are similar to those found in smooth muscle cells from atherosclerotic lesions and may indicate common pathogenetic mechanisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1653520

  15. Expression of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion proteins by sinusoidal endothelial cells in the normal and cirrhotic human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Couvelard, A.; Scoazec, J. Y.; Feldmann, G.

    1993-01-01

    We compared the expression of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion proteins by sinusoidal endothelial cells in normal human liver, in which the endothelial lining of hepatic sinusoids is discontinuous and devoid of basement membrane, and in cirrhosis, during which sinusoids might undergo a process of capillarization and acquire a continuous lining and a typical basement membrane. In normal liver, sinusoidal endothelial cells displayed a very restricted repertory of cell-adhesion molecules: the intercellular adhesion molecules PECAM-1 and CD34 were undetectable and only two integrins, alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1, were present, whereas the laminin receptors alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1 were undetectable and the beta 3 integrins were faintly expressed. In capillarized sinusoids, sinusoidal endothelial cells displayed striking changes in their repertory of cell-adhesion molecules, including the expression of PECAM-1 protein and messenger RNAs and the induction of the laminin receptors alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1. Such changes co-localized with subendothelial laminin deposits. In conclusion, normal sinusoidal endothelial cells express a distinctive set of cell-adhesion molecules, adapted to their structural and microenvironmental characteristics, and this repertory is dramatically modified during sinusoidal capillarization, possibly as a consequence of the concomitant matrix changes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8362973

  16. Aquatic-Based Rehabilitation and Training for the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Thein, Jill M.; Brody, Lori Thein

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe the application of aquatic rehabilitative exercise to injuries of the upper extremity. Background: Water has been used for centuries as a medium for rehabilitation, relaxation, and training. Athletes use the pool to rehabilitate specific injuries, as a training medium during injury recovery, and as an alternative training site. The pool can be used to rehabilitate a number of upper extremity impairments, as well as to restore functional movement patterns in a resistive medium. Description: Exercises can be modified to be performed in pools of varying size and depth. Well-chosen equipment will enhance the rehabilitative opportunities for the clinician and patient. Clinical Advantages: All aspects of the rehabilitation program, including passive stretching, resistive exercise, functional movement patterns, and cardiovascular training, can take place in the same location. The water's warmth and buoyancy enhance stretching, while the buoyancy allows initiation of resistive exercise at a low level. The water's viscosity provides resistance throughout a movement pattern in any plane. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:16558651

  17. Transport of particles of colloidal gold within and from rat lung after local deposition by alveolar microinjection.

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, G; Stirling, C

    1992-01-01

    Because inhalation and intratracheal instillation deposit particles throughout the respiratory tract, these methods of administration give little information on the movement of particles within the lung and no direct information on the clearance kinetics from locally defined sites within alveolar tissue. Approximately 0.05 microL of 195Au-labeled gold colloid was administered to 32 rats by microinjection into a small volume of subpleural alveoli. Its fate was studied by whole-body counting and serial sacrifice over 15 months. The kinetics of clearance from the subpleural deposition site showed that there was no rapid removal of particles, and the main clearance process was defined by an exponential term with a half-time averaging 583 days. There was a wide variation between individual animals. The distribution of 195Au at sacrifice showed that the gold colloid was nearly all retained within the respiratory tract. The particles were not appreciably redistributed throughout the lung volume, so most of the material not cleared from the lung remained close to the deposition site. At the later times after microinjection, much of the gold colloid was associated with thickened pleura and adjoining septae. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:1327738

  18. Keratin proteins in human lung carcinomas. Combined use of morphology, keratin immunocytochemistry, and keratin immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Schlegel, S. P.; McDowell, E. M.; Wilson, T. S.; Trump, B. F.; Harris, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Light-microscopic immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy demonstrated that adenocarcinomas (AC) and squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinomas (SCCs) of human lung contained keratin proteins in the form of tonofilament bundles. However, moderately differentiated (md) SCCs contained abundant keratin, whereas poorly differentiated (pd) SCCs and all ACs contained lesser amounts. Lung tumors with the diagnosis of AC or SCC, as defined by WHO criteria, were also analyzed by immunoprecipitation techniques for the presence of keratin proteins. Regardless of the degree of tumor differentiation, SCCs contained a 44 kd keratin which was lacking in ACs. Interestingly, normal bronchial epithelium also contained the same 44 kd keratin. In addition, as SCCs became more differentiated, they exhibited even greater differences in the profile of synthesized keratins. Specifically, the relative abundance of the intermediate-sized keratins (57 and 59 kd) was increased in the md SCCs. Although keratin protein patterns appear to be a valuable adjunct in distinguishing AC from SCC, their usefulness as a diagnostic tool will require survey of a larger number of poorly differentiated tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6198920

  19. The Apexcardiogram in Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Howard H.

    1972-01-01

    The apexcardiogram (acg), when recorded serially in patients with acute myocardial infarction (ami), preinfarction angina (pia) and stable ischemic heart disease (ihd), appeared to reflect the abnormal patterns of contraction of the left ventricle in these conditions. Thus, paradoxical bulging (dyskinesis) of the systolic wave or increased “a” wave amplitude with gradual recovery over several weeks was found in all 60 patients with documented ami and in 18 of 20 patients with pia. Electrocardiogram changes were noted, however, in only eight of the pia patients. Changes in the acg frequently antedated ischemia in the ecg. Paradoxical bulging of the systolic wave of the acg was additionally noted in patients during the pain of angina pectoris but this promptly disappeared after the administration of nitroglycerine. Patients with classic angina often had normal resting ecg's but abnormal resting acg's. In contrast to the relatively transient abnormalities noted above, the acg remained unchanged in most patients with stable ihd during follow-up of three months to two years. Patients undergoing coronary bypass operations, however, showed immediate improvement in the acg in the postoperative period. These results suggest the acg reflects the contractile pattern of the left ventricle, and may be an indirectly recorded ventriculogram. Its enhanced sensitivity and the earlier development of changes in comparison to the ecg make this a valuable tool in the study of patients with heart disease. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:5008498

  20. Protein Energy Malnutrition and Fat Mobilization in Neonatal Calves

    PubMed Central

    Schoonderwoerd, Matt; Doige, Cecil E.; Wobeser, Gary A.; Naylor, Jonathan M.

    1986-01-01

    Fat stores and organ weights were assessed in calves at birth (n=5) and after seven days of milk (n=5) or electrolyte (n=5) feeding. Compared to newborn calves, milk-fed calves had a significant (p < 0.05) redistribution of fat from perirenal area to bone marrow. The thymus also involuted during milk feeding. In electrolyte-fed calves there was a significant loss of perirenal and bone marrow fat. The visible omental, mesenteric and subcutaneous fat stores were depleted. Epicardial fat stores were not visibly affected. There was a high correlation between bone marrow crude fat and bone marrow dry matter (R=0.92). This suggests that dry matter estimations can be used to assess bone marrow fat stores. Perirenal fat may be intermediate in type between brown and white adipose tissue because it is mobilized in response to fasting, and formalin fixed perirenal fat did not contain detectable levels of thermogenin. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5.Figure 6., Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9. PMID:17422704

  1. Cell and tissue distribution of synthetic oligonucleotides in healthy and tumor-bearing nude mice. An autoradiographic, immunohistological, and direct fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Plenat, F.; Klein-Monhoven, N.; Marie, B.; Vignaud, J. M.; Duprez, A.

    1995-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides have the ability to inhibit individual gene expression in the potential treatment of cancer and viral diseases. However, the way parenterally administered oligonucleotides distribute themselves into healthy tissues or tumors is poorly understood. In this study, the cell and tissue distribution of two modified or unmodified phosphodiester pentadeca-beta-oligonucleotides intravenously administered to healthy or tumor-bearing nude mice was assessed by autoradiography as well as by direct fluorescence and immunoenzymatic histological methods. Resistance of oligonucleotides to degradation by nuclease activity was previously studied in vitro. Using these methods we were able to show the following: 1) within minutes, oligonucleotides permeate all cells and tissues with the exceptions of erythrocytes and intervertebral discs; 2) cell and tissue distribution does not depend on the sequence of the given oligonucleotide; 3) concentration of oligonucleotides is higher within the connective tissue cells than in the interstitial matrix; 4) after uptake, oligomers partition throughout all of the cellular compartments, including at the highest intracellular concentrations in the nuclei; 5) oligonucleotides penetrate easily the tumor cell compartments, oligonucleotide diffusion being unimpeded by the extracellular matrix. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7604874

  2. Analysis of the growth properties and physical state of the human papillomavirus type 16 genome in cell lines derived from primary cervical tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, L.; Mikumo, R.; Mark, H. F.; Lauchlan, S.

    1993-01-01

    We have established three cell lines from keratinizing and nonkeratinizing cervical carcinomas with distinct growth properties in vitro and in vivo. Each cell line contained human papillomavirus type 16 DNA sequences, but the lines differed in the physical state of the viral genome present in the cells. A high copy number of episomal human papillomavirus type 16 DNA sequences was detected in the TC-140 line derived from a keratinizing cervical cancer. This cell line had an aneuploid karyotype, did not grow in soft agarose, and formed benign cystlike nodules in nude mice, similar in morphology to well-differentiated areas of the primary tumor. Only integrated human papillomavirus type 16 sequences were detected in the TC-146A and TC-146B lines established from a nonkeratinizing large-cell cervical carcinoma. These cell lines exhibited reduced sensitivity to transforming growth factor-beta 1 and produced invasive, but not progressively growing, tumors in nude mice. These cell lines should complement existing in vitro models of cervical carcinogenesis and provide useful tools for understanding the importance of virus integration in the transformation process as well as the cellular and molecular basis for tumor progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8395773

  3. Reconstruction of the lids of a child with microblepharon and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Merriam, J C; Stalnecker, M C; Merriam, G R

    1988-01-01

    The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery is outlined. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:2979029

  4. Two remarkable events in the field of intraocular foreign body: (1) The reversal of siderosis bulbi. (2) The spontaneous extrusion of an intraocular copper foreign body.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, R B

    1975-01-01

    Two unusual events concerning intraocular foreign bodies are presented. The first patient had an occult or unsuspected intraocular foreign body. He showed iridoplegia with mydriasis, siderosis iridis, and an intraocular piece of iron lying posteriorly near the retina. The foreign body was removed and the patient regained normal iris color and pupillary activity. His vision remains 20/15 six years postoperatively dispite ensuing retinal detachment one year after removal of the foreign body. The second patient was a young boy injured by a blasting cap explosion. He lost one eye from the injury and had a piece of intraocular brass in his left eye. In spite of the development of chalcosis and a mature cataract the lens gradually shrank in the pupillary space permitting a clear aphakic area and 20/25 vision. The brass fragment migrated forward and inferiorly and was finally extruded under the conjunctiva five years later, where it was removed and chemically analyzed by x-ray diffraction. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:1108372

  5. The Identification of a Heat-Shock Protein Complex in Chloroplasts of Barley Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Adrian K.; Critchley, Christa

    1992-01-01

    In vivo radiolabeling of chloroplast proteins in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Corvette) leaves and their separation by one-dimensional electrophoresis revealed at least seven heat-shock proteins between 24 and 94 kD, of which most have not been previously identified in this C3 species. Fractionation into stromal and thylakoid membrane components showed that all chloroplast heat-shock proteins were synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, translocated into the chloroplast, and located in the stroma. Examination of stromal preparations by native (nondissociating) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of a high-molecular mass heat-shock protein complex in barley. This complex was estimated to be 250 to 265 kD in size. Dissociation by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single protein component, a 32-kD heat-shock protein. The synthesis of this protein and the formation of the heat-shock protein complex were dependent on functional cytoplasmic ribosomes. Immunological studies showed that the heat-shock protein complex did not contain any proteins homologous to the α-subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase subunit-binding protein. Other features about the complex included the absence of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) and its nondissociation in the presence of Mg2+/ATP. These results suggest that the heat-shock protein complex in barley chloroplasts is a homogeneous octamer of 32-kD subunits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16653243

  6. Coexpression of type I and type II human macrophage scavenger receptors in macrophages of various organs and foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Naito, M.; Suzuki, H.; Mori, T.; Matsumoto, A.; Kodama, T.; Takahashi, K.

    1992-01-01

    Macrophage scavenger receptors are trimeric membrane glycoproteins implicated in the pathologic deposition of cholesterol in arterial walls during atherogenesis. Two types of cDNAs for functional human receptors have been cloned, but their physiologic roles remain obscure. To study the expression of these receptors, the authors generated antibodies against scavenger receptor type-specific synthetic peptide. Immunohistochemical examination using these antibodies and other anti-human receptor antibodies shows that type I and type II receptor proteins can be detected in foam cells in various stages of atherosclerosis, most evidently in fatty streaks. Co-expression of the two types of receptor protein was also detected in macrophages of various organs. Both types of the protein were detected on the surface and the membrane of endosomes in macrophages. These results indicate that both type I and type II scavenger receptors are expressed and functionally active in physiologic and pathologic conditions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1519666

  7. Microsphere embolization of nerve capillaries and fiber degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Nukada, H.; Dyck, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Polystyrene microspheres, the size chosen to plug capillaries and precapillaries, were injected into the arterial supply of rat sciatic nerves. They produced widespread segmental occlusion of capillaries in lower limb nerves. The clinical and pathologic effect was dose-related. One million microspheres produced selective capillary occlusion but no nerve fiber degeneration; approximately 6 million microspheres also produced selective capillary occlusion and associated foot and leg weakness, sensory loss, and fiber degeneration, beginning in a central core of the distal sciatic nerve; 30 million microspheres caused both capillary and arterial occlusion and a greater neuropathologic deficit. From these observations it is inferred that 1) occlusion of isolated precapillaries and capillaries does not produce ischemic fiber degeneration; 2) occlusion of many microvessels results in central fascicular fiber degeneration, indicating that these cores are watershed regions of poor perfusion; and 3) stereotyped pathologic alterations of nerve fibers and Schwann cells are related to dose, anatomic site, and time elapsed since injection. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6326580

  8. Intraoperative two-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler imaging: a basic transesophageal single plane patient examination sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, T. D.; Lippmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have allowed application of transesophageal echocardiography to intraoperative care of critically ill patients. Early clinical application primarily involved evaluation of left ventricular regional wall motion. However, valid intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography should also encompass systematic assessment of the entire heart as well as the great vessels. This report describes a 10-step sequence of single plane, two-dimensional echocardiographic views which constitute a basic patient examination capable of being performed by a practitioner whose primary responsibility is the delivery of anesthesia care. A 5-step color flow Doppler examination sequence is also presented. These views complement the two-dimensional echocardiographic steps. Representations of methods for grading Doppler-defined valvular regurgitation complete the report. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 PMID:7825339

  9. Alignment and defect structures in oriented phosphatidylcholine multilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, S A; Pershan, P S

    1979-01-01

    The alignment of dilauryl-, dimyristoyl-, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine at various water concentrations into large oriented monodomain multilayers by annealing at elevated temperatures (Powers and Clark, 1975, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:840; Powers and Pershan. 1977. Biophys. J. 20:137) is accompanied by the formation and subsequent dissolution of various defect structures. Some of these defects appear similar to those observed in thermotropic and other lyotropic liquid crystals, reflecting the lamellar structure of these materials. The formation and evolution of defects during the alignment of the lipids into the defect-free, monodomain, multilamellar geometry is studied using polarized microscopy. A combination of polarized and dark-field microscopy facilitated characterization of the defects; specific structural models are proposed. A new alignment technique involving compression and dilation of the lipid, which effects sample alignment at temperatures that are lower than those required by the Powers technique, is described. Lower temperature alignment avoids thermal decomposition that will sometimes occur if the lipid is maintained at elevated temperatures for prolonged periods. With this technique, samples (80 micrometer thick) of dilaurylphosphatidylcholine with 20% water by weight were aligned at room temperature. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 PMID:263691

  10. Spontaneous subcapsular and intrarenal hematoma demonstrated by various diagnostic modalities and monitored by ultrasonography until complete resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Shih, W. J.; Pulmano, C.; Han, J. K.; Lee, C.

    2000-01-01

    A patient with acute right abdominal pain and nausea underwent various diagnostic imaging studies, including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), technetium-99m DTPA renal study, and contrast arteriogram. The 99mTc renal study showed a linear photopenic area along the lateral cortical aspect of the right kidney and a focal cortical defect in the left kidney. These lesions corresponded to the findings of US, CT, MRI, and contrast angiography. Because of a suspected malignant mass, a CT-guided aspiration biopsy of the right kidney was performed that resulted in bloody fluid without malignant cells. The patient's condition was diagnosed as intrarenal and subcapsular renal hematoma. The patient was treated conservatively and followed up with CT and US studies. Sequential CT and US demonstrated gradual reduction of the size of the hematoma, and complete resolution was confirmed by US 1.5 years later. As long as underlying pathology can be ruled out, conservative management of spontaneous renal subcapsular hematoma is recommended. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10976177

  11. The structure of divalent cation-induced aggregates of PIP2 and their alteration by gelsolin and tau.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, L A; Cunningham, C C; Chen, J; Prestwich, G D; Kosik, K S; Janmey, P A

    1997-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) serves as a precursor for diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate in signal transduction cascades and regulates the activities of several actin binding proteins that influence the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Molecules of PIP2 form 6-nm diameter micelles in water, but aggregate into larger, multilamellar structures in physiological concentrations of divalent cations. Electron microscopic analysis of these aggregates reveals that they are clusters of striated filaments, suggesting that PIP2 aggregates form stacks of discoid micelles rather than multilamellar vesicles or inverted hexagonal arrays as previously inferred from indirect observations. The distance between striations within the filaments varies from 4.2 to 5.4 nm and the diameter of the filaments depends on the dehydrated ionic radius of the divalent cation, with average diameters of 19, 12, and 10 nm for filaments formed by Mg2+, Ca2+, and Ba2+, respectively. The structure of the divalent cation-induced aggregates can be altered by PIP2 binding proteins. Gelsolin and the microtubule associated protein tau both affect the formation of aggregates, indicating that tau acts as a PIP2 binding protein in a manner similar to gelsolin. In contrast, another PIP2 binding protein, profilin, does not modify the aggregates. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:9284311

  12. Postmortem findings in four litters of dogs with familial canine dermatomyositis.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Prieur, D. J.; Haupt, K. H.; Collier, L. L.; Evermann, J. F.; Ladiges, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Postmortem evaluations were performed on 20 juvenile to young adult collie and collie-Labrador retriever crossbred dogs with dermatomyositis and 10 neonatal collies. Cutaneous, muscular, and vascular lesions were present in the juvenile and adult dogs and were most severe in areas of the head and distal extremities. In more severely affected dogs, lesions were more generalized, including myositis of esophageal muscle and arteritis of skin, muscle, bladder, and spermatic cord. Although viruses were not isolated from muscle, crystalline viral-like structures were present in cytoplasm of endothelial cells within skeletal muscle. The dogs with dermatitis and myositis consistently had lymphoid hyperplasia, especially of peripheral lymph nodes. More severely affected dogs were smaller than less severely affected littermates, and the more severely affected males had reduced weight of testicles and prostate glands, compared with body weight. The reduced weight of genital organs correlated positively with reduced fertility. A few lymphoid aggregates were present in or around thyroid glands of 6 of the 20 dogs. There was no histologic evidence of glomerular disease in any of the dogs. The neonatal collies had no evidence of dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3717301

  13. Imaging biological structures with the cryo atomic force microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Sheng, S; Shao, Z

    1996-01-01

    It has long been recognized that one of the major limitations in biological atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the softness of most biological samples, which are easily deformed or damaged by the AFM tip, because of the high pressure in the contact area, especially from the very sharp tips required for high resolution. Another is the molecular motion present at room temperature due to thermal fluctuation. Using an AFM operated in liquid nitrogen vapor (cryo-AFM), we demonstrate that cryo-AFM can be applied to a large variety of biological samples, from immunoglobulins to DNA to cell surfaces. The resolution achieved with cryo-AFM is much improved when compared with AFM at room temperature with similar specimens, and is comparable to that of cryo-electron microscopy on randomly oriented macromolecules. We will also discuss the technical problems that remain to be solved for achieving even higher resolution with cryo-AFM and other possible applications of this novel technique. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:8889193

  14. Histogenesis of pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster: ultrastructural evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Flaks, B

    1984-01-01

    Pancreatic carcinogenesis in the Syrian hamster, induced by beta-oxidized derivatives of N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine, constitutes a valuable model of human cancer of the exocrine pancreas. In both species the majority of tumors are adenocarcinomas: superficially, on the basis of their histological appearance, these appear to be ductal in origin. However, sequential analysis, by electron microscopy, of the development of pancreatic neoplasia in the hamster model indicates that acinar cells may participate in the histogenesis of "ductal" adenomas and carcinomas. Acinar cells appear to undergo changes in differentiation, including pseudoductular transformation, giving rise to a new population of cells that resemble ductular or centroacinar types. This new population may then proliferate to form, first, cystic foci and subsequently cystadenomas and adenocarcinomas. Mucous metaplasia appears to develop at late stages of tumor development. Although the participation of ductular and centroacinar cells in pancreatic carcinogenesis cannot be excluded, very few tumors arise from the ductal epithelium. It is possible that some human pancreatic adenocarcinomas may also have their origin from dysplastic acinar cells, by analogy with the hamster model: focal acinar dysplasia being common in human pancreatic cancer patients. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. PMID:6383797

  15. An experimental mouse testicular teratoma as a model for neuroepithelial neoplasia and differentiation. II. Electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, M. M.; Sipe, J. C.; Rubinstein, L. J.; Vandenberg, S. R.; Spence, A. M.; Vraa-Jensen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The electron microscopic features of the stages of divergent neuroepithelial differentiation in the solid implants of a transplantable mouse testicular teratoma (OTT-6050) are presented and compared to the sequential stages of cytogenesis that have been described in the developing avian and mammalian central nervous system. Primitive neuroepithelial tumor cells showed the features of undifferentiated multipotential matrix (or ventricular) cells of the neural tube. They formed primitive medullary rosettes, from which various transitions were traced to more differentiated, cilia-containing ependymoblastomatous rosettes; the transitional features included increased granular endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli formation. Glial differentiation was characterized by the presence of mature ependymal rosettes and of astrocytes containing glial filaments. Neuronal differentiation included the development of synapses and the presence of dense-core vesicles in nerve cell processes. No intermediate cell forms were found that suggested multiple lines of differentiation occurring within a single cell. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 21 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:171962

  16. Lung injury mediated by antibodies to endothelium. II. Study of the effect of repeated antigen-antibody interactions in rabbits tolerant to heterologous antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Camussi, G.; Caldwell, P. R.; Andres, G.; Brentjens, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of repeated interactions of antibodies with cell surface antigens have been examined in in vitro, but not in in vivo systems. In this study are described the results of multiple antibody-cell surface antigen interactions in vivo. Rabbits were given repeated intravenous injections of goat antibodies to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), an antigen expressed on the surface of lung endothelial cells. For prevention of anaphylactic reactions, which would have been induced by multiple injections of heterologous immune or nonimmune IgG, the rabbits were made neonatally tolerant to goat IgG. Divalent immune IgG given daily for 21 days induced chronic antigenic modulation (antigen disappearance) with resistance to antibody-mediated inflammatory lesions. The rabbits, however, developed degenerative changes of alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells. Administration of immune IgG every other day for 43 days allowed partial reexpression of ACE and was associated with intravascular, but not interstitial, inflammatory changes. In contrast, repeated administration of monovalent immune Fab did not induce antigenic modulation but caused severe, lethal, interstitial pneumonitis. Thus, in this experimental model the development of acute interstitial inflammatory changes correlates with persistence of antigen and is abrogated by disappearance of antigen induced by divalent antibodies. Further, repeated endothelial antigen antibody interactions fail to induce chronic inflammatory or sclerosing lung lesions. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3034065

  17. Acute hyperuricemic nephropathy in rats. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Waisman, J.; Mwasi, L. M.; Bluestone, R.; Klinenberg, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Hyperuricemia and uricosuria were induced in rats fed uric acid and oxonic acid. Kidneys then were studied by light and electron microscopy. After 1 day of hyperuricemia, animals had deposits of uric acid and urate crystals within collecting tubules of the renal papillae, and tubular cells were altered. By 10 days, there was an exudative response with further injury to epithelium. Clear spaces within lumens, epithelium, and neutrophils suggested the presence of crystals; however, there was no direct ultrastructural evidence that neutrophils or epithelial cells ingested crystals and suffered injury. Presumably, crystals readily seen in frozen, unfixed tissue were lost during preparation for electron microscopy. Nonetheless, the ultrastructural findings indicated that hyperuricemic nephropathy was initiated in a fashion analogous to urate arthropathy. Urate crystals formed within collecting tubules, epithelial cells were altered, and most likely there was chemotaxis of neutrophils which underwent degranulation and vacuolation followed by lysis freeing any ingested urate. Release of ingested crystals plus precipitation of new crystals both might serve to sustain the nephritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1190294

  18. Rehabilitation of a child with partial unilateral cryptophthalmos and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, H; Merriam, J C; Jones, I S

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This paper describes the surgical rehabilitation of a child with craniofacial anomalies, unilateral syndactyly, and partial unilateral cryptophthalmos associated with inferior colobomata of the iris and optic nerve and agenesis of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The clinical presentation of cryptophthalmos is described. METHODS: The medical literature since the original description of cryptophthalmos in 1872 was reviewed to define patterns of inheritance and the incidence of associated anomalies. RESULTS: Including this patient, 149 case reports of cryptophthalmos were identified. In two families transmission from parent to child suggests dominant inheritance. None of the five dominant cases had any other anomalies, and all had bilateral complete cryptophthalmos. The incidence of cryptophthalmos in the remaining families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. This group includes patients with bilateral, unilateral, and partial cryptophthalmos. Other anomalies are common, including those of the ear and nose, limbs, genitourinary system, and mouth and palate. Mortality in the perinatal period is associated with renal agenesis, laryngeal atresia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly with two patterns of inheritance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8719680

  19. Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging—Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Cammoun, Driss; Davis, Kathleen A.; Hendee, William R.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous for diagnosing many neonatal and pediatric abnormalities. New, reliable cardiac gating techniques open the way for promising studies of cardiac anatomy and function. The ability to image directly in three orthogonal planes gives us new insight into staging and follow-up of pelvic tumors and other pelvic abnormalities. Exquisite soft tissue contrast, far above that attainable by other imaging modalities, has made possible the early diagnosis of traumatic ligamentous knee injury, avascular necrosis of the hip and diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of musculoskeletal neoplasms. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:3911592

  20. Identification of source of oscillations in apparent sarcomere length measured by laser diffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, K; Huxley, A F

    1995-01-01

    The most widely used technique for dynamic estimates of sarcomere length in muscle is laser light diffraction. We have identified conditions under which artifactual oscillations can arise in apparent sarcomere length measured by this technique and report methods to reduce the effect. Altringham et al. (1984) first reported that the diffraction angle can exhibit one cycle of oscillation for each sarcomere length displacement of the illuminated portion of the fiber. We find that the amplitude of similar oscillations is strongly dependent on the intensity of light scattered from objects near the fiber and on the spacing between fiber and scatterer. The oscillations can be eliminated by minimizing scattered light and positioning the fiber a few millimeters from sources of scattering. A theoretical description shows that oscillations of this kind are expected from interference of scattered and diffracted light. Interference fringes were observed along the meridian of the pattern, and these moved during translation of either a fiber or a grating. The movement of fringes across the diffraction order shifts the centroid back and forth and, when associated with steady shortening, can give rise to "steps" and "pauses" in apparent striation spacing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:7647247

  1. Clinicopathologic features of young and old sphha/sphha mice. Mutants with congenital hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed Central

    Maggio-Price, L.; Russell, R.; Wolf, N. S.; Alpers, C. E.; Engel, D.

    1988-01-01

    A colony of mice with congenital hemolytic anemia, sphha/sphha, were evaluated over a 3-year period. Prominent findings included decreased survivability, reticulocytosis, increased peripheral blood leukocytes, extramedullary hematopoiesis in liver and spleen, lymphoid hyperplasia and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Older (12 to 21 months) anemic animals had elevated serum levels of IgG1 and IgA. There was deposition of C3, IgG, IgM, and IgA in renal glomeruli of both control and anemic mice, but deposition of IgM and IgA was more prominent and widely distributed in anemic animals and correlated with mesangial expansion and the presence of electron dense deposits in the mesangium and in glomerular capillary walls. Prominent renal tubular hemosiderosis was noted in young and old anemic mice. The relation between the hemolytic anemia and glomerular disease is unclear but these mice may be an animal model useful for exploration of changes attendant with chronic hemolysis and evaluation of renal disease that accompanies hemolytic anemia. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3414779

  2. Heavily T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Landmarks of the Cavernous Sinus and Paracavernous Region

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, M.; Bobek-Billewicz, B.; Sloniewski, P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance anatomy of the cavernous sinus. Heavily T2-weighted submillimetric sequence in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes was performed in 16 healthy patients. The sequence provides high contrast between fluid and other structures of the cavernous sinus. High signal intensity of the venous spaces of the cavernous sinus provides a kind of a background for internal carotid artery, cranial nerves, and meninges, as well as bony and fibrous structures. The study was performed with the help of an anatomic atlas. Different magnetic resonance (MR) landmarks of the cavernous and parasellar region were introduced and demonstrated. MR images, superior to computer tomography, allow a detailed assessment of the cavernous sinus anatomy. Delineation by magnetic resonance of tiny anatomical structures may help the neurosurgeon trace the exact outline of a tumor and help to plan an adequate strategy if complete resection is attempted. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 8 PMID:17171105

  3. Biochemical and Histochemical Localization of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in the Glandular Trichomes of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) 12

    PubMed Central

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; Maffei, Massimo; Croteau, Rodney

    1989-01-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (−)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C10 isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (−)-limonene, hydroxylation to (−)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16666709

  4. Malignant histiocytosis. A phenotypic and genotypic investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Cattoretti, G.; Villa, A.; Vezzoni, P.; Giardini, R.; Lombardi, L.; Rilke, F.

    1990-01-01

    Ten cases of malignant histiocytosis (MH) were evaluated for clinical and histopathologic features, phenotype, and rearrangement of T cell receptor (TCR) beta, gamma, and alpha and immunoglobulin (Ig) genes (7/10). All cases were HLA-DR+ and CD30-positive. Four cases had molecular evidence of T cell lineage such as TCR beta, gamma, and alpha rearrangements, and one additional case synthesized the cytoplasmic TCR beta chain. The remaining five cases did not show unequivocal T, B, natural killer (NK) cell, or macrophagic origin, and three of them had germline TCR and Ig genes. Ultrastructural analysis was not helpful for the definition of the cell lineage. Most myelomonocytic markers (MAC387, CD13, CD14, CD64, CD68) were either negative on the MH cells or were expressed on cells with rearranged TCR gene. Precursor (CD34, CD7) and NK (CD16, CD56, and CD57) cell markers were not found. The lineage of a number of cases of MH remains unresolved. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2349962

  5. The aesthetics of behavioral arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    With their origins in scientific validation, behavior-analytic applications have understandably been developed with an engineering rather than a crafting orientation. Nevertheless, traditions of craftsmanship can be instructive for devising aesthetically pleasing arrangements—arrangements that people will try, and having tried, will choose to continue living with. Pye (1968) provides suggestions for this, particularly through his distinctions between workmanship of risk versus workmanship of certainty, and the mating of functional precision with effective or otherwise pleasing variability. Close examination of woodworking tools as well as antique machines offers instructive analogues that show, for instance, that misplaced precision can be dysfunctional when precision is not essential to a design. Variability should be allowed or even encouraged. Thus, in the design of behavioral contingencies as well as of practical or purely aesthetic objects, “precise versus variable” is not necessarily a distinction between good and bad. More generally, behavior analysts would do well to look beyond their technical experience for ways to improve the aesthetics of contingency design while continuing to understand the resulting innovations in relation to behavior-analytic principles. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:22478437

  6. THE TREATMENT OF URINARY TRACT CALCULI

    PubMed Central

    Leadbetter, Wyland F.

    1958-01-01

    From review of recent information relative to calculus formation in the kidney, the conclusion reached that we do not yet understand, despite much effort, the basic physicochemical mechanisms involved. Since this is so, it has seemed best to the author for the present to rely, in treating patients with renal stones, on simple therapeutic concepts, which, if carefully and conscientiously applied, produce good results. The concepts are the elimination of known causes such as parathyroid adenomas and obstructive lesions, elimination or at least treatment of infections, diminution of urinary components which form the basis of calculi by limiting the oral intake or absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and maintenance of a dilute urine of desired pH. A plan for preoperative study is suggested to allow planned therapy. Indications for operative removal of calculi as well as some points of technique are discussed. It is emphasized that surgical removal of a calculus is but an incident in the care of patients with calculi and that treatment during the postoperative period and followup therapy is most important if success is to be achieved. Reports of cases to illustrate the application of these concepts are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16 PMID:13523394

  7. The differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, G B

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: Classification schemes are useful in the formulation of differential diagnoses. Thoughtful commentary has been devoted to the classification of blepharoptosis, but the causes of eyelid retraction have received less attention in published reports. Although eyelid retraction most frequently is associated with Graves' ophthalmopathy, numerous other entities may cause the sign. This study was undertaken to provide a more comprehensive differential diagnosis and classification of eyelid retraction. METHODS: A series of patients with eyelid retraction was studied, and pertinent published reports were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-four patients with different causes for eyelid retraction are described. Normal thyroid function and regulation were confirmed in all patients in whom Graves' ophthalmopathy could not be excluded by clinical, biochemical, or historical criteria. CONCLUSION: Based on a series of patients and reported cases, a differential diagnosis for eyelid retraction is proposed using a classification system comprising three categories (neurogenic, myogenic, and mechanistic). Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 10 C FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B PMID:8719687

  8. Immunopathology of glomerulonephritis associated with chronic woodchuck hepatitis virus infection in woodchucks (Marmota monax).

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D. N.; Steinberg, H.; Anderson, W. I.; Hornbuckle, W. E.; Cote, P. J.; Gerin, J. L.; Lewis, R. M.; Tennant, B. C.

    1992-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of necropsy findings of 705 woodchucks was performed to determine the prevalence and morphology of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, its relationship to woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection, and the presence of major WHV antigens. Twenty-six woodchucks had glomerular lesions. Renal tissue of the 26 animals was evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically for immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. Of these 26 animals, immune-mediated glomerulonephritis was diagnosed in six, all of which were chronic WHV carriers. Membranous glomerulonephritis was identified in three animals, two of which also had mesangial proliferation. Host immunoglobulin was present within the mesangium and along capillary loops in all three. Woodchuck hepatitis virus core antigen (WHcAg) was present along capillary loops of two of these animals, one membranous and one mixed, and in the mesangium of all three. Woodchuck hepatitis virus surface antigen (WHsAg) deposition was similar to WHcAg deposition but was only present along capillaries in those animals with mixed nephritis. The remaining three animals had mesangial proliferation. WHsAg and host immunoglobulin deposition were predominately mesangial; WHcAg was not detected. Transmission electron microscopy showed thickening of the capillary loop basement membranes and subepithelial electron-dense deposits in animal one, and deposits in the mesangium in animal six. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1632459

  9. Pathologic and ultrastructural changes of acute and chronic delta hepatitis in an experimentally infected chimpanzee.

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, S.; Fields, H. A.; Humphrey, C. D.; Margolis, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    A hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) chronic carrier chimpanzee experimentally superinfected with delta virus (DV) developed chronic DV infection. Over a period of 12 months, serologic and biochemical changes were correlated with morphologic abnormalities of the liver. Severe hepatic necrosis and inflammation accompanied the initial acute episode of hepatitis on Day 35 after inoculation, followed by complete resolution of these lesions over the next 3 months. A second episode of hepatitis occurred on Day 145, and severe necrosis and inflammation recurred along with the reappearance of delta antigen in the hepatocytes. Delta antigen persisted in the liver following the second episode of hepatitis and has remained positive throughout the observation period of 1 year. During the initial acute episode, the hepatocytes exhibited foamy cytoplasmic changes resembling microvesicular fat. However, ultrastructural studies of the same cells revealed only vacuolization of the cytoplasm without evidence of fat droplets. The inflammatory infiltrate during both episodes of hepatitis demonstrated a striking predominance of macrophages over lymphocytes. Hepatocyte abnormalities observed by electron microscopy included vacuoles, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum, and tubules similar to those seen in posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. However, the tubular and reticular abnormalities coincided with delta antigen expression in liver biopsies detected by direct immunoperoxidase staining and abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels in the serum, which suggests a possible causal relationship. Nuclear abnormalities were not seen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3511726

  10. Cellular localization of type I III and IV procollagen gene transcripts in normal and fibrotic human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; Schuppan, D.; Surrenti, C.; Riecken, E. O.; Stein, H.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have determined the cell types producing alpha 1 (I), alpha 2 (I), alpha 1 (III), and alpha 1 (IV) procollagen gene transcripts in adult human liver by in situ hybridization with [35S]-labeled RNA probes. The liver specimens comprised a total of 20 biopsies with normal histology and biopsies with fibrosis or cirrhosis at different clinical stages and of heterogeneous origins. In normal liver, procollagen type I, III, and IV transcripts were detected in stromal and vascular mesenchymal cells of portal tracts and central veins, as well as in some perisinusoidal cells of the lobule. In fibrotic liver, increased levels of these procollagen mRNAs were observed in the same locations, and particularly enhanced in stromal cells of fibrotic septa and portal tracts, as well as in perisinusoidal cells. Expression of alpha 1 (IV) procollagen RNA was additionally found in some vascular endothelial and bile duct epithelial cells. Although previously suggested as the major source of liver collagens, hepatocytes showed no significant procollagen transcript levels in any of our samples. Thus, procollagen synthesis does not appear to be a function of hepatocytes, but rather of mesenchymal, endothelial, and bile duct epithelial cells in adult human liver. These findings may have implications for the development of specifically targeted antifibrotic therapies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2372043

  11. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 RNA expression in rat and human liver fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, H.; Wege, T.; Milani, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Orzechowski, H. D.; Bechstein, W. O.; Neuhaus, P.; Gressner, A. M.; Schuppan, D.

    1997-01-01

    The remodeling of extracellular matrix during chronic liver disease may partially be attributed to altered activity of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Expression of TIMP-1 and -2 was studied by in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry in rat (acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication and secondary biliary fibrosis) and human livers and on isolated rat hepatic stellate cells. TIMP-1 and -2 transcripts appeared in rat livers within 1 to 3 hours after intoxication, pointing to a role in the protection against accidental activation of matrix metalloproteinases, and were present at high levels in all fibrotic rat and human livers predominantly in stellate cells. TIMP-2 RNA distribution largely matched with previously reported patterns of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (72-kd gelatinase) expression, suggesting generation of a TIMP-2/matrix metalloproteinase-2 complex (large inhibitor of metalloproteinases). Isolated stellate cells expressed TIMP-1 and -2 RNA. Addition of transforming growth factor-beta 1 enhanced TIMP-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 RNA levels in vitro, whereas TIMP-2-specific signals were reduced, likely to result in a stoichiometric excess of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 over TIMP-2. In the context of previous demonstrations of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in vivo, these patterns suggest an intrahepatic environment permitting only limited matrix degradation, ultimately resulting in redistribution of extracellular matrix with relative accumulation of collagen type 1. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9137090

  12. INSECTS AS ALLERGEN INJECTANTS—Severe Reactions to Bites and Stings of Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Frank

    1962-01-01

    Arthropods capable of penetrating human skin often cause severe local and systemic reactions. Local reactions suggest delayed hypersensitivity while systemic symptoms resemble more the anaphylactic shock in animals. The nature of the antigen remains obscure but predominant evidence suggests its presence throughout the entire organism. Positive history of hypersensitivity to insect injectants was obtained in approximately 20 per cent of persons in the course of routine interviews of 1,078 patients. Repeated bites and stings at long or irregular intervals often induce a state of hypersensitivity, while repeated regular injections of extracts of these insects at shorter intervals may greatly reduce the hypersensitivity. The clinical evidence of allergic sensitivity to insect bites and stings cannot be readily confirmed by skin testing or by other immunological procedures. The history and the character of the lesions as well as certain entomological knowledge of the habits of the insects offer a better basis for specific diagnosis. Treatment with extracts of the whole offending insect generally provides good results but the protection afforded by such treatment varies in degree and duration. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:14485406

  13. The pathology of an epizootic of acquired immunodeficiency in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, K. G.; Prahalada, S.; Lowenstine, L. J.; Gardner, M. B.; Maul, D. H.; Henrickson, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    A syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency within a group of outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with unusually high mortality has been identified at the California Primate Research Center. The cause of death for most of the affected animals included septicemia and/or chronic diarrhea with wasting, often complicated by other problems. In many cases, multiple or unusual infectious agents were isolated or recognized, including cytomegalovirus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Candida albicans. Septicemias due to usually innocuous agents such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Alcaligenes faecalis were seen. Two animals developed cutaneous fibrosarcomas. Affected animals had generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, with depletion of T-cell populations, initially follicular hyperplasia followed by depletion, and absence of plasma cells. This spontaneous disease syndrome in nonhuman primates has similarities to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, providing an animal model for the study of the complex factors modulating the immune system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6691418

  14. Transmural progression of morphologic changes during ischemic contracture and reperfusion in the normal and hypertrophied rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P. G.; Bishop, S. P.; Digerness, S. B.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the functional and morphologic changes that occur during ischemic contracture and reperfusion in the normal and hypertrophied heart. Hearts from Sprague-Dawley, spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were evaluated using a modified Langendorff perfusion apparatus. After obtaining control data, hearts were potassium-arrested, made ischemic, and studied at various time points. Regional coronary flow was assessed with the use of radiolabeled microspheres or Microfil dye infusion, and morphologic changes were evaluated by means of light and electron microscopy. Sarcomere length changes and qualitative morphologic changes during global ischemia demonstrate a transmural progression of ischemic damage starting at the endocardium and extending, with time, epicardially. The progression of ischemic changes in hypertrophied hearts of SHRs was similar to that of normal hearts; however, hypertrophied hearts developed ischemic contracture sooner than normal hearts. In addition, the development of contraction band change after ischemic contracture occurred only when hearts were reperfused and was related to the development of no-reflow. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:2959155

  15. The intra-examiner reliability of manual muscle testing of the hip and shoulder with a modified sphygmomanometer: a preliminary study of normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Perossa, Daniel R; Dziak, Martin; Vernon, Howard T; Hayashita, Kaye

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intrarater reliability of manual muscle assessment of the hip and shoulder using a modified sphygmomanometer. In addition, it was intended to establish a preliminary database of values from normal, healthy male and female volunteers. Eighty subjects participated in the test sessions, 40 males and 40 females between the ages of 19-22. Forty subjects participated in each of the hip and shoulder test sessions. Each examiner tested different paired movements on the subjects in one single session for the two separate joints. The tested movements consisted of hip extension, flexion and abduction and shoulder abduction, extension, flexion, internal and external rotation. All movements were tested by the patient-initiated method. Each movement was repeated twice, with a 30-35 second rest interval between the trials. The results showed that the intratester reliability coefficients for the hip ranged from 0.94-0.97, while, for the shoulder, the range was 0.86-0.97. Norms are expressed as mean (SD) values. These data conformed to previously established expectations, in that side-to-side differences were less than 10% and test values for males were larger than females in all tests. It was concluded that manual muscle assessment using a modified sphygmomanometer has acceptable intra-examiner reliability for the hip and shoulder when using the patient-initiated method. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8

  16. Versican gene expression in human articular cartilage and comparison of mRNA splicing variation with aggrecan.

    PubMed Central

    Grover, J; Roughley, P J

    1993-01-01

    The chondrocytes in human articular cartilage from subjects of all ages express mRNAs for both of the aggregating proteoglycans aggrecan and versican, although the level of expression of versican mRNA is much lower than that of aggrecan mRNA. Aggrecan shows alternative splicing of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain within its C-terminal globular region, but there is no evidence for a major difference in situ in the relative expression of this domain with age. At all ages studied from birth to the mature adult, a greater proportion of transcripts lacked the EGF domain. The relative proportions of the two transcripts did not change upon culture and passage of isolated chondrocytes. In contrast, the neighbouring complement regulatory protein (CRP)-like domain was predominantly expressed irrespective of age, but cell culture did result in variation of the splicing of this domain. Versican possesses two EGF-like domains and one CRP-like domain, but at all ages the three domains were predominantly present in all transcripts. This situation persisted upon culture and passage of the chondrocytes. Thus, unlike aggrecan, the versican expressed by human articular cartilage does not appear to undergo alternative splicing of its C-terminal globular region, either in cartilage in situ or in chondrocytes in culture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8484718

  17. Immunolocalization of entactin, a sulfated basement membrane component, in rodent tissues, and comparison with GP-2 (laminin).

    PubMed Central

    Bender, B. L.; Jaffe, R.; Carlin, B.; Chung, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Entactin is a sulfated glycoprotein in the extracellular basement membrane like matrix produced by M1536-B3 cells, a mouse endodermal line derived from an embryonal carcinoma. It has a molecular weight of 158,000 and is chemically and immunologically distinguishable from GP-2 (laminin) and fibronectin. Antibodies produced against entactin and GP-2 react with subepithelial and vascular basement membranes in rat lung, liver, spleen, and kidney and mouse placenta and kidney when examined by light microscopy. Both antibodies yield staining around the marginal sinus of the white pulp of the spleen. Antientactin reacts with basement membrane and mesangium in rat glomeruli, and anti-GP2 does not. Ultrastructurally, staining in kidneys is strongest at epithelial or endothelial cell membranes bordering basement membranes, with only moderate staining of the basement membrane proper. Intracellular staining is not present. The location of entactin suggests that it has a role in the interaction of cells with extracellular matrix, possibly in adhesion. Lack of intracellular staining suggests that the tissues studied are not actively producing entactin or GP-2 and that these substances may be fairly stable in adult organisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:6165248

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi: histopathology of endocrine system in immunocompromised mice.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, K. S.; Lagrange, P. H.; da Costa, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally immunocompromised athymic mice, neonatal mice and adult outbred OFI mice treated with the immunosuppressive agents cyclophosphamide (CY), dexamethasone (DM) and indomethacin (IM) were infected with trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi Y and CL strains. 10(4) parasites were used, except in the case of IM treatment, where mice received 10(3) trypomastigotes in one group and 10(5) in another. The course of parasitaemia, tissue distribution of amastigotes and time of mortality were compared with an infected thymus intact control group. Neonate and indomethacin treated mice presented the same pattern of parasitaemia. Death occurred as early as 9-10 days after infection. A single dose of CY 200 mg/kg given 5 days after infection enhanced the parasitaemia and increased the number of parasites in the tissues. All groups were similar in terms of colonization of the endocrine system by parasites and the adrenals showed the highest density of amastigotes nests. The thyroid gland (analysed only in neonates) showed intense amastigote accumulation. Colonization of the ovary was observed with amastigotes in both the theca interna and in the stroma. The testes (also examined only in the neonate) showed that the interstitial cells, the tunica albuginea of the seminiferous tubules and the loose connective tissue were infected. Athymic nude mice showed the most intense parasite colonization of the islets of Langerhans. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7734334

  19. Age as a factor in the bacteriology and response to treatment of subperiosteal abscess of the orbit.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G J

    1993-01-01

    The clinical course of SPA of the orbit is associated with the age of the patient. That association might be explained through a series of intermediate relationships: the clinical course correlates with the bacterial constituency, the bacterial constituency is related to physiologic derangement within the sinuses, the physiologic derangement may vary with the degree of obstruction of the sinus ostia, and the ostial caliber relative to the volume of the cavity that must be drained decreases with patient age into late adolescence. The controversy between pediatricians and surgeons over the appropriate indications for drainage might be resolved with the acknowledgement that each side is correct on the basis of the patient populations treated. It is hoped that recognition of the age-related variations in SPA will permit a more systematic approach to the management of this complex infectious disease. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:8140703

  20. Glycosaminoglycans in the rat aorta. Ultrastructural localization with toluidine blue O and osmium--ferrocyanide procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Coltoff-Schiller, B.; Goldfischer, S.

    1981-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sclerotic vascular disease. The localization of GAGs in the rat aorta was examined by two different ultrastructural cytochemical approaches. These procedures are believed to demonstrate 1) anionic sites, with fixatives that contain either toluidine blue or ruthenium red, both cationic dyes, and 2) polysaccharides, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins, with an osmium--ferrocyanide mixture that binds to vicinal diols. Both procedures stain a network of insoluble, 2--8-nm filaments that bridge collagen fibers, elastin, basement membranes, and plasma membranes. These structures resist digestion with chondroitinase ABC and appear to be identical to the filaments that have previously been demonstrated with ruthenium red. Focal 6--12-nm densities are present where filaments intersect. However, the large granules that are made visible with ruthenium red are not seen in toluidine blue or osmium--ferrocyanide preparations. A soluble and relatively amorphous component surrounds the tightly packed bundles of collagen in the media and is preserved and stained by toluidine blue and osmium--ferrocyanide mixtures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6172040

  1. Early lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men. An ultrastructural comparison with other vascular proliferations in skin.

    PubMed Central

    McNutt, N. S.; Fletcher, V.; Conant, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    An aggressive variant of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has appeared in young homosexual men with evidence of systemic immunosuppression. The ultrastructure in biopsy specimens from 8 KS cases in young homosexual men has been compared with that in biopsy specimens from 4 KS cases in elderly heterosexuals and with that in biopsy specimens from 23 cases of benign vascular disorders of skin. In all cases of KS the small blood vessels lacked a prominent investment of pericytes and their processes, had a fragmented and often absent basal lamina, had frequent discontinuities in the endothelial lining, and had only a few small junctional densities between endothelial cells. Some clinically aggressive cases of KS also had necrosis of individual endothelial cells and had prominent cytoplasmic processes entrapping individual collagen fibers. The benign disorders lacked these features. These differences in the structure of the small vessels may be of diagnostic value in some early cases of KS. The loss of dendritic pericytes in blood capillaries in KS might relate to the telangiectasia which is a prominent feature of the early lesions of KS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6301283

  2. Light- and electron-microscopic histochemistry of Fabry's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101

  3. Photoregulation of the Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll Protein Complex Associated with Photosystem II in Dunaliella tertiolecta1

    PubMed Central

    Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Bennett, John; Falkowski, Paul G.

    1990-01-01

    The marine chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher responds to a one-step transition from a high growth irradiance level (700 micromoles quanta per square meter per second) to a low growth irradiance level (70 micromoles quanta per square meter per second) by increasing the total amount of light-harvesting chlorophyll (Chl) a/b binding protein associated with photosystem II (LHC II), and by modifying the relative abundance of individual LHC II apoproteins. When high light-adapted cells were incubated with gabaculine, which inhibits Chl synthesis, and transferred to low light, the LHC II apoproteins were still synthesized and the 35S-labeled LHC II apoproteins remained stable after a 24 hour chase. These results suggest that Chl synthesis is not required for stability of the LHC II apoproteins in this alga. However, when the control cells are transferred from high light to low light, the amount of the four LHC II apoproteins per cell increases, whereas it does not in the presence of gabaculine. These results suggest that Chl synthesis is required for a photoadaptive increase in the cellular level of LHC II. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16667702

  4. Disseminated BK type polyomavirus infection in an AIDS patient associated with central nervous system disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vallbracht, A.; Löhler, J.; Gossmann, J.; Glück, T.; Petersen, D.; Gerth, H. J.; Gencic, M.; Dörries, K.

    1993-01-01

    A 27-year-old man with hemophilia type A and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developed a subacute meningoencephalitis, associated with a normotensive internal hydrocephalus, 14 weeks before his death. From cerebrospinal fluid and brain autopsy material, a virus could be isolated and was classified by Southern blot analysis and restriction endonuclease reactions as the human polyomavirus BK. The postmortem findings of polyomavirus antigen and BK virus DNA in various cell types of the kidneys, lungs, and central nervous system strongly suggest that BK virus was the causative agent of a tubulointerstitial nephropathy, an interstitial desquamative pneumonitis, and a subacute meningoencephalitis with accentuation of the ventricular and meningeal surfaces of the brain. Besides distinctive cytopathic effects, the presence of intranuclear inclusions was a prominent histopathological feature. Therefore, the human polyomavirus BK should be regarded as a new candidate on the still growing list of opportunistic pathogens in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8391217

  5. Metabolic imaging in tumours by means of bioluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Tamulevicius, P.; Streffer, C.

    1995-01-01

    A bioluminescence technique involving single photon imaging was used to quantify the spatial distribution of the metabolites ATP, glucose and lactate in cryosections of various solid tumours and normal tissue. Each section was covered with an enzyme cocktail linking the metabolite in question to luciferase with light emission proportional to the metabolite concentration. The photons emitted are imaged directly through a microscope and an imaging photon counting system. In some cases, good agreement was observed between the distribution of relatively high concentrations of ATP and glucose in viable cell regions of the periphery, while the reverse was seen in more necrotic tumour centres with comparatively high lactate levels. In general, lactate was distributed more diffusely over the sections while ATP was more highly localised and glucose assumed an intermediate pattern. In contrast to the large degree of heterogeneity seen in tumours, distribution patterns of metabolites were much more homogeneous in normal tissue, such as heart muscle. Mean values for metabolite levels in cryosections using bioluminescence are in good agreement with those obtained from the same tumour by conventional methods. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7577454

  6. Ultrastructural radioautography and cytochemistry of lead absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, R. T.; Barton, J. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Austin, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Lead is a universal environmental contaminant absorbed largely through the gastrointestinal tract by unknown mechanisms. Because lead absorption is influenced by iron content in the body and diet, we used ultrastructural radioautography and cytochemistry to study absorption of physiologic lead doses in the rat duodenal epithelial cell and compared these findings to those previously reported for iron absorption. Rat duodenal loops exposed in vivo to 210Pb for 1 minute demonstrated the majority of labels on the microvilli, terminal web, and apical cytoplasm. Specimens exposed to radiolead for 10 minutes demonstrated more abundant labeling with a relative increase in labeling of epithelial cell mitochondria, nuclei and basal cytoplasm, as well as phagocytic cells, endothelial cells, and circulating erythrocytes of the lamina propria. Timm's sulfide-silver method localized trace metals in epithelial cells. After administration of lead, a significant increase in staining was observed in microvilli, mitochondria, non-membrane-bound cytoplasm, and nuclear chromatin. The rapid appearance of absorbed lead in epithelial cell mitochondria and nuclei, as well as phagocytic cells in the lamina propria, was distinctly different from that reported for absorbed iron and suggests different mechanisms for the subcellular transport of these cations. The combination of radioautography and Timm's sulfide-silver staining provides the specificity and resolution needed for ultrastructural evaluation of lead absorption and should be useful in further studies of lead metabolism. Images Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figures 1-2 PMID:464028

  7. The relation of experimental arthritis to the distribution of streptococcal cell wall fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Dalldorf, F. G.; Cromartie, W. J.; Anderle, S. K.; Clark, R. L.; Schwab, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The intraperitoneal injection of peptidoglycan-carbohydrate fragments from Group A streptococci produces a chronic, polyarticular, erosive synovitis in rats. The cell wall material accumulates rapidly in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, where it causes little injury. At the same time, selective localization and persistence of the material in the synovial and periarticular tissues occurs. Its presence in the joint is associated with acute and recurrent inflammation with focal synotivitis, pannus formation, joint destruction, and ankylosis. Cell wall fragments become localized in the synovial and periarticular tissues at a time when there are leukocytes in the bloodstream, which appear to contain the material. During this early phase vascular lesions appear in the synovium and in periarticular tissues with collections of fibrin, neutrophils, macrophages, and cell wall fragments near the venules and capillaries. Recurrent episodes of inflammation and joint injury, associated with persistent cell wall antigen within macrophages, were observed over a period of 90 days. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:6996490

  8. Immunoreactivity of anti-streptococcal monoclonal antibodies to human heart valves. Evidence for multiple cross-reactive epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Gulizia, J. M.; Cunningham, M. W.; McManus, B. M.

    1991-01-01

    Association of group A streptococci with acute rheumatic fever and valvular heart disease is well established; however the basis of valve injury remains unclear. In this study, anti-streptococcal monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) cross-reactive with myocardium were reacted with sections from 22 rheumatic valves, nine normal, five endocarditic, one 'floppy,' and one Marfan valve. In immunohistochemical studies, MAb reactivity was observed with cardiac myocytes, smooth muscle cells, cell surface and cytoplasm of endothelial cells lining valves, and valvular interstitial cells. Endothelial basement membrane and elastin fibrils reacted with the MAbs, whereas collagen was unreactive. Similar reactivity was seen with sera from acute rheumatic fever patients. The anti-streptococcal MAbs reacted with intravalvular myosin and vimentin in Western blots, and purified elastin competitively inhibited the binding of the anti-streptococcal MAbs to whole group A streptococci. The data show that human heart valves have numerous sites of immunoreactivity with anti-streptococcal MAbs and acute rheumatic fever sera of potential importance in the pathogenesis of rheumatic valvular injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1704188

  9. Pulmonary and generalized lysosomal storage induced by amphiphilic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Hruban, Z

    1984-01-01

    Administration of amphiphilic drugs to experimental animals causes formation of myelinoid bodies in many cell types, accumulation of foamy macrophages in pulmonary alveoli and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. These changes are the result of an interaction between the drugs and phospholipids which leads to an alteration in physicochemical properties of the phospholipids. Impairment of the digestion of altered pulmonary secretions in phagosomes of macrophages results in accumulation of foam cells in pulmonary alveoli. Impairment of the metabolism of altered phospholipids removed by autophagy induces an accumulation of myelinoid bodies. The administration of amphiphilic compounds thus causes pulmonary intra-alveolar histiocytosis which is a part of a drug-induced lysosomal storage or generalized lipidosis. The accumulation of drug-lipid complexes in myelinoid bodies and in pulmonary foam cells may lead to alteration of cellular functioning and to clinical disease. Currently over 50 amphiphilic drugs are known. Unique pharmacological properties necessitate clinical use of some of these drugs. The occurrence and severity of potential clinical side effects depend on the nature of each drug, dosage and duration of treatment, simultaneous administration of other drugs and foods, individual metabolic pattern of the patient and other factors. Further studies on factors preventing and potentiating adverse effects of amphiphilic drugs are indicated. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:6376111

  10. Scanning tunneling microscopy of mercapto-hexyl-oligonucleotides attached to gold.

    PubMed Central

    Rekesh, D; Lyubchenko, Y; Shlyakhtenko, L S; Lindsay, S M

    1996-01-01

    6-mercapto hexyl-oligonucleotides bind to a gold surface strongly enough to permit imaging by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). STM images showed worm-like chains that were approximately 12-(A-wide for single-stranded DNA and 20-(A-wide for double-stranded DNA. The chain lengths corresponded to 3.4 +/- 0.4 A per basepair for double-stranded DNA and 2.2 +/- 0.4 A per base for single-stranded DNA. This unexpectedly short length for single-stranded DNA was confirmed using oligomers with both single- and double-stranded regions. When the attachment of the samples was weakened (by imaging in water or scraping with the STM tip) the images changed to pairs of "blobs," apparently reflecting the attachment points of the molecules to the gold surface. Given this interpretation, images of DNA containing a five-base bulge imply that the bulge bends the oligomer by 90 degrees +/- 20 degrees. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:8842244

  11. Immunological Characterization of a Tapetal Protein in Developing Anthers of Lilium longiflorum 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Co-Shine; Walling, Linda L.; Eckard, Kathleen J.; Lord, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    Antiserum was raised in rabbits against a lily (Lilium longiflorum) anther-specific protein (LLA-15). Monospecific anti-LLA-15 antibodies were prepared to investigate the distribution of LLA-15 during anther development in a variety of flowering plants. Immunoblot analyses of total protein from floral and vegetative organs confirmed that LLA-15 or LLA-15-like proteins accumulated to detectable levels only in a discrete stage of anther development. In situ localization using anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated with gold particles confirmed that LLA-15 was specifically localized in the tapetal tissue of lily anthers. The maximal level of LLA-15 was strictly coincident with the peak of tapetal secretory functions. Immunoblots of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels of lily anther proteins indicated that the seven LLA-15 isoforms ranged from isoelectric point 5.6 to 6.1. In vitro translation of lily anther mRNAs showed that four of these isoforms were primary products, the additional three being a result of posttranslational processing of the primary translation products. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:16669007

  12. Equine phacoclastic uveitis: the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and therapy of 7 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, B H; Cullen, C L

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective clinical study describes the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic lens rupture in the horse. Rupture of the lens capsule in the horse usually results in a chronic, blinding inflammation (phacoclastic uveitis) unless prompt surgical and medical therapies are implemented. The clinical manifestations of acute lens capsule rupture included: cataract; intralenticular displacement of iridal pigment; lens cortical fragments attached to the perforated lens capsule, iris, and corneal endothelium; miosis; aqueous flare; and usually a corneal or scleral perforation with ulceration or focal full thickness corneal edema and scarring. The clinical signs of chronic phacoclastic uveitis include blindness, phthisis bulbi, and generalized corneal opacification related to scarring, vascularization, pigmentation, and edema. In one horse, acute phacoclastic uveitis was successfully treated with phacoemulsification to remove the ruptured lens and medical therapy to control the accompanying inflammation. The affected eyes of the horses with chronic phacoclastic uveitis were enucleated because of persistent clinical signs of nonulcerative keratitis and uveitis, despite long-term medical management. The clinical manifestations and lack of improvement with medical therapy are similar in the horse, dog, cat, and rabbit. However, the histologic findings in equine phacoclastic uveitis differ significantly from those in the dog, and rabbit. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:10816830

  13. Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224

  15. Photoelectron imaging of viruses and DNA: evaluation of substrates by unidirectional low angle shadowing and photoemission current measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Birrell, G B; Habliston, D L; Griffith, O H

    1994-01-01

    Photoelectron imaging (photoelectron emission microscopy, PEM or PEEM) is a promising high resolution surface-sensitive technique for biophysical studies. At present, image quality is often limited by the underlying substrate. For photoelectron imaging, the substrate must be electrically conductive, low in electron emission, and relatively flat. A number of conductive substrate materials with relatively low electron emission were examined for surface roughness. Low angle, unidirectional shadowing of the specimens followed by photoelectron microscopy was found to be an effective way to test the quality of substrate surfaces. Optimal results were obtained by depositing approximately 0.1 nm of platinum-palladium (80:20) at an angle of 3 degrees. Among potential substrates for photoelectron imaging, silicon and evaporated chromium surfaces were found to be much smoother than evaporated magnesium fluoride, which initially appeared promising because of its very low electron emission. The best images were obtained with a chromium substrate coated with a thin layer of dextran derivatized with spermidine, which facilitated the spreading and adhesion of biomolecules to the surfaces. Making use of this substrate, improved photoelectron images are reported for tobacco mosaic virus particles and DNA-recA complexes. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:7858141

  16. Morphology of irradiated microvasculature: a combined in vivo and electron-microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, K.; Cliff, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a standardized experimental system to investigate the local effects of ionizing irradiation in the absence of systemic responses due to radiation. Twenty fully healed rabbit ear chambers in 13 rabbits were irradiated with single exposures of 7500 rads of beta-rays from a strontium-90 source. The irradiation resulted in an acute response, with cellular infiltration of the ear chambers, loss of vasomotion in arterioles, and vasodilatation. Over the weeks following irradiation, a gradual reduction in the number of blood and lymphatic vessels was noticed. A gradual reduction in the number of cells in the interstitium was also observed. Finally, only a few thin-walled blood vessels remained. Their endothelium contained no recognizable organelles and in places had disappeared completely, to expose the vascular basement membrane to the blood. These vessels were observed to be still flowing. No evidence either of capillary blockage due to swelling of endothelial cells or of platelet aggregation leading to thrombosis was obtained. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7055211

  17. Iron metabolism and cell membranes. III. Iron-induced alterations in HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, H. O.; Bradford, W. D.; Arstila, A. U.; Kinney, T. D.; Trump, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    The morphologic characteristics of acute iron loading were studied in HeLa cells incubated in an iron-enriched Eagle's medium containing 500 mug/ml of iron. Chemical studies showed that ferritin synthesis was rapidly induced and the concentration of intracellular ferritin increased up to 72 hours. Closely coupled with an increase in HeLa cell ferritin was a marked decrease in the rate of cell multiplication. The significant ultrastructural findings of iron-induced HeLa cell injury are characterized by the appearance of both autophagic multivesicular and residual bodies over the first 72 hours of iron incubation. The prominence of multivesicular bodies was noted after only 4 hours' incubation, with iron and myelin figures first appearing after 6 hours. Thus, the partial arrest of cell multiplication was associated with an increase in cytoplasmic residual bodies containing iron and other debris. The distribution of intracellular ferritin within HeLa cells differs significantly from the distribution described previously in hepatic parenchymal cells. In HeLa cells, ferritin particles were confined to lysosomal vesicles and were not identified in cell sap, endoplasmic reticulum, or Golgi apparatus. Images Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1155583

  18. Ultrastructural evidence of alveolar epithelial injury in idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, J. L.; Katzenstein, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP) were studied in 9 patients. As expected, the characteristic air space fibrosis was composed of spindled fibroblasts and myofibroblasts arranged concentrically within an electron-lucent stroma. In 6 patients there was evidence of incorporation of air space fibrosis into the interstitium. A surprising finding in all patients was the presence of extensive epithelial damage involving peribronchiolar alveolar septa. Necrosis and sloughing of alveolar lining cells resulted in denuding of epithelial basal laminae. Complex infoldings and deep invaginations of the denuded basal laminae into alveolar septa were common. These ultrastructural changes involving the interstitium are similar to those occurring in the interstitial pneumonias, and suggest that BOOP also results from acute epithelial injury. The different clinical manifestations and prognosis of these entities may relate to the peribronchiolar localization of the epithelial damage in BOOP compared with more diffuse involvement of distal lung in the interstitial pneumonias. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3394793

  19. Bay or baylike regions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were potent inhibitors of Gap junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, L M; Rummel, A M; Masten, S J; Trosko, J E; Upham, B L

    1998-01-01

    Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens, and a considerable amount of research has been devoted to predicting the tumor-initiating potential of PAHs based on chemical structure. However, there has been little research into the effects of PAHs on the epigenetic events of tumor promotion and no structural correlation has been made thereof. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) activity was used in this study as an epigenetic biomarker to determine the structure-activity relationships of twelve different PAHs. The PAHs used were naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, anthracene, 1-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9, 10-dimethylanthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, 1-methylfluorene, and fluoranthene. Results showed that PAHs containing bay or baylike regions inhibited GJIC more than did the linear PAHs. The nonnaphthalene PAHs were not cytotoxic as determined by a vital dye uptake assay, but the naphthalene compounds were cytotoxic at the higher doses, indicating that the down regulation of GJIC by these naphthalenes could be a consequence of general membrane damage. Inhibition of GJIC by all the inhibitory PAHs was reversed when the cells were refreshed with PAH-free growth medium. Inhibition of GJIC occurred within 0.5-5 min and correlated with the aqueous solubility of the PAHs. The present study revealed that there are structural determinants of epigenetic toxicity as determined by GJIC activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9417772

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor beta isoforms in asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Jagirdar, J; Lee, T C; Reibman, J; Gold, L I; Aston, C; Bégin, R; Rom, W N

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a multifunctional cytokine and growth factor, plays a key role in scarring and fibrotic processes because of its ability to induce extracellular matrix proteins and modulate the growth and immune function of many cell types. These effects are important in inflammatory disorders with fibrosis and cancer. The asbestos-related diseases are characterized by fibrosis in the lower respiratory tract and pleura and increased occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma. We performed immunohistochemistry with isoform-specific antibodies to the three TGF-beta isoforms on 16 autopsy lungs from Quebec, Canada, asbestos miners and millers. There was increased immunolocalization of all three TGF-beta isoforms in the fibrotic lesions of asbestosis and pleural fibrosis. The hyperplastic type II pneumocytes contained all three isoforms. By contrast, there was differential spatial immunostaining for the TGF-beta isoforms in malignant mesothelioma, with TGF-beta 1 in the stroma but TGF-beta 2 in the tumor cells. These data are consistent with an important role for TGF-beta in accumulation of extracellular matrix and cell proliferation in asbestos-related diseases. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. PMID:9400723

  1. Increased central nervous system production of extracellular matrix components and development of hydrocephalus in transgenic mice overexpressing transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed Central

    Wyss-Coray, T.; Feng, L.; Masliah, E.; Ruppe, M. D.; Lee, H. S.; Toggas, S. M.; Rockenstein, E. M.; Mucke, L.

    1995-01-01

    A number of important neurological diseases, including HIV-1 encephalitis, Alzheimer's disease, and brain trauma, are associated with increased cerebral expression of the multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). To determine whether overexpression of TGF-beta 1 within the central nervous system (CNS) can contribute to the development of neuropathological alterations, a bioactive form of TGF-beta 1 was expressed in astrocytes of transgenic mice. Transgenic mice with high levels of cerebral TGF-beta 1 expression developed a severe communicating hydrocephalus, seizures, motor incoordination, and early runting. While unmanipulated heterozygous transgenic mice from a low expressor line showed no such alterations, increasing TGF-beta 1 expression in this line by injury-induced astroglial activation or generation of homozygous offspring did result in the abnormal phenotype. Notably, astroglial overexpression of TGF-beta 1 consistently induced a strong upmodulation of the extracellular matrix proteins laminin and fibronectin in the CNS, particularly in the vicinity of TGF-beta 1-expressing perivascular astrocytes, but was not associated with obvious CNS infiltration by hematogenous cells. While low levels of extracellular matrix protein expression may assist in CNS wound repair and regeneration, excessive extracellular matrix deposition could result in the development of hydrocephalus. As an effective inducer of extracellular matrix components, TGF-beta 1 may also contribute to the development of other neuropathological alterations, eg, the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7604885

  2. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 in experimental autoimmune neuritis. Cellular localization and time course.

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, R.; Funa, K.; Schweitzer, T.; Jung, S.; Bourde, O.; Toyka, K. V.; Hartung, H. P.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a monophasic inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system that resolves spontaneously by molecular mechanisms as yet unknown. We have investigated whether the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) might be endogenously expressed in the peripheral nervous system of Lewis rats with actively induced and adoptive transfer EAN. TGF-beta 1 mRNA was upregulated to high levels in sensory and motor roots, spinal ganglia, and sciatic nerve as revealed by quantitative Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization histochemistry, with peak levels just preceding the first signs of clinical recovery. TGF-beta 1 mRNA was localized to scattered round cells and dense cellular infiltrates, but only rarely to Schwann cell profiles. Double labeling studies revealed macrophages and subpopulations of T cells as the major cellular source of TGF-beta 1 mRNA. TGF-beta 1 protein was visualized immunocytochemically and localized to infiltrating mononuclear cells with peak expression around the same time as mRNA, in addition to some constitutive expression in axons and Schwann cells. Our studies suggest that the spontaneous recovery observed in Lewis rat EAN might be mediated by the endogenous elaboration of TGF-beta 1 within the peripheral nerve, and that macrophages might control their own cytotoxicity by expressing TGF-beta 1. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8546208

  3. Tonoplast-Bound Protein Kinase Phosphorylates Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth D.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1992-01-01

    Tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) is a member of a family of putative membrane channels found in bacteria, animals, and plants. Plants have seed-specific, vegetative/reproductive organ-specific, and water-stress-induced forms of TIP. Here, we report that the seed-specific TIP is a phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation can be monitored in vivo by allowing bean cotyledons to take up [32P]orthophosphate and in vitro by incubating purified tonoplasts with γ-labeled [32P]ATP. Characterization of the in vitro phosphorylation of TIP indicates that a membrane-bound protein kinase phosphorylates TIP in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The capacity of the isolated tonoplast membranes to phosphorylate TIP declined markedly during seed germination, and this decline occurred well before the development-mediated decrease in TIP occurs. Phosphoamino acid analysis of purified, radiolabeled TIP showed that serine is the major, if not only, phosphorylated residue, and cyanogen bromide cleavage yielded a single radioactive peptide peak on a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatogram. Estimation of the molecular mass of the cyanogen bromide phosphopeptide by laser desorption mass spectroscopy led to its identification as the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of TIP. The putative phosphate-accepting serine residue occurs in a consensus phosphorylation site for serine/threonine protein kinases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16653198

  4. A Kinetic Chain Approach for Shoulder Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, John; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To introduce an approach to shoulder rehabilitation that integrates the kinetic chain throughout the rehabilitation program while providing the theoretical rationale for this program. Background: The focus of a typical rehabilitation program is to identify and treat the involved structures. However, in activities of sport and daily life, the body does not operate in isolated segments but rather works as a dynamic unit. Recently, rehabilitation programs have emphasized closed kinetic chain exercises, core-stabilization exercises, and functional programs. These components are implemented as distinct entities and are used toward the end of the rehabilitation program. Description: Kinetic chain shoulder rehabilitation incorporates the kinetic link biomechanical model and proximal-to-distal motor-activation patterns with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and closed kinetic chain exercise techniques. This approach focuses on movement patterns rather than isolated muscle exercises. Patterns sequentially use the leg, trunk, and scapular musculature to activate weakened shoulder musculature, gain active range of motion, and increase strength. The paradigm of kinetic chain shoulder rehabilitation suggests that functional movement patterns and closed kinetic chain exercises should be incorporated throughout the rehabilitation process. Clinical Advantages: The exercises in this approach are consistent with biomechanical models, apply biomechanical and motor control theory, and work toward sport specificity. The exercises are designed to stimulate weakened tissue by motion and force production in the adjacent kinetic link segments. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:16558646

  5. The role of pancreatic islets in experimental pancreatic carcinogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, O.; Ohigashi, H.; Imaoka, S.; Nakai, I.; Mitsuo, M.; Weide, L.; Pour, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    Our previous studies have suggested that the presence of intact islets is essential for the induction of pancreatic exocrine tumors in the Syrian hamster model. To validate this, we investigated the effect of the carcinogen, N-nitrosobis(2-oxo-propyl)amine (BOP) in hamsters, in which homologous isolated intact islets were transplanted into the submandibular gland (SMG). Freshly isolated pure islets from hamster donors were transplanted into the left SMG of 20 female host hamsters. Ten of these hamsters (group 1) received BOP (40 mg/kg) weekly for 3 weeks. Another 10 hamsters (group 2) were kept untreated. In groups 3 and 4 (10 hamsters each) the salt solution or isolated pancreatic ductal cells, respectively, was injected into the gland. In other groups (10 hamsters each) islets were transplanted into the peri-SMG connective tissue (group 5) or into the renal subcapsular space (group 6). Hamsters of group 1 (40 mg/kg, weekly for 3 weeks) as were group 7 hamsters, which served as BOP-treated controls. All BOP-treated hamsters developed pancreatic lesions. Similar hyperplastic and atypical ductal/ductular proliferation and in situ carcinoma were found in the SMG of many group 1 hamsters. No such lesions were found in the SMG, peri-SMG, or renal subcapsular space of the other groups. Islets appear to be involved in carcinogenicity of BOP. The mechanism is obscure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7485408

  6. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  7. A defect in the metabolic activation of sulfate in a patient with achondrogenesis type IB.

    PubMed Central

    Superti-Furga, A.

    1994-01-01

    Achondrogenesis type I is a perinatally lethal, short-limb chondrodysplasia. Two types, IA and IB, have been distinguished by radiographic and histological criteria; both types appear to be inherited as autosomal recessive traits. The underlying molecular defects are not known, but histochemical studies have suggested that in achondrogenesis type IB, cartilage matrix is deficient in sulfated proteoglycans. We have studied cartilage extracts of one newborn with achondrogenesis type IB and found that proteoglycans were quantitatively reduced, and, unlike in control cartilage, they did not stain with toluidine blue and did not bind to DEAE. Impaired synthesis of sulfated proteoglycans was observed also in fibroblast cultures of the achondrogenesis IB patient. Radioactive labeling and immunoprecipitation studies indicated that core protein and side chains of proteoglycans were synthesized normally but were not sulfated. Analysis of sulfate metabolism in fibroblast cultures showed, in the patient's cells, normal intracellular levels of free sulfate but markedly reduced levels of the two intermediate compounds in the sulfate activation pathway, adenosine-phosphosulfate and phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate. The results can be explained by deficient activity of one of the enzymes responsible for the biologic activation of sulfate, possibly similar to that observed in cartilage (but not in skin) of the recessive, nonlethal mouse mutant brachymorphic and leading to defective sulfation of macromolecules. Expression of the sulfation defect in cultured fibroblasts may offer a diagnostic tool for the disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7977372

  8. Helical stacking in DNA three-way junctions containing two unpaired pyrimidines: proton NMR studies.

    PubMed Central

    Leontis, N B; Hills, M T; Piotto, M; Ouporov, I V; Malhotra, A; Gorenstein, D G

    1995-01-01

    The proton NMR spectra of DNA three-way junction complexes (TWJ) having unpaired pyrimidines, 5'-TT- and 5'-TC- on one strand at the junction site were assigned from 2D NOESY spectra acquired in H2O and D2O solvents and homonuclear 3D NOESY-TOCSY and 3D NOESY-NOESY in D2O solvent. TWJ are the simplest branched structures found in biologically active nucleic acids. Unpaired nucleotides are common features of such structures and have been shown to stabilize junction formation. The NMR data confirm that the component oligonucleotides assemble to form conformationally homogeneous TWJ complexes having three double-helical, B-form arms. Two of the helical arms stack upon each other. The unpaired pyrimidine bases lie in the minor groove of one of the helices and are partly exposed to solvent. The coaxial stacking arrangement deduced is different from that determined by Rosen and Patel (Rosen, M.A., and D.J. Patel. 1993. Biochemistry. 32:6576-6587) for a DNA three-way junction having two unpaired cytosines, but identical to that suggested by Welch et al. (Welch, J. B., D. R. Duckett, D. M. J. Lilley. 1993. Nucleic Acids Res. 21:4548-4555) on the basis of gel electrophoretic studies of DNA three-way junctions containing unpaired adenosines and thymidines. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:7711249

  9. Mechanisms of platelet adhesion to the basal lamina.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, T. W.; Benditt, E. P.

    1978-01-01

    The human glomerular basal lamina (HGBL) is composed of collagenous and noncollagenous glycoproteins. We assessed the role played by each costituent in platelet-basal-lamina interaction by selective cleavage and removal of each component by clostridial collagenase or by pepsin. When noncollagenous proteins are removed from HGBL, human platelets exhibit littel reactivity toward the residual collagen framework of the isolated basal lamina. With the noncollagen matrix of basal lamina, after removal of the bulk of the collagen, platelet adhesion and spreading proceed normally in the presence of divalent cations, similar to what occurs on intact basal lamina. No platelet degranulation or aggregation is observed. The results indicate that the basal lamina collagen, even in its native packing arrangement, lacks affinity for platelet adhesion and is incapable of triggering platelet release reactions. Platelet adhesion and spreading on the basal lamina appears to depend primarily on the presence of the noncollagen components and to require divalent cations. The data suggest the presence on platelets of receptors for basal lamina distinct from those for interstitial collagens. These receptors activate a unique modulation of platelet behavior, ie, adhesion and spreading without degranulation. A difference in biologic function of the basal lamina and interstitial collagens is apparent in these experiments. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:210672

  10. Multiparameter analyses of spontaneous nonthymic lymphomas occurring in NFS/N mice congenic for ecotropic murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, T. N.; Morse, H. C.; Yetter, R. A.; Rowe, W. P.; Hartley, J. W.; Pattengale, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse strains congenic for ecotropic retrovirus genes have a much higher frequency of spontaneous lymphomas than the background NFS/N strain. In this study, most of these lymphomas have been identified as B-cell in origin by morphologic features, identification of immunoglobulin class, and cell-surface antigens. The classification suggested by Pattengale and Taylor proved to be applicable to the lymphomas studied. Most were of large follicular center cells and are considered typical of the type formerly designated as "reticulum cell sarcoma, type B." Many lymphomas contained a large proportion of nonneoplastic cells which partially obscured their neoplastic component. The role of ecotropic murine leukemia viruses as etiologic agents for B-cell lymphomas remains equivocal. However, because the only difference between the NFS/N and congenic mice is the expression of viruses in the latter, it appears that these viruses are somehow involved in induction of B-cell lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2998195

  11. Cirrhosis of the liver induced by cupric nitrilotriacetate in Wistar rats. An experimental model of copper toxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Toyokuni, S.; Okada, S.; Hamazaki, S.; Fujioka, M.; Li, J. L.; Midorikawa, O.

    1989-01-01

    Rats intraperitoneally injected with a daily dose of cupric nitrilotriacetate (Cu-NTA), which contained 4 to 7 mg of copper/kg body weight, showed submassive liver necrosis, hemolytic anemia, and acute renal tubular necrosis at the beginning of the experiment and intermittently after 4 weeks of injections. All rats that survived over 8 weeks exhibited liver fibrosis with portal-portal, portal-central, and central-central bridging. In all rats that survived over 16 weeks, micronodular cirrhosis of the liver or extensive liver fibrosis was observed. The copper content of the cirrhotic/fibrotic liver was above 250 micrograms/g dry weight. Electron-microscopic x-ray analysis at day 93 revealed that copper stored in secondary lysosomes was always accompanied by a proportional amount of sulfur (correlation coefficient, 0.98; P less than 0.005). An experimental model of copper toxicosis in terms of copper-induced cirrhosis of the liver was established with exogenous copper chelated by nitrilotriacetate. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2757117

  12. Understanding Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the evaluation and treatment of the patient with multidirectional shoulder instability. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE for the years from 1980 to 2000 using the key words “shoulder joint,” “instability,” “dislocation,” “multidirectional shoulder instability,” and “inferior capsular shift.” Data Synthesis: Multidirectional instability is symptomatic glenohumeral subluxation or dislocation in more than 1 direction: anterior, inferior, or posterior. The primary pathology is a loose and patulous capsule, and the entity is more common than previously recognized. Multidirectional instability affects young, sedentary patients with generalized ligamentous laxity, often with bilateral symptoms and an atraumatic history, but it also affects athletes, many of whom have sustained injuries. Patients with multidirectional instability may also have Bankart lesions and humeral head impression defects. Conclusions/Recommendations: Patients with multidirectional instability must be identified before appropriate treatment can be initiated. If a course of rehabilitation fails to improve the patient's symptoms, an inferior capsular shift procedure has been demonstrated to be an effective surgical option. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:16558641

  13. An ultrastructural analysis of endothelial change paralleling platelet aggregation in a light/dye model of microvascular insult.

    PubMed Central

    Povlishock, J. T.; Rosenblum, W. I.; Sholley, M. M.; Wei, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Those microvascular endothelial events that parallel the evolution of platelet aggregation were evaluated in a well-controlled animal model. Cat pial microvessels were observed through a cranial window while local platelet aggregation was produced by intravenous injection of sodium fluorescein and simultaneous exposure of the pial vessels to light from a filtered mercury lamp that excited the fluorescein. The vessels were fixed in situ when the in vivo observations of a preselected vessel indicated early, intermediate, or advanced aggregation in that vessel. The preselected vessel was then harvested for ultrastructural study together with adjacent vessels from the illuminated field. These vessels and appropriate controls were compared in semiserial thin sections. The onset of platelet aggregation in both venules and arterioles was accompanied by focal endothelial lucency, vacuole formation, luminal membrane rupture, and swelling of the nuclear envelope. These changes were not found in control material. With intermediate aggregation these changes were more common, while with advanced aggregation these abnormalities occurred together with focal endothelial denudation. Thus, in this model denudation occurred only with advanced aggregation and was not a prerequisite for aggregation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6824062

  14. Structural characterization of the mesangial cell type IV collagenase and enhanced expression in a model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, D. H.; Johnson, R. J.; Marti, H. P.; Martin, J.; Davies, M.; Couser, W. G.

    1992-01-01

    Secretion of glomerular cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors, TIMP-1,2, may play an important role in the turnover of the glomerular extracellular matrix under basal and pathologic conditions. A 66-68 kd MMP secreted by cultured mesangial cells (MC) with activity against Type IV collagen and gelatin was purified and shown by amino-acid sequence analysis to be identical with a Type IV collagenase/gelatinase secreted by certain transformed tumor cell lines. The expression of the mesangial MMP in vivo was limited within the kidney to a small subset of the intrinsic glomerular mesangial cell population. After induction of acute anti-Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis, there was a large increment in the number of Type IV collagenase-secreting MC, temporally coincident with the development of mesangial hypercellularity. The expression of the MMP inhibitor protein, TIMP-1, was not changed over this period. Ultrastructural studies localized the mesangial MMP to areas of evolving mesangiolysis and at sites of glomerular basement membrane disruption. Enhanced expression of the mesangial cell-derived Type IV collagenase may contribute to the evolution of glomerular injury in this model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis or may be involved in the extensive matrix remodeling process that accompanies this form of glomerular injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 and Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:1321565

  15. Analysis of the mitochondrial ATP synthase beta-subunit gene in Drosophilidae: structure, transcriptional regulatory features and developmental pattern of expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Peña, P; Ugalde, C; Calleja, M; Garesse, R

    1995-01-01

    We have cloned and determined the structure of the gene encoding the H(+)-ATP synthase beta subunit in two distantly related Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. virilis. The gene contains three exons that are extremely well conserved at the amino acid level, not only in the region encoding the mature protein but also in that encoding the leader peptide. Primer extension analysis indicates that the 5' untranslated region is extremely short, and reveals the presence of multiple initiation sites of transcription in both Drosophila species. The promoters of D. melanogaster and D. virilis H(+)-ATP synthase beta-subunit genes contain a conserved region surrounding the initiation transcription sites. Nucleotide sequence analysis has revealed the absence of canonical TATA and CCAAT boxes and the presence of several putative regulatory elements in both promoter regions, including GAGA, GATA and Ets binding sites. We have analysed the pattern of gene expression during D. melanogaster development. The mRNA is stored in oocytes, and activation of transcription takes place after 10 h of development. The expression of the nuclear-encoded H(+)-ATP synthase beta subunit is strictly coordinated with the expression of subunits 6 and 8 of the same complex that are encoded in the mitochondrial genome. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:8554535

  16. Neonatal Cardiac Distress—A Practical Approach to Recognition, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Cayler, Glen G.

    1968-01-01

    The death rate among neonates with cardiovascular disease is 50 percent during the first six months, with the majority dying during the first month. With early diagnosis most of these babies could be saved. In approaching the diagnosis of cardiac distress in the newborn, it is important to remember that the types of cardiovascular disease which cause symptoms and death early in life are quite different from those in older children. Lesions such as hypoplasia of the left heart, transposition of the great arteries, endocardial fibroelastosis, pulmonary atresia, mitral atresia, tricuspid atresia and truncus arteriosus are common, not rare, causes of cardiac distress in the newborn. A classification of neonatal cardiovascular diseases into seven pathophysiological groups is presented as a basis for an effective, practical approach to the differential diagnosis of the potentially lethal lesions. This approach is simplified further since over 90 percent of babies with cardiac distress have one of three lesions: (1) Large left-to-right shunt (characterized by the presence of massive plethora on the chest roentgenogram), (2) Large right-to-left shunt (association with intense cyanosis) or (3) Severe obstruction (including hypoplasia of the left heart, which is the most common cause of death due to cardiac distress during the first week of life). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:4867629

  17. Binding of normal human IgG to myelin sheaths, glia and neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Aarli, J A; Aparicio, S R; Lumsden, C E; Tönder, O

    1975-01-01

    The binding of normal human serum, purified IgG and IgG fragments to central nervous tissue was studied by the anti-globulin consumption (AGCT) and immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. In the AGCT, F(ab')2 fragments failed to react, whereas IgG and Fc fragments did so. In IF experiments, the binding was localized to myelin sheaths, glia and neurons; Fab monomers at a protein concentration of 1-3 mg/ml dod not react with the tissue, but purified Fc fragments at 0-0625 mg/ml did. The binding is neither tissue- nor species-specific. Lipid and protein extraction procedures indicated that the factor responsible for binding to myelin was basic protein. It was concluded that the binding of normal IgG to central nervous tissue is medicated by the Fc part of the molecule. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:803915

  18. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Vance D.; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to abnormalities in systemic immune function, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the pre-AIDS syndromes have significant abnormalities in the distribution of T-cell subsets in the intestinal tract. Such immune deficits predispose such patients to opportunistic infections and tumors, many of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. For example, Candida albicans often causes stomatitis and esophagitis. Intestinal infections with parasites (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia) or bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare) are associated with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, whereas viruses like cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus cause mucosal ulcerations. Clinically debilitating chronic diarrhea develops in many AIDS patients for which no clear cause can be identified. Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter can be associated with bacteremias. Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma involving the intestinal tract are now well-recognized complications of AIDS. Although AIDS is not associated with a pathognomonic liver lesion, opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma may involve the liver. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:3825111

  19. Lymphoreticular and myeloid pathogenesis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. H.; Harrison, A.; Murphy, K.; Flemister, M.; Murphy, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrastructural, histopathologic, and virologic studies of adult hamsters infected with virulent Venezuelan equine encelphalomyelitis (VEE) virus (Subtype I-B) demonstrated precise chronologic and topographic progression of lesions and viral replication in extraneural sites. Thymus contained the earliest lesions and the highest initial and subsequent viral titers. No particular cytotropism was observed as highly efficient viral replication and severe cytonecrosis proceded. Early cortical necrosis of splenic periarteriolar lymphocytic sheath was followed by lymphoblastoid repopulation of the peripheral zone. Massive bone marrow necrosis was accompained by ultrastructural evidence of VEE viral particle production in reticulum cells, rubricytes, myeloid cells, lymphoblastoid cells, and megakaryocytes. Speed, efficiency, destructiveness, and relative sensitivity of virtually all lymphoreticular and hematopoetic cells were hallmarks of virulent VEE infection in the hamster. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 12A and B Figure 13 Figure 7 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:941983

  20. Macrophages migration through the brain parenchyma to the perivascular space following particle ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, P. E.; Balentine, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Forty-eight rats received intracerebral injections of sterile colloidal carbon. At intervals between 10 minutes and 31 days after carbon injection, the rats were perfused with glutaraldehyde, and autopsies were performed. Between 10 minutes and 3 hours after injection, carbon particles were extracellular and located strictly within the needle track. During the first few days the carbon was ingested by macrophages. Initially absent, carbon-laden macrophages spread to the neuropil immediately surrounding the injection site at 7 to 31 days following injection. These carbon-laden macrophages frequently were elongated within the neuropil and resembled microglia. Carbon-laden macrophages eventually accumulated around local vessels and in perivascular spaces. Many macrophages containing carbon remained in the injection site at the longest sampling interval of 31 days. Results indicate two macrophage responses to colloidal carbon in the central nervous system: a) an indolent population remains in the injection site for at least 1 month and b) a second population of macrophages emigrates through the neuropil. They eventually surround local vessels and enter the perivascular space. The migrating macrophages offer an explanation for the peculiar perivascular cells in Krabbe's disease and may provide a link between the CNS parenchyma and immunocompetent cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:696802

  1. The mechanics of motility in dissociated cytoplasm.

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, M

    1986-01-01

    We stimulate the dynamical behavior of dissociated cytoplasm using the Reactive Flow Model (Dembo, M., and F. Harlow, 1986, Biophys. J., 50:109-121). We find that for the most part the predicted dynamical behavior of the cytoplasm is governed by three nondimensional numbers. Several other nondimensional parameters, the initial conditions, and boundary conditions are found to have lesser effects. Of the three major nondimensional parameters, one (D#) controls the percentage of ectoplasm, the second (C#) controls the sharpness of the endoplasm-ectoplasm boundary, and the third (R#) controls the topological complexity of the endoplasm-ectoplasm distribution. If R# is very small, then the cytoplasm contracts into a single uniform mass, and there is no bulk streaming. If R# is very large, then the cytoplasmic mass breaks up into a number of clumps scattered throughout the available volume. Between these clumps the solution undergoes turbulent or chaotic patterns of streaming. Intermediate values of R# can be found such that the mass of cytoplasm remains connected and yet undergoes coherent modes of motility similar to flares (Taylor, D.L., J.S. Condeelis, P.L. Moore, and R.D. Allen, 1973, J. Cell Biol., 59:378-394) and rosettes (Kuroda, K., 1979, Cell Motility: Molecules and Organization, 347-362). Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 1B FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:3801576

  2. A homozygous transthyretin variant associated with senile systemic amyloidosis: evidence for a late-onset disease of genetic etiology.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, D R; Gorevic, P D; Buxbaum, J N

    1990-01-01

    Senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) is a late-onset disease characterized by deposition of amyloid fibrils containing transthyretin (TTR). Amino acid sequencing of protein isolated from the amyloid fibrils of a patient with SSA identified TTR containing a position - 122 isoleucine-for-valine substitution. This change led to the prediction of a genomic G-to-A transition, destroying an MaeIII restriction site. We confirmed the presence of the variant DNA fragment both by Southern blotting and by visualization of MaeIII digests of DNA amplified around codon 122, by using the polymerase chain reaction. The patient's DNA was entirely resistant to MaeIII cleavage; therefore, only the mutant sequence was present. DNA from none of either 24 controls or six other SSA patients contained the variant. Quantitative Southern blotting demonstrated that the patient's DNA contained two copies of the TTR gene per genome; the mutation was therefore homozygous rather than hemizygous. In the present case, the homozygous mutation TTR (122 Val----Ile) is associated with SSA, a finding which is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance of this condition. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2349941

  3. Immunolocalization and gene expression of oxytocin receptors in carcinomas and non-neoplastic tissues of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Bussolati, G.; Cassoni, P.; Ghisolfi, G.; Negro, F.; Sapino, A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that oxytocin (OT), in addition to the induction of myometrial and myoepithelial cell contraction, can influence proliferation and differentiation in developing mammary glands and in breast cancer cells, hence the interest in detecting and locating OT receptors (OTRs). We produced rabbit antisera and a monoclonal antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxy terminus of the predicted OTR sequence. We tested their specificity in immunoblasts and immunocytochemical tests. All of the antibodies specifically stained myometrium (at term of pregnancy). In the human breast, OTRs were detected in myoepithelial cells along ducts of normal lobules and in sclerosing adenosis. Intraductal cells in benign hyperplastic lesions were also positive. OTRs were demonstrated in cases of primary and metastatic carcinomas of the breast. In the same tissues, OTR gene expression was shown by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction procedures detecting the specific mRNA. These results suggest that the interaction between OT and its receptors might play a role in the origin and evolution of non-neoplastic lesions and carcinomas of the breast. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8669475

  4. Patient fat biopsies for chemical analysis and liver biopsies for ultrastructural characterization after exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, furans and PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T; Schaffner, F; Taylor, M; Gitlitz, G; VanNess, G F; Garrett, J H; Wagel, D J

    1985-01-01

    A subset of workers was followed after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furans in an occupational medicine clinic setting. Patterns of PCBs found in adipose tissue resembled the pattern seen when soot from the incident or Aroclor 1254 was examined by GC-MS. Adipose tissue also revealed levels of hepta- and octachlorinated furans and dioxins as high as 8400 ppt in one repeatedly exposed worker. Control fat from patients with no known exposure to furans or dioxins was usually in the several hundred parts per trillion range for these isomers, but slightly over 2000 ppt in one sample. Electron microscopic analysis of liver biopsies from three patients who developed mild elevations of hepatic enzymes in their serum revealed morphologic alterations in some ways similar to those seen in animals after feeding experiments with PCBs, dioxins or the Binghamton State Office Building soot. These include pleomorphic mitochondria, giant mitochondria, prominent dense mitochondrial granules, cristae parallel to the long axis of the mitochondria and crystalline structure within same mitochondria as well as lipid droplets in liver cells and slightly dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. PMID:3928350

  5. Glaucoma: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Infeld, D. A.; O'Shea, J. G.

    1998-01-01

    Glaucoma is the third most prevalent cause of global blindness, accounting for over 5 million blind. It is common in Western Countries; the estimated prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma rises from a total prevalence of 1.1% to approximately 3% of our population as it ages. Ethnicity affects both the risk of developing glaucoma and the outcome. It is an expensive disease both to detect and to treat. Recent scientific advances include elucidation of the genetic mechanism behind the disease and the study of haemodynamic and biochemical co-factors in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, particularly in relation to the pathogenesis of normal tension glaucoma. Several new types of topical medication have recently been developed for use in glaucoma; both the impact of these therapies and their cost effectiveness remain to be evaluated. There are widely differing regimes which effectively treat glaucoma; some ophthalmologists prefer early surgical intervention whilst others reserve surgery for relatively advanced disease. All methods of current treatment rely on the reduction of intra-ocular pressure; as yet there is no medication which has been definitively proven to be either neuroprotective or to influence favourably optic nerve perfusion. Despite this, most sufferers of glaucoma are able to lead lives of quality. Increased community awareness of glaucoma, and earlier detection of the condition, will doubtless result in decreased morbidity due to glaucoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10320884

  6. Structure of the extracellular surface of the gap junction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Hoh, J H; Sosinsky, G E; Revel, J P; Hansma, P K

    1993-01-01

    The extracellular surface of the gap junction cell-to-cell channels was imaged in phosphate-buffered saline with an atomic force microscope. The fully hydrated isolated gap junction membranes adsorbed to mica were irregular sheets approximately 1-2 microns across and 13.2 (+/- 1.3) nm thick. The top bilayer of the gap junction was dissected by increasing the force applied to the tip or sometimes by increasing the scan rate at moderate forces. The exposed extracellular surface revealed a hexagonal array with a center-to-center spacing of 9.4 (+/- 0.9) nm between individual channels (connexons). Images of individual connexons with a lateral resolution of < 3.5 nm, and in the best case approximately 2.5 nm, were reliably and reproducibly obtained with high-quality tips. These membrane channels protruded 1.4 (+/- 0.4) nm from the extracellular surface of the lipid membrane, and the atomic force microscope tip reached up to 0.7 nm into the pore, which opened up to a diameter of 3.8 (+/- 0.6) nm on the extracellular side. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8396452

  7. Inflammatory and immune processes in the human lung in health and disease: evaluation by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hunninghake, G. W.; Gadek, J. E.; Kawanami, O.; Ferrans, V. J.; Crystal, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage is an invaluable means of accurately evaluating the inflammatory and immune processes of the human lung. Although lavage recovers only those cells and proteins present on the epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract, comparison with open lung biopsies shows that these constituents are representative of the inflammatory and immune systems of the alveolar structures. With the use of these techniques, sufficient materials are obtained from normal individuals to allow characterization of not only the types of cells and proteins present but their functions as well. Such observations have been useful in defining the inflammatory and immune capabilities of the normal lung and provide a basis for the study of lung disease. Lavage methods have been used to characterize inflammatory and immune processes of the lower respiratory tract in destructive, infectious, neoplastic, and interstitial disorders. From the data already acquired, it is apparent that bronchoalveolar lavage will yield major insights into the pathogenesis, staging, and therapy decisions involved in these disorders. (Am J Pathol 97:149--206, 1979). Images Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 PMID:495693

  8. Before Nugent took charge: early efforts to reform chiropractic education, 1919-1941

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2003-01-01

    John J. Nugent, D.C. is remembered by many as either the “Abraham Flexner of Chiropractic” or the “anti-Christ of Chiropractic.” From 1941 until his forced retirement in 1959, the Irish-born Palmer graduate was one of the most important factors in the profession's educational reforms. Yet Nugent's work as the National Chiropractic Association's (NCA's) director of research was not the beginning of the campaign to upgrade chiropractic education. This paper looks at earlier influences and events which set the stage for Nugent's campaign. Among these were the introduction of licensure for chiropractors, the self-defeating actions of B.J. Palmer, the introduction of basic science legislation, the lethargy of the schools, and the struggle for control of education between the schools, on the one hand, and the NCA and the Council of State Chiropractic Examining Boards on the other ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25Figure 26Figure 28Figure 29Figure 30Figure 31Figure 32Figure 33Figure 34Figure 35Figure 36Figure 37Figure 38

  9. Ischemic tissue injury.

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, R. B.; Ganote, C. E.; Reimer, K. A.

    1975-01-01

    The subendocardial to subepicardial gradient in the severity of ischemia following acute coronary occlusion is described. The effects of mild, moderate, and severe ischemia on cell structure and function are compared in summary form, and special attention is given to the effects of severe ischemia on myocardial cells. The characteristics of reversible and irreversible ischemic injury are defined in biologic terms. The failure of cell volume regulation in cells which have entered an irreversible state of ischemic injury is demonstrated by the use of free-hand slices in vitro. Irreversibility is associated with structural defects in the plasma membrane and is reflected in an increased slice inulin-diffusible space, increased slice H2O and Na+ content, and failure of the tissue to maintain the high K+ and Mg2+ levels characteristic of normal left ventricular myocardium. Defective cell membrane function is an early feature of irreversible ischemic injury and may be a primary event in the genesis of the irreversible state. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1180331

  10. Amyloid deposits in bioprosthetic cardiac valves after long-term implantation in man. A new localization of amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Y. A.; Gruys, E.; Sorenson, G. D.; Wellens, F.

    1984-01-01

    Congo red staining with microscopic examination under polarized light was performed in 30 porcine bioprosthetic cardiac valves and one autologous fascia lata valve explanted from 31 patients in order to detect the presence of amyloid. Microdeposits of amyloid were present in the sewing ring of the fascia lata valve and in 10 porcine bioprostheses, and this finding was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy in 3 porcine bioprostheses. All amyloid-laden porcine valves had been implanted for at least 33 months before removal, and all except two showed dysfunction and/or severe degeneration of cuspal tissue. Statistical analyses failed to establish any correlation between the presence of amyloid and patient-related factors. In a majority of porcine bioprostheses amyloid was permanganate-sensitive and tryptophan-positive. The pathogenesis of this new form of heart valve amyloidosis might consist in penetration of human macrophages in deteriorated bioprosthetic cusps and their interaction with blood-borne amyloid precursors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6421168

  11. Immunohistologic and ultrastructural study of the sclerotic skin in chronic graft-versus-host disease in man.

    PubMed Central

    Janin-Mercier, A.; Devergie, A.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Saurat, J. H.; Bourges, M.; Lapiere, C. M.; Gluckman, E.

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen skin biopsies were performed on 8 patients at different stages of skin sclerosis in chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). On the same skin biopsies an immunostaining with antibodies directed against Types I and III procollagen, Types I, III, IV, V collagen, and laminin, and an ultrastructural study were performed. Alterations were observed at the dermal-epidermal junction and in the superficial dermis with a large deposit on Type III procollagen in the incipient scleroses and of Type I procollagen in the oldest ones. In this sclerotic superficial dermis, collagen fibers of irregular diameter were associated with mast cells and active fibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes in close contact. The skin sclerosis in chronic GVHD might be considered a form of cutaneous fibrosis with features of excessive tissue repair related to an immunologic reaction between lymphocytes of the graft and tissue host cells. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 8 PMID:6372497

  12. Chemically induced bidirectional differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Speers, W. C.; Birdwell, C. R.; Dixon, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    N,N-dimethylacetamide, hexamethylene bisacetamide, and Polybrene induced rapid and extensive differentiation in vitro in an otherwise slowly differentiating subline of embryonal carcinoma cells. The type of differentiated cell induced was dependent on the spatial organization of the stem cells during drug treatment. In monalayer culture "epithelial" cells were produced exclusively. However, treatment of aggregated suspension cultures yielded predominantly "fibroblast-like" cells. The undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and the two differentiated cell types were morphologically distinct when examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; and they had differences in cell surface antigens. Both differential cell types produced large amounts of fibronectin, whereas the embryonal carcinoma cells produced only minimal amounts. This system provides a convenient way to induce relatively synchronous differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into specific differentiated cell types. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:507191

  13. Alzheimer's disease. A double-labeling immunohistochemical study of senile plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, D. W.; Farlo, J.; Davies, P.; Crystal, H.; Fuld, P.; Yen, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The senile plaque is one of the histopathologic changes that characterizes Alzheimer's disease and the aging brain. The histopathology of senile plaques was studied using double-labeling immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry with thioflavin S fluorescent microscopy in 9 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 2 nondemented elderly individuals, and 3 individuals with non-Alzheimer primary degenerative dementias. Every plaque that was visualized with thioflavin also had amyloid, but not all thioflavin-positive plaques contained neurites that could be recognized with specific monoclonal antibodies to paired helical filament, tau, or neurofilament epitopes. Some neurofilament-positive neurites were not visualized with thioflavin, but almost all tau-positive neurites were colabeled with thioflavin. Microglia were associated with most plaques. Most plaques were also surrounded by fibrous astrocytes. These results suggest that amyloid may be the common feature that defines senile plaques, but that other elements may be more specific for Alzheimer's disease, because extensive neuritic degeneration was seen only in Alzheimer brains and not in either nondemented elderly individuals with senile plaques or in non-Alzheimer dementia cases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2456021

  14. Detection of HLA-DR on microglia in the human brain is a function of both clinical and technical factors.

    PubMed Central

    Mattiace, L. A.; Davies, P.; Dickson, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    Detection of HLA-DR, a class II major histocompatibility antigen, on glial cells is dependent not only on duration and type of tissue fixation and processing, but also on clinical factors. Glial cells labeled by anti-HLA-DR were consistent with microglia by light microscopic and ultrastructural criteria, and were colabeled with other microglial markers, including LN-1, Leu-M5, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA). In young and elderly subjects who died suddenly, anti-HLA-DR labeled microglia in the white matter, but far fewer cells in the gray matter. In subjects who died of chronic debilitating illness, such as Alzheimer's disease and carcinomatosis, anti-HLA-DR labeled numerous microglia throughout both the gray and white matter. In Alzheimer's disease, microglia were aggregated in compact senile plaques, but loosely associated with diffuse amyloid deposits. These results suggest that HLA-DR may be constitutively expressed in white matter, but induced in gray matter microglia in chronic disease states or in association with amyloid deposits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:1693471

  15. Astrocytes and microglia in human brain share an epitope recognized by a B-lymphocyte-specific monoclonal antibody (LN-1).

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, D. W.; Mattiace, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    A B-lymphocyte-specific mouse monoclonal antibody, LN-1, recognizes two morphologic classes of glial cells in human brain. The nature and duration of tissue fixation and processing are critical in the detection of the two cell types. In tissue that is lightly fixed, LN-1 recognizes astrocytes. The astrocytic nature of the LN-1 reactive glial cell was confirmed by cytologic features, tissue distribution, immunoelectron microscopy, double labeling immunofluorescent microscopy, and staining of serial sections with antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein. In tissue that is fixed for longer periods or in Bouin's fixative, two glial cell types are recognized: astrocytes and microglia. The identity of the latter cell type as microglia was confirmed by morphologic features, tissue distribution, immunoelectron microscopy, and double staining with monoclonal antibodies or lectins to macrophage markers, including class II major histocompatibility antigens. The two cell types had different disposition in senile plaques of elderly individuals and of those with Alzheimer's disease. Astrocytes were present at the periphery of the plaques, whereas microglial cells were centrally placed, often in juxtaposition to amyloid. The results are discussed with respect to ontogeny of glial cells and the ability of monoclonal antibodies to recognize epitopes on unrelated proteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2476034

  16. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Harley, R D; Rodrigues, M M; Crawford, J S

    1978-01-01

    Congential fibrosis of the extraocular muscles is characterized by the replacement of normal contractile muscle tissue by fibrous tissue or fibrous bands in varying degrees. The clinical entities which result from the fibrous replacement can be classified under the following headings: general fibrosis syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the inferior rectus muscle with blepharoptosis, strabismus fixus, vertical retraction syndrome and congential unilateral fibrosis, enophthalmos and blepharoptosis. Genetic factors may or may not be apparent. One pedigree with general fibrosis syndrome was traced through five generations. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated replacement of normal muscle by collagen and dense fibrous tissue with occasional areas of degenerated skeletal muscle. The surgical mangement attempts to achieve some functional readjustment of the ocular and lid position as well as the abnormal head posture. The surgical results were considered satisfactory when compared with the original position of the eyes and the backward head tilt. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C FIGURE 9 D PMID:754372

  17. Cytokeratin 20 in human carcinomas. A new histodiagnostic marker detected by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Moll, R.; Löwe, A.; Laufer, J.; Franke, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have recently identified a new cytokeratin (CK) polypeptide, CK 20, whose expression is almost entirely confined to the gastric and intestinal epithelium, urothelium, and Merkel cells. Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for CK 20 were raised and characterized by applying immunoblotting and immunocytochemical screening. All of them reacted on frozen tissue sections. A further MAb, IT-Ks20.8, recognized CK 20 in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. A total of 711 cases of primary and metastatic cancer, mostly carcinomas, were analyzed immunohistochemically for CK-20 expression, using CK-20 specific guinea-pig antibodies and MAbs. The expression spectrum of CK 20 in carcinomas resembled that seen in the corresponding normal epithelia of origin. CK-20 positivity was seen in the vast majority of adenocarcinomas of the colon (89/93 cases), mucinous ovarian tumors, transitional-cell and Merkel-cell carcinomas and frequently also in adenocarcinomas of the stomach, bile system, and pancreas. Most squamous cell carcinomas in general and most adenocarcinomas from other sites (breast, lung, endometrium), nonmucinous tumors of the ovary, and small-cell lung carcinomas were essentially or completely negative. The authors propose to use CK 20 as a diagnostic marker valuable in distinguishing different types of carcinomas, notably when presenting as metastases. Images Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1371204

  18. Hyperglycemic glucose concentrations up-regulate the expression of type VI collagen in vitro. Relevance to alterations of peripheral nerves in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Muona, P.; Jaakkola, S.; Zhang, R. Z.; Pan, T. C.; Pelliniemi, L.; Risteli, L.; Chu, M. L.; Uitto, J.; Peltonen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Electron microscopy of peripheral nerves obtained from two diabetic patients revealed large deposits of microfibrils and the presence of Luse bodies in the vicinity of perineurial cells. Microfibrils were found to accumulate also in the sciatic nerves of diabetic BB rats; these microfibrillar deposits were shown to contain type VI collagen by immunoelectron microscopy. Connective tissue cells cultured from rat sciatic nerves were exposed to high glucose concentrations. High glucose concentrations up-regulated the mRNA steady-state levels of alpha 1(VI), alpha 2(VI), and alpha 3(VI) chains of type VI collagen and caused accumulation of type VI collagen-containing fibrils in the cultures. Immunostaining and in situ hybridizations demonstrated that perineurial cells, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts expressed type VI collagen at the mRNA and protein levels. The results suggest that the turnover and supramolecular assembly of type VI collagen are perturbed in diabetic nerves and that glucose per se increases the expression of type VI collagen in vitro. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8494053

  19. Localization of type I procollagen gene expression in silica-induced granulomatous lung disease and implication of transforming growth factor-beta as a mediator of fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, T. J.; Roby, J. D.; Mecham, R. P.; Parks, W. C.; Crouch, E.; Pierce, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    We have used the silica-induced model of pulmonary injury in the rat to study the pattern of collagen expression in granulomatous lung inflammation. A single intratracheal instillation of silica into adult rats resulted in granulomatous inflammation leading to fibrosis and alveolar proteinosis. The development of disease in these animals was characterized over a 27-day period after treatment by means of histological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. Biochemical analyses indicated that significant increases in the weights of silicotic lungs were due to elevated amounts of DNA and total protein. Analysis of hydroxyproline content showed a 15-fold increase in this amino acid in silicotic lungs, confirming the development of a fibrotic reaction. In situ hybridization for type I procollagen mRNA displayed increased gene expression in the parenchyma, conducting airways, and vasculature of silicotic rats. Within the parenchyma, type I procollagen was expressed uniquely within granulomatous lesions. Immunohistochemistry indicated type I procollagen was being expressed by an alpha-smooth muscle actin-negative population of cells. Immunolocalization of extra-cellular transforming growth factor-beta showed coincident temporal and spatial overlap with type I procollagen expression, implicating this cytokine as a mediator of collagen gene expression in this model. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8546202

  20. The mobile Army surgical hospital (MASH): a military and surgical legacy.

    PubMed Central

    King, Booker; Jatoi, Ismalil

    2005-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom was perhaps the last military campaign that will ever utilize the services of a mobile Army surgical hospital (MASH). The Army has now essentially replaced the MASH with combat surgical hospitals (CSH) and forward surgical teams (FST). MASH units were designed as mobile, flexible, forward-deployed military hospitals, providing care for the wounded near the frontlines of the battlefield. These hospitals not only saved thousands of lives during war but also greatly influenced the delivery of trauma and critical care in civilian hospitals. The MASH was made popular by the television series of the 1970s, depicting the 4077th during the Korean War. Although a comical series, these television episodes provided viewers with a glimpse of life in a MASH during time of war. This article chronicles the history of the MASH from its inception during World War II to recent experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 p656-a PMID:15926641

  1. Management of Rotator Cuff and Impingement Injuries in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gerald R.; Kelley, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To review current concepts of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athlete. Data Sources: The information we present was compiled from a review of classic and recently published material regarding rotator cuff and impingement injuries. These materials were identified through a search of a personal literature database compiled by the authors, as well as by selective searching of the MEDLINE. In addition, much of the information presented represents observations and opinions of the authors developed over 8 to 10 years of treating shoulder injuries in athletes. Data Synthesis: Biomechanics of the normal shoulder and pathophysiology of rotator cuff injuries in the athletic population are discussed, followed by a summary of the important diagnostic features of rotator cuff and impingement injuries. The principles of rehabilitation are extensively presented, along with indications and important technical aspects of selected surgical procedures. General principles and specific protocols of postoperative rehabilitation are also summarized. Conclusions/Recommendations: Rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athletic population are multifactorial in etiology, exhibiting significant overlap with glenohumeral instability. Nonoperative treatment is successful in most athletic patients with rotator cuff and impingement injuries. When nonoperative treatment fails, arthroscopic surgical techniques such as rotator cuff repair and subacromial decompression may be successful in returning the athlete to competition. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:16558644

  2. Variations in polyoma virus genotype in relation to tumor induction in mice. Characterization of wild type strains with widely differing tumor profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C. J.; Freund, R.; Mandel, G.; Ballmer-Hofer, K.; Talmage, D. A.; Benjamin, T. L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have explored the effects of variations in mouse polyoma virus genotype on patterns of tumor formation in the mouse. Four "wild type" virus strains were surveyed. Two were highly oncogenic, inducing multiple tumors of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, at high frequency and with short latency. The other two strains were weakly oncogenic, inducing fewer tumors, solely of mesenchymal origin, and after a long latency. These sharply contrasting tumor profiles were reproduced with virus stocks derived from molecularly cloned viral genomes. Though vastly different in their oncogenic properties, these cloned viruses proved equally effective in transforming established rat fibroblasts in culture and showed the same patterns of tumor antigen expression in cultured mouse cells. Complexes of polyoma middle T antigen and pp60c-src were demonstrated in extracts of epithelial tumors induced by a highly oncogenic virus strain. It is concluded that polyoma viral genetic determinants for tumor induction in the mouse are more complex than those previously defined by the use of cell transformation systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:2437801

  3. Rous-Whipple Award Lecture. Contributions to the physiology and pathology of the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed Central

    Gonatas, N. K.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of the Golgi apparatus in the transport, processing, and targeting of proteins destined for secretion, plasma membranes, and lysosomes has emerged from numerous studies. In this paper we review studies from our laboratory dealing with 1) the Golgi apparatus during mitosis and the role of microtubules in maintaining the structure of the organelle, 2) the endocytosis of antibodies, exogenous lectins, and toxins into the Golgi apparatus of several cells including neurons in vivo and in vitro, 3) the traffic of MG-160, a membrane sialoglycoprotein of the medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, from the trans-Golgi network to the Golgi cisternae, and 4) the involvement of the Golgi apparatus of motor neurons in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We conclude with a summary of ongoing work on the primary structure of MG-160 and introduce evidence suggesting that this intrinsic membrane protein of the Golgi apparatus may be involved in the regulation of endogenous, autocrine, basic fibroblast growth factor. We hope that this review will stimulate studies on the Golgi apparatus of neurons, which may lead to the discovery of neuron-specific properties of this important organelle and its involvement in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:7943166

  4. A pathogenetic study of the early connective tissue lesions of viral caprine arthritis-encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D. S.; Crawford, T. B.; Klevjer-Anderson, P.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were designed to correlate morphologic lesions with the presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Twenty-one cesarean-derived goat kids were infected with 10(6) to 10(7) TCID50 of virus, killed sequentially, and examined for viral antigens by immunofluorescence, viral infectivity by isolation and titration, and morphologic changes by light microscopy. Fluorescent viral antigens were detected from 1 to 10 days postinoculation (DPI) and only in synovial cells. Virus was reisolated from several joints and from brain 0.5 to 79 DPI. Increases in synovial fluid cell counts were noted by 1 DPI, and morphologic changes in synovial membranes were present from 3 to 45 DPI. Joint lesions progressed from mild synovial cell hyperplasia and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration to severe synovial cell hyperplasia and mononuclear cell infiltration with villous hypertrophy. Lesions elsewhere were mild, consisting only of perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. Eleven cesarean-derived control goats were negative for viral antigens, virus, and morphologic lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6990770

  5. Potentiostatic deposition of DNA for scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, S M; Tao, N J; DeRose, J A; Oden, P I; Lyubchenko YuL; Harrington, R E; Shlyakhtenko, L

    1992-01-01

    We describe a procedure for reversible adsorption of DNA onto a gold electrode maintained under potential control. The adsorbate can be imaged by scanning probe microscopy in situ. Quantitative control of a molecular adsorbate for microscopy is now possible. We found a potential window (between 0 and 180 mV versus a silver wire quasi reference) over which a gold (111) surface under phosphate buffer is positively charged, but is not covered with a dense adsorbate. When DNA is present in these conditions, molecules adsorb onto the electrode and remain stable under repeated scanning with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). They become removed when the surface is brought to a negative charge. When operated at tunnel currents below approximately 0.4 nA, the STM yields a resolution of approximately 1 nm, which is better than can be obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) at present. We illustrate this procedure by imaging a series of DNA molecules made by ligating a 21 base-pair oligonucleotide. We observed the expected series of fragment lengths but small fragments are adsorbed preferentially. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:1617139

  6. Widespread histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin cell-surface collagen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zutter, M. M.; Santoro, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    The alpha 2 beta 1 integrin (platelet membrane glycoprotein Ia-IIa, VLA-2, ECMR-II) functions as a cell surface receptor for collagen. The authors have determined the histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor in normal tissues by immunohistochemical technique. The studies revealed that the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor was expressed on fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells from multiple sites including skin, tonsil, breast, sweat gland, gastrointestinal tract, lung, bladder, cervix, and prostate. Follicular dendritic cells of the lymph node, tonsil, and spleen and dendritic cells of the thymus also expressed the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor. The receptor also was present on Schwann cells of ganglia and on neuroglia. Greatly enhanced expression of the receptor in regions of proliferating epithelium suggests that enhanced expression of alpha 2 beta 1 is associated with orderly, regulated cell proliferation. The circumferential staining pattern of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin within many epithelia is virtually identical to that observed for other adhesive receptors, such as the cadherins, which have been implicated in cell-cell adhesion. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2164774

  7. Carcinoma of type II pneumocytes: immunodiagnosis of a subtype of "bronchioloalveolar carcinomas".

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.; Torikata, C.

    1981-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from North American (N = 12) and Japanese (N = 11) patients with lung carcinomas were stained by the immunoperoxidase method for surfactant-specific apoprotein. Cytoplasmic and focal nuclear staining was seen in three "bronchioloalveolar carcinomas" occurring in Japanese patients. We refer to these three tumors as carcinomas of Type II pneumocytes. These neoplasms formed discrete masses with minimal growth along the alveolar septa at margins of the tumors. Papillary growth with lymphocytic infiltrates in the stalks of the papillary processes was the usual growth pattern. Focal noncaseating granulomas were seen in the stroma of 2 cases, and similar granulomas in the draining lymph nodes were noted in 1. The abundant cytoplasm was foamy, and the nuclei were generally vacuolated with frequent eosinophilic inclusions in the vacuoles. By electron microscopy, osmiophilic lamellar bodies or whorled lamellas were seen in the cytoplasm of the 3 tumors staining for surfactant apoprotein. The nuclei in 2 of the 3 cases contained tubular inclusions; the tubules had a diameter of 60 nm and a 20-nm core. Images Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 and 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6258440

  8. Ultrastructural localization of membrane phosphatases in teratocarcinoma and early embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Damjanov, I.; Cutler, L. S.; Solter, D.

    1977-01-01

    Ectodermal cells of the two- and three-germ layer-thick mouse egg-cylinders are considered to be the progenitors of embryonal carcinoma cells in embryo-derived teratocarcinomas. In an attempt to find differences between the tumor cells and equivalent embryonic cells, we have studied the electron microscopic cytochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase, and Mg2+-activated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) in embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and mouse egg-cylinders. Alkaline phosphatase was detected in both embryonic and tumor cells, but its activity appeared much more intense in the tumor cells. No ATPase was demonstrated in embryonic ectodermal cells of 6-day-old embryos and only in occasional cells of 7- and 8-day-old embryos. No 5'-nucleotidase activity could be demonstrated in 6- to 8-day-old cylinders. There was marked ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activity in the membranes of embryonal carcinoma cells. These data point out some differences on the plasma membrane between the embryonal carcinoma cells and equivalent embryonic cells. The potential significance of these differences is discussed with regards to the transformation of embryonic cells in tumor cells. (Am J Pathol 87:297-310, 1977). Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 2 PMID:192083

  9. Biochemical and cellular mechanisms of dust-induced lung fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, R J; Curtis, C G

    1984-01-01

    The sequence of cellular and biochemical events in response to the deposition of dust particles in lung tissue is described. Primary reactions at the lung surface include changes in the free cell population, the alveolar surface protein and in the quantity of pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein-rich material secreted by Type II cells. The relationship between these changes and lung fibrogenesis is discussed. It is suggested that such primary changes are protective mechanisms which may assist in the prevention of fibrogenesis rather than lead to an increase in collagen formation and deposition. If these primary defenses are overcome, then the interstitial fibroblastlike cell may have a prominent role in fibrogenesis. Therefore detailed observations of the interaction between lung fibroblasts and mineral dusts in vitro are described. As fibrogenesis may be arrested in vivo, or possibly reversed, and does not always progress to fibrosis, final consideration is given to the step from fibrogenesis to fibrosis. It is suggested that this step may involve other tissue proteins apart from collagen and that the irreversible nature of fibrosis can be explained by the formation of strong intermolecular crosslinks between different proteins. The types of crosslinks that may be involved are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the role of calcium-dependent transglutaminases in fibrosis, as these enzymes have hitherto received little attention. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 20. FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22. FIGURE 23. PMID:6376109

  10. XH1--a new cervical carcinoma cell line and xenograft model of tumour invasion, 'metastasis' and regression.

    PubMed Central

    Han, X.; Lyle, R.; Eustace, D. L.; Jewers, R. J.; Parrington, J. M.; Das, A.; Chana, T.; Dagg, B.; Money, S.; Bates, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    A new cell line, XH1, has been derived from an invasive focally keratinising adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix in a 32 year old patient. It has been maintained in long term monolayer culture for 26 months, and passaged over 100 times (much greater than 300 population doublings). It is aneuploid with a mean chromosome number of 78. Examination using two minisatellite hypervariable DNA probes has shown it to be different from other cell lines maintained in this laboratory and from HeLa. Two sublines, XH1a and XH1b, show marked differences in monolayer culture, growth in soft agar, and xenograft formation. XH1 and XH1a cells readily form subcutaneous xenografts, and lung colonies can be established by their intravenous injection. Subcutaneous injection of XH1b cells results in rapid cell growth for a few days after which the tumour undergoes degeneration and then regresses completely. The XH1 karyotype has many rearranged chromosomes. Parental XH1 cells and both sublines show integration of HPV16 into the genome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:1911212

  11. A brief history of historical scholarship in chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a cursory overview of attempts to discover, preserve and disseminate the history of the chiropractic profession, up to and including the organization of the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC). A surprisingly wide range of materials have been available for many decades, but sustained efforts at historical scholarship are more recent (past quarter century). The quality of these works has been uneven, but has improved with the emergence of chiropractic scholarly periodicals and interest from non-chiropractor investigators. Affiliates of the American-based AHC are located in Australia and Canada; organized historical scholarship in other regions of the world has yet to develop. Several substantial archival resources for historical investigations are available, and merit greater scrutiny and support within the profession. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25p136-ap136-bp136-cp136-dp136-e

  12. Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, L A; Loomis, D; Conceição, G M; Braga, A L; Arcas, R M; Kishi, H S; Singer, J M; Böhm, G M; Saldiva, P H

    1998-01-01

    The associations among daily counts of intrauterine mortality and pollutant concentrations (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particulate matter (3/4)10 microm) were investigated for the period ranging from January 1991 to December 1992 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We used Poisson regression techniques, adjusted for season and weather. The association between intrauterine mortality and air pollution was strong for NO2 (coefficient = 0.0013/ microg/m3; p<0.01) but lesser for SO2 (coefficient = 0.0005/ microg/m3; p<0.10) and CO (coefficient = 0.0223/ppm; p<0.10). A significant association was observed when an index that combined these three pollutants was considered in the models instead of considering each pollutant individually (p<0.01). These associations exhibited a short time lag, not over 5 days. In addition, some evidence of fetal exposure to air pollution was obtained by disclosing a significant association between the levels of carboxyhemoglobin of blood sampled from the umbilical cord and ambient CO levels in children delivered by nonsmoking pregnant women in the period from May to July 1995. Our results suggest that air pollution in São Paulo may promote adverse health effects on fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9618348

  13. Giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Donshik, P C

    1994-01-01

    Giant papillary conjunctivitis is a syndrome found frequently as a complication of contact lenses. Many variables can affect the onset and severity of the presenting signs and symptoms. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses appear to result in less severe signs and symptoms, with a longer time before the development of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Nonionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses tend to produce less severe signs and symptoms than ionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses. Enzymatic treatment appears to lessen the severity of signs and symptoms. The association of an allergy appears to play a role in the onset of the severity of the signs and symptoms but does not appear to affect the final ability of the individual to wear contact lenses. Using multiple treatment options, such as changing the polymer to a glyceryl methyl methacrylate or a rigid lens, or utilizing a soft lens on a frequent-replacement basis, can result in a success rate of over 90%. In individuals who still have a return of symptoms, the use of topical mast cell stabilizers or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an adjunctive therapy offers the added possibility of keeping these patients in contact lenses. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D PMID:7886881

  14. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 gene expression in human monocytes stimulated with Salmonella typhimurium porins.

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, M; Cipollaro de L'ero, G; Donnarumma, G; Marcatili, A; Galdiero, F

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether Salmonella typhimurium porins can affect the expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) genes. Human monocytes were treated with porins, and total RNAs were analysed by Northern blotting to evaluate the expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 in both treated and untreated cell cultures. Porins induced a significant increase in IL-1 and IL-6 transcripts. This increase was related to the dose of porins, and it peaked 5 hr after treatment. The same results were obtained when polymyxin B was added to the porin preparation to eliminate eventual traces of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with porins. The porins-mediated increase in interleukin transcripts did not require de novo protein synthesis, and it was because of the enhanced half-life of IL-1 and IL-6 mRNAs, rather an increased rate of gene transcription. These data suggest that porins may affect inflammatory and immunological responses by enhancing the expression of cytokine genes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8567029

  15. Anatomy of the thorax and shoulder girdle displayed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Batra, P.; Brown, K.

    1991-01-01

    In 1971, radiographic anatomy of the human body was added to the gross anatomy course at UCLA. Radiographic contrast studies and plain anatomical displays were formulated into teaching packages for all organ systems. Residents presented each package to first-year medical students in the dissection laboratory to augment the teaching of anatomy. In November 1984, magnetic resonance imaging was instituted in the radiology department. Imaging the chest produced coronal and axial planes which displayed the muscles and soft tissues of the thorax. In 1986, the authors presented their study of MR anatomy of the chest and shoulder girdle to the American Association of Anatomists. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate the anatomy of the thorax and shoulder girdle as displayed by magnetic resonance, correlated with regional anatomy, with emphasis on soft tissue structures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:1994062

  16. Transient functional expression of alphaVbeta 3 on vascular cells during wound repair.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R. A.; Tonnesen, M. G.; Gailit, J.; Cheresh, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    During early granulation tissue formation of wound repair, new capillaries invade the fibrin clot, a process that undoubtedly requires an interaction of vascular cells with the wound provisional matrix composed mainly of fibrin, fibronectin, and vitronectin. Integrin alphaVbeta3 is the vascular cell receptor for these wound-associated adhesive proteins. Therefore, we investigated the expression of this receptor on new capillaries of healing full-thickness cutaneous porcine wounds. During granulation tissue formation, alphaVbeta3 was expressed specifically on capillary sprouts invading the central fibrin clot whereas the closely related integrin alphaVbeta5 failed to localize to these cells. Cyclic peptides or antibody antagonists of alphaVbeta3 specifically inhibited granulation tissue formation in a transient manner during the period of invasive angiogenesis. Immunolocalization studies revealed that alphaVbeta3 became aggregated and lost from sprouting vessels after treatment with a peptide antagonist. In contrast, beta 1 integrins were not modulated by this treatment. Once granulation tissue filled the wound and invasive angiogenesis terminated, the alphaVbeta3 showed little or no expression in the granulation tissue microvasculature. These data demonstrate that integrin alphaVbeta3 plays a fundamental, but transient, role during invasive angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation in a healing wound. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8623913

  17. The isolated ciliary bilayer is useful for studies of aqueous humor formation.

    PubMed Central

    Sears, M L; Yamada, E; Cummins, D; Mori, N; Mead, A; Murakami, M

    1991-01-01

    An intact ciliary epithelial bilayer has been isolated from the rabbit eye by perfusion, microsurgical dissection, and recovery techniques. Vital subcellular organelles and intercellular junctions of this epithelial bilayer preparation are very well preserved. The total electrical resistance of the epithelial bilayer is 350 ohms, and the transepithelial potential is 650 microV, nonpigmented epithelium side negative. The electrical resistance is reduced by 0.2 mM EGTA and the transepithelial potential reduced by 0.1 mM ouabain. Bicarbonate depletion at a constant pH of 7.4 rapidly and significantly reduces the transepithelial potential. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease transmembrane potential by as much as 30%. These morphologic and physiologic experiments authenticate the validity of this bilayered epithelial preparation for future use in detailed studies of the mechanism of aqueous humor formation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:1808804

  18. Pathology of the thymus after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in man. A histologic immunohistochemical study of 36 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Hermelink, H. K.; Sale, G. E.; Borisch, B.; Storb, R.

    1987-01-01

    A major hypothesis to explain the immunodeficiency associated with bone marrow transplantation states that thymic epithelial damage due to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) abrogates or delays the recovery of normal immunologic function. This study evaluated the thymus glands of 36 human bone marrow transplant recipients dying between 4 and 1742 days after transplant using histology, histochemistry, and immunohistology. The observations lead to a model of thymic damage by irradiation, chemotherapy, and GVHD in which early injury by all three of these agents results in profound thymic atrophy followed by long-delayed restitution. Patients undergoing total body irradiation showed more severe damage to thymic cortical and medullary epithelium than did patients undergoing chemotherapy alone as preparation for transplantation. Patients with GVHD showed additional damage in the form of individual thymic epithelial cell death and showed HLA-DR surface protein expression on thymic epithelium during GVHD. Longer-term survivors showed a profoundly delayed restitution of normal thymic epithelium and delayed evidence of restored lymphopoiesis. A few patients dying late after transplant showed evidence of reconstitution of normal thymic structure or nodules of lymphopoiesis in focal areas of epithelial-cell reconstitution. Evidence of such lymphopoiesis was seen at times ranging between 90 and 1742 days after grafting. The data are consistent with a model of long-standing thymic damage caused by GVHD which is reversible after the development of tolerance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3314529

  19. Susceptible periods during embryogenesis of the heart and endocrine glands.

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, T W

    2000-01-01

    One of the original principles of teratology states that, "Susceptibility to teratogenesis varies with the developmental stage at the time of exposure to an adverse influence" [Wilson JG. Environment and Birth Defects. New York:Academic Press, 1973]. The time of greatest sensitivity encompasses the period of organ formation during weeks 3-8 following fertilization in human gestation. At this time, stem cell populations for each organ's morphogenesis are established and inductive events for the initiation of differentiation occur. Structural defects of the heart and endocrine system are no exception to this axiom and have their origins during this time frame. Although the function and maturation of these organs may be affected at later stages, structural defects and loss of cell types usually occur during these early phases of development. Thus, to determine critical windows for studying mechanisms of teratogenesis, it is essential to understand the developmental processes that establish these organs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:10852854

  20. Initial experience with transluminally placed endovascular grafts for the treatment of complex vascular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, M L; Veith, F J; Cynamon, J; Sanchez, L A; Lyon, R T; Levine, B A; Bakal, C W; Suggs, W D; Wengerter, K R; Rivers, S P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Complex arterial occlusive, traumatic, and aneurysmal lesions may be difficult or impossible to treat successfully by standard surgical techniques when severe medical or surgical comorbidities exist. The authors describe a single center's experience over a 2 1/2-year period with 96 endovascular graft procedures performed to treat 100 arterial lesions in 92 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients had 36 large aortic and/or peripheral artery aneurysms, 48 had 53 multilevel limb-threatening aortoiliac and/or femoropopliteal occlusive lesions, and 11 had traumatic arterial injuries (false aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas). Endovascular grafts were placed through remote arteriotomies under local (16[17%]), epidural (42[43%]), or general (38[40%]) anesthesia. RESULTS: Technical and clinical successes were achieved in 91% of the patients with aneurysms, 91% with occlusive lesions, and 100% with traumatic arterial lesions. These patients and grafts have been followed from 1 to 30 months (mean, 13 months). The primary and secondary patency rates at 18 months for aortoiliac occlusions were 77% and 95%, respectively. The 18-month limb salvage rate was 98%. Immediately after aortic aneurysm exclusion, a total of 6 (33%) perigraft channels were detected; 3 of these closed within 8 weeks. Endovascular stented graft procedures were associated with a 10% major and a 14% minor complication rate. The overall 30-day mortality rate for this entire series was 6%. CONCLUSIONS: This initial experience with endovascular graft repair of complex arterial lesions justifies further use and careful evaluation of this technique for major arterial reconstruction. Images Figure 1. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 11. PMID:7574926

  1. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 are expressed on choroid plexus epithelium but not endothelium and mediate binding of lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, B. J.; Breier, G.; Butcher, E. C.; Schulz, M.; Engelhardt, B.

    1996-01-01

    The expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in the choroid plexus was studied in normal brain and during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the SJL/J mouse during inflammation induced by intracerebral injection of killed Corynebacterium parvum in the C3H/He mouse. Both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not MAdCAM-1, were constitutively expressed on choroid plexus epithelium but not on the fenestrated capillary endothelial cells within the choroid plexus. During EAE, we observed an up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and de novo expression of MAdCAM-1 on choroid plexus epithelial cells. In contrast, endothelial cells in the choroid plexus were not induced to express any of the investigated CAMs. In in situ hybridization analysis we demonstrated that ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 were locally synthesized and that the amount of their mRNAs increased in the inflamed choroid plexus. In vitro, primary choroid plexus epithelial cells could be induced to express ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 on their surface after treatment with proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, interferon-gamma, and lipopolysaccharide. To investigate the functional status of the expressed CAMs we performed Stamper-Woodruff binding assays on frozen sections of inflamed and naive brains. ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 expressed in choroid plexus epithelial cells mediated binding of lymphocytes via their known ligands LFA-1 and alpha4-integrin, respectively. The expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1 on choroid plexus epithelial cells together with the lack of their expression on the fenestrated choroid plexus endothelium raises the possibility that the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal-fluid barrier plays an important role in the immunosurveillance of the central nervous system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3A Figure 3B Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8669469

  2. ELECTRON BEAM THERAPY OF MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Malcolm A.; Schneidman, Harold M.; Farber, Eugene M.; Kaplan, Henry S.

    1961-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in the form of x-ray therapy is the best modality of treatment available at the present time for single, isolated lesions of mycosis fungoides. However, for generalized mycosis fungoides, generalized x-ray therapy is technically difficult and dangerous. It is now possible to employ electron beam therapy for generalized mycosis fungoides, using energies which confine the dose to the superficial layers of the skin and thus avoid hematopoietic injury. A technique for wide field electron beam therapy has been developed for this purpose which has been effective and well tolerated in limited trials to date. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 4.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 5.Figure 5.Figure 6. AFigure 6. A PMID:13863947

  3. Harlequin ichthyosis (ichq): a juvenile lethal mouse mutation with ichthyosiform dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, J. P.; Boggess, D.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, B. A.; Rourk, M. H.; Harris, B.; Johnson, K.; Dunstan, R. W.; Davisson, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:9212754

  4. Relationship of Chromosome Changes to Neoplastic Cell Transformation

    PubMed Central

    DiPaolo, Joseph A.; Popescu, Nicolae C.

    1976-01-01

    chromosome number or structure. Our studies indicate that chromosome changes are not essential for establishment of neoplasms but that karyotypic instability may result in response to selective growth pressures. ImagesFigure 2Figure 11Figure 3Figure 12Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 1Figure 10 PMID:826168

  5. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D; Barone, S

    2000-01-01

    Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851

  6. Use of outpatient clinics as a health indicator for communities around a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed Central

    Goren, A I; Hellmann, S; Glaser, E D

    1995-01-01

    The permit to operate the first coal fired power plant in Israel was issued with the condition that a comprehensive network to monitor its effects on the environment, health, and agriculture must be installed and operated around the plant. The health monitoring system consists of four studies, which started 1 year prior to the operation of the plant and were carried out for 10 years. In the framework of the health monitoring system, a study of requests for health services was carried out. In this survey, 8 clinics of the Sick Fund, served by 16 physicians, were followed up. The clinics were located as near as possible to air pollution monitoring stations and represent expected different levels of pollution. A health recorder summarized each day's visits to each physician and tabulated the total visits for each day and the visits due to respiratory tract complaints. Multivariate stepwise regressions on total as well as on respiratory complaints were carried out. The independent variables in the regressions were sulfur dioxide, meteorological parameters (such as temperature and humidity), and flu epidemics. Temperature was almost always significantly correlated with respiratory complaints, but less correlated with total visits among, adults and children. Sulfur dioxide, most meterological parameters and flu epidemics were not meaningful explanatory factor in the regressions. Ambient air pollution levels did not exceed the Israeli air quality or the more stringent local air quality standards, the monthly and annual average sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides values were very low. Images p1110-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8747016

  7. Canine GM1-gangliosidosis. A clinical, morphologic, histochemical, and biochemical comparison of two different models.

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, J.; Orgad, U.; DeGasperi, R.; Richard, R.; Warren, C. D.; Knowles, K.; Thalhammer, J. G.; Raghavan, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The clinical, morphologic, histochemical, and biochemical features of GM1-gangliosidosis in two canine models, English Springer Spaniel (ESS) and Portuguese Water Dog (PWD), have been compared. The disease onset, its clinical course, and survival period of the affected dogs were similar in both models. Skeletal dysplasia was noted radiographically at 2 months of age, whereas at 4 1/2 months of age there was progressive neurologic impairment. However, dwarfism and coarse facial features were seen only in ESS. Both models had similar deficiency in activity of lysosomal beta-galactosidase, but possessed a normal protein activator for GM1-beta-galactosidase. Both models stored GM1-ganglioside, asialo-GM1, and oligosaccharides in brain. Furthermore, only the PWD stored glycoproteins containing polylactosaminoglycans in visceral organs, and neither model stored them in the brain. Morphologically, both models demonstrated similar storage material in multiple tissues and cell types. The ultrastructure of the storage material was cell-type specific and identical in both models. However, some differences in the lectin staining pattern were noted. Our clinical, biochemical, and histochemical findings indicate that PWD and ESS may represent two different mutations of the beta-galactosidase gene. Moreover, the authors conclude that it is difficult, and inappropriate, to apply the human classification of GM1-gangliosidosis (i.e. infantile, juvenile, and adult forms) to these canine models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1546746

  8. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  9. The association of viruses with urveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, D M

    1979-01-01

    Electron microscopic examination of 57 ocular melanomas (54 human, two feline and one canine) revealed the presence of viral particles in six specimens. Herpesviruses particles were observed in one human specimen and were passed in human fibroblasts (WI-38), where they gave rise to intranuclear inclusions. A-type oncornavirus particles (oncogenic RNA virus) were observed in a second case, both in cells of tumor directly removed from an enucleated eye as well as in cells grown in tissue culture. In three human specimens and one feline specimen, togavirus particles were observed. Rubella is a member of this group, and the possibility that the presence of togavirus in these tumors is the result of latent ocular infection by rubella virus is raised. Herpes virus and RNA tumor viruses are widely considered as having a possible etiologic role for certain human cancers. The observation of togavirus is unexpected, as this virus has not been previously implicated in human or animal tumors. Injection of an RNA tumor virus (Gardner strain feline sarcoma virus) into the anterior chamber of newborn kittens resulted in the development of iris and ciliary body melanomas, many of which showed invasion and, in one instance, metastasis. This is the first animal model of a viral-induced uveal melanoma, and the histology and ultrastructure are described. These results emphasize the need for the continued investigation of the role of these viruses in uveal melanoma. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:545833

  10. Health effects of indoor fluoride pollution from coal burning in China.

    PubMed Central

    Ando, M; Tadano, M; Asanuma, S; Tamura, K; Matsushima, S; Watanabe, T; Kondo, T; Sakurai, S; Ji, R; Liang, C; Cao, S

    1998-01-01

    The combustion of high fluoride-content coal as an energy resource for heating, cooking, and food drying is a major exhaust emission source of suspended particulate matter and fluoride. High concentrations of these pollutants have been observed in indoor air of coal-burning families in some rural areas in China. Because airborne fluoride has serious toxicological properties, fluoride pollution in indoor air and the prevalence of fluorosis have been analyzed in a fluorosis area and a healthy nonfluorosis area in China and in a rural area in Japan. For human health, fluoride in indoor air has not only been directly inhaled by residents but also has been absorbed in stored food such as corn, chilies, and potatoes. In the fluorosis area in China, concentrations of urinary fluoride in the residents have been much higher than in the nonfluorosis area in China and in the rural area in Japan. In the fluorosis area, almost all elementary and junior high school students 10-15 years of age had dental fluorosis. Osteosclerosis in the skeletal fluorosis patients was very serious. Urinary deoxypyridinoline in rural residents in China was much higher than in rural residents in Japan. Data suggest that bone resorption was extremely stimulated in the residents in China and that fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Because indoor fluoride from combustion of coal is easily absorbed in stored food and because food consumption is a main source of fluoride exposure, it is necessary to reduce airborne fluoride and food contamination to prevent serious fluorosis in China. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9518433

  11. Analysis of T cell receptor-gamma gene rearrangements by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of GC-clamped polymerase chain reaction products. Correlation with tumor-specific sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, T. C.; Raffeld, M.; Lutz, C.; Dick, F.; Jaffe, E. S.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a modified denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) procedure with a 40-nucleotide GC clamp in the polymerase chain reaction to improve resolution in amplifying T cell receptor-gamma (TCR-gamma) rearrangements. DNA from 46 cases of lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, 5T cell lines, 2 B cell lines, 7 normal lymphocytes, and 3 cases of Hodgkin's disease was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. In addition, 20 cases of paraffin-embedded T cell lymphomas and 5 cases of reactive hyperplasia were also studied. Clonal TCR-gamma rearrangements were identified on DGGE by the presence of a predominant band. Results obtained from 5 T cell lines and 12 lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphomas containing known TCR-gamma gene rearrangements revealed 100% concordance in detecting clonal rearrangements between DGGE and traditional Southern blot analysis. Of the remaining 34 lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma cases studied by DGGE alone, 30 were positive. DGGE analysis of 10 lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma cases with known group IV gamma to J gamma 1 or J gamma 2 rearrangement sequences confirmed that the electrophoretic migration was dependent on the tumor-specific rearranged TCR-gamma sequence. In addition, 17 of 20 cases of paraffin-embedded T cell lymphomas were positive by DGGE, 6 of which had the clonal population also identified in fresh tissue DNA. DGGE analysis of GC-clamped polymerase chain reaction products can provide a way to more accurately detect TCR-gamma clonality of lymphoid tumors and can be applied to archival tissues. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7856738

  12. Hepatocyte membrane injury and bleb formation following low dose comfrey toxicity in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, M. L.; Wakefield, S. J.; Ford, H. C.

    1993-01-01

    Comfrey, a popular herbal remedy, contains hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and has been implicated in recent human toxicity. Although alkaloids from other plant sources have been extensively researched, studies on the hepatotoxic effects of comfrey alkaloids are scant. The effects of high dose comfrey toxicity have been studied and the present investigation was undertaken to identify changes associated with relatively low dose toxicity. Eight young adult rats were dosed weekly for six weeks with 50 mg/kg of comfrey derived alkaloids. The animals were dissected one week after the last dose and the livers examined by light and electron microscopy. Changes at the light microscopic level showed vascular congestion, mild zone 3 necrosis and loss of definition of hepatocyte cellular membranes. Extensive ultrastructural abnormalities were identified in the form of endothelial sloughing and the loss of hepatocyte microvilli. A striking finding was florid bleb formation on the sinusoidal borders of hepatocytes. Many blebs were shed into the space of Disse and extruded to fill, and sometimes occlude, sinusoidal lumina. Platelets were frequently found in areas of bleb formation. There was evidence of late damage in collagenization of Disse's space. Hepatocyte bleb formation is known to occur under a variety of pathological conditions but there is little to no information in the literature on the effects, if any, of bleb formation on fibrogenesis and the microcirculation and its role in the pathogenesis of liver disease. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids of comfrey may serve as an experimental tool to study the process of bleb formation and the intimate relationship between hepatocyte and sinusoidal injury in the liver. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8499322

  13. Activated protein kinase C binds to intracellular receptors in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Flores, M; García-Sáinz, J A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in rat hepatocytes cellular polypeptides that bind protein kinase C (PKC) and may influence its activity and its compartmentation. At least seven proteins, with apparent M(r) values between 12,000 and 36,000, that behave like Receptors for Activated C-Kinase (RACKs) were found in the Triton-X-100-insoluble fraction of these cells; i.e. PKC bound to these polypeptides when it was in its active form. RACKS seem to be PKC substrates. Studies using isotype-specific PKC antibodies suggested some selectivity of RACKs, i.e. RACKs in the M(r) approximately 28,000-36,000 region bound PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in the presence of phosphatidylserine, diolein and Ca2+, whereas those of M(r) approximately 12,000-14,000 bound all isoforms studied, and, in contrast with the other RACKs, they did this even in the absence of Ca2+. Peptide I (KGDYEKILVALCGGN), which has a sequence suggested to be involved in the PKC-RACKs interaction [Mochly-Rosen, Khaner, Lopez and Smith (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 14866-14868], inhibited PKC activity. Preincubation of RACKs with antisera directed against peptide I prevented PKC binding to them. The data suggest that peptide I blocks PKC binding to RACKs by two mechanisms: inhibition of PKC activity and competition with a putative binding site. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8257439

  14. AIDS-related lymphoma. Histopathology, immunophenotype, and association with Epstein-Barr virus as demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Dutoit, S. J.; Pallesen, G.; Franzmann, M. B.; Karkov, J.; Black, F.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the range of pathology shown by acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphomas arising in an epidemiologically well-defined group of patients, all cases of lymphoma recognized in Danish human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals up to the end of 1988 were studied. Twenty-seven cases (26 high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [NHL], 1 Hodgkin's disease) were found, to give a cumulative incidence rate of 8% among Danish AIDS patients. Morphologically most NHL patients were classified into two groups: 1) high-grade tumors with a predominant population of immunoblasts, either monomorphic or more often polymorphic with plasmacytic differentiation; 2) Burkitt-type. Of 26 NHLs, 22 had a B-cell paraffin-section immunophenotype and 4 were non-B, non-T. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was demonstrated in tumor cells of 12 of 24 cases (50%) using in situ nucleic acid hybridization with a 35S-labeled probe in paraffin sections. Epstein-Barr virus DNA was found in 65% of group 1 and 20% of group 2 tumors. This study suggests the existence of two main groups of AIDS-related lymphoma with different pathogeneses. First there are immunoblast-rich lesions, which usually are associated with EBV and morphologically resemble lymphomas described in immunosuppressed organ-transplantation patients. Second there are Burkitt-type tumors in which EBV sequences are less common and that may be pathogenetically analogous to sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1846263

  15. Sheep Pox: Experimental Studies with a West African Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, A.; Bundza, A.; Myers, D. J.; Dulac, G. C.; Thomas, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    Under conditions of a maximum security laboratory, four cross-bred sheep were inoculated intradermally only or intradermally and intratracheally with a West African isolate of sheep pox virus. All sheep had increased temperature and depression by the fourth or fifth day after infection. Nasal and lacrimal discharge and coughing occurred in all sheep but were more severe in sheep receiving the virus via the tracheal route. From the fifth day after infection, numerous papular erythematous skin lesions developed at the inoculation sites. These were 3-7 mm in diameter and gradually became nodular. Some of these lesions healed and others coalesced to form tumorlike masses. In one sheep, euthanized 14 days after intradermal and intratracheal inoculation, nodular lesions were found in the skin around the eyes, nostrils, oral and perianal regions, the mucosa of the rumen and throughout the lungs. Histologically, skin nodules were characterized by ischemic necrosis, vasculitis, microvesicualtion, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions in the dermal epithelial cells and vacuolar nuclear degeneration. The pulmonary lesion was that of proliferative alveolitis with occasional cytoplasmic inclusions in the alveolar cells and macrophages. Ultrastructurally, large cuboidal virus particles were found both in the skin lesion and inoculated tissue cultures. The sheep pox virus structure was easily distinguished from contagious ecthyma virus, a parapoxvirus which causes sporadic disease in Canada. Serum neutralizing antibodies developed in all the sheep by 14 days postinfection. The clinical and pathological characteristics of experimental sheep pox produced with this West African isolate were similar to those caused by Neethling virus of lumpy skin disease in cattle. ImagesFigure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6.Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., Figure 10.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:17422683

  16. Universal assay of vitellogenin as a biomarker for environmental estrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Heppell, S A; Denslow, N D; Folmar, L C; Sullivan, C V

    1995-01-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG), the serum phospholipoglycoprotein precursor to egg yolk, is potentially an ideal biomarker for environmental estrogens. This study was undertaken to develop antibodies against conserved regions on the VTG molecule that could form the basis for establishing bioassays to detect estrogen exposure in any oviparous vertebrate. We developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated against purified rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) VTG and selected for the property of specifically recognizing VTG purified from two phylogenetically distant vertebrates, trout and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting indicated that these mAbs specifically recognize purified VTG and VTG or other estrogen-inducible proteins in plasma or serum from representative species of four vertebrate classes (fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds). All of the mAbs generated were IgM class. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against a synthetic consensus peptide representing the conserved N-terminal amino acid sequence of VTG. The results of Western blotting indicate that this antiserum specifically recognizes VTG in plasma or serum from teleost fish of diverse families. It was used to detect VTG in Western blots of serum from brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) with cancer (hepatocellular and cholangio-carcinoma) collected from a contaminated industrial site outside of their normal vitellogenic season. Our results indicate that it is feasible to generate antibodies capable of recognizing VTG without regard to species and that development of a universal VTG assay is an achievable goal. Images Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8593883

  17. M cells and granular mononuclear cells in Peyer's patch domes of mice depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ermak, T. H.; Steger, H. J.; Strober, S.; Owen, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of Peyer's patches that were depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was examined with particular attention to the effects on M cells in the follicle epithelium and on mononuclear cells in follicle domes underlying the epithelium. Five-month-old, specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice were irradiated with 200-250 rad/day, five times a week to a total dose of 3400-4250, and their Peyer's patches were either fixed for electron microscopy or frozen for immunohistochemistry 1-4 days after completion of irradiation. Control mice were examined at the same time intervals. Follicle domes of TLI mice had approximately one fourth the epithelial surface area of domes of control mice. Within the epithelium, lymphoid cells were virtually depleted after TLI, and yet the epithelium contained M cells. In control mice, most M cells were accompanied by lymphoid cells in invaginations of the apical-lateral cell membrane. In TLI mice, most M cells did not have such apical-lateral invaginations and were columnar shaped. Other than lacking lymphocytes, these cells appeared to be mature M cells. Some M cells did have lymphoid cells or granular mononuclear cells below their basal membranes, adjacent to the basal lamina. Below the epithelium, the proportion of granular mononuclear cells was greatly increased following TLI. The retention of M cells and the increase in proportion of granular mononuclear cells in follicle domes are consistent with selective depletion of lymphocytes following TLI. Persistence of M cells without lymphocytic invaginations after TLI suggests that M cells can differentiate in the absence of, or at least in the presence of very few, lymphocytes, and that invagination by lymphocytes is not necessary to maintain mature M cell morphology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2923183

  18. Expression of epithelial adhesion proteins and integrins in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Haapasalmi, K.; Mäkelä, M.; Oksala, O.; Heino, J.; Yamada, K. M.; Uitto, V. J.; Larjava, H.

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cell behavior in chronic inflammation is poorly characterized. During inflammation of tooth-supporting structures (periodontal disease), increased proliferation of epithelial cells into the inflamed connective tissue stroma is commonly seen. In some areas ulceration and degeneration take place. We studied alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and integrins during chronic periodontal inflammation. In inflamed tissue, laminin-1 and type IV collagen were still present in the basement membrane and surrounding blood vessels, but they were also found extravascularly in inflamed connective tissue stroma. Type VII collagen and laminin-5 (also known as kalinin, epiligrin, or nicein) were poorly preserved in the basement membrane zone, but both were found in unusual streak-like distributions in the subepithelial connective tissue stroma in inflamed tissue. Both fibronectin and tenascin were substantially decreased in chronically inflamed connective tissue, showing only punctate staining at the basement membrane zone. Integrins of the beta 1 family showed two distinct staining patterns in epithelial cells during chronic inflammation; focal losses of beta 1 integrins (alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1) were found in most areas, while in other areas the entire pocket epithelium was found to be strongly positive for beta 1 integrins. No members of the alpha v integrin family were found in any epithelia studied. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was high in basal cells of healthy tissue, but weak in epithelium associated with chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation therefore involves alterations in both adhesion proteins and integrins expressed by epithelial cells. Basement membrane components found at abnormal sites in stroma in chronic inflammation might serve as new adhesive ligands for various cell types in inflamed stroma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7541610

  19. Demonstration of extensive chromatin cleavage in transplanted Morris hepatoma 7777 tissue: apoptosis or necrosis?

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, K.; Kojiro, M.; Chiu, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    Cell death may occur by either of two mechanisms: necrosis or apoptosis (programmed cell death). In this paper, we demonstrate extensive chromatin cleavage into oligonucleosome-length fragments (DNA ladder) in transplanted Morris hepatoma 7777 tissue, which is suggestive of the stimulation of an endogenous endonuclease activity previously found to be involved in the process of apoptosis. The existence of many apoptotic cells, which are morphologically characterized by condensed cytoplasm and basophilic nuclear fragments, were also seen in this tissue. In vivo and in vitro experiments were designed to further differentiate the morphological and biochemical features of necrosis and apoptosis in liver and hepatoma cells. Liver tissue undergoing ischemic necrosis showed a distinct DNA ladder pattern without demonstrating the morphology of apoptosis, indicating that chromatin cleavage into oligonucleosomal-length fragments is not confined to apoptotic cell death, at least in liver cells. In in vitro-cultured McA-RH7777 cells, however, DNA ladder pattern was detected only in cells showing characteristic morphology of apoptosis. From these two criteria (i.e., characteristic morphology and DNA ladder), it was strongly suggested that the apoptotic process is highly activated in the transplanted 7777 tissue. Based on the results obtained from in vitro experiments, it was suggested that tumor apoptosis may represent a residual attempt at autoregulation within the expanding tumor population and/or may result from mild cellular injuries such as hypoxia, nutrient deficiency, or other unknown noxious factor(s). We also showed evidence that apoptosis is inducible in hepatoma cells in vitro by a wide range of mild injuries or stimuli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8384410

  20. Liver allograft rejection in sensitized recipients. Observations in a clinically relevant small animal model.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, K.; Murase, N.; Becich, M. J.; Furuya, T.; Todo, S.; Fung, J. J.; Starzl, T. E.; Demetris, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    consequences of early damage to the biliary tree are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8494042

  1. Quantitative comparisons of in vitro assays for estrogenic activities.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, H; Tong, W; Perkins, R; Soto, A M; Prechtl, N V; Sheehan, D M

    2000-01-01

    assays to screen estrogenic endocrine disruptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10964792

  2. Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P A; Gates, T E

    1999-01-01

    The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10378999

  3. Characterization of indoor particle sources: A study conducted in the metropolitan Boston area.

    PubMed Central

    Abt, E; Suh, H H; Allen, G; Koutrakis, P

    2000-01-01

    An intensive particle monitoring study was conducted in homes in the Boston, Massachusetts, area during the winter and summer of 1996 in an effort to characterize sources of indoor particles. As part of this study, continuous particle size and mass concentration data were collected in four single-family homes, with each home monitored for one or two 6-day periods. Additionally, housing activity and air exchange rate data were collected. Cooking, cleaning, and the movement of people were identified as the most important indoor particle sources in these homes. These sources contributed significantly both to indoor concentrations (indoor-outdoor ratios varied between 2 and 33) and to altered indoor particle size distributions. Cooking, including broiling/baking, toasting, and barbecuing contributed primarily to particulate matter with physical diameters between 0.02 and 0.5 microm [PM((0.02-0.5))], with volume median diameters of between 0.13 and 0.25 microm. Sources of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 0.7 and 10 microm [PM((0.7-10))] included sautéing, cleaning (vacuuming, dusting, and sweeping), and movement of people, with volume median diameters of between 3 and 4.3 microm. Frying was associated with particles from both PM((0.02-0.5)) and PM((0.7-10)). Air exchange rates ranged between 0.12 and 24.3 exchanges/hr and had significant impact on indoor particle levels and size distributions. Low air exchange rates (< 1 exchange/hr) resulted in longer air residence times and more time for particle concentrations from indoor sources to increase. When air exchange rates were higher (> 1 exchange/hr), the impact of indoor sources was less pronounced, as indoor particle concentrations tracked outdoor levels more closely. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:10620522

  4. Dirofilaria immitis. 5. Immunopathology of filarial nephropathy in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Abramowsky, C. R.; Powers, K. G.; Aikawa, M.; Swinehart, G.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen beagles infected with larvae (microfilariae) of Dirofilaria immitis, were randomly selected from another study in which the toxic effects of subfilaricidal doses of diethylcarbamazine were being evaluated. This group of 14 dogs, together with 4 uninfected control animals, were variably sacrificed between 14 and 25 months after larval inoculations, and the ensuing renal lesions were studied by light and ultrastructural microscopy and by immunofluorescence and antibody elution techniques. On the basis of these studies, two groups of animals were distinguished. The first group was characterized by a striking pattern of linear fluorescence and fine ultrastructural dense deposits along the glomerular basement membrane, poor antibody response, and an inability to clear microfilariae from the tissues and circulation. The second group, with a nonlinear pattern of fluorescence, was characterized by a strong immune response, efficient elimination of microfilariae, and immunofluorescence and ultrastructural evidence of predominantly mesangiopathic immune complex renal disease. In both groups, elution studies demonstrated tissue deposits of antiworm antibodies, suggesting a filaria-antibody immune-complex nephropathy. No evidence was found for the presence of anti-basement-membrane antibodies. On the basis of a previous experimental model, it is postulated that in the first group of animals with linear fluorescence, the observed lesions may represent a natural form of an immunopathogenic mechanism of glomerular damage in which filarial antigen becomes uniformly localized in the glomerulus and elicits an autologous antibody response. The possible role of the drug diethylcarbamazine in inducing this mechanism of immune injury is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7020425

  5. Experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary angiitis induced by intratracheal or intravenous challenge with Corynebacterium parvum in sensitized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yi, E. S.; Lee, H.; Suh, Y. K.; Tang, W.; Qi, M.; Yin, S.; Remick, D. G.; Ulich, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 14 PMID:8863677

  6. Podocytic cytoskeletal disaggregation and basement-membrane detachment in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, C. I.; Cameron, R.; Munk, S.; Levy, J.

    1993-01-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside--(PAN) treated rats develop acute nephrotic syndrome, mimicking human minimal lesion disease. In PAN nephrosis, podocyte detachment from the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is the most likely cause of massive proteinuria in this model. To elucidate further the mechanisms of PAN-induced cellular dysfunction, new methods were employed to visualize podocyte cytoskeletal aggregation and to measure fibrillar attachment to the GBM. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 4/group) received a single tail-vein injection of PAN (75 mg/kg). On days 1, 2, 3, and 5 following injection, 24-hour urine collections were obtained for creatinine clearance, albuminuria, and total proteinuria. Then kidneys from each group were fixed by perfusion. Podocytic cytoskeleton was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Subepithelial GBM staining and attachment fiber number, observed on digitized images of transmission electron micrographs, were quantitated with computer-based density analysis. A significant reduction in attachment fiber number in the GBM lamina rara externa occurred by day 5. On scanning electron micrographs, the secondary and tertiary podocytic processes were observed to be formed by highly aggregated cytoskeleton, which became partially disaggregated by day 3, was totally absent by day 5, and normalized by day 20. Immunogold staining revealed that actin and vinculin localized to the tertiary podocytic processes in the normal state were dispersed into the cell body following PAN. Podocyte cytoskeletal disaggregation precedes, and detachment from the GBM occurs simultaneously with, the onset of massive proteinuria in the PAN model. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8494056

  7. Islet inflammation and hyperplasia induced by the pancreatic islet-specific overexpression of interleukin-6 in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, I. L.; Hobbs, M. V.; Dockter, J.; Oldstone, M. B.; Allison, J.

    1994-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To examine this possibility, we developed two lines of transgenic mice (termed RIP-IL6) which overexpressed IL-6 in the pancreatic islet beta cells. RIP-IL6 mice, while showing a modest reduction in body weight, remained normoglycemic throughout their lives. Furthermore, insulin gene expression and glucose tolerance were similar to non-transgenic littermates. Histopathological examination revealed significant changes in the pancreas but not other organs of RIP-IL6 animals, with marked alterations in the architecture of the islets, in the islet cells, and in surrounding tissues. In younger animals these changes included islet hyperplasia with increased mitotic figures, neo-ductular formation, fibrosis, and a scant mononuclear cell infiltration (insulitis). In addition, immunostaining for islet hormones revealed changes in both the topography and density of beta and alpha cells. In older RIP-IL6 mice, a more florid insulitis was observed which was composed predominantly of B220+ B lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, Mac-1+ macrophages and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Immunostaining for mouse IgG revealed significant numbers of plasma cells in the peri-islet infiltrates, which suggested that IL-6 induced differentiation of the recruited B lymphocytes. Therefore, islet overexpression of IL-6 produces a complex, localized host response implicating this cytokine in not only inflammatory processes that occur in autoimmune diabetes but also cellular neogenesis, which may indicate a role in tissue repair. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8030746

  8. Transitional features in human atherosclerosis. Intimal thickening, cholesterol clefts, and cell loss in human aortic fatty streaks.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1993-01-01

    The possible transition from a subset of fatty streaks to fibrous plaques in human atherosclerosis has long been postulated, but transitional features in lesions have rarely been demonstrated. We examined human aortic fatty streaks to determine whether significant tendencies toward intimal thickening and toward deep extracellular lipid deposition might be found. To provide accurate ultrastructural assessment of lipid, tissues were processed by new electron microscopic cytochemical techniques. Unilateral fatty streaks exhibited a 60% increase in intimal thickness when compared to contralateral control tissue. Fat droplets in intimal cells accounted for approximately half of the increase; nonfat portions of cells and extracellular matrix accounted for the remainder. Six of 32 fatty streaks (19%) contained cholesterol clefts, which were found in the musculo-elastic (deep) layer of the intima or in the tunica media. Volume fractions occupied by cells in deep intima were reduced when cholesterol clefts were evident, suggesting loss of cells in early core regions. Light and electron microscopy showed structures consistent with lipid-rich core regions in lesions with cholesterol clefts and in a few lesions without cholesterol clefts. The findings of intimal thickening, core region formation, and disappearance of intimal cells constitute new evidence that some fatty streaks are progressive lesions and sites of eventual fibrous plaque development. The findings also suggest that the lipid-rich core region does not originate primarily from the debris of dead foam cells in the superficial intima, but instead arises from lipids accumulating gradually in the extracellular matrix of the deep intima. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8238260

  9. Oilbody Proteins in Microspore-Derived Embryos of Brassica napus 1

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Larry A.; van Rooijen, Gijs J. H.; Wilen, Ronald W.; Moloney, Maurice M.

    1991-01-01

    A number of treatments were tested for their ability to affect the synthesis of oilbody proteins in microspore-derived embryos of rapeseed (Brassica napus). Synthesis of the oilbody proteins was determined by [35S]methionine incorporation in vivo and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of washed oilbody fractions. Oilbody proteins of approximately 19, 23, and 32 kilodaltons were found to be prominent. These proteins showed differential patterns of regulation. The 19 and 23 kilodalton proteins (oleosins) were greatly enhanced by treatments with abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and osmotic stress imposed using sorbitol (12.5%). Synthesis of the 32 kilodalton protein was inhibited by abscisic acid and by sorbitol (12.5%), but unaffected by jasmonates. The strong promotion of synthesis of the 19 and 23 kilodalton oilbody proteins appeared to be specific as they are not seen with gibberellic acid treatment or with a stress such as heat shock. Time course experiments revealed that the abscisic acid stimulation of oleosin synthesis is quite rapid (less than 2 hours), reaching a maximum at 6 to 8 hours. The response of the oleosins to abscisic acid is found in all stages of embryogenesis, with a major increase in synthetic rates even in globular embryos on abscisic acid treatment. This suggests that these proteins may accumulate much earlier in embryogenesis than has previously been believed. The 32 kilodalton oilbody-associated protein appears different from the oleosins in several ways, including its distinct pattern of regulation and its unique property, among the oilbody proteins, of undergoing phosphorylation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:16668489

  10. Structural and biochemical changes in lungs of 3-methylindole-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, L. W.; Wilson, D. W.; Schiedt, M. J.; Giri, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of a single dose of 3-methylindole (3-MI) (250 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were studied at different times ranging from 12 hours to 2 weeks post-treatment (PT). Microscopic study revealed mild Clara cell injury 24 hours PT and mucus hyperplasia 24 hours to 2 weeks PT. Diffuse type I alveolar epithelial cell necrosis occurred at 48 hours, followed by type II cell hyperplasia. Septal edema and accumulation of interstitial and capillary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and perivascular mixed mononuclear inflammatory cells accompanied the injury and repair. A gradual resolution of lesions with persistent mononuclear inflammatory cellular clusters at septal junctions, focal septal fibrosis, and accumulation of alveolar macrophages was evident at 1 and 2 weeks PT. Collagen, measured as hydroxyproline, in 3-MI-treated rats was significantly increased to 130% and 139% of control (3.0 mg/lung) at 1 and 2 weeks PT, respectively. Biphasic peaks of plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha occurred at 12 to 24 hours and at 96 hours PT with 3-MI and thromboxane B2 was elevated 12, 48, and 96 hours PT. Right ventricular/left ventricular and septal weight was increased to 120% and 140% of the control 1 and 2 weeks PT. We concluded that 3-MI induces alveolar septal injury in the rat with relatively complete repair of the alveolar epithelium and residual mild focal septal fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension 2 weeks PT. Arachidonic acid-derived mediators and inflammation are associated with 3-MI-induced lung injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8424451

  11. Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptor function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Markaverich, B M; Webb, B; Densmore, C L; Gregory, R R

    1995-01-01

    Isoflavonoids and related compounds such as coumestrol have classically been categorized as phytoestrogens because these environmentally derived substances bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and increase uterine wet weight in immature rats and mice. Assessment of the binding affinities of isoflavonoids for ER and subsequent effects on uterine growth suggest these compounds are less active estrogens than estradiol and therefore may reduce the risk of developing breast or prostate cancer in humans by preventing estradiol binding to ER. With the renewed interest in the relationships between environmental estrogens and cancer cause and prevention, we assessed the effects of the phytoestrogen coumestrol on uterotropic response in the immature, ovariectomized rat. Our studies demonstrated that in this animal model, coumestrol is an atypical estrogen that does not stimulate uterine cellular hyperplasia. Although acute (subcutaneous injection) or chronic (multiple injection or orally via drinking water) administration of coumestrol significantly increased uterine wet and dry weights, the phytoestrogen failed to increase uterine DNA content. The lack of true estrogenic activity was characterized by the inability of this phytoestrogen to cause cytosolic ER depletion, nuclear ER accumulation, or the stimulation of nuclear type II sites which characteristically precede estrogenic stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis and proliferation. In fact, subcutaneous or oral coumestrol treatment caused an atypical threefold induction of cytosolic ER without corresponding cytosolic depletion and nuclear accumulation of this receptor, and this increased the sensitivity of the uterus to subsequent stimulation by estradiol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p574-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. PMID:7556010

  12. Induction of mortality and malformation in Xenopus laevis embryos by water sources associated with field frog deformities.

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, J G; Helgen, J C; Fort, D J; Gallagher, K; Bowers, D; Propst, T L; Gernes, M; Magner, J; Shelby, M D; Lucier, G

    1998-01-01

    Water samples from several ponds in Minnesota were evaluated for their capacity to induce malformations in embryos of Xenopus laevis. The FETAX assay was used to assess the occurrence of malformations following a 96-hr period of exposure to water samples. These studies were conducted following reports of high incidences of malformation in natural populations of frogs in Minnesota wetlands. The purpose of these studies was to determine if a biologically active agent(s) was present in the waters and could be detected using the FETAX assay. Water samples from ponds with high incidences of frog malformations (affected sites), along with water samples from ponds with unaffected frog populations (reference sites), were studied. Initial experiments clearly showed that water from affected sites induced mortality and malformation in Xenopus embryos, while water from reference sites had little or no effect. Induction of malformation was dose dependent and highly reproducible, both with stored samples and with samples taken at different times throughout the summer. The biological activity of the samples was reduced or eliminated when samples were passed through activated carbon. Limited evidence from these samples indicates that the causal factor(s) is not an infectious organism nor are ion concentrations or metals responsible for the effects observed. Results do indicate that the water matrix has a significant effect on the severity of toxicity. Based on the FETAX results and the occurrence of frog malformations observed in the field, these studies suggest that water in the affected sites contains one or more unknown agents that induce developmental abnormalities in Xenopus. These same factors may contribute to the increased incidence of malformation in native species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9831545

  13. Bovine Cryptosporidiosis: Clinical and Pathological Findings in Forty-two Scouring Neonatal Calves

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, S. E.; Josephson, G. K. A.

    1982-01-01

    Cryptosporidia organisms were identified in 42 of 161 (26%) neonatal, diarrheic calves, over a 32 month period commencing July 1979. Forty of the 161 calves were submitted alive and cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 63% (25 of 40) of them. The cryptosporidia infected calves were usually one to two weeks old and came from 26 herds where the typical history was profuse, watery diarrhea in nearly all neonatal calves. The diarrhea usually started around one week of age, was unresponsive to all conventional antidiarrhea therapies, lasted for two or more weeks and was usually fatal. Twenty-nine (69%) of the cryptosporidia infected calves were submitted between December and February. These calves were often hutch reared. Histopatholoical examination revealed large numbers of the coccidial parasite Cryptosporidium sp embedded in the microvilli of jejunal and ileal absorptive enterocytes of all affected calves. The organisms were identified as trophozoites and schizonts (asexual stages) and macrogametes (female sexual stages) with the electron microscope. Microgametes (male sexual stages) were not identified. Occasionally a merozoite (asexual stage) was also seen apparently burrowing into or about to be enveloped by a host microvillus. Observation of the organisms was much easier when diarrheic calves were submitted alive. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were often cultured from intestines of dead calves and occasionally from calves submitted alive. Coronavirus particles were seen in one calf. In the last year of this study, oocysts were identified in fecal smears stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain and fecal samples using a dichromate solution flotation technique. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17422204

  14. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase genes in the mouse central nervous system in normal and inflammatory states.

    PubMed Central

    Pagenstecher, A.; Stalder, A. K.; Kincaid, C. L.; Shapiro, S. D.; Campbell, I. L.

    1998-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) whereas the contribution of the major endogenous counter-regulators of MMPs, the tissue inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), is unclear. We investigated the temporal and spatial expression patterns in the CNS of nine MMP genes and three TIMP genes in normal mice, in mice with EAE, and in transgenic mice with astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-targeted expression of the cytokines interleukin-3 (macrophage/microglial demyelinating disease), interleukin-6 (neurodegenerative disease), or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (lymphocytic encephalomyelitis). In normal mice, the MMPs MT1-MMP, stromelysin 3, and gelatinase B were expressed at low levels, whereas high expression of TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 was observed predominantly in neurons and in the choroid plexus, respectively. In EAE and the transgenic mice, significant induction or up-regulation of various MMP genes was observed, the pattern of which was somewhat specific for each of the models, and there was significant induction of TIMP-1. In situ localization experiments revealed a dichotomy between MMP expression that was restricted to leukocytes and possibly microglia within inflammatory lesions and TIMP-1 expression that was observed in activated astrocytes circumscribing the lesions. These findings demonstrate specific spatial and temporal regulation in the expression of individual MMP and TIMP genes in the CNS in normal and inflammatory states. The distinct localization of TIMP-1 and MMP expression during CNS inflammation suggests a dynamic state in which the interplay between these gene products may determine both the size and resolution of the destructive inflammatory focus. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9502415

  15. Alterations in proteoglycan synthesis common to healing wounds and tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, T. K.; Brown, L.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    mechanisms responsible for both wound healing and tumor stroma generation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:1711290

  16. Carcinogenicity of Black Rock Harbor sediment to the eastern oyster and trophic transfer of Black Rock Harbor carcinogens from the blue mussel to the winter flounder.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, G R; Yevich, P P; Harshbarger, J C; Malcolm, A R

    1991-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) developed neoplastic disorders when experimentally exposed both in the laboratory and field to chemically contaminated sediment from Black Rock Harbor (BRH), Bridgeport, Connecticut. Neoplasia was observed in oysters after 30 and 60 days of continuous exposure in a laboratory flow-through system to a 20 mg/L suspension of BRH sediment plus postexposure periods of 0, 30, or 60 days. Composite tumor incidence was 13.6% (49 neoplasms in 40, n = 295) for both exposures. Tumor occurrence was highest in the renal excretory epithelium, followed in order by gill, gonad, gastrointestinal, heart, and embryonic neural tissue. Regression of experimental neoplasia was not observed when the stimulus was discontinued. In field experiments, gill neoplasms developed in oysters deployed in cages for 30 days at BRH and 36 days at a BRH dredge material disposal area in Central Long Island Sound, and kidney and gastrointestinal neoplasms developed in caged oysters deployed 40 days in Quincy Bay, Boston Harbor. Oysters exposed to BRH sediment in the laboratory and in the field accumulated high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and chlorinated pesticides. Chemical analyses demonstrated high concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals in BRH sediment. Known genotoxic carcinogens, co-carcinogens, and tumor promoters were present as contaminants. The uptake of parent PAH and PCBs from BRH sediment observed in oysters also occurs in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Winter flounder fed BRH-contaminated blue mussels contained xenobiotic chemicals analyzed in mussels. The flounder developed renal and pancreatic neoplasms and hepatotoxic neoplastic precursor lesions, demonstrating trophic transfer of sediment-bound carcinogens up the food chain. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:2050083

  17. Slow cellular dynamics in MDCK and R5 cells monitored by time-lapse atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, C A; Hoh, J H

    1994-01-01

    We have examined dynamic events that occur on a time scale of minutes in an epithelial monolayer of Madine-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells and in ras-transformed MDCK cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells were imaged under physiological conditions, and time-lapse movies representing approximately 60 s real time per frame were assembled. In normal MDCK cells, two types of protrusions in the apical plasma membrane exhibit dynamic behavior. First, smooth bulges formed transiently over the time scale of minutes to tens of minutes. Second, spike-like protrusions appear initially as bulges, extend well above the apical surface and, finally, seem to detach. R5, an oncogenic transformant derived from MDCK cells, grows very flat on glass. During AFM imaging, these cells sometimes round up and detach from the substrate. In light microscopic observations of parallel preparations, cells rarely detach, suggesting that this is an active response of these cells to irritation by the AFM tip. R5 cells often extend processes that are supported by actin stress fibers. During imaging with the AFM, these processes withdraw at a rate of 1-5 microns/min, similar to that observed by light microscopy. During the withdrawal, movement of the stress fibers can be clearly seen. In the flat periphery of these cells, the transport of intracellular particles along cytoskeletal elements was seen. In addition, we have observed two types of wave-like movements through the cell, which appear to be an organized rearrangement of cytoplasm. One type of wave moves radially out from center of the cell while the other moves circularly along the cell periphery. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:7948707

  18. Strain differences in Shope fibroma virus. An immunopathologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Strayer, D. S.; Skaletsky, E.; Sell, S.

    1984-01-01

    The pathogenic effects of plaque-purified Boerlage and Patuxent strains of Shope fibroma virus (SFV) in neonatal rabbits are compared with results of previous reports which used nonpurified SFV. Clinically, the Boerlage strain produced large tumors; whereas the same dose of Patuxent strain SFV induced much smaller tumors locally. Neither virus caused metastatic or extensively invasive local spread in our study. Some Patuxent recipients died of respiratory infections prior to sacrifice. However, both groups of rabbits handled the tumor well; the tumor began regressing 15-20 days after inoculation. Histologically, the tumors produced by those viruses were identical. Patuxent strain recipients were otherwise normal. Boerlage strain recipients showed increased persistence of extramedullary hematopoiesis and scattered foci of parenchymal necrosis in their livers. They also showed considerable cell death in thymic lobules. In rabbits given Patuxent strain SFV, virus antigens were detected only in the tumor by immunohistologic examination. Boerlage viral antigens were found in the tumor and overlying skin. We also detected virus systemically in Boerlage recipients: it was present in fixed tissue phagocytes in the spleen and liver and also in parenchymal cells of the lungs, liver, and kidney. Boerlage strain SFV recipients also showed detectable virus in their thymus, both at the periphery of the thymic lobules and in the connective tissue separating thymic lobules from each other. Despite the disseminated nature of the infection, rabbits that received the latter strain fared as well as those receiving Patuxent strain SFV. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 p[353]-a Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 p345-a Figure 6 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:6087669

  19. Lesions and distribution of viral antigen following an experimental infection of young seronegative calves with virulent bovine virus diarrhea virus-type II.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M

    1998-01-01

    . Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. PMID:9684044

  20. Renal ultrastructural markers in AIDS-associated nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chander, P.; Soni, A.; Suri, A.; Bhagwat, R.; Yoo, J.; Treser, G.

    1987-01-01

    Renal tissues from two groups of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were examined: Group A had severe proteinuria and varying degrees of renal insufficiency, designated AIDS-associated nephropathy (AAN), and Group B had no renal involvement. Control Group C consisted of patients with heroin-associated nephropathy (HAN) with proteinuria comparable to patients in Group A but without AIDS or its related complex (ARC). The most frequent finding, common to both AAN and HAN, was focal glomerular sclerosis. In contrast to HAN, AAN tissue showed mesangial hypocellularity, sparse interstitial infiltrates, severe tubular degenerative changes, tubular microcystic ectasia, Bowman's space dilatation, and presence of multiple complex inclusions both in the nuclei and cytoplasm in a variety of cells. Abundant tubuloreticular inclusions were found in the endothelial and occasionally in the interstitial cell cytoplasm. Nuclear bodies (NBs) were seen in greater frequency, complexity, size, and heterogeneity, and of budding configuration in Group A as compared with Groups B and C; NBs in Group C were mostly of simple types (I and II). In addition, a peculiar granulofibrillary transformation in many tubular and interstitial cell nuclei was observed in Group A. This transformation was rarely present in Group B and was never seen in Group C. Because complex NBs (Types III to V) and various intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions present in Group A are often associated with viral invasion, their presence in kidneys of AIDS patients with proteinuria suggests a viral etiology for AAN. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3548410

  1. A murine monoclonal antibody, MoAb HMSA-5, against a melanosomal component highly expressed in early stages, and common to normal and neoplastic melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Der, J. E.; Dixon, W. T.; Jimbow, K.; Horikoshi, T.

    1993-01-01

    The melanosome is a secretory organelle unique to the melanocyte and its neoplastic counterpart, malignant melanoma. The synthesis and assembly of these intracytoplasmic organelles is not yet fully understood. We have developed a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against melanosomes isolated from human melanocytes (newborn foreskin) cultured in the presence of 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This MoAb, designated HMSA-5 (Human Melanosome-Specific Antigen-5) (IgG1), recognised a cytoplasmic antigen in both normal human melanocytes and neoplastic cells, such as common and dysplastic melanocytic nevi, and malignant melanoma. None of the carcinoma or sarcoma specimens tested showed positive reactivity with MoAb HMSA-5. Under immunoelectron microscopy, immuno-gold deposition was seen on microvesicles associated with melanosomes, and a portion of the ER-Golgi complexes. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that the HMSA-5 reactive antigen was a glycoprotein of M(r) 69 to 73 kDa. A pulse-chase time course study showed that the amount of antigen detected by MoAb HMSA-5 decreased over a 24 h period without significant expression on the cell surface, or corresponding appearance of the antigen in the culture supernatant. This glycoprotein appears to play a role in the early stages of melanosomal development, and the HMSA-5 reactive epitope may be lost during subsequent maturation processes. Importantly, HMSA-5 can be identified in all forms of human melanocytes, hence it can be considered a new common melanocytic marker even on routine paraffin sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7678981

  2. The origins and early history of the National Chiropractic Association

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C; Rehm, William S

    1993-01-01

    Early organization in chiropractic was prompted by the profession’s need to promote itself and to defend against the onslaught of political medicine and organized osteopathy. The first priorities were legal defense against prosecution for unlicensed practice and malpractice insurance. The Universal Chiropractors’ Association (UCA), organized at the Palmer School of Chiropractic (PSC) in 1906, sought to meet these needs by insuring its members and by developing a legal department under the supervision of attorney Tom Morris, one time lieutenant governor of Wisconsin. The public relations and marketing needs of chiropractors were largely served by the PSC and its legendary leader. However, as chiropractors increasingly sought to avoid prosecution by passage of chiropractic laws, Palmer’s efforts to direct this legislation so as to limit chiropractors’ scope of practice increasingly alienated many in the profession. The American Chiropractic Association (ACA) was founded in 1922 to provide a broadscope alternative to BJ’s UCA. With Palmer’s departure from the UCA following the neurocalometer debacle, ACA and UCA sought amalgamation. Simultaneously, organized medicine renewed its attack on the profession by introducing basic science legislation, which prompted chiropractors to try to upgrade and standardize chiropractic education. Early efforts to bring about the needed consensus were centered in the International Chiropractic Congress (ICC), particularly its division of state examining boards. In 1930 the ACA and UCA combined to form the National Chiropractic Association (NCA), and by 1934 the ICC had merged with the NCA to form part of its council structure. With this modicum of solidarity the NCA began the process of educational boot-strapping at its 1935 convention in Los Angeles, when its Committee on Education, a forerunner of today’s Council on Chiropractic Education, was proposed by C.O. Watkins of Montana. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

  3. Studies on the activation by ATP of the 26 S proteasome complex from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmann, B; Kuehn, L; Reinauer, H

    1995-01-01

    The 26 S proteasome complex is thought to catalyse the breakdown of ubiquitinated proteins within eukaryotic cells. In addition it has been found that the complex also degrades short-lived proteins such as ornithine decarboxylase in a ubiquitin-independent manner. Both proteolytic processes are paralleled by the hydrolysis of ATP. Here we show that ATP also affects the hydrolytic activity towards fluorigenic peptide substrates by the 26 S proteasome complex from rat skeletal muscle tissue. Low concentrations of ATP (about 25 microM) optimally activate the so-called chymotryptic and tryptic activity by increasing the rate of peptide hydrolysis but not peptidylglutamylpeptide hydrolysis. Activation of the enzyme by ATP is transient but this effect can be enhanced and prolonged by including in the assay an ATP-regenerating system, indicating that ATP is hydrolysed by the 26 S proteasome complex. Although ATP cannot be substituted for by adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-methylene]triphosphate or AMP, hydrolysis of the phosphoanhydride bond of ATP seems not to be necessary for the activation process of the proteasome complex, a conclusion drawn from the findings that ATP analogues such as adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate, adenosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, adenosine 5'-O-[beta-thio]-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-[alpha,beta-methylene]triphosphate give the same effect as ATP, and vanadate does not prevent ATP activation. These effects are independent of the presence of Mg2+. Thus, ATP and other nucleotides may act as allosteric activators of peptide-hydrolysing activities of the 26 S proteasome complex as has also been found with the lon protease from Escherichia coli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7619056

  4. Interleukin-8 production by the human colon epithelial cell line HT-29: modulation by interleukin-13.

    PubMed Central

    Kolios, G.; Robertson, D. A.; Jordan, N. J.; Minty, A.; Caput, D.; Ferrara, P.; Westwick, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have determined which cytokines induce and modulate the production of the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by the human colonic epithelial cell line HT-29. 2. Growth arrested cell cultures were stimulated with the human recombinant cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-13 (IL-13), interleukin-10 (IL-10) or vehicle added alone or in combination. The production of IL-8 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IL-8 messenger RNA expression by Northern blot analysis. 3. The production of IL-8 in unstimulated cells was undetectable by both ELISA and Northern blot analysis. 4. HT-29 cells produced IL-8 following stimulation with IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha in a time- and a concentration-dependent manner, while IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-13 did not induce IL-8 production by HT-29 cells. 5. IL-13 was found to up-regulate significantly (P < 0.01) the IL-1 alpha but not the TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 generation by HT-29 cells. In contrast, IL-10 had no effect on either IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 production. 6. Experiments using cycloheximide demonstrated that this synergistic effect of IL-13 and IL-1 alpha on IL-8 secretion was not through de novo protein synthesis. Using actinomycin-D, we demonstrated that the IL-13 up-regulation was at the level of transcription rather than messenger RNA stability. 7. These findings suggest that colonic epithelial cells have a functional IL-13 receptor, which is coupled to an up-regulation of IL-1 alpha, but not TNF-alpha induced IL-8 generation. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8886420

  5. Glomerular lesions induced in the rabbit by physicochemically altered homologous IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalot, F.; Miyata, M.; Vladutiu, A.; Terranova, V.; Dubiski, S.; Burlingame, R.; Tan, E.; Brentjens, J.; Milgrom, F.; Andres, G.

    1992-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous or even autologous IgG induces formation of antibodies combining with IgG of rabbit and of foreign species. Cardiac but not renal lesions were reported in such animals. This study examined the nephritogenic potential of the immune response to cationized or heat-aggregated homologous IgG of b9 or b4 allotype in rabbits of the b4 allotype. Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 cationized IgG produced antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and with histones; they also developed abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 corresponding to alterations of the glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 aggregated IgG developed antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 in the GBM and in the mesangium with subendothelial and mesangial electron-dense deposits. Some rabbits in both groups had proliferative and exudative glomerulonephritis and proteinuria. The results showed that immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous IgG induces an immune response to rabbit and human IgG and to histones as well as glomerular deposits of autologous IgG and C3 and other glomerular lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 PMID:1546743

  6. Immunocytochemical patterns of islet cell tumors as defined by the monoclonal antibody HISL-19.

    PubMed Central

    Bordi, C.; Krisch, K.; Horvat, G.; Srikanta, S.

    1988-01-01

    A series of 51 islet cell tumors removed from 28 patients was investigated immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibody HISL-19. The antibody was produced after immunization of BALB/c mice with human islet cells and was found to react with a wide range of neuroendocrine and neural cells. All tumors presented positive immunoreaction showing various combinations of 2 basic patterns. The first pattern reflected the immunostaining of the secretory granules of the tumor cells. This "granular" staining was predominantly associated with benign neoplasms and with the tumoral production of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), while it was absent or inconsistent in most insulin-secreting tumors. The second pattern consisted of focal immunoreactive aggregates located in a peri- (and, in polarized cells, supra-) nuclear position. This "cluster-type" staining showed a good morphologic and topographic correspondence with the Golgi apparatus of the cells of the same tumors, as shown by electron microscopy. The latter pattern was well represented in all types of islet cell tumors except those producing PP. Moreover, it was more apparent in less differentiated tumors in which the granular pattern was often absent or inconsistent. Cluster-type (but not granular) immunoreactivity was frequently found in some nonendocrine, nontumoral pancreatic structures, particularly in the epithelium of small ducts. However, the immunoreactive aggregates of nonendocrine cells were distinctly less prominent than those of endocrine cells. On the basis of a comparison with other immunohistochemical markers for neuroendocrine cells, it is concluded that the HISL-19 monoclonal antibody presents specific staining characteristics useful for the cytologic analysis of islet cell tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2840831

  7. Immediate breast reconstruction-impact on radiation management.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Ravi A.; Nibhanupudy, J. Rao; Sridhar, Rajagopalan; Ashton, Cori; Goldson, Alfred L.

    2003-01-01

    Breast reconstruction is an option for women undergoing modified radical mastectomy due to a diagnosis of breast cancer. In certain patients, breast reconstruction is performed by insertion of a temporary tissue expander prior to the placement of permanent breast implants. Some of these patients, following mastectomy, may require chest wall irradiation to prevent loco regional relapse. The compatibility of radiation and tissue expanders placed in the chest wall is of major concern to the radiation oncologist. Clinically undetectable changes can occur in the tissue expander during the course of radiation therapy. This can lead to radiation treatment set-up changes, variation in tissue expansion resulting in unwanted cosmesis, and deviation from the prescribed radiation dose leading to over and/or under dosing of tumor burden. At Howard University hospital, a CT scan was utilized to evaluate the status of the temporary tissue expander during radiation treatment to enable us to prevent radiation treatment related complications resulting from dosimetric discrepancies. CT images of the tissue expander were obtained through the course of treatment. To avoid a 'geographic miss' the amount of fluid injected into the tissue expander was kept constant following patient's satisfaction with the size of the breast mound. The CT scans allowed better visualization of the prosthesis and its relation to the surrounding tumor bed. This technique ensured that anatomical changes occurring during radiation treatment, if any, were minimized. Repeated dosimetry evaluations showed no changes to the prescribed dose distribution. A CT of the reconstructed breast provides an important quality control. Further studies with greater number of patients are required for confirming this impact on radiation treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:12749619

  8. RelB regulation of chemokine expression modulates local inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Y.; Pauza, M. E.; Feng, L.; Lo, D.

    1997-01-01

    The resolution of acute inflammation is incompletely understood but presumably requires the elimination of both inflammatory cells and production of inflammatory cytokines. In the case of recruited bone-marrow-derived inflammatory cells such as granulocytes and macrophages, their short life span helps eliminate these cells and the cytokines they produce. By contrast, resident permanent cells such as fibroblasts require other mechanisms to stop the production of chemokines generated in response to inflammatory triggers such as lipopolysaccharide. Here we demonstrate that RelB is an important regulator of chemokine expression in fibroblasts, thereby playing a key role in the resolution of acute inflammation. Activation of normal fibroblasts by lipopolysaccharide induced a transient production of chemokines, closely followed by induction of RelB expression. However, stimulated RelB-/- fibroblasts exhibited dramatic persistent induction of seven chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, MIP-2, IP-10, JE/MCP-1, and KC/CINC). The persistent overexpression of chemokines correlated with increased NF- kappa B binding as well as with increased p50, p65/RelA, and I kappa B alpha expression. Transfection of RelB cDNA into RelB-deficient fibroblasts reversed the lipopolysaccharide-induced chemokine overexpression. In vivo, activated RelB-/- fibroblasts dramatically increased recruitment of granulocytes into tissues. In view of the apparent role of RelB in the resolution of acute inflammation in tissues and previous work showing a requirement for RelB in the initiation of immune responses through the differentiation of antigen-presenting cells, RelB may be an important factor regulating the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9250151

  9. Skeletal Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, I. Ross

    1979-01-01

    Skeletal scintigraphy, using phosphates or diphosphonates labeled with technetium 99m, is a sensitive method of detecting bone abnormalities. The most important and most frequent role of bone scanning is evaluating the skeletal areas in patients who have a primary cancer, especially a malignant condition that has a tendency to spread to bone areas. The bone scan is superior to bone radiographs in diagnosing these abnormalities; 15 percent to 25 percent of patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer, who have normal roentgenograms, also have abnormal scintigrams due to metastases. The majority of bone metastases appear as hot spots on the scan and are easily recognized. The incidence of abnormal bone scans in patients with early stages (I and II) of breast cancer varies from 6 percent to 26 percent, but almost invariably those patients with scan abnormalities have a poor prognosis and should be considered for additional therapies. Progression or regression of bony lesions can be defined through scanning, and abnormal areas can be identified for biopsy. The incidence of metastases in solitary scan lesions in patients with known primary tumors varies from 20 percent to 64 percent. Bone scintigraphy shows positive uptake in 95 percent of cases with acute osteomyelitis. Stress fractures and trauma suspected in battered babies can be diagnosed by scanning before there is radiological evidence. The procedure is free from acute or long-term side effects and, except in cases of very young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Although the test is sensitive, it is not specific and therefore it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and scanning correlation in each patient. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:390886

  10. In vivo expression of monokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimentally induced pulmonary granulomatous inflammation. Evidence for sequential production of interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, M.; Dimov, V. B.; Yoshida, T.

    1995-01-01

    The present study examined the temporal pattern and localization of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in lung tissue undergoing foreign body granuloma formation. Pulmonary granulomas were induced by the intratracheal injection of dextran beads into genetically high granuloma responder, carrying Bcgs (BALB/c), and low responder, carrying Bcgr (C3H/HeJ and DBA/2), mice. There was a pattern of sequential expression of these molecules in BALB/c mice. Thus, interleukin-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase were induced mostly in the cells accumulated around the beads and also in some bronchiolar epithelial cells during the early phase (1 to 3 days), whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha was induced in the cells around the beads at the later resolution phase (3 to 7 days). By contrast, in low responder mice, an increase in the expression of interleukin-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase was detected in lung macrophages as well as in alveolar cells and bronchiolar epithelial cells on day 1, but that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was not detected throughout the period. These results together with our previous findings on cytokine activity in granuloma extract suggest that interleukin-1 and nitric oxide produced by recruited macrophages may take part in the early, macrophage-dependent phase of granuloma formation whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be more crucial as a mediator responsible for the difference in innate resistance or susceptibility to granuloma formation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7573346

  11. Long-term effects of bone marrow transplantation in dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    PubMed Central

    Breider, M. A.; Shull, R. M.; Constantopoulos, G.

    1989-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in a canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) were investigated. Long-term post-BMT pathologic and biochemical studies were performed on three groups of dogs: 1) MPS I-affected dogs that did not receive BMT, 2) MPS I-affected dogs that received total body irradiation followed by an allogeneic BMT, and 3) normal, unaffected dogs that served as BMT donors. All dogs were necropsied at approximately 20 months after BMT. The severity of MPS I-related lesions in the dogs receiving BMT was greatly diminished. These dogs had only slight cardiac valvular thickening, no meningeal thickening, no renal tubular epithelial vacuolation, decreased neuronal vacuolation, decreased corneal stromal vacuolation, and greatly diminished arterial medial thickening. The severity and incidence of degenerative arthropathy also were decreased in BMT dogs, however, vertebral lesions were similar to nontransplanted, affected dogs. Chondrocytes of both MPS I-BMT and MPS I-no BMT groups had similar marked cytoplasmic vacuolation, except for MPS I-BMT chondrocytes near the articular surface, which had more normal morphology. Ultrastructurally, the liver and kidney tissue in BMT recipients had no appreciable lysosomal accumulation of GAGs. These morphologic findings were supported by near normal levels and electrophoretic patterns of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in most tissues of BMT recipient dogs. This study demonstrates that BMT is capable of substantially diminishing the severity of MPS I-related lesions in this canine model. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2493739

  12. Islet amyloid polypeptide in proliferating pancreatic B cells during development, hyperplasia, and neoplasia in humans and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rindi, G.; Terenghi, G.; Westermark, G.; Westermark, P.; Moscoso, G.; Polak, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The occurrence of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) immunoreactivity was investigated in fetal pancreas, islet cell hyperplasia, and tumors in humans and mice. Transgenic mice heritably developing endocrine tumors of the pancreas (AVP/SV40, Rip 1 Tag2/Rip2PyST1 and Glu2-Tag strains) were used as murine models of islet cells proliferative disease. In the mouse, IAPP immunoreactivity was found in B cells at embryonic day 12 (E12), paralleling the onset of insulin immunoreactivity. In hyperplastic/dysplastic islets and in B-cell tumors of transgenic mice (n = 16), IAPP immunoreactivity was localized consistently to insulin-immunoreactive cells. Ultrastructural single- and double-immunogold labeling of transgenic mice B-cell tumors (n = 3) showed insulin and IAPP to be colocalized in beta granules. In human fetuses, IAPP immunoreactivity was found in insulin-immunoreactive B cells, but at a later gestational age than the onset of insulin immunoreactivity. In pancreatic specimens of infantile/neonatal persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (11 cases) and in pancreatic endocrine tumors (21 cases, 10 of which were functioning insulinomas), IAPP immunoreactivity was found consistently in insulin-immunoreactive B cells. Congo-red-positive amyloid deposits present in tumors also were IAPP immunoreactive. Ultrastructural single and double immunogold labeling of infantile/neonatal persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia cases (n = 3) and functioning insulinomas (n = 2) showed IAPP and insulin to be colocalized in beta granules. In addition, IAPP immunoreactivity was observed in amyloidlike fibrils. These findings indicate that IAPP is a constitutive component of B cells. Possible relationships between IAPP and insulin expression and interspecies differences are suggested and discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1647136

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Persidsky, Y.; Limoges, J.; McComb, R.; Bock, P.; Baldwin, T.; Tyor, W.; Patil, A.; Nottet, H. S.; Epstein, L.; Gelbard, H.; Flanagan, E.; Reinhard, J.; Pirruccello, S. J.; Gendelman, H. E.

    1996-01-01

    -infected subjects with cognitive and motor dysfunction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:8780406

  14. The morphologic characteristics of intercellular junctions between normal human liver cells and cells from patients with extrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed Central

    Robenek, H.; Herwig, J.; Themann, H.

    1980-01-01

    Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7395970

  15. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in normal human liver and during active hepatic fibrogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Pinzani, M.; Milani, S.; Herbst, H.; DeFranco, R.; Grappone, C.; Gentilini, A.; Caligiuri, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Ngo, D. V.; Romanelli, R. G.; Gentilini, P.

    1996-01-01

    Expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor (R) subunits was evaluated in normal human liver and in cirrhotic liver tissue by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In normal liver, PDGF and PDGF-R subunit expression was limited to a few mesenchymal cells of the portal tract stroma and vessels. In cirrhotic liver, PDGF-A and -B chain mRNA expression was markedly increased and was co-distributed with immunoreactivity for PDGF-AA and -BB in infiltrating inflammatory cells and along vascular structures within fibrous septa. These aspects were paralleled by a marked overexpression of PDGF-R alpha- and beta-subunit mRNAs and of the relative immunoreactivities in a wide range of mesenchymal cells in fibrous septa and in perisinusoidal alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-positive cells. In general expression and distribution of PDGF-R subunits appeared to be related to the activation of different mesenchymal cell types involved in the fibroproliferative process. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of PDGF-R subunits in liver tissue specimens with increasing degrees of necroinflammatory activity. The results of this additional study confirmed that expression of PDGF-R subunits is highly correlated with the severity of histological lesions and collagen deposition. Our results, providing evidence for a functional involvement of PDGF/PDGF-R in liver fibrogenesis, greatly support the results of previous in vitro studies and direct attention toward pharmacological strategies able to affect the series of signaling events arising from the autophosphorylation of PDGF-R subunits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8774134

  16. Expression of precursor and mature carnitine palmitoyltransferase II in Escherichia coli and in vitro: differential behaviour of rat and human isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, N F; Sen, A; Soltis, D A; Jones, B; Foster, D W; McGarry, J D

    1993-01-01

    cDNAs corresponding to the precursor and mature forms of rat carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) were found to be readily expressed in Escherichia coli. In both cases, catalytically active immunoreactive protein was produced and became largely membrane-associated. The precursor form of the enzyme was not proteolytically processed. Removal of 126 bp from the 5' end of the cDNA coding region allowed expression of a truncated CPT II (lacking the N-terminal 17 residues of the mature protein), but this product was inactive. cDNAs encoding the precursor and mature forms of human CPT II resisted direct expression in E. coli. However, the impediment was overcome when the latter cDNA was ligated in-frame 3' to sequence encoding a glutathione S-transferase. This construct yielded abundant quantities of the corresponding fusion protein, a portion of which was soluble and catalytically active. In vitro transcription and translation of the various cDNAs established that the lower mobility on SDS/PAGE of rat CPT II compared with its human counterpart (despite their identical numbers of amino acids) is an intrinsic property of the primary sequences of the proteins themselves. Also, the human cDNA was found to contain an artifactual termination signal for T3 RNA polymerase that could be bypassed by the T7 polymerase. Thus rat CPT II can be expressed in active form in E. coli with characteristics similar to those of the enzyme in mitochondria, opening the way to future location of active sites within the molecule. An alternative expression system will be needed for similar studies on human CPT II. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8363589

  17. Assaying estrogenicity by quantitating the expression levels of endogenous estrogen-regulated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, M; Vendelbo, B; Skakkebaek, N E; Leffers, H

    2000-01-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that humans and wildlife species may experience adverse health consequences from exposure to environmental chemicals that interact with the endocrine system. Reliable short-term assays are needed to identify hormone-disrupting chemicals. In this study we demonstrate that the estrogenic activity of a chemical can be evaluated by assaying induction or repression of endogenous estrogen-regulated "marker genes" in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. We included four marker genes in the assay--pS2, transforming growth factor beta3 (TGFbeta3), monoamine oxidase A, and [alpha]1-antichymotrypsin--and we evaluated estrogenic activity for 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), diethylstilbestrol, [alpha]-zearalanol, nonylphenol, genistein, methoxychlor, endosulphan, o,p-DDE, bisphenol A, dibutylphthalate, 4-hydroxy tamoxifen, and ICI 182.780. All four marker genes responded strongly to the three high-potency estrogens (E(2), diethylstilbestrol, and [alpha]-zearalanol), whereas the potency of the other chemicals was 10(3)- to 10(6)-fold lower than that of E(2). There were some marker gene-dependent differences in the relative potencies of the tested chemicals. TGFbeta3 was equally sensitive to the three high-potency estrogens, whereas the sensitivity to [alpha]-zearalanol was approximately 10-fold lower than the sensitivity to E(2) and diethylstilbestrol when assayed with the other three marker genes. The potency of nonylphenol was equal to that of genistein when assayed with pS2 and TGFbeta3, but 10- to 100-fold higher/lower with monoamine oxidase A and [alpha]1-antichymotrypsin, respectively. The results are in agreement with results obtained by other methods and suggest that an assay based on endogenous gene expression may offer an attractive alternative to other E-SCREEN methods. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10811566

  18. 8-Chloro-cAMP induces apoptotic cell death in a human mammary carcinoma cell (MCF-7) line.

    PubMed Central

    Bøe, R.; Gjertsen, B. T.; Døskeland, S. O.; Vintermyr, O. K.

    1995-01-01

    8-Cl-cAMP and 8-NH2-cAMP induced MCF-7 cell death. The type(s) of cell death were studied in more detail and compared with the cell death type (apoptosis) induced by okadaic acid, an inhibitor of serine/threonine phosphatases. By morphological criteria dying cells showed loss of cell-cell interactions and microvilli, condensation of nuclear chromatin and segregation of cytoplasmic organelles. By in situ nick end-labelling, using digoxigenin-conjugated dUTP as probe, a large fraction of 8-Cl-cAMP, 8-NH2-cAMP and 8-Cl-adenosine-exposed cells stained positively in the advanced stages of death. In the early phase of chromatin condensation the cells stained negatively. Specific (internucleosomal) DNA fragmentation was not observed. The MCF-7 cell death induced by 8-Cl-cAMP and 8-NH2-cAMP was not mediated by activation of the cAMP kinase since more stable cAMP analogues (8-CPT-cAMP and N6-benzoyl-cAMP) or forskolin failed to induce death. Furthermore, 8-Cl-cAMP action was counteracted by adenosine deaminase and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and mimicked by 8-Cl-adenosine, a major metabolite of 8-Cl-cAMP. It is concluded that 8-Cl- and 8-NH2-cAMP can induce morphological and biochemical effects resembling apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells through their conversion into potent cytotoxic metabolite(s). Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7577461

  19. Pathology of aging female SENCAR mice used as controls in skin two-stage carcinogenesis studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J M; Quander, R; Devor, D; Wenk, M L; Spangler, E F

    1986-01-01

    The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the majority of mice and was associated with thymic hyperplasia, focal vasculitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Necropsy of 58 mice surviving past 50 weeks of age revealed that 41 had an average of 1.36 tumors per mouse. The most common tumors included histiocytic sarcoma (13 mice), pulmonary adenoma or adenocarcinoma (11 mice), mammary tumors (11 mice), follicular center cell lymphoma (4 mice), and hepatocellular adenoma (4 mice). The 13 histiocytic sarcomas appeared to arise in the uterus and metastasized to liver (9 mice), lung (4 mice), kidney (3 mice), and other tissues. Lung tumors were of the solid and papillary types, and tumor cells frequently contained surfactant apoprotein (SAP) but did not contain Clara cell antigens, suggesting their origin from alveolar Type II cells. A variety of nonneoplastic lesions, similar to those observed in other mouse strains, were seen in other tissues of these mice. Amyloid-like material was seen only in nasal turbinates and thyroid gland. In a group of 28 mice exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 88 weeks, as a control for other treatment groups, 7 (25%) had papillomas and 5 (17.8%) had squamous cell carcinomas of the skin at necropsy, although many other induced papillomas regressed during the study. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. PMID:3780636

  20. Expression of the human nephron differentiation molecules in renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Droz, D.; Zachar, D.; Charbit, L.; Gogusev, J.; Chrétein, Y.; Iris, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors tested frozen sections from 28 renal cell carcinomas (RCC)--21 clear, 1 eosinophilic, 4 basophilic, and 2 spindle-shaped cell type--with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) reacting against cytokeratin, vimentin, CD24, CALLA/CD10, villin, CD26, and HLA class I and class II molecules. These molecules are markers of specific segments of the mature kidney, and their loss or acquisition reflects the different steps of human nephrogenesis. KI67 MAb was used to evaluate cell-proliferating activity. All RCC cases expressed cytokeratin. Coexpression of vimentin was observed in 21 of 28 cases. Whether of clear or chromophilic type, all tumoral cells strongly expressed CD24 molecule, present on primitive blastema cells. All clear-type RCCs expressed CALLA/CD10 and 60% were also villin positive; some were faintly positive for CD26. CALLA, villin, and CD26 were not detected in basophilic cell type. HLA class I molecules were variably expressed in almost all cases, but HLA class II were never detected on tumoral cells. Except for the spindle-shaped population, cell-proliferating activity was low. These results favor the hypothesis that RCCs derive from cells that have 'recovered' the different options of metanephric differentiation. Clear cells show evidence of maturation toward proximal type, while basophilic cells do not. It would be of interest to evaluate the usefulness of serum measurements of villin and/or CALLA as markers in clear cell-type RCC. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1699423

  1. Immature sinus histiocytosis. Light- and electron-microscopic features, immunologic phenotype, and relationship with marginal zone lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140

  2. Inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth in the brain. Suppression of endothelial cell turnover by penicillamine and the depletion of copper, an angiogenic cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Brem, S. S.; Zagzag, D.; Tsanaclis, A. M.; Gately, S.; Elkouby, M. P.; Brien, S. E.

    1990-01-01

    Microvascular proliferation, a hallmark of malignant brain tumors, represents an attractive target of anticancer research, especially because of the quiescent nonproliferative endothelium of the normal brain. Cerebral neoplasms sequester copper, a trace metal that modulates angiogenesis. Using a rabbit brain tumor model, normocupremic animals developed large vascularized VX2 carcinomas. By contrast, small, circumscribed, relatively avascular tumors were found in the brains of rabbits copper-depleted by diet and penicillamine treatment (CDPT). The CDPT rabbits showed a significant decrease in serum copper, copper staining of tumor cell nuclei, microvascular density, the tumor volume, endothelial cell turnover, and an increase in the vascular permeability (breakdown of the blood-brain barrier), as well as peritumoral brain edema. In non-tumor-bearing animals, CDPT did not alter the vascular permeability or the brain water content. CDPT also inhibited the intracerebral growth of the 9L gliosarcoma in F-344 rats, with a similar increase of the peritumoral vascular permeability and the brain water content. CDPT failed to inhibit tumor growth and the vascularization of the VX2 carcinoma in the thigh muscle or the metastases to the lung, findings that may reflect regional differences in the responsiveness of the endothelium, the distribution of copper, or the activity of cuproenzymes. Metabolic and pharmacologic withdrawal of copper suppresses intracerebral tumor angiogenesis; angiosuppression is a novel biologic response modifier for the in situ control of tumor growth in the brain. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1700617

  3. Epstein-Barr virus and the lacrimal gland pathology of Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pflugfelder, S. C.; Crouse, C. A.; Monroy, D.; Yen, M.; Rowe, M.; Atherton, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    The lacrimal gland (LG) immunopathology of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) consists of a proliferation of B and CD4 lymphocytes surrounding epithelial structures (Pepose JS, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:1599-1605). Based on the detection of EBV genomes in a greater percentage of SS than normal LG biopsies, we previously postulated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a risk factor for LG lymphoproliferation in SS (Pflugfelder SC, et al: Ophthalmology 1990, 97:976-984). The purpose of this study was to determine the cellular site(s) of infection, virus type, and antigen expression of EBV infecting normal and SS LGs. EBV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in intraductal epithelia in 13-33% of lobules in 21% of normal LGs and in cells in areas of B lymphoproliferation as well as the majority of epithelia in 86% of SS LGs. EBV genomic sequences were amplified from 36% of normal and 88% of SS LG biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. Only type 1 EBV sequences were amplified in SS LGs; in contrast EBV nuclear antigen 2-deleted but not type 1 sequences were amplified in normal LGs. Immunohistochemistry with EBV-specific monoclonal antibodies was performed on normal and SS LGs. No EBV antigens were detected in normal LGs. In contrast, latent antigens (latent membrane protein, EBV nuclear antigen 2) were detected in lymphocytes in areas of B lymphoproliferation, and early and late lytic cycle antigens were observed in epithelia in SS LGs. These studies suggest that EBV may play a role in the LG B lymphoproliferation and epithelial pathologic changes observed in SS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8391219

  4. Impaired microtubule function correctable by cyclic GMP and cholinergic agonists in the Chediak-Higashi syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    cholinergic agonists. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:187062

  5. Survey of the Distribution of a Newly Characterized Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Jerold; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Yan, Shi Du; Zou, Yu Shan; Weidman, Elliott; Pinsky, David; Nowygrod, Roman; Neeper, Michael; Przysiecki, Craig; Shaw, Alan; Migheli, Antonio; Stern, David

    1993-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), the final products of nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, are found in the plasma and accumulate in the tissues during aging and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. A novel integral membrane protein, termed receptor for AGE (RAGE), forms a central part of the cell surface binding site for AGEs. Using monospecific, polyclonal antibody raised to human recombinant and bovine RAGE, immunostaining of bovine tissues showed RAGE in the vasculature, endothelium, and smooth muscle cells and in mononuclear cells in the tissues. Consistent with these data, RAGE antigen and mRNA were identified in cultured bovine endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, and monocyte-derived macrophages. RAGE antigen was also visualized in bovine cardiac myocytes as well as in cultures of neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and in neural tissue where motor neurons, peripheral nerves, and a population of cortical neurons were positive. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of RAGE mRNA in the tissues, and studies with rat PC12 pheochromocytes indicated that they provide a neuronal-related cell culture model for examining RAGE expression. Pathological studies of human atherosclerotic plaques showed infiltration of RAGE-expressing cells in the expanded intima. These results indicate that RAGE is present in multiple tissues and suggest the potential relevance of AGE-RAGE interactions for modulating properties of the vasculature as well as neural and cardiac function, prominent areas of involvement in diabetes and in the normal aging process. ImagesFigure 9Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 10 PMID:8256857

  6. Intraluminal fibrosis in interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    involved. Under these circumstances, intraluminal organization can mediate the fusion of adjacent alveolar structures by intraluminal connective tissue. Images Figure 15 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 18 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3953768

  7. Immunopathology of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Reed, S. G.; Roters, S. B.; Sadigursky, M.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant A/J mice were infected subcutaneously in the right hind footpad with promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. A large localized lesion developed within 2 months after infection in the BALB/c mice, while A/J mice exhibited a small discrete fibrotic nodule. Sequential immunologic and histologic examination demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed a nodular foam-cell type of lesion and progressive depression of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to leishmania antigen, while the A/J mice had a mixed cellular fibrosing and encapsulating reaction and developed and maintained positive DTH responses to leishmania antigen. Anti-leishmania antibody responses were positive at similar levels in both strains. The lesions in BALB/c mice were found in bone marrow, tendon, skin appendages, and regional lymph nodes, with a tendency toward cutaneous metastases. Lesions in A/J mice remained localized. Fibrosis, focal fibrinoid necrosis, and lymphocytic and macrophagic infiltration were the outstanding features. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies indicated that no outstanding destruction of leishmanias seemed to occur within macrophages of either mouse strain. In the more resistant A/J mice, however, parasitized macrophages were frequently necrotic, and degenerating leishmanias were often seen free in the interstitial tissue. These observations help the interpretation of the histologic features, as well as the pathogenesis, of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in man. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6691411

  8. A sensitive zonagenetic assay for rapid in vitro assessment of estrogenic potency of xenobiotics and mycotoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Celius, T; Haugen, T B; Grotmol, T; Walther, B T

    1999-01-01

    Mounting evidence confirms that hepatic biosynthetic processes are essential for female sexual maturation in fish, which is directly controlled by estrogens. These oogenetic events (zonagenesis and vitellogenesis) are induced in both sexes by estrogens. In this paper, we report the induction of zona radiata (zr) proteins and vitellogenin in primary hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) exposed to xenoestrogens and mycotoxins. Cells were treated with doses of 1, 5, and 10 microM 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), o, p'-DDT, lindane ([gamma]-HCH), and bisphenol A (BPA), which all induced zr proteins and vitellogenin in an approximate dose-dependent manner. Hepatocytes were also treated with combinations of xenoestrogens at 1 or 2 microM, resulting in elevated levels of both zr proteins and vitellogenin, compared to single treatment. The estrogenic activity of the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) and its metabolites [alpha]-ZEA) and ss-zearalenol (ss-ZEA)], with regard to zonagenesis and vitellogenesis, was assessed in this assay system. Mycotoxins were used at concentrations of 10, 100, or 1,000 nM. All induced zr proteins and vitellogenin, with [alpha]-ZEA being the strongest inducer. When cells were treated with xenoestrogens or mycotoxins in combination with an estrogen receptor inhibitor (ICI 182,780), the induction of both zr proteins and vitellogenin was inhibited in all cases. Thus, the reported estrogen effects are bonafide estrogen responses. Zona radiata proteins were more responsive than vitellogenin to both xenoestrogens and mycotoxins. The versatility and sensitivity of the hepatocyte assay demonstrates that biosynthesis of zr proteins provides a new supplementary method for estimating xenoestrogenicity and mycotoxin action. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9872718

  9. Serial nonenhancing magnetic resonance imaging scans of high grade glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Stovall, J.; Venkatesh, R.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from clinical experience has proven to be superior to all other diagnostic imaging modalities, including computed tomography (CT) in the detection of intracranial neoplasms. Although glioblastoma multiforme presents a challenge for all diagnostic imaging modalities including MRI, MRI is paramount to CT in detecting subtle abnormal water accumulation in brain tissue caused by tumor even before there is disruption of the blood brain barrier. Currently, clinical research and investigational trials on nonionic gadolinium contrast agents have proven that nonionic gadolinium HP-DO3A (ProHance) contrast agents have lower osmolality and greater stability, which make them superior compounds to gadolinium diethylenetriamine-pentacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Therefore, the nonionic gadolinium contrasts have been safely administered more rapidly, in higher or multiple doses for contrast enhanced MRI without adverse side effects or changes in serum iron or total bilirubin, and the intensity of the area of enhancement and number of lesions detected were superior to that of Gd-DTPA (Magnevist) at the standard dose (0.1 mmol/Kg). Perhaps if the nonionic gadolinium contrast agent, ProHance, had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) when this MRI was performed in 1990 it would have aided in providing contrast enhancement and visualization of the tumor lesion to assist in patient diagnosis and management. Magnetic resonance imaging also provides unique multiplanar capabilities that allow for optimal visualization of the temporal and occipital lobes of the brain without bone interference.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9A Figure 9B Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:8382751

  10. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the orbit: a clinicopathologic study of eight cases.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A; Font, R L; Zimmerman, L E

    1985-01-01

    Eight adult patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the orbit are described. Only two of the patients were known to have von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. The typical clinical history included the development of a mass in the superonasal quadrant of the orbit, which was palpable immediately beneath the skin of the lid. There was a definite tendency for the lesions to arise in, or grow along, the supraorbital nerve--including posteriorly through the superior orbital fissure to the Gasserian ganglion, and even as far posteriorly along the trigeminal rootlets to the pons. Delays in pathologic diagnosis, which beclouded the true nature of the process, led to multiple recurrences, eventuating in five known fatalities out of the eight patients. In addition to intracranial extension, pulmonary metastases and regional cervical metastases were encountered. Once recognized for their diagnostic value, the histopathologic patterns are highly distinctive: biphasic populations of spindled and epithelioid cells; sheets of epithelioid cells or clusters demarcated by delicate reticulin fibers or thicker collagenous trabeculae; malignant plexiform patterns; and neurotubular patterns. Pure spindle cell populations were encountered only in the two patients with von Recklinghausen's disease, and in each, either a pre-existent benign neurofibroma or a coexistent plexiform neurofibroma was found in the pathology specimens. The best management of this condition depends upon early clinical and pathological recognition, leading to radical surgery, which usually consists of orbital exenteration combined with intracranial extirpation of as much of the trigeminal nerve as possible. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy after radical surgery might also be advisable. Images FIGURE 16 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:3938581

  11. Smooth muscle and skeletal muscle myosins produce similar unitary forces and displacements in the laser trap.

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, W H; Dupuis, D E; Kennedy, G; Wu, J; Patlak, J B; Warshaw, D M

    1997-01-01

    Purified smooth muscle myosin in the in vitro motility assay propels actin filaments at 1/10 the velocity, yet produces 3-4 times more force than skeletal muscle myosin. At the level of a single myosin molecule, these differences in force and actin filament velocity may be reflected in the size and duration of single motion and force-generating events, or in the kinetics of the cross-bridge cycle. Specifically, an increase in either unitary force or duty cycle may explain the enhanced force-generating capacity of smooth muscle myosin. Similarly, an increase in attached time or decrease in unitary displacement may explain the reduced actin filament velocity of smooth muscle myosin. To discriminate between these possibilities, we used a laser trap to measure unitary forces and displacements from single smooth and skeletal muscle myosin molecules. We analyzed our data using mean-variance analysis, which does not rely on scoring individual events by eye, and emphasizes periods in the data with constant properties. Both myosins demonstrated multiple but similar event populations with discrete peaks at approximately +11 and -11 nm in displacement, and 1.5 and 3.5 pN in force. Mean attached times for smooth muscle myosin were longer than for skeletal-muscle myosin. These results explain much of the difference in actin filament velocity between these myosins, and suggest that an increased duty cycle is responsible for the enhanced force-generating capacity of smooth over skeletal-muscle myosin. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9138552

  12. Role of retinal vascular endothelial cells in development of CMV retinitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, N A; Zhang, J; Ishimoto, S

    1998-01-01

    retinal pigment epithelium. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:10360285

  13. Examination of the thoracic cavity and lung lobectomy by means of thoracoscopy in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    García, F; Prandi, D; Peña, T; Franch, J; Trasserra, O; de la Fuente, J

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of thoracoscopy for viewing the chest cavity and performing pulmonary lobectomy was assessed in 8 mongrel dogs. Previously, selective intubation had been performed in another group of dogs (n = 8) in order to monitor respiratory physiology and assess its safety. Each hemithorax was intubated using a double-barrelled endotracheal tube with one barrel placed in the left main bronchus and the other in the bifurcation of the trachea. The thoracoscope was introduced through a cannula inserted through a 2-cm incision at the ventral third of the left 5th intercostal space. The cranial, dorsal, and caudal surfaces of the pleura, lobes of the left lung, and the mediastinum were examined. A 2nd cannula was located in the dorsal 3rd of the 5th intercostal space with a prior incision and used for the introduction of forceps to separate the viscera. To biopsy, a 3rd cannula was inserted at the dorsal third of the 8th intercostal space with a prior incision, through which a 12-mm diameter stapler was introduced. Should a lobectomy be necessary, a 4th cannula is located in the middle third of the 4th intercostal space. Excision of the left caudal pulmonary lobe was performed through the incision made for the 12-mm diameter cannula (8th intercostal space); a twisting movement facilitated removal. Thoracoscopy is a procedure that can be used in dogs and is particularly suitable for examination, collection of biopsy specimens, and even lung lobectomies. Images Figure 2.1. Figure 2.2. Figure 2.3. Figure 2.4. Figure 2.5. Figure 2.6. Figure 2.7. Figure 2.8. PMID:9592615

  14. Characterization of α-Amylase-Inhibitor, a Lectin-Like Protein in the Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Joaquin; Altabella, Teresa; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1990-01-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, contains a glycoprotein that inhibits the activity of mammalian and insect α-amylases, but not of plant α-amylases. It is therefore classified as an antifeedant or seed defense protein. In P. vulgaris cv Greensleeves, α-amylase inhibitor (αAl) is present in embryonic axes and cotyledons, but not in other organs of the plant. The protein is synthesized during the same time period that phaseolin and phytohemagglutinin are made and also accumulates in the protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Purified αAl can be resolved by SDS-PAGE into five bands (Mr 15,000-19,000), four of which have covalently attached glycans. These bands represent glycoforms of two different polypeptides. All the glycoforms have complex glycans that are resistant to removal by endoglycosidase H, indicating transport of the protein through the Golgi apparatus. The two different polypeptides correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal halves of a lectin-like protein encoded by an already identified gene or a gene closely related to it (LM Hoffman [1984] J Mol Appl Genet 2: 447-453; J Moreno, MJ Chrispeels [1989] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:7885-7889). The primary translation product of αAl is a polypeptide of Mr 28,000. Immunologically cross-reacting glycopolypeptides of Mr 30,000 to 35,000 are present in the endoplasmic reticulum, while the smaller polypeptides (Mr 15,000-19,000) accumulate in protein storage vacuoles (protein bodies). Together these data indicate that αAl is a typical bean lectin-type protein that is synthesized on the rough endoplasmlc reticulum, modified in the Golgi, and transported to the protein storage vacuoles. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:16667338

  15. Effects of interferon-gamma on primary cultures of human brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, H. K.; Dorovini-Zis, K.

    1993-01-01

    Primary cultures of human brain microvessel endothelial cells were used to study the effects of human recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on cerebral endothelium in vitro. Incubation of monolayers with various concentrations of IFN-gamma (10 to 200 U/ml) for 12 to 96 hours induced surface expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (Ia) antigen in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In immunogold-stained cultures, labeling was observed as early as 12 hours, was maximal after 48 hours, and persisted at plateau levels in the continuous presence of the cytokine. Expression was blocked by coincubation with anti-IFN-gamma antibody and was reversed 4 days following removal of IFN-gamma from the culture media. Endothelial cells treated with IFN-gamma for 3 to 4 days became spindle-shaped, extensively overlapped, and frequently formed cellular whorls. These changes did not occur in the presence of anti-IFN-gamma antibody and reversed upon removal of IFN-gamma from the media. The morphological alterations were associated with increased permeability of confluent monolayers to macromolecules as compared with untreated cultures. The results of these studies indicate that human brain microvessel endothelial cells respond to in vitro cytokine stimulation by undergoing profound morphological, functional, and permeability changes. We conclude that cerebral endothelium may play an important role in the initiation and regulation of lymphocyte traffic across the blood-brain barrier in inflammatory disorders of the human central nervous system. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:8475997

  16. Molecular and genetic ecotoxicologic approaches to aquatic environmental bioreporting.

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, B J; Black, W C; Carlson, J O; Clements, W H; DuTeau, N; Harrahy, E; Nuckols, J; Kenneth, E; Olson, K E; Rayms-Keller, A

    1998-01-01

    geophysical information. Integrated spatial, structural, and temporal analyses of these parameters will provide invaluable information concerning environmental determinants that restrict or promote gene flow in bioreporter populations. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9860898

  17. Estrogenic activity assessment of environmental chemicals using in vitro assays: identification of two new estrogenic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Lascombe, I; Beffa, D; Rüegg, U; Tarradellas, J; Wahli, W

    2000-01-01

    Environmental chemicals with estrogenic activities have been suggested to be associated with deleterious effects in animals and humans. To characterize estrogenic chemicals and their mechanisms of action, we established in vitro and cell culture assays that detect human estrogen receptor [alpha] (hER[alpha])-mediated estrogenicity. First, we assayed chemicals to determine their ability to modulate direct interaction between the hER[alpha] and the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and in a competition binding assay to displace 17ss-estradiol (E(2)). Second, we tested the chemicals for estrogen-associated transcriptional activity in the yeast estrogen screen and in the estrogen-responsive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The chemicals investigated in this study were o,p'-DDT (racemic mixture and enantiomers), nonylphenol mixture (NPm), and two poorly analyzed compounds in the environment, namely, tris-4-(chlorophenyl)methane (Tris-H) and tris-4-(chlorophenyl)methanol (Tris-OH). In both yeast and MCF-7 cells, we determined estrogenic activity via the estrogen receptor (ER) for o,p'-DDT, NPm, and for the very first time, Tris-H and Tris-OH. However, unlike estrogens, none of these xenobiotics seemed to be able to induce ER/SRC-1 interactions, most likely because the conformation of the activated receptor would not allow direct contacts with this coactivator. However, these compounds were able to inhibit [(3)H]-E(2) binding to hER, which reveals a direct interaction with the receptor. In conclusion, the test compounds are estrogen mimics, but their molecular mechanism of action appears to be different from that of the natural hormone as revealed by the receptor/coactivator interaction analysis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:10903615

  18. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  19. Podoplanin, novel 43-kd membrane protein of glomerular epithelial cells, is down-regulated in puromycin nephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Breiteneder-Geleff, S.; Matsui, K.; Soleiman, A.; Meraner, P.; Poczewski, H.; Kalt, R.; Schaffner, G.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1997-01-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), a rat model of human minimal change nephropathy, is characterized by extensive flattening of glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) foot processes and by severe proteinuria. For comparison of expression of glomerular membrane proteins of normal and PAN rats, a membrane protein fraction of isolated rat glomeruli was prepared and monoclonal antibodies were raised against it. An IgG-secreting clone designated LF3 was selected that specifically immunolabeled podocytes of normal but not of PAN rats. The antigen of LF3 IgG was identified as a 43-kd glycoprotein. Molecular cloning of its cDNA was performed in a delta gt11 expression library prepared from mRNA of isolated rat glomeruli. The predicted amino acid sequence indicated a 166-amino-acid integral membrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain, two potential phosphorylation sites in its short cytoplasmic tail, and six potential O-glycosylation sites in the large ectodomain. High amino acid sequence identities were found to membrane glycoproteins of rat lung and bone and mouse thymus epithelial cells as well as to a phorbol-ester-induced protein in a mouse osteoblast cell line and to a canine influenza C virus receptor. In PAN, expression of this 43-kd protein was selectively reduced to < 30%, as determined by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and Northern blotting. These data provide evidence that transcription of the 43-kd transmembrane podocyte glycoprotein is specifically down-regulated in PAN. To indicate that this protein could be associated with transformation of arborized foot processes to flat feet (Latin, pes planus) we have called it podoplanin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:9327748

  20. Meta-stability of the hemifusion intermediate induced by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored influenza hemagglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Nüssler, F; Clague, M J; Herrmann, A

    1997-01-01

    Fusion between influenza virus and target membranes is mediated by the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). Replacement of the transmembrane domain of HA with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor allows lipid mixing but not the establishment of cytoplasmic continuity. This observation led to the proposal that the fusion mechanism passes through an intermediate stage corresponding to hemifusion between outer monolayers. We have used confocal fluorescence microscopy to study the movement of probes for specific bilayer leaflets of erythrocytes fusing with HA-expressing cells. N-Rh-PE and NBD-PC were used for specific labeling of the outer and inner membrane leaflet, respectively. In the case of GPI-HA-induced fusion, different behaviors of lipid transfer were observed, which include 1) exclusive movement of N-Rh-PE (hemifusion), 2) preferential movement of N-Rh-PE relative to NBD-PC, and 3) equal movement of both lipid analogs. The relative population of these intermediate states was dependent on the time after application of a low pH trigger for fusion. At early time points, hemifusion was more common and full redistribution of both bilayers was rare, whereas later full redistribution of both probes was frequently observed. In contrast to wild-type HA, the latter was not accompanied by mixing of the cytoplasmic marker Lucifer Yellow. We conclude that 1) the GPI-HA-mediated hemifusion intermediate is meta-stable and 2) expansion of an aqueous fusion pore requires the transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic domain of HA. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9370425

  1. Ultrastructural, Cytochemical, and Radioautographic Localization of Placental Iron

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, Richard T.; Barton, James C.; Conrad, Marcel E.

    1981-01-01

    , endothelial cell junctions, and cytoplasm. ImagesFigure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 1 and 2Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:7294155

  2. Expression of thrombospondins by endothelial cells. Injury is correlated with TSP-1.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M. J.; Iruela-Arispe, L.; O'Brien, E. R.; Truong, T.; LaBell, T.; Bornstein, P.; Sage, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    The thrombospondins (TSP-1, -2, and -3) comprise a family of proteins that are homologous at the carboxy terminus but have unique sequences at the amino terminus that might be correlated with the regulation of cell behavior. To investigate the expression of TSP-1, -2, and -3 in endothelial cells, we examined developing murine blood vessels and human atherosclerotic plaques by in situ hybridization. The expression of TSP-1 was also characterized in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Expression of TSP-2 was seen in the dorsal aorta as early as embryonic day 10; TSP-1 was not detected in endothelial cells until later stages, and TSP-3 was not apparent in the vasculature. In atherosclerotic specimens, TSP-1 mRNA was detected in many intraplaque microvessels and in the endothelium lining the atheromatous plaque; TSP-2 was absent from these regions. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells did not transcribe TSP-2 mRNA at detectable levels. There were high steady-state levels of TSP-1 mRNA in subconfluent bovine aortic endothelial cells before confluence and at the wound edge after injury of the cell monolayer, with maximal expression of TSP-1 in cultures at a time during which approximately 35% of the cells were in S phase. As the majority of these cells subsequently undergo mitosis, these data are consistent with TSP-1 as an inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation that functions in G1. These results support the conclusion that, despite sequence homology, the TSPs have distinct functions in vascular biology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7573352

  3. Embryonic fibronectin isoforms are synthesized in crescents in experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Nickeleit, V.; Zagachin, L.; Nishikawa, K.; Peters, J. H.; Hynes, R. O.; Colvin, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    Crescents are a severe and stereotyped glomerular response to injury that occur in several forms of glomerulonephritis that progress to renal failure. The key pathogenetic step that leads to glomerular scarring in unknown, but fibronectin (FN), the clotting system, macrophages, and proliferating parietal epithelial cells are known to participate. This study was designed to determine whether FN is synthesized locally, and in what molecular isoform, and whether cytokines known to promote FN synthesis are present in the crescent. Rats immunized with bovine glomerular basement membrane develop cellular crescents by 14 days and fibrous crescents and glomerulosclerosis by 35 days. In situ hybridization was performed with oligonucleotides specific for sequences common to all FN isoforms (total FN) or sequences specific for the alternatively spliced segments (EIIIA, EIIIB, and V). Throughout the time period (14, 21, and 35 days) all crescents and glomerular tufts contained cells with strong ISH signals for total and V+ mRNA, with the strongest signals present in large cellular crescents at day 21. In contrast, EIIIA+ and EIIIB+ mRNAs showed maximal abundance within sclerosing crescents at 35 days. Protein deposition of EIIIA+, EIIIB+, and V+ FN isoforms was confirmed by immunofluorescence with segment-specific FN antibodies. Transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-1 beta, both known to promote FN synthesis, were found in cellular crescents (days 14 and 21) and were still present, but greatly diminished, in the sclerotic phase (day 35). In summary, EIIIA-, EIIIB-, and V+ FN mRNA plasma isoforms predominate in cellular crescents, whereas in the fibrosing stage, mainly the oncofetal EIIIA+, EIIIB+, and V+ isoforms are synthesized and accumulate. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7573372

  4. Pathophysiology of the thalassemias. The Albion Walter Hewlett Award presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, S L

    1997-01-01

    The Albion Walter Hewlett Award (named for Professor of Medicine and Chair of the Stanford Department of Medicine 1916-1925) recognizes a role model, accomplished in discovery of the biological sciences and at the same time a consummate and compassionate physician. In introductory remarks, Dr. Stanley L. Schrier, Professor of Medicine (Hematology), the tenth recipient of the Award, indicated that the person so identified is no longer a viable model in academic medicine. The loss of this sort of person is serious because this appropriately trained physician-investigator was uniquely positioned to study pathophysiology, defined as the processes by which disordered biology produces disease. He used his own studies on the clinical manifestations of the thalassemias to clarify what he meant by pathophysiology. Thus he and his colleagues first defined membrane material properties of alpha and beta thalassemic RBC membranes and the states of hydration of alpha and beta thalassemic RBC and found them to be strikingly divergent. The biochemical counterparts of these alterations proved to be the accumulation of the excess unmatched partially oxidized globin chains on the membrane skeleton. In vitro studies with chemical oxidants selectively oxidized alpha and beta globin chains which then attached to the RBC membrane skeleton and reproduced the membrane material properties characteristic of beta and alpha thalassemia respectively. Many of these alterations had occurred prior to the reticulocyte stage so that pursuit of pathophysiology shifted to studies of marrow erythroid precursors, and it was shown that in beta thalassemia major there was accelerated programmed cell death as well as defective assembly of the membrane skeleton. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9291745

  5. Substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 310 in type II collagen produces achondrogenesis II, and substitution of serine at position 805 produces hypochondrogenesis: analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventure, J; Cohen-Solal, L; Ritvaniemi, P; Van Maldergem, L; Kadhom, N; Delezoide, A L; Maroteaux, P; Prockop, D J; Ala-Kokko, L

    1995-01-01

    mutation yet reported in type II procollagen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7741714

  6. Presentation and Patterns of Late Recurrence of Olfactory Groove Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, William E.; Shah, Mitesh V.; Weisberger, Edward C.; Campbell, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the recurrence pattern of olfactory groove meningiomas after surgical resection. Four patients, one female and three males, with surgically resected olfactory groove meningiomas presented with tumor recurrence. All patients underwent resection of an olfactory groove meningioma and later presented with recurrent tumors. The mean age at initial diagnosis was 47 years. All presented initially with vision changes, anosmia, memory dysfunction, and personality changes. Three patients had a preoperative MRI scan. All patients had a craniotomy, with gross total resection achieved in three, and 90% tumor removal achieved in the fourth. Involved dura was coagulated, but not resected, in all cases. Three patients were followed with routine head CT scans postoperatively, and none was followed with MRI scan. The mean time to recurrence was 6 years. Three patients presented with recurrent visual deterioration, and one presented with symptoms of nasal obstruction. Postoperative CT scans failed to document early tumor recurrence, whereas MRI documented tumor recurrence in all patients. Tumor resection and optic nerve decompression improved vision in two patients and stabilized vision in two. Complete resection was not possible because of extensive bony involvement around the anterior clinoid and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa in all cases. Evaluation of four patients with recurrent growth of olfactory groove meningiomas showed the epicenter of recurrence to be inferior to the anterior cranial fossa, with posterior extension involving the optic canals, leading to visual deterioration. This location led to a delay in diagnosis in patients who were followed only with routine CT scans. Initial surgical procedures should include removal of involved dura and bone, and follow-up evaluation should include formal ophthalmologic evaluations and routine head MRI scans. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID

  7. Evidence of cardiocyte apoptosis in myocardium of dogs with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Sharov, V. G.; Sabbah, H. N.; Shimoyama, H.; Goussev, A. V.; Lesch, M.; Goldstein, S.

    1996-01-01

    It is often speculated that progressive deterioration of left ventricular function in heart failure is due to ongoing loss of viable cardiocytes. In this study, we examined the possibility that cardiocyte loss in heart failure may be due, in part, to apoptosis, an active process of gene-directed cellular self-destruction. Studies were performed in left ventricular tissue obtained from 10 dogs with chronic heart failure produced by multiple intracoronary microembolizations (left ventricular ejection fraction 27 +/- 1%) and from 5 normal dogs. Evidence for cardiocyte apoptosis was based on transmission electron microscopy criteria and on in situ immunohistochemical labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. There was no evidence of apoptotic cardiocytes in normal dogs. Features of cardiocyte apoptosis were observed in dogs with heart failure primarily in regions bordering old infarcts. Electron microscopic features of cardiocyte apoptosis included (1) intact sarcolemma and inner organelles in the presence of compaction and segregation of nuclear chromatin into sharply delineated masses that about the nuclear envelope, (2) intact sarcolemma in the presence of cytoplasm shrinkage, blebbing, and nuclear fragmentation, and (3) intact sarcolemma in the presence of complete disorganization of inner organelles and disappearance of nucleolemma. A count of all of the apoptotic bodies positively labeled for nuclear DNA fragments showed that 11% were of cardiocyte origin confirmed by positive labeling with striated muscle antimyosin antibody. We conclude that morphological and biochemical features of cardiocyte apoptosis exist in the left ventricular myocardium of dogs with chronic heart failure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8546201

  8. Cytoskeletal changes in podocytes associated with foot process effacement in Masugi nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, I.; Sakai, T.; Kimura, K.; Tomino, Y.; Kriz, W.

    1996-01-01

    4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8644869

  9. Trends in chlorinated hydrocarbon levels in Hudson River basin sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Bopp, R F; Chillrud, S N; Shuster, E L; Simpson, H J; Estabrooks, F D

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of sections from dated sediment cores were used to establish geographic distributions and temporal trends of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminant levels in sediments from natural waters of the Hudson River basin. Radiometric dating was based primarily on the depth distribution of 137(Cs) in the cores and on the occurrence of detectable levels of 7(Be) in surface sediment samples. Eighteen sampling sites included several along the main stem of the Hudson, its major tributaries, and components of the New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ) harbor complex. Drinking-water reservoirs were sampled to place upper limits on atmospheric inputs. Core sections were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT)-derived compounds, chlordane, and dioxins. Sediment concentrations of most contaminants at most sites have decreased significantly since the mid-1960s. The data provide a basinwide perspective on major point-source inputs of PCBs to the upper Hudson River and of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and DDT to the lower Passaic River. Evidence was found for significant but poorly characterized sources of PCBs and chlordane to the western NY/NJ harbor, and of highly chlorinated dioxins to the upstream sites on the main stem of the Hudson. The results indicate that analysis of dated sediment samples is a most effective and efficient monitoring tool for the study of large-scale geographic and temporal trends in levels of particle-associated contaminants. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9703496

  10. The mechanism of lamellar-to-inverted hexagonal phase transitions: a study using temperature-jump cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, D P; Green, W J; Talmon, Y

    1994-01-01

    The lamellar/inverted hexagonal (L alpha/HII) phase transition can be very fast, despite the drastic change in the topology of the lipid/water interfaces. The first structures to form in this transition may be similar to those that mediate membrane fusion in many lipid systems. To study the transition mechanism and other dynamic phenomena in membrane dispersions, we constructed an apparatus to rapidly trigger the transition and then vitrify the specimens to preserve the structure of transient intermediates. The apparatus applies millisecond-long temperature jumps of variable size to aqueous dispersions of lipids on electron microscope grids at times 9-16 ms before specimen vitrification. The vitrified specimens are then examined by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. Dispersions of egg phosphatidylethanolamine completed the transition within 9 ms when superheated by 20 K. Similar transition times have been observed in dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine via time-resolved x-ray diffraction. N-monomethylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine dispersions superheated to lesser extent exhibited slower transitions and more complex morphology. The structure of the first intermediates to form in the transition process could not be determined, probably because the intermediates are labile on the time scale of sample cooling and vitrification (< 1 ms) and because of the poor contrast developed by some of these small structures. However, the results are more compatible with a transition mechanism based on "stalk" intermediates than a mechanism involving inverted micellar intermediates. Temperature-jump cryo-transmission electron microscopy should be useful in studying dynamic phenomena in biomembranes, large protein complexes, and other colloidal dispersions. It should be especially helpful in studying the mechanism of protein-induced membrane fusion. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8161694

  11. Virtual reality applied to hepatic surgery simulation: the next revolution.

    PubMed Central

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Tassetti, V; Koehl, C; Cotin, S; Russier, Y; Mutter, D; Delingette, H; Ayache, N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article describes a preliminary work on virtual reality applied to liver surgery and discusses the repercussions of assisted surgical strategy and surgical simulation on tomorrow's surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Liver surgery is considered difficult because of the complexity and variability of the organ. Common generic tools for presurgical medical image visualization do not fulfill the requirements for the liver, restricting comprehension of a patient's specific liver anatomy. METHODS: Using data from the National Library of Medicine, a realistic three-dimensional image was created, including the envelope and the four internal arborescences. A computer interface was developed to manipulate the organ and to define surgical resection planes according to internal anatomy. The first step of surgical simulation was implemented, providing the organ with real-time deformation computation. RESULTS: The three-dimensional anatomy of the liver could be clearly visualized. The virtual organ could be manipulated and a resection defined depending on the anatomic relations between the arborescences, the tumor, and the external envelope. The resulting parts could also be visualized and manipulated. The simulation allowed the deformation of a liver model in real time by means of a realistic laparoscopic tool. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional visualization of the organ in relation to the pathology is of great help to appreciate the complex anatomy of the liver. Using virtual reality concepts (navigation, interaction, and immersion), surgical planning, training, and teaching for this complex surgical procedure may be possible. The ability to practice a given gesture repeatedly will revolutionize surgical training, and the combination of surgical planning and simulation will improve the efficiency of intervention, leading to optimal care delivery. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9833800

  12. Tumour-localising and -photosensitising properties of a novel zinc(II) octadecylphthalocyanine.

    PubMed Central

    Ometto, C.; Fabris, C.; Milanesi, C.; Jori, G.; Cook, M. J.; Russell, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-Octadecylphthalocyaninato zinc(II), ZnODPc, incorporated into a Cremophor emulsion, was assayed for its pharmacokinetic and phototherapeutic properties in Balb/c mice bearing an intramuscularly transplanted MS-2 fibrosarcoma. The phthalocyanine was injected intravenously (i.v.) in three doses, i.e. 1.46, 0.73 and 0.37 mumol kg-1 body weight. In all cases, the octadecyl-substituted phthalocyanine showed an unusually high affinity for serum low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and a high efficiency and selectivity of tumour targeting: the maximum accumulation in the tumour occurred at 24 h after injection, whereas no detectable amount of phthalocyanine was recovered from the muscle, i.e. the peritumoral tissue, between 1 h and 1 week after injection. At the same time, low amounts of phthalocyanine were recovered from skin and then only at short times after injection, with skin photosensitivity rapidly disappearing and the phthalocyanine present in the serum only. Tumour photosensitisation studies were carried out at 24 h after administration of 1.46 mumol kg-1 ZnODPc and showed that this phthalocyanine has a very high phototherapeutic efficiency; this is probably a consequence of the multiple mechanisms by which the phthalocyanine induces tumour damage, involving both direct modification of malignant cells and impairment of blood flow, as well as the alteration of a variety of subcellular components, such as mitochondria, the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the perinuclear membrane and, occasionally, cell nuclei. Tumour necrosis appears to be the consequence of both random cell death and apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:8980387

  13. Molecular analysis of the fusion of EWS to an orphan nuclear receptor gene in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, R. I.; Ueda, T.; Hamelin, A.; Jhanwar, S. C.; Bridge, J. A.; Healey, J. H.; Huvos, A. G.; Gerald, W. L.; Ladanyi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of myxoid chondrosarcoma (CS) is poorly understood. A recurrent translocation, t(9;22) (q22;q12), has been recognized in CS, specifically in extraskeletal myxoid CS. Recently, this translocation has been shown to represent a rearrangement of the EWS gene at 22q12 with a novel gene at 9q22 designated CHN (or TEC). Sequence analysis suggests that CHN encodes a novel orphan nuclear receptor with a zinc finger DNA-binding domain. The structure of this gene fusion has been characterized in only a limited number of extraskeletal myxoid CSs and its presence in other types of CS has not been extensively examined. We studied 46 cases of CS (8 extraskeletal myxoid, 4 skeletal myxoid, 4 mesenchymal, and 30 other) for the EWS/CHN gene fusion by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and long-range DNA polymerase chain reaction. The EWS/CHN gene fusion was present in 6 of 8 extraskeletal myxoid CSs and was not detected in any of the remaining cases, including the 4 skeletal myxoid CSs. The negative findings in the latter cases suggest that skeletal myxoid CS is pathogenetically distinct from its extraskeletal counterpart. Notably, 2 cases of extraskeletal myxoid CS showed neither an EWS/CHN fusion transcript nor EWS/CHN genomic fusion nor EWS or CHN genomic rearrangement, suggesting genetic heterogeneity within extraskeletal myxoid CS. Finally, we also provide evidence for alternative splicing of the 3' end of the fusion transcript. Extraskeletal myxoid CS thus represents yet another sarcoma type containing a gene fusion involving EWS. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9060841

  14. Regulation of lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by protein kinase C- and pertussis toxin-dependent pathways in the endothelial cell line EAhy 926.

    PubMed Central

    McLees, A; Graham, A; Malarkey, K; Gould, G W; Plevin, R

    1995-01-01

    In the endothelial cell line EAhy 926, 1-oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of the pp42 isoform of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Maximum phosphorylation was observed within 5 min of LPA addition, but the response was sustained for up to 120 min. Re-addition of LPA after 60 min stimulated a further sustained increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase. In cells pretreated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 24 h) or preincubated with the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro-318220, LPA-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of pp42 MAP kinase was substantially reduced at 2 min but potentiated at 60 min. Ro-318220 in combination with either PMA or pertussis toxin pretreatment abolished the LPA response at all time points, suggesting an involvement of protein kinase C in the pertussis toxin-sensitive part of the pathway. Agents which raised intracellular cyclic AMP levels did not affect the initial phase of LPA-stimulated MAP kinase activation, but abolished the late phase. However, this effect was prevented by Ro-318220, implicating a greater role for protein kinase C than protein kinase A in the regulation of sustained MAP kinase responses. LPA stimulated an increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase pp125 (pp125FAK) in EAhy 926 cells which was both protein kinase C- and pertussis toxin-independent. These results are discussed in terms of the pathways regulating both MAP kinase and pp125FAK in response to LPA in the EAhy 926 endothelial cells line. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7741705

  15. Regulation of Ascorbate Oxidase Expression in Pumpkin by Auxin and Copper 1

    PubMed Central

    Esaka, Muneharu; Fujisawa, Kouichi; Goto, Miwa; Kisu, Yasutomo

    1992-01-01

    Ascorbate oxidase expression in pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) tissues was studied. Specific ascorbate oxidase activities in pumpkin leaf and stem tissues were about 2 and 1.5 times that in the fruit tissues, respectively. In seeds, little ascorbate oxidase activity was detected. Northern blot analyses showed an abundant ascorbate oxidase mRNA in leaf and stem tissues. Fruit tissues had lower levels of ascorbate oxidase mRNA than leaf and stem tissues. Ascorbate oxidase mRNA was not detected in seeds. Specific ascorbate oxidase activity gradually increased during early seedling growth of pumpkin seeds. The increase was accompanied by an increase in ascorbate oxidase mRNA. When ascorbate oxidase activity in developing pumpkin fruits was investigated, the activities in immature fruits that are rapidly growing at 0, 2, 4, and 7 d after anthesis were much higher than those in mature fruits at 14 and 30 d after anthesis. The specific activity and mRNA of ascorbate oxidase markedly increased after inoculation of pumpkin fruit tissues into Murashige and Skoog's culture medium in the presence of an auxin such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) but not in the absence of 2,4-D. In the presence of 10 mg/L of 2,4-D, ascorbate oxidase mRNA was the most abundant. Thus, ascorbate oxidase is induced by 2,4-D. These results indicate that ascorbate oxidase is involved in cell growth. In pumpkin callus, ascorbate oxidase activity could be markedly increased by adding copper. Furthermore, immunological blotting showed that the amount of ascorbate oxidase protein was also increased by adding copper. However, northern blot analyses showed that ascorbate oxidase mRNA was not increased by adding copper. We suggest that copper may control ascorbate oxidase expression at translation or at a site after translation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16652952

  16. Influence of phosphorylation on isoform composition and function of a microtubule-associated protein from developing Artemia.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Macrae, T H

    1995-01-01

    A novel 49 kDa protein, which exhibits nucleotide-dependent cross-linking of microtubules in vitro and localizes to ordered microtubule arrays by immunofluorescent staining, has been purified to apparent homogeneity from the brine shrimp, Artemia. Electrophoretic analysis involving isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gels, supplemented by staining of Western blots with affinity-purified antibody, revealed that the 49 kDa protein consists of five isoforms with pI values of 6.0-6.2. The amount of 49 kDa protein increased slightly, but its isoform composition did not change significantly, during development of Artemia gastrula to third-instar larvae. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase caused the 49 kDa protein to undergo a mobility shift on gel electrophoresis, and, by use of an antibody to phosphoserine, at least two isoforms of the protein were shown to be phosphorylated. The serine phosphate, presumably added by a post-translational mechanism, did not influence binding of the 49 kDa protein to microtubules. Under conditions in which microtubules were cross-linked, the 49 kDa protein failed to interact with actin filaments. Our results demonstrate that the 49 kDa protein, like other structural microtubule-associated proteins such as tau and MAP2, is composed of several isoforms, some of which are phosphorylated. This protein has the potential to regulate the spatial distribution of microtubules within cells but does not link microfilaments to one another or to microtubules. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7733878

  17. Multiparameter digitized video microscopy of toxic and hypoxic injury in single cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lemasters, J J; Gores, G J; Nieminen, A L; Dawson, T L; Wray, B E; Herman, B

    1990-01-01

    There is no clear picture of the critical events that lead to the transition from reversible to irreversible injury. Many studies have suggested that a rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ initiates plasma membrane bleb formation and a sequence of events that lead ultimately to cell death. In recent studies, we have measured changes in cytosolic free Ca2+, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic pH, and cell surface blebbing in relation to the onset of irreversible injury and cell death following anoxic and toxic injury to single hepatocytes by using multiparameter digitized video microscopy (MDVM). MDVM is an emerging new technology that permits single living cells to be labeled with multiple probes whose fluorescence is responsive to specific cellular parameters of interest. Fluorescence images specific for each probe are collected over time, digitized, and stored. Image analysis and processing then permits quantitation of the spatial distribution of the various parameters with the single living cells. Our results indicate the following: The formation of plasma membrane blebs accompanies all types of injury in hepatocytes. Cell death is a rapid event initiated by rupture of a plasma membrane bleb, and it is coincident with the onset of irreversible injury. An increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ is not the stimulus for bleb formation or the final common pathway leading to cell death. A decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential precedes the loss of cell viability. Cytosolic pH falls by more than 1 pH unit during chemical hypoxia. This acidosis protects against the onset of cell death. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 15. PMID:2190822

  18. Electron diffraction studies of molecular ordering and orientation in phospholipid monolayer domains.

    PubMed Central

    Hui, S W; Yu, H

    1993-01-01

    The molecular order and orientation of phase separated domains in monolayers of DP(Me)PE and DP(Me)2PE were determined by electron diffraction. Dark and bright fluorescent domains at the air-water interface were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The monolayers were transferred to Formvar coated electron microscope grids for electron diffraction studies. The positions of domains on the marker grids were recorded in fluorescence micrographs, which were used as guide maps to locate these domains in the electron microscope. Selected area electron diffraction patterns were obtained from predetermined areas within and outside the dark domains. Sharp hexagonal diffraction patterns were recorded from dark domains, and diffuse diffraction rings from bright areas in between dark domains. The diffraction results indicated that the dark domains and bright areas were comprised of lipid molecules in solid and fluid states, respectively. The orientation of diffraction patterns from adjacent locations within a dark domains changed gradually, indicating a continuous bending of the molecular packing lattice vector within these domains. Orientation directors in U-shaped DP(Me)2PE domains followed the turn of the arm; no vortex nor branching was indicated by electron diffraction. Directors branching from the "stem" of highly invaginated DP(Me)PE domains usually occurred at twinning angles of n pi/3 from the stem director, which would minimize packing defects in the development of thinner branches. Electron diffraction from local areas of individual domains proved that dark fluorescent domains were solid ones, and that pseudo-long range order existed in these solid domains. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8431539

  19. Vimentin metaplasia in renal cortical tubules of preneoplastic, neoplastic, aging, and regenerative lesions of rats and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J. M.; Stevens, J. L.; Konishi, N.; Kurata, Y.; Uno, H.; Diwan, B. A.; Ohmori, T.

    1992-01-01

    Vimentin expression was studied immunohistochemically in renal cortical tubules of untreated male rats of various ages, rats exposed to toxins (barbital sodium, folic acid) and carcinogens (streptozotocin, N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, barbital sodium, and in humans of various ages with or without renal epithelial tumors. Fetal, neonatal, and young adult rats did not express vimentin in renal cortical tubules. Regenerative renal tubular lesions from rats with aging nephropathy and from rats with toxic nephropathy both expressed vimentin. Mitogenic lesions induced by folic acid at 24 hours, however, were not immunoreactive for vimentin. Carcinogen-induced preneoplastic renal cortical tubular lesions in rats were most often focally immunoreactive whereas strong vimentin expression was found in almost all induced renal tumors. In kidneys of three children (younger than 2 years of age), vimentin was not found in renal cortical tubular cells except in rare individual cells in one case. Vimentin was abundant in basophilic regenerative tubules in kidneys of aged individuals, however. Most (7/10) human renal carcinomas and latent preneoplastic or neoplastic renal tubular lesions found incidentally at autopsy (2/4) showed vimentin expression. The authors suggest that the switching to vimentin expression in phenotypically normal renal cortical tubular cells in rats and humans, which do not usually express the intermediate filament protein vimentin, should be considered vimentin metaplasia. Vimentin expression is dissociated from increased cell proliferation in hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions, however. Instead the degree of dedifferentiation of the tubule cells and changes in phenotype were associated with vimentin expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1415487

  20. Retrospective on community dentistry and public health at the University of Southern California (1966-1976), Part 2.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, C. O.

    1998-01-01

    The authorization of departments of community dentistry and public health in the nation's dental schools is a relatively recent innovation in dental education. Such a department was established at the University of Southern California School of Dentistry in 1966, as part of the School of Medicine's effort to share responsibility in providing both access and availability of health services in inner-city Los Angeles, California. Dentistry was included in the protocol submitted to the US Office of Economic Opportunity to build a neighborhood health center in Watts, operated under the joint jurisdiction of the medical and dental schools. The dental division of the health center was designated a satellite of the community dentistry department. The department envisioned future changes during the revolutionary 1960s when all aspects of the nation were experiencing upheaval as traditional concepts were challenged by new attitudes. The nation's leaders in government and education as well as in the health professions were stimulated by scientific and technologic discoveries. Dentistry had come of age, having gained the respect of other health-care disciplines. It was a time of expanded exploration of means toward a healthier populace and a more sensitive ethical provider of health care. In one decade, the USC community dentistry department accomplished a major shift in attitude about the specialty from one of pervasive opposition and antipathy to that of acceptance and even enthusiasm. The department became competitive with similar units nationwide in educating dental students and practitioners to fulfill their responsibilities at the highest level of proficiency and to be true to the trust bestowed on them by the public. In pursuit of these goals, the department reflected credit on dentistry and the University of Southern California. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9617072

  1. Hazard evaluation of chemicals that cause accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin, hyaline droplet nephropathy, and tubule neoplasia in the kidneys of male rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hard, G C; Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P; Richards, W L; McGaughy, R E; Valcovic, L R

    1993-01-01

    This review paper examines the relationship between chemicals inducing excessive accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g) (CIGA) in hyaline droplets in male rat kidneys and the subsequent development of nephrotoxicity and renal tubule neoplasia in the male rat. This dose-responsive hyaline droplet accumulation distinguishes CIGA carcinogens from classical renal carcinogens. CIGA carcinogens also do not appear to react with DNA and are generally negative in short-term tests for genotoxicity, CIGA or their metabolites bind specifically, but reversibly, to male rat alpha 2u-g. The resulting complex appears to be more resistant to hydrolytic degradation in the proximal tubule than native, unbound alpha 2u-g. Single cell necrosis of the tubule epithelium, with associated granular cast formation and papillary mineralization, is followed by sustained regenerative tubule cell proliferation, foci of tubule hyperplasia in the convoluted proximal tubules, and renal tubule tumors. Although structurally similar proteins have been detected in other species, including humans, renal lesions characteristic of alpha 2u-g nephropathy have not been observed. Epidemiologic investigation has not specifically examined the CIGA hypothesis for humans. Based on cancer bioassays, hormone manipulation studies, investigations in an alpha 2u-g-deficient strain of rat, and other laboratory data, an increased proliferative response caused by chemically induced cytotoxicity appears to play a role in the development of renal tubule tumors in male rats. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the renal effects induced in male rats by chemicals causing alpha 2u-g accumulation are unlikely to occur in humans. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. PMID:7686485

  2. Nuclear Inclusions in Alveolar Epithelium of Patients With Fibrotic Lung Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kawanami, Oichi; Ferrans, Victor J.; Fulmer, Jack D.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    1979-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of pulmonary biopsy specimens from patients with fibrotic lung disease disclosed the presence of nuclear inclusions in 1% or less of cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells in 9 of 19 patients, including 6 of 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 2 of 3 patients with collagen-vascular disease, and 1 of 3 patients with sarcoidosis. Nuclear inclusions were not observed by ultrastructural study in 5 control patients. The inclusions consisted of masses or aggregates of tubules which probably were derived from the inner nuclear membranes. These tubules were smooth-walled, showed branchings and bifurcations, were composed of single trilaminar membranes, usually had a clear content, and ranged from 500 to 1000 Å in diameter. They resembled nuclear tubules which occur in other cell types under conditions of rapid growth or specific hormonal stimulation. Statistically significant differences between the groups of patients with and without nuclear inclusions in cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells were not found with respect to smoking history, degree of fibrosis in the lung biopsy specimen, or the degree of pulmonary physiologic impairment. However, the average age of the patients having nuclear inclusions was significantly greater than that of patients not having nuclear inclusions. In addition, the frequency of indentations in the nuclei of cuboidal alveolar epithelial cells was greater in patients with nuclear inclusions than in patients without nuclear inclusions. Highly significant correlations were observed between the presence of nuclear inclusions and the presence of a) anchoring fibrils and hemidesmosomes along the basal surfaces of alveolar epithelial cells and b) multilayering of the alveolar epithelium. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 13Figure 14Figure 10Figure 8Figure 9Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figures 11 and 12Figure 15Figure 16Figure 6Figures 17 through 20 PMID:426030

  3. Increased epidermal growth factor receptor gene expression by gamma-interferon in a human breast carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Hamburger, A. W.; Pinnamaneni, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    The interferons are a group of naturally occurring proteins that inhibit the growth of tumours in vivo and many transformed cell lines in vitro. The mechanisms of action of interferon, however, remain unclear. The IFN induced inhibition of growth of many epithelial cancer cell lines is associated with changes in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) binding or expression. Therefore, we examined the effect of IFN treatment on the expression of EGFR in a human breast carcinoma cell line, MDA 468. We have found the IFN-gamma inhibited, in a dose dependent fashion, the growth of MDA 468 cells. IFN decreased cell surface binding of 125I-EGF to EGFR by changing receptor number rather than affinity. However, total cellular receptor protein, as measured by immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies, was increased in IFN-treated cells. The half-life of the metabolically labelled receptor was unchanged by treatment with IFN. Increased amounts of EGFR mRNA were observed in MDA 468 cells treated with IFN-gamma for 3 days. The levels of mRNA increased with time in culture, reaching a peak of four times control values after 5 days of treatment. This effect was observable with as little as 10 U ml-1 of IFN-gamma. Treatment of the cells with Actinomycin D to inhibit new RNA synthesis suggested that the stability of EGFR mRNA was not enhanced in IFN-gamma treated cells. The increase in receptor mRNA induced by IFN was not inhibited by cycloheximide. These data suggest IFN-gamma can increase expression of EGFR mRNA and protein in MDA 468 cells. Increased expression of EGFR mRNA and protein by IFN-gamma is associated with inhibition of cell growth. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1906727

  4. Induction of cell death by stimulation of protein kinase C in human epithelial cells expressing a mutant ras oncogene: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Jackson, C. A.; Jones, T.; Eccles, N. G.; Dawson, T. P.; Bond, J. A.; Gescher, A.; Wynford-Thomas, D.

    1998-01-01

    Ras oncogene activation is a key genetic event in several types of human cancer, making its signal pathways an ideal target for novel therapies. We previously showed that expression of mutant ras sensitizes human thyroid epithelial cells to induction of cell death by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and other phorbol esters. We have now investigated further the nature and mechanism of this cell death using both primary and cell line models. The cytotoxic effect of PMA could be blocked by bisindolylmaleimide (GF 109203X), a well-characterized inhibitor of c and n protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, and by prior down-regulation of PKC, indicating that it is mediated by acute stimulation, rather than down-regulation. Western analysis identified two candidate isoforms--alpha and epsilon--both of which showed PMA-induced subcellular translocation, either or both of which may be necessary for PMA-induced cell death. Immunofluorescence showed that PMA induced a rapid nuclear translocation of p42 MAP kinase of similar magnitude in the presence or absence of mutant ras expression. Cell death exhibited the microscopic features (chromatin condensation, TdT labelling) and DNA fragmentation typical of apoptosis but after a surprising lag (4 days). Taken together with recent models of ras-modulated apoptosis, our data suggest that activation of the MAPK pathway by PMA tips the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic signals generated by ras in favour of apoptosis. The high frequency of ras mutations in some cancers, such as cancer of the pancreas, which are refractory to conventional chemotherapy, together with the potential for stimulating PKC by cell-permeant pharmacological agents, makes this an attractive therapeutic approach. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9744505

  5. A human natural antibody to adenocarcinoma that inhibits tumour cell migration.

    PubMed Central

    Koda, K.; Nakajima, N.; Saito, N.; Yasutomi, J.; McKnight, M. E.; Glassy, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized a natural human antibody to adenocarcinomas and investigated the biological role of this Ab/Ag complex in cancer expansion. Human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) were generated with hybridoma fusion methods using regional nodal lymphocytes of colon carcinoma patients. Among 1036 HuMAbs, only one, termed SK1, an IgM, was adenocarcinoma specific in the immunohistochemical study. The antigen recognized by SK1 (Ag-SK1) was a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 42-46 kDa. The expression of Ag-SK1 on carcinoma cells varied according to the cell growth periods but was independent of cell cycle state as elucidated by two-colour fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. A dot-blot analysis showed that the concentration of Ag-SK1 per total protein differed considerably among eight colon carcinoma cells examined and that the difference was closely correlated with the invasion capacity of the cells as assessed by a microchemotaxis assay. Furthermore, up to 87% of cell migration was inhibited by SK1 in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggested that Ag-SK1 is metabolized and expressed on highly invasive carcinoma cells. In addition, it appears that, although rare, some patients do mount an anti-cancer antigen response in their draining lymph nodes. A HuMAb such as SK1 may be a good candidate for the treatment of cancer invasion and metastasis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9823972

  6. Genetic predisposition and parameters of malignant progression in K14-HPV16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Coussens, L. M.; Hanahan, D.; Arbeit, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Reproducible multi-stage progression to invasive squamous carcinoma of the epidermis has been achieved in transgenic mice expressing the HPV16 early-region genes, including the E6/E7 oncogenes, under the control of the human keratin-14 promoter/enhancer. Although 100% of K14-HPV16 transgenic animals develop hyperplastic and/or dysplastic lesions in several inbred backgrounds, including C57BL/6, BALB/c, and SSIN/SENCAR, only mice backcrossed into the FVB/n background progress to malignant squamous cell carcinomas of two pathological grades, well differentiated and moderate/poorly differentiated (WDSC or MPDSC, respectively), each displaying characteristic patterns of malignant behavior. WDSCs typically arise within the epidermis of the ear and invade deeply into the underlying dermis but fail to metastasize, whereas MPDSCs develop on the chest and truncal skin and invariably metastasize to regional lymph nodes. The transition to the malignant state, in 21% of FVB/n transgenic mice, is characterized by alteration of the repertoire of keratin intermediate filament proteins expressed within neoplastic epidermis, such that WDSCs maintain expression of keratins common to terminally differentiating stratified keratinocytes (K10), whereas MPDSCs are distinguished from WDSCs by activation of embryonic and mucosal keratins (K13, K8, and K19). Precursor hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions are characterized by a progressively increased proliferative index, striking morphological alterations in keratinocyte cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and extensive remodeling of the underlying dermal stroma. Remarkably, this extensive stromal remodeling, which may facilitate both angiogenesis and eventual tumor cell invasion, develops early at the dysplastic stage in all animals well before malignant conversion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8952526

  7. Characterization of proteoglycans isolated from associative extracts of human articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Vilím, V; Fosang, A J

    1993-01-01

    Approx. 10% of the total proteoglycan content of normal young human articular cartilage was extracted under associative conditions with Dulbecco's PBS. Proteoglycans isolated from the extract by Q-Sepharose chromatography were separated by gel chromatography and characterized by gradient gel SDS/PAGE and immunoblotting. Three species of small proteoglycans, two main populations of aggrecan and a population of its smaller fragments were identified. The major populations of aggrecan contained chondroitin sulphate chains, all or part of the N-terminal G1 and G2 domains and, therefore, intact keratan sulphate domains. The larger population was estimated by gradient SDS/PAGE to have a molecular mass of approx. 600 kDa or greater. The second population had an apparent molecular mass of approx. 300-600 kDa. Core proteins derived from these populations of proteoglycans separated on SDS/PAGE into several clusters of bands in the range from 120 to approx. 360 kDa. The extract further contained smaller fragments which lacked chondroitin sulphate but reacted with antibodies against keratan sulphate, and against epitopes present in the G2 domain of aggrecan. The presence of the G2 domain in a broad range of populations of decreasing size indicated extensive cleavage of the aggrecan core protein within its chondroitin sulphate domain. These findings suggest that fragmentation of aggrecan probably occurs in vivo in normal articular cartilage of young individuals. Associative extracts also contained decorin, biglycan and fibromodulin. These were resolved from aggrecan by gel chromatography and identified by immunodetection. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8328959

  8. The Molecular Basis of Canavan (Aspartoacylase Deficiency) Disease in European Non-Jewish Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shaag, A.; Anikster, Y.; Christensen, E.; Glustein, J. Z.; Fois, A.; Michelakakis, H.; Nigro, F.; Pronicka, E.; Ribes, A.; Zabot, M. T.; Elpeleg, O. N.

    1995-01-01

    Canavan disease is an infantile neurodegenerative disease that is due to aspartoacylase deficiency. The disease has been reported mainly in Ashkenazi Jews but also occurs in other ethnic groups. Determination of enzymatic activity for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis is considered unreliable. In the present study, nine mutations were found in the aspartoacylase gene of 19 non-Jewish patients. These included four point mutations (A305E [39.5% of the mutated alleles], C218X [15.8%], F295S [2.6%], and G274R [5.3%]); four deletion mutations (827delGT [5.3%], 870del4 [2.6%], 566del7 [2.6%], and 527del6 [2.6%]); and one exon skip (527del108 [5.3%]). The A305E mutation is pan-European and probably the most ancient mutation, identified in patients of Greek, Polish, Danish, French, Spanish, Italian, and British origin. In contrast, the G274R and 527del108 mutations were found only in patients of Turkish origin, and the C218X mutation was identified only in patients of Gypsy origin. Homozygosity for the A305E mutation was identified in patients with both the severe and the mild forms of Canavan disease. Mutations were identified in 31 of the 38 alleles, resulting in an overall detection rate of 81.6%. All nine mutations identified in non-Jewish patients reside in exons 4–6 of the aspartoacylase gene. The results would enable accurate genetic counseling in the families of 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients, in whom two mutations were identified in the aspartoacylase cDNA. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:7668285

  9. Early and persistent up-regulated expression of renal cortical osteopontin in experimental hydronephrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, J. R.; Kees-Folts, D.; Ricardo, S. D.; Pruznak, A.; Eufemio, M.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical disturbance after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a nonimmune stimulus that is capable of eliciting a florid macrophage infiltration of the kidney and subsequent post-inflammatory renal scarring. Osteopontin has potential chemoattractant activity and, for this reason, we delineated the kinetics of its expression in the renal cortex of rats with UUO. Whole body X-irradiation and reversal of UUO were utilized as interventional maneuvers to give additional pathobiological insight into this protein's role in the response of the kidneys to ureteral obstruction. Increased osteopontin mRNA levels in obstructed kidneys versus contralateral unobstructed specimens were evident as early as 4 hours after UUO and steadily increased at 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after UUO. Both X-irradiation and reversal of UUO failed to significantly modulate renal cortical osteopontin mRNA expression at all of the above time points. Paralleling the increments in renal cortical osteopontin mRNA levels were significant elevations in the cortical renal interstitial macrophage number, which was significantly diminished by previous X-irradiation but not reversal of UUO. Focal labeling of osteopontin was noted in both tubular and Bowman's capsular epithelium in obstructed kidneys as early as 4 hours after UUO, whereas, in the contralateral unobstructed specimens, there was only faint staining in Bowman's capsule. By 96 hours after UUO, obstructed kidneys exhibited intense, diffuse staining for osteopontin in both tubules and Bowman's capsule. Osteopontin's immunolocalization was not modulated by X-irradiation or reversal of UUO. These data support the contention that osteopontin is involved in the accumulation of macrophages within the peritubular and periglomerular interstitium in the obstructed renal cortex. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7778684

  10. Esophageal Manifestations of Multisystem Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mapp, Esmond

    1980-01-01

    The esophagus may be involved directly or indirectly by numerous disease conditions. On occasion, the esophageal process may be the key to the diagnosis. In some situations, the esophageal manifestation of a disease may be more immediately life-threatening than the primary process. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7310903

  11. Skin and liver diseases induced in flounder (Platichthys flesus) after long-term exposure to contaminated sediments in large-scale mesocosms.

    PubMed Central

    Vethaak, A D; Jol, J G; Meijboom, A; Eggens, M L; Rheinallt, T; Wester, P W; van de Zande, T; Bergman, A; Dankers, N; Ariese, F; Baan, R A; Everts, J M; Opperhuizen, A; Marquenie, J M

    1996-01-01

    indicate that long-term exposure to chemically contaminated dredged spoil can induce liver neoplasia and other liver lesions in flounder at contaminant levels comparable to those found in the natural environment. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8959412

  12. Brain asymmetry as a potential biomarker for developmental TCDD intoxication: a dose-response study.

    PubMed Central

    Henshel, D S; Martin, J W; DeWitt, J C

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds is correlated with the development of grossly asymmetric brains. This asymmetry is manifested as a difference between the two halves of the forebrain and the tecta. Previously, only wildlife species (heron, cormorant, and eagle) had been shown to manifest this response. In the wildlife studies, the frequency and degree of left-right interhemispheric differences had been correlated with the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) in eggs from the same nest (heron, cormorant). We studied the effect of in ovo exposure to TCDD on the brain throughout development in a sensitive laboratory model (chicken). Embryos from chicken eggs (Gallus gallus) injected with one of several doses of TCDD or vehicle control were sacrificed after 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, or 20 days of incubation, or incubated to hatch and then sacrificed either within 24 hr or at 3 weeks post-hatch. Measurements of both chicken embryo and hatchling brains indicated that 1) TCDD alone induced the brain asymmetry in developing chickens; 2) this brain asymmetry was similar to that observed in animals exposed in the wild to a mixture of TCDD-related contaminants; 3) there was a dose-related increase in both the frequency and severity of brain asymmetry observed at all ages measured; and 4) the asymmetry was measurable in embryonic brains at an age when the braincase was a thin, flexible layer (embryonic day 9), implying that the effect of TCDD was directly on the developing brain and not indirectly via an effect on the braincase. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. A Figure 6. B Figure 6. C Figure 6. D Figure 7. PMID:9294718

  13. Adolescent Athletic Injuries: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    White, G. N.

    1986-01-01

    Adolescents are becoming involved in athletic activities at an ever-increasing rate, with the result that more adolescents are presenting to the family physician with athletic injuries. The most frequent type of sports injury involves the soft tissues. This paper discusses the diagnosis and management of soft-tissue injuries and identifies some of the behavioural characteristics of the injured adolescent athlete. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21267223

  14. Early Clinical Signs and Symptoms of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miedzinski, Lil J.

    1992-01-01

    Early clinical signs and symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus infection are protean and can reflect the effects of the virus or represent early manifestations of an illness associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Knowledge of a patient's potential risk for HIV infection and of the natural history of the illness allow early signs and symptoms to be recognized. Early intervention can delay progression to AIDS. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21221397

  15. Common Pediatric Urological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Wm. Lane M.; Leung, Alexander K.C.; Boag, Graham S.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical and radiological presentations of 12 pediatric urological disorders are described. The described disorders include pyelonephritis, vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic obstruction, ureterovesical obstruction, ectopic ureterocele, posterior urethral valves, multicystic dysplastic kidney, polycystic kidney disease, ectopic kidney, staghorn calculi, urethral diverticulum, and urethral meatal stenosis. ImagesFigure 1-2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6-7Figure 8-9Figure 10Figure 11-12 PMID:21229068

  16. Protein turbines. I: The bacterial flagellar motor.

    PubMed Central

    Elston, T C; Oster, G

    1997-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is driven by a flux of ions between the cytoplasm and the periplasmic lumen. Here we show how an electrostatic mechanism can convert this ion flux into a rotary torque. We demonstrate that, with reasonable parameters, the model can reproduce many of the experimental measurements. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 p720-a PMID:9251788

  17. Schwannoma of Extraocular Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Wasim; Boggan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of schwannoma arising from the third cranial nerve in a thirteen year old male is reported. The patient presented with paresis of the right oculomotor nerve and ipsilateral hemiparesis. The clinical features of this case are discussed and the pertinent medical literature reviewed. ImagesFigure 1p220-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171175

  18. Teaching active transport at the turn of the twenty-first century: recent discoveries and conceptual changes.

    PubMed Central

    Inesi, G

    1994-01-01

    The conceptual advances introduced by recent discoveries in the field of active transport have triggered a transition from a "black box" approach to a "mechanistic" approach. At present, treating this subject in the graduate setting requires consideration of equilibrium and kinetic experimentation, protein chemistry, mutational analysis and molecular structure, with the aim of defining the "transport machine." Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8011889

  19. The ophthalmic implications of the correction of late enophthalmos following severe midfacial trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Iliff, N T

    1991-01-01

    enophthalmos for which measurements were available produced an improvement; in 1 case the enophthalmos was thought to be worse postoperatively. Dystopia operations resulted in improvement in 40 of 48 operations; in 2 instances dystopia was worse postoperatively. Diplopia was unchanged by 33 operations, improved by 11 procedures, and worsened by 6. If patients are considered before and after their total reconstruction course, diplopia was improved in 9 of the 29 patients. In seven of these nine, diplopia was eliminated. There was no change in or production of diplopia in 19 patients, and 5 patients had worsening of their double vision.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE20 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:1808816

  20. Induction of a reversible cardiac lipidosis by a dietary long-chain fatty acid (erucic acid). Relationship to lipid accumulation in border zones of myocardial infarcts.

    PubMed Central

    Chien, K. R.; Bellary, A.; Nicar, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Buja, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cardiac myocytes in the border zone of acute myocardial infarction become markedly overloaded with neutral lipid during the transition from reversible to irreversible injury. To examine directly the role of these changes in neutral lipid metabolism in the development of irreversible cellular injury and associated increases in tissue Ca2+ content, the authors fed rats large amounts of a fatty acid (erucic acid) that is poorly oxidized by the heart and that subsequently accumulates as neutral lipid. Rats fed a high erucic acid (C22:1) diet in the form of 20% rapeseed oil for 3-5 days had a fourfold increase in triglyceride (49.5 +/- 3.8 SEM mg/g wet wt versus 13.6 +/- 13, n = 4) and a 60% increase in long-chain acyl CoA content (166.0 +/- 21.9 versus 91.5 +/- 9.0 nM/g wet wt, n = 4), compared with controls. However, there was no change in long-chain acyl carnitine or total phospholipid content. Histochemical studies showed accumulation of numerous lipid droplets in the myocytes, and electron microscopy revealed localization of lipid vesicles in direct contact with mitochondria, thus mimicking the lipid-laden cells in the border zone regions of acute myocardial infarcts. The acute lipidosis was reversible with either continued feeding of erucic acid for several weeks or conversion to a normal diet. It was not associated with an increased tissue Ca2+ content, nor with cell necrosis. However, continued erucic acid intake for 3 months was associated with focal myocardial degeneration and loss of myocytes. These results suggest that acute increases in neutral lipids, as found in the border zone of acute myocardial infarction, may not be the cause of progression to irreversible damage during acute myocardial injury, but that the persistent presence of similar lipid material over months may result in focal myocardial degeneration. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6859230

  1. Mesenchymal cell activation is the rate-limiting step of granulation tissue induction.

    PubMed Central

    McClain, S. A.; Simon, M.; Jones, E.; Nandi, A.; Gailit, J. O.; Tonnesen, M. G.; Newman, D.; Clark, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    control wounds. Thus, fibroblast activation is a limiting step of granulation tissue formation, and continued cell stimulation is required for accelerated development. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8863674

  2. Fish models for environmental carcinogenesis: the rainbow trout.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, G S; Williams, D E; Hendricks, J D

    1996-01-01

    fish models can serve as highly useful adjuncts to conventional rodent models in the study of environmental carcinogenesis and its modulation. For some problems, fish models can provide wholly unique approaches. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. PMID:8722107

  3. Early accumulation of heparan sulfate in neurons and in the beta-amyloid protein-containing lesions of Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Snow, A. D.; Mar, H.; Nochlin, D.; Sekiguchi, R. T.; Kimata, K.; Koike, Y.; Wight, T. N.

    1990-01-01

    indicates a possible interaction between these two macromolecules that may be important in lesion development in these two diseases. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 2 Figure 7 Figure 5 Figure 3 PMID:2146882

  4. The catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is a substrate for the activated platelet-derived growth factor receptor, but not for middle-T antigen-pp60c-src complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Roche, S; Dhand, R; Waterfield, M D; Courtneidge, S A

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) with polyoma-virus middle-T antigen-pp60c-src (mT:cSrc) complexes and with the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor has been investigated. Firstly, we undertook reconstitution studies, using proteins derived from a baculovirus expression system. The p110 catalytic subunit of the PI 3-K associated with tyrosine kinases only when complexed with the p85 alpha regulatory subunit. Both p85 alpha and p110 were substrates of the PDGF receptor. In contrast, only the p85 alpha subunit was detectably phosphorylated when PI 3-K was associated with mT:cSrc. Secondly, we studied PI 3-K in mammalian cells. In mT-antigen-transformed NIH-3T3 cells neither p85 alpha nor p110 was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in vivo, even though p85 alpha was a substrate in kinase assays in vitro. In quiescent NIH-3T3 cells, PI 3-K showed detectable activity in vitro; PDGF stimulation resulted in a rapid and transient association of PI 3-K with the receptor, which was correlated with a transient increase in intrinsic P13-K activity (approx. 2-fold). The activated PDGF receptor phosphorylated p110 in vitro, at one major site. In vivo, PDGF stimulation induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p110 that persisted for at least 1 h after stimulation. Immunodepletion of the PDGF receptor from stimulated cell lysates showed that p110 was released from the receptor in a tyrosine-phosphorylated form. From these results we conclude that (i) the mT:cSrc complex and the PDGF receptor differ in their association with PI 3-K activity, (ii) PDGF receptor appears to activate PI 3-K in vivo both by relocation of the enzyme and by stimulation of its intrinsic activity, and (iii) tyrosine phosphorylation of the p110 subunit by the PDGF receptor may play a role in PI 3-K regulation in some circumstances. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7519847

  5. An age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, R W

    1993-01-01

    with data on human subjects exposed to lead under a variety of experimental and natural conditions. Images p598-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 7. D Figure 7. E Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 10. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 11. Figure 12. p613-a PMID:8143593

  6. Biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of human type XIX defines a novel class of basement membrane zone collagens.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, J. C.; Li, D.; Bageris, A.; Abraham, V.; Dion, A. S.; Amenta, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    -stromal interactions, the pronounced vascular association suggests involvement of these related collagen types with angiogenic and pathological processes. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:9403723

  7. Pattern of stress protein expression in human lung cell-line A549 after short- or long-term exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Croute, F; Beau, B; Arrabit, C; Gaubin, Y; Delmas, F; Murat, J C; Soleilhavoup, J P

    2000-01-01

    maximum allowable biologic exposure limit should be lowered. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10620524

  8. Tissue repair processes in healing chronic pressure ulcers treated with recombinant platelet-derived growth factor BB.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, G. F.; Tarpley, J. E.; Allman, R. M.; Goode, P. S.; Serdar, C. M.; Morris, B.; Mustoe, T. A.; Vande Berg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7992843

  9. Immunocytochemical and biochemical characterization of the Heymann nephritis antigenic complex in rat L2 yolk sac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, M.; Orlando, R. A.; Saedi, M. S.; Woodward, L.; Kurihara, H.; Farquhar, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    into the Heymann nephritis antigenic complex are similar in both L2 cells and rat kidney. They also provide new information on the intracellular processing of these two molecules and their delivery to the cell surface. Thus, the L2 cell system should facilitate further characterization of the functions and interactions of gp330 and RAP, which may shed light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Heymann nephritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8238258

  10. Distribution and origin of the basement membrane component perlecan in rat liver and primary hepatocyte culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rescan, P. Y.; Loréal, O.; Hassell, J. R.; Yamada, Y.; Guillouzo, A.; Clément, B.

    1993-01-01

    vitro attachment assay of hepatocytes on purified perlecan substrate indicated that these cells may interact with the proteoglycan through integrins which belong to the beta 1 family. These data suggest that deposition of perlecan in the space of Disse requires cellular cooperation. This article on perlecan, the third major component of hepatic basement membranes, shows a unique cellular origin in the liver and, as found for both collagen IV and laminin, an expression in adult hepatocytes when place in culture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7678718

  11. Transforming growth factor-alpha promotes mammary tumorigenesis through selective survival and growth of secretory epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. H.; Sharp, R.; Kordon, E. C.; Jhappan, C.; Merlino, G.

    1995-01-01

    prolonging survival during involution. These points support the notion that TGF-alpha can act as a mitogen and also as a differentiation factor in mammary epithelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7573353

  12. Taurine protects hamster bronchioles from acute NO2-induced alterations. A histologic, ultrastructural, and freeze-fracture study.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, R. E.; Shaked, A. A.; Solano, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    injury. Taurine may also be effective in preventing lung injury induced by other oxidant gases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 p597-a PMID:3541644

  13. Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor (c-MET) in prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, P. A.; Zhu, X.; Zarnegar, R.; Swanson, P. E.; Ratliff, T. L.; Vollmer, R. T.; Day, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    the prostate gland as a paracrine growth factor, with synthesis by stromal cells and with biological target cells being the epithelial cells. Expression of the HGF receptor, c-MET, is up-regulated by androgen deprivation and c-MET appears to be preferentially expressed on androgen-insensitive, metastatic cells, suggesting a possible linkage of c-MET expression with prostatic carcinoma progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:7639332

  14. Hydrogen peroxide changes in ischemic and reperfused heart. Cytochemistry and biochemical and X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Slezak, J.; Tribulova, N.; Pristacova, J.; Uhrik, B.; Thomas, T.; Khaper, N.; Kaul, N.; Singal, P. K.

    1995-01-01

    support a significant increase in myocardial H2O2 during both the phase of ischemia and the first few minutes of reperfusion. A stronger reaction on the sarcolemma and abluminal side of endothelial cells may also indicate enhanced H2O2 accumulation as well as vulnerability of these sites to oxidative stress injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7677188

  15. Tumor necrosis factor induces glomerular damage in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, T.; Abbate, M.; Zoja, C.; Corna, D.; Perico, N.; Ghezzi, P.; Remuzzi, G.

    1989-01-01

    macrophage-dependent damage in glomerulonephritis. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2916653

  16. The origins and insertions of the extraocular muscles: development, histologic features, and clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Sevel, D

    1986-01-01

    for muscle adjustments should be assessed from the limbus rather than from the sites of insertion of these tendons. In the series of patients with esotropia, no mechanical abnormalities were noted in relationship to the insertions of the medial or lateral recti muscles. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the site of insertion of the medial rectus muscle and the degree of esotropia. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 PMID:3590478

  17. Mesangial cell hillocks. Nodular foci of exaggerated growth of cells and matrix in prolonged culture.

    PubMed Central

    Sterzel, R. B.; Lovett, D. H.; Foellmer, H. G.; Perfetto, M.; Biemesderfer, D.; Kashgarian, M.

    1986-01-01

    of matrix similar to that seen in the mesangium of diseased glomeruli. It is concluded that the in vitro model of prolonged MC outgrowth may facilitate the investigation of factors that govern mesangial matrix production. Such a model could be used in examining the response of the mesangium to defined inflammatory or metabolic stimuli. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:3535527

  18. Eduard Jaeger's Test-Types (Schrift-Scalen) and the historical development of vision tests.

    PubMed Central

    Runge, P E

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eduard Jaeger's original Test-Types were carefully evaluated: (1) to determine whether Jaeger had maintained a consistent standard, (2) to establish the correct Snellen equivalent for Jaeger's Test-Types, (3) to answer the question of why and how the standard was lost, and (4) to compare the visual angle of optotypes to lines of continuous text. METHODS: All original Viennese editions of Jaeger's Test-Types, as well as first generation United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) versions, were evaluated. Data were collected objectively using a microruler with a 20X loupe and subjectively using a laser distance-measuring device. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. All previous measurements of Jaeger's Test-Types, objective and subjective, collected over the past 133 years were compared to the current data and to each other. RESULTS: The correct Snellen equivalent of Jaeger's Test-Types was determined. The visual angle created from the measurement of the height of lowercase letters, without ascenders or descenders, provides an accurate method of assigning a visual angle of a line of continuous text. Comparing the typefaces used in printing first generation UK and US versions of Jaeger's Test-Types to the Viennese editions provided an explanation for the absence of a consistent standard for Jaeger's Test-Types today. CONCLUSIONS: All 10 versions of Jaeger's original Test-Types are virtually identical and established a gold standard for reading vision tests. Jaeger's standard was lost when his Test-Types were first printed in the UK and the US using local typefaces. The Jaeger standard has been re-established. Visual angles determined using continuous text are comparable to those obtained by using optotypes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7C FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19A FIGURE 19B p409-a FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE

  19. Biosynthesis, surface expression and function of the fibronectin receptor after rat liver cell transformation to tumorigenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Decastel, M; Doyennette-Moyne, M A; Gouet, E; Aubery, M; Codogno, P

    1993-01-01

    . Furthermore, both the abnormal mature 130-kDa and precursor 100-kDa beta 1-subunits were detected on the surface of Zajdela hepatoma cells, associated with the alpha 5-subunit. The relationship between these structural alterations in the fibronectin receptor and the impaired Zajdela hepatoma cell binding to soluble fibronectin or to a coated fibronectin matrix that was observed in this study is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8471041

  20. A twin study on age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, S M

    1994-01-01

    ; this included the one dizygotic pair which was discordant for basal laminar drusen. The data of this study strongly suggest a genetic predisposition to AMD. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 1 (cont.) FIGURE 2 FIGURE 2 (cont.) FIGURE 2 (cont.) FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 4 FIGURE 4 (cont.) FIGURE 5 FIGURE 5 (cont.) FIGURE 5 (cont.) FIGURE 6 FIGURE 6 (cont.) FIGURE 7 FIGURE 7 (cont.) FIGURE 8 FIGURE 8 (cont.) FIGURE 9 FIGURE 9 (cont.) FIGURE 9 (cont.) FIGURE 10 FIGURE 10 (cont.) FIGURE 11 FIGURE 11 (cont.) FIGURE 11 (cont.) FIGURE 12 FIGURE 12 (cont.) FIGURE 12 (cont.) PMID:7886884

  1. Tumor vascularity and hematogenous metastasis in experimental murine intraocular melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, H E

    1998-01-01

    metastasizes through regional lymphatics. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:10360307

  2. A histopathologic and immunologic study of the course of syphilis in the experimentally infected rabbit. Demonstration of long-lasting cellular immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Zander, S.; Sell, S.

    1980-01-01

    unknown, but possible explanations are presented. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 3 Figure 7 PMID:7001910

  3. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte migration through human dermal fibroblast monolayers is dependent on both beta 2-integrin (CD11/CD18) and beta 1-integrin (CD29) mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J X; Issekutz, A C

    1995-01-01

    is virtually all CD18 dependent with no significant role for beta 1-integrins. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7558139

  4. Immune adherence in renal glomeruli. Complement receptor sites on glomerular capillary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, P. M.; Oberley, T. D.; Barber, T. A.; Beacom, A.; Koehler, C.

    1977-01-01

    immune-adherence phenomenon in glomeruli of other vertebrate animals suggests among other things that more investigation is necessary before ascribing a unique or universal significance to the C3 receptors identified in human glomeruli. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:842614

  5. Transgenic hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hully, J. R.; Su, Y.; Lohse, J. K.; Griep, A. E.; Sattler, C. A.; Haas, M. J.; Dragan, Y.; Peterson, J.; Neveu, M.; Pitot, H. C.

    1994-01-01

    stainable amounts of the p53 gene product; by contrast, normal hepatocytes express only very low levels of the T antigen within their nuclei and no demonstrable p53. All of the animals develop hepatic lesions, and approximately one-third also develop adenomas and carcinomas derived from the islet cells of the pancreas. Although there are differences in the morphology, biology, and genetic expression in early and late hepatic lesions in this strain of transgenic rat, many similarities also occur, making this a potential model system with which to study the interactions of environmental factors with a genetic program for hepatocarcinogenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8053496

  6. Defect of Fc receptors and phenotypical changes in sinusoidal endothelial cells in human liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Muro, H.; Shirasawa, H.; Kosugi, I.; Nakamura, S.

    1993-01-01

    .e., capillarization of the sinusoids. These phenotypical changes in SECs may reduce the capacity of FcR-mediated IgG-IC metabolism in diseased livers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:7686339

  7. Joshua N Haldeman, DC: the Canadian Years, 1926-1950

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C; Haldeman, Scott

    1995-01-01

    aviator and explorer. Although he died in 1974, the values he instilled in his son, Scott Haldeman, D.C., Ph.D., M.D. continue to influence the profession. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10

  8. Reactive oxygen species cause direct damage of Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Riedle, B.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1997-01-01

    -linking bityrosine groups. ROS scavengers pinpointed to the hydroxyl radical as the most damaging radical species. Protease inhibitor experiments suggested that degradation of matrix proteins was caused primarily by the direct action of ROS and not by proteolysis by potentially contaminating proteases. Collectively, these results provide evidence that EHS matrix proteins show differential sensitivity to ROS-induced damage in a reproducible, sequential pattern, in the order entactin > laminin > type IV collagen, and that ROS cause partial dissociation and cross-linking of the EHS matrix. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:9212747

  9. Classification and morphometric quantitation of insoluble materials from the lungs of patients with alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, L. B.; Talley, F. A.; Hook, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    alveoli and distal airways of patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3189505

  10. Ice-binding mechanism of winter flounder antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, A; Merz, K M

    1997-01-01

    effect play in ice binding are also highlighted. For the latter it is demonstrated that the surface of ice has a clathratelike structure which favors the partitioning of hydrophobic groups to the surface of ice. It is suggested that mutations that involve the deletion of hydrophobic residues (e.g., the Leu residues) will provide insight into the role the hydrophobic effect plays in partitioning these peptides to the surface of ice. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 PMID:9414201

  11. Multiple- and single-molecule analysis of the actomyosin motor by nanometer-piconewton manipulation with a microneedle: unitary steps and forces.

    PubMed Central

    Ishijima, A; Kojima, H; Higuchi, H; Harada, Y; Funatsu, T; Yanagida, T

    1996-01-01

    and the needle displacement increased. At near zero load, the mean size of single displacement spikes, i.e., the unitary steps caused by correctly oriented myosin, which were corrected for the stiffness of the needle-to-myosin linkage and the randomizing effect by the thermal vibration of the needle, was approximately 20 nm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:8770215

  12. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:7887439

  13. EEG brain mapping in evaluating the time-course of the central action of DUP 996--a new acetylcholine releasing drug.

    PubMed Central

    Saletu, B; Darragh, A; Salmon, P; Coen, R

    1989-01-01

    1. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the encephalotropic effects of DUP 996, a novel phenylindolinone derivative for Alzheimer's disease enhancing the release of acetylcholine in cholinergic nerve terminals in the brain only when its release is triggered, were studied with special consideration of the pharmacodynamic time-course. 2. Thirteen healthy male volunteers aged 18-40 years received randomized and at weekly intervals, single oral doses of placebo and 30 mg DUP 996. Blood sampling for plasma concentration analysis, EEG recordings and evaluation of pulse, blood pressure and side effects were carried out at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h. 3. Computer-assisted spectral analysis of the EEG and subsequent topographic brain mapping of the drug-induced EEG changes demonstrated significant central effects of DUP 996 suggesting vigilance-improving properties. The findings were characterized mostly by an augmentation of total power as well as by an increase of absolute power in the alpha and alpha-adjacent beta activity. 4. Time-course investigations demonstrated two pharmacodynamic peaks: a first one in the 2nd h and a second one in the 12th h. In detail CNS effects increased up to the 2nd h, showed a drop in the 4th h, increased again thereafter to peak in the 12th h. Even in the 24th h there were significant differences between DUP 996 and placebo. The latter suggests an indirect effect and/or an active metabolite, as the parent drug is rapidly absorbed and has a rather short plasma half-life between 1-3 h. 5. DUP 996-induced EEG-changes over time were most pronounced over temporo-occipital, temporo-frontal, parietal and frontal regions, e.g. over brain areas afflicted most by Alzheimer's disease. 6. Evaluation of vital signs, laboratory findings and ECG as well as adverse effects showed a very good tolerability of DUP 996. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2775607

  14. The Pathogenesis of Experimentally Induced Trypanosoma brucei Infection in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, W. I.; Murray, Max; Sayer, P. D.; Preston, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    polymorphonuclear leukocytes, along with extensive deposition of fibrin, were commonly found in the subcapsular sinuses. During this period, foci of erythropoietic cells were present throughout the red pulp of the spleen. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19 PMID:6110341

  15. Electron-microscopic analysis of nephroblastomas induced transplacentally in the IIIVO/J rabbit by a single dose of N-ethylnitrosourea.

    PubMed Central

    Hard, G. C.; Fox, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    fascicles, in most cases, consisted of thin, basement-membrane-invested ribbons of attenuated cells enclosing small lumens sealed by intercellular junctions, suggestive of abortive tubule formation. Tumor cells disposed in fascicles therefore conformed to the same epithelial lineage as the other neoplastic components of these tumors. In contrast, cellular elements of the fibrocollagenous stroma--namely, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and scattered mononuclear inflammatory cells--could be clearly discriminated from the various tumor cell components on morphologic grounds, constituting a host reaction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 p245-a Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6093544

  16. Stimulation by the nucleotides, ATP and UTP of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EAhy 926 endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, A.; McLees, A.; Kennedy, C.; Gould, G. W.; Plevin, R.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have investigated the characteristics of activation of the 42kDa isoform of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in response to various nucleotides in the endothelial cell line EAhy 926. 2. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the concentration range 0.1-100 microM stimulated the rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the 42 kDa isoform of MAP kinase in EAhy 926 endothelial cells which peaked at 2 min and returned to basal values by 60 min. ATP also stimulated a similar response in primary cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. 3. Uridine 5' triphosphate (UTP) also stimulated the 42 kDa isoform of MAP kinase with similar potency to ATP (EC50 values 5.1 +/- 0.2 microM for UTP; 2.9 +/- 0.8 microM for ATP), whilst the selective P2Y-purinoceptor agonist, 2-methylthioATP (2-meSATP) was without effect up to concentrations of 100 microM. In bovine aortic endothelial cells however, UTP and 2-meSATP both stimulated MAP kinase. 4. Pretreatment of cells for 24 h with 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate resulted in the loss of the alpha and epsilon isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) and virtual abolition of nucleotide-stimulated MAP kinase activity (> 90% inhibition). 5. Preincubation for 30 min with the PKC inhibitor, Ro-31 8220 (10 microM) reduced MAP-kinase activation at 2 min but potentiated the response at 60 min. 6. Removal of extracellular calcium in the presence of EGTA reduced the MAP kinase activation in response to UTP by approximately 30-50%. 7. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (18 h, 50 ng ml-1) did not significantly affect the UTP-mediated activation of pp42 MAP kinase. 8. These results show that in the EAhy 926 endothelial cell line, nucleotides stimulate activation of MAP kinase in a protein kinase C-dependent manner through interaction with a P2U-purinoceptor. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8882634

  17. Chronic hemodynamic unloading regulates the morphologic development of newborn mouse hearts transplanted into the ear of isogeneic adult mice.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    months after transplantation, the myocytes of heterotopic hearts were smaller in size in comparison to those after 2 or 6 months. The graft cells were separated from each other by fibrous tissue and mononuclear cells and were not aligned in parallel within the tissue; often, they appeared to have lost their connections with adjacent cells. The myofibrils within cells were strikingly disorganized, coursing in different directions. Severely degenerated myocytes were commonly seen. These results, without precluding the possible role of neural and hormonal stimuli, clearly indicate that hemodynamic work load regulates the developmental growth of newborn mouse heart transplanted into the pinna of the ear of isogeneic adult recipient mice. In other words, the mass of cardiac tissue would be adjusted to meet the prevailing hemodynamic demands.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:1632462

  18. Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles contain unique epitopes and epitopes in common with the heat-stable microtubule associated proteins tau and MAP2.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, S. H.; Dickson, D. W.; Crowe, A.; Butler, M.; Shelanski, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    pathogenesis of ANT formation, requires further investigation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2433949

  19. Visceral glomerular epithelial cells can proliferate in vivo and synthesize platelet-derived growth factor B-chain.

    PubMed Central

    Floege, J.; Johnson, R. J.; Alpers, C. E.; Fatemi-Nainie, S.; Richardson, C. A.; Gordon, K.; Couser, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    In glomerular diseases associated with antibody- and complement-mediated injury to endothelial and mesangial cells, cell proliferation is an important early response that precedes matrix accumulation and glomerulosclerosis. In contrast, in diseases in which the visceral glomerular epithelial cell (vGEC) is the principal target of injury, cell proliferation is not a recognized consequence, although vGECs respond in vitro to a variety of growth factors and inflammatory mediators. To explore the possibility that low levels of vGEC proliferation may occur and participate in such diseases, serial studies were done in the passive Heymann nephritis model of membranous nephropathy, in which the vGEC is the primary target of antibody- and C5b-9-mediated injury. The results showed mitotic figures and positive staining for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen in cells whose location defined them as vGECs. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells at the edge of the capillary wall were confirmed to be vGECs by double-immunostaining with antibodies to SPARC/osteonectin, which preferentially label vGECs in passive Heymann nephritis. Proliferation of vGECs in vivo was preceded by increased glomerular expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain protein and messenger RNA, both of which localized to vGECs. PDGF B-chain protein and messenger RNA were also detected in cultured vGECs. PDGF receptor beta-subunit protein or messenger RNA could not be demonstrated in vGECs in vivo or in vitro, and no growth response of cultured vGECs to PDGF was noted. These results suggest that proliferation of vGECs does occur in a model of glomerular injury induced by antibody and C5b-9 on vGECs. VGEC proliferation and production of PDGF may be involved in the restoration of the capillary wall but could also contribute to local capillary wall injury and proliferation of other cells in Bowman's capsule, interstitium, and tubules. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5

  20. Renal extracellular matrix accumulation in acute puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C. L.; Buch, S.; Post, M.; McCulloch, L.; Liu, E.; Eddy, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    tubulointerstitial ECM accumulation occurs in rats with acute PAN nephrosis because of the activation of genes encoding several matrix proteins and inhibition of matrix degradation mediated by TIMP. These events are reversed during the phase of recovery from nephrotic syndrome. Increased mRNA levels for TGF-beta, possibly originating from inflammatory interstitial monocytes, are likely to be one of the mediators of the molecular events observed. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1281619

  1. Nonuniform elasticity of titin in cardiac myocytes: a study using immunoelectron microscopy and cellular mechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Granzier, H; Helmes, M; Trombitás, K

    1996-01-01

    (approximately 1.85 microns) also results in straightening of the elastic titin segment, giving rise to a force that opposes shortening and that tends to bring sarcomeres back to their slack length. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 9 PMID:8770219

  2. Rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine continuously administered at low doses. From basophilic areas of hepatocytes to hepatocellular tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, C.; Klimek, F.; Nogueira, E.

    1991-01-01

    application of some carcinogens at high doses, they are not obligatory precursors of hepatocellular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 PMID:1951631

  3. The expression of acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins on the surface membrane of different tissues in autoimmune and normal mice which are the target molecules for anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, K H; Liu, W T; Tang, S J; Tsai, C Y; Hsieh, S C; Wu, T H; Han, S H; Yu, C L

    1996-01-01

    damage in patients with SLE. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8778020

  4. In situ microscopic analysis of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibers retained in hamster lungs following inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, R A; Antonini, J M; Brismar, H; Lai, J; Hesterberg, T W; Oldmixon, E H; Thevenaz, P; Brain, J D

    1999-01-01

    retention and also fiber lengths and burdens in good agreement with ashing/SEM results. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:10210692

  5. The identity and work of the ancient Egyptian surgeon.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, R

    1996-01-01

    That a well-developed and hierarchical medical profession existed in Pharaonic Egypt is without doubt. What is a matter of contention is the existence of a recognizable surgical profession, or even of the practice of surgery by medically qualified personnel. Palaeorchaeological specimens that demonstrate some form of surgical procedure are rare. Medical papyri and the treatises of the historians of antiquity provide a far more reliable source of information on surgical practice. They have indicated possible titles for surgeons, and the types of instruments used. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8795503

  6. Advantages of using aquatic animals for biomedical research on reproductive toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Mottet, N K; Landolt, M L

    1987-01-01

    Major advantages of the use of aquatic animals, such as trout, English sole, or sea urchins, for studying the mechanisms of reproductive toxicology are discussed. The remarkable synchrony of differentiation of gametes in large quantities for detailed morphologic and biochemical measurements enables research not readily done on mammalian nonseasonal breeders. Structural differences such as the absence of a fibrous sheath in the more simple structure of fish and sea urchin sperm flagella facilitates comparative study of the mechanism of action of microtubules in flagella movement and the coupling of mitochondrial energy production to microtubules movement. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. PMID:3297666

  7. Clinical and pathological effects on the rabbit's eye of some plant-derived ophthalmic swabs.

    PubMed Central

    Oji, E. O.

    1990-01-01

    The stems of corn, millet, sugar cane and the banana leaf frond excite some clinical and pathological effects in the rabbit's eye when implanted either into the anterior chamber (AC) or subconjunctivally. These effects have not been sight threatening. The materials can either be left to be cleared by the body's phagocytes when they produce mild inflammatory reaction or removed surgically if the inflammatory response is moderate when fragments have been left intraocularly. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2221773

  8. Fusobacteremia in a Calf with Necrotic Stomatitis, Enteritis and Granulocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Nimmo-Wilkie, Judith S.; Radostits, O. M.

    1981-01-01

    This case of fusobacteremia appears to be identical to an interesting and unusual syndrome previously reported. We wish to bring the syndrome to the attention of others who may be able to elucidate the etiology further. Because hematological examinations are frequently not done on calves, this condition may be more common than reports suggest. Perhaps others who observe this syndrome in calves may be able to investigate the role of other agents such as viruses or mycotoxins. Experimental work may be able to establish whether or not the exotoxins of Fusobacterium necrophorum can suppress granulopoiesis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7248893

  9. Effects of different enzymic treatments on the release of titin fragments from rabbit skeletal myofibrils. Purification of an 800 kDa titin polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Astier, C; Labbé, J P; Roustan, C; Benyamin, Y

    1993-01-01

    In myofibrils, titin (also called connectin) molecules span from Z line to M line and constitute a third filament system containing an elastic domain in the I band. This giant protein is particularly sensitive to proteolysis in situ. Treatment of rabbit skeletal myofibrils with exogenous proteinases induces a release of titin fragments, which are detected in the soluble myofibrillar fraction. The cleavage of titin occurs at specific points localized at the proximity of Z line and could lead to a concomitant release of alpha-actinin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8457201

  10. Induction of maturation of human B-cell lymphomas in vitro. Morphologic changes in relation to immunoglobulin and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Beiske, K.; Ruud, E.; Drack, A.; Marton, P. F.; Godal, T.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro stimulation of cells from 8 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas comprising several histologic types with a tumor promotor (TPA) and with or without anti-immunoglobulins directed against the surface immunoglobulin of the tumor cells is reported. Morphologic transformation to immunoblastic and plasmablastic cells, but not to plasma cells, and induction of Ig and DNA synthesis were observed. A comparative analysis, including flow cytofluorometry, light microscopy combined with immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy, suggests that the three events may not always be associated phenomena at the single-cell level even in monoclonal cell populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6375389

  11. Cardiac sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Smedema, J.P.; Zondervan, P.E.; van Hagen, P.; ten Cate, F.J.; Bresser, P.; Doubell, A.F.; Pattynama, P.; Hoogsteden, H.C.; Balk, A.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Symptomatic cardiac involvement occurs in approximately 5% of patients. The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the Netherlands is unknown, but estimated to be approximately 20 per 100,000 population (3200 patients). We report on five patients who presented with different manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis, and give a brief review on the current management of this condition. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be of great help in diagnosing this condition as well as in the follow-up of the response to therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:25696121

  12. The N terminal region of human tau is present in Alzheimer's disease protein A68 and is incorporated into paired helical filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, A.; Ksiezak-Reding, H.; Liu, W. K.; Dickson, D. W.; Yen, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    Antibody (Ab) E-1 was raised to the amino terminus (19 to 33 amino acid residues) of human tau. It recognized Alzheimer's disease proteins A68 (MW 60, 64, 68 kd), labeled paired helical filaments, and had no reactivity with tau from rat, mouse, and bovine brains. The results indicate that the N terminus of tau is incorporated in A68 proteins and paired helical filaments and that human tau proteins contain species-specific amino acid sequences. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1721492

  13. Vortex shedding as a precursor of turbulent electrical activity in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Cabo, C; Pertsov, A M; Davidenko, J M; Baxter, W T; Gray, R A; Jalife, J

    1996-01-01

    In cardiac tissue, during partial blockade of the membrane sodium channels, or at high frequencies of excitation, inexcitable obstacles with sharp edges may destabilize the propagation of electrical excitation waves, causing the formation of self-sustained vortices and turbulent cardiac electrical activity. The formation of such vortices, which visually resembles vortex shedding in hydrodynamic turbulent flows, was observed in sheep epicardial tissue using voltage-sensitive dyes in combination with video-imaging techniques. Vortex shedding is a potential mechanism leading to the spontaneous initiation of uncontrolled high-frequency excitation of the heart. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:8785270

  14. Velocardiofacial syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pike, A. C.; Super, M.

    1997-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is a syndrome of multiple anomalies that include cleft palate, cardiac defects, learning difficulties, speech disorder and characteristic facial features. It has an estimated incidence of 1 in 5000. The majority of cases have a microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. The phenotype of this condition shows considerable variation, not all the principal features are present in each case. Identification of the syndrome can be difficult as many of the anomalies are minor and present in the general population. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9497944

  15. Empirical modeling of an in vitro activity of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Svendsgaard, D J; Ward, T R; Tilson, H A; Kodavanti, P R

    1997-01-01

    position are more active than other congeners. Also, congeners with log Kow between 5.2 and 6.6 are generally more active. The estimated combination index indicated that the joint action of PCB congeners in the three commercial mixtures was less than dose additive. The error sum of squares was significantly large, which may indicate a lack of fit of the logistic model. Empirical Bayes estimates (EBE) are weighted averages of model predictions and observations of E50s and can be better estimates than the fitted model when there is a lack of fit. The PRESS statistic for the EBE indicated larger prediction error than for the logistic model, but the EBE provided better estimates of commercial mixture E50s based on dose addition. This may indicate that the logistic model is not incorporating all the information in the single congener data needed to predict mixtures. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. PMID:9349838

  16. Mammary gland neoplasia in long-term rodent studies.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I H; Russo, J

    1996-01-01

    in cancer initiation. Comparative studies with the development of the human breast and the pathogenesis of breast cancer have contributed to validate rodent-to-human extrapolations. However, it has not been definitively established what type of information is necessary for human risk assessment, whether currently toxicity testing methodologies are sufficient for fulfilling those needs, or whether treatment-induced tumorigenic responses in rodents are predictive of potential human risk. An alternative to the traditional bioassays are mechanism-based toxicology and molecular and cellular approaches, combined with comparative in vitro systems. These approaches might allow the rapid screen of chemicals for setting priorities for further studies to determine the dose-response relationship for chemical effects at low doses, to assess effects other than mutagenesis and/or tumorigenesis, or to establish qualitative and quantitative relationships of biomarkers to toxic effects. Until there is enough information on the predictive value of mechanism-based toxicology for risk assessment, this approach should be used in conjunction with and validated by the traditional in vivo long-term bioassays. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 8. A Figure 8. B Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. PMID:8899375

  17. Acquired mitochondrial impairment as a cause of optic nerve disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sadun, A

    1998-01-01

    . ( Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURES 24 FIGURES 25 FIGURES 26 FIGURES 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 PMID:10360310

  18. Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: a disease characterized by epithelial-like endothelial cells which influence management and prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Krachmer, J H

    1985-01-01

    endothelial rejection, three because of glaucoma, one because of a retrocorneal membrane, two from both a retrocorneal membrane and glaucoma, and one from both an endothelial rejection and glaucoma. Thus, glaucoma was involved in six of the nine failures (27% of all grafts). Clinically visible retrocorneal membranes formed in 4 of the 22 grafts. All four eyes had preoperative slit lamp-visible iridocorneal adhesions. The factor that most prominently influences keratoplasty prognosis is the presence of iridocorneal adhesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 PMID:3914130

  19. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254

  20. Evolution of neoplastic development in the liver of transgenic mice co-expressing c-myc and transforming growth factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Santoni-Rugiu, E.; Nagy, P.; Jensen, M. R.; Factor, V. M.; Thorgeirsson, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    contained small dysplastic hepatocytes and oval-like cells, similar to those found in the tumors. Transplantation of the transgenic liver tissues harboring only dysplasia with or without vascular lesions onto nude mice was able to yield HCCs composed of small diploid cells, suggesting that initiated cells are generated during the early dysplastic phase and can progress to HCC. It is therefore likely that large dysplastic hepatocytes undergo apoptosis, which may be closely associated with the up-regulation of TGF-beta 1 and uPA, whereas other cells evolve into the precursor population for HCC. Due to the simultaneous presence of c-myc, TGF-alpha, and dysplasia in premalignant human liver diseases, our transgenic mouse system appears to be an appropriate model for studying human hepatocarcinogenesis. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Fogire 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8701981

  1. The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A

    1984-01-01

    melanocytes and exhibited more haphazard arrangements of the melanofilaments, which were only partially melaninized. Mitochondria were more numerous than in dendritic melanocytes, and monoribosomes predominated over polyribosomes. Cytoplasmic filaments were inconspicuous. Cells in the immediate subepithelial connective tissue zone had features identical to those of the cells within the junctional nests. Smaller, lymphocytoid cells with less numerous and more rudimentary melanosomes were found in the middle and deeper portions of the lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 67 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 47 FIGURE 48 FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 56 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 FIGURE 68 FIGURE 69 FIGURE 70 FIGURE 71 FIGURE 72 FIGURE 73 FIGURE 74 FIGURE 75 FIGURE 76 FIGURE 77 FIGURE 78 FIGURE 79 FIGURE 80 FIGURE 81 FIGURE 82 FIGURE 83 FIGURE 84 FIGURE 85 FIGURE 86 FIGURE 87 FIGURE 88 FIGURE 89 PMID:6398936

  2. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52

  3. Dietary lead intakes for mother/child pairs and relevance to pharmacokinetic models.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Vidal, M; Jameson, C W; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Smith, A J; Korsch, M J

    1997-01-01

    the absorption or uptake of lead from dietary sources is similar in adult females and children of the age in this study. In spite of lower bone lead and faster bone remodeling and recycling in children compared with adult females, we see no differences between the mothers and their children in overall contribution of tissue lead to blood lead. Results from this study suggest that fractional absorption of ingested lead by children 6-11 years of age is comparable with absorption patterns observed among adult females in the 29-37-year-old age range. Because pharmacokinetic models apply a 40-50% absorption even for 7-year-old children, further investigations on fractional absorption of ingested lead by young children are warranted.Further investigations are especially needed in younger children than those who were subjects in the current study, particularly children in the 1-3-year-old age range. In addition, the effect of nutritional status and patterns of food intake on children's lead absorption require investigation, particularly given the increased prevalence of marginal nutritional status among low-income populations that are at increased risk of elevated blood lead levels. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. PMID:9405326

  4. Interactive effects of environmentally relevant polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on [3H]phorbol ester binding in rat cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, P R; Ward, T R

    1998-01-01

    of synergism in any of the combinations studied. These results suggest that the biological effects of binary mixtures of PCB congeners fit a dose-additive model, indicating that there is a specific site of action for these PCB congeners which is independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Environmental mixtures contain mostly noncoplanar PCB congeners, and because they appear to be biologically active, the potential human health risk by this group of chemicals should be considered in the risk assessment of PCBs. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9681975

  5. A physiologic approach to laparoscopic fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, J G; Trus, T L; Branum, G D; Waring, J P; Wood, W C

    1996-01-01

    or improved in 87% and no better in 13%. Overall patient satisfaction was 97%. Four patients have subsequently undergone laparotomy for repair of gastric perforation (1 year after operation), severe dumping, "slipped" Nissen, and repair of acute paraesophageal herniation. Two patients had laparoscopic revision of herniated fundoplications. Results of follow-up 24-hour pH studies were normal in 91% of patients more than 1 year after operation. In patients with poor esophageal motility, esophageal body pressure improved 1 year after operation in 75% and worsened in 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Although long-term efficacy data are lacking, intermediate follow-up shows laparoscopic fundoplication to be safe and effective. A physiologic approach to evaluation and follow-up of patients with gastroesophageal disease allows the surgeon to tailor antireflux surgery to esophageal body function and follow the function of the fundoplication and esophagus after operation. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 9. PMID:8645041

  6. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA and oncoprotein overexpression are associated with distinct morphological patterns of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, S. P.; Lin, B. T.; Xie, Y.; Paz, I. B.

    1998-01-01

    oncoproteins on the cellular protein. The morphology of the HPV-positive tumors suggests that HPV may have a predilection for a population of nonkeratinizing squamous cells or that the virally transformed cells inhibit keratinization of the tumor cells. Well keratinized tonsillar SCCs lack HPV DNA and are associated with overexpression of cyclin D1 protein and/or p53, suggesting that mechanisms that alter the cell cycle regulatory proteins, either by interaction with viral oncoproteins or by changes in the cellular proteins themselves, is critical for tumorigenesis of tonsillar SCC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9422532

  7. Connexin43 gap junctions in normal, regenerating, and cultured mouse bone marrow and in human leukemias: their possible involvement in blood formation.

    PubMed Central

    Krenacs, T.; Rosendaal, M.

    1998-01-01

    their membrane replicas. In normocellular human bone marrow, gap junctions were as rare as in adult mouse and similarly distributed, except that they were also on adipocytic membranes. In a few leukemic samples, characterized by an increased stromal/hematopoietic cell ratio, there were two- to fourfold more Cx43 (2.8 x 10(5) to 3.9 x 10(5)/mm3) than in the normal (1.0 x 10(5) to 1.2 x 10(5)/mm3). The cases included a hypoplastic acute lymphoblastic leukemia, an acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M4-5), a case of myelodysplastic syndrome with elevated number of megakaryocytes, and a CD34+ acute hemoblastosis, probably acute myeloid leukemia (French-American-British classification M7). Taken together, our results indicate that direct cell-cell communication may be involved in hematopoiesis, ie, in developmentally active epiphyseal bone marrow and when there is a demand for progenitors in regeneration. However, gap junctions may not play as important a role in resting adult hematopoiesis and in leukemias. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:9546360

  8. Identity of the core proteins of the large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans synthesized by skeletal muscle and prechondrogenic mesenchyme.

    PubMed Central

    Carrino, D A; Dennis, J E; Drushel, R F; Haynesworth, S E; Caplan, A I

    1994-01-01

    globular region at the end of the core protein opposite the end with the double-globe structure. M-CSPG and PG-M core proteins never show images with the double-globe structure. Instead, one end of the molecule has a single globular domain, and a second globular region is variably present at the opposite end of the core protein. Thus, by all three methods, the core proteins of PG-M and M-CSPG appear to be the same and both differ from the core protein of aggrecan. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8129731

  9. PBPK modeling/Monte Carlo simulation of methylene chloride kinetic changes in mice in relation to age and acute, subchronic, and chronic inhalation exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R S; Yang, R S; Morgan, D G; Moorman, M P; Kermani, H R; Sloane, R A; O'Connor, R W; Adkins, B; Gargas, M L; Andersen, M E

    1996-01-01

    During a 2-year chronic inhalation study on methylene chloride (2000 or 0 ppm; 6 hr/day, 5 days/week), gas-uptake pharmacokinetic studies and tissue partition coefficient determinations were conducted on female B6C3F1, mice after 1 day, 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years of exposure. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling coupled with Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap resampling for data analyses, a significant induction in the mixed function oxidase (MFO) rate constant (Vmaxc) was observed at the 1-day and 1-month exposure points when compared to concurrent control mice while decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) rate constant (Kfc) were observed in the 1-day and 1-month exposed mice. Within exposure groups, the apparent Vmaxc maintained significant increases in the 1-month and 2-year control groups. Although the same initial increase exists in the exposed group, the 2-year Vmaxc is significantly smaller than the 1-month group (p < 0.001). Within group differences in median Kfc values show a significant decrease in both 1-month and 2-year groups among control and exposed mice (p < 0.001). Although no changes in methylene chloride solubility as a result of prior exposure were observed in blood, muscle, liver, or lung, a marginal decrease in the fat:air partition coefficient was found in the exposed mice at p = 0.053. Age related solubility differences were found in muscle:air, liver:air, lung:air, and fat:air partition coefficients at p < 0.001, while the solubility of methylene chloride in blood was not affected by age (p = 0.461). As a result of this study, we conclude that age and prior exposure to methylene chloride can produce notable changes in disposition and metabolism and may represent important factors in the interpretation for toxicologic data and its application to risk assessment. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. PMID:8875160

  10. Derivation of ductlike cell lines from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma of the rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, O. S.; Faris, R. A.; Bell, R. H.; Kuhlmann, E. T.; Longnecker, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Two cell lines were derived from a transplantable acinar cell carcinoma that had been established from a primary carcinoma of the pancreas in an azaserine-treated Lewis rat. The cultured tumor cells initially produced amylase, but production of exocrine enzymes ceased after 1-2 weeks in culture. The cultured cells were tumorigenic in Lewis rats, and one line produced solid tumors composed of ductlike structures surrounded by dense fibrous tissue. The second cell line produced partially solid and partially cystic tumors with a mixed phenotype of squamous, mucinous, and glandular areas when it grew in vivo following regrafting. Both cell lines lost structural and immunohistochemical acinar cell markers while acquiring duct cell markers during culture and regrafting. These studies provide strong support for the hypothesis that ductlike carcinomas can arise from neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells in rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8391218

  11. Neural migration disorders studied by cerebral ultrasound and colour Doppler flow imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Pellicer, A.; Cabañas, F.; Pérez-Higueras, A.; García-Alix, A.; Quero, J.

    1995-01-01

    Cerebral ultrasound and colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) were used to diagnose a wide spectrum of anomalies of cell migration (17 patients): presumed lissencephaly (n = 12); schizencephaly of both fused (n = 2) and open lips (n = 2); hemimegalencephaly (n = 1); and subependymal type grey matter heterotopia (n = 12). The patients with grey matter heterotopia had irregular ventricular margins (n = 10), periventricular hyperechogenic bands (n = 12), and/or periventricular hyperechogenic nodules (n = 7). Some patients had more than one type of migration disorder as well as other central nervous system malformations. Cerebral ultrasound diagnoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or necropsy. It is concluded that colour Doppler flow imaging is a worthwhile addition to the assessment of brain surface anomalies. Images Figure 7 Figure 1 Figures 5 and 6 Figures 3 and 4 Figure 2 PMID:7583607

  12. PubMed Central

    Robin, S.; Bonneau, N. H.; Breton, L.; Vandoren, P.

    1982-01-01

    Cubitus-curvus in a bitch This paper presents a case of cubitus-curvus seen in a five month old female crossbreed dog. There is a description of the clinical and radiological aspects of the case and the corrective surgery is also well described. Special attention was given to the normal anatomy and physiology of the growth plates and to the traumas that can affect these structures. Finally, there is an explanation of the pathogeny of the cubitus-curvus. In our case, the evolution was favorable and the healing of the condition was complete. ImagesFigures 1 et 2.Figures 3 et 4.Figures 5 et 6.Figures 7, 8 et 9.Figures 10 et 11.Figures 12 et 13. PMID:17422108

  13. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  14. Deformation of human erythrocytes in a centrifugal field.

    PubMed Central

    Corry, W D; Meiselman, H J

    1978-01-01

    A new method for altering red cell morphology by high-speed centrifugation of cells through a physiological medium is described. Cell shape is preserved for microscopic analysis by allowing the sedimenting cells to pass from the physiological medium into a glutaraldehyde fixative solution. Examination of the deformed, fixed cells indicates that the vast majority resemble spheres with a flat, triangular tail. Measurements of the overall length of deformed cells show a nearly linear relationship between cell length and centrifugal force; average cell length increased from 8 to 11 micrometer as the centrifugal field was increased from 2,000 to 15,000 g. These data suggest that this centrifugal technique may be useful for evaluating cellular deformability and, potentially, the material properties of red cells. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:413592

  15. A morphologic study of unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Wills, E. J.; Walton, B.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of postoperative jaundice throughout the United Kingdom allowed the detailed analysis of 76 patients with unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia ("halothane hepatitis"). In 16 patients liver biopsy specimens were examined by light and/or electron microscopy to determine whether the liver morphology could aid the differentiation between "halothane" and "acute viral" hepatitis. The mitochondrial changes often claimed to be characteristic of holothane hepatitis were unremarkable in our patients. Since lipid vacuolation and a predominantly centrilobular distribution of necrosis are not classically described in fatal viral hepatitis, the presence of these features in some of our fatal cases was of some diagnostic interest. In general, however, the results of light and electron microscopy in patients with unexplained postoperative hepatitis is considered to have little differential diagnositc value. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:645815

  16. Simulataneous occlusion of the central retinal artery and vein.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, R D

    1979-01-01

    Combined CRAO/CRVO in our patients occurred with rapid visual loss, usually over a few hours, associated with evidence of inflammation and/or cellular infiltration of the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve. The ophthalmoscopic appearance was characteristic, with papilledema and hemorrhages of various types in the posterior pole. The retina also showed ischemic changes, with a milky-white color and cherry-red macula. Fluorescein angiography, when possible, showed no retinal vascular flow, and normal choroidal flow. After six to eight weeks, optic atrophy was evident and the retinal vessels were markedly narrowed or obliterated. The macula showed typical cystic changes. Neovascularization often developed, leading to neovascular glaucoma as the end result. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B PMID:583535

  17. A clinical pathologic study of mercurialentis medicamentosus.

    PubMed Central

    Garron, L K; Wood, I S; Spencer, W H; Hayes, T L

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-one patients who used eye drops containing the preservative, phenylmercuric nitrate for from 3 to 15 years, developed a brownish pigmentation of the anterior capsule of the pupillary area. Light and electron microscopic studies on two lenses demonstrated deposits of dense particulate material resembling melanin pigment on and in the anterior capsule of the lens in the area of the pupil. Special studies, including electron microprobe analysis and neutron activation analysis established the presence of mercury in a lens with mercurialentis. No mercury was found in two lenses used as controls. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 9 C PMID:867632

  18. Inhibitors of adriamycin-induced histamine release in vitro limit adriamycin cardiotoxicity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Klugmann, F. B.; Decorti, G.; Candussio, L.; Grill, V.; Mallardi, F.; Baldini, L.

    1986-01-01

    The activity of theophylline and disodium cromoglycate was tested on adriamycin-induced histamine release in vitro and on adriamycin cardiotoxicity in vivo. Both substances significantly inhibited the release of histamine induced by 100 micrograms ml-1 of adriamycin on rat peritoneal cells and produced significant protection against adriamycin-mediated acute and chronic cardiotoxicity in mice. N-acetylcysteine, a free radical scavenger, successfully used in the prevention of the cardiomyopathy, was also found to be an inhibitor of histamine release induced by adriamycin and compound 48/80 on rat peritoneal cells. This study further supports the hypothesis that the release of histamine may be involved in the pathogenesis of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2432914

  19. Experimental lead nitrate poisoning: microscopic and ultrastructural study of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.).

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, V; Vincente, J A; Redondo, E; Gãzquez, A; Duran, E

    1990-01-01

    A microscopic, ultrastructural, and morphometric study was made of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.) subjected to acute experimental lead nitrate poisoning. Twenty-one adult tench were subjected to poisoning and a further 22 were used as controls. Lesions were characterized by the appearance of edema and epithelial hyperplasia and necrosis, both in cells forming part of the filtration barrier and in those in the interlamellar space. These processes developed in the course of the experiment, leading to the death of tench after 12 to 15 days of exposure to 75 ppm lead nitrate, at which point the concentrations of lead in the gills had reached their maximum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. PMID:2088740

  20. Pitfalls in the investigation of children with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Smellie, J M; Rigden, S P

    1995-01-01

    The histories and imaging results are presented in 10 children in whom errors had been made in the interpretation of early investigations. Ultrasonography may not detect either vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) or renal scars or inflammation. The reduced nephrogram or renal swelling following a first attack of acute pyelonephritis may not be recognised without renal measurement on an intravenous urogram. Renal scarring may be diagnosed incorrectly on the basis of functional defects of isotope uptake on a technetium 99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid study. In the absence of VUR, the micturating cystogram will not visualise the kidneys. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 p254-b p254-c Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7741579

  1. The histopathology of rat lung following exposure to zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke or installation with zinc chloride followed by treatment with 70% oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R F; Marrs, T C; Rice, P; Masek, L C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of inhaled zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke (11,580 mg x min/m3) and intratracheally instilled zinc chloride (2.5 mg/kg body weight) have been studied in rat lung. The effects of subsequent treatment with 70% oxygen have been studied after both procedures. Both the inhalation of the smoke and instillation of zinc chloride produced similar effects that included pulmonary edema, alveolitis and, at a later stage, some fibrosis. After zinc chloride instillation, the pathological changes largely spared the periphery of the lung, while following smoke inhalation they were more diffuse. Subsequent oxygen administration had little effect on the development or progression of the pathological changes. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2384070

  2. Variability of neuropathologic lesions in experimental methylmercurial encephalopathy in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, C. M.; Mottet, N. K.; Body, R. L.; Luschei, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Acute and chronic intoxications of rhesus monkeys with methylmercury produced lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) with different distributions. Neuronal degeneration and astroglial proliferation predominated in the dentate nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, thalamus and pontine nuclei in 2 monkeys that received 2 mg/kg/day for 17 and 18 days, whereas pseudolaminar necrosis and astroglial proliferation were observed in the cerebral crotex, maximally in the calcarine and insular regions, in 4 monkeys that received 0.5 to 0.8 mg/kg/day for 3 to 8.5 months. Mercury concentrations in the CNS were much higher in the acutely intoxicated animals than in the chronically intoxicated animals, but the correlation between concentrations of mercury and the histologic destruction was not precise. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:821350

  3. Direct observation of defect structure in protein crystals by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Devaud, G; Furcinitti, P S; Fleming, J C; Lyon, M K; Douglas, K

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the structure of S-layers isolated from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the AFM images, we were able to directly observe individual dimers of the crystal, defects in the crystal structure, and twin boundaries. We have identified two types of boundaries, one defined by a mirror plane and the other by a glide plane. This work shows that twin boundaries are highly structured regions that are directly related to the organization of units within each crystal domain. Projection maps from TEM images have shown that there are significant differences in the final average maps has allowed us to relate high magnification views obtained by AFM to the relatively high resolution information obtained by electron microscopy and image processing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:1420904

  4. Tissue and Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Catabolizing (R)-Amygdalin in Mature Prunus serotina Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and d-glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. The tissue and subcellular localizations of these enzymes were determined within intact black cherry seeds by direct enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and colloidal gold immunocytochemical techniques. Taken together, these procedures showed that the two β-glucosidases are restricted to protein bodies of the procambium, which ramifies throughout the cotyledons. Although amygdalin hydrolase occurred within the majority of procambial cells, prunasin hydrolase was confined to the peripheral layers of this meristematic tissue. Highest levels of mandelonitrile lyase were observed in the protein bodies of the cotyledonary parenchyma cells, with lesser amounts in the procambial cell protein bodies. The residual endosperm tissue had insignificant levels of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:16652960

  5. The Knobbed Acrosome Defect in Beef Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Albert D.

    1986-01-01

    The knobbed acrosome defect was found at levels of 25 to 100 percent of spermatozoa from 16 of 2054 beef bulls. The incidence of this defect appeared to be particularly high in the Charolais breed. Pedigree analysis of some of the affected Charolais bulls indicated there may be a genetic predisposition for this sperm defect. In eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears the most common form of the abnormality was a flattened or indented apex of the sperm head. A refractile bead at the apex of the sperm head was seen less commonly. Electron microscopy of the spermatozoa from one bull showed that the abnormality was similar to the knobbed sperm defect previously described in Friesian bulls. A breeding trial confirmed that bulls producing spermatozoa with a high incidence of knobbed acrosomes are infertile. ImagesFigure 2 and 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6 and 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422706

  6. Acute colitis produced by chemotactic peptides in rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chester, J. F.; Ross, J. S.; Malt, R. A.; Weitzman, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Colonic inflammation was produced in rats and mice by peptides chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Instillation of formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and formylnorleucyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FNLP) into isolated segments of rat colon caused marked mucosal edema and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration within 2 hours. Higher concentrations of FNLP caused ulceration and necrosis as well. Formylmethionine (FMet), a compound with less chemotactic activity, caused much less inflammation. In mice, rectal instillation of FNLP caused dose-dependent acute mucosal inflammation which persisted for longer than 12 hours. Twice-weekly rectal instillation of FNLP provided a model of colitis based on neutrophil chemotaxis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:4061566

  7. A study of guanidinobenzoatase during development of mesothelioma induced in the rat by fibrous erionite.

    PubMed Central

    Steven, F. S.; Hill, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Exposure to the fibrous mineral erionite is known to induce mesothelioma in man and laboratory animals. Previous studies demonstrated the presence of a trypsin-like protease associated with tumour cells. This protease could be demonstrated by the use of fluorescent probes which located cells possessing this enzyme. We have employed this fluorescent probe technique to follow the early events in the lungs of rats exposed to erionite. The evidence presented shows that the mesothelial cells initially lack this enzyme but the enzyme can be detected within hours of exposure of the rat to erionite. The number of mesothelial cells possessing the enzyme steadily increased after a single exposure to the mineral until the animal finally died with a massive pleural tumour. This is the first study of such fluorescent probes in the early stages of tumour induction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2851310

  8. CONGENITAL ABSENCE OF THE VAGINA—Surgical Correction

    PubMed Central

    Gaster, Joseph

    1955-01-01

    In the two cases of congenital absence of the vagina reported herein, the embryologic point of arrest of development of the mullerian ducts was identical. Both patients had a rudimentary uterus, and one had a fibroid tumor on the rudimentary uterus. As a part of operation to construct a vagina in such cases, exploratory pelvic laparotomy appears to be a desirable step in order to determine the status of the internal genital organs. The use of a split thickness skin graft sewn around a vaginal mold and inserted into the dissected vaginal space results in more rapid healing, less scar tissue and a vagina that is soft, pliable and normal in appearance, even to the extent of having rugal folds. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:13230915

  9. S-100 protein in soft-tissue tumors derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, K.; Wollmann, R.; Jerkovic, M.

    1982-01-01

    In soft tissues outside the central nervous system, S-100 protein is found normally only in Schwann cells. Using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunohistochemical method S-100 was also found in tumors derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes, including neurofibromas, neurilemomas, granular cell myoblastomas, cutaneous nevi, and malignant melanomas. S-100 was not detected in malignant Schwannomas, neuroblastomas, oat cell carcinomas, medullary carcinomas of the thyroid, paragangliomas, or meningiomas. S-100 was also absent from neoplasms of soft tissues not usually considered to arise from cells of neural crest origin. S-100 appears to be a useful marker for identifying neoplasms derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6278936

  10. PubMed Central

    Teuscher, E.; Lamothe, P.; Tellier, P.; Lavallée, J. -C.

    1982-01-01

    A toxic nephrosis in calves treated with a drug containing tetracycline degradation products Tetracyclines may prove to be toxic, especially when they are administered in excessive quantity. Toxicity and high mortality were experienced in calves that had been given the recommended dose of a drug which accidentally contained tetracycline degradation products, namely: 4-epianhydrotetracycline, epitetracycline and anhydrotetracycline. Lesions of acute and subacute nephrosis were observed. In calves dying rapidly, an abnormal coloration of skeletal muscles, myocardium and brain was also noted on postmortem examination, and a degeneration of the liver was evident. As the calves were already sick when they received the drug, dehydration and other pathogenic factors might have worsened their condition. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:17422199

  11. Jugular Foramen Arteriovenous Shunt with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rodesch, G.; Comoy, J.; Hurth, M.; Lasjaunias, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 37-year-old man with an extracerebral arteriovenous fistula at the skull base, revealed by subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. The malformation was fed by the neuromeningeal trunk of the ascending pharyngeal artery and drained into left laterobulbar veins. Embolization with bucrylate was performed and occluded totally the shunting zone. A 1-year follow-up angiogram confirmed the good stability of the result, the patient being asymptomatic. This case emphasizes the quality of results that can be obtained with bucrylate in arterioverious fistulas presenting with hemorrhage. It confirms that the external carotid artery must be studied when dealing with intracranial hemorrhage. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography may depict vascular abnormalities but do not always indicate the shunting area, thus the pathologic type of the malformation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 5p136-b PMID:17170835

  12. Insects and Spiders: Infestations and Bites

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, E.W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263961

  13. Sacroiliac joint pain due to bacterial infection: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Burns, SH; Mierau, DR; Howlett, E

    1995-01-01

    Isolated infection of the sacroiliac joint is a rare cause of low back pain. Delayed diagnosis can result in significant morbidity. The diagnosis may be missed initially if physicians do not consider the possibility of infection. The clinical index of suspicion should increase in the presence of certain historical and examination findings. These include intravenous drug use, immunosuppression, recent infection elsewhere, fever and warmth or swelling over the sacroiliac joint. Two cases of sacroiliac joint pain due to Staphylococcus aureus infection are presented, with an overview of the etiology, diagnosis and management of the disorder. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6(a)Figure 6(b)Figure 7Figure 8

  14. The epidemiology of prescribing in an urban general practice

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The total prescribing in an urban general practice was recorded over a six-month period and classified according to the length of time that drugs were continued. The number of patients receiving any prescription rose with age, as did the total number of items per patient prescribed for; while the continued items rose with age, the number of items prescribed once only per patient remained constant in all age groups. The bulk of the total prescribing was for the elderly and this was mainly for continued items. The classification also shows that certain drug groups are liable to be continued whereas others are virtually always prescribed once only. The implications of these findings for self-audit of prescribing and the care of the elderly in general practice are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7452600

  15. Morphological and morphometric study of atrial specific granules and other secretory components in dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Caliari, M. V.; Lana, M.; Leite, V. H.; Tafuri, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in blood volume can induce morphometric and morphological alterations in the secretory complex of the myoendocrine cells due to the stretching of atrial walls. These alterations were studied by electron microscopy, using dogs infected intraperitonially with Trypanosoma cruzi and necropsied during the acute phase of the infection when congestive heart failure was present. Several changes were observed in the myoendocrine cells of the heart: hypertrophy and hyperplasia of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, increase in telenuclear secretory complex, increase in fusion of type B atrial specific granules (ASG), decrease of the total number of ASG, enlargement of the maximum diameter of type A ASG and a relative increase in the number of type B ASG. These alterations suggest a larger secretory activity of the atrial myoendocrine cells with a larger secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7547444

  16. Lipid accumulation in prosthetic vascular grafts. Experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Chignier, E.; Guidollet, J.; Lhopital, C.; Louisot, P.; Eloy, R.

    1990-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that the endoprosthetic tissue, developed at the contact of Dacron and Gore-Tex vascular prostheses replacing the infrarenal aortae of healthy dogs, presents a particular lipidic pattern as compared with the adjacent intimal arterial layer. The modified lipidic pattern is characterized by a significant increase in the total amounts of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides, despite a normal lipidic plasma profile. Histochemical studies showed that lipid droplets are accumulated in the cytoplasm of deeply situated cells and in the extracellular matrix. These findings support the idea that lipids may be trapped within the pseudo-intima of synthetic vascular grafts, even in the absence of a major plasma lipid disorder, and contribute to the prosthesis failure. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2399933

  17. A functional marker centromere with no detectable alpha-satellite, satellite III, or CENP-B protein: activation of a latent centromere?

    PubMed Central

    Voullaire, L E; Slater, H R; Petrovic, V; Choo, K H

    1993-01-01

    We report the investigation of an unusual human supernumerary marker chromosome 10 designated "mar del(10)." This marker is present together with two other marker chromosomes in the karyotype of a boy with mild developmental delay. It has a functional centromere at a primary constriction and is mitotically stable. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using alpha-satellite and satellite III DNA as probes failed to detect any signal at the primary constriction site. CENP-B protein could not be demonstrated, although the presence of at least some centromeric proteins was confirmed using a CREST antiserum. Consideration of these and other cytogenetic and FISH results supports a mechanism of formation of the mar del(10) chromosome involving the activation of a latent intercalary centromere at 10q25. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7684888

  18. Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part III: the “unstable” cervical spine †

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Marion

    1990-01-01

    In this, the last of the three part series on the anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine, the clinical entity-instability-is addressed. A summative definition of instability, addressing both the clinical and radiographic issues, is presented based on current available literature. The etiology of instability is discussed as it pertains to three possible mechanisms: acute trauma, latent evidence of trauma and repetitive microtrauma. The anatomical, clinical and radiographic aspects in each of these meachanisms is discussed. A case report is presented to illustrate the salient features of this potentially disastrous condition. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of defineable limits in each of the presented definitions, calling for future research into the clinical and radiographic correlations of abnormal cervical motion. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6

  19. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  20. Virtual electrodes in cardiac tissue: a common mechanism for anodal and cathodal stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Wikswo, J P; Lin, S F; Abbas, R A

    1995-01-01

    Traditional cable analyses cannot explain complex patterns of excitation in cardiac tissue with unipolar, extracellular anodal, or cathodal stimuli. Epifluorescence imaging of the transmembrane potential during and after stimulation of both refractory and excitable tissue shows distinctive regions of simultaneous depolarization and hyperpolarization during stimulation that act as virtual cathodes and anodes. The results confirm bidomain model predictions that the onset (make) of a stimulus induces propagation from the virtual cathode, whereas stimulus termination (break) induces it from the virtual anode. In make stimulation, the virtual anode can delay activation of the underlying tissue, whereas in break stimulation this occurs under the virtual cathode. Thus make and break stimulations in cardiac tissue have a common mechanism that is the result of differences in the electrical anisotropy of the intracellular and extracellular spaces and provides clear proof of the validity of the bidomain model. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8599628

  1. Lymphoreticular Lesions in Beef Cattle at an Ontario Abattoir

    PubMed Central

    Herenda, Drago; Dukes, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    During the period April 1983 to March 1986, lymphoreticular lesions in cattle were surveyed at an Ontario abattoir. Postmortem examination of 171,157 cattle revealed macroscopic lesions in 696 animals (0.4%). The most frequent finding was abscessation of a single lymph node, a finding that was observed in 353 cases (50.7% of animals with lesions/0.2% of total slaughter). Actinobacillary granulomas were present in 252 lymph nodes (36.2%/0.1%). Other specific lesions included mycobacteriosis and mycotic or parasitic lymphadenitis. Cases of nonspecific chronic lymphadenitis or granulomas in lymph nodes, pigmentations, malformations, hyperplasia, and neoplasia were also seen. Abscesses were the most common splenic lesions. One animal had localized lymphangiectasia of the epicardium. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6. PMID:17423120

  2. Lactotransferrin immunocytochemistry in Alzheimer and normal human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Kawamata, T.; Tooyama, I.; Yamada, T.; Walker, D. G.; McGeer, P. L.

    1993-01-01

    Lactotransferrin (LF) expression was investigated immunocytochemically in postmortem brain tissues of normal controls and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The antibody to LF stained some neurons weakly in young adult brains, but it stained many neurons as well as the glia of all types in elderly brains. LF expression was greatly up-regulated in both neurons and glia in affected AD tissue. It was very strongly associated with such extracellular pathological entities as diffuse and consolidated amyloid deposits and extracellular neurofibrillary tangles. In addition, it was identified in a minority of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, and degenerative neurites. LF is an iron scavenger and a complement inhibitor. Up-regulation may be a defense mechanism in AD-affected brain tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8494052

  3. Plastination: a modern approach to chiropractic teaching

    PubMed Central

    Grondin, Gilles

    1998-01-01

    Plastination is a unique method for the preservation of biological material for teaching and research. The plastinated specimens are dry, odorless, non-toxic and durable. They can be manipulated by teachers and students without protective equipment like gloves. Invented in 1978 by Doctor Gunther von Hagens from the University of Heidelberg, this technique, that involves the replacement of water by a curable polymer, has spread rapidly all around the world and is actually used in over 250 universities and colleges. To our knowledge, the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, is the first institution to use plastinated specimens for teaching anatomy, neuroanatomy, pathology and radiology to students in chiropractic. This paper describes the various steps of the method (fixation, dehydration, impregnation and curing) and presents some examples of the utilization of plastinated specimens. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6

  4. Establishment of two new cell lines derived from human breast carcinomas with HER-2/neu amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, P.; Leibovitz, A.; Dalton, W.; Villar, H.; Kute, T.; Davis, J.; Nagle, R.; Trent, J.

    1991-01-01

    Two human cell lines (UACC-812 and 893), both containing significant amplification of the HER-2/neu gene, were established from biopsy specimens of breast carcinomas. One patient had Stage II breast carcinoma; the other had metastatic disease. Characterisation of these lines has revealed that both are highly aneuploid containing multiple clonal chromosome alterations, have doubling times near 100 h, and are oestrogen and progesterone receptor negative. Electron microscopy demonstrates that both lines contain numerous microvilli, cytoplasmic filaments, multivesicular bodies, and desmosomes. Immunoblot analysis for P-glycoprotein using the monoclonal antibody C219 was negative for both patient cell lines. These relatively rare cell lines may represent a useful model to investigate human breast carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1674877

  5. Pathologic and virologic study of fatal Lassa fever in man.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. H.; McCormick, J. B.; Johnson, K. M.; Webb, P. A.; Komba-Kono, G.; Elliott, L. H.; Gardner, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Postmortem examination of 21 virologically documented cases of Lassa fever, including 6 complete autopsies, was performed as part of a field study of community-acquired Lassa fever in Sierra Leone. The most consistently observed lesions were hepatocellular, adrenal, and splenic necrosis and adrenal cytoplasmic inclusions. Neither these lesions, nor other milder and less constantly observed lesions such as myocarditis, renal tubular injury, and interstitial pneumonia, appeared severe enough to explain the cause of death in Lassa fever. The central nervous system (CNS) contained no specific lesions. Viral titrations demonstrated high viral content in liver, lung, spleen, kidney, heart, placenta, and mammary gland. Clinical laboratory data included elevation of hepatic enzymes, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Because of the paucity of pathologic lesions in spite of widely disseminated viral infection, further investigation of humoral inflammatory mechanisms is indicated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7081389

  6. Brown's syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K W

    1999-01-01

    forced duction testing by observing the pattern of strabismus including torsion. Because of the chance for spontaneous resolution, conservative management, not surgery, should be the first line of treatment for acquired Brown's syndrome. If surgery is indicated, a novel procedure, the silicone tendon expander, is an effective option with excellent long-term outcomes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:10703149

  7. Orbital blow-out fractures: correlation of preoperative computed tomography and postoperative ocular motility.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G J; Garcia, G H; Logani, S C; Murphy, M L; Sheth, B P; Seth, A K

    1998-01-01

    intrinsic damage and subsequent fibrosis, appear to result in poorer motility outcomes. Although this retrospective study does not conclusively prove its benefit, an urgent surgical approach to selected injuries should be considered. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:10360296

  8. Increase in proliferation and apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells early in the natural history of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, N. L.; Shannon, P. T.; Cutz, E.; Yeger, H.; Sherman, P. M.

    1997-01-01

    Childhood acquisition of Helicobacter pylori is a critical risk factor for gastric cancer. Since tumorigenesis involves deregulation of proliferation and apoptosis, we examined gastric epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis in H. pylori-infected children. Apoptosis and proliferation of gastric antral epithelial cells in biopsy specimens from patients with H. pylori-induced gastritis, secondary gastritis, and noninflamed controls were compared. p53 protein expression was examined immunohistochemically. Apoptotic cells were identified in the surface epithelium in each group. The apoptotic index was higher in specimens from patients with H. pylori gastritis (120 +/- 10) than secondary gastritis (50 +/- 10) and noninflamed controls (40 +/- 10, analysis of variance P < 0.005). Apoptosis decreased following H. pylori eradication and resolution of gastritis (P < 0.02). An expanded proliferative compartment was identified in H. pylori-induced gastritis (32.4 +/- 3.5; proliferative labeling index +/- SE) compared with secondary gastritis (18.9 +/- 2.8) and noninflamed controls (13.7 +/- 3.1, analysis of variance P < 0.01). The accelerated cell turnover was associated with p53 overexpression (analysis of variance P < 0.005). Accumulation of p53 was not associated with expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. The occurrence of altered cell turnover early in the natural history of chronic infection provides an explanation for the increased risk of gastric cancer development associated with childhood acquisition of infection. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9403720

  9. Ischaemic and haemorrhagic brain lesions in newborns with seizures and normal Apgar scores.

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, E.; Cowan, F.; Rutherford, M.; Acolet, D.; Pennock, J.; Dubowitz, L.

    1995-01-01

    Serial ultrasound scans and conventional and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed on 16 neonates who presented with seizures. The Apgar scores were normal and subsequently no metabolic or infective cause could be found. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extent to which early sequential imaging can elucidate the cause of seizures in apparently neurologically normal infants. Fourteen of the infants had haemorrhagic or ischaemic lesions on MRI and these were detected by ultrasound scanning in 11. Early ultrasound scanning detected the haemorrhagic lesions but the ischaemic lesions were often not seen until the end of the first week of life. Early MRI, however, was able to detect all the ischaemic lesions. The evolution of the insult could be timed by using serial ultrasound scans and a combination of diffusion weighted and conventional MRI during the first week of life, confirming a perinatal insult even in the absence of fetal distress. Although the aetiology of these lesions remains obscure, serial ultrasound scans will detect the presence of cerebral lesions in neonates presenting with isolated seizures but additional MRI sequences will give better definition on type, site, and extent of the pathology. Images Figures 5 and 6 Figure 2 Figures 3 and 4 Figure 1 PMID:7583609

  10. The avian respiratory system: a unique model for studies of respiratory toxicosis and for monitoring air quality.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Brain, J D; Wang, N

    1997-01-01

    There are many distinct differences (morphologic, physiologic, and mechanical) between the bird's lung-air-sac respiratory system and the mammalian bronchoalveolar lung. In this paper, we review the physiology of the avian respiratory system with attention to those mechanisms that may lead to significantly different results, relative to those in mammals, following exposure to toxic gases and airborne particulates. We suggest that these differences can be productively exploited to further our understanding of the basic mechanisms of inhalant toxicology (gases and particulates). The large mass-specific gas uptake by the avian respiratory system, at rest and especially during exercise, could be exploited as a sensitive monitor of air quality. Birds have much to offer in our understanding of respiratory toxicology, but that expectation can only be realized by investigating, in a wide variety of avian taxa, the pathophysiologic interactions of a broad range of inhaled toxicants on the bird's unique respiratory system. Images p188-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:9105794

  11. Cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding human fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, the enzyme deficient in hereditary tyrosinemia: assignment of the gene to chromosome 15.

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, D; Labelle, Y; Bérubé, D; Arden, K; Cavenee, W; Gagné, R; Tanguay, R M

    1991-01-01

    Type 1 hereditary tyrosinemia (HT) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH; E.C.3.7.1.2). We have isolated human FAH cDNA clones by screening a liver cDNA expression library using specific antibodies and plaque hybridization with a rat FAH cDNA probe. A 1,477-bp cDNA was sequenced and shown to code for FAH by an in vitro transcription-translation assay and sequence homology with tryptic fragments of purified FAH. Transient expression of this FAH cDNA in transfected CV-1 mammalian cells resulted in the synthesis of an immunoreactive protein comigrating with purified human liver FAH on SDS-PAGE and having enzymatic activity as shown by the hydrolysis of the natural substrate fumarylacetoacetate. This indicates that the single polypeptide chain encoded by the FAH gene contains all the genetic information required for functional activity, suggesting that the dimer found in vivo is a homodimer. The human FAH cDNA was used as a probe to determine the gene's chromosomal localization using somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. The human FAH gene maps to the long arm of chromosome 15 in the region q23-q25. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:1998338

  12. Fast diffusion along defects and corrugations in phospholipid P beta, liquid crystals.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, M B; Chan, W K; Webb, W W

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion of a fluorescent lipid analogue in liquid crystals of the anisotropic P beta, phase of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) had been found to be highly variable, suggesting structural defect pathways. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) experiments imply two effective diffusion pathways with coefficients differing by at least 100. This is consistent with fast diffusion along submicroscopic bands of disordered material ("defects") in the bilayer corrugations characteristic of this phase. Due to strains during transformation from the L alpha phase, the axis of the corrugations is ordinarily disrupted by mosaic patches rotationally disoriented within the mean plane of the molecular bilayers, although larger oriented domains are sometimes adventitiously aligned into microscopically visible striped textures. The corrugations are also systematically aligned along positive disclinations pairs or "oily streaks." Thus, fast diffusion occurs parallel to the disclination lines and along the textured stripes. FPR results yield an upper limit on the effective diffusion in the ordered material of D less than or equal to 2 X 10(-16) cm2/s at 22 degrees C, D less than or equal to 3 X 10(-17) cm2/s at 13 degrees C. In contrast the diffusion coefficient along defect pathways where disordered ribbons are aligned is D approximately 4 X 10(-11) cm2/s at 16 degrees C. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:6616004

  13. Helium-neon laser treatment transforms fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Pourreau-Schneider, N.; Ahmed, A.; Soudry, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Kopp, F.; Franquin, J. C.; Martin, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    The differentiation of myofibroblastic cells from normal human gingival fibroblasts in vitro has been established by transmission electron microscopy and quantitated by immunohistochemistry, using antigelsolin monoclonal antibodies. Untreated control cultures were compared to cultures exposed to Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation. A direct and massive transformation of the cultured fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was observed as early as 24 hours after laser treatment, whereas control cultures were comprised of only resting fibroblasts and active fibroblasts. This in vitro induction of myofibroblasts may be analogous to that which occurs in vivo. Therefore we undertook a similar study using biopsies from gingival tissues after wisdom tooth extraction. Myofibroblasts were present in the connective tissue of laser-treated gums 48 hours after irradiation, but not in untreated contralateral control tissues. These data provide evidence that the primary biologic effect of the Helium-Neon laser on connective tissue is the rapid generation of myofibroblasts from fibroblasts. The induction of a phenotype with contractile properties may have clinical significance in the acceleration of the wound-healing process. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2372040

  14. Spontaneous apoptosis in human thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tiso, M.; Gangemi, R.; Bargellesi Severi, A.; Pizzolitto, S.; Fabbi, M.; Risso, A.

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis seems to be involved in different stages of immune cell development. In particular, experimental evidence suggests that it is a major form of cell death in the thymus. The present analysis of human thymocytes reveals that a fraction of these cells, cultured in vitro, undergoes spontaneous apoptosis. This observation is based both on molecular (DNA fragmentation) and morphological (electron microscopic) investigations of the cells. The apoptotic thymocytes are CD3- or CD3lo, CD4lo, and CD8lo and do not express Bcl-2 protein. Furthermore, thymocytes die by apoptosis when exposed to pharmacological stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, dexamethasone, ATP, or Ca++ ionophore. Thus the apoptotic machinery in thymocytes can be triggered by an imbalance in growth factors in the in vitro culture media and can be modulated by various biochemical signals. The process of spontaneous apoptosis is independent of mRNA or protein synthesis, as actinomycin D and cycloheximide fail to inhibit this phenomenon. Furthermore, apoptosis seems to require active oxidative phosphorylation, as it is prevented by incubation of the cells with inhibitors of the respiratory chain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7639336

  15. Phase-Specific Polypeptides and Poly(A)+ RNAs during the Cell Cycle in Synchronous Cultures of Catharanthus roseus Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Naoto; Watanabe, Akira; Komamine, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study shows an overall analysis of gene expression during the cell cycle in synchronous suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus cells. First, the cellular cytoplasmic proteins were fractionated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and visualized by staining with silver. Seventeen polypeptides showed qualitative or quantitative changes during the cell cycle. Second, the rates of synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins were also investigated by autoradiography by labeling cells with [35S]methionine at each phase of the cell cycle. The rates of synthesis of 13 polypeptides were found to vary during the cell cycle. The silverstained electrophoretic pattern of proteins in the G2 phase in particular showed characteristic changes in levels of polypeptides, while the rates of synthesis of polypeptides synthesized during the G2 phase did not show such phase-specific changes. This result suggests that posttranslational processing of polypeptides occurs during or prior to the G2 phase. In the G1 and S phases and during cytokinesis, several other polypeptides were specifically synthesized. Finally, the variation of mRNAs was analyzed from the autoradiograms of in vitro translation products of poly(A)+ RNA isolated at each phase. Three poly(A)+ RNAs increased in amount from the G1 to the S phase and one poly (A)+ RNA increased preferentially from the G2 phase to cytokinesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:16666641

  16. Surgical treatment of obesity: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Fobi, M. A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease due to excess fat storage, a genetic predisposition, and strong environmental contributions. This problem is worldwide, and the incidence is increasing daily. There are medical, physical, social, economic, and psychological comorbid conditions associated with obesity. There is no cure for obesity except possibly prevention. Nonsurgical treatment has been inadequate in providing sustained weight loss. Currently, surgery offers the only viable treatment option with longterm weight loss and maintenance for the morbidly obese. Surgeries for weight loss are called bariatric surgeries. There is no one operation that is effective for all patients. Gastric bypass operations are the most common operations currently used. Because there are inherent complications from surgeries, bariatric surgeries should be performed in a multidisciplinary setting. The laparoscopic approach is being used by some surgeons in performing the various operations. The success rate--usually defined as >50% excess weight loss that is maintained for at least five years from bariatric surgery--ranges from 40% in the simple to >70% in the complex operations. The weight loss from surgical treatment results in significant improvements and, in some cases, complete resolution of comorbid conditions associated with obesity. Patients undergoing surgery for obesity need lifelong nutritional supplements and medical monitoring. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:14746355

  17. A novel method for structure-based prediction of ion channel conductance properties.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, O S; Breed, J; Smith, G R; Sansom, M S

    1997-01-01

    A rapid and easy-to-use method of predicting the conductance of an ion channel from its three-dimensional structure is presented. The method combines the pore dimensions of the channel as measured in the HOLE program with an Ohmic model of conductance. An empirically based correction factor is then applied. The method yielded good results for six experimental channel structures (none of which were included in the training set) with predictions accurate to within an average factor of 1.62 to the true values. The predictive r2 was equal to 0.90, which is indicative of a good predictive ability. The procedure is used to validate model structures of alamethicin and phospholamban. Two genuine predictions for the conductance of channels with known structure but without reported conductances are given. A modification of the procedure that calculates the expected results for the effect of the addition of nonelectrolyte polymers on conductance is set out. Results for a cholera toxin B-subunit crystal structure agree well with the measured values. The difficulty in interpreting such studies is discussed, with the conclusion that measurements on channels of known structure are required. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 10 PMID:9138559

  18. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-induced pathologic alterations.

    PubMed Central

    Remick, D. G.; Strieter, R. M.; Eskandari, M. K.; Nguyen, D. T.; Genord, M. A.; Raiford, C. L.; Kunkel, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) has been implicated strongly as a principal mediator in the pathogenesis of septic shock. The authors investigated the in vivo production of TNF in CBA/J and CD-1 mice that had been primed by an intraperitoneal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant followed 2 weeks later by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TNF bioactivity peaked in both the ascites and plasma one hour after challenge, and TNF mRNA expression in the ascites cells peaked 30 minutes after LPS. After the induction of bioactivity, an interstitial pulmonary neutrophilic infiltrate occurred that was quantitated both morphometrically and by a myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. Peripheral blood neutrophilia and lymphopenia developed after the LPS injection (PMNs: control, 46 +/- 2%; LPS, 65 +/- 3%; Lymphs control, 53 +/- 2%; LPS, 37 +/- 3%). Treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) completely inhibited the pulmonary neutrophilic infiltrate as measured by the (MPO) assay. Because Dex will inhibit the production of several cytokines, anti-TNF antiserum was given to mice at the same time as the LPS challenge to assess specifically the role of TNF in inducing these changes. This antiserum partially blocked the pulmonary neutrophil infiltrate, and completely blocked the peripheral blood changes at one hour after LPS. These data demonstrate that TNF plays an important role in the early pathophysiologic alterations that occur after systemic exposure to LPS. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 11 PMID:2297050

  19. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha up-regulates decay-accelerating factor gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, A; Fujiyama, Y; Sumiyoshi, K; Sakumoto, H; Okabe, H; Bamba, T

    1997-01-01

    The increased expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) has been detected in intestinal epithelial cells at the inflamed mucosa. In this study, we examined the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on DAF expression in three intestinal epithelial cell lines. DAF mRNA expression was evaluated by Northern blot analysis, and DAF protein expression was analysed by biotin labelling and immunoprecipitation. TNF-alpha induced a marked increase in DAF mRNA and protein expression in HT-29, T84 and Caco-2 cells. In HT-29 cells, the effects of TNF-a on DAF mRNA accumulation were observed in a dose-dependent manner; DAF mRNA accumulation reached a maximum at 3-6 hr, and then gradually decreased. These effects of TNF-alpha required de novo protein synthesis. Messenger RNA stability studies suggested that TNF-alpha partially regulated DAF gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Moreover, the combination of TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-4 induced an additive increase in DAF mRNA accumulation in HT-29 and T84 cells. In human intestinal epithelial cells, TNF-alpha acts as a potent inducer of DAF mRNA expression, indicating an important role for TNF-alpha in the regulation of DAF expression at the inflamed mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9155641

  20. Phosphorylation of bovine rod photoreceptor cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed Central

    Udovichenko, I P; Cunnick, J; Gonzales, K; Takemoto, D J

    1993-01-01

    The cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) of retinal rods plays a key role in phototransduction and consists of two catalytic subunits (PDE alpha and PDE beta) and two identical inhibitory subunits (PDE gamma). Here we report that PDE alpha and PDE gamma are phosphorylated by protein kinase(s) C (PKC) from brain and rod outer segments (ROS). These same two types of PKC also phosphorylate PDE alpha in trypsin-activated PDE (without PDE gamma). In contrast, cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit phosphorylates both PDE alpha and PDE beta, but not PDE gamma. This kinase does not phosphorylate trypsin-activated PDE. The synthetic peptides AKVISNLLGPREAAV (PDE alpha 30-44) and KQRQTRQFKSKPPKK (PDE gamma 31-45) inhibited phosphorylation of PDE by PKC from ROS. These data suggest that sites (at least one for each subunit) for phosphorylation of PDE by PKC are localized in these corresponding regions of PDE alpha and PDE gamma. Isoenzyme-specific PKC antibodies against peptides unique to the alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta isoforms of protein kinase C were used to show that a major form of PKC in ROS is PKC alpha. However, other minor forms were also present. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8216238

  1. Ultrastructural localization of DNA in immune deposits of human lupus nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Malide, D.; Londoño, I.; Russo, P.; Bendayan, M.

    1993-01-01

    DNA molecules were revealed in the glomerular wall of lupus nephritis patients by applying two specific colloidal gold cytochemical approaches at the electron microscope level: immunocytochemistry using a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody in conjunction with protein A-gold and enzyme-gold cytochemistry using DNAse-gold complexes. Application of both techniques has demonstrated that DNA molecules are preferentially located over the electron-dense deposits found in the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix of SLE patients, as well as over the nuclei. Their distribution within the glomerular wall was correlated with electron-dense immune deposits revealed by anti-light chain antibodies. In normal control kidney, DNA labeling was restricted to the cell nuclei. Several control experiments have demonstrated the high specificity of the results. These data thus suggest a possible role for DNA as an antigenic component in the formation of immune complexes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 and 3 Figure 4 and 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8317553

  2. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  4. Nonpathogenicity of antiintestinal antibody in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, B. S.; Rogers, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with intestinal extract prepared from rabbits, guinea pigs, and germ-free rats. The resultant serum antibody response to intestinal antigen was determined by gel precipitation and direct tissue immunofluorescence. Forty-eight hours prior to sacrifice of each immunized animal, a portion of the duodenum, ileum, and colon were traumatized to bring circulating antibody into contact with the tissue. Sections for histology and direct immunofluorescence were taken from the area of trauma, just adjacent to the area, and 10 cm from it. The humoral immune response, the presence of tissue bound immunoglobulin, and tissue histology were compared. The area of trauma in normal and immunized animals showed the same histologic changes. In each animal, tissue just adjacent to the area of trauma and 10 cm from it were histologically identical. The pathologic alterations in the immunized animals were similar to those associated with malabsorption in man. Direct immunofluorescence of the intestinal tissue revealed bound immunoglobulin in histologically normal and abnormal tissue. Precipitating antibody to intestine was present in the serum of rabbits with normal and abnormal histology. Thus, antiintestinal antibody as dected by precipitation in gel and direct tissue immunofluorescence does not appear to be a factor in the pathogenesis of this model of immunologically induced histologic changes in the intestine. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1266943

  5. Human inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate type-1 receptor, InsP3R1: structure, function, regulation of expression and chromosomal localization.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, N; Makino, Y; Clark, R A; Pearson, D W; Mattei, M G; Guénet, J L; Ohama, E; Fujino, I; Miyawaki, A; Furuichi, T

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (InsP3R1) from human uteri and a leukaemic cell line, HL-60. Northern-blot analysis showed that approx. 10 kb of InsP3R1 mRNA is expressed in human uteri, oviducts and HL-60 cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of human InsP3R1 (2695 amino acids) has 99% identity with that of the mouse SI-/SII- splicing counterpart. Western-blot analysis with anti-(mouse InsP3R1) antibodies showed that InsP3R1 protein of human uteri and oviducts of approx 220 kDa is immunostained. Northern-blot analysis of HL-60 cell differentiation along the neutrophilic lineage induced by retinoic acid or dimethylsulphoxide showed an accompanying enhanced expression of InsP3R1 mRNA. Immunohistochemical analysis of the cerebella of spinocerebellar degeneration patients showed a variable loss of Purkinje cells with an altered pattern of immunostaining. The InsP3R1 gene (Insp3r1) was localized to the 3P25-26 region of human chromosome 3. The data presented here clearly show that InsP3R1 exists widely in human tissues and may play critical roles in various kinds of cellular functions. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7945203

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes in long-term culture.

    PubMed Central

    Bour, E. S.; Ward, L. K.; Cornman, G. A.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis occurs naturally in the liver and increases in specific pathogenic processes. We previously described the use of a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and dimethylsulfoxide to maintain rat hepatocytes in a highly differentiated state for more than 30 days (long-term culture). In this study, we showed that hepatocytes in long-term dimethylsulfoxide culture have definite advantages over using cells in short-term culture (cells in culture for 2 to 4 days) to study apoptosis. We demonstrated that treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induced apoptosis (detected morphologically and by formation of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder) only in hepatocytes that had been subjected to dimethylsulfoxide removal. Neither treatment with TNF-alpha alone or dimethylsulfoxide removal alone induced apoptosis. Apoptosis could be induced by concentrations as low as 500 U of TNF-alpha/ml. Although a DNA ladder was not detected by 12 hours after TNF-alpha treatment, it was easily identified by 24 hours. We conclude that this system can be used 1) to examine the underlying mechanism by which TNF-alpha causes apoptosis in hepatocytes and 2) to study induction of apoptosis in hepatocytes by other agents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8579111

  7. Neurotrophin and Neurotrophin Receptors in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Michael J.; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Kraemer, Rosemary; McCaffrey, Timothy A.; Tessarollo, Lino; Mahadeo, Debbie; Sharif, Setareh; Kaplan, David R.; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Parada, Luis; Toran-Allerand, C. Dominique; Hajjar, David P.; Hempstead, Barbara L.

    1995-01-01

    The neurotrophins, a family of related polypeptide growth factors including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3 and NT-4/5 promote the survival and differentiation of distinctive sets of embryonic neurons. Here we define a new functional role for neurotrophins, as autocrine or local paracrine mediators of vascular smooth muscle cell migration. We have identified neurotrophins, and their cognate receptors, the trk tyrosine kinases, in human and rat vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo. In vitro, cultured human smooth muscle cells express BDNF; NT-3; and trk A, B, and C Similarly, rat smooth muscle cells expressed all three trk receptors as well as all four neurotrophins. Moreover, NGF induces cultured human smooth muscle cell migration at subnanomolar concentrations. In the rat aortic balloon deendothelialization model of vascular injury, the expression of NGF, BDNF, and their receptors trk A and trk B increased dramatically in the area of injury within 3 days and persisted during the formation of the neointima. In human coronary atherosclerotic lesions, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4/5, and the trk B and trk C receptors could be demonstrated in smooth muscle cells. These findings suggest that neurotrophins play an important role in regulating the response of vascular smooth muscle cells to injury. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:7639328

  8. HHF35, a muscle actin-specific monoclonal antibody. II. Reactivity in normal, reactive, and neoplastic human tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukada, T.; McNutt, M. A.; Ross, R.; Gown, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody HHF35 has previously been characterized biochemically as recognizing isotypes of actin (alpha and gamma) which are specific to muscle cells. In this study, the authors have investigated the normal and pathologic tissue distribution of HHF35-positive cells using the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method on methacarn-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of human tissue. In addition to muscle tissues (smooth, skeletal, and cardiac) the antibody localizes to myoepithelium, as well as most of the capsular cells of several parenchymal organs, including liver, kidney, and spleen, with extension of the latter cells into the splenic trabeculaes. In pathologic tissues, the antibody localizes to cells, identified by some investigators as "myofibroblasts," in the stroma of certain tumors, within hyperplastic fibrous tissue responses ("fibromatoses") such as Dupuytren's contracture, and within fibrotic lung tissue. HHF35 also localizes to cells that proliferate within the intima in lesions of atherosclerosis and to a unique population of reactive mesothelial and submesothelial cells. Among tumors, it is positive only on leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, and rhabdomyosarcomas, and negative on all nonmuscle sarcomas. This antibody thus shows great potential utility as a diagnostic reagent in various pathologic conditions, most especially in the diagnosis of tumors of muscle origin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 p392-a Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 p397-a p398-a Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3555106

  9. Comparative pathology of silicate pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Brambilla, C.; Abraham, J.; Brambilla, E.; Benirschke, K.; Bloor, C.

    1979-01-01

    A simple pneumoconiosis with lamellar birefringent crystals was observed in animals dying in the San Diego Zoo. We studied 100 autopsies from 11 mammalian and eight avian species. In mammals, mild pulmonary lesions comprised crystal-laden macrophages in alveoli and lymphatics. Interstitial fibrosis was present in 20% of cases. There were no nodules. In birds, dust retention produced large granulomas around tertiary bronchi without fibrosis. Mineralogic analysis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed most of the crystals to be silicates. Ninety percent were complex silicates, with aluminum-potassium silicates comprising 70% of the analyzed particles. Electron and x-ray diffraction showed the silicates to be muscovite mica and its hydrothermal degradation product, ie, illite clay. This mica was also present on filtration membranes of atmospheric air samples obtained from the San Diego Zoo. The amount of dust retention was related to the animal's age, anatomic or ecologic variances, and length of stay in the San Diego Zoo. Its semidesert atmosphere is rich in silicates, which are inhaled and deposited in the lungs. Similar mica-induced lesions are found in humans living in this region or the Southwest of the USA. This simple pneumoconiosis is likely to be widespread in human populations living in desert or semidesert climates. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:223447

  10. Mechanisms of neutropenia involving myeloid maturation arrest in burn sepsis.

    PubMed Central

    Shoup, M; Weisenberger, J M; Wang, J L; Pyle, J M; Gamelli, R L; Shankar, R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanisms that lead to the decrease in bone marrow production of neutrophils during burn sepsis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Impaired bone marrow granulopoiesis during burn sepsis often results in neutropenia despite elevated circulating levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). To date, neither the specific stages of neutrophil maturation involved in the bone marrow suppression nor the mechanisms for the impairment have been determined. METHODS: Peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count and G-CSF levels were determined in mice 3 days after randomization to control, burn alone, or burn plus a topical inoculation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1000 colony-forming units). Bone marrow aspirates were analyzed for their neutrophil differentiation patterns by Gr-1 antigen expression and their G-CSF receptor status. Histologic analysis of liver, lung, spleen, and wound site was performed. RESULTS: In burn sepsis, absolute neutrophil count was reduced whereas plasma G-CSF levels were elevated, and myeloid differentiation was significantly shifted toward the immature mitotic myeloid cells. Bone marrow G-CSF receptor mRNA levels and G-CSF-stimulated proliferation were substantially decreased in burn sepsis. Histologic analysis revealed no significant neutrophil infiltration into the tissues. CONCLUSIONS: In thermal injury with superimposed sepsis, neutropenia and myeloid maturation arrest, despite the elevated levels of G-CSF, correlate with the reduction in bone marrow G-CSF receptor expression. These observations may provide a potential mechanism for neutropenia in sepsis. Images Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 8. Figure 9. PMID:9671075

  11. Histopathologic changes of the nasal mucosa in southwest Metropolitan Mexico City inhabitants.

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Garcidueñas, L.; Osorno-Velazquez, A.; Bravo-Alvarez, H.; Delgado-Chavez, R.; Barrios-Marquez, R.

    1992-01-01

    Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) is one of the most polluted urban areas in the world. The authors characterized the morphologic nasal mucosal changes in short-term (less than 30 days) and long-term (more than 60 days) exposures to the polluted southwest MMC atmosphere with high levels of ozone and other contaminants versus a control group of subjects living in a nonpolluted, low-ozone Mexican port. Seventy-six inferior turbinate biopsies were examined. The control group showed normal mucociliary epithelium, whereas the short-exposure group displayed loss of normal epithelium, basal cell hyperplasia, and mild dysplasia (17.64%). In the long-term exposure group, 78.72% of dysplasias were found (59.45% mild and 40.54% moderate) together with severe loss of normal respiratory epithelium, prominent basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, and submucosal vascular proliferation. Our findings suggest that southwest metropolitan Mexico City inhabitants develop histopathologic changes in their nasal mucosa on exposure to the polluted city atmosphere. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1731527

  12. The Signal Peptide of a Vacuolar Protein Is Necessary and Sufficient for the Efficient Secretion of a Cytosolic Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Dale C.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1991-01-01

    A cytosolic pea (Pisum sativum) seed albumin (ALB) and a chimeric protein (PHALB) consisting of the signal peptide and first three amino acids of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and the amino acid sequence of ALB were expressed in parallel suspension cultures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells and their intracellular fates examined. PHALB was efficiently secreted by the cells whereas ALB remained intracellular. These experiments show that the information contained in the signal peptide of a vacuolar protein is both necessary and sufficient for efficient secretion, and define secretion as a default or bulk-flow pathway. Entry into the secretory pathway was accompanied by glycosylation and the efficient conversion of the high mannose glycans into complex glycans indicating that transported glycoproteins do not need specific recognition domains for the modifying enzymes in the Golgi. Tunicamycin depressed the accumulation of the unglycosylated polypeptide in the culture medium much less than the accumulation of other glycoproteins. We interpret this as evidence that glycans on proteins that are not normally glycosylated do not have the same function of stabilizing and protecting the polypeptide as on natural glycoproteins. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:16668149

  13. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) in the mouse: BrdU-labelling indices and histological damage.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, J.; Robertson, H.; Morley, A. R.; Appleton, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    In-vivo BrdU incorporation and visualization by immunohistochemistry, previously reported in normal mouse kidney, were applied to a mouse model of anti-GBM GN, induced by immunization with rabbit anti-mouse GBM antiserum, to assess the contribution of capsular cell proliferation in the development of crescents. A significant increase (P = 0.003) in the BrdU-labelling index (LI) for capsular cells was observed, as compared to normal mice (5.76 +/- 1.1 vs 0.70% +/- 0.12%). Elevated LI were also observed for tuft and tubular cells but these increases were not statistically significant. It was concluded that, in this model, capsular cell proliferation is a major contributory factor to the formation of cellular crescents. In addition, other pathological features, indicative of glomerular damage, were assessed semi-quantitatively alongside numbers of labelled capsular cells per glomerulus. It was found that podocyte vacuolation is strongly associated with, and may precede, proliferation, suggesting some common causative factor. Fibrin, when present, was confined within the tuft capillary loops and was only weakly associated with either podocyte vacuolation or capsular cell proliferation. It was concluded that this protein does not play a major role in the initiation of pathological damage. Finally, glomerular lesions were found to be randomly distributed. Thus, the idea of intraglomerular signalling, resulting in 'clustering' of damaged glomeruli, is not supported. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8471539

  14. A novel theoretical approach to the analysis of dendritic transients.

    PubMed Central

    Agmon-Snir, H

    1995-01-01

    A novel theoretical framework for analyzing dendritic transients is introduced. This approach, called the method of moments, is an extension of Rall's cable theory for dendrites. It provides analytic investigation of voltage attenuation, signal delay, and synchronization problems in passive dendritic trees. In this method, the various moments of a transient signal are used to characterize the properties of the transient. The strength of the signal is measured by the time integral of the signal, its characteristic time is determined by its centroid ("center of gravity"), and the width of the signal is determined by a measure similar to the standard deviation in probability theory. Using these signal properties, the method of moments provides theorems, expressions, and efficient algorithms for analyzing the voltage response in arbitrary passive trees. The method yields new insights into spatiotemporal integration, coincidence detection mechanisms, and the properties of local interactions between synaptic inputs in dendritic trees. The method can also be used for matching dendritic neuron models to experimental data and for the analysis of synaptic inputs recorded experimentally. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:8580308

  15. Localization of hepatitis B surface antigen in conventional paraffin sections of the liver. Comparison of immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and orcein staining methods with regard to their specificity and reliability as antigen marker.

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, N. C.; Sachdeva, R.

    1975-01-01

    Hepatitis B antigen (HBAg) has been demonstrated in conventional formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue by peroxidase and fluorescent immunostaining as well as by orcein. Complete locational and morphologic identity is seen between material stained by specific immunologic methods and by orcein. The antigen is restricted to the cytoplasm and is generally observed in the hepatocyte; it is present in three morphologic forms. Certain morphologic forms can even be identified in hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue. Results of immunostaining procedures indicate that the antigen demonstrated in this study consists entirely of surface coat of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg). This seems to be the only component revealed by orcein staining. The latter is considered to be a good marker of the surface antigen and to have certain advantages over immunostaining. It is suggested that suitability of conventional paraffin sections for the detection of HBAg has wide and important implications. Images Figures 1-5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:55076

  16. Endothelial gaps and adherent leukocytes in allergen-induced early- and late-phase plasma leakage in rat airways.

    PubMed Central

    Baluk, P.; Bolton, P.; Hirata, A.; Thurston, G.; McDonald, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of sensitized individuals to antigen can induce allergic responses in the respiratory tract, manifested by early and late phases of vasodilatation, plasma leakage, leukocyte influx, and bronchoconstriction. Similar responses can occur in the skin, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. The early-phase response involves mast cell mediators and the late-phase response is leukocyte dependent, but the mechanism of leakage is not understood. We sought to identify the leaky blood vessels, to determine whether these vessels contained endothelial gaps, and to analyze the relationship of the gaps to adherent leukocytes, using biotinylated lectins or silver nitrate to stain the cells in situ and Monastral blue as a tracer to quantify plasma leakage. Most of the leakage occurred in postcapillary venules (< 40-microns diameter), whereas most of the leukocyte migration (predominantly neutrophils) occurred in collecting venules. Capillaries and arterioles did not leak. Endothelial gaps were found in the leaky venules, both by silver nitrate staining and by scanning electron microscopy, and 94% of the gaps were distinct from sites of leukocyte adhesion or migration. We conclude that endothelial gaps contribute to both early and late phases of plasma leakage induced by antigen, but most leakage occurs upstream to sites of leukocyte adhesion. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9626051

  17. Histochemical and immunocytochemical evidence of early, selective bile canaliculi injury after 1,1-dichloroethylene in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Moslen, M. T.; Dunsford, H. A.; Karnasuta, C.; Chieco, P.; Kanz, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    Canalicular and mitochondrial membranes were investigated as early foci of hepatocyte injury in fed and fasted male Sprague-Dawley rats given 50 mg of 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE)/kg. Staining of the bile canaliculi localized enzymes, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), and Mg++-dependent ATPase (Mg++-ATPase), was examined by histochemistry in frozen sections. Mitochondrial membrane enzymes, including succinate dehydrogenase, also were examined by histochemistry. Staining of two monoclonal antibodies, C-1 and 9-B1, whose binding is localized in the bile canalicular region, was examined by immunofluorescence in frozen sections. Fasted rats treated with DCE developed moderate liver damage by 4 hours as evidenced by increases in serum transaminase and bilirubin, whereas fed rats developed only slight cell damage. Centrolobular loss of immunocytochemical and histochemical canalicular staining, especially for C-1 and Mg++-ATPase, was evident as early as 1 hour after DCE and was striking by 2 hours in both fed and fasted rats. Decreases in mitochondrial enzymes were not evident histochemically in fed animals at any time after DCE and were found only at the later times in fasted animals given the toxin. Thus, DCE administration to fed rats provides a new model system of selective bile canaliculi injury. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2541611

  18. Fluorescence generalized polarization of cell membranes: a two-photon scanning microscopy approach.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, W; So, P T; French, T; Gratton, E

    1996-01-01

    We use the lipophilic fluorescence probe Laurdan to study cell membranes. The generalized polarization (GP) of Laurdan-labeled cells contains useful information about membrane fluidity and polarity. A high GP is usually associated with low fluidity, low polarity, or high cholesterol content of the membranes, and a low GP is the opposite. We have combined the GP method and two-photon fluorescence microscopy to provide an alternative approach to study cell membranes. Using two-photon excitation in a conventional microscope offers great advantages for studying biological samples. These advantages include efficient background rejection, low photodamage, and improved depth discrimination. We performed GP measurements on mouse fibroblast cells and observed that both intensity and GP images are not spatially uniform. We tested for possible GP artifacts arising from cellular autofluorescence and lifetime quenching, using a procedure for background fluorescence subtraction and by direct lifetime measurements in the microscope. GP measured in a single cell displays a broad distribution, and the GP of 40 different cells grown on the same cover glass is also statistically distributed. The correlations between intensity and GP images were analyzed, and no monotonic dependence between the two was found. By digitally separating high and low GP values, we found that high GP values often associate with the regions of the plasma membrane and low GP values link with the nuclear membranes. Our results also show local GP variations within the plasma and nuclear membranes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:8789081

  19. Apoptosis during an early stage of nephrogenesis induces renal hypoplasia in bcl-2-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, M.; Nakauchi, H.; Nakayama, K.; Nakayama, K.; Loh, D.; Watanabe, T.

    1996-01-01

    Renal development in bcl-2-deficient mice was monitored to examine the temporal and spatial function of this gene during nephrogenesis in vivo. Extensive apoptosis occurred during abnormal nephrogenesis in bcl-2-deficient mice. In embryos and newborn mice, the sequence of morphological events was monitored by morphology in conjunction with morphometry, and bcl-2 -/-, bcl-2 +/-, and bcl-2 +/+ mice were compared. In bcl-2 -/- mice, initial induction of nephrons was detected by embryonic day 13 (E-13) as normal. Then, apoptotic cells became five times more frequent at E-13 to E-16 with a significant reduction (1/5) in nephron number at E-17 to E-19 in bcl-2 -/- mice compared with bcl-2 +/+ mice. No morphological difference was evident between bcl-2 +/- mice and bcl-2 +/+ mice by morphometry. Apoptotic cells were found mainly among the mesenchyme and less frequently in tubuli. Little apoptosis among ureteric buds was noted. In bcl-2 -/- mice at E-17 to E-19, inactive branching and insufficient convolution of ureteric buds were accompanied by fulminant apoptosis in the mesenchyme. Neonatal bcl-2 -/- mice lacked the nephrogenic zone, exhibiting renal hypoplasia. Thus, bcl-2 seems to inhibit apoptosis in renal stem cells during the induction of nephrons in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8623928

  20. Reactive oxygen species: their relation to pneumoconiosis and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Vallyathan, V; Shi, X; Castranova, V

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposures to mineral particles cause pneumoconiosis and other diseases, including cancer. Recent studies have suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a key role in the mechanisms of disease initiation and progression following exposure to these particles. ROS-induced primary stimuli result in the increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators, promoting events that appear to be important in the progression of cell injury and pulmonary disease. We have provided evidence supporting the hypothesis that inhalation of insoluble particles such as asbestos, agricultural dusts, coal, crystalline silica, and inorganic dust can be involved in facilitating multiple pathways for persistent generation of ROS, which may lead to a continuum of inflammation leading to progression of disease. This article briefly summarizes some of the recent findings from our laboratories with emphasis on the molecular events by which ROS are involved in promoting pneumoconiosis and carcinogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9788890

  1. Down-regulated expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Perlino, E.; Loverro, G.; Maiorano, E.; Giannini, T.; Cazzolla, A.; Napoli, A.; Fiore, M. G.; Ricco, R.; Marra, E.; Selvaggi, L.

    1998-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent modulator of cell proliferation in vitro, and recent studies have demonstrated its overexpression in several different tumours; nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of TGF-beta1 action on cell growth and differentiation have not been fully elucidated. To clarify the role of TGF-beta and its receptor in human endometrial proliferation and differentiation, TGF-beta1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels has been evaluated by using Northern blotting and immunohistochemistry, in both normal (atrophic, proliferative and secretory) and neoplastic (adenocarcinoma) endometrial samples. This study demonstrates that TGF-beta1 mRNA expression is dramatically reduced in endometrial carcinomas with respect to non-neoplastic tissues, whereas the immunohistochemical expression of TGF-beta1 is enhanced in the epithelial component of endometrial carcinomas compared with non-neoplastic tissues. These data suggest that TGF-beta1 acts as a paracrine regulator of endometrial cell proliferation and that it may contribute to the carcinogenic mechanisms of endometrial carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9579831

  2. New Anatomical Description of the Cavernous Sinus Surface and Its Significance in Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Prescher, Andreas; Brors, Dominik; von Ammon, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    The anatomical and surgical approach to the sella region is of special interest for microsurgeons involved in ear, nose, and throat surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, maxillofacial surgery, and skull base surgery. We investigated the surface morphology of the cavernous sinus and the sella turcica in 48 adult and 2 neonate specimens. To simplify the morphometric recording, distances between anatomical landmarks were defined. In addition, three triangles—the preinfundibular, the parasellar, and the internal carotid artery triangle—are introduced. These triangles are defined in order to determine the location where cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI penetrate the dura with respect to the anterior and posterior clinoid processes and the tuberculum and dorsum sellae. The triangles were found to be symmetrical, with identical bilateral measurements, and the entry points of the cranial nerves were found to be constant. In 17 cases (34%), we found a dehiscence of the sellar diaphragm, and in 15 cases (30%), rope-like adhesions at the pituitary stalk. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:17171029

  3. Effects of nutrition on disease and life span. I. Immune responses, cardiovascular pathology, and life span in MRL mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mark, D. A.; Alonso, D. R.; Quimby, F.; Thaler, H. T.; Kim, Y. T.; Fernandes, G.; Good, R. A.; Weksler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Mice of the autoimmune, lymphoproliferative strain MRL/lpr and the congenic, nonlymphoproliferative strain MRL/n were fed one of six diets from weaning on-ward. These mice were sacrificed at 3 or 5 months of age. Low fat diets resulted in lower cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels than did cholesterol-containing high-fat diets. Caloric restriction of MRL/lpr mice was associated with an increased plaque-forming cell response to trinitrophenylated polyacrylamide beads, less lymphoproliferation, and less severe glomerulonephritis. Diet did not affect the incidence of autoimmune vasculitis in MRL/lpr mice sacrificed at 5 months. MRL/lpr mice fed a low-fat, calorically restricted diet from 5 months of age to death lived longer than mice which were fed ad libitum a cholesterol-containing, high-fat diet. At death, MRL/lpr mice fed the former diet had the autoimmune vasculitis which had been evident in mice killed at 5 months, whereas mice fed the latter diet, in addition to the vasculitis, had a high incidence of atherosclerotic lesions of intrarenal and aortic branch arteries. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6333184

  4. The significance of the nature of the photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy: quantitative and biological studies in the colon.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, H.; MacRobert, A. J.; Tralau, C. J.; Boulos, P. B.; Bown, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) depends on the interaction of light with an administered photosensitiser to produce a local cytotoxic effect. The most widely used photosensitiser is haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), but newer photosensitisers such as aluminium sulphonated phthalocyanine (A1SPc) are promising. HpD and A1SPc have been compared as photosensitisers for colonic PDT in the rat. Quantitative analysis showed that following injection of a standard photosensitiser dose, A1SPc produced more damage than HpD with increasing energy (fluence). Alteration of the injected dose of photosensitiser did not produce a clear difference. There was a loss of reciprocity for photosensitiser/light combinations at low injected dose (0.5 mg kg-1), both HpD and A1SPc producing no damage. Similarly at high photosensitiser dosage (25 mg kg-1) there was no quantitative difference between A1SPc and HpD. Photosensitiser photodegradation at low photosensitiser doses, and light attenuation by high tissue concentrations of A1SPc account for these findings. PDT with either agent produced the same histological damage and full thickness necrosis produced no mechanical weakening of the colon measured by the bursting pressure. The submucosal collagen was preserved and healing was by regeneration. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2147108

  5. Importance of viability and attachment to an ascites tumor in the release of plasminogen activator.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Q.; Zhou, M.; Subbarao, V.; Ts'ao, C.

    1991-01-01

    Tumor plasminogen activator (PA) has been alleged to play a role in the growth and metastasis of tumors. Before such a role can be realized, PA first must be released from tumor cells. Having determined intra- and extracellular PA and PA-inhibitor activities in an experimental pancreatic ascites tumor grown in hamsters, the release of PA from these cells was investigated. No PA activity was detected in the suspension medium of freshly isolated tumor cells; inclusion of plasminogen, fibrinogen, or collagen in the medium yielded similar negative results. On the other hand, PA activity was demonstrated to be released in a time-dependent manner from these tumor cells embedded in fibrin clots. Plasminogen activator activity also was not found in the suspension medium of frozen-thawed tumor cells, despite the fact that most of them had breaks on their cell membrane. Unlike freshly isolated tumor cells, PA was not released from frozen-thawed cells embedded in fibrin clots. Full PA activity was demonstrated in frozen-thawed cells treated with Triton X-100, however. Frozen-thawed cells exhibited signs of severe damage, and more than 80% of them failed to exclude trypan blue. Obviously PA is released from viable tumor cells embedded in fibrin clots but not suspended in artificial medium. The PA-release mechanism, not PA itself, is destroyed in cells rendered nonviable by freeze thawing. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1902626

  6. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  7. Photoelectron imaging of cells: photoconductivity extends the range of applicability.

    PubMed Central

    Habliston, D L; Hedberg, K K; Birrell, G B; Rempfer, G F; Griffith, O H

    1995-01-01

    Photoelectron imaging is a sensitive surface technique in which photons are used to excite electron emission. This novel method has been applied successfully in studies of relatively flat cultured cells, viruses, and protein-DNA complexes. However, rounded-up cell types such as tumor cells frequently are more difficult to image. By comparing photoelectron images of uncoated and metal-coated MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells, it is shown that the problem is specimen charging rather than a fundamental limitation of the electron imaging process. This is confirmed by emission current measurements on uncoated monolayers of MCF-7 carcinoma cells and flatter, normal Wi-38 fibroblasts. We report here that sample charging in photoelectron microscopy can be eliminated in most specimens by simultaneous use of two light sources--the standard UV excitation source (e.g., 254 nm) and a longer wavelength light source (e.g., 325 nm). The reduction in sample charging results largely from enhanced photoconduction in the bulk sample and greatly extends the range of cells that can be examined by photoelectron imaging. The contributions of photoconductivity, the electric field of the imaging system, and the short escape depths of the photoelectrons combine to make photoelectron imaging a uniquely sensitive technique for the study of biological surfaces. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8534832

  8. Human atherosclerosis. II. Immunocytochemical analysis of the cellular composition of human atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Gown, A. M.; Tsukada, T.; Ross, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have performed immunocytochemical investigations of the distribution of various cell types in human atherosclerotic plaques using monoclonal antibodies specific to smooth muscle cells (CGA7 [Gown et al, J Cell Biol 1985, 100:807-813] and HHF35 [Tsukada et al, Am J Pathol (In press)] ); lymphocytes (T200 antigen); endothelial cells (Factor VIII and the Ulex europeus agglutinin); and macrophages, the latter with a new macrophage-specific antibody HAM56. All studies were performed on methanol-Carnoy's-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. In areas of grossly normal aorta, significant numbers of macrophages were noted within areas of diffuse intimal thickening. The cellular composition of the following three types of raised lesions were analyzed: fibro-fatty lesions, which, despite their gross appearance, consistent with fibrous plaques, were composed almost exclusively of macrophages and lymphocytes and almost devoid of smooth muscle cells; fibrous plaques, which were predominantly composed of smooth muscle cells displaying considerable morphologic heterogeneity and an admixture of blood-borne cells; advanced plaques, which were characterized by complex layers of smooth muscle cells and macrophages with considerable variation from region to region. Also noted were foci of medial and even intimal vascularization subjacent to the more advanced plaques. These studies demonstrate the application of monoclonal antibody technology to the study of the cellular composition of human atherosclerotic lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 p195-a Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 p201-a Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3777135

  9. Troponin T cross-linking in human apoptotic cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gorza, L.; Menabó, R.; Di Lisa, F.; Vitadello, M.

    1997-01-01

    Intracellular calcium overload of guinea pig cardiomyocytes is accompanied by troponin T cross-linking, which is revealed by changes in immunoreactivity of anti-troponin T antibodies. We presently investigated whether the same process is detectable in the human heart. Immunohistochemistry shows myofibrillar staining with BN-59 anti-troponin T antibody with rare cardiomyocytes in samples obtained at surgery, whereas approximately 50% of myocytes are labeled in heart samples taken at autopsy within 3 hours of death, and every cardiomyocyte is stained after exposure of biopsy sections to 10 mmol/L calcium. Western blot analysis shows reactive polypeptides of approximately 70 and 85 to 90 kd in addition to troponin T in both treated and autopsy heart sections. Neither reactivity in immunohistochemistry nor additional reactive polypeptides in Western blot are detectable when calpain or transglutaminase is inhibited during exposure of sections to high calcium. Troponin T crosslinking occurs also in isolated myofibrils, which show staining with BN-59 at either sarcomeric A or I bands. Labeling with TdT-mediated dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) to demonstrate apoptosis reveals DNA fragmentation in BN-59-positive myocytes. Thus, troponin T cross-linking occurs in human cardiac myocytes concomitantly with apoptosis and autopsy autolysis, suggesting that similar cytosolic alterations can be produced by different types of myocyte death. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9176400

  10. Human Xq24-Xq28: approaches to mapping with yeast artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wada, M; Little, R D; Abidi, F; Porta, G; Labella, T; Cooper, T; Della Valle, G; D'Urso, M; Schlessinger, D

    1990-01-01

    One hundred twenty-seven yeast strains with artificial chromosomes containing Xq24-Xqter human DNA were obtained starting from a human/hamster somatic cell hybrid. The clones were characterized with respect to their insert size, stability, and representation of a set of Xq24-Xqter DNA probes. The inserts of the clones add up to 19.3 megabase (Mb) content, or about 0.4 genomic equivalents of that portion of the X chromosome, with a range of 40-650 kb in individual YACs. Eleven clones contained more than one YAC, the additional ones usually having hamster DNA inserts; the individual YACs could be separated by extracting the total DNA from such strains and using it to retransform yeast cells. One of the YACs, containing the probe for the DXS49 locus, was grossly unstable, throwing off smaller versions of an initial 300-kb YAC during subculture; the other YACs appeared to breed true on subculture. Of 52 probes tested, 12 found cognate YACs; the YACs included one with the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogense gene and another containing four anonymous probe sequences (DX13, St14, cpx67, and cpx6). Xq location of YACs is being verified by in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes, and fingerprinting and hybridization methods are being used to detect YACs that overlap. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2294758

  11. Proliferative Hemorrhagic Enteropathy in Swine: An Outbreak and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yates, W. D. G.; Clark, E. G.; Osborne, A. D.; Enweani, C. C.; Radostits, O. M.; Theede, A.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of an acute outbreak of hemorrhagic enteric disease in 34 young adult boars of primarily Yorkshire breeding at a performance testing station in Western Canada. Two of the boars died. A diagnosis of proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy was made on the basis of clinical signs, gross necropsy and histopathological lesions. Campylobacter-like bacteria were seen in the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the ileal mucosa by Warthin-Faulkner stain on histological sections, but were not isolated on culture. Treatment with several drugs simultaneously was associated with termination of the outbreak, but the therapeutic effect was not controlled by leaving some animals untreated. Reported sequelae, such as porcine intestinal adenomatosis, were not present at necropsy or slaughter of pigs surviving the outbreak, but all were killed no longer than two months after the first case was observed. This outbreak is discussed in the context of previously reported hemorrhagic enteric conditions of pigs. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:396978

  12. High resolution measurement of striation patterns and sarcomere motions in cardiac muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, J W; Denton, A

    1992-01-01

    We describe an extension of the method of Myers et al. (1982) to measure with high precision the uniformity of contractile motions that occur between sarcomeres in the isolated cardiac muscle cell (guinea pig and rat). The image of the striations, observed with modulation contrast microscopy, was detected by a linear array of photodiodes. Sarcomere length was measured greater than 500/s from the frequency of the array's video signal at two selectable regions of the cell. A precision test grating demonstrated that method resolves known differences in the spacing between two contiguous striations to +/- 0.01 micron and that the effects of image translation and microscopic resolution are minor. The distribution of striation spacing appears to be discrete in isolated segments of the cell, and patches of fairly uniform length can be identified that are laterally contiguous. When electrically triggered, contraction is synchronous and the sarcomeres shorten and relengthen smoothly. The contrast between the striations is transiently enhanced during relengthening, an indication that the contracting cell can not be treated as a simple grating. Pauses that occur during late in relengthening (and transient contractile alternans) are characterized by very synchronized activity. These forms of irregular contractile behavior are not explained by desynchronization of a mechanism of release of intracellular calcium. A companion article describes application of the technique to study the nonuniform motions that occur between sarcomeres. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:1540686

  13. Transcription activation at Escherichia coli promoters dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein: effects of binding sequences for the RNA polymerase alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Savery, N J; Rhodius, V A; Wing, H J; Busby, S J

    1995-01-01

    Transcription activation at two semi-synthetic Escherichia coli promoters, CC(-41.5) and CC(-72.5), is dependent on the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) that binds to sites centred 41.5 and 72.5 bp upstream from the respective transcription startpoints. An UP-element that can bind the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) alpha-subunit was cloned upstream of the DNA site for CRP at CC(-41.5) and downstream of the DNA site for CRP at CC(-72.5). In both cases CRP-dependent promoter activity was increased by the UP-element, but CRP-independent activity was not increased. DNase I footprinting was exploited to investigate the juxtaposition of bound CRP and RNAP alpha-subunits. In both cases, CRP and RNAP alpha-subunits occupy their cognate binding sites in ternary CRP-RNAP promoter complexes. RNAP alpha-subunits can occupy the UP-element in the absence of CRP, but this is not sufficient for open complex formation. The positive effects of binding RNAP alpha-subunits upstream of the DNA site for CRP at -41.5 are suppressed if the UP-element is incorrectly positioned. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7619086

  14. Acute, lethal, natural killer cell-resistant myeloproliferative disease induced by polyomavirus in severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Szomolanyi-Tsuda, E.; Dundon, P. L.; Joris, I.; Shultz, L. D.; Woda, B. A.; Welsh, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Infection of severe combined immunodeficient mice, which lack T and B lymphocytes, with polyomavirus (PyV) induced an acute hematological disorder leading to the death of the mice by 2 weeks postinfection. The disease was characterized by a dramatic decrease in megakaryocytes, multiple hemorrhages, anemia, thrombocytopenia, splenomegaly, a massive myeloproliferation and splenic erythroproliferation with a defect in maturation of the myeloid elements similar to that in acute leukemia. This pathology in severe combined immunodeficient mice is very different from that of the well-characterized tumor profiles induced by PyV in normal newborn or nude mice. Viral T and capsid (VP1) antigens and viral genome were detected in some cells in the spleen, but not in the majority of the proliferating myeloid cells. This suggests that the myeloproliferation is induced by some indirect mechanism, such as secretion of growth factors or cytokines by virus-infected cells, rather than by direct transformation by PyV. Neither the spread of PyV, its replication in different organs, nor the pathogenesis or the time of death were altered by depleting natural killer cells in vivo by anti-natural killer cell antibodies. Analysis of the spleen leukocyte population indicated that the cells expressed high levels of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens and were resistant to lysis by activated natural killer cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8311119

  15. A 10-bp deletion in the apolipoprotein epsilon gene causing apolipoprotein E deficiency and severe type III hyperlipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Feussner, G.; Dobmeyer, J.; Gröne, H. J.; Lohmer, S.; Wohlfeil, S.

    1996-01-01

    Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) is usually associated with homozygosity for apolipoprotein (apo) E2. We identified a 30-year-old male German of Hungarian ancestry with severe type III HLP and apo E deficiency. The disease was expressed in an extreme phenotype with multiple cutaneous xanthomas. Apo E was detectable only in trace amounts in plasma but not in the different lipoprotein fractions. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified segments of the apo epsilon gene identified a 10-bp deletion in exon 4 (bp 4037-4046 coding for amino acids 209-212 of the mature protein). The mutation is predictive for a reading frameshift introducing a premature stop codon (TGA) at amino acid 229. By western blot analysis, we found small amounts of a truncated apo E in the patient's plasma. Family analysis revealed that the proband was homozygous--and 10 of 24 relatives were heterozygous--for the mutation. Heterozygotes had, as compared to unaffected family members, significantly higher triglycerides (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and a significantly higher VLDL cholesterol-to-serum TG ratio, which is indicative of a delayed remnant catabolism. We propose that the absence of a functionally active apo E is the cause of the severe type III HLP in the patient and that the mutation, even in a single dose in heterozygotes, predisposes in variable severity to the phenotypic expression of the disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8571954

  16. Expression of occludin, tight-junction-associated protein, in human digestive tract.

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Y.; Shiozaki, H.; Hirao, M.; Maeno, Y.; Doki, Y.; Inoue, M.; Monden, T.; Ando-Akatsuka, Y.; Furuse, M.; Tsukita, S.; Monden, M.

    1997-01-01

    The tight junction seals cells together at a subapical location and functionally separates the plasma membrane into an apical and a basolateral domain. This junction is one of the most characteristic structural markers of the polarized epithelial cell. Recently, occludin has been identified as an integral transmembrane protein localizing at the tight junction and directly associated with ZO-1, an undercoat-constitutive cytoplasmic protein. We have investigated occludin expression in conjunction with ZO-1 in normal epithelia and cancers of human digestive tract by immunostaining with a new antibody raised against human occludin. In the normal simple columnar epithelium, occludin was expressed together with ZO-1 as a single line at the apical cell border. However, in the esophagus, which has a stratified squamous epithelium, no occludin expression could be detected, but ZO-1 was expressed in the spinous layer. As for cancers, both occludin and ZO-1 showed the same expression in differentiated adenocarcinoma cells as in normal epithelium, but in poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, the expression of these two proteins was reduced. There was significant correlation between tumor differentiation and expression of these proteins. These results suggest that occludin, together with ZO-1, is involved in the formation of gland-like structures. In addition, occludin expression can serve as a histopathological indicator for differentiation in gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9212730

  17. Platelet satellitism: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructural morphology of platelet-polymorph (platelet-polymorphonuclear leukocyte) rosettes was investigated in EDTA-anticoagulated blood obtained from two patients who exhibited the phenomenon of platelet satellitism. Most of the platelet profiles were attached to the polymorph surface by broad areas of contact. Examination of these broad areas of contact at high magnification revealed an intercellular material of low electron density. This material appeared to form strands, which bridged the intercellular space and spanned the entire area formed by the apposing plasma membranes. Phagocytosis of entire platelets was only observed in 1 case. The platelet profiles that participated in rosette formation revealed a large number of glycogen particles, compared with unattached platelets. Ultrastructural examination of "stress" platelets obtained from five normal subjects treated with steroids similarly showed a large number of glycogen particles, although no rosette formation or phagocytosis of platelets was observed. The etiology of platelet satellitism is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7223859

  18. Silicosis and coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Castranova, V; Vallyathan, V

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to coal mine dust and/or crystalline silica results in pneumoconiosis with initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. This review presents characteristics of simple and complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) as well as pathologic indices of acute and chronic silicosis by summarizing results of in vitro, animal, and human investigations. These results support four basic mechanisms in the etiology of CWP and silicosis: a) direct cytotoxicity of coal dust or silica, resulting in lung cell damage, release of lipases and proteases, and eventual lung scarring; b) activation of oxidant production by pulmonary phagocytes, which overwhelms the antioxidant defenses and leads to lipid peroxidation, protein nitrosation, cell injury, and lung scarring; c) activation of mediator release from alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, which leads to recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive species and in further lung injury and scarring; d) secretion of growth factors from alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, stimulating fibroblast proliferation and eventual scarring. Results of in vitro and animal studies provide a basis for proposing these mechanisms for the initiation and progression of pneumoconiosis. Data obtained from exposed workers lend support to these mechanisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10931786

  19. Unexpected immunoreactivities of intermediate filament antibodies in human brain and brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Franke, F. E.; Schachenmayr, W.; Osborn, M.; Altmannsberger, M.

    1991-01-01

    Immunoreactivities of 35 different monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that detect intermediate filaments were studied systematically on serial cryostat sections of 14 well-defined human gliomas (five astrocytomas, three oligodendrogliomas, six glioblastomas) and on normal brain. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, desmin, neurofilaments, and broad-specificity keratin MAbs, as well as MAbs that recognize several or only single keratin polypeptides, were used. Unexpected reactivities were surprisingly frequent. As these may lead to diagnostic confusion and misinterpretation on this material, the authors investigated these phenomena more thoroughly. Four major sources of artifactual staining were found: 1) positive staining attributable to the rabbit gamma G immunoglobulins used in the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique; 2) certain desmin and keratin MAbs cross-reacted with astrocytic glia and with other brain-specific epitopes; 3) technical difficulties; 4) some MAbs directed against neurofilaments and keratins showed unexpected reactivities only on individual anaplastic gliomas. The implications of these findings for intermediate filament typing of neuropathologic material are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1713022

  20. The role of fibronectin in the development of experimental amyloidosis. Evidence of immunohistochemical codistribution and binding property with serum amyloid protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, E.; Shiroo, M.; Nakanishi, I.; Migita, S.

    1989-01-01

    Azocasein-induced amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in CBA/K1Jms mice was investigated to elucidate a preference of serum amyloid A (SAA) deposition in the spleen. By indirect immunofluorescence using anti-SAA/AA antibodies the initial deposition of SAA/AA was recognized in the marginal zone of spleen at 20 days after azocasein injection. Indirect immunofluorescence using anti-fibronectin antibodies also showed meshwork positivity in the corresponding area more intensely than that in controls. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-SAA/AA revealed the presence of positively stained flocculent materials on cell surfaces of macrophages in the marginal area in addition to amyloid fibril. The tissue fibronectin rapidly increased in the spleen and maintained 10 times more than that of controls until the 20th day. Binding assay of SAA on frozen sections revealed the presence of SAA-binding substances in the perifollicular area. Affinity chromatographic assay showed fibronectin have a binding capacity to SAA1 and SAA2. By binding assay on the microtiter plate, SAA had more affinity to fibronectin than those of heparan sulfate, collagen type I, or serum amyloid P component. These results indicate that fibronectin plays an important role in the development of amyloidosis by working as a linking protein between SAA and the cell surface of macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2757120

  1. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, N. A.; Muggenburg, B. A.; Mewhinney, J. A.; Hahn, F. F.; Seiler, F. A.; Boecker, B. B.; McClellan, R. O.

    1988-01-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 238PuO2. Initial deposition of 238PuO2 in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the 238Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to 238PuO2, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after 238Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that 238Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of 238Pu. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3142267

  2. Structural origins of redox potentials in Fe-S proteins: electrostatic potentials of crystal structures.

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, P D; Beck, B W; Ichiye, T

    1996-01-01

    Redox potentials often differ dramatically for homologous proteins that have identical redox centers. For two types of iron-sulfur proteins, the rubredoxins and the high-potential iron-sulfur proteins (HiPIPs), no structural explanations for these differences have been found. We calculated the classical electrostatic potential at the redox site using static crystal structures of four rubredoxins and four HiPIPs to identify important structural determinants of their redox potentials. The contributions from just the backbone and polar side chains are shown to explain major features of the experimental redox potentials. For instance, in the rubredoxins, the presence of Val 44 versus Ala 44 causes a backbone shift that explains a approximately 50 mV lower redox potential in one of the four rubredoxins. This result is consistent with experimental redox potentials of five additional rubredoxins with known sequence. Also, we attribute the unusually lower redox potentials of two of the HiPIPs studied to a less positive electrostatic environment around their redox sites. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations of solvent around static rubredoxin crystal structures indicate that water alone is a major factor in dampening the contribution of charged side chains, in accord with experiments showing that mutations of surface charges produce relatively little effect on redox potentials. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8968568

  3. Accumulation of Extracellular Matrix and Developmental Dysregulation in the Pancreas by Transgenic Production of Transforming Growth Factor-β1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung-Shik; Gu, Danling; Feng, Lili; Curriden, Scott; Arnush, Marc; Krahl, Troy; Gurushanthaiah, Deepak; Wilson, Curtis; Loskutoff, David L.; Fox, Howard; Sarvetnick, Nora

    1995-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the pancreatic β-islet cells directed by human insulin promoter were produced to study in vivo effects of TGF-β1. Fibroblast proliferation and abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix were observed from birth onward, finally replacing almost all the exocrine pancreas. Cellular infiltrates comprising macrophages and neutrophils were also observed. Plasminogen activator inhibitor was induced in the transgenic pancreas as well as fibronectin and laminin, partly explaining accumulation of extracellular matrix. TGF-β1 inhibited proliferation of acinar cells in vivo as evidenced by decreased bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Development of pancreatic islets was dysregulated, resulting in small islet cell clusters without formation of normal adult islets; however, the overall islet cell mass was not signfifcantly diminished. Additional transgenic lines with less pronounced phenotypes had less expression of TGF-β1 transgene. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 might be a mediator of diseases associated with extracellular matrix deposition such as chronic pancreatitis, and this mouse model will be useful for further analysis of the in vivo effects of TGF-β1, including its potential for immunosuppression. Imagesp43-aFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7604884

  4. Proliferative potential and p53 overexpression in precursor and early stage lesions of bronchioloalveolar lung carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, H.; Kameda, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Nakatani, Y.; Inayama, Y.; Iida, M.; Noda, K.; Ogawa, N.; Shibagaki, T.; Kanisawa, M.

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of bronchioloalveolar lung carcinoma (BAC), we evaluated the lesion size, growth fraction, and p53 overexpression of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) and early stage BAC. AAH was classified as showing low grade or high grade atypia. AAH-like carcinoma, presumably very early stage BAC, was distinguished from AAH in that it exhibited remarkable atypia suggestive of malignant potential and from overt BAC in that it lacked unequivocal malignant features, including invasive/destructive growth. The growth fraction was determined immunohistochemically in terms of the Ki-67 labeling index. The overexpression of p53 was evaluated by assessing the nuclear accumulation of immunoreactive p53 protein. Both the lesion size and the growth fraction increased from low grade AAH, to high grade AAH, to AAH-like carcinoma, and to overt adenocarcinoma. The overexpression of p53 in AAH-like carcinoma was similar to that in overt adenocarcinoma and was more frequent than that in AAH. Our findings indicate that AAH, AAH-like carcinoma, and overt BAC represent different categories, although the cellular events occurring in these lesions presumably represent a continuous spectrum of the changes that are reflected in the cytomorphology and lesion size. The findings here suggest that AAH and AAH-like carcinomas constitute a population of heterogeneous lesions representing different steps toward overt BAC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7717455

  5. Analytical Debye-Huckel model for electrostatic potentials around dissolved DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, K; Keyes, E; Kephart, T W; Edwards, G

    1997-01-01

    We present an analytical, Green-function-based model for the electric potential of DNA in solution, treating the surrounding solvent with the Debye-Huckel approximation. The partial charge of each atom is accounted for by modeling DNA as linear distributions of atoms on concentric cylindrical surfaces. The condensed ions of the solvent are treated with the Debye-Huckel approximation. The resultant leading term of the potential is that of a continuous shielded line charge, and the higher order terms account for the helical structure. Within several angstroms of the surface there is sufficient information in the electric potential to distinguish features and symmetries of DNA. Plots of the potential and equipotential surfaces, dominated by the phosphate charges, reflect the structural differences between the A, B, and Z conformations and, to a smaller extent, the difference between base sequences. As the distances from the helices increase, the magnitudes of the potentials decrease. However, the bases and sugars account for a larger fraction of the double helix potential with increasing distance. We have found that when the solvent is treated with the Debye-Huckel approximation, the potential decays more rapidly in every direction from the surface than it did in the concentric dielectric cylinder approximation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 PMID:9199767

  6. Cyclodestructive surgery for glaucoma: past, present, and future.

    PubMed Central

    Shields, M B

    1985-01-01

    When surgical attempts to control glaucoma by improving aqueous outflow are not successful, the alternative approach is usually to reduce aqueous inflow by a cyclodestructive procedure. Cyclodestructive elements that have been tried in the past include diathermy, electrolysis, and beta irradiation. Cyclocryotherapy is presently the most commonly used cyclodestructive procedure, although this operation has significant limitations, and newer techniques are being evaluated utilizing laser energy or ultrasonic radiation. Each of these procedures uses a transcleral approach, which has the disadvantages of (1) the inability to precisely quantitate the destruction of the ciliary processes, and (2) damage to adjacent tissue. Transpupillary cyclophotocoagulation minimizes these problems, but is limited to the small number of eyes in which adequate gonioscopic visualization of the ciliary processes can be achieved. An alternative approach for aphakic eyes is intraocular cyclophotocoagulation, utilizing an endophotocoagulator through a pars plana incision. Depending on the status of the eye, visualization for this technique can be accomplished either by the transpupillary route or with an endoscope. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:3832531

  7. Synthesis of Early Heat Shock Proteins in Young Leaves of Barley and Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Adrian K.; Critchley, Christa

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo synthesis of early heat-shock proteins in young leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) was studied by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Analysis of whole leaf protein patterns demonstrated clearly the enhanced resolution of heat-shock proteins, especially those of low molecular weight, when separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Comparison between the two cereals showed that a greater number and diversity of heat-shock proteins were induced in the subtropical C4 (sorghum) species compared to the temperate C3 (barley) species. Fractionation of whole leaf proteins into soluble and membrane fractions showed the majority of heat-shock proteins to be associated with the soluble fraction in both sorghum and barley. However, several low molecular mass (17-24 kilodalton) heat-shock proteins were clearly identified in the membrane fractions, indicating a likely association with thylakoid membranes in vivo during the early stages of a heat-shock response in both species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16667750

  8. Histologic evolution of the reactions to hemorrhage in the premature human infant's brain. A combined ultrasound and autopsy study and a comparison with the reaction in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, V. C.; Alvord, E. C.; Mack, L. A.; Hodson, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    With the development and routine use of real-time ultrasound scanning, it has been possible to collect 20 autopsy cases of infants in whom the ultrasound scan was first normal and then showed evidence of subependymal/intraventricular hemorrhage (SEH/IVH). Analysis of these cases with known postnatal origin of the hemorrhage permitted the development for the first time of a time scale to characterize the temporal evolution of the histopathologic reactions to hemorrhage in the premature human brain. This time scale was then used to define the histologic stage of the lesions in 27 other cases of infants who had a scan demonstrating SEH/IVH prior to death but who had not a previously normal scan. Only 2 cases were found to lie off the original scale, indicating a prenatal onset of the hemorrhage in about 5% of the total cases. Thus, postnatal events immediately preceding the onset of the hemorrhage are more likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of SEH/IVH than prenatal or obstetric events. Comparison with similar reactions in the adult indicate that the early reactions by macrophages occur at about the same rate but the routine transfer of iron from macrophages to astrocytes and the much slower rate of absorption to form a cyst in the adult combine to form a complicated pattern that requires a different set of criteria for the intermediate and late stages in the adult. Images Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 9 Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:3276212

  9. The environment and asthma in U.S. inner cities.

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, P A; Buckley, T J; Breysse, P N; Wills-Karp, M; Kleeberger, S R; Jaakkola, J J

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of asthma has increased in the last 20 years, and the greatest increase has been seen among children and young adults living in U.S. inner cities. The reasons for this increase are obviously complex, but include environmental exposures to allergens and pollutants, changing patterns of medication, and the psychosocial stresses of living in poor inner-city neighborhoods. This paper presents an overview of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors associated with asthma morbidity and mortality. This overview can be used to provide a framework for designing an interdisciplinary research program to address the complexities of asthma etiology and exacerbation. The strongest epidemiologic association has been found between asthma morbidity and the exposure of immunologically sensitive asthmatic patients to airborne allergens. Our current understanding of the process of sensitization suggests that there is a strong genetic predisposition to form IgE to allergenic proteins on airborne particles. Much of this work has been conducted with animal models, but in a number of instances, specific confirmation has been reported in humans. Sensitized individuals respond to inhaled exposure with immediate mast-cell dependent inflammation that may be augmented by pollutant particles, especially diesel exhaust particles. Relatively little is known about the methods of assessing exposure to airborne pollutants, especially biologically active particulates. However, to examine the relationship of morbidity in genetically predisposed individuals, it will be important to determine the most relevant method of making this assessment. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10346992

  10. Somatic-cell selection is a major determinant of the blood-cell phenotype in heterozygotes for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations causing severe enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Filosa, S.; Giacometti, N.; Wangwei, C.; De Mattia, D.; Pagnini, D.; Alfinito, F.; Schettini, F.; Luzzatto, L.; Martini, G.

    1996-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation in mammals is regarded as an essentially random process, but the resulting somatic-cell mosaicism creates the opportunity for cell selection. In most people with red-blood-cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the enzyme-deficient phenotype is only moderately expressed in nucleated cells. However, in a small subset of hemizygous males who suffer from chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, the underlying mutations (designated class I) cause more-severe G6PD deficiency, and this might provide an opportunity for selection in heterozygous females during development. In order to test this possibility we have analyzed four heterozygotes for class I G6PD mutations: two with G6PD Portici (1178G-->A) and two with G6PD Bari (1187C-->T). We found that in fractionated blood cell types (including erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cell lineages) there was a significant excess of G6PD-normal cells. The significant concordance that we have observed in the degree of imbalance in the different blood-cell lineages indicates that a selective mechanism is likely to operate at the level of pluripotent blood stem cells. Thus, it appears that severe G6PD deficiency affects adversely the proliferation or the survival of nucleated blood cells and that this phenotypic characteristic is critical during hematopoiesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8808605

  11. Hyperganglionosis mimicking Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Athow, A C; Filipe, M I; Drake, D P

    1991-01-01

    Three patients with hyperganglionosis are reported in whom an initial diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease was suspected. In one patient there was a classic presentation with constipation, in another Hirschsprung's disease coexisted, and in the third the initial inadequate suction rectal biopsy specimen was suggestive of Hirschsprung's disease on acetylcholinesterase staining. Evidence of hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the intermuscular and submucosal plexuses on a full thickness bowel biopsy specimen was used to confirm the diagnosis of hyperganglionosis, suggested by the characteristic demonstration of moderate increase in the number of acetylcholinesterase stained nerve fibres in the lamina propria mucosae on rectal biopsy. Surgical management was guided by clinical signs. Two patients had colonic resections; the third had temporary stomal diversion. Hyperganglionosis is rarer than Hirschsprung's disease but is known to mimic it. We suggest full thickness bowel specimens are needed to confirm the diagnosis and that inadequate rectal suction biopsies must be interpreted with caution. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1755642

  12. Remodeling the shape of the skeleton in the intact red cell.

    PubMed Central

    Khodadad, J K; Waugh, R E; Podolski, J L; Josephs, R; Steck, T L

    1996-01-01

    The role of the membrane skeleton in determining the shape of the human red cell was probed by weakening it in situ with urea, a membrane-permeable perturbant of spectrin. Urea by itself did not alter the biconcave disk shape of the red cell; however, above threshold conditions (1.5 M, 37 degrees C, 10 min), it caused an 18% reduction in the membrane elastic shear modulus. It also potentiated the spiculation of cells by lysophosphatidylcholine. These findings suggest that the contour of the resting cell is not normally dependent on the elasticity of or tension in the membrane skeleton. Rather, the elasticity of the skeleton stabilizes membranes against deformation. Urea treatment also caused the projections induced both by micropipette aspiration and by lysophosphatidylcholine to become irreversible. Furthermore, urea converted the axisymmetric conical spicules induced by lysophosphatidylcholine into irregular, curved and knobby spicules; i.e., echinocytosis became acanthocytosis. Unlike controls, the ghosts and membrane skeletons obtained from urea-generated acanthocytes were imprinted with spicules. These data suggest that perturbing interprotein associations with urea in situ allowed the skeleton to evolve plastically to accommodate the contours imposed upon it by the overlying membrane. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8789122

  13. The embryonic RNA helicase gene (ERH): a new member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases.

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, J; Putt, W; Morrison, K; Beddington, R; Edwards, Y

    1995-01-01

    DEAD box proteins share several highly conserved motifs including the characteristic Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (D-E-A-D in the amino acid single-letter code) motif and have established or putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity. These proteins are implicated in a range of cellular processes that involve regulation of RNA function, including translation initiation, RNA splicing and ribosome assembly. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of an embryonic RNA helicase gene, ERH, which maps to mouse chromosome 1 and encodes a new member of the DEAD box family of proteins. The predicted ERH protein shows high sequence similarity to the testes-specific mouse PL10 and to the maternally acting Xenopus An3 helicase proteins. The ERH expression profile is similar, to that of An3, which localizes to the animal hemisphere of oocytes and is abundantly expressed in the embryo. ERH is expressed in oocytes and is a ubiquitous mRNA in the 9 days-post-conception embryo, and at later stages of development shows a more restricted pattern of expression in brain and kidney. The similarities in sequence and in expression profile suggest that ERH is the murine equivalent of the Xenopus An3 gene, and we propose that ERH plays a role in translational activation of mRNA in the oocyte and early embryo. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8948440

  14. Osteoblast-specific factor 2: cloning of a putative bone adhesion protein with homology with the insect protein fasciclin I.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, S; Kikuno, R; Tezuka, K; Amann, E

    1993-01-01

    A cDNA library prepared from the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was screened for the presence of specifically expressed genes by employing a combined subtraction hybridization/differential screening approach. A cDNA was identified and sequenced which encodes a protein designated osteoblast-specific factor 2 (OSF-2) comprising 811 amino acids. OSF-2 has a typical signal sequence, followed by a cysteine-rich domain, a fourfold repeated domain and a C-terminal domain. The protein lacks a typical transmembrane region. The fourfold repeated domain of OSF-2 shows homology with the insect protein fasciclin I. RNA analyses revealed that OSF-2 is expressed in bone and to a lesser extent in lung, but not in other tissues. Mouse OSF-2 cDNA was subsequently used as a probe to clone the human counterpart. Mouse and human OSF-2 show a high amino acid sequence conservation except for the signal sequence and two regions in the C-terminal domain in which 'in-frame' insertions or deletions are observed, implying alternative splicing events. On the basis of the amino acid sequence homology with fasciclin I, we suggest that OSF-2 functions as a homophilic adhesion molecule in bone formation. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8363580

  15. Calcium alone does not fully activate the thin filament for S1 binding to rigor myofibrils.

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, D R; Moss, R L; Greaser, M L

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is regulated by calcium via troponin and tropomyosin and appears to involve cooperative activation of cross-bridge binding to actin. We studied the regulation of fluorescent myosin subfragment 1 (fS1) binding to rigor myofibrils over a wide range of fS1 and calcium levels using highly sensitive imaging techniques. At low calcium and low fS1, the fluorescence was restricted to the actin-myosin overlap region. At high calcium and very low fS1, the fluorescence was still predominantly in the overlap region. The ratio of nonoverlap to overlap fluorescence intensity showed that increases in the fS1 level resulted in a shift in maximum fluorescence from the overlap to the nonoverlap region at both low and high calcium; this transition occurred at lower fS1 levels in myofibrils with high calcium. At a fixed fS1 level, increases in calcium also resulted in a shift in maximum fluorescence from the overlap region to the nonoverlap region. These results suggest that calcium alone does not fully activate the thin filament for rigor S1 binding and that, even at high calcium, the thin filament is not activated along its entire length. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 PMID:8889164

  16. Characterisation of inorganic microparticles in pigment cells of human gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J J; Ainley, C C; Harvey, R S; Mason, I M; Kendall, M D; Sankey, E A; Dhillon, A P; Thompson, R P

    1996-01-01

    Macrophages at the base of human gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), become loaded early in life with dark granular pigment that is rich in aluminium, silicon, and titanium. The molecular characteristics, intracellular distribution, and source of this pigment is described. Laser scanning and electron microscopy showed that pigmented macrophages were often closely related to collagen fibres and plasma cells in GALT of both small and large intestine and contained numerous phagolysosomes, previously described as granules, that are rich in electron dense submicron sized particles. Morphological assessment, x ray microanalysis, and image electron energy loss spectroscopy showed three distinct types of microparticle: type I - spheres of titanium dioxide, 100-200 nm diameter, characterised as the synthetic food-additive polymorph anatase; type II - aluminosilicates, < 100-400 nm in length, generally of flaky appearance, often with adsorbed surface iron, and mostly characteristic of the natural clay mineral kaolinite; and type III - mixed environmental silicates without aluminium, 100-700 nm in length and of variable morphology. Thus, this cellular pigment that is partly derived from food additives and partly from the environment is composed of inert inorganic microparticles and loaded into phagolysosomes of macrophages within the GALT of all human subjects. These observations suggest that the pathogenicity of this pigment should be further investigated since, in susceptible individuals, the same intracellular distribution of these three types of submicron particle causes chronic latent granulomatous inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8675092

  17. The lipid-rich core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. Prevalence of small lipid droplets and vesicles by electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    Abundant extracellular lipid deposits are associated with cell necrosis and tissue weakening in the core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. The ultrastructural morphology of the core region, previously undefined because of lipid extraction artifacts, was studied with the aid of new osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium and osmium-tannic acid-paraphenylenediamine sequences for tissue processing. Small droplets of neutral lipid (30 to 400 nm profile diameter) and lipid vesicles with aqueous centers accounted for more than 90% of the area occupied by lipid-rich structures in the core region. No foam cells were present. Cholesterol crystals, lipid droplets of a size similar to those in foam cells (0.4 to 6 mu), and larger neutral lipid deposits (greater than 6 mu) together occupied less than 10% of the total area of lipid structures. Abundant lipid vesicles were associated with the nearby presence of cholesterol crystals, whereas small lipid droplets were predominant in areas without crystals. Many droplets had surface defects in the form of pits and vesicular blebs. These morphologic findings are explained most concisely by postulating direct accumulation of extracellular lipid from interstitial lipoproteins as a major process in core region formation. Moreover, a dynamic state of ongoing physical/metabolic transformation of extracellular lipid deposits is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2646938

  18. Frameshift deletions of exons 3-7 and revertant fibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: mechanisms of dystrophin production.

    PubMed Central

    Winnard, A V; Mendell, J R; Prior, T W; Florence, J; Burghes, A H

    1995-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients with mutations that disrupt the translational reading frame produce little or no dystrophin. Two exceptions are the deletion of exons 3-7 and the occurrence of rare dystrophin-positive fibers (revertant fibers) in muscle of DMD patients. Antibodies directed against the amino-terminus and the 5' end of exon 8 did not detect dystrophin in muscle from patients who have a deletion of exons 3-7. However, in all cases, dystrophin was detected with an antibody directed against the 3' end of exon 8. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these cases is initiation at a new start codon in exon 8. We also studied two patients who have revertant fibers: one had an inherited duplication of exons 5-7, which, on immunostaining, showed two types of revertant fibers; and the second patient had a 2-bp nonsense mutation in exon 51, which creates a cryptic splice site. An in-frame mRNA that uses this splice site in exon 51 was detected. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of the 3' end of exon 51, which is in agreement with the use of this mRNA in revertant fibers. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these fibers is a second mutation that restores the reading frame. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7825572

  19. Soft tissue calcification in chronic dialysis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzela, D. C.; Huffer, W. E.; Conger, J. D.; Winter, S. D.; Hammond, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Autopsy protocols and microscopic slides of 56 dialyzed and 18 nondialyzed chronically uremic patients were reviewed to assess the presence, extent, and severity of extraosseous soft tissue calcification. Calcification was identified in 79% of the dialysis patients and 44% of the nondialysis patients (P iss less than .025). Soft tissue calcification most frequently involved the heart, lungs, stomach, and kidneys. Lesions were severe in 36% of the dialysis patients and, when strategically located within the myocardium, were life-threatening. The deaths of 6 dialysis patients were attributed to severe calcification of the cardiac conduction system and/or myocardium. The presence and severity of soft tissue calcification was not related to duration of dialysis, patients' age, degree of parathyroid gland hyperplasia, radiographic evidence of soft tissue calcification, serum calcium and phosphate levels, Ca X P products, or type or severity of metabolic bone disease. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:836675

  20. Driving through: postpartum care during World War II.

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, E

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10191809