Science.gov

Sample records for 4h shell mounds

  1. Contaminant exposures at the 4H shell mounds in the Santa Barbara Channel.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Charles R; Salazar, Michael H; Salazar, Sandra M; Snyder, Barry J

    2006-12-01

    Remobilization, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of chemical contaminants were evaluated at the 4H shell mounds - the site of abandoned offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. Evaluations used a weight-of-evidence approach based on results from bulk phase chemical analyses and laboratory toxicity testing of shell mound cores, in situ field bioassays using caged mussels, and surficial sediment chemistry. Shell mound cores contained elevated concentrations of metals associated with drilling wastes (e.g., Ba, Cr, Pb, and Zn), as well as monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The highest concentrations along with pockets of free oil were associated with the middle "cuttings" stratum. Sediments composited from all core strata caused significant acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of Ba and PAHs in test organisms during laboratory exposures. In contrast, caged mussels placed at each of the shell mounds for a period of 57-58 days had greater than 90% survival, and there were no significant differences in survival of mussels placed at the shell mounds and corresponding reference sites. While all mussel samples exhibited increases in shell length, whole animal weight, and tissue lipid content, in some cases growth metrics for the shell mound mussels were significantly higher than those for the reference sites. Concentrations of metals, PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tissues of the shell mound mussels were not significantly different from those at reference sites. The presence of labile aromatic hydrocarbons in shell mound cores and absence of significant contaminant accumulation of tissues of caged mussels indicated that chemical contaminants are not being remobilized from the 4H shell mounds. Surficial bottom sediments near the shell mounds contained elevated Ba concentrations that probably were associated with drilling wastes. However, concentrations did not

  2. Paleo-environment Simulation using GIS based on Shell Mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, T.; Asanuma, I.; Harada, E.

    2016-02-01

    Paleo-coastlines are simulated using the geographic information system (GIS) based on the shell mounds as the paleo-environment in the Tsubaki-no-umi, Ocean of Camellia in Japanese, the paleo-ocean, in Japan. The shell mounds, which are introduced in the paleo-study in the class history in junior and senior high, are used to estimate the paleo-coastlines. The paleo-coastlines are simulated as the function of sea levels relative to the current sea level for 6000 to 3000 BP on the digital elevation map of the GIS. The polygon of the simulated sea level height of 10 m extracted the shell mounds during 6000 to 5500 BP as the result of the spatial operation, and exhibited the consistency with the previous studies. The simulated sea level height of 5.5 m showed the paleo-coastline during 3600 to 3220 BP, while the Tsubaki-no-Umiturned into the brackish water lake, partly isolated from the ocean. The simulation of sea levels with GIS could be implemented to the class in the junior and senior high school with minimum efforts of teachers with the available computer and software environments.

  3. Temporal variability in shell mound formation at Albatross Bay, northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Petchey, Fiona; Allely, Kasey; Shiner, Justin I.; Bailey, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of 212 radiocarbon determinations from the archaeological excavation of 70 shell mound deposits in the Wathayn region of Albatross Bay, Australia. This is an intensive study of a closely co-located group of mounds within a geographically restricted area in a wider region where many more shell mounds have been reported. Valves from the bivalve Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758) were dated. The dates obtained are used to calculate rates of accumulation for the shell mound deposits. These demonstrate highly variable rates of accumulation both within and between mounds. We assess these results in relation to likely mechanisms of shell deposition and show that rates of deposition are affected by time-dependent processes both during the accumulation of shell deposits and during their subsequent deformation. This complicates the interpretation of the rates at which shell mound deposits appear to have accumulated. At Wathayn, there is little temporal or spatial consistency in the rates at which mounds accumulated. Comparisons between the Wathayn results and those obtained from shell deposits elsewhere, both in the wider Albatross Bay region and worldwide, suggest the need for caution when deriving behavioural inferences from shell mound deposition rates, and the need for more comprehensive sampling of individual mounds and groups of mounds. PMID:28854234

  4. Temporal variability in shell mound formation at Albatross Bay, northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, Simon J; Fanning, Patricia C; Petchey, Fiona; Allely, Kasey; Shiner, Justin I; Bailey, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of 212 radiocarbon determinations from the archaeological excavation of 70 shell mound deposits in the Wathayn region of Albatross Bay, Australia. This is an intensive study of a closely co-located group of mounds within a geographically restricted area in a wider region where many more shell mounds have been reported. Valves from the bivalve Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758) were dated. The dates obtained are used to calculate rates of accumulation for the shell mound deposits. These demonstrate highly variable rates of accumulation both within and between mounds. We assess these results in relation to likely mechanisms of shell deposition and show that rates of deposition are affected by time-dependent processes both during the accumulation of shell deposits and during their subsequent deformation. This complicates the interpretation of the rates at which shell mound deposits appear to have accumulated. At Wathayn, there is little temporal or spatial consistency in the rates at which mounds accumulated. Comparisons between the Wathayn results and those obtained from shell deposits elsewhere, both in the wider Albatross Bay region and worldwide, suggest the need for caution when deriving behavioural inferences from shell mound deposition rates, and the need for more comprehensive sampling of individual mounds and groups of mounds.

  5. From Shell Midden to Midden-Mound: The Geoarchaeology of Mound Key, an Anthropogenic Island in Southwest Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Cherkinsky, Alexander; Roberts Thompson, Amanda D.; Walker, Karen J.; Newsom, Lee A.; Savarese, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mound Key was once the capital of the Calusa Kingdom, a large Pre-Hispanic polity that controlled much of southern Florida. Mound Key, like other archaeological sites along the southwest Gulf Coast, is a large expanse of shell and other anthropogenic sediments. The challenges that these sites pose are largely due to the size and areal extent of the deposits, some of which begin up to a meter below and exceed nine meters above modern sea levels. Additionally, the complex depositional sequences at these sites present difficulties in determining their chronology. Here, we examine the development of Mound Key as an anthropogenic island through systematic coring of the deposits, excavations, and intensive radiocarbon dating. The resulting data, which include the reversals of radiocarbon dates from cores and dates from mound-top features, lend insight into the temporality of site formation. We use these insights to discuss the nature and scale of human activities that worked to form this large island in the context of its dynamic, environmental setting. We present the case that deposits within Mound Key’s central area accumulated through complex processes that represent a diversity of human action including midden accumulation and the redeposition of older sediments as mound fill. PMID:27123928

  6. Electron spin resonance dating of human bones from Brazilian shell-mounds (Sambaquís).

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, S; Baffa Filho, O; Ikeya, M

    1982-12-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) signals from bone increase with exposure to radiation. This permits the dating of ancient bone from its exposure to natural radiation over the centuries. The ESR technique was used for dating human bones from Brazilian shell mounds. The results were compared with 14C dates on charcoal found near the bone. The natural radiation dose rate of the bones was about 0.01 Gy/year (1 rad/year), similar to that found in Japanese shell-mounds. Ages of the bone samples dated ranged from 2000-5000 years BP.

  7. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound) sediments

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Morgana; Pessanha, Thaíla; Leles, Daniela; Dutra, Juliana MF; Silva, Rosângela; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis. PMID:23579793

  8. Synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@Metal Sulfide Core-Shell Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Jian; Wu, Xue-Jun; Liu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2015-09-02

    Although great advances on the synthesis of Au-semiconductor heteronanostructures have been achieved, the crystal structure of Au components is limited to the common face-centered cubic (fcc) phase. Herein, we report the synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@Ag2S core-shell nanoribbon (NRB) heterostructures from the 4H/fcc Au@Ag NRBs via the sulfurization of Ag. Remarkably, the obtained 4H/fcc-Au@Ag2S NRBs can be further converted to a novel class of 4H/fcc-Au@metal sulfide core-shell NRB heterostructures, referred to as 4H/fcc-Au@MS (M = Cd, Pb or Zn), through the cation exchange. We believe that these novel 4H/fcc-Au@metal sulfide NRB heteronanostructures may show some promising applications in catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering, solar cells, photothermal therapy, etc.

  9. Anthropogenic relief features in tropical northern Australia: a physical and chemical analysis of the Weipa shell mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanning, Patricia; Holdaway, Simon; Allely, Kasey; Larsen, Bernie; Petchey, Fiona

    2017-04-01

    Large mounded deposits of shell are prominent archaeological features across much of the north Australian tropical coast. Many of the shell mounds are composed almost entirely of the bivalve Anadara granosa (Linnaeus 1758), a food source for Aboriginal people in the past. They are identified in the field by their distinct mounded topographic form and the unique vegetation community growing on them. A relatively long history of inquiry into the nature and significance of the shell mounds has focused primarily on analysing the shell component as clues to Australian Aboriginal coastal economies in the past. This paper presents results of new analyses on the non-shell sediments of mounds located near Weipa in far north Queensland, examining the physical and chemical signatures of depositional and post-depositional processes with a view to obtaining insights into how the mounds formed and for what purposes, and how their morphology, structure and content may have changed since they ceased accumulating. We also consider how such changes might relate to past and present environmental conditions. The mounds we studied are primarily located on topographic high points, such as cliffs, hillslopes and beach ridges, though a proportion are located on estuarine floodplains at low elevations. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) of a sample of 51 shell mounds demonstrates substantial variation in mound size and shape, and suggests patterning in mound form related to age as well as position on the landscape. However, radiocarbon chronologies demonstrate that the mounds do not conform to a model of linear formation of a shell deposit, suggesting mound histories are variable in both the nature of shell deposition as well as post-depositional processes. Soil physical and chemical analyses indicate that post-depositional diagenetic alteration has strongly influenced the present day composition and form of the shell mounds, in particular the accession of carbon and silica to the mounds by

  10. Geoarchaeological approaches to understanding human-environment interactions in Australia's tropical north: the Weipa shell mounds revisited.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanning, P. C.; Holdaway, S. J.; Shiner, J.; Petchey, F.

    2012-04-01

    Western Cape York Peninsula, particularly the Weipa region, has seen sustained archaeological investigation since the 1960s. These studies primarily concentrated on the shell mounds associated with coastal environments first observed at the beginning of the 20th century. Despite claims that the shell mounds were of natural origin, archaeological investigations convincingly demonstrated that they are primarily cultural deposits. Geomorphological studies indicate that chenier (beach ridge) formation occurred after sea-level stabilisation in the mid- to late Holocene, and is connected to the formation of estuaries at the mouths of the Mission, Pine, Hey and Embley Rivers. Anadara shell bed formation is in turn connected with the evolution of the estuaries. However, the relationship between shell mound age and location relative to the coastline at Weipa is neither well defined, nor tested at multiple locations. Given that the coast is susceptible to the effects of sea-level fluctuations and environmental change, and the Anadara beds can become depleted as a result of environmental shifts, the shell mounds provide a datable record of human reaction to coastal landscape and environmental change. Here, we report preliminary results of a new investigation of the shell mounds of the Weipa region. Radiocarbon and OSL-based age determinations from samples of shell, charcoal and sediment collected from trenches excavated into shell mounds on the northern shore of the Embley River indicate a relationship between the time of initial accumulation of shell and the age of the landform features upon which they were built, which in turn are a result of coastline evolution during the mid to late Holocene. These mounds are the oldest yet recorded for the Weipa region, with accumulation in one case commencing around 3500 cal BP. Accumulation appears to be more or less continuous, and abruptly ceases after 400-650 yrs. We discuss implications for understanding human

  11. Amino acid racemization dating of marine shells: A mound of possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Demarchi, Beatrice; Williams, Matt G.; Milner, Nicky; Russell, Nicola; Bailey, Geoff; Penkman, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Shell middens are one of the most important and widespread indicators for human exploitation of marine resources and occupation of coastal environments. Establishing an accurate and reliable chronology for these deposits has fundamental implications for understanding the patterns of human evolution and dispersal. This paper explores the potential application of a new methodology of amino acid racemization (AAR) dating of shell middens and describes a simple protocol to test the suitability of different molluscan species. This protocol provides a preliminary test for the presence of an intracrystalline fraction of proteins (by bleaching experiments and subsequent heating at high temperature), checking the closed system behaviour of this fraction during diagenesis. Only species which pass both tests can be considered suitable for further studies to obtain reliable age information. This amino acid geochronological technique is also applied to midden deposits at two latitudinal extremes: Northern Scotland and the Southern Red Sea. Results obtained in this study indicate that the application of this new method of AAR dating of shells has the potential to aid the geochronological investigation of shell mounds in different areas of the world. PMID:21776187

  12. The bone degenerative processes in senile fishes from Holocene Brazilian shell mounds.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, O; Rocha, I; Lopes, M S; Lima, I; Lopes, R T; Machado, A S; Guimarães, R B; Crapez, M A C; Tenório, M C; Nepomuceno, A

    2017-07-14

    Zooarchaeological collections from shell mounds in Rio de Janeiro (2,470-4,632 cal BP) contain a high prevalence of swollen fish bones belonging to the Atlantic spadefish (Chaetodipterus faber), crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) and fat snook (Centropomus parallelus). Given the lack of knowledge of the bone degenerative process in senile fishes, this study analysed hyperostotic bone in zooarchaeological and modern specimens to obtain high-resolution morphology and microstructure reconstruction. We used microCT as well as X-ray diffraction to characterize the crystallographic changes associated with fish senility. Our results showed that trabecular microstructures in hyperostotic bones were consistent with estimated values of the per cent bone volume-to-total volume ratio (BV/TV) and were greater than 60% in cortical bone. Hyperostotic bones indicated a high radiograph density, and X-ray diffractograms showed a decrease in hydroxyapatite [Ca10 (PO4 )6 (OH)2 ] and calcite (CaCO3 ) neocrystallization. These crystalline and density changes revealed an advanced stage of fish senile and indicate the vulnerability of ageing fish populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@M (M = Ir, Os, IrOs) Core-Shell Nanoribbons For Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Chen, Ye; Wang, Jie; Li, Bing; Zong, Yun; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The high-yield synthesis of 4H/face-centered cubic (fcc)-Au@Ir core-shell nanoribbons (NRBs) is achieved via the direct growth of Ir on 4H Au NRBs under ambient conditions. Importantly, this method can be used to synthesize 4H/fcc-Au@Os and 4H/fcc-Au@IrOs core-shell NRBs. Significantly, the obtained 4H/fcc-Au@Ir core-shell NRBs demonstrate an exceptional electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction under acidic condition, which is much higher than that of the commercial Ir/C catalyst.

  14. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    PubMed

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Bull, Ann S

    2015-01-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  15. Morphological features of the fibula in Jomon hunter-gatherers from the shell mounds of the Pacific coastal area.

    PubMed

    Hagihara, Yasuo; Nara, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    The Jomon, one of the ancestral populations of modern Japanese, were hunter-gatherers inhabiting the Japanese archipelago from 11,000 to 300 BC. We evaluated changes in the diaphyseal morphology of the fibula from the middle to the final phase of the Jomon period, compared to the morphology of other historical and modern populations from the Japanese archipelago, to elucidate temporal changes in habitual activities and possible division of labor among males and females. Jomon specimens of 107 males and 97 females were obtained from the shell mounds of the Pacific coastal area of East Japan, distinguishing between middle (3,000-2,000 BC) and late-final (2,000-300 BC) phases of the Jomon period. Mid-shaft morphology of the fibula and tibia were compared to morphological measurements of specimens from Yayoi (37 males, 28 females), medieval (56 males, 56 females), early modern (51 males, 50 females), and modern (125 males, 68 females) periods. Largest values of fibular areas and relative fibular-to-tibial areas were identified in males from the late-final Jomon phase, compared to the middle Jomon phase and after the Yayoi period. These period-specific differences in fibular area were smaller in females, with the largest between-sex difference identified in the late-final Jomon phase. Results confirm a change in the habitual activity pattern of males in the late-final phase. Males of the late-final Jomon phase likely did more long-distance traveling to the inland/mountainous region, as part of an ecological change that occurred during the middle to the late-final Jomon phase. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:708-718, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds

    PubMed Central

    Claisse, Jeremy T.; Pondella, Daniel J.; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A.; Williams, Chelsea M.; Bull, Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). “Shell mounds” are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat. PMID:26332384

  17. 4-H and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on Iowa's role in the historical development of the 4-H youth program. "Roots in Iowa" and "Jessie Field Shambaugh: The Mother of 4-H" (J. Friedel) describes the rural Iowan roots of the 4-H program, which today is located in 80 different countries, and give the story of its founder. Jessie Shambaugh, a rural…

  18. An Unusual Mound

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-26

    With its cracked, blistery appearance, this mound near the center of a very large, over 5-kilometer diameter mid-latitude crater poses an interesting question: how did this form? This image is from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  19. 4H Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cure for 4H syndrome; treatment is supportive. Is prenatal diagnosis possible? As long as the genetic defect has not been identified, prenatal diagnosis is not possible. How is scientific research on ...

  20. Stair-stepped Mound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-429, 22 July 2003

    This April 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a stair-stepped mound of sedimentary rock (right of center) on the floor of a large impact crater in western Arabia Terra near 11.0oN, 4.4oW. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common in the craters of this region. The repeated thickness and uniformity of the layers that make up this mound suggest that their depositional environment was one in which cyclic or episodic events occurred over some period of time. The sediments might have been deposited in a lake, or they may have settled directly out of the atmosphere. Most of the layered material was later eroded away, leaving this circular mound and the other nearby mesas and knobs. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  1. Modern carbonate mound systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriet, J. P.; Dullo, C.

    2003-04-01

    Carbonate mounds are prominent features throughout the geological record. In many hydrocarbon provinces, they form prime reservoir structures. But recent investigations have increasingly reported occurrences of large mound clusters at the surface of the seabed, or buried at shallow depth on modern ocean margins, and in particular in basins rich in hydrocarbons. Such exciting new observations along the West-European margin are promising for elucidating the setting and environment of modern carbonate mounds, but at the same time they confront us with puzzling or sometimes contradictory observations in the quest for their genesis. Spectacular cold-water coral communities have colonized such mounds, but convincing arguments for recognizing them as prime builders are still lacking. The geological record provides ample evidence of microbial mediation in mound build-up and stabilisation, but as long as mound drilling is lacking, we have no opportunity to verify the role of such processes and identify the key actors in the earliest stage of onset and development of modern mounds. Some evidence from the past record and from present very-high resolution observations in the shallow seabed suggest an initial control by fluid venting, and fluid migration pathways have been imaged or are tentatively reconstructed by modelling in the concerned basins, but the ultimate link in the shallow subsurface seems still to elude a large part of our efforts. Surface sampling and analyses of both corals and surface sediments have largely failed in giving any conclusive evidence of present-day or recent venting in the considered basins. But on the other hand, applying rigourously the interpretational keys derived from e.g. Porcupine Seabight settings off NW Ireland on brand new prospective settings e.g. on the Moroccan margin have resulted in the discovery of totally new mound settings, in the middle of a field of giant, active mud volcanoes. Keys are apparently working, but we still do not

  2. Mound Supports Galileo

    SciTech Connect

    Monsanto Research Corporation

    1986-01-01

    This video describes the invention of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) at Mound Laboratory, and radioisotope heat source production from 1 watt-thermal to 2400 watts-thermal. RTGs have been used in many space vehicles, but the RTG built for the Galileo mission to orbit Jupiter is the largest. This RTG unit will produce 4400 watts-thermal and convert to 300 watts-electric. The plutonium-238 heat source assembly and test at Mound is described. The RTGs are tested under simulated mission conditions. The RTG leakage radiation is carefully measured for background compensation for on-board radiation monitoring instruments.

  3. Gale Crater Mound

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-27

    The eroded, layered deposit in this NASA Mars Odyssey image of Gale Crater is a mound of material rising 3 km about 2 miles above the crater floor. It has been sculpted by wind and possibly water to produce the dramatic landforms seen today.

  4. The Mud-Laden Mound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sams, Larry M.

    1990-01-01

    A family's trip to Winterville Indian Mounds State Park in Mississippi is described, focusing on the frustrations of a gifted six-year old who fell in the muck of the Great Temple Mound, and on the joys of seeing spectacular displays of ancient earthworks. (JDD)

  5. Gale Crater Mound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The eroded, layered deposit in Gale Crater is a mound of material rising 3 km above the crater floor. It has been sculpted by wind and possibly water to produce the dramatic landforms seen today. The origin of the sedimentary material that composes the mound remains a contested issue: was it produced from sedimentation in an ancient crater lake or by airfall onto dry land?

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -5.1, Longitude 137.5 East (222.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  6. Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles facing new 4-H volunteers include time constraints and difficulty finding project-specific information, resources, and opportunities available for club members. As a solution to these obstacles and an aid for assisting volunteers in becoming confident in delivering information to youth, content experts produced Discover 4-H Clubs, a…

  7. Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles facing new 4-H volunteers include time constraints and difficulty finding project-specific information, resources, and opportunities available for club members. As a solution to these obstacles and an aid for assisting volunteers in becoming confident in delivering information to youth, content experts produced Discover 4-H Clubs, a…

  8. Fractured Mounds in Elysium Planitia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-15

    This observation from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows fractured mounds on the southern edge of Elysium Planitia. The fractures that crisscross their surfaces are probably composed of solidified lava.

  9. Seismic features of Winnipegosis mounds in Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Gendzwill, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    The Winnipegosis Formation of southern Saskatchewan is characterized by reefs or reeflike mounds in its upper member. Several characteristic features of the mounds permit their identification from seismic-reflection data. These features include reflections from the flanks of the mound, a change in the reflection continuity in the middle and base of the mound, a velocity pullup under the mound, and subsidence of strata over the mound. Dissolution of the salt which surrounds the mounds sometimes occurs, resulting in a drape structure. Some or all of these features may be present at the correct seismic stratigraphic level for Winnipegosis mounds, depending on the local conditions. Subsidence of strata over the mounds indicates compaction and porosity loss from the original mound or possibly the degree of dolomitization or pressure dissolution. Salt-removal features over or adjacent to the mounds indicate fluid movements. Approximate ages can be estimated from stratigraphic thinning and thickening relationships above such features. Complications in identifying Winnipegosis mounds may arise from thin-bed effects if the mounds are not very thick compared to a seismic wavelength. Confusion may also arise from anhydrite, which may encase the mounds or which may form a thick horizontal layer at the tops of the mounds, causing an interfering signal.

  10. Bizarre Crater Mound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 June 2003

    The height of the interior mound of sediment inside this crater exceeds the crater rim heights by 900 meters (3,000 ft). This is a confounding problem. How does all this material get inside this crater and actually rise higher than its holding chamber? What is this material? Where did it come from? Why is it still here? It is exactly these kinds of enigmas that makes Mars so very interesting.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.2, Longitude 26.3 East (333.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Single Domain SmCo5@Co Exchange-coupled Magnets Prepared from Core/shell Sm[Co(CN)6].4H2O@GO Particles: A Novel Chemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ce; Jia, Lihui; Wang, Shouguo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Dawei; Hou, Yanglong; Gao, Song

    2013-12-01

    SmCo5 based magnets with smaller size and larger maximum energy product have been long desired in various fields such as renewable energy technology, electronic industry and aerospace science. However, conventional relatively rough synthetic strategies will lead to either diminished magnetic properties or irregular morphology, which hindered their wide applications. In this article, we present a facile chemical approach to prepare 200 nm single domain SmCo5@Co core/shell magnets with coercivity of 20.7 kOe and saturation magnetization of 82 emu/g. We found that the incorporation of GO sheets is responsible for the generation of the unique structure. The single domain SmCo5 core contributes to the large coercivity of the magnets and the exchange-coupled Co shell enhances the magnetization. This method can be further utilized in the synthesis other Sm-Co based exchange-coupled magnets.

  12. Single Domain SmCo5@Co Exchange-coupled Magnets Prepared from Core/shell Sm[Co(CN)6]·4H2O@GO Particles: A Novel Chemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ce; Jia, Lihui; Wang, Shouguo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Dawei; Hou, Yanglong; Gao, Song

    2013-01-01

    SmCo5 based magnets with smaller size and larger maximum energy product have been long desired in various fields such as renewable energy technology, electronic industry and aerospace science. However, conventional relatively rough synthetic strategies will lead to either diminished magnetic properties or irregular morphology, which hindered their wide applications. In this article, we present a facile chemical approach to prepare 200 nm single domain SmCo5@Co core/shell magnets with coercivity of 20.7 kOe and saturation magnetization of 82 emu/g. We found that the incorporation of GO sheets is responsible for the generation of the unique structure. The single domain SmCo5 core contributes to the large coercivity of the magnets and the exchange-coupled Co shell enhances the magnetization. This method can be further utilized in the synthesis other Sm-Co based exchange-coupled magnets. PMID:24356309

  13. Single domain SmCo5@Co exchange-coupled magnets prepared from core/shell Sm[Co(CN)6]·4H2O@GO particles: a novel chemical approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ce; Jia, Lihui; Wang, Shouguo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Dawei; Hou, Yanglong; Gao, Song

    2013-12-20

    SmCo5 based magnets with smaller size and larger maximum energy product have been long desired in various fields such as renewable energy technology, electronic industry and aerospace science. However, conventional relatively rough synthetic strategies will lead to either diminished magnetic properties or irregular morphology, which hindered their wide applications. In this article, we present a facile chemical approach to prepare 200 nm single domain SmCo5@Co core/shell magnets with coercivity of 20.7 kOe and saturation magnetization of 82 emu/g. We found that the incorporation of GO sheets is responsible for the generation of the unique structure. The single domain SmCo5 core contributes to the large coercivity of the magnets and the exchange-coupled Co shell enhances the magnetization. This method can be further utilized in the synthesis other Sm-Co based exchange-coupled magnets.

  14. Lower Portion of Mound Inside Gale Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-22

    This oblique view of Gale crater shows the landing site and the mound of layered rocks that NASA Mars Science Laboratory will investigate. The landing site is in the smooth area in front of the mound.

  15. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  16. Paleoenvironmental setting of Paleozoic mud mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wanless, H.R. . Dept. Geological Sciences); Tedesco, L.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Paleozoic carbonate mud mounds formed above storm wave base, which in many settings was in moderate to extremely shallow water. This is concluded by a comparative analysis of sedimentary structures, fabrics and small scale sequences occurring in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian mounds and in modern mud mounds and Halimeda bioherms. Most small mounds studied contain a shallowing sequence that represents shallowing into the zone of daily agitation. The bulk of each mound sequence is detrital deposition of layered mudstones to wackestones in the mound core and packstones to grainstones on the flanks and shoal cap. If macroskeletal fauna and flora are present, an autochthonous skeletal packstone may occur in the upper portion of the shallowing sequence beneath the detrital grainstone cap. Burrow excavations and grainy tubular tempestite infillings partially to completely modify the primary depositional fabric of all of these facies. Larger mounds studied are a composite of several to numerous smaller mound depositional sequences. High vertical relief of some larger mounds may be more the result of continued accommodation space provided by subsidence/downfaulting than be deposition in extremely deep water. Although the biotic components of carbonate mounds vary greatly through the Paleozoic, the contained sedimentary structures, fabrics and fundamental depositional sequences remain very similar. This suggests a general similarity in the mechanism and depositional setting of mound formation.

  17. Microclimatic conditions of Lasius flavus ant mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véle, Adam; Holuša, Jaroslav

    2017-05-01

    Like other organisms, ants require suitable microclimatic conditions for their development. Thus, ant species inhabiting colder climates build nest mounds that rise above the soil surface, presumably to obtain heating from solar radiation. Although some ant species construct mounds of organic materials, which generate substantial heat due to microbial metabolism, Lasius flavus mounds consists mostly of soil, not organic material. The use of artificial shading in the current study demonstrated that L. flavus depends on direct solar radiation to regulate the temperature in its mound-like nests. Temperatures were much lower in shaded mounds than in unshaded mounds and were likely low enough in shaded mounds to reduce ant development and reproduction. In areas where L. flavus and similar ants are undesirable, they might be managed by shading.

  18. Astronomical Aspects of Krakow's Monumental Mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakiewicz, Joanna

    2015-05-01

    Krakus' mound and Wanda's mound are the largest prehistoric mounds in the region. According to the legend, they were raised by prehistoric Slavs as the burial sites of Krakow's founder - Krakus (or Krak), and his daughter - Wanda. Archaeological excavations have only been conducted on the mound of Krakus. They revealed that the mound was erected not earlier than the 1st century AD and not later than the 10th century AD. Furthermore, the studies conducted in the 1970s by professor Kotlarczyk showed that the azimuth connecting these mounds points to the sunrise on 1 May. As this day marks an important festival in the Celtic calendar - Beltaine - the two mounds could be related to the Celtic culture. This study presents the findings of the latest research.

  19. Microclimatic conditions of Lasius flavus ant mounds.

    PubMed

    Véle, Adam; Holuša, Jaroslav

    2016-11-23

    Like other organisms, ants require suitable microclimatic conditions for their development. Thus, ant species inhabiting colder climates build nest mounds that rise above the soil surface, presumably to obtain heating from solar radiation. Although some ant species construct mounds of organic materials, which generate substantial heat due to microbial metabolism, Lasius flavus mounds consists mostly of soil, not organic material. The use of artificial shading in the current study demonstrated that L. flavus depends on direct solar radiation to regulate the temperature in its mound-like nests. Temperatures were much lower in shaded mounds than in unshaded mounds and were likely low enough in shaded mounds to reduce ant development and reproduction. In areas where L. flavus and similar ants are undesirable, they might be managed by shading.

  20. Microclimatic conditions of Lasius flavus ant mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véle, Adam; Holuša, Jaroslav

    2016-11-01

    Like other organisms, ants require suitable microclimatic conditions for their development. Thus, ant species inhabiting colder climates build nest mounds that rise above the soil surface, presumably to obtain heating from solar radiation. Although some ant species construct mounds of organic materials, which generate substantial heat due to microbial metabolism, Lasius flavus mounds consists mostly of soil, not organic material. The use of artificial shading in the current study demonstrated that L. flavus depends on direct solar radiation to regulate the temperature in its mound-like nests. Temperatures were much lower in shaded mounds than in unshaded mounds and were likely low enough in shaded mounds to reduce ant development and reproduction. In areas where L. flavus and similar ants are undesirable, they might be managed by shading.

  1. Thermal analysis of The Mound One Kilowatt package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, Chuen T.

    1993-01-01

    The Mound One Kilowatt (1 kW) package was designed for the shipment of plutonium (Pu-238) with not more than 1 kW total heat dissipation. To comply with regulations, the Mound 1 kW package has to pass all the requirements under Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT; 38 °C ambient temperature) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC; pacage engulfed in fire for 30 minutes). Analytical and test results were presented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the Mound 1 kW package, revision 1, April 1991. Some issues remained unresolved in that revision. In March 1992, Fairchild Space and Defense Corporation was commissioned by the Department of Energy to perform the thermal analyses. 3-D thermal models were created to perform the NCT and HAC analyses. Four shipping configurations in the SARP revision 3 were analyzed. They were: (1) GPHS graphite impact shell (GIS) in the threaded product can (1000 W total heat generation); (2) The fueled clads in the welded product can (1000 W total heat generation); (3) The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module (750 W total heat generation); and (4) The Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) spheres (810 W total heat generation). Results from the four cases show that the GIS or fuel clad in the product can is the worst case. The temperatures predicted under NCT and HAC in all four cases are within the design limits. The use of helium instead of argon as cover gas provides a bigger safety margin.

  2. Air sparging: Much ado about mounding

    SciTech Connect

    Lundegard, P.D.

    1995-12-31

    Groundwater mounding is the upward movement of the water table that can occur in association with air injection into the saturated zone. Multiphase flow simulations are here used to define general mounding behavior and dynamics under simplified subsurface conditions. Field observations at three sites are then used to describe a range of expected groundwater mounding responses for subsurface conditions, ranging from relatively homogeneous to highly heterogeneous. Results show that mounding (1) is a transient response that is usually negligible at steady state, (2) dissipates by radial wavelike spreading, and (3) occurs well beyond the saturated zone region of airflow.

  3. 4-H in the 70's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Developed under the leadership of the 1970 and 1971 Extension Committee on Organization and Policy 4-H Youth Subcommittees, the brochure offers a statement of potential and new directions for Extension 4-H youth programs. Opening sections deal with the functions of 4-H and balanced 4-H program expansion to serve seven million youth. Succeeding…

  4. Geological mounds and their seismic expression

    SciTech Connect

    Swarbrick, R.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Mound geometry (convex upward structure developed above a subhorizontal surface) is common in many geological environments and frequently observed in 2-dimensions on seismic sections. Seismic mounds are typically associated with deep-water clastic sediments, e.g. submarine fans and slumps, and with a variety of carbonate depositional settings, e.g., reefs and banks, but also exist in other depositional settings. Recognition will be dependent on mound dimension, velocity contrast, amplitude strength, and the resolution of the seismic data. Since mounds can represent an important exploration target and recognition of porous, hydrocarbon-bearing section is all-important, careful restitution of the original depositional morphology from the seismic data is required. Details of present velocity distribution are critical, along with a realistic concept of any post-depositional modification, such as compaction, which may have taken place during burial. Where differential compaction is taking place, for example between sand and shale, seismic expression of morphology will be continually modified during progressive burial. Analysis of structure at the top and base of the mound can provide support for lithological interpretation based on other criteria, such as seismic facies analysis based on internal and external reflections. Modeling, using parameters from mounds in a variety of known depositional settings, illustrates many of the interpretational problems associated with seismic mounds and provides some objective criteria for analysis of mound morphology. Comparison is made with real data, principally from northwest Europe and North America.

  5. Sulphur Extraction at Bryan Mound

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Carolyn L; Lord, Anna C. Snider

    2015-08-01

    The Bryan Mound caprock was subjected to extens ive sulphur mining prior to the development of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Undoubtedl y, the mining has modified the caprock integrity. Cavern wells at Bryan Mound have been subject to a host of well integr ity concerns with many likely compromised by the cavernous capro ck, surrounding corrosive environment (H 2 SO 4 ), and associated elevated residual temperatures al l of which are a product of the mining activities. The intent of this study was to understand the sulphur mining process and how the mining has affected the stability of the caprock and how the compromised caprock has influenced the integrity of the cavern wells. After an extensiv e search to collect pert inent information through state agencies, literature sear ches, and the Sandia SPR librar y, a better understanding of the caprock can be inferred from the knowledge gaine d. Specifically, the discovery of the original ore reserve map goes a long way towards modeling caprock stability. In addition the gained knowledge of sulphur mining - subs idence, superheated corrosive wa ters, and caprock collapse - helps to better predict the post mi ning effects on wellbore integrity. This page intentionally left blank

  6. Scaling law for Dictyostelium Discoideum mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeltz, Camilla; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about how multicellular organisms regulate the size of their tissues during development. The eukaryote Dictyostelium Discoideum, may be studied as a model system. When starved, these amoebae aggregate and form cell mounds. These mounds develop into moving slugs and fruiting bodies consisting of a spore mass held atop a rigid stem of stalk cells. We report experiments on the development of mounds of Dicty-cells when confined to different heights. At the smallest height the amoebae are confined to a monolayer of cells in a 2d-plane. We found that the confinement inhibited the development of moving slugs and fruiting bodies. The cells aggregated and formed mounds whose size was found to be proportional to the height of the mounds. The precise mechanism is yet unknown. We will present the data and discuss possible mechanisms. This work is supported by the NSF through the Biocomplexity Program.

  7. COCARDE: new view on old mounds - an international network of carbonate mound research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüggeberg, A.; Foubert, A.; Vertino, A.; van Rooij, D.; Spezzaferri, S.; Henriet, J.-P.; Dullo, W.-C.; Cocarde Science Community

    2012-04-01

    Carbonate mounds are important contributors of life in different settings, from warm-water to cold-water environments, and throughout geological history. Research on modern cold-water coral carbonate mounds over the last decades made a major contribution to our overall understanding of these particular sedimentary systems. By looking to the modern carbonate mound community with cold-water corals as main framework builders, some fundamental questions could be addressed, until now not yet explored in fossil mound settings. The international network COCARDE (http://www.cocarde.eu) is a platform for exploring new insights in carbonate mound research of recent and ancient mound systems. The aim of the COCARDE network is to bring together scientific communities, studying Recent carbonate mounds in midslope environments in the present ocean and investigating fossil mounds spanning the whole Phanerozoic time, respectively. Scientific challenges in modern and ancient carbonate mound research got well defined during the ESF Magellan Workshop COCARDE in Fribourg, Switzerland (21.-24.01.2009). The Special Volume Cold-water Carbonate Reservoir systems in Deep Environments - COCARDE (Marine Geology, Vol. 282) was the major outcome of this meeting and highlights the diversity of Recent carbonate mound studies. The following first joint Workshop and Field Seminar held in Oviedo, Spain (16.-20.09.2009) highlighted ongoing research from both Recent and fossil academic groups integrating the message from the industry. The field seminar focused on mounds from the Carboniferous platform of Asturias and Cantabria, already intensively visited by industrial and academic researchers. However, by comparing ancient, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic mound systems of Cantabria with the Recent ones in the Porcupine Seabight, striking similarities in their genesis and processes in mound development asked for an integrated drilling campaign to understand better the 3D internal mound build-up. The

  8. Possible Association of Oyster Terrain Mound Features in the Peconic Estuary on Long Island, NY With 8.2ka Meltwater Pulse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, J.; Flood, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    Mound features revealed by multibeam bathymetry and seismic profiles are associated with an oyster terrain that covers an extensive area of the Peconic Estuary on Long Island, NY. These mounds may capture high resolution paleoclimate records of the 8.2ka melt water pulse. One of the puzzles of the 8.2ka event is the lack of a strong signal in the salinity or δ180 near the suggested outburst path via the Hudson Strait and Labrador Sea. The Peconic Estuary is situated where one might find evidence of this outburst, downstream from the modern currents exiting the Labrador Sea and to the north of the signature reported to be found off of Cape Hatteras near the present Gulf Stream North Wall. By examining the characteristics of these features based on the multibeam backscatter and bathymetry data obtained as part of an ongoing project we can distinguish relatively high backscatter regions associated with a mound morphology typified by exposed mounds of approximately 2m in height. The mounds' surfaces are associated with stained unarticulated oyster shells in grab samples, but no living oysters. These oysters are far thicker with many growth bands than the thin young oysters associated with modern Long Island aquaculture or harvested oyster beds and are often full of pits and holes. The mounds topped by oyster shells are hypothesized to be oyster bioherms that started to form around the time of the 8.2ka meltwater pulse (mwp), and as such should serve as proxies of climate around this time period. Examination of seismic profiles over this mound terrain reinforces the idea that these are indeed older features by revealing buried mounds under at least 3m of sediment that fall within the exposed mound range of 6m to at least 18m. It also reveals even greater relief of most exposed mound morphologies below the surface with many buried and exposed mounds reaching greater than 4m in relief. It would have required thousands of years to bury mounds at a steady low sedimentation

  9. Thermoregulation and ventilation of termite mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Judith

    2003-05-01

    Some of the most sophisticated of all animal-built structures are the mounds of African termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, the fungus-growing termites. They have long been studied as fascinating textbook examples of thermoregulation or ventilation of animal buildings. However, little research has been designed to provide critical tests of these paradigms, derived from a very small number of original papers. Here I review results from recent studies on Macrotermes bellicosus that considered the interdependence of ambient temperature, thermoregulation, ventilation and mound architecture, and that question some of the fundamental paradigms of termite mounds. M. bellicosus achieves thermal homeostasis within the mound, but ambient temperature has an influence too. In colonies in comparably cool habitats, mound architecture is adapted to reduce the loss of metabolically produced heat to the environment. While this has no negative consequences in small colonies, it produces a trade-off with gas exchange in large colonies, resulting in suboptimally low nest temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations. Along with the alteration in mound architecture, the gas exchange/ventilation mechanism also changes. While mounds in the thermally appropriate savannah have a very efficient circular ventilation during the day, the ventilation in the cooler forest is a less efficient upward movement of air, with gas exchange restricted by reduced surface exchange area. These results, together with other recent findings, question entrenched ideas such as the thermosiphon-ventilation mechanism or the assumption that mounds function to dissipate internally produced heat. Models trying to explain the proximate mechanisms of mound building, or building elements, are discussed.

  10. Thermoregulation and ventilation of termite mounds.

    PubMed

    Korb, Judith

    2003-05-01

    Some of the most sophisticated of all animal-built structures are the mounds of African termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, the fungus-growing termites. They have long been studied as fascinating textbook examples of thermoregulation or ventilation of animal buildings. However, little research has been designed to provide critical tests of these paradigms, derived from a very small number of original papers. Here I review results from recent studies on Macrotermes bellicosus that considered the interdependence of ambient temperature, thermoregulation, ventilation and mound architecture, and that question some of the fundamental paradigms of termite mounds. M. bellicosus achieves thermal homeostasis within the mound, but ambient temperature has an influence too. In colonies in comparably cool habitats, mound architecture is adapted to reduce the loss of metabolically produced heat to the environment. While this has no negative consequences in small colonies, it produces a trade-off with gas exchange in large colonies, resulting in suboptimally low nest temperatures and increased CO(2) concentrations. Along with the alteration in mound architecture, the gas exchange/ventilation mechanism also changes. While mounds in the thermally appropriate savannah have a very efficient circular ventilation during the day, the ventilation in the cooler forest is a less efficient upward movement of air, with gas exchange restricted by reduced surface exchange area. These results, together with other recent findings, question entrenched ideas such as the thermosiphon-ventilation mechanism or the assumption that mounds function to dissipate internally produced heat. Models trying to explain the proximate mechanisms of mound building, or building elements, are discussed.

  11. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  12. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  13. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  14. Engaging Library Partners in 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Nia Imani; Rafferty, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    When most people think about 4-H, they remember county fairs, livestock programs, and agricultural education. While these programs are still prominent, 4-H has grown in order to meet the growing demands of today's youth. The organization has expanded services and programs to serve rural, suburban, and urban youth in every state in the U.S. 4-H is…

  15. Formation of Mima mounds: A seismic hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, A.W. )

    1990-03-01

    Mima mounds approximately 2.5 to 15 m in diameter and up to 3 m high occur on the ground surfaces at Mima Prairie, south of Olympia, Washington, in the Channeled Scabland of eastern Washington, and at many other locations in the United States and around the world. Small-scale Mima mounds can be produced experimentally by subjecting a plywood board covered with a thin veneer of loess to impacts that produce vibrations in the board. Experimentally produced mounds have characteristics that are nearly identical to those found in the field. This suggests that most Mima mounds formed as the result of seismic activity in conjunction with unconsolidated fine sediments on a relatively rigid planar substratum.

  16. Community Development: A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheneman, C. Stephen

    State progress reports on the 4-H/Community Development program, a 1973 nationwide Federally sponsored program facilitating youth in community decision-making processes, indicate that the program appears to be evolving into a viable and integral part of the total 4-H program. Although the report describes unique program features of various States,…

  17. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:…

  18. Holding on to 4-H Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Glen

    1979-01-01

    Data from a survey of 4-H Club leaders in Saskatchewan, Canada, were used to determine the effect of attendance at leadership training events on leaders' decisions to re-enroll or discontinue. It was found that involvement in 4-H activities, supported by leadership training, increased leaders' satisfaction and likelihood of re-enrolling. (MF)

  19. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:…

  20. National 4-H School Enrichment Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Keith G.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 4-H school enrichment programs (813 responses) found that they reach large numbers of diverse youth and develop credibility with community and schools. Long-term programs such as 4-H clubs have proven effective in helping youth develop life skills, but Extension must carefully consider the purpose and consequences of diverting…

  1. MHD instabilities in accretion mounds - I. 2D axisymmetric simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Mignone, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    We have performed stability analysis of axisymmetric accretion mounds on neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries by 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with the PLUTO MHD code. We find that the mounds are stable with respect to interchange instabilities, but the addition of excess mass destabilizes the equilibria. Our simulations confirm that accretion mounds are unstable with respect to MHD instabilities beyond a threshold mass. We investigate both filled and hollow mounds and for the latter also compute the expected profile of cyclotron resonance scattering features (CRSF). In comparison to the CRSF from filled mounds reported in our earlier work, hollow mounds display wider and more complex line profiles.

  2. GPR investigation of the West Prairie Mound Group, central Wisconsin, USA: are they burial mounds or natural landforms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloehn, N. B.; Junck, M. B.; Jol, Harry M.; Running, G. L., IV; Greek, D.; Caldwell, K.

    2000-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) investigations were conducted to determine the origin of the West Prairie Mound Group. The mound group consists of thirteen low, conical, earthen mounds within Fort McCoy (central Wisconsin). Historically interpreted as PreColumbian Native American burial mounds, mounting evidence to the contrary suggests a natural origin for the mounds (e.g. no archaeological material recovered from within or near the mounds, mounds located where morphologically similar natural landforms are common, and the mounds are identified as natural landforms in local Native American oral tradition). Even so, U.S. Federal antiquities laws prohibit disturbance of these mounds and investigations to determine their true origin are limited to non-invasive techniques. Non-invasive, high resolution GPR survey methods were utilized to address the research problem. Mounds B and K were selected for detailed GPR surveys. In both cases, observed GPR reflection patterns are consistent with sandy, eolian geomorphic units common in the mound area. Moreover, no reflection patterns typical of burial disturbance or cultural practices were observed in either mound. Therefore, our analysis of Mounds B and K GPR data strongly supports the emerging interpretation that the West Prairie Mound Group is the result of natural rather than cultural processes.

  3. Mound-Interface Kinetics in Dictyostelium Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutu, Hiroki

    2002-09-01

    The mound development of the cellular slime mold amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum is studied with an interface kinetic model for the height of cell layers. As a competitive role for the chemotaxis, we compare two types of curvature relaxations; the surface relaxation induced by cell-substrate affinity (model A), and that comes from a cell-cell adhesive effect (model B). It is found that both models are characterized by the growth law for the maximum mound height. Based on a self-similarity scaling hypothesis for the spatial structure of streaming pattern, we suggest a scaling law for the growth of mound-height hmax ˜ t1-1/α+β/α with α = 2 (4) for the model A (B) and a number 0 ≤ β < 1.

  4. A global survey of martian central mounds: Central mounds as remnants of previously more extensive large-scale sedimentary deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kristen A.; Bell, James F.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a survey of central mounds within large (>25 km diameter) impact craters on Mars. We use mound locations, mound offsets within their host craters, and relative mound heights to address and extend various mound formation hypotheses. The results of this survey support the hypothesis that mound sediments once filled their host craters and were later eroded into the features we observe today. The majority of mounds are located near the boundaries of previously identified large-scale sedimentary deposits. We discuss the implications of the hypothesis that central mounds are part of previously more extensive sedimentary units that filled and overtopped underlying impact craters. In this scenario, as erosion of the sedimentary unit occurred, the sediment within impact craters was preserved slightly longer than the overlying sediment because it was sheltered by the crater walls. Our study also reveals that most mounds are offset from the center of their host crater in the same direction as the present regional winds (e.g., the mounds in Arabia Terra are offset towards the western portion of their craters). We propose that this implies that wind has been the dominant agent causing the erosion of central mounds. Mound offset (r) is normalized to each crater's radius. The Mound offset (θ) is such that 0 is north and 270 is west.

  5. Interplay of instabilities in mounded surface growth

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2005-02-01

    We numerically study a one-dimensional conserved growth equation with competing linear (Ehrlich-Schwoebel) and nonlinear instabilities. As a control parameter is varied, this model exhibits a nonequilibrium phase transition between two mounded states, one of which exhibits slope selection and the other does not. The coarsening behavior of the mounds in these two phases is studied in detail. In the absence of noise, the steady-state configuration depends crucially on which of the two instabilities dominates the early time behavior.

  6. Relationships between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Ewing, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationships between 4-H volunteer leader competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Using a descriptive-correlational research, the study reported found significant relationships between leadership competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Regression analysis revealed that two variables--skills and…

  7. Relationships between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Ewing, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationships between 4-H volunteer leader competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Using a descriptive-correlational research, the study reported found significant relationships between leadership competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Regression analysis revealed that two variables--skills and…

  8. Diurnal respiration of a termite mound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Hunter; Ocko, Samuel; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-11-01

    Many species of fungus-harvesting termites build largely empty, massive mound structures which protrude from the ground above their subterranean nests. It has been long proposed that the function of these mounds is to facilitate exchange of heat, humidity, and respiratory gases; this would give the colony a controlled climate in which to raise fungus and brood. However, the specific mechanism by which the mound achieves ventilation has remained a topic of debate, as direct measurement of internal air flows has remained difficult. By directly measuring these elusive, tiny flows with a custom sensor, we find that the mound architecture of the species Odontotermes obesus takes advantage of daily oscillations in ambient temperature to drive convection and gas transport. This contradicts previous theories, which point to internal metabolic heating and external wind as driving forces. Our result, a novel example of deriving useful work from a fluctuating scalar parameter, should contribute to better understanding insect swarm construction and possible development in passive human architecture, both of which have been spurred by previous research on termites. We acknowledge support from HFSP.

  9. Mounds View Environmental Education Project, Report #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budde, Duane

    Prepared for the 1971 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Annual Meeting, this collection of ideas, activities, and unit plans from the Mounds View Environmental Education Project would be useful for junior and senior high school teachers and curriculum planners. Content includes: (1) a senior high course outline and daily lesson plans…

  10. On the formation of periodic sandy mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcile, Gaetano; Blondeaux, Paolo; Vittori, Giovanna

    2017-08-01

    Le Bot and Trentesaux (Marine Geology 211, 2004) surveyed the periodic morphological patterns which are present in the English Channel close to the strait of Calais-Dover, where the shortage of sand does not allow the formation of typical sand waves (tidal dunes). The field observations show that, for similar hydrodynamic and morphodynamic conditions, the crest-to-crest distance of the observed sandy mounds is larger than the wavelength of the sand waves which form where sand is abundant. The present contribution describes an idealized model able to predict the hydrodynamics and the morphodynamics of the interaction of tidal currents with large scale bedforms such as sand waves and sandy mounds in sand-starved environments. Indeed, when the availability of sand is limited, classical morphodynamic stability analyses cannot be applied for two main reasons. First, part of the rigid substratum becomes bared when bedforms appear and the bed profile is no longer sinusoidal. Second, the formulae commonly used to quantify sand transport are no longer valid when sandy mounds alternate with a rigid substratum. In accordance with the field observations, the analysis shows that the bedforms which appear when the rigid substratum is bared (sandy mounds) are longer than those which form in a rich sand environment (sand waves).

  11. Synthesis of 4H/fcc Noble Multimetallic Nanoribbons for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Huang, Xiao; Li, Bing; Chen, Ye; Wang, Jie; Hu, Yanling; Zhang, Hua

    2016-02-03

    Noble multimetallic nanomaterials, if only consisting of Au, Ag, Pt, and Pd, typically adopt the high-symmetry face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Here for the first time, by using the 4H/fcc Au@Ag nanoribbons (NRBs) as seeds, we report the synthesis of 4H/fcc trimetallic Au@PdAg core-shell NRBs via the galvanic reaction method under ambient conditions. Moreover, this strategy can also be used to synthesize 4H/fcc trimetallic Au@PtAg and quatermetallic Au@PtPdAg core-shell NRBs. Impressively, for the first time, these alloy shells, i.e., PdAg, PtAg, and PtPdAg, epitaxially grown on the 4H/fcc Au core with novel 4H hexagonal phase were successfully synthesized. Remarkably, the obtained 4H/fcc Au@PdAg NRBs exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction, which is even quite close to that of the commercial Pt black. We believe that our findings here may provide a novel strategy for the crystal-structure-controlled synthesis of advanced functional noble multimetallic nanomaterials with various promising applications.

  12. Independent technical review of the Mound Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report documents an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the facilities, organizations, plans, and activities required to transition particular elements of the Mound Plant from Defense Program (DP) funded operation as appropriate either to community developed reuse or safe deactivation leading to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The review was conducted at the request of the Dr. Willis Bixby, Deputy Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy EM-60, Office of Facility Transition and Management and is a consensus of the nine member ITR Team. Information for the review was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Miamisburg Area Office (MB) of the DOE, EG&G, the City of Miamisburg, and others; and from presentations, discussions, interviews, and facility inspections at the Mound Plant during the weeks of March 14 and March 28, 1994. During the week of April 25, 1994, the ITR Team met at Los Alamos, New Mexico to develop consensus recommendations. A presentation of the core recommendations was made at the Mound Plant on May 5, 1994. This is an independent assessment of information available to, and used by, the Mound Plant personnel. Repetition of the information is not meant to imply discovery by the ITR Team. Team members, however, acting as independent reviewers, frequently assess the information from a perspective that differs significantly from that of the Mound Plant personnel. The report is based on information obtained and conditions observed during the March 1994 review interval. The ITR process and normal site work often initiate rapid, beneficial changes in understanding and organization immediately following the review. These changes frequently alter conditions observed during the review, but the report does not address changes subsequent to the review interval.

  13. Mound site environmental report for calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.

    1992-06-01

    Mound is a government-owned facility operated by EG&G Mound Applied Technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This integrated production, development, and research site performs work in support of DOE`s weapon and energy related programs, with emphasis on explosive, nuclear, and energy technology. The purpose of this report is to inform the public about the impact of Mound`s operations on the population and the environment. This report summarizes data from the Environmental Monitoring Program, through which Mound maintains continuous surveillance of radiological and nonradiological substances released from the facility.

  14. The development of cold-water coral mounds along the Moroccan Atlantic and Mediterranean margins revealed by MeBo drillings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Frank, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) mostly occur in intermediate water depths between 200 m and 1000 m and are capable of forming substantial seafloor structures, so-called coral carbonate mounds. These mounds can reach heights from a few meters up to >300 m and are composed of a mixture of CWC (and other shell) fragments and hemipelagic sediments, that both individually serve as distinct paleo-archives. IODP Leg 307 drilled through Challenger Mound at the Irish margin and revealed for the first time the full life history of a coral mound. However, although CWC occur almost worldwide, the 155 m long Challenger Mound record was for many years the only record from a coral mound exceeding 10 m in length. During expedition MSM36 with the German R/V MARIA S. MERIAN in spring 2014, several coral mounds along the Moroccan margin, both in the Atlantic Ocean and in the Mediterranean Sea, were drilled (actually: push-cored) by applying the Bremen Seafloor Drill Rig MeBo. The MeBo is a remotely controlled drilling system that is lowered from the vessel to the seafloor. Energy supply and video control are secured by an umbilical linking the MeBo to the vessel. The scientific foci of expedition MSM36 were to investigate (1) the long-term development of CWC mounds in both areas over the last several 100,000 years in relation to changes in the ambient environmental conditions in the respective intermediate waters, (2) the life time history of these mounds, and (3) the forcing factors for the initiation and decease of individual mounds. In both working areas, a total amount of 11 sites were successfully drilled with MeBo. Eight drillings were conducted at CWC mounds (on-mound sites) and 3 drillings in the direct vicinity of the mounds (off-mound sites) in order to obtain continuous paleoceanographic records. Drilling depths ranged between 17 m and 71 m with the latter corresponding to the maximum drilling depth of MeBo. The core recoveries varied between the sites and ranged between 47% and

  15. 4-H Textile Science Textile Arts Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This packet contains three 4-H textile arts projects for students in the textile sciences area. The projects cover weaving, knitting, and crocheting. Each project provides an overview of what the student will learn, what materials are needed, and suggested projects for the area. Projects can be adapted for beginning, intermediate, or advanced…

  16. Separates. 4-H Textile Science Advanced Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This booklet, which was developed for use by 4-H club members in Pennsylvania, contains the information required to sew a two-piece nontailored outfit and/or a one-or two-piece dress. The following are among the topics covered: the difference between a fiber and a fabric; properties of different fibers and fabrics; common jacket, neckline, sleeve,…

  17. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  18. Separates. 4-H Textile Science Advanced Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This booklet, which was developed for use by 4-H club members in Pennsylvania, contains the information required to sew a two-piece nontailored outfit and/or a one-or two-piece dress. The following are among the topics covered: the difference between a fiber and a fabric; properties of different fibers and fabrics; common jacket, neckline, sleeve,…

  19. 4H-and-NASA-Leadership-Followership

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-09

    Lots of people like to be the leader, but leaders need a team to follow them. Understanding when to lead and when to follow, and the importance of both roles, is a critical skill for success. To learn more visit www.nasa.gov/education/4H.

  20. 4-H Textile Science Beginner Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This packet contains three 4-H projects for students beginning the sewing sequence of the textile sciences area. The projects cover basics of sewing using sewing machines, more difficult sewing machine techniques, and hand sewing. Each project provides an overview of what the student will learn, what materials are needed, and suggested projects…

  1. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  2. Light-toned Mounds in Gorgonum Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-29

    This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows Gorgonum Basin, one of several large basins within the Terra Sirenum region of Mars. Each basin has light-toned mounds, many of which contain clays. Scientists think that Terra Sirenum once had a large lake during an epoch called the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian, and each basin filled with sediments. The water within the lake may have altered these sediments to form the clays we now observe from orbit. Ma'adim Vallis, which drains into Gusev Crater where the Spirit rover landed, drained the water from this ancient lake. Why the basin floors exhibit mounds similar to chaos regions on Mars is unknown, but could be the result of collapse and subsequent erosion within the basins. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21767

  3. Dynamic thermal structure of imported fire ant mounds.

    PubMed

    Vogt, James T; Wallet, Bradley; Coy, Steven

    2008-01-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize surface temperatures of mounds of imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid, as it relates to sun position and shape of the mounds, to better understand factors that affect absorption of solar radiation by the nest mound and to test feasibility of using thermal infrared imagery to remotely sense mounds. Mean mound surface temperature peaked shortly after solar noon and exceeded mean surface temperature of the surrounding surface. Temperature range for mounds and their surroundings peaked near solar noon, and the temperature range of the mound surface exceeded that of the surrounding area. The temperature difference between mounds and their surroundings peaked around solar noon and ranged from about 2 to 10 degrees C. Quadratic trends relating temperature measurements to time of day (expressed as percentage of daylight hours from apparent sunrise to apparent sunset) explained 77 to 88% of the variation in the data. Mounds were asymmetrical, with the apex offset on average 81.5 +/- 1.2 mm to the north of the average center. South facing aspects were about 20% larger than north facing aspects. Mound surface aspect and slope affected surface temperature; this affect was greatly influenced by time of day. Thermal infrared imagery was used to illustrate the effect of mound shape on surface temperature. These results indicate that the temperature differences between mounds and their surroundings are sufficient for detection using thermal infrared remote sensing, and predictable temporal changes in surface temperature may be useful for classifying mounds in images.

  4. Effectiveness of the 4-H Program as Perceived by Parents of 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Foley, Caitlin; Ingram, Patreese; Ewing, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effectiveness of 4-H program as perceived by parents of program participants. Descriptive-correlational design was employed, with data collected using a mail survey. Parents perceived 4-H as an effective organization in teaching life skills to youth. Significant relationships were found between parents' skills…

  5. National 4-H Common Measures: Initial Evaluation from California 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Horrillo, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith; Worker, Steven M.; Trzesniewski, Kali

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation is a key component to learning about the effectiveness of a program. This article provides descriptive statistics of the newly developed National 4-H Common Measures (science, healthy living, citizenship, and youth development) based on data from 721 California 4-H youth. The measures were evaluated for their reliability and validity of…

  6. National 4-H Common Measures: Initial Evaluation from California 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Horrillo, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith; Worker, Steven M.; Trzesniewski, Kali

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation is a key component to learning about the effectiveness of a program. This article provides descriptive statistics of the newly developed National 4-H Common Measures (science, healthy living, citizenship, and youth development) based on data from 721 California 4-H youth. The measures were evaluated for their reliability and validity of…

  7. Effectiveness of the 4-H Program as Perceived by Parents of 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Foley, Caitlin; Ingram, Patreese; Ewing, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effectiveness of 4-H program as perceived by parents of program participants. Descriptive-correlational design was employed, with data collected using a mail survey. Parents perceived 4-H as an effective organization in teaching life skills to youth. Significant relationships were found between parents' skills…

  8. Upper Carboniferous reef mounds and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.R.; Archer, A.W. )

    1992-01-01

    Tetractinomorph demosponges (chaetetids) are a minor component of extant tropical reefs, but they were the major framebuilder of reef mounds during the Westphalian (Carboniferous). These chaetetids were confined to tropical latitudes during the Carboniferous, reached an abundance peak in the Westphalian, and then declined suddenly until the Upper Triassic. After their decline, red and green algae became the dominant reef builders of the Stephanian. The marked decline of chaetetids corresponds with the disappearance, and/or decline of other marine benthic invertebrates, as well as some terrestrial plants and is the basis for the biostratigraphic boundary between the Westphalian and Stephanian (Desmoinesian and Missourian). This biostratigraphic boundary coincides with a minor extinction event and a major'' climatic change. The Westphalian climate was wetter than that of the Stephanian, and in the midcontinent this change is recorded by a gradual decline in coals and siliciclastic lithologies and a corresponding increase in carbonate lithologies. A rise in water temperature might be expected in a drier tropical climate, and if extant chaetetids are any clue, elevated water temperature may have been detrimental. Extant chaetetids are associated with tropical coral reefs that are confined to a narrow temperature range. It is not unreasonable to suggest that elevated seawater temperatures were responsible, in part, for the disappearance of chaetetid reef mounds. Red and green algae, presumably more tolerate of higher water temperatures, became the major framebuilders of reef mounds in the Stephanian. Thus, the demise of chaetetid reef mounds, and other organisms at the end of the Westphalian, may be the result of global warming.

  9. Troubleshooting guide for Mound calorimeter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Breakall, K.L.; Duff, M.F.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1988-06-29

    This report is to be used as a tool for troubleshooting Mound calorimeter systems. It describes in simple language the equilibration, prediction, and servo-control modes of operation. A problem-cause-action table provides suggestions and, in some cases, directs personnel to one of six troubleshooting flow charts included in the report. Using the flow charts, laboratory personnel should be able to rcognize and troubleshoot most problems that occur. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Mathematical models for Isoptera (Insecta) mound growth.

    PubMed

    Buschini, M L T; Abuabara, M A P; Petrere-Jr, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    In this research we proposed two mathematical models for Isoptera mound growth derived from the Von Bertalanffy growth curve, one appropriated for Nasutitermes coxipoensis, and a more general formulation. The mean height and the mean diameter of ten small colonies were measured each month for twelve months, from April, 1995 to April, 1996. Through these data, the monthly volumes were calculated for each of them. Then the growth in height and in volume was estimated and the models proposed.

  11. EG G Mound Applied Technologies payroll system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-07

    EG G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc., manages and operates the Mound Facility, Miamisburg, Ohio, under a cost-plus-award-fee contract administered by the Department of Energy's Albuquerque Field Office. The contractor's Payroll Department is responsible for prompt payment in the proper amount to all persons entitled to be paid, in compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and legal decisions. The objective was to determine whether controls were in place to avoid erroneous payroll payments. EG G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc., did not have all the internal controls required by General Accounting Office Title 6, Pay, Leave, and Allowances.'' Specifically, they did not have computerized edits, separation of duties and responsibilities, and restricted access to payroll data files. This condition occurred because its managers were not aware of Title 6 requirements. As a result, the contractor could not assure the Department of Energy that payroll costs were processes accurately; and fraud, waste, or abuse of Department of Energy funds could go undetected. Our sample of 212 payroll transactions from a population of 66,000 in FY 1991 disclosed only two minor processing errors and no instances of fraud, waste or abuse.

  12. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED C{sub 4}H

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksy, Andrew L.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; Patel, Nimesh A.; Young, Ken H.; McCarthy, M. C.; Killian, T. C.

    2015-02-01

    Rotational spectra in four new excited vibrational levels of the linear carbon chain radical C{sub 4}H were observed in the millimeter band between 69 and 364 GHz in a low pressure glow discharge, and two of these were observed in a supersonic molecular beam between 19 and 38 GHz. All have rotational constants within 0.4% of the X{sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground vibrational state of C{sub 4}H and were assigned to new bending vibrational levels, two each with {sup 2}Σ and {sup 2}Π vibrational symmetry. The new levels are tentatively assigned to the 1ν{sub 6} and 1ν{sub 5} bending vibrational modes (both with {sup 2}Π symmetry), and the 1ν{sub 6}+1ν{sub 7} and 1ν{sub 5}+1ν{sub 6} combination levels ({sup 2}Σ symmetry) on the basis of the derived spectroscopic constants, relative intensities in our discharge source, and published laser spectroscopic and quantum calculations. Prior spectroscopic constants in the 1ν{sub 7} and 2ν{sub 7} levels were refined. Also presented are interferometric maps of the ground state and the 1ν{sub 7} level obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) near 257 GHz which show that C{sub 4}H is present near the central star in IRC+10216. We found no evidence with the SMA for the new vibrationally excited levels of C{sub 4}H at a peak flux density averaged over a 3{sup ′′} synthesized beam of ⩾0.15 Jy/beam in the 294–296 and 304–306 GHz range, but it is anticipated that rotational lines in the new levels might be observed in IRC+10216 when ALMA attains its full design capability.

  13. Cartografical And Geodetical Aspects Of The Krakus Mound In Cracow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasik, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    In this work the fate of the Krakus Mound, the oldest of all existing Krakow's mounds, has been presented. The work was carried out based on selected iconographic, cartographic and geodetic documents. Using as an example old views, panoramas of the city and maps, various functions that the Krakus Mound was fulfilling over its long history were shown. An attempt was made to document the military significance of this mound and the surrounding hills. The particular astro-geodetic importance of the Krakus Mound on the scale of the city and southern Poland region was widely discussed. The Krakus Mound also inscribed itself in the history of the use of GPS technology as well as research on the local determination of the geoid in the area of Krakow.

  14. MHD instabilities in accretion mounds - II. 3D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Mignone, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the onset of pressure-driven toroidal-mode instabilities in accretion mounds on neutron stars by 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the PLUTO MHD code. Our results confirm that for mounds beyond a threshold mass, instabilities form finger-like channels at the periphery, resulting in mass-loss from the magnetically confined mound. Ring-like mounds with hollow interior show the instabilities at the inner edge as well. We perform the simulations for mounds of different sizes to investigate the effect of the mound mass on the growth rate of the instabilities. We also investigate the effect of such instabilities on observables such as cyclotron resonant scattering features and timing properties of such systems.

  15. Environmental control on cold-water carbonate mounds development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüggeberg, A.; Liebetrau, V.; Raddatz, J.; Flögel, S.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Exp. 307 Scientific Party, Iodp

    2009-04-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are very abundant along the European continental margin in intermediate water depths and are able to build up large mound structures. These carbonate mounds particularly occur in distinct mound provinces on the Irish and British continental margins. Previous investigations resulted in a better understanding of the cold-water coral ecology and the development of conceptual models to explain carbonate mound build-up. Two different hypotheses were evoked to explain the origin and development of carbonate mounds, external versus internal control (e.g., Freiwald et al. 2004 versus e.g. Hovland 1990). Several short sediment cores have been obtained from Propeller Mound, Northern Porcupine Seabight, indicating that cold-water corals grew during interglacial and warm interstadial periods of the Late Pleistocene controlled by environmental and climatic variability supporting the external control hypothesis (e.g. Dorschel et al. 2005, R

  16. Mound site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform the public about the impact of Mound operations on the population and the environment. Mound is a government-owned facility operated by EG&G Mound Applied Technologies for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This integrated production, development, and research site performs work in support of DOE`s weapon and energy related programs, with emphasis on explosive, nuclear and energy technologies.

  17. Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed and…

  18. Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed and…

  19. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature. PMID:26354098

  20. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-09-10

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature.

  1. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-09-01

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature.

  2. A lone biodetrital mound in the Chesterian (Carboniferous) of Alabama?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kopaska-Merkel, D. C.; Haywick, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A carbonate mound in the Chesterian Bangor Limestone of Lawrence County, Alabama, consists chiefly of packstone and grainstone dominated by echinoderm ossicles and fragments of fenestrate bryozoans. In-situ colonies of the rugose coral Caninia flaccida comprise about 8% of the mound by volume. The exposed portion of the mound is approximately 25 m wide, 1.6 m thick at the thickest point and roughly circular in plan. The mound developed on top of a shallow ooid shoal that had been cemented and stabilised during an earlier episode of sub-aerial exposure. Subsequent flooding of the exposed shoal surface permitted establishment of the mound biota. Lateral and vertical facies relationships suggest that the mound possessed about 45 cm of synoptic relief when fully developed. Rugose corals, fenestrate and ramose bryozoans, stalked echinoderms, and sessile soft-bodied organisms encrusted by foraminifera colonised the shoal, forming a mound. Baffling resulted in deposition of mixed-fossil packstone containing locally derived debris and coated grains from the surrounding sea floor. Strong currents within the mound are indicated by preferred orientation of corals and by coarse, commonly cross-stratified grainstone in channels between neighboring coral colonies. Corals are most abundant on the windward side of the mound, where they account for about 13% of the mound compared to 6- 10% in the central part of the mound, and 2-4% on the leeward flank. Biodetrital mounds such as the one described here are uncommon in upper Paleozoic strata and previously unknown in the Bangor Limestone. Of 10 carbonate buildups we examined in the Bangor in Alabama and Tennessee, only one is a biodetrital mound. Two are rugose coral-microbial reefs, one is a coral biostrome, and six are dominated by microbialite. The Bangor shelf, previously interpreted as sedimentologically simple, appears to contain many small mounds of quite varied characteristics. Also, the discovery of a biodetrital mound in

  3. A lone biodetrital mound in the Chesterian (Carboniferous) of Alabama?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Haywick, Douglas W.

    2001-12-01

    A carbonate mound in the Chesterian Bangor Limestone of Lawrence County, Alabama, consists chiefly of packstone and grainstone dominated by echinoderm ossicles and fragments of fenestrate bryozoans. In-situ colonies of the rugose coral Caninia flaccida comprise about 8% of the mound by volume. The exposed portion of the mound is approximately 25 m wide, 1.6 m thick at the thickest point and roughly circular in plan. The mound developed on top of a shallow ooid shoal that had been cemented and stabilised during an earlier episode of sub-aerial exposure. Subsequent flooding of the exposed shoal surface permitted establishment of the mound biota. Lateral and vertical facies relationships suggest that the mound possessed about 45 cm of synoptic relief when fully developed. Rugose corals, fenestrate and ramose bryozoans, stalked echinoderms, and sessile soft-bodied organisms encrusted by foraminifera colonised the shoal, forming a mound. Baffling resulted in deposition of mixed-fossil packstone containing locally derived debris and coated grains from the surrounding sea floor. Strong currents within the mound are indicated by preferred orientation of corals and by coarse, commonly cross-stratified grainstone in channels between neighboring coral colonies. Corals are most abundant on the windward side of the mound, where they account for about 13% of the mound compared to 6-10% in the central part of the mound, and 2-4% on the leeward flank. Biodetrital mounds such as the one described here are uncommon in upper Paleozoic strata and previously unknown in the Bangor Limestone. Of 10 carbonate buildups we examined in the Bangor in Alabama and Tennessee, only one is a biodetrital mound. Two are rugose coral-microbial reefs, one is a coral biostrome, and six are dominated by microbialite. The Bangor shelf, previously interpreted as sedimentologically simple, appears to contain many small mounds of quite varied characteristics. Also, the discovery of a biodetrital mound in

  4. Mound-cell movement and morphogenesis in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, K A; McNally, J G

    1999-04-15

    To examine the mechanisms of cell locomotion within a three-dimensional (3-D) cell mass, we have undertaken a systematic 3-D analysis of individual cell movements in the Dictyostelium mound, the first 3-D structure to form during development of the fruiting body. We used time-lapse deconvolution microscopy to examine two strains whose motion represents endpoints on the spectrum of motile behaviors that we have observed in mounds. In AX-2 mounds, cell motion is slow and trajectories are a combination of random and radial, compared to KAX-3, in which motion is fivefold faster and most trajectories are rotational. Although radial or rotational motion was correlated with the optical-density wave patterns present in each strain, we also found small but significant subpopulations of cells that moved differently from the majority, demonstrating that optical-density waves are at best insufficient to explain all motile behavior in mounds. In examining morphogenesis in these strains, we noted that AX-2 mounds tended to culminate directly to a fruiting body, whereas KAX-3 mounds first formed a migratory slug. By altering buffering conditions we could interchange these behaviors and then found that mound-cell motions also changed accordingly. This demonstrates a correlation between mound-cell motion and subsequent development, but it is not obligatory. Chimeric mounds composed of only 10% KAX-3 cells and 90% AX-2 cells exhibited rotational motion, suggesting that a diffusible molecule induces rotation, but many of these mounds still culminated directly, demonstrating that rotational motion does not always lead to slug migration. Our observations provide a detailed analysis of cell motion for two distinct modes of mound and slug formation in Dictyostelium.

  5. Are pre-crater mounds gas-inflated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibman, Marina; Kizyakov, Alexandr; Khomutov, Artem; Dvornikov, Yury; Babkina, Elena; Arefiev, Stanislav; Khairullin, Rustam

    2017-04-01

    Gas-emission craters (GEC) on Yamal peninsula, which occupied minds of researches for the last couple of years since first discovered in 2014, appeared to form on the place of specifically shaped mounds. There was a number of hypotheses involving pingo as an origin of these mounds. This arouse an interest in mapping pingo thus marking the areas of GEC formation risk. Our field research allows us to suggest that remote-sensing-based mapping of pingo may result in mix up of mounds of various origin. Thus, we started with classification of the mounds based on remote-sensing, field observations and survey from helicopter. Then we compared indicators of mounds of various classes to the properties of pre-crater mounds to conclude on their origin. Summarizing field experience, there are three main mound types on Yamal. (1) Outliers (remnant hills), separated from the main geomorphic landform by erosion. Often these mounds comprise polygonal blocks, kind of "baydzherakh". Their indicators are asymmetry (short gentle slope towards the main landform, and steep slope often descending into a small pond of thermokarst-nivation origin), often quadrangle or conic shape, and large size. (2) Pingo, appear within the khasyrei (drain lake basin); often are characterized by open cracks resulting from expansion of polygonal network formed when re-freezing of lake talik prior to pingo formation; old pingo may bear traces of collapse on the top, with depression which differs from the GEC by absence of parapet. (3) Frost-heave mounds (excluding pingo) may form on deep active layer, reducing due to moss-peat formation and forming ice lenses from an active layer water, usually they appear in the drainage hollows, valley bottoms, drain-lake basins periphery. These features are smaller than the first two types of mounds. Their tops as a rule are well vegetated. We were unable to find a single or a set of indicators unequivocally defining any specific mound type, thus indicators of pre

  6. The reinvestigation of the kinetics of the metathesis reactions t-C4H9• + HBr (HI) → i-C4H10 + Br• (I•) and of the t-C4H9• free radical thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Leplat, N; Rossi, M J

    2014-07-17

    A reinvestigation of the absolute rate constant of the metathesis reactions t-C4H9• + HBr → i-C4H10 + Br• (1) and t-C4H9• + HI → i-C4H10 + I• (2) was performed thanks to a recently developed apparatus consisting of a Knudsen reactor coupled to detection based on single-photon (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (SPIMS). It enables the generation of thermalized hydrocarbon free radicals owing to a source upstream of and external to the Knudsen reactor. The following Arrhenius expressions were obtained: k1 = 5.6(±1.4) × 10(–12) exp(−6.76(±0.94)/(RT)) and k2 = 2.0(±0.6) × 10(–11) exp(−8.48(±0.94)/(RT)) with R = 8.314 J mol(–1) K(–1) over the range 293 to 623 K. The mass balance of the reaction system based on closed shell product detection (CSPD) was checked in order to ensure the accuracy of the used reaction mechanism and as an independent check of k1 and k2. The wall-loss rate constants of the t-butyl free radical, kw(C4H9), were measured and found to be low compared with the corresponding escape rate constant, ke(C4H9), for effusion of t-C4H9• out of the Knudsen reactor. On the basis of the present results, the free radical standard heat of formation ΔfH298°(t-C4H9•) = 44.3 ± 1.7 kJ mol(–1) was obtained when combined with the kinetics of the inverse halogenation reaction taken from the literature and using S298°(t-C4H9•) = 322.2 J K(–1) mol(–1) following a “Third Law” evaluation method. The standard enthalpy for t-butyl free radical is consistent for both the bromination and iodination reactions within the stated uncertainties.

  7. Visual Display Study: National 4-H Center. A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farwell, Sanford W.

    An internship report cites ways in which the National 4-H Center could be more effective in a visual sense. The author suggests collecting the memorabilia already at the Center to form an historical museum and coordinating the historical items with present items. Impact areas, those with a lot of traffic, are discussed individually in terms of…

  8. Curtiss JN-4H Towing Model Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    In 1919 the NACA Langley laboratory received its first three research aircraft which were Curtiss JN-4Hs borrowed from the US Army Air Service at Langley Field. One of the first research projects of the laboratory initiated that year was a flight investigation of the lift and drag characteristics of the JN-4H. One of the objectives of the flight tests was to obtain data for correlation with wind-tunnel test results measured at MIT and to aid in the derivation of techniques for extrapolation of model results to full-scale conditions. In a pioneering aeronautical effort in 1920, pressure orifices were installed in the horizontal tail of one of the Jennies and connected to glass manometers for pressure measurements that could be photographed in flight. The NACA also used the aircraft in some of the earliest experiments on maneuverability in 1921. In addition to serving as test subjects, the aircraft were used for measurements of aerodynamic behavior of aircraft components. In this photograph made in 1921, one of the JN- 4Hs is towing a model of an aircraft wing to obtain lift and drag information for comparison to tunnel results. All three Jenny aircraft departed Langley in 1923. Reference: 'Flying the Frontiers: NACA and NASA Experimental Aircraft' by Arthur Pearcy. Naval Institute Press, 1993. ISBN 1-55750-258-7

  9. Pits, Mounds and Soil Transport on Hillslopes in NW Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbargen, L.

    2006-12-01

    Pit and mound topography in hardwood forests in the Piedmont of northwest Delaware exhibit a range of forms based on age. This change in shape with age provides an opportunity to place constraints on the dominant transport process acting on the hillslope at this local scale, as well as longer term hillslope transport rates. This is done via numerical modeling of pit and mound profiles. Applying a slope-dependent transport law to a young measured profile provides a forward model of pit and mound topography. Slope-dependent transport yields consistent predictions about mound and pit evolution. Namely, asperities on the mound are rapidly smoothed out. The pit fills with sediment. The uphill scarp reclines. Both upslope from the pit and downslope from the mound, the evolution of topography depends strongly on the boundary conditions in the model. A "no flux" boundary yields a growing wedge at the base and reclining slope at the top of the profile, both of which are inconsistent with old pit and mound profiles. A constant flux boundary must be estimated to replicate observed profiles. Specified flux boundaries from numerical modeling provide some estimate, then, of longer term transport rates along the hillslope. Both the up and down slope effects (in the numerical model) are small, however, relative to the large changes of steep slopes on the mound itself. The slope-dependent transport model yields a strong and fairly straight- forward prediction: asperities smooth rapidly over time. Older mound profiles do spread out over the hillslope over time, suggesting a diffusive type of transport. However, slope-dependent diffusive transport does not adequately describe all of the mounds we observe. Sharp asperities persist on many mounds long after the log has decayed and the pit has largely filled in. Why? Pebbles mantle many of the older mounds, and rock- capped pedestals are common. Rock-covered pinnacles imply that rain splash and/or surface runoff are dominant sediment

  10. Asphalt mounds and associated biota on the Angolan margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel O. B.; Walls, Anne; Clare, Michael; Fiske, Mike S.; Weiland, Richard J.; O'Brien, Robert; Touzel, Daniel F.

    2014-12-01

    Release of hydrocarbons from sediments is important in increasing habitat heterogeneity on deep ocean margins. Heterogeneity arises from variation in abiotic and biotic conditions, including changes in substratum, geochemistry, fluid flow, biological communities and ecological interactions. The seepage of heavy hydrocarbons to the seafloor is less well studied than most other cold seep systems and may lead to the formation of asphalt mounds. These have been described from several regions, particularly the Gulf of Mexico. Here, we describe the structure, potential formation and biology of a large asphalt mound province in Block 31SE Angola. A total of 2254 distinct mound features was identified by side-scan sonar, covering a total area of 3.7 km2 of seafloor. The asphalt mounds took a number of forms from small (<0.5 m diameter; 13% observations) mounds to large extensive (<50 m diameter) structures. Some of the observed mounds were associated with authigenic carbonate and active seepage (living chemosynthetic fauna present in addition to the asphalt). The asphalt mounds are seabed accumulations of heavy hydrocarbons formed from subsurface migration and fractionation of reservoir hydrocarbons primarily through a network of faults. In Angola these processes are controlled by subsurface movement of salt structures. The asphalt mounds were typically densely covered with epifauna (74.5% of mounds imaged had visible epifauna) although individual mounds varied considerably in epifaunal coverage. Of the 49 non-chemosynthetic megafaunal taxa observed, 19 taxa were only found on hard substrata (including asphalt mounds), 2 fish species inhabited the asphalt mounds preferentially and 27 taxa were apparently normal soft-sediment fauna. Antipatharians (3.6±2.3% s.e.) and poriferans (2.6±1.9% s.e.) accounted for the highest mean percentage of the observed cover, with actinarians (0.9±0.4% s.e.) and alcyonaceans (0.4±0.2% s.e.) covering smaller proportions of the area

  11. Diversity Inclusion in 4-H Youth Programs: Examining the Perceptions among West Virginia 4-H Youth Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVergne, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here sought to examine the perceptions of 4-H youth professionals towards diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. A majority of professionals positively reported that there are benefits for youth of color and youth with disabilities in 4-H youth programs. Respondents indicated that the lack of information about 4-H youth…

  12. Diversity Inclusion in 4-H Youth Programs: Examining the Perceptions among West Virginia 4-H Youth Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVergne, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here sought to examine the perceptions of 4-H youth professionals towards diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. A majority of professionals positively reported that there are benefits for youth of color and youth with disabilities in 4-H youth programs. Respondents indicated that the lack of information about 4-H youth…

  13. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  14. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  15. Environmental assessment for Mound Plant decontamination and decommissioning projects, Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for seven decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects at the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, that have not been previously addressed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Mound Facility (June 1979). Based on the information presented in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. Geochemical Arrays at Woolsey Mound Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeper, K.; Wilson, R. M.; Chanton, J.; Lapham, L.; Farr, N.; Camilli, R.; Martens, C. S.; Pontbriand, C.

    2011-12-01

    A suite of geochemical monitoring arrays has been developed for the Woolsey Mound Seafloor Observatory in the northern Gulf of Mexico to evaluate the oceanographic and tectonic forcing factors on the formation and stability of gas hydrates. These arrays are designed to collect sustained, time-series data of chemical concentrations, gradients and fluxes from the subsurface to the seafloor and into the near bottom water column. A Pore Fluid Array provides time-series measurements of methane, sulfate and salinity in subsurface pore waters to evaluate microbial activity, hydrate formation and/or hydrate dissociation. A Chimney Sampler Array collects in situ chemical and physical readings at the benthic boundary. The array is designed around a vertical cylinder with a known volume and washout rate for measuring chemical gradients and flux at the seafloor. The Benthic Boundary Layer Array extends into the water column with a package of sensors in a node close to the seafloor and a similar node 20 m above the seafloor to evaluate upward, downward and transversely advecting fluids. The three arrays can be used in concert to evaluate a release of methane by the dissociation of gas hydrates: the Pore Fluid Array identifies the breakdown of gas hydrates in the subsurface, the Chimney Array determines the rate of flux at the seafloor and the Benthic Boundary Layer Array evaluates the fate of the release in the water column. Combining the data from the geochemical arrays with output from the geophysical arrays provides key information to evaluate the specific and relative importance of tectonic and oceanographic triggers for hydrate dissociation. New probes and deployment platforms have been developed for the installation and maintenance of the arrays and new systems are in place and under development for the recovery of the data. Generally, the complete array or its components have to be recovered to download the data. However, this summer 2011, a new optic modem system was

  17. Burial, mounding key at Isle of Purbeck

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.G. )

    1989-07-17

    Design and installation of LPG storage for BP Petroleum Development Ltd.'s Wytch Farm Project on the Isle of Purbeck was guided by the central need to obscure the storage site from view and preserve the natural beauty of the island. The Wytch Farm oil field development is an expansion project aimed at increasing crude-oil production from 5,500 b/d to 60,000 b/d. The oil field is located beneath the southern shores of Poole Harbour on the south coast of the U.K. in an area of outstanding beauty and adjacent to sites of special scientific interest. The article is divided into the following areas: Storage needs; Mounding concrete; Pressure resistance; Fracture, cracking concerns; Coating criteria; Cleaning, application; Sand bed foundations; Earthworks, Preparation installation; Settlement monitoring.

  18. Late Mississippian lime mud mounds, Pitkin Formation, northern Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, W.L.; Ar, V.P.; Webb, G.E.

    1984-04-01

    Carbonates deposited under shallow, open shelf conditions during the Late Mississippian in northern Arkansas exhibit numerous discrete to coalescing lime mud mounds up to 20 m (65 ft) high and tens of meters in diameter. The mounds are composed of a carbonate mud core, typically with fenestrate texture, entrapped by a loosely organized framework dominated by cystoporate bryozoans and rugose corals in the lower part, and by blue-green algae and cryptostomous bryozoans in the upper part. Disarticulated crinozoan detritus is common throughout the core, suggesting that these organisms also contributed to entrapment of lime mud. During deposition, the mud core was indurated enough to support and preserve vertical burrows. Also, rubble of core mudstone is found on the flanks of some mounds, suggesting some erosion. Intermound lithology is a shoaling-upward sequence dominated by oolitic and bioclastic grainstones and packstones. Shale is also present in minor amounts. The Pitkin mounds, interbedded with these intermound sequences, developed contemporaneously with them. Depositional relief was probably less than 3 m (10 ft). The mounds expanded laterally during periods of quieter water; their growth was impeded during times of higher energy. Contacts of the mound and intermound lithologic characteristics are sharp, truncating surfaces. Mound deposition ended with the onset of high energy conditions throughout the region.

  19. Integrated study of Mississippian Lodgepole Waulsortian Mounds, Williston Basin, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Kupecz, J.A.; Arestad, J.F.; Blott, J. E.

    1996-06-01

    Waulsortian-type carbonate buildups in the Mississippian Lodgepole Formation, Williston Basin, constitute prolific oil reservoirs. Since the initial discovery in 1993, five fields have been discovered: Dickinson Field (Lodgepole pool); Eland Field; Duck Creek Field, Versippi Field; and Hiline Field. Cumulative production (October, 1995) is 2.32 million barrels of oil and 1.34 BCF gas, with only 69,000 barrels of water. Oil gravity ranges from 41.4 to 45.3 API. Both subsurface cores from these fields as well as outcrop (Bridget Range, Big Snowy and Little Belt Mountains, Montana) are composed of facies representing deposition in mound, reworked mound, distal reworked mound, proximal flank, distal flank, and intermound settings. Porosity values within the mound and reworked mound facies are up to 15%; permeability values (in places fracture-enhanced) are up to tens of Darcies. Geometries of the mounds are variable. Mound thicknesses in the subsurface range from approximately 130-325 feet (40-100 meters); in outcrop thicknesses range from less than 30 ft (9 m) to over 250 ft (76 m). Subsurface areal dimensions range from approximately 0.5 x 1.0 mi (0.8 x 1.6 km) to 3.5 x 5.5 mi (5.6 x 8.8 km). Integration of seismic data with core and well-log models sheds light on the exploration for Lodgepole mounds. Seismic modeling of productive mounds in the Dickinson and Eland fields identifies characteristics useful for exploration, such as local thickening of the Lodgepole to Three Forks interval. These observations are confirmed in reprocessed seismic data across Eland field and on regional seismic data. Importantly, amplitude versus offset modeling identifies problems with directly detecting and identifying porosity within these features with amplitude analyses. In contrast, multicomponent seismic data has great potential for imaging these features and quantifying porous zones within them.

  20. Geotechnical characteristics of shallow ocean dredge spoil disposal mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Demars, K.R.; Dowling, J.J.; Long, R.P.; Morton, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    This paper summarizes the data obtained from site surveying and sediment sampling of dredge spoil disposal mounds at the Central Long Island Sound site. Emphasis is placed on the geotechnical and geological features of the mound and natural seabed. Since some of the spoil is contaminated, cappings of clean spoil have been used to isolate the spoil mounds from fauna and flora in the water column. Because of the contaminated spoil, improvements in the disposal techniques are needed and methodologies must be developed for evaluating short-term and long-term stability of these shallow ocean deposits which are subjected to loadings from waves, spoil disposal and capping operations.

  1. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Energy Project. 4-H Member's E-Book, Unit 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 1 (ages 9-11) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. In this project, members are required to: (1) use energy wisely by closing doors and turning off lights; (2) inspecting homes for energy use at least once; (3) judging the best use of lighting in a home; (4) sharing ideas about energy use in a…

  2. CPR: Purposeful Action. Putting New Life into 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah A.; Smith, William C.

    1988-01-01

    In Ohio, 4-H professionals found that it is necessary to conduct market research to have an effective program. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has been successful in strengthening the 4-H position in the marketplace. (JOW)

  3. 1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective view southwest of filtration bed with earth mounded over facility. Armory Street appears in the foreground. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  4. How Did the Mound in Gale Crater Form?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-05-22

    Scientist hypothesize that a lake of liquid water once filled Gale crater, and the layers in the mound formed as sediment settled down through the water to the bottom of the lake in this image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  5. Evolution of Mound Morphology in Reversible Homoepitaxy on Cu(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, J.; Wendelken, J.

    1997-04-01

    Evolution of mound morphology in reversible homoepitaxy on Cu(100) was studied via spot-profile-analysis (SPA) LEED and scanning tunneling microscopy. The mound separation shows coarsening vs growth time with L(t){approximately}t{sup 1/4}, in support of theory based on capillarity between mounds. The growth ultimately reaches a steady state characterized by a selected mound angle of {approximately}5.6{degree}. We suggest that this results from a downhill current driven by step edge line tension in balance with an uphill current due to the Schwoebel barrier effect. Also, we have clarified the interpretation for the evolution of the SPA-LEED profile from a ring structure to a single time-invariant peak. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. 2. CONCRETE PADDING AREA BETWEEN BERM MOUNDS, LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONCRETE PADDING AREA BETWEEN BERM MOUNDS, LOOKING NORTH FROM TOP OF BERM. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Acid Fueling Station, North of Launch Area Entrance Drive, eastern central portion of base, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  7. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  8. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EARTH MOUND. NOTE THE RECTANGULAR OPENINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EARTH MOUND. NOTE THE RECTANGULAR OPENINGS USED FOR OBSERVATION EQUIPMENT AND PERISCOPE TOPS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  10. The 4-H Club Meeting: An Essential Youth Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.

    2015-01-01

    The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of…

  11. Using Digital Classrooms to Conduct 4-H Club Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Patricia; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Morgan, A. Christian; Duncan, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Using computer technology and digital classrooms to conduct 4-H Club meetings is an efficient way to continue delivering quality 4-H programming during times of limited resources and staff. Nineteen Junior and Senior 4-H'ers participated in seven digital classroom workshops using the Wimba Classroom application. These digital classroom sessions…

  12. Using Digital Classrooms to Conduct 4-H Club Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Patricia; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Morgan, A. Christian; Duncan, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Using computer technology and digital classrooms to conduct 4-H Club meetings is an efficient way to continue delivering quality 4-H programming during times of limited resources and staff. Nineteen Junior and Senior 4-H'ers participated in seven digital classroom workshops using the Wimba Classroom application. These digital classroom sessions…

  13. The 4-H Club Meeting: An Essential Youth Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.

    2015-01-01

    The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of…

  14. Prevalent Approaches to Professional Development in State 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.; Worker, Steven M.; Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Lewis, Kendra M.; Schoenfelder, Emily; Brian, Kelley

    High-quality 4-H programming requires effective professional development of educators. Through a mixed methods study, we explored professional development offered through state 4-H programs. Survey results revealed that both in-person and online delivery modes were used commonly for 4-H staff and adult volunteers; for teen volunteers, in-person…

  15. Hamsters?! What Does 4-H Stand for, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundeen, Brenda

    This paper briefly traces the history of 4-H youth development programs, explains what youth development is, and shows how the experiential learning model is used in 4-H. Begun over 75 years ago as a means of extending the learning of the land-grant university to rural youth, 4-H is part of the Cooperative Extension Service. The curriculum…

  16. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  17. Environmental assessment for commercialization of the Mound Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-26

    In November 1993 US DOE decided to phase out operations at the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, with the goal of releasing the site for commercial use. The broad concept is to transform the plant into an advanced manufacturing center with the main focus on commercializing products and other technology. DOE proposes to lease portions of the Mound Plant to commercial enterprises. This Environmental Impact statement has a finding of no significant impact in reference to such action.

  18. Termite mounds harness diurnal temperature oscillations for ventilation.

    PubMed

    King, Hunter; Ocko, Samuel; Mahadevan, L

    2015-09-15

    Many species of millimetric fungus-harvesting termites collectively build uninhabited, massive mound structures enclosing a network of broad tunnels that protrude from the ground meters above their subterranean nests. It is widely accepted that the purpose of these mounds is to give the colony a controlled microclimate in which to raise fungus and brood by managing heat, humidity, and respiratory gas exchange. Although different hypotheses such as steady and fluctuating external wind and internal metabolic heating have been proposed for ventilating the mound, the absence of direct in situ measurement of internal air flows has precluded a definitive mechanism for this critical physiological function. By measuring diurnal variations in flow through the surface conduits of the mounds of the species Odontotermes obesus, we show that a simple combination of geometry, heterogeneous thermal mass, and porosity allows the mounds to use diurnal ambient temperature oscillations for ventilation. In particular, the thin outer flutelike conduits heat up rapidly during the day relative to the deeper chimneys, pushing air up the flutes and down the chimney in a closed convection cell, with the converse situation at night. These cyclic flows in the mound flush out CO2 from the nest and ventilate the colony, in an unusual example of deriving useful work from thermal oscillations.

  19. Ireland's deep-water coral carbonate mounds: multidisciplinary research results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozachenko, M.; Wheeler, A.; Beyer, A.; Blamart, D.; Masson, D.; Olu-Le Roy, K.

    2003-04-01

    Recent international research activity, involving a strong Irish collaboration, has shown that coral reefs are not exclusively associated with warm tropical waters but are also present in the deeper and colder Northeast Atlantic. In the Porcupine Seabight west of Ireland, coral-colonised carbonate mounds (up to 350m high) are present at 600-900m water depth. The corals Lophelia pertusa L. and Madrepora oculata L. contribute to this diverse ecosystem that may also play a significant role in expanding deep-water fisheries. New side-scan sonar, multibeam echosounder, sub-bottom profiler and underwater video imagery supplemented with sedimentological sample material were used to map the seabed in the environs of the Belgica Carbonate Mound province, eastern Porcupine Seabight. The data were integrated in a GIS and provides information on sediment pathways and benthic current patterns within the study area. A facies map of the study area highlights differing sedimentary processes showing evidences for strong northward bottom currents whose interaction has an influence on mounds growth and morphology. This survey revealed mound flanks dominated by sediment waves that give way to coral banks towards the mound summits. A form of coral accumulation was also documented. Detailed analyses of sediment properties from long cores through sediment drifts have generated a high-resolution palaeoclimate record revealing temporal patterns in bottom current strength variations. An accurate assessment of this influence on mound through a comparison with coral growth rates is ongoing.

  20. Termite mounds harness diurnal temperature oscillations for ventilation

    PubMed Central

    King, Hunter; Ocko, Samuel; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-01-01

    Many species of millimetric fungus-harvesting termites collectively build uninhabited, massive mound structures enclosing a network of broad tunnels that protrude from the ground meters above their subterranean nests. It is widely accepted that the purpose of these mounds is to give the colony a controlled microclimate in which to raise fungus and brood by managing heat, humidity, and respiratory gas exchange. Although different hypotheses such as steady and fluctuating external wind and internal metabolic heating have been proposed for ventilating the mound, the absence of direct in situ measurement of internal air flows has precluded a definitive mechanism for this critical physiological function. By measuring diurnal variations in flow through the surface conduits of the mounds of the species Odontotermes obesus, we show that a simple combination of geometry, heterogeneous thermal mass, and porosity allows the mounds to use diurnal ambient temperature oscillations for ventilation. In particular, the thin outer flutelike conduits heat up rapidly during the day relative to the deeper chimneys, pushing air up the flutes and down the chimney in a closed convection cell, with the converse situation at night. These cyclic flows in the mound flush out CO2 from the nest and ventilate the colony, in an unusual example of deriving useful work from thermal oscillations. PMID:26316023

  1. Food preferences and mound-building behaviour of the mound-building mice Mus spicilegus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölzl, Michaela; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Hoi, Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Optimal foraging strategies and food choice are influenced by various factors, e.g. availability, size and caloric content of the food type and predation risk. However, food choice criteria may change when food is not eaten immediately but has to be carried to a storage site for later use. For example, handling time in terms of harvesting and transport time should be optimized, particularly when the risk of predation is high. Thus, it is not clear whether food selected by hoarding animals reflects their food preference due to intrinsic features of the food type, e.g. size, caloric or lipid content, or whether the food type selected is a compromise that also considers the handling time required for harvesting and transport. We investigate this question in relation to food hoarding behaviour in mound-building mice. In autumn, mound-building mice Mus spicilegus collect seeds and other plant material and cover it with soil. Such above-ground storage is quite unusual for rodents. Here, we investigated whether there is a relationship between the seed species preferred as building materials and those preferred for food. We conducted a seed preference test using three most collected weed species for mound building. Controlling factors like food availability or predation risk, mice prefer Setaria spp. as food, although Amaranthus spp. and Chenopodium spp. were preferentially harvested and stored. By including the availability of the three species, our experimental results were confirmed, namely, a clear preference for Setaria spp. Also, handling time and seed size revealed to influence plant choice.

  2. Environmental monitoring at Mound: 1987 report

    SciTech Connect

    Carfagno, D.G.; Farmer, B.M.

    1988-04-25

    The local environment around Mound as monitored primarily for tritium and plutonium-238. The results are reported for 1987. Environmental media analyzed included air, water, vegetation, food-stuffs, and sediment. The average concentrations of plutonium 238 and tritium were within the DOE interim air and water Derived Concentration Guides (DCG) for these radionuclides. The average incremental concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium oxide in air measured at all offsite locations during 1987 were 4.6 x 10/sup -18/ ..mu..Ci/mL and 12.9 x 10/sup -12/ ..mu..Ci/mL, respectively. These correspond to 0.02% and 0.01%, respectively, of the DOE DCGs for uncontrolled areas. The average incremental concentration of plutonium-238 measured at all locations in the Great Miami River during 1987 was 1.4 x 10/sup - 12/ ..mu..Ci/mL which is 0.0004% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentration of tritium measured at all locations in the Great Miami River during 1987 was 0.07 x 10/sup -6/ ..mu..Ci/mL which is 0.004% of the DOE DCG. The dose equivalent estimates for the average air, water, and foodstuff concentrations indicate that the levels are 1% of the DOE standard of 100 mrem. 23 refs., 5 figs., 34 tabs.

  3. The Gale Crater Mound in a Regional Geologic Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, C.; Korn, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity is commencing a two-year investigation of Gale crater and Mt. Sharp, the crater's prominent central mound. Gale is a 155 km, late Noachian / early Hesperian impact crater located near the dichotomy boundary separating the southern highlands from the northern plains. The central mound is composed of layered sedimentary rock, with upper and lower mound units separated by a prominent erosional unconformity (Milliken et al., 2010). The lower mound is of particular interest, as it contains secondary minerals indicative of a striking shift from water-rich to water-poor conditions on early Mars. A key unknown in the history of Gale is the relationship between the sedimentary units in the mound and sedimentary sequences in the surrounding region. We employed orbital remote sensing data to determine if areas within a 1,000 km radius of Gale match the characteristics of sedimentary units in Mt. Sharp. Regions of interest were defined based on: the mound's inferred age (late Noachian to early Hesperian), altitude range (-4,600 m to +400 m), and THEMIS nighttime brightness (a proxy for thermal inertia). This combination of characteristics is matched by two extensive units, the late Noachian subdued cratered unit Npl2 and Noachian / Hesperian undivided material HNu (Greeley and Guest, 1987), located along the dichotomy. Geomorphic units have been mapped within the Gale mound by Thomson et al. (2011) based on albedo, layering and erosional characteristics. Using orbital CTX, MOC and HiRISE images we examined all areas within our regions of interest for analogous geomorphic units in the same altitude ranges as the corresponding units in Mt. Sharp. The most convincing geomorphic analogs to lower mound units, dominated by fine-scale layering and prominent yardangs, were located approximately 200 km northeast and southeast of Gale in late Noachian unit Npl2. The most convincing geomorphic analogs to upper mound layered units are located

  4. Ab initio search for global minimum structures of neutral and anionic B 4H 5 clusters. Optical isomerism in B 4H 5 and B4H5-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Jared K.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.

    2011-11-01

    Potential energy surfaces of neutral and anionic B 4H 5 clusters were sampled using the Coalescence Kick method. We found that the neutral B 4H 5 cluster has two optical isomers as either a global minimum structure, or as almost degenerate isomers with the global minimum structure. For the B4H5- anion only the third lowest isomer forms a pair of optical isomers. The chemical bonding patterns revealed by the Adaptive Natural Density Partitioning (AdNDP) analysis can easily explain the geometric structure of even very exotic isomers and global minima. Theoretical vertical electron detachment energies (VDEs) were calculated for comparison with future experimental work.

  5. Environmental monitoring at Mound: 1986 report

    SciTech Connect

    Carfagno, D.G.; Farmer, B.M.

    1987-05-11

    The local environment around Mound was monitored for tritium and plutonium-238. The results are reported for 1986. Environmental media analyzed included air, water, vegetation, foodstuffs, and sediment. The average concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium were within the DOE interim air and water Derived Concentration Guides (DCG) for these radionuclides. The average incremental concentrations of plutonium-238 and tritium oxide in air measured at all offsite locations during 1986 were 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, of the DOE DCGs for uncontrolled areas. The average incremental concentration of plutonium-238 measured at all locations in the Great Miami River during 1986 was 0.0005% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentration of tritium measured at all locations in the Great Miami River during 1986 was 0.005% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentrations of plutonium-238 found during 1986 in surface and area drinking water were less than 0.00006% of the DOE DCG. The average incremental concentration of tritium in surface water was less than 0.005% of the DOE DCG. All tritium in drinking water data is compared to the US EPA Drinking Water Standard. The average concentrations in local private and municipal drinking water systems were less than 25% and 1.5%, respectively. Although no DOE DCG is available for foodstuffs, the average concentrations are a small fraction of the water DCG (0.04%). The concentrations of sediment samples obtained at offsite surface water sampling locations were extremely low and therefore represent no adverse impact to the environment. The dose equivalent estimates for the average air, water, and foodstuff concentrations indicate that the levels are within 1% of the DOE standard of 100 mrem. None of these exceptions, however, had an adverse impact on the water quality of the Great Miami River or caused the river to exceed Ohio Stream Standards. 20 refs., 5 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Unexpected Stability of Al4H6: a Borane Analog?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Li; Grubisic, Andrej; Stokes, Sarah; Gantefor, Gerd; Bowen, Kit; Boggavarapu, Kiran; Willis, Mary; Jena, Puru; Burgert, Ralph; Schnockel, Hans; Cordes, James

    2007-03-01

    While boron has many hydrides, aluminum has been thought to exhibit relatively few. A combined anion photoelectron and density functional theory computational study of the Al4H6^- anion, and its corresponding neutral, Al4H6, showed that Al4H6 can be understood in terms of the Wade-Mingos rules for electron counting, suggesting that it may be a borane analog. The data support an Al4H6 structure with a distorted tetrahedral aluminum atom framework, four terminal Al-H bonds, and two sets of counter-positioned Al-H-Al bridging bonds. The large HOMO-LUMO gap found for Al4H6 together with its exceptionally high heat of combustion further suggests that Al4H6 may be an important energetic material, if it can be prepared in bulk. This report announces the opening of a new chapter in aluminum-hydrogen chemistry.

  7. Cold-water coral carbonate mounds as unique palaeo-archives: the Plio-Pleistocene Challenger Mound record (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierens, M.; Browning, E.; Pirlet, H.; Loutre, M.-F.; Dorschel, B.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Titschack, J.; Colin, C.; Foubert, A.; Wheeler, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Through the interplay of a stabilising cold-water coral framework and a dynamic sedimentary environment, cold-water coral carbonate mounds create distinctive centres of bio-geological accumulation in often complex (continental margin) settings. The IODP Expedition 307 drilling of the Challenger Mound (eastern Porcupine Seabight; NE Atlantic) not only retrieved the first complete developmental history of a coral carbonate mound, it also exposed a unique, Early-Pleistocene sedimentary sequence of exceptional resolution along the mid-latitudinal NE Atlantic margin. In this study, a comprehensive assessment of the Challenger Mound as an archive of Quaternary palaeo-environmental change and long-term coral carbonate mound development is presented. New and existing environmental proxy records, including clay mineralogy, planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and assemblage counts, planktonic foraminifer oxygen isotopes and siliciclastic particle-size, are thereby discussed within a refined chronostratigraphic and climatic context. Overall, the development of the Challenger Mound shows a strong affinity to the Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the Northern Hemisphere climate system, albeit not being completely in phase with it. The two major oceanographic and climatic transitions of the Plio-Pleistocene - the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene intensification of continental ice-sheet development and the mid-Pleistocene transition to the more extremely variable and more extensively glaciated late Quaternary - mark two major thresholds in Challenger Mound development: its Late Pliocene (>2.74 Ma) origin and its Middle-Late Pleistocene to recent decline. Distinct surface-water perturbations (i.e. water-mass/polar front migrations, productivity changes, melt-water pulses) are identified throughout the sequence, which can be linked to the intensity and extent of ice development on the nearby British-Irish Isles since the earliest Pleistocene. Glaciation

  8. The Gale Crater Mound in a Regional Geologic Setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Korn, L. K.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity is commencing a two-year investigation of Gale crater and Mt. Sharp, the crater s prominent central mound. Gale is a 155 km, late Noachian / early Hesperian impact crater located near the dichotomy boundary separating the southern highlands from the northern plains. The central mound is composed of layered sedimentary rock, with upper and lower mound units separated by a prominent erosional unconformity (Milliken et al., 2010). The lower mound is of particular interest, as it contains secondary minerals indicative of a striking shift from water-rich to water-poor conditions on early Mars. A key unknown in the history of Gale is the relationship between the sedimentary units in the mound and sedimentary sequences in the surrounding region. We employed orbital remote sensing data to determine if areas within a 1,000 km radius of Gale match the characteristics of sedimentary units in Mt. Sharp. Regions of interest were defined based on: the mound s inferred age (late Noachian to early Hesperian), altitude range (-4,600 m to +400 m), and THEMIS nighttime brightness (a proxy for thermal inertia). This combination of characteristics is matched by two extensive units, the late Noachian subdued cratered unit Npl2 and Noachian / Hesperian undivided material HNu (Greeley and Guest, 1987), located along the dichotomy. Geomorphic units have been mapped within the Gale mound by Thomson et al. (2011) based on albedo, layering and erosional characteristics. Using orbital CTX, MOC and HiRISE images we examined all areas within our regions of interest for analogous geomorphic units in the same altitude ranges as the corresponding units in Mt. Sharp. The most convincing geomorphic analogs to lower mound units, dominated by fine-scale layering and prominent yardangs, were located approximately 200 km northeast and southeast of Gale in late Noachian unit Npl2. The most convincing geomorphic analogs to upper mound layered units are located

  9. HiRISE observations of fractured mounds: Possible Martian pingos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dundas, Colin M.; Mellon, Michael T.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Lefort, Alexandra; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Thomas, Nicolas

    2008-02-01

    Early images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera have revealed small fractured mounds in the Martian mid-latitudes. HiRISE resolves fractures on the mound surfaces, indicating uplift, and shows that the mound surface material resembles that of the surrounding landscape. Analysis of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images shows that in Utopia Planitia the mounds lie almost exclusively between 35-45°N. This range coincides with the peak-abundance latitudes of several landforms attributed to ground water or ice, including gullies, and suggests a ground ice-related origin. The best terrestrial analogues for the observed mound morphology are pingos, although some differences are noted. The presence of uncollapsed pingos would indicate the presence of near-surface ground ice in the Martian mid-latitudes, at depths greater than the ~1 meter sampled by orbital spectrometers. Pingo formation may require near-surface liquid water, which is consistent with a shallow groundwater model for the origin of gullies.

  10. Mechanisms of Mound Coarsening in Unstable Epitaxial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques G.

    1998-03-01

    A variety of recent experiments on semiconductor and metal surfaces have measured the mound coarsening behavior and coarsening exponent n (where the mound or feature size rc goes as h^n where h is the film thickness) during homoepitaxial growth. The value predicted by the simplest theories and observed in a number of growth experiments corresponds to n ~= 1/4, a value which is also close to that expected for the `quasi-equilibrium' coarsening of three-dimensional mounds via surface adatom exchange in the absence of deposition. However, asymptotic values as high as n ~= 1/3 have also been observed experimentally and have not been fully explained, although recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations with a large Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier footnote J.G. Amar and F. Family, Phys. Rev. B 44, 1224 (1996) lead to similarly large values for n. Here we present the results of a systematic study of the dependence of the asymptotic mound coarsening behavior on the rate of interlayer diffusion as well as on such processes as edge-diffusion, diffusion around kinks, and detachment. Our results indicate that all these processes play an important role in determining the asymptotic coarsening behavior. Results for the mound coarsening behavior in one-dimension, corresponding to highly anisotropic diffusion, will also be presented.

  11. HiRISE observations of fractured mounds: Possible Martian pingos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dundas, C.M.; Mellon, M.T.; McEwen, A.S.; Lefort, A.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Thomas, N.

    2008-01-01

    Early images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera have revealed small fractured mounds in the Martian mid-latitudes. HiRISE resolves fractures on the mound surfaces, indicating uplift, and shows that the mound surface material resembles that of the surrounding landscape. Analysis of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images shows that in Utopia Planitia the mounds lie almost exclusively between 35-45??N. This range coincides with the peak-abundance latitudes of several landforms attributed to ground water or ice, including gullies, and suggests a ground ice-related origin. The best terrestrial analogues for the observed mound morphology are pingos, although some differences are noted. The presence of uncollapsed. pingos would indicate the presence of near-surface ground ice in the Martian mid-latitudes, at depths greater than the ???1 meter sampled by orbital spectrometers. Pingo formation may require near-surface liquid water, which is consistent with a shallow groundwater model for the origin of gullies. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilek, Kevin Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join 4-H have been more thoroughly researched than the reasons they quit. This study explores why youth choose to discontinue membership…

  13. Cell Sorting in the Mound Stage of Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Levine, Herbert; Glazier, James

    1998-03-01

    In the mound stage of slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, cells differentiated into two types: pre-stalk and pre-spore. Pre-stalk cells sort and form a tip at the apex of the mound of prespore cells. How this pattern forms is as yet unknown. A cellular level model allows us to simulate both differential cell adhesion and chemotaxis, two principle mechanisms for cell migration. Simulations show that with differential adhesion only, pre-stalk cells move to the surface of the mound but form no tip. With chemotaxis driven by an outgoing circular wave only, a tip forms but contains both pre-stalk and pre-spore cells. Only for a narrow range of relative strengths between differential adhesion and chemotaxis, can both mechanisms work in concert to form a tip which contains only pre-stalk cells. The simulations provide a method to determine the processes necessary for patterning and suggest a series of further experiments.

  14. Sewing Skills Progress Chart. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This document, which was developed for use by Pennsylvania 4-H Club leaders and members, is a chart that can be used to help club members determine and document those sewing skills they already have and those they need to learn as they complete one or more 4-H Club sewing projects. The document begins with a note to club leaders and parents that…

  15. Expanding Global Mindedness through a 4-H International Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Susan D.; Peterson, Donna J.; Iwata, Chieko; Kobia, Caroline; Reddy, Raja

    2017-01-01

    With expanding global interdependence, it is vital that 4-H youths learn more about the ever-increasing diverse cultures in their own communities as well as expand their global mindedness and understanding of globalization. The 4-H International Village (a) offers a comfortable yet engaging avenue for youths to expand their knowledge of and…

  16. Sewing Skills Progress Chart. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This document, which was developed for use by Pennsylvania 4-H Club leaders and members, is a chart that can be used to help club members determine and document those sewing skills they already have and those they need to learn as they complete one or more 4-H Club sewing projects. The document begins with a note to club leaders and parents that…

  17. Camping with a Purpose...A 4-H Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, John H.; And Others

    The 4-H handbook focuses on factors to consider and things to be done when developing a camping program. Since the emphasis, structure, and administration of 4-H camping varies, the booklet is flexible enough to be adapted to different state, district, and county situations. Major topics are camping's importance to extension education,…

  18. Embracing Scientific and Engineering Practices in 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worker, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The 4-H Science Initiative has renewed efforts to strengthen 4-H programmatic and evaluation efforts in science and engineering education. A fundamental component of this initiative is to provide opportunities to youth to aid in their development of science process skills; however, emerging research stresses the importance of engaging youth in…

  19. 4-H Participation and Science Interest in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Katherine; Carlos, Ramona M.; Barnett, Cynthia; Smith, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the impacts of participation in 4-H on young people's interest and participation in science. Survey data were collected from relatively large and ethnically diverse samples of elementary and high school-aged students in California. Results indicated that although elementary-grade 4-H members are not more…

  20. The Oneida County 4-H Conservation Field Days Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen C.; Vonhof, Sarah; Kelley, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    Examines the various perspectives held by the three major organizations involved (an environmental citizens group, a local sportsmen's club, and the cooperative extension service) regarding a conflict over a 4-H program involving hunting and wildlife management. Discusses why the 4-H program's attempt to build consensus among the organizations was…

  1. The Oneida County 4-H Conservation Field Days Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen C.; Vonhof, Sarah; Kelley, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    Examines the various perspectives held by the three major organizations involved (an environmental citizens group, a local sportsmen's club, and the cooperative extension service) regarding a conflict over a 4-H program involving hunting and wildlife management. Discusses why the 4-H program's attempt to build consensus among the organizations was…

  2. Motivating and Retaining Adult Volunteer 4-H Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken, III

    1997-01-01

    Adult volunteer 4-H leaders (494 current, 40 former) identified their primary motivations as follows: youth (issue/cause motive), 4-H (affiliation motive), and perceived need (personal motive). Lack of adult assistance and time influenced resignation from the program. (SK)

  3. Council of Presidents: A Multifaceted Idea for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torretta, Alayne

    2015-01-01

    Communication between 4-H professionals and the youth they work with is an important part of a successful 4-H program. By creating a Council of Presidents comprised of officers of all the clubs in your county, you can increase communication while assuring your program addresses all four essential elements. The Council is also as a vehicle for…

  4. Council of Presidents: A Multifaceted Idea for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torretta, Alayne

    2015-01-01

    Communication between 4-H professionals and the youth they work with is an important part of a successful 4-H program. By creating a Council of Presidents comprised of officers of all the clubs in your county, you can increase communication while assuring your program addresses all four essential elements. The Council is also as a vehicle for…

  5. Environmental survey preliminary report, Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Mound Plant, conducted August 18 through 29, 1986. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Mound Plant. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the Mound Plant, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey found no environmental problems at the Mound Plant that represent an immediate threat to human life. The environmental problems identified at the Mound Plant by the Survey confirm that the site is confronted with a number of environmental problems which are by and large a legacy from past practices at a time when environmental problems were less well understood. Theses problems vary in terms of their magnitude and risk, as described in this report. Although the sampling and analysis performed by the Mound Plant Survey will assist in further identifying environmental problems at the site, a complete understanding of the significance of some of the environmental problems identified requires a level of study and characterization that is beyond the scope of the Survey. Actions currently under way or planned at the site, particularly the Phase II activities of the Comprehensive Environmental Analysis and Response Program (CEARP) as developed and implemented by the Albuquerque Operations Office, will contribute toward meeting this requirement. 85 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. Perennial mounds in Utopia Planitia: (HiRISE) Evidence of a Glacial Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, R. J.; Osinski, G. R.; Thomson, L.

    2009-03-01

    Here, we use HiRISE and high-resolution MOC images to discuss sub-kilometer pingo-like mounds in Utopia Planita. The mounds show geological characteristics consistent with formation by glacial accumulation, and ablation by sublimation.

  7. Stabilization of 4H hexagonal phase in gold nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhanxi; Bosman, Michel; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Ding; Yu, Yi; Ong, Khuong P.; Akimov, Yuriy A.; Wu, Lin; Li, Bing; Wu, Jumiati; Huang, Ying; Liu, Qing; Eng Png, Ching; Lip Gan, Chee; Yang, Peidong; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Gold, silver, platinum and palladium typically crystallize with the face-centred cubic structure. Here we report the high-yield solution synthesis of gold nanoribbons in the 4H hexagonal polytype, a previously unreported metastable phase of gold. These gold nanoribbons undergo a phase transition from the original 4H hexagonal to face-centred cubic structure on ligand exchange under ambient conditions. Using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy, the strong infrared plasmon absorption of single 4H gold nanoribbons is observed. Furthermore, the 4H hexagonal phases of silver, palladium and platinum can be readily stabilized through direct epitaxial growth of these metals on the 4H gold nanoribbon surface. Our findings may open up new strategies for the crystal phase-controlled synthesis of advanced noble metal nanomaterials. PMID:26216712

  8. MHD instabilities in accretion mounds on neutron star binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Mignone, Andrea

    We have numerically solved the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria of matter confined to the polar cap of neutron stars. From the equilibrium solutions we explore the stability of the accretion mounds using the PLUTO MHD code. We find that pressure driven modes disrupt the equilibria beyond a threshold mound mass, forming dynamic structures, as matter spreads over the neutron star surface. Our results show that local variation of magnetic field will significantly affect the shape and nature of the cyclotron features observed in the spectra of High Mass X-ray Binaries.

  9. Hydrothermal Tar Mounds in Escanaba Trough, Southern Gorda Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Rosenbauer, R. A.; Hostettler, F. D.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Lamothe, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    Mounds of asphaltic petroleum were located and sampled by the submersible ROV Tiburon at two sites on the 3300-m-deep, sediment-covered floor of Escanaba Trough, southern Gorda Ridge. The northern site (41.01°N) consists of several individual mounds up to 1 m across and 25 cm high that occur within 100 m of active hydrothermal vents and polymetallic sulfide deposits. These mounds are not covered by sediment and serve as solid substrates for anemones and sponges. Fragments of a partly-buried tar mound at the southern site (40.69°N) were recovered near a field of inactive sulfide deposits. The mounds have a lobate morphology in which younger lobes with lustrous surfaces drape over older lobes encrusted by mud and faunal debris. In cross section, individual lobes have dense rinds, softer inner walls, and hollow cores. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of tar samples show the presence of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aliphatic fractions have homologous n-alkane distributions from n-C12 to n-C36 with Cmax = n-C28, and a distinctive even-over-odd C-number predominance. Epimer ratios for hopanes and steranes indicate hydrocarbons that are relatively immature. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are dominated by high-molecular-weight parent molecules such as pyrene and phenanthrene; alkylated derivatives are minor constituents. The aromatic fractions also contain a large unresolved complex mixture (UCM). The presence of high-molecular-weight PAH (e.g., benzo-pyrene, indeno-pyrene) reflects formation at high temperatures compared to conventional petroleum. Microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses of the soluble organic fraction from three tar samples reveal the following concentrations: 0.1 to 0.2 wt% S, 1 to 10 ppm Mg, Al, P, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Ba, 1 to 100 ppb Pd and Pt, and 1 to 10 ppb Au. The insoluble residues separated from these samples, analyzed by scanning

  10. Analysis of Subsidence Data for the Bryan Mound Site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.

    1999-07-01

    The elevation change data measured at the Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site over the last 16+ years has been studied and a model utilized to project elevation changes into the future. The subsidence rate at Bryan Mound is low in comparison with other Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites and has decreased with time due to the maintenance of higher operating pressures and the normal decrease in creep closure rate of caverns with time. However, the subsidence at the site is projected to continue. A model was developed to project subsidence values 20 years into the future; no subsidence related issues are apparent from these projections.

  11. Shallow water mud-mounds of the Early Devonian Buchan Group, East Gippsland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosolini, A.-M. P.; Wallace, M. W.; Gallagher, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Lower Devonian Rocky Camp Member of the Murrindal Limestone, Buchan Group of southeastern Australia consists of a series of carbonate mud-mounds and smaller lagoonal bioherms. The Rocky Camp mound is the best exposed of the mud-mounds and has many characteristics in common with Waulsortian (Carboniferous) mounds. Detailed paleoecological and sedimentological studies indicate that the mound initially accumulated in the photic zone, in contrast to most of the previously recorded mud-mounds. Five facies are present in the mud-mound: a Dasycladacean Wackestone Facies at the base of the mound represents a moderate energy, shallow water bank environment within the photic zone. A Crinioidal Wackestone Facies was deposited in a laterally equivalent foreslope setting. A Poriferan-Crinoidal Mudstone Facies developed in a quiet, deeper water, lee-side mound setting associated with a minor relative sea-level rise. A Stromatoporoid-Coralline Packstone Facies in the upper part of the mound deposited in a high-energy, fair-weather wave base, mound-front environment. The crest of the mound is represented by a Crinoidal-Receptaculitid Packstone Facies indicative of a moderate-energy mound-top environment in the photic zone, sheltered by the mound-front stromatoporoid-coral communities. A mound flank facies is present on the southern side of the mound and this consists of high-energy crinoidal grainstones. Mud-mound deposition was terminated by a transgression that deposited dark gray, fossil-poor marl of the overlying Taravale Formation. The Rocky Camp mound appears to have originated in shallow water photic zone conditions and grew into a high-energy environment, with the mound being eventually colonized by corals and stromatoporoids. The indications of a high-energy environment during later mound growth (growth form of colonial metazoans and grainstones of the flanking facies) suggest that the micrite in the mound was autochthonous and implies the presence of an energy

  12. The Gale Crater Mound in a Regional Geologic Setting: Mapping and Probing Surrounding Outcrops for Areas Akin to the Central Mound at Gale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korn, Lisa; Allen, Carlton

    2013-01-01

    There are several hypotheses on the origin of Gale Crater s central mound. These include ground water upwelling [1], aeolian, ice, volcanic [1-3], lacustrine [1-3], hydrothermal [1-3], and polar deposits [2]. The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, landed in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012. It is currently analyzing samples along its traverse towards a channel and layered deposits that will provide insight into the sedimentary history of the crater [4]. Located at 5S, 138E, Gale is a 155km diameter, Late Noachian/Early Hesperian crater. It is situated along the southern highlands/northern lowlands dichotomy boundary and contains a central mound that rises approximately 5km from the crater floor [1]. The highest parts of Mt. Sharp are higher than the northern rim, but are roughly the same height as the southern rim. Mt. Sharp is divided into an upper mound and a lower mound, which are separated by an erosional unconformity [2]. The lower mound s sequences span the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian Epoch [1], while the upper mound s age is poorly constrained. The lower mound s sequences feature parallel beds of varying thickness, albedo, texture, and dip angle that are eroded into channels and yardangs [2]. The upper mound has finer layers at higher angles [1] with yardangs, serrated erosional patterns, and lobate features [3]. The lower mound also exhibits an upward progression of phyllosilicate to sulfate rich sediments, contrasting the upper mound s lack of hydrated minerals [4].

  13. Texas 4-H Agents' Perceptions of Selected Competencies in the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Wingenbach, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    There are many competencies necessary for success as a 4-H agent. The 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies (PRKC) Model organizes competencies into six domains: (a) Youth Development, (b) Youth Program Development, (c) Volunteerism, (d) Partnerships, (e) Organizational Systems, and (f) Equity, Access and Opportunity (National 4-H…

  14. Structures and Energetics of Defects: A Comparative Study of 3C- and 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Posselt, Matthias; Belko, V; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2004-05-01

    The structures, formation energies and stable configurations of elementary defects (vacancies, antisite defects and self interstitials) in 3C- and 4H-SiC are studied using classical molecular dynamics simulation with a recently developed interatomic potential. The defect structures in 3C-SiC are relatively simple, but those in 4H-SiC are more complicated. The interstitials between hexagonal and trigonal rings are characteristic for 4H-SiC and other hexagonal polytypes, but not for 3C-SiC. The number of non-equivalent defects in 4H-SiC is much higher than that in 3C-SiC, and a considerable difference is found for some complex and anisotropic defects, in particular for the dumbbells D1Si-Si, D1Si-C and D2Si-C. The lattice deformation beyond the first nearest neighbor shell, which depends strongly on the polytype structure, plays an important role on these effects. However, the polytypism does not have a significant influence on the structure and energetics of the more compact and isotropic defects, such as vacancies and antisite defects. Despite the complexity of defect configurations, the tetrahedral interstitials have very similar properties in 3C- and 4H-SiC because their first, second and third nearest neighbor shells are identical.

  15. Radiocarbon dating of large termite mounds of the miombo woodland of Katanga, DR Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erens, Hans; Boudin, Mathieu; Mees, Florias; Dumon, Mathijs; Mujinya, Basile; Van Strydonck, Mark; Baert, Geert; Boeckx, Pascal; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The miombo woodlands of South Katanga (D.R. Congo) are characterized by a high spatial density of large conic termite mounds built by Macrotermes falciger (3 to 5 ha-1, ~5 m high, ~15 m in diameter). The time it takes for these mounds to attain this size is still largely unknown. In this study, the age of four of these mounds is determined by 14C-dating the acid-insoluble organic carbon fraction of samples taken along the central vertical axis of two active and two abandoned mounds. The age sequence in the active mounds is erratic, but the results for the abandoned mounds show a logical increase of 14C-age with depth. The ages measured at 50 cm above ground level were 2335 - 2119 cal yr BP for the large abandoned mound (630 cm high), and 796 - 684 cal yr BP for the small abandoned mound (320 cm high). Cold-water-extractable organic carbon (CWEOC) measurements combined with spectroscopic analysis revealed that the lower parts of the active mounds may have been contaminated with recent carbon that leached from the active nest. Nonetheless, this method appears to provide reliable age estimates of large, abandoned termite mounds, which are older than previously estimated. Furthermore, historical mound growth rates seem to correspond to past temperature changes, suggesting a relation between past environmental conditions and mound occupancy. Keywords : 14C, water-extractable carbon, low-temperature combustion

  16. Monthly fluctuation of termite caste proportions (Isoptera) within fire ant mounds (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Treesearch

    Thomas G. Shelton; J.T. Vogt; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel

    2003-01-01

    Monthly abundance and caste proportions of subterranean termites (Reticulitennes spp.) inhabiting red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) mounds were recorded during 1999 and 2000 from a relatively undisturbed forest edge in Tuskegee, Alabama. Temperature data were also recorded at these mounds; mean air, soil, and mound temperatures followed a sine model over...

  17. Test fire environmental testing operations at Mound Applied Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes Mound Laboratory`s environmental testing operations. The function of environmental testing is to perform quality environmental (thermal, mechanical, spin, resistance, visual) testing/conditioning of inert/explosive products to assure their compliance with specified customer acceptance criteria. Capabilities, organization, equipment specifications, and test facilities are summarized.

  18. Spirit Mound at Edge of Endeavour Crater, Mars Enhanced Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-07

    This scene from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows "Spirit Mound" overlooking the floor of Endeavour Crater. The mound stands near the eastern end of "Bitterroot Valley" on the western rim of the crater, and this view faces eastward. In this version of the scene the landscape is presented in enhanced color to make differences in surface materials more easily visible For scale, the two rocks at lower center are each about 8 inches (about 20 centimeters) across. At the mound's crest line, the image covers an area about 28 feet (about 8.5 meters) wide. The component images for this mosaic were taken on Sept. 21, 2016, during the 4,501st Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's work on Mars. Exposures were taken through three of the Pancam's color filters, centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers (near-infrared), 535 nanometers (green) and 432 nanometers (violet). The informal name the rover's science team chose for this feature refers to Spirit Mound in South Dakota. The team is using names of sites visited by the Lewis and Clark Expedition as informal names for features in Mars' Bitterroot Valley (named for a valley that the expedition visited in Montana). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20852

  19. Spirit Mound at Edge of Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-07

    This scene from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows "Spirit Mound" overlooking the floor of Endeavour Crater. The mound stands near the eastern end of "Bitterroot Valley" on the western rim of the crater, and this view faces eastward. For scale, the two rocks at lower center are each about 8 inches (about 20 centimeters) across. At the mound's crest line, the image covers an area about 28 feet (about 8.5 meters) wide. The component images for this mosaic were taken on Sept. 21, 2016, during the 4,501st Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's work on Mars. Exposures were taken through three of the Pancam's color filters, centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers (near-infrared), 535 nanometers (green) and 432 nanometers (violet). The scene is presented here in approximately true color. The informal name the rover's science team chose for this feature refers to Spirit Mound in South Dakota. The team is using names of sites visited by the Lewis and Clark Expedition as informal names for features in Mars' Bitterroot Valley (named for a valley that the expedition visited in Montana). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20851

  20. 28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building on right, Minnesota Department of Transportation communication tower in center, and Minnesota Bureau of Mines wind tunnel on left, looking southwest toward launch pad area - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  1. Spirit Mound at Edge of Endeavour Crater, Mars (Anaglyph)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-07

    This stereo scene from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows "Spirit Mound" overlooking the floor of Endeavour Crater. The mound stands near the eastern end of "Bitterroot Valley" on the western rim of the crater, and this view faces eastward. The image combines views from the left eye and right eye of the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam) to appear three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses with the red lens on the left. The component images were taken on Sept. 21, 2016, during the 4,501st Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's work on Mars For scale, the two rocks at lower center are each about 8 inches (about 20 centimeters) across. At the mound's crest line, the image covers an area about 28 feet (about 8.5 meters) wide. The informal name the rover's science team chose for this feature refers to Spirit Mound in South Dakota. The team is using names of sites visited by the Lewis and Clark Expedition as informal names for features in Mars' Bitterroot Valley (named for a valley that the expedition visited in Montana). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20853

  2. Stable isotopes sales: Mound customer and shipment summaries, FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Flayler, K.A.

    1987-12-15

    A listing is given of Mound's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, deuterium, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, and sulfur for fiscal year 1985. Purchasers are listed alphabetically and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross-reference index by location is included for domestic and foreign customers. Cross-reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers.

  3. Stable isotope sales: Mound customer and shipment summaries, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, L.R.; Flayler, K.A.

    1988-05-20

    A listing is given of Mound's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur for fiscal year 1986. Purchasers are listed alphabetically and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. Cross-reference indexes by location and by isotope are included for all customers. 3 tabs.

  4. 32. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Overall view taken from top of water storage mound showing building 154, missile assembly building in center, and building 161, fallout shelter in lower right corner, looking west - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  5. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE EARTH MOUND USED TO ENCASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE EARTH MOUND USED TO ENCASE THE INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL TANKS AND PROTECT EQUIPMENT. NOTE THE TEST STAND IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. Sodium diffusion in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Linnarsson, M. K. Hallén, A.

    2014-09-01

    Sodium diffusion has been studied in p-type 4H-SiC. Heat treatments have been performed from 1200 °C to 1800 °C for 1 min to 4 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to measure the sodium distribution. We show that sodium has a considerable mobility at 1200 °C in p-type 4H-SiC. On the other hand for sodium atoms trapped at suitable sites the mobility is limited up to 1800 °C. Trap limited diffusion kinetics is suggested and an effective diffusivity has been extracted with an activation energy of 4 eV for sodium diffusion in p-type 4H-SiC.

  7. Beaufort Sea deep-water gas hydrate recovery from a seafloor mound in a region of widespread BSR occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Patrick E.; Pohlman, John W.; Lorenson, T.D.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate was recovered from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay in August 2010 during a U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy expedition (USCG cruise ID HLY1002) under the direction of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Interpretation of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected in 1977 by the USGS across the Beaufort Sea continental margin identified a regional bottom simulating reflection (BSR), indicating that a large segment of the Beaufort Sea slope is underlain by gas hydrate. During HLY1002, gas hydrate was sampled by serendipity with a piston core targeting a steep-sided bathymetric high originally thought to be an outcrop of older, exposed strata. The feature cored is an approximately 1100m diameter, 130 m high conical mound, referred to here as the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM), which overlies the crest of a buried anticline in a region of sub-parallel compressional folds beneath the eastern Beaufort outer slope. An MCS profile shows a prominent BSR upslope and downslope from the mound. The absence of a BSR beneath the CSM and occurrence of gas hydrate near the summit indicates that free gas has migrated via deep-rooted thrust faults or by structural focusing up the flanks of the anticline to the seafloor. Gas hydrate recovered from near the CSM summit at a subbottom depth of about 5.7 meters in a water depth of 2538 m was of nodular and vein-filling morphology. Although the hydrate was not preserved, residual gas from the core liner contained >95% methane by volume when corrected for atmospheric contamination. The presence of trace C4+hydrocarbons (<0.1% by volume) confirms at least a minor thermogenic component. Authigenic carbonates and mollusk shells found throughout the core indicate sustained methane-rich fluid advection and possible sediment extrusion contributing to the development of the mound. Blister-like inflation of the seafloor caused by formation and accumulation of shallow hydrate lenses is also a likely factor in CSM

  8. The West Melilla cold water coral mounds, Eastern Alboran Sea: Morphological characterization and environmental context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Iacono, Claudio; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Ranero, Cesar R.; Emelianov, Mikhail; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Bartolomé, Rafael; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Prades, Javier; Ambroso, Stefano; Dominguez, Carlos; Grinyó, Jordi; Rubio, Eduardo; Torrent, Josep

    2014-01-01

    A new mound field, the West Melilla mounds, interpreted as being cold-water coral mounds, has been recently unveiled along the upper slope of the Mediterranean Moroccan continental margin, a few kilometers west of the Cape Tres Forcas. This study is based on the integration of high-resolution geophysical data (swath bathymetry, parametric sub-bottom profiler), CTD casts, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), ROV video and seafloor sampling, acquired during the TOPOMED GASSIS (2011) and MELCOR (2012) cruises. Up to 103 mounds organized in two main clusters have been recognized in a depth range of 299-590 m, displaying a high density of 5 mounds/km2. Mounds, 1-48 m high above the surrounding seafloor and on average 260 m wide, are actually buried by a 1-12 m thick fine-grained sediment blanket. Seismic data suggest that the West Melilla mounds grew throughout the Early Pleistocene-Holocene, settling on erosive unconformities and mass movement deposits. During the last glacial-interglacial transition, the West Melilla mounds may have suffered a drastic change of the local sedimentary regime during the late Holocene and, unable to stand increasing depositional rates, were progressively buried. At the present day, temperature and salinity values on the West Melilla mounds suggest a plausible oceanographic setting, suitable for live CWCs. Nonetheless, more data is required to groundtruth the West Melilla mounds and better constrain the interplay of sedimentary and oceanographic factors during the evolution of the West Melilla mounds.

  9. Growth and form of the mound in Gale Crater, Mars: Slope wind enhanced erosion and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Lamb, Michael P.; Newman, Claire E.; Richardson, Mark I.

    2013-05-01

    Ancient sediments provide archives of climate and habitability on Mars. Gale Crater, the landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), hosts a 5-km-high sedimentary mound (Mount Sharp/Aeolis Mons). Hypotheses for mound formation include evaporitic, lacustrine, fluviodeltaic, and aeolian processes, but the origin and original extent of Gale’s mound is unknown. Here we show new measurements of sedimentary strata within the mound that indicate ˜3° outward dips oriented radially away from the mound center, inconsistent with the first three hypotheses. Moreover, although mounds are widely considered to be erosional remnants of a once crater-filling unit, we find that the Gale mound’s current form is close to its maximal extent. Instead we propose that the mound’s structure, stratigraphy, and current shape can be explained by growth in place near the center of the crater mediated by wind-topography feedbacks. Our model shows how sediment can initially accrete near the crater center far from crater-wall katabatic winds, until the increasing relief of the resulting mound generates mound-flank slope winds strong enough to erode the mound. The slope wind enhanced erosion and transport (SWEET) hypothesis indicates mound formation dominantly by aeolian deposition with limited organic carbon preservation potential, and a relatively limited role for lacustrine and fluvial activity. Morphodynamic feedbacks between wind and topography are widely applicable to a range of sedimentary and ice mounds across the Martian surface, and possibly other planets.

  10. How cold-water coral mounds modify their physical environment and therefore influence reef development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Lavaleye, M.; van Haren, H.; Mohn, C.; Cyr, F.

    2015-12-01

    Cold-water coral framework acts as a sediment trap and as a result kilometres long and up to 360m high mound structures have formed on the SE Rockall Bank. Earlier observations showed that most of the mounds have their summits around 550 m water depth and summits have been reported as being covered with living coral. Pelagia cruises in 2012 and 2013 revealed completely new insights in mound development. Video transects across mounds with different morphology showed that summits of the highest and largest mounds are presently not covered by living coral as opposed to smaller and lower mounds which are covered with a thriving living coral framework. Measurements in the water column with CTD and near-bottom with benthic landers and thermistor string showed that turbulence is likely the most important factor influencing nutrient and food supply and thus coral growth. It seems that the large mounds have outgrown themselves and that their relatively large size and flat summits are limiting turbulence, thereby limiting oxygen, nutrient and food replenishment. Redistribution of nutrients, oxygen and food is vital for ecosystem functioning and reef development. The presence of a healthy coral cover on the summits of the small mounds was also shown by the vertical mound growth rate measured in sediment cores. These showed fourfold higher sedimentation rates during the Holocene on small mounds compared to highest mounds.

  11. Diversity of fungi from the mound nests of Formica ulkei and adjacent non-nest soils.

    PubMed

    Duff, Lyndon B; Urichuk, Theresa M; Hodgins, Lisa N; Young, Jocelyn R; Untereiner, Wendy A

    2016-07-01

    Culture-based methods were employed to recover 3929 isolates of fungi from soils collected in May and July 2014 from mound nests of Formica ulkei and adjacent non-nest sites. The abundance, diversity, and richness of species from nest mounds exceeded those of non-mound soils, particularly in July. Communities of fungi from mounds were more similar to those from mounds than non-mounds; this was also the case for non-mound soils with the exception of one non-mound site in July. Species of Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were dominant in nest soils and represented up to 81.8% of the taxa recovered. Members of the genus Aspergillus accounted for the majority of Trichocomaceae from nests and were represented almost exclusively by Aspergillus navahoensis and Aspergillus pseudodeflectus. Dominant fungi from non-mound sites included Cladosporium cladosporioides, Geomyces pannorum, and species of Acremonium, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Phoma. Although mound nests were warmer than adjacent soils, the dominance of xerotolerant Aspergillus in soils from mounds and the isolation of the majority of Trichocomaceae at 25 and 35 °C suggests that both temperature and water availability may be determinants of fungal community structure in nests of F. ulkei.

  12. Are termite mounds biofilters for methane? - Challenges and new approaches to quantify methane oxidation in termite mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauer, Philipp A.; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Bristow, Mila; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2015-04-01

    Methane emissions from termites contribute around 3% to global methane in the atmosphere, although the total source estimate for termites is the most uncertain among all sources. In tropical regions, the relative source contribution of termites can be far higher due to the high biomass and relative importance of termites in plant decomposition. Past research focused on net emission measurements and their variability, but little is known about underlying processes governing these emissions. In particular, microbial oxidation of methane (MOX) within termite mounds has rarely been investigated. In well-studied ecosystems featuring an oxic matrix above an anoxic methane-producing habitat (e.g. landfills or sediments), the fraction of oxidized methane (fox) can reach up to 90% of gross production. However, conventional mass-balance approaches to apportion production and consumption processes can be challenging to apply in the complex-structured and almost inaccessible environment of a termite mound. In effect, all field-based data on termite-mound MOX is based on one study that measured isotopic shifts in produced and emitted methane. In this study a closed-system isotope fractionation model was applied and estimated fox ranged from 10% to almost 100%. However, it is shown here that by applying an open-system isotope-pool model, the measured isotopic shifts can also be explained by physical transport of methane alone. Different field-based methods to quantify MOX in termite mounds are proposed which do not rely on assumptions of physical gas transport. A simple approach is the use of specific inhibitors for MOX, e.g. difluoromethane (CH2F2), combined with chamber-based flux measurements before and after their application. Data is presented on the suitability of different inhibitors and first results of their application in the field. Alternatively, gas-tracer methods allow the quantification of methane oxidation and reaction kinetics without knowledge of physical gas

  13. Seeing Below the Surface with Electrical Resistivity Tomography: Exploring the Deepest Reaches of Arkansas' Tallest Prehistoric Mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer-Dauphinee, James

    Despite decades of research and over a century of public interest, the most prominent features at Toltec Mounds Archeological State Park, Mound A and Mound B, remain virtually unexamined by modern archaeological techniques, and poorly understood. The tremendous scale and importance of these mounds makes most standard research methods difficult if not impossible. Electrical Resistivity Tomography, a geophysical technique rarely used in North America, was employed to survey both Mound A and Mound B, resulting in models of the subsurface that provide insights into the construction, modification and condition of the mounds.

  14. Anomalous Strain Relaxation in Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures via Simultaneous Coherent and Incoherent Growth.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan B; Nicolai, Lars; Küpers, Hanno; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Trampert, Achim; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2017-01-11

    Nanoscale substrates such as nanowires allow heterostructure design to venture well beyond the narrow lattice mismatch range restricting planar heterostructures, owing to misfit strain relaxing at the free surfaces and partitioning throughout the entire nanostructure. In this work, we uncover a novel strain relaxation process in GaAs/InxGa1-xAs core-shell nanowires that is a direct result of the nanofaceted nature of these nanostructures. Above a critical lattice mismatch, plastically relaxed mounds form at the edges of the nanowire sidewall facets. The relaxed mounds and a coherent shell grow simultaneously from the beginning of the deposition with higher lattice mismatches increasingly favoring incoherent mound growth. This is in stark contrast to Stranski-Krastanov growth, where above a critical thickness coherent layer growth no longer occurs. This study highlights how understanding strain relaxation in lattice mismatched nanofaceted heterostructures is essential for designing devices based on these nanostructures.

  15. Electronic structure and electrochemical properties of the h4-h8 bis (cyclooctatetraene) vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebant, P.; Legendre, J. J.; Gourier, D.; Samuel, E.

    1995-04-01

    The h4-h8 bis (cyclooctatetraene) vanadium is a ``sandwich'' complex with 17 électrons on the external shell of the metallic atom. It presents two types of carbon-vanadium bonding. One cycle is bonded to the metal by eight carbon atoms, the other one by four carbon atoms only. EPR and ENDOR measurements have shown that this complex exhibits a strong fluxionality in frozen solution down to 30°K. Moreover, cyclic voltametry experiments reveals two oxydation waves. This fact is suprising since the number of electrons in the external shell of such oxydized complexes move away from 18. A study of the geometries and the electronic structures of these complexes has been undertaken using a local density functional technique. These results have been checked by comparison with data obtained from X-ray diffraction and ENDOR spectra: the optimized geometries are very close to what is found in the solid state and the existence of two types of V-carbon bonds is confirmed. Moreover the spin densities calculated for hydrogen atoms by LDF fairly coincide with ENDOR data. The LDF study of V(cot)+2 and V(cot)++2 cations allowed an interpretation of the existence of the two oxydation waves: a structural and electronic modification of the complex occurs that maintains close to 18 the number of electrons in the vanadium external shell.

  16. Slope selection of mounds with permeable steps in homoepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korutcheva, Elka; Koroutchev, Kostadin; Markov, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    We study the growth of mounds representing stacks of monolayer islands in homoepitaxy assuming terrace-edge-kink mechanism of attachment of atoms to kink sites and allowing a permeability of the single steps. We show that the latter can result in slope selection of the growing mounds at comparatively small values of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier to down-step diffusion. The value of the permeability coefficient at which a slope selection occurs is always very close to the upper limit for complete step permeability. The latter is in agreement with the row-by-row mechanism of step propagation at which the steps are kink-free for most of the time.

  17. Mound cyclone incinerator. Volume I. Description and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-12-22

    The Mound cyclone incinerator was developed to fill a need for a simple, relaible incinerator for volume reduction of dry solid waste contaminated with plutonium-238. Although the basic design of the incinerator is for batch burning of solid combustible waste, the incinerator has also been adapted to volume reduction of other waste forms. Specialized waste feeding equipment enables continuous burning of both solid and liquid waste, including full scintillation vials. Modifications to the incinerator offgas system enable burning of waste contaminated with isotopes other than plutonium-238. This document presents the design and performance characteristics of the Mound Cyclone Incinerator for incineration of both solid and liquid waste. Suggestions are included for adaptation of the incinerator to specialized waste materials.

  18. Reef mounds indicate timing of hydrocarbon charge off Seychelles

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, P.

    1998-07-06

    Carbonate mounds developed on Coetivy Bank and the northern Seychelles Plateau appear to have formed in response to pulses of hydrocarbon fluid migration along underlying faults during the late Paleocene and late Eocene. Gas chimneys emanating from these mounds are evident on seismic data, while gas sniffer and/or UV fluorescence anomalies have been recorded in the overlying waters. Such a combination of hydrocarbon anomalies is indicative of minor active gas seepage and confirms the prospectivity of these features and their underlying sequences. Recently it has also been realized that both authigenic and biogenic carbonates proliferate above faults from which hydrocarbon seepage occurs, forming chemosynthetic reefs. When identified on seismic data, such reef/fault associations constitute seismic hydrocarbon indicators (SHIs), and the reefs/faults off Seychelles have been interpreted as SHIs. This paper discusses the geology, source rocks, thermal history, and chemosynthetic reefs.

  19. Effects of bannertail kangaroo rat mounds on small-scale plant community structure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinfeng

    1996-04-01

    The effects of bannertail kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) mounds and associated soil-surface disturbance on plant species composition and diversity in the Chihuahuan Desert were examined with multivariate analysis. Kangaroo rat mounds created disturbance gaps and contributed to local species diversity by creating microhabitats that supported unique plant communities. These microhabitats supported populations of species that were relatively rare in surrounding areas. The diversity observed at the whole habitat level resulted from (1) local spatial heterogeneity, because the mounds offered microenvironments with distinctive nutrient, water, and light conditions; and (2) local patterning of disturbance, because the digging and traffic of the kangaroo rats maintained high levels of soil disturbance at and near the mounds. At a finer scale, species diversity was highest in the area immediately adjacent to active and inactive mounds, and was lower on both the highly disturbed soil of the mounds and in the relatively undisturbed area between mounds. Lowest species diversity occurred on inactive mounds. Annual plant biomass was much greater on mounds than in inter-mound areas. The results support the predictions that intermediate levels of disturbance and small-scale environmental heterogeneity contribute to supporting high species diversity.

  20. Apollo 12 Mission image - View of lunar surface mound

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6832 (19 Nov. 1969) --- A close-up view of a lunar mound as photographed during the Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Apollo 12 Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon.

  1. Apollo 12 Mission image - View of lunar surface mound

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6825 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Close-up view of a lunar rock, small crater, and lunar mound as photographed during the Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Apollo 12 Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon.

  2. Transient solutions to groundwater mounding in bounded and unbounded aquifers.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the well-known Hantush solution procedure for groundwater mounding under infinitely long infiltration strips is extended to finite and semi-infinite aquifer cases. Initially, the solution for infinite aquifers is presented and compared to those available in literature and to the numerical results of MODFLOW. For the finite aquifer case, the method of images, which is commonly used in well hydraulics, is used to be able to represent the constant-head boundaries at both sides. It is shown that a finite number of images is enough to obtain the results and sustain the steady state. The effect of parameters on the growth of the mound and on the time required to reach the steady state is investigated. The semi-infinite aquifer case is emphasized because the growth of the mound is not symmetric. As the constant-head boundary limits the growth, the unbounded side grows continuously. For this reason, the groundwater divide shifts toward the unbounded side. An iterative solution procedure is proposed. To perform the necessary computations a code was written in Visual Basic of which the algorithm is presented. The proposed methodology has a wide range of applicability and this is demonstrated using two practical examples. The first one is mounding under a stormwater dispersion trench in an infinite aquifer and the other is infiltration from a flood control channel into a semi-infinite aquifer. Results fit very well with those of MODFLOW. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  3. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies payroll system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-07

    EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc., manages and operates the Mound Facility, Miamisburg, Ohio, under a cost-plus-award-fee contract administered by the Department of Energy`s Albuquerque Field Office. The contractor`s Payroll Department is responsible for prompt payment in the proper amount to all persons entitled to be paid, in compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and legal decisions. The objective was to determine whether controls were in place to avoid erroneous payroll payments. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc., did not have all the internal controls required by General Accounting Office Title 6, ``Pay, Leave, and Allowances.`` Specifically, they did not have computerized edits, separation of duties and responsibilities, and restricted access to payroll data files. This condition occurred because its managers were not aware of Title 6 requirements. As a result, the contractor could not assure the Department of Energy that payroll costs were processes accurately; and fraud, waste, or abuse of Department of Energy funds could go undetected. Our sample of 212 payroll transactions from a population of 66,000 in FY 1991 disclosed only two minor processing errors and no instances of fraud, waste or abuse.

  4. Keys To The Kansas Environment. 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service.

    The 4-H Club packet for preschool and elementary school children contains nine "keys", or short learning exercises, designed to enrich science and environmental education both in and out of the classroom. Each "key" includes the purpose of the activity, the intended audience, the best time of the year for the activity,…

  5. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 3 (ages 15-19) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) determining ways to reduce energy waste with hot water heaters; (2) making personal choices about using appliances; (3) conducting a…

  6. "Ohio 4-H CARTEENS": Peer Intervention Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropper, Rebecca J.

    1999-01-01

    Ohio 4-H's CARTEENS seeks to reduce juvenile traffic violations in a program designed and presented by teen peer educators with guidance and technical assistance from the state highway patrol. Teens examined court data to determine content, which includes defensive driving, rural road safety, and dealing with peer pressure. (SK)

  7. A Phenomenological Look at 4-H Volunteer Motives for Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…

  8. Textile Science Leader's Guide. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This instructor's guide provides an overview of 4-H student project modules in the textile sciences area. The guide includes short notes explaining how to use the project modules, a flowchart chart showing how the project areas are sequenced, a synopsis of the design and content of the modules, and some program planning tips. For each of the…

  9. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 3 (ages 15-19) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) determining ways to reduce energy waste with hot water heaters; (2) making personal choices about using appliances; (3) conducting a…

  10. CONSERVING OUR NATURAL RESOURCES, A 4-H LEADER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMICK, W. ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    AN EFFECTIVE 4-H CONSERVATION PROGRAM IS DEVELOPED AROUND THE FOLLOWING BASIC CONCEPTS--(1) MAN IS A PART OF THE NATURAL WORLD, IN WHICH THERE ARE MANY VALUABLE MATERIALS, (2) MAN HAS LEARNED TO USE MANY OF THOSE MATERIALS FOR HUMAN SUSTENANCE AND BETTERMENT, AND (3) MAN'S ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND GENERAL WELFARE IS LARGELY DEPENDENT UPON THE MANNER…

  11. Keys To The Kansas Environment. 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service.

    The 4-H Club packet for preschool and elementary school children contains nine "keys", or short learning exercises, designed to enrich science and environmental education both in and out of the classroom. Each "key" includes the purpose of the activity, the intended audience, the best time of the year for the activity,…

  12. The Evaluation Attitudes and Practices of 4-H Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Bennett, Amanda M.

    2011-01-01

    Extension educators are expected to conduct program evaluation. An Internet survey was sent to county 4-H educators in Ohio to examine their evaluation attitudes and practices, as well as barriers to conducting evaluation. Respondents indicated a range of attitudes about evaluation and limited use of different designs and methods. Having enough…

  13. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 2 (ages 12-14) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) a word search of energy-related words (with definitions provided); (2) determining fuel waste; (3) reading electric/gas meters and…

  14. "Ohio 4-H CARTEENS": Peer Intervention Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropper, Rebecca J.

    1999-01-01

    Ohio 4-H's CARTEENS seeks to reduce juvenile traffic violations in a program designed and presented by teen peer educators with guidance and technical assistance from the state highway patrol. Teens examined court data to determine content, which includes defensive driving, rural road safety, and dealing with peer pressure. (SK)

  15. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  16. A Phenomenological Look at 4-H Volunteer Motives for Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…

  17. Effectiveness of the Indiana 4-H Tractor Program: Alumni Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrabba, James J., Jr.; Talbert, B. Allen; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Responses from Indiana 4-H tractor driving contestants 1982-197 (n=139) showed that 74% were employed on farms; most felt the contests effectively taught tractor safety and made them generally aware of safety. However, many still engaged in risky behaviors such as not wearing seatbelts in tractors with rollover protective structures or allowing…

  18. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 2 (ages 12-14) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) a word search of energy-related words (with definitions provided); (2) determining fuel waste; (3) reading electric/gas meters and…

  19. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  20. New Jersey 4-H Marine Science Project. Leaders Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesuncosky, Betty Jean, Comp.

    This guide contains a collection of activities which are designed to provide opportunities for 4-H voluteers and youth in New Jersey to get involved in learning about the marine environment. The guide is divided into five sections which deal with habitats, organisms, career exploration, community involvement, and additional marine activities. Each…

  1. South Carolina's Model for Initiating Hispanic 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Robert; Rembert, Kellye

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, through the initiative of several county Extension agents, South Carolina 4-H has established a successful model for bringing Hispanic youth into our program. We have found the most effective method is to initiate contact and establish partnerships with the principals and ESOL instructors in the local schools. Through this…

  2. Implementing and Assessing 4-H Educational Activity Kits for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Yeske, Janine; Zimmer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Educational activity kits were developed and implemented through a statewide effort for 4-H Youth Development Extension programs serving 5-8 year-old children. The purpose of the kits was to promote life skills in children and assess the learning environment. Data was collected based on the observations of 577 children across 22 counties. Findings…

  3. Self-Protection: A New Approach to 4-H Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sharon K. B.

    This document introduces the issue of self-protection as the Minnesota 4-H Youth Development response to self-destructive behavior among adolescents. It presents findings from a statewide survey of over 36,000 secondary school students using the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. Responses are given in the areas of health, school attitudes,…

  4. McDonnell F4-H1 Airplane Rocket Model

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1957-12-23

    L57-2809 Rocket model of McDonnell F4-H1 airplane on Terrier launcher with Nike booster, June 17, 1957. Photograph published in A New Dimension Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years by Joseph Shortal. A NASA publication. Page 500.

  5. Fashion Revue. 4-H Textile Science Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This publication was developed to help students participating in Fashion Review, a 4-H event in which students model a clothing outfit and accessories and are judged on their modeling ability, their presentation, and how well the clothing and accessory choices complement the students' skin tones, hair color, figure or physique, personality, and…

  6. Using Cold-water Coral Mini-mounds as Analogue for Giant Mound Growth: Assessment of Environmental Drivers and Anthropogenic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collart, T.; Stewart, H. A.; Howell, K.; Bourillet, J. F.; Llave, E.; Blamart, D.; Mienis, F.; Van Rooij, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are formed by framework building scleratinians Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata that baffle sediment and over time, have the potential to develop into large coral mounds of up to 300m high (e.g. Belgica Mound Province). The detailed mechanisms of initiation and build-up of such large CWC mounds are however not yet fully understood. It is therefore essential to study smaller mounds (often termed "mini-mounds") that can be interpreted as earlier growth stages that haven't had the time to coalesce and develop into larger mounds. The FWO Minimound project (2013-2017) aims to investigate CWC mini-mounds within the Bay of Biscay (European Margin) in order to determine the impact of: (1) palaeoceanographic changes related to glacial-interglacial climate change in the last 15 ka, (2) hydrocarbon seepage processes and (3) anthropogenic fishing activities on CWC habitats. The project targets three minimound provinces: the Ferrol Canyon (Cantabrian Margin), the Guilvinec Canyon (Armorican Margin) and the Explorer and Dangeard Canyons (Celtic Margin). These mini-mounds are fossil and occur at relative shallow depths on the interface between the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) and the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW). Contrastingly, most living CWC reefs in this region of the Atlantic, dwell in the deeper MOW depth range, relying on the density and dynamics of this water mass for their food supply. In order to investigate the initiation, growth and demise of CWC mini-mounds, 35m of USBL guided sediment cores were retrieved from the Explorer and Dangeard Interfluves. We present data of sedimentological, geochemical and palaeoceanographic analyses throughout the cores, coupled with high-resolution geophysical data. Preliminary results indicate that the mound base is associated with a strong shift in sedimentation regime potentially linked to climate driven palaeoceanographic changes of the MOW-ENACW interface.

  7. [Distribution of Formica cunicularia mound and related affecting factors on mobile dune in Horqin sandy land].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhao, Xue-Yong

    2009-02-01

    Taking the typical mobile dune in Horqin sandy land as test object, the density, diameter, and coverage of Formica cunicularia mounds on different land forms were investigated by quadrate method, with the spatial distribution of F. cunicularia mounds and the effects of topography and soil property on F. cunicularia nest-building activities discussed. The results showed that the density of F. cunicularia mounds decreased in the order of ridge > leeward slope > windward slope, while the diameter and coverage of the mounds were in the order of ridge > windward slope > leeward slope and conditioned by mound density. The spatial distribution of F. cunicularia mounds was in random pattern. Topography and soil property co-affected the nest-building activities of F. cunicularia.

  8. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  9. YA4-H! Youth Advocates for Health: Impact of a 4-H Teens-as-Teachers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mary E.; Flesch, Jeffrey M.; Ashton, Carolyn; Black, Lynette; Brody, Barbara; Hosty, Maureen; Northway, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of an evaluation of the YA4-H! Youth Advocates for Health--Teens as Teachers program. Consistent with previous research on the impact of teen teaching, the teens participating in the program gained confidence and skill with regard to teaching younger youths. The program also affected the teens' understanding that…

  10. Starting and Maintaining a Marine Aquarium: 4-H Members Guide [and] 4-H Member's Project Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    The guide and the project record book included in this document are designed for 4-H members who would like to start a salt-water aquarium project. The guide includes the following topics: (1) general requirements for salt-water aquariums; (2) directions for making an aquarium; (3) suggestions for where to locate it; (4) pros and cons of using…

  11. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  12. Water Worlds. 4-H Member's Guide M-5-18; 4-H Leaders Guide L-5-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; And Others

    This pocket folder of materials is designed to provide children aged 9 to 12 with an opportunity to explore and observe aquatic environments. The package includes a 4-H Leader's guide, member's guide, and supplementary materials. The leader's guide contains safety considerations, tips and techniques, and additional activities for getting started…

  13. Water Worlds. 4-H Member's Guide M-5-18; 4-H Leaders Guide L-5-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; And Others

    This pocket folder of materials is designed to provide children aged 9 to 12 with an opportunity to explore and observe aquatic environments. The package includes a 4-H Leader's guide, member's guide, and supplementary materials. The leader's guide contains safety considerations, tips and techniques, and additional activities for getting started…

  14. Starting and Maintaining a Marine Aquarium: 4-H Members Guide [and] 4-H Member's Project Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    The guide and the project record book included in this document are designed for 4-H members who would like to start a salt-water aquarium project. The guide includes the following topics: (1) general requirements for salt-water aquariums; (2) directions for making an aquarium; (3) suggestions for where to locate it; (4) pros and cons of using…

  15. Litter Control Achievement - Ohio 4-H Club Score Sheet [and] Activity Guides 1 through 7. 4-H Pilot Program 918.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Seven activity guides, evaluation sheet, and club scoresheet have been prepared for Ohio 4-H clubs' litter education program. Topics of the seven activity guides include: (1) general guidelines and types of activities; (2) little known facts about waste/litter; (3) guidelines for a walking tour; (4) fact sheet (questionnaire) related to garbage;…

  16. YA4-H! Youth Advocates for Health: Impact of a 4-H Teens-as-Teachers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mary E.; Flesch, Jeffrey M.; Ashton, Carolyn; Black, Lynette; Brody, Barbara; Hosty, Maureen; Northway, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of an evaluation of the YA4-H! Youth Advocates for Health--Teens as Teachers program. Consistent with previous research on the impact of teen teaching, the teens participating in the program gained confidence and skill with regard to teaching younger youths. The program also affected the teens' understanding that…

  17. Imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mound shape characteristics along a north-south gradient.

    PubMed

    Vogt, James T; Wallet, Bradley; Freeland, Thomas B

    2008-02-01

    The nests of some mound-building ants are thought to serve an important function as passive solar collectors. To test this hypothesis, imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid) mound shape characteristics (south facing slope angle and area, mound height, and basal elongation in the plane of the ground) were quantified in 2005 and 2006 at a number of locations from approximately 30 degrees 25' N (Long Beach, MS) to 35 degrees 3' N (Fayetteville, TN). Insolation (w*h/m2), maximum sun angle (sun elevation in degrees above the horizon at noon, dependent on date and latitude), cumulative rainfall (7 and 30 d before sampling), and mean ambient temperature (7 d before sampling) for each site x date combination were used as predictive variables to explain mound shape characteristics. Steepness of south-facing mound slopes was negatively associated with maximum sun angle at higher temperatures, with predicted values falling from approximately 36 degrees at sun angle=40 degrees to 26 degrees at sun angle=70 degrees; at lower temperatures, slope remained relatively constant at 28 degrees. On average, mound height was negatively correlated with maximum sun angle. Rainfall had a net negative effect on mound height, but mound height increased slightly with maximum sun angle when rainfall was high. Mound elongation generally increased with increased mound building activity. Under favorable temperature conditions and average rainfall, imported fire ant mounds were tallest, most eccentric, and had the steepest south facing slopes during periods of low maximum sun angle. Mound shape characteristics are discussed with regard to season and their potential usefulness for remote sensing efforts.

  18. Nutrient dynamics and plant assemblages of Macrotermes falciger mounds in a savanna ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muvengwi, Justice; Ndagurwa, Hilton G. T.; Nyenda, Tatenda; Mbiba, Monicah

    2016-10-01

    Termites through mound construction and foraging activities contribute significantly to carbon and nutrient fluxes in nutrient-poor savannas. Despite this recognition, studies on the influence of termite mounds on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in sub-tropical savannas are limited. In this regard, we examined soil nutrient concentrations, organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization in incubation experiments in mounds of Macrotermes falciger and surrounding soils of sub-tropical savanna, northeast Zimbabwe. We also addressed whether termite mounds altered the plant community and if effects were similar across functional groups i.e. grasses, forbs or woody plants. Mound soils had significantly higher silt and clay content, pH and concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), organic carbon (C), ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) than surrounding soils, with marginal differences in phosphorus (P) and sodium (Na) between mounds and matrix soils. Nutrient enrichment increased by a factor ranging from 1.5 for C, 4.9 for Mg up to 10.3 for Ca. Although C mineralization, nitrification and nitrification fraction were similar between mounds and matrix soils, nitrogen mineralization was elevated on mounds relative to surrounding matrix soils. As a result, termite mounds supported unique plant communities rich and abundant in woody species but less diverse in grasses and forbs than the surrounding savanna matrix in response to mound-induced shifts in soil parameters specifically increased clay content, drainage and water availability, nutrient status and base cation (mainly Ca, Mg and Na) concentration. In conclusion, by altering soil properties such as texture, moisture content and nutrient status, termite mounds can alter the structure and composition of sub-tropical savanna plant communities, and these results are consistent with findings in other savanna systems suggesting that increase in soil clay content, nutrient status and associated changes in the plant

  19. Galapagos hydrothermal mounds: stratigraphy and chemistry revealed by deep-sea drilling.

    PubMed

    Natland, J H; Rosendahl, B; Hekinian, R; Dmitriev, Y; Fodor, R V; Goll, R M; Hoffert, M; Humphris, S E; Mattey, D P; Petersen, N; Roggenthen, W; Schrader, E L; Srivastava, R K; Warren, N

    1979-05-11

    The Galápagos mounds sea-floor hydrothermal system is at least 300,000 years old and once produced manganese-poor sediments, which nearly blanketed the area of the present mounds field. Present-day mound deposits are limited manganese-rich exposures, suggesting that the system has changed from rock-to water-dominated and has diminished in intensity with time.

  20. Variability of soil properties within large termite mounds in South Katanga, DRC - origins and applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erens, Hans; Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Boeckx, Pascal; Baert, Geert; Mees, Florias; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The miombo woodlands of South Katanga (D.R. Congo) are characterized by a high spatial density of large conic termite mounds built by Macrotermes falciger (3 to 5 ha-1). With an average height of 5.05 m and diameter of 14.88 m, these are some of the largest biogenic structures in the world. The mound material is known to differ considerably from the surrounding Ferralsols. Specifically, mound material exhibits a finer texture, higher CEC and exchangeable basic cation content, lower organic matter content, and an accumulation of phosphorous, nitrate and secondary carbonates. However, as demonstrated by the present study, these soil properties are far from uniform within the volume of the mound. The termites' nesting and foraging activity, combined with pedogenic processes over extended periods of time, generates a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological conditions in different parts of the mound. Analysis of samples taken along a cross-section of a large active mound allowed generating contour plots, thus visualizing the variability of soil properties within the mound. The central columns of three other mounds were sampled to confirm apparent trends. The contour plots show that the mounds comprise four functional zones: (i) the active nest, found at the top; (ii) an accumulation zone , in more central parts of the mound; (iii) a dense inactive zone, surrounding the accumulation zone and consisting of accumulated erosion products from former active nests; and (iv) the outer mantle, characterized by intense varied biological activity and by a well-developed soil structure. Intermittent leaching plays a key role in explaining these patterns. Using radiocarbon dating, we found that some of these mounds are at least 2000 years old. Their current size and shape is likely the result of successive stages of erosion and rebuilding, in the course of alternating periods of mound abandonment and recolonization. Over time, termite foraging combined with limited leaching

  1. Biogeochemical study of termite mounds: a case study from Tummalapalle area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Arveti, Nagaraju; Reginald, S; Kumar, K Sunil; Harinath, V; Sreedhar, Y

    2012-04-01

    Termite mounds are abundant components of Tummalapalle area of uranium mineralization of Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh, India. The systematic research has been carried out on the application of termite mound sampling to mineral exploration in this region. The distribution of chemical elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Li, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U were studied both in termite soils and adjacent surface soils. Uranium accumulations were noticed in seven termite mounds ranging from 10 to 36 ppm. A biogeochemical parameter called "Biological Absorption Coefficient" of the termite mounds indicated the termite affected soils contained huge amounts of chemical elements than the adjacent soils.

  2. Investigating the Lack of Pit/Mound Microtopography in Subalpine Forests of the Canadian Rockies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y.; Johnson, E.; Chaikina, O.

    2012-04-01

    This investigation is a followup to our earlier study analyzing tree throw and associated sediment transport in Hawk Creek Watershed, Canadian Rockies (Gallaway et al., 2009). The motivation for the present study is that landscapes in subalpine forests in the Canadian Rockies do not show the pronounced pit/mound microtopography found in some other forests, such as some deciduous forests of eastern North America or coniferous forests in western British Columbia, Canada. Given the impact that pit/mound topography can have on both soils and hydrology, it was decided to investigate why some forests demonstrate notable pit/mound microtopography while other forests do not. First, we analyze field data from our study drainage basin in the Canadian Rockies to define the sizes of pit/mound features in these forests and how slope gradient influences pit/mound dimensions. Next, we test a series of possible formulae to simulate degradation for different sizes of pit/mound features in profile form for slopes ranging from 10 to 30 degrees. For slopes of zero or near-zero gradient, our field results show that the majority of sediment from the root plate is returned to the pit and does not form a distinct pit/mound feature; this finding is in agreement with other studies in the published literature. Our model results show that the magnitude of a pit/mound feature and the choice of formula to simulate pit/mound degradation play key roles in determining pit/mound longevity. Finally, we connect our earlier numerical model of tree population dynamics in the Canadian Rockies to a numerical model of pit/mound degradation to explore how these elements combine to influence landscape microtopography over time. At any time, the density and size of pit-mound features on the landscape is a function of pit/mound formation rates (not necessarily constant) and the rate of pit/mound degradation (Schaetzl and Follmer, 1990). Our tree population dynamics model is driven by wildfire disturbance

  3. Mima mounds in the Kenya highlands: significance for the Dalquest-Scheffer hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Cox, George W; Gakahu, Christopher G

    1983-03-01

    The Dalquest-Scheffer Hypothesis that Mima mounds in western North America are the long-term product of burrowing activities of geomyid pocket gophers was tested by examination of areas of similar topography in the highlands of Kenya. Two mound areas, located near Nyahururu at an elevation of about 2,400 m, were studied in detail. The mounds ranged from less than 25 cm to 2 m in height and from a few m to about 20 m in diameter, and were not the remains of large termite nests. Populations of the rhizomyid mole rat, Tachyoryctes splendens, a fossorial rodent similar in morphology and social behavior to geomyid pocket gophers, were associated with these mounds. Mound density and dispersion pattern were similar to North American Mima mounds, and the distribution of fresh soil heaps indicated that the activities of these animals were mound-centered. A shallow laterite hardpan underlay these mound areas, fulfilling another requirement of the Dalquest-Scheffer hypothesis. It is concluded that Mima mounds are the product of the burrowing of fossorial rodents such as pocket gophers and mole rats, and that these two groups are convergent in morphology, burrowing behavior, and impact on the landscape.

  4. Evolution of major sedimentary mounds on Mars: Buildup via anticompensational stacking modulated by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Sneed, Jonathan; Mayer, David P.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Hore, Alicia; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2016-11-01

    We present a new database of >300 layer orientations from sedimentary mounds on Mars (Mount Sharp/Aeolis Mons, plus Nia, Juventae, Ophir, Ceti, Melas, Coprates, and Ganges Mensae). Together, these mounds make up ½ of the total volume of canyon/crater-hosted sedimentary mounds on Mars. The layer orientations, together with draped landslides, and draping of rocks over differentially eroded paleodomes, indicate that for the stratigraphically uppermost 1 km, the mounds formed by the accretion of draping strata in a mound shape. The layer-orientation data further suggest that layers lower down in the stratigraphy also formed by the accretion of draping strata in a mound shape. The data are consistent with terrain-influenced wind erosion but inconsistent with tilting by flexure, differential compaction over basement, or viscoelastic rebound. We use a simple model of landscape evolution to show how the erosion and deposition of mound strata can be modulated by shifts in obliquity. The model is driven by multi-Gyr calculations of Mars' chaotic obliquity and a parameterization of terrain-influenced wind erosion that is derived from mesoscale modeling. The model predicts that Mars mound stratigraphy emerges from a drape-and-scrape cycle. Our results suggest that mound-spanning unconformities with kilometers of relief emerge as the result of chaotic obliquity shifts. Our results support the interpretation that Mars' rocks record intermittent liquid-water runoff during a ≫ 108 yr interval of sedimentary rock emplacement.

  5. The origin of conical mounds at the mouth of Chasma Boreale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Nicholas H.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2008-11-01

    One-hundred and six isolated conical mound landforms were identified proximal to the north polar cap of Mars at the mouth of Chasma Boreale. Five unique morphologies were identified including moderately sloped (4°-6°) cratered mound forms including two mounds of Abalos Colles, flat-topped moderately sloped (4°-6°) polygonal mound forms, steeper (6-13°) conical mound forms, subdued mound forms with low-angle slopes (0.5-3°), and small (<2 km diameter) clustered conical forms with low- to moderate-angle (1-5°) flank slopes. From first-order relationships between flank slope and the volcano productivity index (volume/diameter ratio), 16 mounds were found to be morphologically similar to terrestrial low-angle basaltic shield volcanoes. Thirteen mounds exhibit summit craters that range in depth (d) to diameter (D) ratio from 1:9 to 1:320. The circularity and d/D ratios of mound summit craters are consistent with highly modified northern plains impact craters. Image analysis of shield-like mounds reveals morphologic characteristics inconsistent with pristine volcanic landforms for most features. Horizontal flank layering (10-100 m thick), polygonal map-view morphology, topographic relationships, and spatial association with retreating polar scarps suggest that mound forms at the mouth of Chasma Boreale represent remnants of a once thicker, more continuous sequence of near-polar layered material. Evidence for northward scarp retreat is visible along Rupes Tenuis, a sinuous scarp located west of Chasma Boreale. Along this scarp, a single ~100-m-thick resistant cap unit (part of the Early Amazonian age Rupes Tenuis unit) is being undermined by aeolian erosion, solar ablation, and mass wasting. Remnants of the cap unit rest along the scarp margin and in places form small conical mound clusters at the base of the scarp. Fracture controlled retreat of the scarp is visible along the eastern portion of Rupes Tenuis and along the Escorial crater remnant mesa where small

  6. High voltage 4H-silicon carbide ACCUFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilukuri, Ravi Kiran

    2000-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for high voltage, high frequency and high temperature semiconductor devices. The commercial availability of 6H- and 4H-SiC substrates, and the development of process technology for SiC, has led to demonstrations of a variety of SiC devices and circuits. In this research, a novel planar vertical MOSFET structure called the Accumulation Channel Field Effect Transistor (ACCUFET), which eliminates both the problems of premature oxide breakdown and low inversion layer mobility commonly found in SiC trench MOSFETs, is studied on 4H-SiC. An investigation of the poor performance of previously fabricated 4H-SiC ACCUFETs provided insights for changes in device design and process flow for improving the device performance. This insight was used for designing a new process run for the fabrication of improved high voltage 4H-SiC ACCUFETs. These new designs of ACCUFETs were successfully fabricated on starting material with different epilayer thickness and doping values, corresponding to breakdown voltages ranging from 2000 V to 7500 V. The forward conduction characteristics of different ACCUFET designs were studied. The device physics and the operation of the planar ACCUFET are discussed in detail, and the effects of key device design parameters on device characteristics are described with the aid of two-dimensional simulations. The contributions of the parasitic JFET regions (a surface JFET and a buried JFET) in the ACCUFET to its forward conduction and forward blocking characteristics are discussed in depth for the first time. ACCUFET structures designed for studying and for eliminating the problems due to the parasitic JFET regions are explained. It is demonstrated that in the high voltage ACCUFETs in which the epilayer doping is low, the buried JFET can be completely pinched off, resulting in a drain offset voltage in the current-voltage characteristics, which can be explained by the triodelike behavior of the buried JFET. The

  7. Phytogenic mounds of four typical shoot architecture species at different slope gradients on the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hua-Dong; Jiao, Ju-Ying; Jia, Yan-Feng; Wang, Ning; Wang, Dong-Li

    2013-07-01

    In semi-arid regions, the spatial pattern of vegetation usually appears as a mosaic of plants surrounded by bare soil. Phytogenic mounds often develop under these plants and create microenvironments that promote plant establishment. This study examined the effects of ground slope and plant shoot architecture on mound formation. Four species representing different shoot architectures (Artemisia gmelinii, with dense shoot architecture; Artemisia giraldii, with expanding shoot architecture; tussock-forming Bothriochloa ischaemum; and Sophora viciifolia, with a main-stem shoot architecture) and four classes of slope were selected. A two-dimensional 'microprofilemeter' was used to measure mound shape and height, and mound area was measured using the Image Pro-plus software with a planer mound picture. Phytogenic mound shapes changed from symmetrical mound type to asymmetrical terrace type as slope increased. With increasing slope mound height increased for all species; the mound area of S. viciifolia decreased; and that of A. giraldii increased. A. gmelinii and B. ischaemum had a relatively constant mound area irrespective of slope. Among the plant shoot architecture parameters, the basal diameter along the slope (Dba) significantly correlated with mound height, while the plant basal diameter perpendicular to the slope (Dbp) and the total cross-sectional area of the stem at the base (Sn) were related to mound area. The results indicate that phytogenic mounds on gentler slopes are formed due to the difference in rain splash erosion beneath the plant canopy and surrounding bare surfaces. On steeper slopes, mounds are formed due to water erosion on bare soil and the prevention of erosion and sediment accumulation under plants. Plant shoot architecture also influences mound formation. Species with expanding shoot architecture, such as A. giraldii that spread laterally to create high density stems and occupy a large area, can create relatively large mounds. Species with main

  8. A groundwater vortex hypothesis for mima-like mounds, Laramie Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reider, Richard G.; Huss, Joseph M.; Miller, Timothy W.

    1996-08-01

    Mima-like mounds in the Laramie Basin occur where: (1) impervious bedrock (shale) is at a shallow depth (˜ 2-5 m); (2) bedrock is overlain by a thin veneer (˜ 1-4 m) of alluvial gravels; and (3) a strong argillic/calcic or petrocalcic soil caps the landform, typically a terrace. Active and inactive mounds contain churned materials, including pebbles derived from adjacent/subjacent units. The mounds are circular in plan view and lens- or funnel-shaped in cross-section. The strong intermound (premound) soil collapses beneath the mound, is entirely or partly destroyed at its base, or is truncated at the mound edge. Stratigraphic relationships on the youngest terrace of the Laramie River indicate that the inactive mounds are Holocene in age. Sodium concentrations (used as a tracer) in mound material and adjacent/subjacent units suggest that the mounds rotate counterclockwise. This movement may be driven by free spiral vortices (low hydraulic head) in confined (artesian) groundwater flow in alluvium between shallow bedrock and strong surface soil. The vortices (similar to water draining from a bathtub or a whirlpool in a river) may result from enlargements, constrictions, or changes in permeability of the aquifer — or meandering of groundwater flow. Groundwater, dissolved ions, and materials in suspension, or through friction and turbidity, then would move from adjacent high-hydraulic head areas into and down the vortex. In effect, the high head (intermound) areas would act as a pump whereas the vortex (which would form a mound) would act as a turbine — responding, therefore, to energy transformations between groundwater velocity and pressure according to the Bernoulli principle and Newton's Second Law of Motion. Soil or sediment, incapable of being fully moved into and down the vortex, would amass at the land surface as a circular mound that in cross-section would have a lens or funnel (turbine) shape. Computer modelling shows that mounds tend to form over deep

  9. Morphology and spatial patterns of Macrotermes mounds in the SE Katanga, D.R. Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Mees, Florias; Erens, Hans; Baert, Geert; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The spatial distribution patterns and morphological characteristics of Macrotermes falciger mounds were investigated in the Lubumbashi area, D.R. Congo. Examination of the spatial patterns of M. falciger mounds on high resolution satellite images reveals a mean areal number density of 2.9 ± 0.4 mounds ha-1. The high relative number of inactive mounds in the region, along with their regular distribution pattern, suggests that current termite mound occurrences are largely palaeostructures. Mound positions in the habitat are consistent with intraspecific competition rather than soil and substrate characteristics as controlling factor. Detailed morphological description of five deep termite-mound profiles (~7 m height/depth) shows that carbonate pedofeatures are present in all studied profiles, in contrast to the control soils. They mainly occur in the form of soft powdery masses, nodules and coatings on ped faces, all clearly pedogenic. Carbonate coatings occur mainly between 1 m above the soil surface and 1 m below that level in all mound profiles. Carbonate nodules do show a different distribution pattern at each site. Furthermore, when the studied profiles are considered to represent a toposequence, the stone layer occurs at greater depth in topographically low areas compared to crest and slope positions, which is mainly conditioned by erosion. The clay content of epigeal mounds increases from the summit to the toe slope, which can be largely related to differences in parent material. The Mn-Fe oxide concentrations occurring in all studied termite mound profiles reflect a seasonally high perched water table beneath the mound, which is more pronounced at the lower slope positions.

  10. Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.

  11. Plant Mounds as Concentration and Stabilization Agents for Actinide Soil Contaminants in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Shafer; J. Gommes

    2009-02-03

    Plant mounds or blow-sand mounds are accumulations of soil particles and plant debris around the base of shrubs and are common features in deserts in the southwestern United States. An important factor in their formation is that shrubs create surface roughness that causes wind-suspended particles to be deposited and resist further suspension. Shrub mounds occur in some plant communities on the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), including areas of surface soil contamination from past nuclear testing. In the 1970s as part of early studies to understand properties of actinides in the environment, the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) examined the accumulation of isotopes of Pu, 241Am, and U in plant mounds at safety experiment and storage-transportation test sites of nuclear devices. Although aerial concentrations of these contaminants were highest in the intershrub or desert pavement areas, the concentration in mounds were higher than in equal volumes of intershrub or desert pavement soil. The NAEG studies found the ratio of contaminant concentration of actinides in soil to be greater (1.6 to 2.0) in shrub mounds than in the surrounding areas of desert pavement. At Project 57 on the NTTR, 17 percent of the area was covered in mounds while at Clean Slate III on the TTR, 32 percent of the area was covered in mounds. If equivalent volumes of contaminated soil were compared between mounds and desert pavement areas at these sites, then the former might contain as much as 34 and 62 percent of the contaminant inventory, respectively. Not accounting for radionuclides associated with shrub mounds would cause the inventory of contaminants and potential exposure to be underestimated. In addition, preservation of shrub mounds could be important part of long-term stewardship if these sites are closed by fencing and posting with administrative controls.

  12. Apollo 12 Mission image - View of lunar surface mound

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6795 (19-20 Nov. 1969) --- A view of the lunar surface in the vicinity of the Apollo 12 lunar landing site, photographed during the extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot. Conrad and Bean encountered the odd, anthill-shaped mound during their lunar traverse. The two descended in the Apollo 12 Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon, while astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  13. A Perfect Fit: 4-H Involvement for Youth with Disabilities. A Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepf, Greg W.; And Others

    This guide for 4-H leaders and volunteers offers information to help integrate youth with disabilities into various 4-H programs. After an introduction, a section on 4-H and mainstreaming reviews the mission of 4-H; considers what 4-H has to offer youth; defines mainstreaming; notes the benefits of mainstreaming; and distinguishes among the terms…

  14. Plants in Your Ants: Using Ant Mounds to Test Basic Ecological Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettler, Jennifer A.; Collier, Alexander; Leidersdorf, Bil; Sanou, Missa Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Urban students often have limited access to field sites for ecological studies. Ubiquitous ants and their mounds can be used to study and test ecology-based questions. We describe how soil collected from ant mounds can be used to investigate how biotic factors (ants) can affect abiotic factors in the soil that can, in turn, influence plant growth.

  15. Plants in Your Ants: Using Ant Mounds to Test Basic Ecological Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettler, Jennifer A.; Collier, Alexander; Leidersdorf, Bil; Sanou, Missa Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Urban students often have limited access to field sites for ecological studies. Ubiquitous ants and their mounds can be used to study and test ecology-based questions. We describe how soil collected from ant mounds can be used to investigate how biotic factors (ants) can affect abiotic factors in the soil that can, in turn, influence plant growth.

  16. Catastrophic windthrow in the Southern Appalachians: characteristics of pits and mounds and initial vegetation responses

    Treesearch

    Barton D. Clinton; Corey R. Baker

    2000-01-01

    We characterized pit and mound (PM) topography resulting from catastrophic wind in the Coweeta Basin, and located 48 PM’s across a variety of forest types. Our measurements included pit length, width, and depth; and mound height, thickness, and width. Species of fallen trees were...

  17. An Exercise in Field Archaeology for the Gifted: Fake Mound, Genuine Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John R.

    1992-01-01

    At an archaeology camp program for gifted youngsters, students ages 11-16 built a mound with 5 archaeological levels, for future exploration. The "fake" mound ensured that student interest would be maintained, that students would learn about special problems and situations, and that irreplaceable bits of prehistory would not risk being damaged.…

  18. Plant succession on gopher mounds in Western Cascade meadows: consequences for species diversity and heterogeneity

    Treesearch

    Chad C. Jones; Charles B. Halpern; Jessica Niederer

    2008-01-01

    Pocket gophers have the potential to alter the dynamics of grasslands by creating mounds that bury existing vegetation and locally reset succession. Gopher mounds may provide safe sites for less competitive species, potentially increasing both species diversity and vegetation heterogeneity (spatial variation in species composition). We compared species composition,...

  19. IMPORTED FIRE ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) MOUND SHAPE CHARACTERISTICS ALONG A NORTH-SOUTH GRADIENT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Imported fire ant mound shape characteristics (south facing slope angle and area, mound height, and basal elongation in the plane of the ground) were quantified in 2005 and 2006 at a number of locations from about 30° 25’ N (Long Beach, Mississippi, USA) to 35° 3’ N (Fayetteville, Tennessee, USA). ...

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of coiling, and mounding in viscoelastic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majmudar, Trushant; Ober, Thomas; McKinley, Gareth

    2009-11-01

    Free surface continuous jets of non-Newtonian fluids, although relevant for many industrial processes like bottle filling, remain poorly understood in terms of fundamental fluid dynamics. Here we present a systematic study of the effect of viscoelasticity on the dynamics of continuous jets of worm-like micellar surfactant solutions of varying viscosities and elasticities, and model yield-stress fluids. We systematically vary the height of the drop and the flow rate in order to study the effects of varying geometric and kinematic parameters. We observe that for fluids with higher elastic relaxation times, folding is the preferred mode. In contrast, for low elasticity fluids we observe complex nonlinear dynamics consisting of coiling, folding, and irregular meandering as the height of the fall increases. Beyond this regime, the jet dynamics smoothly crosses over to exhibit the ``leaping shampoo" or the Kaye effect. Upon increasing the flow rate to very high values, the ``leaping shampoo" state disappears and is replaced by a pronounced mounding or ``heaping". A subsequent increase in the flow rate results in finger-like protrusions to emerge out of the mound and climb up towards the nozzle. This novel transition is currently under investigation and remains a theoretical challenge.

  1. Opportunity Inspects Gasconade on Spirit Mound of Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-07

    This relatively bright outcropping of rock, dubbed "Gasconade," was investigated by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity while the rover was perched on "Spirit Mound" at the western edge of Mars' Endeavour Crater. This mosaic combines four frames taken by the microscopic imager on Opportunity's robotic arm on Oct. 2, 2016, during the 4,512st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's work on Mars. Enhanced color information from Opportunity's panoramic camera has been added to emphasize differences in the materials visible in the target. Figure A is a version with no color information added to the microscopic imager mosaic. The view covers an area about 2 inches (5 centimeters) wide. Opportunity's inspection found Gasconade to be a wind-etched outcrop with angular bits of darker rock within a lighter matrix, which may have been formed from fallout of the impact event that excavated the crater. This location of Spirit Mound, shown at PIA20854, is the deeper on the western rim of Endeavour Crater than any site visited previously by Opportunity. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21141

  2. Dating a burnt mound from Kilmartin, Argyll, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, I. M. C.; Sanderson, D. C. W.; Cook, G. T.; Abernethy, D.; Housley, R. A.

    2001-12-01

    Around 1600 burnt mounds, comprising heaps of fire cracked stones, up to several metres across with characteristic forms, are listed in the National Monuments Records of Scotland, with a diverse distribution. Many more are known in other parts of Europe, notably in Ireland and Scandinavia. Traditionally, these monuments are thought to relate to cooking activities throughout the Bronze Age though in recent years alternative functions have been suggested. Here results are presented from Lady Glassery Wood, a recently excavated site in the Kilmartin Valley. Samples for luminescence dating were collected in 1998, together with field gamma spectrometry measurements. Associated charcoal has also been subjected to radiocarbon dating. Despite and unusually low internal radioactivity from the rock samples examined, and low luminescence sensitivities from separated minerals, it has been possible to obtain concordant luminescence ages from both quartz and feldspars, giving a mean date of 2800±300 BC. Radiocarbon dating produces a 2 sigma calibrated age range of approximately 2800-2400 cal BC, in agreement with the luminescence age, indicating a late Neolithic date for the mound, one of a growing number of early dates in Scotland.

  3. Variety and complexity in the mound of sedimentary rock in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K. S.; Malin, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will be used to explore a portion of the lower stratigraphic record of the northwest side of a mound of layered rock ˜5 km thick in the 155 km-diameter Gale Crater. The rock materials are of a sedimentary origin, though the proportions of clastic sediment, tephra, and chemical precipitates are presently unknown. The mound is usually described as having lower and upper units separated by an erosional unconformity. However, some investigators recognize that it is considerably more complex. The stratigraphy displays vertical and lateral complexity; multiple erosional unconformities; filled, buried, interbedded, and exhumed or partly exhumed impact craters; evidence for deposition along the base of the mound followed by retreat of less-resistant rocks and abandonment of erosion-resistant materials shed from the mound; lithified sediments deposited at the mouths of streams that cut mound rock; inversion of intra-canyon stream channel sediment; and widening of canyons. On the northeast side of the mound there are landslide deposits, shed from the mound, that contain large blocks (10s to 100s of m) of layered rock in various orientations. The mound's highest feature does not exhibit layering and has been interpreted by some as being Gale's impact-generated central peak. However, its highest elevation exceeds that of most of the crater rim, an observation inconsistent with central peaks (where they occur at all) in martian craters of diameters similar to Gale. The layered materials that occur highest in the mound are also at elevations that exceed most of the crater rim; these exhibit repeated stratal packages that drape previously-eroded mound topography; they produce boulders as they erode, attesting to their lithified nature and requiring that a lithification process occurred in materials located ≥ 5 km above the deepest part of Gale. The lower mound strata, including the Curiosity field site, are diverse materials

  4. Electromagnetic surveying of seafloor mounds in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, M.; Evans, R.L.; Hutchinson, D.; Hart, P.; Gardner, J.; Hagen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Seafloor controlled source electromagnetic data, probing the uppermost 30 m of seafloor sediments, have been collected with a towed magnetic dipole-dipole system across two seafloor mounds at approximately 1300 m water depth in the northern Gulf of Mexico. One of these mounds was the focus of??a recent gas hydrate research drilling program. Rather than the highly resistive response expected of massive gas hydrate within the confines of the mounds, the EM data are dominated by the effects of raised temperatures and pore fluid salinities that result in an electrically conductive seafloor. This structure suggests that fluid advection towards the seafloor is taking place beneath both mounds. Similar responses are seen at discrete locations away from the mounds in areas that might be associated with faults, further suggesting substantial shallow fluid circulation. Raised temperatures and salinities may inhibit gas hydrate formation at depth as has been suggested at other similar locations in the Gulf of Mexico. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. On the influence of cold-water coral mound size on flow hydrodynamics, and vice versa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr, Frédéric; Haren, Hans; Mienis, Furu; Duineveld, Gerard; Bourgault, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Using a combination of in situ observations and idealistic 2-D nonhydrostatic numerical simulations, the relation between cold-water coral (CWC) mound size and hydrodynamics is explored for the Rockall Bank area in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is shown that currents generated by topographically trapped tidal waves in this area cause large isopycnal depressions resulting from an internal hydraulic control above CWC mounds. The oxygen concentration distribution is used as a tracer to visualize the flow behavior and the turbulent mixing above the mounds. By comparing two CWC mounds of different sizes and located close to each other, it is shown that the resulting mixing is highly dependent on the size of the mound. The effects of the hydraulic control for mixing, nutrient availability, and ecosystem functioning are also discussed.

  6. The nature and origin of Mafic Mound in the South Pole-Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, Daniel P.; Pieters, Carle M.

    2015-10-01

    "Mafic Mound" is a distinctive and enigmatic feature 75 km across and 1 km high near the center of the vast South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Using several modern data sets, we characterize the composition, morphology, and gravity signature of the structure in order to assess its origin. Mafic Mound is found to exhibit a perched circular depression and a homogeneous high-Ca pyroxene-bearing composition. Several formation hypotheses based on known lunar processes are evaluated, including the possibilities that Mafic Mound represents (1) uplifted mantle, (2) SPA-derived impact melt, (3) a basalt-filled impact crater, or (4) a volcanic construct. Individually, these common processes cannot fully reproduce the properties of Mafic Mound. Instead, we propose a hybrid origin in which Mafic Mound is an edifice formed by magmatic processes induced by the formation and evolution of SPA. This form of nonmare volcanism has not previously been documented on the Moon.

  7. Kentucky and Tennessee. Mounds of potential pay in Ft. Payne reef trend

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.

    1983-06-01

    It is one of the hottest areas in Tennessee. Largely centered in Fentress, Scott and Morgan counties, the Ft. Payne reefs are a series of subsurface mounds, parallel to one another, that seemingly align in a northeast- southwest direction. The mounds are at depths of 1000 to 2500 ft. To the west near the Cincinnati Arch, the mounds are relatively shallow. Whereas to the southeast the mounds downdip at a rate of ca 50 ft/mile toward the Appalachian fold belt. Most activity to date has been in the shallower Ft. Payne. Production varies greatly, from 5 bopd/well to more than 900 bopd/well. There are 21 producing fields in the Ft. Payne, with total production in excess of 6 million bbl. The mounds are of Lower Mississippian age and are thought to have been deposited along a transgressive/regressive shoreline.

  8. A Biomechanical Comparison of Pitching From a Mound Versus Flat Ground in Adolescent Baseball Pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Carl W.; Solomito, Matthew; Garibay, Erin; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Westwell, Melany

    2013-01-01

    Background: Baseball professionals believe that pitching from a mound can increase the stresses placed on the body. Hypothesis: There is no difference in kinematics or kinetics in pitching from a mound versus flat-ground conditions in adolescent baseball pitchers. Study Design: Laboratory investigation. Methods: The fastball pitching motions of 15 adolescent baseball pitchers, including upper extremity kinematics and kinetics and lead- and trail-leg kinematics, were evaluated while pitching from the mound and flat ground. Student t tests were used to determine the differences between the 2 testing conditions. Results: Maximum external glenohumeral rotation was similar between the 2 conditions (134° ± 14° mound vs 133° ± 14° flat ground, P = 0.10). Ankle plantar flexion of the lead leg at ball release was greater in the flat-ground condition (−20° ± 10° mound vs −15° ± 12° flat ground, P = 0.01). A statistically significant increase in glenohumeral internal rotation moment (33.6 ± 12.1 Nm mound vs 31.7 ± 11.6 Nm flat ground, P = 0.01) and an increase in elbow varus moment (33.3 ± 12.3 Nm mound vs 31.4 ± 11.8 Nm flat ground, P = 0.02) was measured when pitching from the mound as compared with flat ground. Conclusion: Pitching from the mound causes increased stress on the shoulder and elbow of adolescent pitchers as compared with that from flat ground. Clinical Relevance: The differences in kinematics as well as increased moments in the shoulder and elbow are helpful for pitchers and their coaches to know at the beginning of their season or as they return from injury or surgery. Pitchers in these situations should start their pitching progression on flat ground and progress to the mound. PMID:24427428

  9. Alternation of microbial mounds and ooid shoals (Middle Jurasssic, Morocco): Response to paleoenvironmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, Sara; Homann, Martin; Mutti, Maria; Amour, Frédéric; Christ, Nicolas; Immenhauser, Adrian; Agar, Susan M.; Kabiri, Lahcen

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of neritic microbial carbonates is often related to ecological refuges, where grazers and other competitors are reduced by environmental conditions, or to post-extinction events (e.g. in the Late Devonian, Early Triassic). Here, we present evidence for Middle Jurassic (Bajocian) microbial mounds formed in the normal marine, shallow neritic setting of an inner, ramp system from the High Atlas of Morocco. The microbial mounds are embedded in cross-bedded oolitic facies. Individual mounds show low relief domal geometries (up to 3 m high and 4.5 m across), but occasionally a second generation of mounds exhibits tabular geometries (< 1 m high). The domes are circular in plan view and have intact tops, lacking evidence of current influence on mound preferred growth direction or distribution patterns, or truncation. The mound facies consists almost entirely of non-laminated, micritic thrombolites with branching morphologies and fine-grained, clotted and peloidal fabrics. Normal marine biota are present but infrequent. Several lines of evidence document that microbial mound growth alternates with time intervals of active ooid shoal deposition. This notion is of general significance when compared with modern Bahamian microbialites that co-exist with active subaquatic dunes. Furthermore, the lack of detailed studies of Middle Jurassic, normal marine shallow neritic microbial mounds adds a strong motivation for the present study. Specifically, Bajocian mounds formed on a firmground substratum during transgressive phases under condensed sedimentation. Furthermore, a transient increase in nutrient supply in the prevailing mesotrophic setting, as suggested by the heterotrophic-dominated biota, may have controlled microbial mound stages.

  10. [Dimensional characteristics and spatial distribution patterns of pit and mound complexes in Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest].

    PubMed

    Duan, Wen-Biao; Wei, Quan-Shuai; Qiao, Lu; Chen, Li-Xin; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xin; Gu, Wei; Sun, Hu

    2014-11-01

    Characteristics of pit and mound complexes in different sizes of forest gaps and closed stands and their distribution patterns were compared and analyzed. The results showed that mean mound width, mound height, mound thickness of all pit and mound complexes were larger than corresponding mean pit length, pit width, pit depth in large, medium and small gaps as well as in closed stands. Mound width, mound height, mound thickness, pit length, pit width, pit depth were the largest in large gap, being 2.85, 0.37, 2.00, 2.99, 2.10, 0.39 m, respectively, and the smallest in closed stands, being 2.35, 0.19, 1.60, 2.66, 1.65, 0.21, respectively. Mean mound volume (1.66 m3) was larger than mean pit volume (1.44 m3). The difference in characteristic values between the most of pit and mound complexes was significant for the same size of forest gap, not significant for closed stands, significant for different sizes of forest gaps and closed stands. Most of characteristic values for pit and mound complexes within the plot in 2012 were significantly less than those in 2011. 89.5% and 60.5% of type and shape of pit and mound complexes were hinge and semiellipse, respectively. Their distribution was relatively centralized.

  11. Effigy mound sites as cultural landscapes: A geophysical spatial analysis of two Late Woodland sites in southeastern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Kira E.

    This dissertation is a spatial analysis of a class of sacred sites known as Effigy Mounds during the Late Woodland period in southeast Wisconsin, circa A.D. 700--1100. Effigy Mounds are earthworks in the shape of animals, conical, linear, or geometric shapes. The research is focused on the upper Rock River Drainage in southern Wisconsin, a region where Effigy Mounds are very common. Although there are many theories concerning the meanings of Effigy Mounds, there is no cohesive description of Effigy Mounds as landscape elements and their function in the use of space by Late Woodland people. This research connects cultural and cognitive aspects of Native American cosmology with physical manifestations on the landscape. Effigy Mounds are examined from ideological and physical perspectives that are not mutually exclusive. Effigy Mounds are viewed as signifiers with multiple levels of function and meaning including sacred space, territorial markers, and mechanisms of social control and cohesion. Investigation at two Late Woodland Effigy Mound sites, Indian Mounds County Park in Jefferson County and Nitschke Mounds County Park in Dodge County, shows that landscape utilization varied significantly within and among Effigy Mound sites. An alternative model to understand Late Woodland Effigy Mound sites as ritual landscapes explores these features, their distribution across space, and the connection to internal site structures by synthesizing multidisciplinary data from historical ethnographic accounts, previous archaeological surveys, and new geophysical data. This multidisciplinary approach provides an example applicable to other landscape studies.

  12. 4H-SiC detectors for ultraviolet light monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Badalà, P.; Carbone, B.; Russo, A.; Coffa, S.

    2015-02-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) provides the unique property of near-perfect visible blindness and very high signal-to-noise ratio due to the high quantum efficiency and low dark current even at high temperature. These features make SiC the best available material for the manufacturing of visible blind semiconductor ultraviolet (UV) light detectors. Thanks to their properties, SiC detectors have been extensively used in fact for flame detection monitoring, UV sterilization and astronomy. Here we report on the electrical and optical performance of patterned thin metal film NiSi/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes with different semiconductor exposed area suitably designed for UV light monitoring.

  13. Leakage currents in 4H-SiC JBS diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, P. A. Grekhov, I. V.; Potapov, A. S.; Kon'kov, O. I.; Il'inskaya, N. D.; Samsonova, T. P.; Korol'kov, O.; Sleptsuk, N.

    2012-03-15

    Leakage currents in high-voltage 4H-SiC diodes, which have an integrated (p-n) Schottky structure (Junction Barrier Schottky, JBS), have been studied using commercial diodes and specially fabricated (based on a commercial epitaxial material) test Schottky diodes with and without the JBS structure. It is shown that (i) the main role in reverse charge transport is played by SiC crystal structure defects, most probably, by threading dislocations (density {approx}10{sup 4} cm{sup -2}), and (ii) the JBS structure, formed by the implantation of boron, partially suppresses the leakage currents (by up to a factor of 10 at optimal separation, 8 {mu}m between local p-type regions).

  14. Extended defects in 4H-silicon carbide homoepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the structure of extended defects in 4H-SIC homoepitaxial layers, and to identify their nucleation mechanisms. Characteristics of basal plane dislocations in 4H-SiC epilayers were investigated in a comprehensive manner, including their morphologies, Burgers' vectors, positions, and correlation with the extended defects propagating from the substrate. Plan-view transmission x-ray topography was the major characterization technique used in this study. Complementary data was obtained by KOH etching and optical microscopy. Trace of glide was detected on every basal plane dislocation in the entire 3-inch epilayer. In the center area of the epi-wafer, the glide can extend to macroscopic distance and form edge-type dislocations at the epilayer/surface interface. During the motion, dislocation half loop arrays were found to nucleate at the growth front. The magnitude of the resolved shear stress was estimated based on the radius of curvature of the dislocation lines. It surpassed the critical resolved shear stress at the epitaxial growth temperature. The stress was identified to be compressive in the epilayer. Its origin was studied. Nitrogen-doping-difference-induced misfit strain was excluded as the source of the stress. The structures of two morphological defects, 'carrots' and 'arrows', were studied. Cross-section x-ray topography was used to image the structure of carrot defect in whole. The defect was found to nucleate at the epilayer/substrate interface on a threading screw dislocation propagating from the substrate. Its structure was mainly composed of a prismatic stacking fault and a Frank-type basal plane stacking fault. The arrow defect was found to be produced by a spheroid shape inclusion in the volume of the epilayer. Zone axis diffraction pattern under transmission electron microscope identified the nature of the inclusion as 3C-SIC. It was determined to nucleate at the substrate surface contaminations.

  15. Shelled opisthobranchs.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Paula M

    2002-01-01

    In his contributions to the monographic series "Manual of Conchology", Henry Pilsbry reviewed the subgroup Tectibranchiata, comprising those opisthobranch snails that (at least primitively) still possess a shell (Pilsbry, 1894-1896). Exemplified by the Cephalaspidea (bubble shells), others included in this group at Pilsbry's time and since were Anaspidea (sea hares) and the shelled members of Notaspidea (side-gilled slugs) and Sacoglossa (leaf slugs). Pilsbry (and others since his time) considered tectibranchs to be the "root stock" from which more advanced gastropods such as Nudibranchia and Pulmonata were derived. Tectibranch systematics is firmly based on conchology and most species were originally described from empty shells. However, soft-anatomical characters were acknowledged quite early on as equally important in tectibranchs, due to the reduction of their shells and their evolutionary proximity to unshelled gastropods. Today, Tectibranchiata is not recognized as a natural taxon although the word "tectibranch" (like "prosobranch" and "mesogastropod") continues in vernacular use. Shelled opisthobranchs have been redistributed among various taxa, including several new ones--the unresolved basal opisthobranchs (Architectibranchia) and the "lower Heterobranchia", an enigmatic and currently much-studied group of families considered basal to all of Euthyneura (Opisthobranchia and landsnails (Pulmonata)). Despite their polyphyletic status, shelled opisthobranchs remain important subjects in evolutionary studies of gastropods--as the most basal members of nearly every opisthobranch clade and as organisms with mosaic combinations of primitive and derived features within evolutionary "trends" (e.g., loss of the shell, detorsion, concentration of the nervous system, ecological specialization, etc.). Although they play a pivotal role, the shelled opisthobranchs have received minimal attention in more comprehensive gastropod studies, often relegated to token

  16. Seismic Exploration for Pennsylvanian Algal Mounds, Paradox Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, B.; Grundy, R.

    1985-05-01

    During the past 2 years, several new field discoveries were drilled in Pennsylvanian algal mounds of the Paradox basin. Most of these discoveries were based, at least partially, on state-of-the-art seismic data. New field production comes from either the Ismay or Desert Creek zones the Paradox Formation. The algal correlate laterally with either marine shelf or penesaline facies. Detection of the Ismay and Desert Creek buildups is difficult because of their limited thickness. Therefore, the acquisition of good signal-to-noise high-frequency data and stratigraphic processing for frequency enhancement are both critical for successful seismic exploration in the Paradox basin. Bug, Patterson, Ismay, Cache, and Rockwell Springs fields are characteristic of Desert Creek and Ismay stratigraphic trapping.

  17. Three-dimensional potential flow over hills and oval mounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was made of the potential flow behavior for an initially uniform flow passing over a single axisymmetric hill, an oval mound, and a combination of two hills. Small perturbation theory was used, and the resulting Laplace equation for the perturbation velocity potential was solved by using either a product solution or a Green's function. The three dimensional solution is of interest in calculating the pressure distribution around obstacles, the flow of pollutants carried by the wind, and the augmentation of wind velocity for windmill siting. The augmentation in velocity at the top of a hill was found to be proportional to the hill height relative to a characteristic width dimension of the hill. An axisymmetric hill produced about 20 percent less velocity increase than a two dimensional ridge having the same cross-sectional profile.

  18. Microseismic Monitoring of the Mounds Drill Cuttings Injection Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Branagan, P.T.; Mahrer, K.D.; Moschovidis, Z.A.; Warpinski, N.R.; Wolhart, S.L.

    1999-01-25

    This paper describes the microseismic mapping of repeated injections of drill cuttings into two separate formations at a test site near Mounds, OK. Injections were performed in sandstone and shale formations at depths of 830 and 595 m, respectively. Typical injection disposal was simulated using multiple small-volume injections over a three-day period, with long shut-in periods interspersed between the injections. Microseismic monitoring was achieved using a 5-level array of wireline-run, triaxial- accelerometer receivers in a monitor well 76 m from the disposed well. Results of the mapped microseismic locations showed that the disposal domti W= generally aligns with the major horizontal stress with some variations in azimuth and that wide variations in height and length growth occurred with continued injections. These experiments show that the cuttings injection process cm be adequately monitored from a downhole, wireline-run receiver array, thus providing process control and environmental assurance.

  19. Disturbance, colonization and succession in a deep-sea sediment community: artificial-mound experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukert, Helmut; Smith, Craig R.

    1992-08-01

    Megafaunally produced sediment mounds can be sites of rapid biodeposition and may be important sources of infaunal disturbance aat the deep-sea floor. We conducted experiments in the Santa Catalina Basin (1240 m depth) using artificial mounds (≈9 cm high by 35 cm wide) to assess macrobenthic disturbance from mound formation and to evaluate modes and patterns of recolonization. To differentiate colonization modes, we created two types of mounds: unfloored (allowing all potential colonists) and floored (excluding burrowing immigrants). Burial beneath an average of 5-6 cm of artificial-mound sediments yielded a 32% reduction in macrofaunal abundance over time scales of ≤1 month. All functional groups were disturbed by burial, although subsurface deposit feeders appearedd to be the least susceptible. In addition, eight of the 14 dominant background species showed significant population reduction on mound treatments. Macrobenthos in unfloored treatments reached background levels of abundance after 11 months, suggesting colonization rates 3 × higher than estimated by previous deep-sea studies using colonization trays. Comparisons between floored and unfloored treatments suggest that burrowing was a significant dispersal mode for colonists. Intermediate peaks in the abundance of two infaunal species on unfloored artificial mounds, as well as changes in trophic-group composition, indicate that community succession proceeded for at least 23 months, these treatments also exhibited enhanced species diversity, providing the first direct evidence that the intermediate disturbance hypothesis helps to explain high macrobenthic diversity in the deep sea.

  20. Ground-squirrel mounds and related patterned ground along the San Andreas Fault in Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive areas of mound topography and related patterned ground, apparently derived from the mounds of the California Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi beecheyi), are in central California.  The relation of patterned ground to the San Andreas fault west of Bakersfield may provide insight into the timing of deformation along the fault as well as the history of ground squirrels.  Mound topography appears to have evolved through several stages from scattered mounds currently being constructed on newly deposited alluvial surfaces, to saturation of areas by mounds, followed by coalescence, elongation and lineation of the mounds.  Elongation, coalescence and modification of the mounds has been primarily by wind, but to a lesser extent by drainage and solifluction.  A time frame including ages of 4,000, 10,500, 29,000, and 73,000 years BP is derived by relating the patterns to slip on the San Andreas fault.  Further relating of the patterns to faulting, tilting, and warping may illuminate details of the rates and history of deformation.  Similarly, relating the patterns to the history of ground squirrel activity may help answer such problems as rates of dispersal and limits on population density.

  1. Composition of seismically identified satellite mounds surrounding Greater Aneth field, southeast Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, D.E. ); Groen, W.G.; Johnson, J.F. )

    1993-08-01

    Five different types of satellite mounds have been encountered during drilling and extensive coring of approximately 40 high-resolution CDP (common depth point) seismic anomalies in the Desert Creek interval of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation around the periphery of Greater Aneth field. The composition and diagenetic modification of these mound types directly affect the quality of porosity and permeability within each satellite buildup. The mound types and their principal characteristics are (1) crinoid-sponge limestone with wackestone to packstone fabrics; (2) coralline algal boundstones that are slightly dolomitized; (3) bryozoan-dominated lime boundstones with no significant dissolution porosity; (4) phylloid algal bafflestones with extensive dissolution and some dolomitization occasionally overlain by dolomitized stromatolitic/thrombolitic boundstones; and (5) stacked bioclastic grainstones with extensive dissolution and complete dolomitization. Controls on the development of each mound type appear to be a function of water depth and prevailing water energy. Mound types 1 and 2 typically have low porosity, whereas type 3 preserved primary porosity. Types 4 and 5 commonly exhibit extensive porosity and permeability modification through freshwater dissolution and early dolomitization. Up to five cycles of buildup growth can occur within the Desert Creek satellite mounds. Mound composition types will recur or change to another growth type depending upon local water depth and energy conditions. Calibration of seismic amplitude variations can be used in imaging reservoir size and porosity variation.

  2. Methane oxidation by termite mounds estimated by the carbon isotopic composition of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Atsuko; Inoue, Tetsushi; Kirtibutr, Nit; Abe, Takuya

    1998-12-01

    Emission rates and carbon isotope ratios of CH4, emitted by workers of termites, and of CH4, emitted from their mounds, were observed in a dry evergreen forest in Thailand to estimate the proportion of CH4 oxidized during emission through the mound. The δ13C of CH4 emitted from a termite mound (-70.9 to -82.4‰) was higher than that of CH4 emitted by workers in the mound (-85.4 to -97. l‰). Using a fractionation factor (a = 0.987) for oxidation of CH4 which was obtained in the incubation experiment, an emission factor defined as (CH4 emitted from a termite mound/CH4 produced by termites) was calculated. The emission factor obtained in each termite mound was nearly zero for Macrotermes (fungus-growing termites), of which the nest has a thick soil wall and subterrannean termites, and 0.17 to 0.47 for Termitinae (small-mound-making termites). Global CH4 emission by termites was estimated on the basis of the CH4 emission rates by workers and termite biomass with the emission factors. The calculated result was 1.5 to 7.4 Tg/y (0.3 to 1.3% of total source), which is considerably smaller than the estimate by the IPCC [1994].

  3. Surgical anatomy of the midcheek and malar mounds.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Bryan C; Muzaffar, Arshad R; Adams, William P

    2002-09-01

    The anatomy of the midcheek has not been satisfactorily described to adequately explain midcheek aging and malar mounds, nor has it suggested a logical approach to their correction or provided sufficient detail for safe surgery in this area. This cadaver study, which was complemented by many operative dissections, located a missing link: a glide plane space overlying the body of the zygoma. The space functions to allow mobility of the orbicularis oculi, where it overlies the zygoma and the origins of the elevator muscles to the upper lip. The space is a cleft between the sub-orbicularis oculi fat and the preperiosteal fat and is lined by a fine membrane. The anatomic boundaries are clearly defined by retaining ligaments, which correlate with the triangularity of the space. Several anatomic features provide the functional characteristics of the prezygomatic space, including the (1) absence of direct attachments between the orbicularis in the roof to the floor, (2) more rigid inferior boundary formed by the zygomatic ligaments, and (3) more mobile upper ligamentous boundary formed by the orbicularis retaining ligament (separating from the preseptal space of the lower lid). These components determine the characteristic aging changes that occur in this region and explain much about malar mounds. An appreciation of this anatomy has several surgical implications. The prezygomatic space is a junction area that can be approached from the temple, lower lid, and cheek. The zygomatic branches of the facial nerve to the orbicularis do not cross the space; rather, they course in the walls and in the sub-orbicularis fat within the roof of the space.

  4. Intergenerational Panels at Centennial Events: Stimulating Discussion about Continuity and Change in the 4-H Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Matthew S.; Weikert, Ben; Scholl, Jan; Rushton, Mya

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an intergenerational strategy for organizations planning centennial celebratory events. The methods and findings from the 4-H through the Generations session conducted at the joint 4-H Leadership Conference and 4-H Leaders Forum to celebrate the Pennsylvania 4-H Centennial are reported. Youth and adult participants shared…

  5. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  6. Ant and termite mound coinhabitants in the wetlands of Santo Antonio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diehl, E; Junqueira, L K; Berti-Filho, E

    2005-08-01

    This paper reports on ant and termite species inhabiting the mounds (murundus) found in three wetland sites in Santo Antonio da Patrulha. Ants and termites were found in 100% of the mounds of two sites and in 20% of those in the third site. Colonies of Camponotus fastigatus were found inhabiting all the mounds, while colonies of Brachymyrmex sp., Linepithema sp., Pheidole sp., and/or Solenopsis sp. were collected in less than 30% of the mounds. In the mounds of the three sites, colonies of Anoplotermes sp. and/or Aparatermes sp. termites were found together with the ant colonies. Another cohabiting termite species, Cortaritermes sp., was found only in the mounds of one site. The results suggest that C. fastigatus is the species building the mounds, with the other species, whether ants or termites, being the inquilines.

  7. Late Maastrichtian chalk mounds, Stevns Klint, Denmark — Combined physical and biogenic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Damholt, Tove; Surlyk, Finn

    2007-08-01

    Upper Maastrichtian chalk exposed at the Sigerslev quarry, Stevns Klint, Denmark is characterized by wavy and mound-like bedding geometries outlined by bands of black flint nodules. Four morphological elements are recognized, although bedding geometries are highly variable: southward migrating mounds, eastward migrating mounds, chalk waves and evenly bedded chalk. The mounds are interpreted as having been formed by currents carrying fine-grained suspended sediment which was primarily deposited on the up-current mound flanks. Bryozoans were prolific on the up-current flanks and mound summits, which stabilized the mounds, increased bed roughness and the overall accumulation rate. However, accumulation thicknesses do not correlate consistently with bryozoan density. The bryozoans were therefore important for the formation of the mounds, but the distribution of bryozoans did not solely determine depositional thickness across a mound and thus mound growth pattern. Relatively long wavelength wavy-bedded chalk show gentle convex-up geometries and would probably be described as sediment waves if recognized in seismic sections. The chalk waves were deposited under weaker current velocities than those active during mound formation. The exposed succession is topped by more evenly bedded chalk which was deposited by quiet pelagic fall-out of fine-grained material. The whole succession was deposited on the upper part of the northern flank of a large WNW-ESE trending 3 km wide depositional ridge with an amplitude of 35-40 m formed by contour-parallel WNW-ward flowing bottom currents. The mounds may have been deposited by regional bottom currents, or by spill-over currents from the valley south of the large ridge. The succession was deposited during varying bottom current intensities and the depositional architecture indicates a complex and dynamic environment. The depositional style seems to be controlled by the interplay and relative importance of two end-member processes

  8. Decay of silicon mounds: scaling laws and description with continuum step parameters

    PubMed

    Ichimiya; Hayashi; Williams; Einstein; Uwaha; Watanabe

    2000-04-17

    The decay of mounds about a dozen layers high on the Si(111)-(7x7) surface has been measured quantitatively by scanning tunneling microscopy and compared with analytic predictions for the power-law dependence on time predicted for a step-mediated decay mechanism. Conformably, we find an exponent 1/4 associated with the (3D) decay of the mound height and exponent 1/3 associated with the (2D) decay of top-layer islands. Using parameters from a continuum step model, we capture the essence of the kinetics. Qualitative features distinguish these mounds from multilayer islands found on metals.

  9. [Flora Differentiation among Local Ecotopes in the Transzonal Study of Forest-Steppe and Steppe Mounds].

    PubMed

    Lisetskii, F N; Sudnik-Wojcikowska, B; Moysiyenko, I I

    2016-01-01

    Flora similarity was assessed using complete floristic lists of five ecotopes in each of four mounds along the transect from meadow steppes to desert steppes. It was found that the circumapical similitude of floras is more significant than the expositional similitude. Soil analysis in separate ecotopes showed that regular changes in the biogeochemical features are manifested along the topographic gradient and under the effect of the insolation exposure of slopes in local (mound) ecosystems. It was noted that the slopes are characterized by the most abundant steppe vegetation classes in the phytosociological spectrum of mound ecotopes.

  10. Experimental investigation of plasma impedance in Linac4 H- source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, K.; Mattei, S.; Briefi, S.; Butterworth, A.; Grudiev, A.; Haase, M.; Jones, A.; Paoluzzi, M. M.; Voulgarakis, G.; Hatayama, A.; Lettry, J.

    2017-08-01

    CERN 's new particle accelerator Linac4 is part of the upgrade of the LHC accelerator chain. Linac4 is required to deliver 160 MeV H- beam to improve the beam brightness and luminosity in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Linac4 H- source must deliver 40-50 mA, 45 keV H- beam in the RFQ acceptance. Since the RF power coupled to the H- source plasma is one of the important parameters that determines the quality of the H- beam, the experimental investigation of the dependence of the load impedance on the operational parameters is mandatory. In this study, we have measured the impedance of the H- source plasma varying the RF power coupled to the plasma and the condition of the hydrogen gas. Also, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements have been carried out simultaneously with the impedance measurement in order to determine the plasma parameters. The determination of the plasma parameters allows us to compare the experimental results with the analytic model of the plasma parameters, which is useful to discuss the results from a physical point of view.

  11. Autopilot regulation for the Linac4 H- ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgarakis, G.; Lettry, J.; Mattei, S.; Lefort, B.; Costa, V. J. Correia

    2017-08-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV H- linear accelerator part of the upgrade of the LHC injector chain. Its cesiated surface H- source is designed to provide a beam intensity of 40-50mA. It is operated with periodical Cs-injection at typically 30 days intervals [1] and this implies that the beam parameters will slowly evolve during operation. Autopilot is a control software package extending CERN developed Inspector framework. The aim of Autopilot is to automatize the mandatory optimization and cesiation processes and to derive performance indicators, thus keeping human intervention minimal. Autopilot has been developed by capitalizing on the experience from manually operating the source. It comprises various algorithms running in real-time, which have been devised to: • Optimize the ion source performance by regulation of H2 injection, RF power and frequency. • Describe the performance of the source with performance indicators, which can be easily understood by operators. • Identify failures, try to recover the nominal operation and send warning in case of deviation from nominal operation. • Make the performance indicators remotely available through Web pages.Autopilot is at the same level of hierarchy as an operator, in the CERN infrastructure. This allows the combination of all ion source devices, providing the required flexibility. Autopilot is executed in a dedicated server, ensuring unique and centralized control, yet allowing multiple operators to interact at runtime, always coordinating between them. Autopilot aims at flexibility, adaptability, portability and scalability, and can be extended to other components of CERN's accelerators. In this paper, a detailed description of the Autopilot algorithms is presented, along with first results of operating the Linac4 H- Ion Source with Autopilot.

  12. Buried cold-water coral mounds and contourite deposits in the Atlantic Moroccan Coral Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandorpe, Thomas; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Van den Berghe, Michèle; Van Rooij, David

    2016-04-01

    The Atlantic Moroccan Coral Province (AMCP) is situated in the southern Gulf of Cadiz roughly between 34° 50'N to 35°35'N and 6°30'W to 7°15'W. The region displays tectonic (ridges and both large transverse as well as small normal and reverse faults) as well as sedimentological features (drifts deposits and sediment waves). Eleven mud volcanoes are present in the northern part of the region as well (Vandorpe et al., in press). Besides the presence of many surfacing small cold-water coral mounds, hundreds to thousands of mounds were discovered in the subsurface through 2D seismic parasound and sparker seismic profiles. Over 90% of the mounds are situated at water depths between 600 and 1000 meters and most of them occur in clusters. The cold-water coral mounds are rather small in this region (compared to the 100 m high mounds in the Belgica Province in the Porcupine basin (Huvenne et al., 2003)). Their widths vary between 20 and 200 m with a modus around 60 m, while their heights vary between 2 and 40 m with a modus around 10 m. Moreover, ten horizons at which mound growth initiated can be distinguished, compared to the single mound growth event observed in the Porcupine Basin (Huvenne et al., 2003). This points towards rapidly changing environmental conditions in the AMCP which were sometimes favourable for initiation and growth of cold-water coral mounds. These favourable periods rapidly switched to periods when corals were not able to settle and the mounds could get buried. Mound growth initiates mostly at elevated places, e.g. tectonic ridges, outcropping bedrock or even previous cold-water coral mounds. Elevated places deflect bottom currents and increase the amount of food particles and sediments delivered to the corals, but also create sedimentological features such as contourites. The contourite deposits in the region greatly depend on the slope of the topography against which they are present (Vandorpe et al., in press). When mounds were able to reach a

  13. Sedimentary Mounds on Mars: Tracing Present-day Formation Processes into the Past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Michalski, J.; Edwards, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution photography and spectroscopy of the martian surface (MOC, HiRISE) from orbit has revolutionized our view of Mars with one and revealed spectacular views of finely layered sedimentary materials throughout the globe [1]. Some of these sedimentary deposits are 'mound' shaped and lie inside of craters (Fig 1). Crater mound deposits are found throughout the equatorial region, as well as ice-rich deposits found in craters in the north and south polar region [2-4]. Despite their wide geographical extent and varying volatile content, the 'mound' deposits have a large number of geomorphic and structural similarities that suggest they formed via equivalent processes. Thus, modern depositional processes of ice and dust can serve as an invaluable analog for interpreting the genesis of ancient sedimentary mound deposits.

  14. Former UST Site Reused as Greenspace and Access to Ancient Ceremonial Nikwasi Mound in North Carolina

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about a former underground storage tank site fronting on the Little Tennessee River in Franklin, NC that is now reused as an attractive greenspace with parking and Main Street access to the Nikwasi Mound.

  15. Assessment of the AWC TRUclean process for use on Mound soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.R.

    1989-03-23

    The AWC TRUclean System has been proposed as a method to reduce the volume of LSA waste during D&D excavation of Pu-238 contaminated soils on the Mound Site and Pu-238 contaminated sediments in the Miami-Erie Canal. Following test runs with Mound soil, AWC suggested that the TRUclean Process could reduce the amount of LSA waste by greater than 90% if a machine could be built and used to process the Mound soil. The cost savings which could potentially be realized by assuming this magnitude of volume reduction were thought to be significant on large projects. These preliminary results suggested that a review of the TRUclean Process and the 1987 test results should be performed to determine a course of action. The AWC TRUclean Process and the test data have been evaluated and the potential effectiveness of the process determined for use on Mound soils and/or on the sediments in the Miami-Erie Canal.

  16. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Seasonally-Acquired Imported Fire Ant Mound Features (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Turfgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, residential, and commercial settings. Ground-based hyperspectral studies focused on the seasonal monitoring of reflectance characteristics of imported f...

  17. Interpretation and mapping of carbonate mounds within the Ordovician on Gotland, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levendal, Tegan; Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Oljeprospecketering AB (OPAB), a Swedish state owned company, acquired an extensive data set in the 1970s and 1980s for the purposes of hydrocarbon exploration. This OPAB data set is largely unpublished and consists of over 300 well data reports and logs and over 33000 km of 2D marine seismic data, as well as land seismic data from the island of Gotland. In this study we use processed land seismic profiles from Gotland and well data to interpret the thickness of the Ordovician across the island. As well as gain insight into the internal stratigraphy and structural framework of the Ordovician. The Ordovician sequence is 100-150 m thick consisting of three formations (Fm), informally defined by OPAB, the Bentonitic Limestone Fm, the Kvarne Fm and the Klasen Fm. Carbonate mounds are locally formed from siliciclastic rich muds. In the lower sequences carbonate mounds are present that are observed both in the seismic and well data. These mounds were of great interest during the exploration phase since they are sometimes host to hydrocarbon accumulations. In the present study we place emphasis on mapping the size, distribution and density of the carbonate mounds within the Ordovician. The original driving force for the development of these mounds are related to sea level and climate changes during deposition. Post depositional erosion, biotic factors and basin evolution also played a role in their development. During the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian, Baltica moved northwards towards the equator resulting in a typical depositional environment consisting of proximal coastal areas, and transgressive, lowstand shelf settings conducive to mound development. The mounds act as potential reservoirs, in the form of isolated bodies of limestone capped by tabular and tight argillaceous limestones acting as a cap rock. To date studies of carbonate mound features have primarily focused on detailed analysis of well log, core and outcrop information. This extensive dataset therefore

  18. Some characteristics of soils on the man made mounds in the Harran Plain of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Seyyid; Surucu, Abdülkadir

    2007-12-15

    Morphological, chemical and some mineralogical characteristics of five soils, were researched to understand the genesis of soils on the man made mounds in the Harran Plain, in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Five soil profiles developed on the man made mounds in the arid region. Time and climate have affected soil formation. Also, parent material has influenced the chemistry of soils. The parent material of man made mounds were carried from around soils in the Harran Plain by men in years ago. The parent materials of around soils are calcareous parent materials and alluvium materials. Pedon 1 was described on the Konuklu man made mounds the northeast of the study area and Pedon 5 was described on the Küplüce man made mounds the southeast of the study area. According to the place of man made mounds were ordered from north to south as following: Pedon 1, Pedon 2, Pedon 3, Pedon 4 and Pedon 5. The old of Konuklu mounds is approximately 5000-6000 years. The old of Sultantepe and Koruklu mounds are approximately 6000 years. Pedon 4 which was described on the old Harran city remnants have the youngest soils of study area. The Harran mounds was made in 1258 A.I. by Mongolians. Mongolians destroyed the Harran City and made the Harran mounds. The most important pedogenic processes is carbonate leaching and accumulation in the pedon 5 on the Küplüce man made mounds. The CaCO3 content of Pedon 5 may be attributed to eolian addition from Syria. Total Al2O3 contents of soils higher than total Fe2O3 content. According to the degree of soil formation the profiles were ordered as following: Pedon 3 > Pedon 5 > Pedon 2 > Pedon 1 > Pedon 4. The results of total elements analysis were used to determine the beta leaching factor according to Jenny. The leaching factor were determined as < 1 in the Pedon 1 (0.99), Pedon 2 (0.97), Pedon 3 (0.74) and Pedon 5 (0.92). The leaching factor were determined as >1 in the Pedon 4(1.13).

  19. Water fluxes between inter-patches and vegetated mounds in flat semiarid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, María J.; Ares, Jorge O.

    2017-03-01

    It has been assumed that bare soil (BS) inter-patches in semi arid spotted vegetation behave as sources of water to near vegetated soil (VS) patches. However, little evidence has been gained from direct measurements of overland and infiltration water fluxes between bare soil inter-patches and shrub mounds at a scale compatible with available high resolution imagery and hydrological modeling techniques. The objective of this study is to address the thin scale internal redistribution of water between BS inter-patches and vegetated mounds at relatively flat spotted semiarid landscapes. The relation between plant cover, topography and runoff was inspected with non-parametric association coefficients based on high resolution remotely sensed imagery, ground truth topographic elevation and spatial-explicit field data on potential runoff. Measurements of advective flows at the same spatial scale were carried out at micro-plots of BS and shrub mounds. Water fluxes between BS inter-patch and a shrub mound were simulated under varying typical Patagonian rainfall scenarios with an hydrological model. Results obtained revealed that the soil properties, infiltration and overland flow metrics at the mounds and inter-patches exhibit spatially and dynamic variable hydraulic properties. High micro-topographic roughness and depression storage thickened overland flow depth at VS patches. At BS inter-patches prevailing low slopes and depression storage were found to be important variables attenuating the surface runoff. At both rainfall scenarios simulated, the soil under the shrub mound accumulated more moisture (from direct rain) and reached saturation long before this occurred in BS nearby inter-patch area. Overland flow at the inter-patch was attenuated as it reached the border of the patch, diverging from the latter as it followed the (small) topographic gradient. The overland flow generated inside the vegetated mound was effectively retained at the typical Summer rainfall

  20. Integrated research on the Pen Duick cold-water coral mounds: the MiCROSYSTEMS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooij, David; de Mol, Lies; Blamart, Dominique; Mienis, Furu; Wehrmann, Laura M.; Barbieri, Roberto; Maignien, Lois; Templer, Stefanie P.; de Haas, Henk; Henriet, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    The ESF EuroDIVERSITY MiCROSYSTEMS project aimed to turn the cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment (PDE) in the Gulf of Cadiz into a natural laboratory, exploring this highly complex biotope and to characterize its biodiversity. A common point of discussion with all other CWC mound provinces, surpassing its broad range of regional and morphological variability, concerns the driving forces regarding the initiation of these complex deep-water systems. Both oceanographic and geological processes have been proposed to play a significant role in the mound nucleation, growth and decline. During IODP Expedition 307, the importance of biogeochemical processes was already elucidated. Here, we present the preliminary results of the MD169 campaign as an integrated case study of three PDE CWC mounds: Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and seafloor, no actual living reef has been observed during the many ROV surveys. This multidisciplinary study aims to present a comprehensive and holistic view on the local dynamic geological and oceanographic environment. Coring data suggests (past or present) methane seepage near the Pen Duick Escarpment. Several sources and pathways are proposed, among which a stratigraphic migration through uplifted Miocene series underneath PDE. Its dominant morphology has influenced the local hydrodynamics within the course of the Pliocene, as documented by the emplacement of a sediment drift. Predominantly during post-Middle Pleistocene glacial episodes, favourable conditions were present for mound growth. An additional advantage for CWC mound nucleation near the top of PDE is offered through seepage-related carbonate crusts which might offer elevated colonization positions. Present-day seabed observations also suggested a possible important role of open coral rubble frameworks in the mound building process. These graveyards not only act as sediment trap

  1. Archaeological mounds as analogs of engineered covers for waste disposal sites: Literature review and progress report. [Appendix contains bibliography and data on archaeological mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J C; Gard, H A

    1991-09-01

    Closure caps for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are typically designed as layered earthen structures, the composition of which is intended to prevent the infiltration of water and the intrusion of the public into waste forms. Federal regulations require that closure caps perform these functions well enough that minimum exposure guidelines will be met for at least 500 years. Short-term experimentation cannot mimic the conditions that will affect closure caps on the scale of centuries, and therefore cannot provide data on the performance of cap designs over long periods of time. Archaeological mounds hundreds to thousands of years old which are closely analogous to closure caps in form, construction details, and intent can be studied to obtain the necessary understanding of design performance. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a review and analysis of archaeological literature on ancient human-made mounds to determine the quality and potential applicability of this information base to assessments of waste facility design performance. A bibliography of over 200 English-language references was assembled on mound structures from the Americas, Europe, and Asia. A sample of these texts was read for data on variables including environmental and geographic setting, condition, design features, construction. Detailed information was obtained on all variables except those relating to physical and hydrological characteristics of the mound matrix, which few texts presented. It is concluded that an extensive amount of literature and data are available on structures closely analogous to closure caps and that this information is a valuable source of data on the long-term performance of mounded structures. Additional study is recommended, including an expanded analysis of design features reported in the literature and field studies of the physical and hydraulic characteristics of different mound designs. 23 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Buried Cold-Water Coral Mound Provinces and Contourite Drifts Along the Eastern Atlantic Margin: Controls, Interactions and Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rooij, D.; Vandorpe, T.; Delivet, S.; Hebbeln, D.; Wienberg, C.; Martins, I.

    2014-12-01

    The association between cold-water coral mounds and contourite drift deposits has been demonstrated in the Belgica mound province, off Ireland. On that location, IODP expedition 307 was able to drill through the base of a mound, dating mound initiation at 2.65 Ma. However, the Belgica mounds are just one of the many expressions of mound growth. More enigmatic is the buried Magellan mound province, located in the northern part of the Porcupine Basin, featuring over 1000 relatively closely spaced buried mounds, which are all rooted on a common reflector. This indicates a common start-up event, but the true driving forces behind their initial settling, growth and demise are still unknown. The influence of bottom currents cannot be ruled out, since clear obstacle marks are present surrounding the mounds. In 2013, some 3000 km south of the Magellan mounds, a new province of buried mounds was discovered along the Moroccan Atlantic Margin, which may shed new light on the "life" cycle of mounds. Here, we report the preliminary results and propose a first view on the controls, interactions and connectivity between these 2 provinces, assisted by a series of studies of contourite drifts along the Eastern Atlantic Margin. The newly discovered buried mounds can be associated to a vast province of several clusters of seabed mounds. They occur in water depths between 500 and 1000 m, buried under up to 50 m of sediment. With respect to the Magellan mounds, they are smaller, but more importantly, they do not root on one single stratigraphic level. At least 4 different initiation levels were identified. The off-mound reflectors indicate a slight influence of bottom currents, since the mounds are located in a large sediment drift. Moreover, the link between the two buried mound provinces may be found in connecting the evolution of the associated contourite drift systems, respectively in Porcupine Seabight and the Gulf of Cádiz. Intermediate sites on Goban Spur and near Le Danois

  3. Shell Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

  4. Shell Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

  5. Active hydrothermal and non-active massive sulfide mound investigation using a new multiparameter chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, C.; Wu, G.; Qin, H.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Investigation of active hydrothermal mound as well as non-active massive sulfide mound are studied recently. However, there is still lack of in-situ detection method for the non-active massive sulfide mound. Even though Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) and Electric Self-potential (SP) methods are good, they both are labour, time and money cost work. We proposed a new multiparameter chemical sensor method to study the seafloor active hydrothermal mound as well as non-active massive sulfide mound. This sensor integrates Eh, S2- ions concentration and pH electrochemical electrodes together, and could found chemical change caused by the active hydrothermal vent, even weak chemical abnormalities by non-active massive sulfide hydrothermal mound which MARP and CTD sometimes cannot detect. In 2012, the 1st Leg of the Chinese 26th cruise, the multiparameter chemical sensor was carried out with the deepsea camera system over the Carlsberg Ridge in Indian Ocean by R/V DAYANGYIHAO. It was shown small Eh and S2- ions concentration abnormal around a site at Northwest Indian ridge. This site was also evidenced by the TV grab. In the 2nd Leg of the same cruise in June, this chemical sensor was carried out with TEM and SP survey system. The chemical abnormalities are matched very well with both TEM and SP survey results. The results show that the multiparameter chemical sensor method not only can detect active hydrothermal mound, but also can find the non-active massive sulfide hydrothermal mound.

  6. Bacterial density and community structure associated with aggregate size fractions of soil-feeding termite mounds.

    PubMed

    Fall, S; Nazaret, S; Chotte, J L; Brauman, A

    2004-08-01

    The building and foraging activities of termites are known to modify soil characteristics such as the heterogeneity. In tropical savannas the impact of the activity of soil-feeding termites ( Cubitermes niokoloensis) has been shown to affect the properties of the soil at the aggregate level by creating new soil microenvironments (aggregate size fractions) [13]. These changes were investigated in greater depth by looking at the microbial density (AODC) and the genetic structure (automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis: ARISA) of the communities in the different aggregate size fractions (i.e., coarse sand, fine sand, coarse silt, fine silt, and dispersible clays) separated from compartments (internal and external wall) of three Cubitermes niokoloensis mounds. The bacterial density of the mounds was significantly higher (1.5 to 3 times) than that of the surrounding soil. Within the aggregate size fractions, the termite building activity resulted in a significant increase in bacterial density within the coarser fractions (>20 mum). Multivariate analysis of the ARISA profiles revealed that the bacterial genetic structures of unfractionated soil and soil aggregate size fractions of the three mounds was noticeably different from the savanna soil used as a reference. Moreover, the microbial community associated with the different microenvironments in the three termite mounds revealed three distinct clusters formed by the aggregate size fractions of each mound. Except for the 2-20 mum fraction, these results suggest that the mound microbial genetic structure is more dependent upon microbial pool affiliation (the termite mound) than on the soil location (aggregate size fraction). The causes of the specificity of the microbial community structure of termite mound aggregate size fractions are discussed.

  7. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in a cold-water coral carbonate mound from the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maignien, L.; Depreiter, D.; Foubert, A.; Reveillaud, J.; de Mol, L.; Boeckx, P.; Blamart, D.; Henriet, J.-P.; Boon, N.

    2010-03-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is an area of mud volcanism and gas venting through the seafloor. In addition, several cold-water coral carbonate mounds have been discovered at the Pen Duick escarpment amidst the El Arraiche mud volcano field on the Moroccan margin. One of these mounds -named Alpha mound- has been studied to examine the impact of the presence of methane on pore-water geochemistry, potential sulphate reduction (SR) rate and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) budget of the mound in comparison with off-mound and off-escarpment locations. Pore-water profiles of sulphate, sulphide, methane, and DIC from the on-mound location showed the presence of a sulphate to methane transition zone at 350 cm below the sea floor. This was well correlated with an increase in SR activity. 13C-depleted DIC at the transition zone (-21.9‰ vs. Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite) indicated that microbial methane oxidation significantly contribute to the DIC budget of the mound. The Alpha mound thus represents a new carbonate mound type where the presence and anaerobic oxidation of methane has an important imprint on both geochemistry and DIC isotopic signature and budget of this carbonate mound.

  8. Numerical Modelling of Solitary Wave Experiments on Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler, H. G.; Arikawa, T.; Baykal, C.; Yalciner, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Performance of a rubble mound breakwater protecting Haydarpasa Port, Turkey, has been tested under tsunami attack by physical model tests conducted at Port and Airport Research Institute (Guler et al, 2015). It is aimed to understand dynamic force of the tsunami by conducting solitary wave tests (Arikawa, 2015). In this study, the main objective is to perform numerical modelling of solitary wave tests in order to verify accuracy of the CFD model IHFOAM, developed in OpenFOAM environment (Higuera et al, 2013), by comparing results of the numerical computations with the experimental results. IHFOAM is the numerical modelling tool which is based on VARANS equations with a k-ω SST turbulence model including realistic wave generation, and active wave absorption. Experiments are performed using a Froude scale of 1/30, measuring surface elevation and flow velocity at several locations in the wave channel, and wave pressure around the crown wall of the breakwater. Solitary wave tests with wave heights of H=7.5 cm and H=10 cm are selected which represent the results of the experiments. The first test (H=7.5 cm) is the case that resulted in no damage whereas the second case (H=10 cm) resulted in total damage due to the sliding of the crown wall. After comparison of the preliminary results of numerical simulations with experimental data for both cases, it is observed that solitary wave experiments could be accurately modeled using IHFOAM focusing water surface elevations, flow velocities, and wave pressures on the crown wall of the breakwater (Figure, result of sim. at t=29.6 sec). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors acknowledge developers of IHFOAM, further extend their acknowledgements for the partial supports from the research projects MarDiM, ASTARTE, RAPSODI, and TUBITAK 213M534. REFERENCESArikawa (2015) "Consideration of Characteristics of Pressure on Seawall by Solitary Waves Based on Hydraulic Experiments", Jour. of Japan. Soc. of Civ. Eng. Ser. B2 (Coast. Eng.), Vol 71, p I

  9. The Surales, Self-Organized Earth-Mound Landscapes Made by Earthworms in a Seasonal Tropical Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Iriarte, José; Suarez Jimenez, Luz Elena; Adame Montoya, Kisay Lorena; Juilleret, Jérôme; McKey, Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The formation, functioning and emergent properties of patterned landscapes have recently drawn increased attention, notably in semi-arid ecosystems. We describe and analyze a set of similarly spectacular landforms in seasonal tropical wetlands. Surales landscapes, comprised of densely packed, regularly spaced mounds, cover large areas of the Orinoco Llanos. Although descriptions of surales date back to the 1940’s, their ecology is virtually unknown. From data on soil physical and chemical properties, soil macrofauna, vegetation and aerial imagery, we provide evidence of the spatial extent of surales and how they form and develop. Mounds are largely comprised of earthworm casts. Recognizable, recently produced casts account for up to one-half of total soil mass. Locally, mounds are relatively constant in size, but vary greatly across sites in diameter (0.5–5 m) and height (from 0.3 m to over 2 m). This variation appears to reflect a chronosequence of surales formation and growth. Mound shape (round to labyrinth) varies across elevational gradients. Mounds are initiated when large earthworms feed in shallowly flooded soils, depositing casts that form ‘towers’ above water level. Using permanent galleries, each earthworm returns repeatedly to the same spot to deposit casts and to respire. Over time, the tower becomes a mound. Because each earthworm has a restricted foraging radius, there is net movement of soil to the mound from the surrounding area. As the mound grows, its basin thus becomes deeper, making initiation of a new mound nearby more difficult. When mounds already initiated are situated close together, the basin between them is filled and mounds coalesce to form larger composite mounds. Over time, this process produces mounds up to 5 m in diameter and 2 m tall. Our results suggest that one earthworm species drives self-organizing processes that produce keystone structures determining ecosystem functioning and development. PMID:27168157

  10. The Surales, Self-Organized Earth-Mound Landscapes Made by Earthworms in a Seasonal Tropical Wetland.

    PubMed

    Zangerlé, Anne; Renard, Delphine; Iriarte, José; Suarez Jimenez, Luz Elena; Adame Montoya, Kisay Lorena; Juilleret, Jérôme; McKey, Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The formation, functioning and emergent properties of patterned landscapes have recently drawn increased attention, notably in semi-arid ecosystems. We describe and analyze a set of similarly spectacular landforms in seasonal tropical wetlands. Surales landscapes, comprised of densely packed, regularly spaced mounds, cover large areas of the Orinoco Llanos. Although descriptions of surales date back to the 1940's, their ecology is virtually unknown. From data on soil physical and chemical properties, soil macrofauna, vegetation and aerial imagery, we provide evidence of the spatial extent of surales and how they form and develop. Mounds are largely comprised of earthworm casts. Recognizable, recently produced casts account for up to one-half of total soil mass. Locally, mounds are relatively constant in size, but vary greatly across sites in diameter (0.5-5 m) and height (from 0.3 m to over 2 m). This variation appears to reflect a chronosequence of surales formation and growth. Mound shape (round to labyrinth) varies across elevational gradients. Mounds are initiated when large earthworms feed in shallowly flooded soils, depositing casts that form 'towers' above water level. Using permanent galleries, each earthworm returns repeatedly to the same spot to deposit casts and to respire. Over time, the tower becomes a mound. Because each earthworm has a restricted foraging radius, there is net movement of soil to the mound from the surrounding area. As the mound grows, its basin thus becomes deeper, making initiation of a new mound nearby more difficult. When mounds already initiated are situated close together, the basin between them is filled and mounds coalesce to form larger composite mounds. Over time, this process produces mounds up to 5 m in diameter and 2 m tall. Our results suggest that one earthworm species drives self-organizing processes that produce keystone structures determining ecosystem functioning and development.

  11. Oil reservoirs in grainstone aprons around Bryozoan Mounds, Upper Harrodsburg Limestone, Mississippian, Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Jobe, H.; Saller, A.

    1995-06-01

    Several oil pools have been discovered recently in the upper Harrodsburg Limestone (middle Mississippian) of the Illinois basin. A depositional model for bryozoan mound complexes has allowed more successful exploration and development in this play. In the Johnsonville area of Wayne County, Illinois, three lithofacies are dominant in the upper Harrodsburg: (1) bryozoan boundstones, (2) bryozoan grainstones, and (3) fossiliferous wackestones. Bryozoan boundstones occur as discontinuous mounds and have low porosity. Although bryozoan boundstones are not the main reservoir lithofacies, they are important because they influenced the distribution of bryozoan grainstones and existing structure. Bryozoan grainstones have intergranular porosity and are the main reservoir rock. Bryozoan fragments derived from bryozoan boundstone mounds were concentrated in grainstones around the mounds. Fossiliferous wackestones are not porous and form vertical and lateral seals for upper Harrodsburg grainstones. Fossiliferous wackestones were deposited in deeper water adjacent to bryozoan grainstone aprons, and above grainstones and boundstones after the mounds were drowned. Upper Harrodsburg oil reservoirs occur where grainstone aprons are structurally high. The Harrodsburg is a good example of a carbonate mound system where boundstone cores are not porous, but adjacent grainstones are porous. Primary recovery in these upper Harrodsburg reservoirs is improved by strong pressure support from an aquifer in the lower Harrodsburg. Unfortunately, oil production is commonly decreased by water encroaching from that underlying aquifer.

  12. Textural variation within Great Salt Lake algal mounds: Chapter 8.5 in Stromatolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1976-01-01

    This chapter discusses textural variation within the Great Salt Lake algal mounds. Great Salt Lake algal mounds contain: (1) a framework of non-skeletal, algally induced aragonite precipitates; (2) internal sediment; and (3) inorganic cement. These three elements create a variety of laminated, poorly laminated, and unlaminated internal textures. Interior framework precipitates bear little resemblance to the present living film of the mound surface. Internal texture of the mounds is believed to be largely relict and to have resulted from precipitation by algae different than those presently living at the surface. The most probable cause of local extinction of the algal flora is change in brine salinity. Precipitated blue-green algal structures in ancient rocks may indicate other than normal marine salinity and near shore sedimentation. Extreme variation of internal texture reflects extreme environmental variability typical of closed basin lakes. Recognition of mounds similar to those in the Great Salt Lake can be a first step toward recognition of ancient hyper-saline lake deposits, if such an interpretation is substantiated by consideration of the entire depositional milieu of precipitated algal mounds.

  13. Regional Mapping and Spectral Analysis of Mounds in Acidalia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amador, E. S.; Allen, Carlton; Oehler, D. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Acidalia Planitia is a approx.3000 km diameter planum located in the northern plains of Mars. It is believed to be a sedimentary basin containing an accumulation of sediments brought by Hesperian outflow channels that drained the Highlands. A large number of high-albedo mounds have been identified across this basin [1-2] and understanding the process that formed them should help us understand the history of this region. Farrand et al. [2] showed that the mounds are dark in THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System) nighttime IR (infrared) image data. This implies that the mounds have a lower thermal inertia than the surrounding plains (Fig. 1), suggesting that the material of the mounds is fine-grained or unconsolidated. Farrand et al. [2] also reviewed potential analogs for the mounds and concluded that a combination of mud volcanoes with evaporites around geysers or springs is most consistent with all the data. We have built on this work by creating regional maps of the features and analyzing CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) data to see if there are mineralogical differences between the mounds and surrounding plains.

  14. Zonation of Microbial Communities by a Hydrothermal Mound in the Atlantis II Deep (the Red Sea).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Li, Jiang Tao; He, Li Sheng; Yang, Bo; Gao, Zhao Ming; Cao, Hui Luo; Batang, Zenon; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In deep-sea geothermal rift zones, the dispersal of hydrothermal fluids of moderately-high temperatures typically forms subseafloor mounds. Major mineral components of the crust covering the mound are barite and metal sulfides. As a result of the continental rifting along the Red Sea, metalliferous sediments accumulate on the seafloor of the Atlantis II Deep. In the present study, a barite crust was identified in a sediment core from the Atlantis II Deep, indicating the formation of a hydrothermal mound at the sampling site. Here, we examined how such a dense barite crust could affect the local environment and the distribution of microbial inhabitants. Our results demonstrate distinctive features of mineral components and microbial communities in the sediment layers separated by the barite crust. Within the mound, archaea accounted for 65% of the community. In contrast, the sediments above the barite boundary were overwhelmed by bacteria. The composition of microbial communities under the mound was similar to that in the sediments of the nearby Discovery Deep and marine cold seeps. This work reveals the zonation of microbial communities after the formation of the hydrothermal mound in the subsurface sediments of the rift basin.

  15. Zonation of Microbial Communities by a Hydrothermal Mound in the Atlantis II Deep (the Red Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Li, Jiang Tao; He, Li Sheng; Yang, Bo; Gao, Zhao Ming; Cao, Hui Luo; Batang, Zenon; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In deep-sea geothermal rift zones, the dispersal of hydrothermal fluids of moderately-high temperatures typically forms subseafloor mounds. Major mineral components of the crust covering the mound are barite and metal sulfides. As a result of the continental rifting along the Red Sea, metalliferous sediments accumulate on the seafloor of the Atlantis II Deep. In the present study, a barite crust was identified in a sediment core from the Atlantis II Deep, indicating the formation of a hydrothermal mound at the sampling site. Here, we examined how such a dense barite crust could affect the local environment and the distribution of microbial inhabitants. Our results demonstrate distinctive features of mineral components and microbial communities in the sediment layers separated by the barite crust. Within the mound, archaea accounted for 65% of the community. In contrast, the sediments above the barite boundary were overwhelmed by bacteria. The composition of microbial communities under the mound was similar to that in the sediments of the nearby Discovery Deep and marine cold seeps. This work reveals the zonation of microbial communities after the formation of the hydrothermal mound in the subsurface sediments of the rift basin. PMID:26485717

  16. Vibration of Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissa, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    The vibrational characteristics and mechanical properties of shell structures are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) fundamental equations of thin shell theory, (2) characteristics of thin circular cylindrical shells, (3) complicating effects in circular cylindrical shells, (4) noncircular cylindrical shell properties, (5) characteristics of spherical shells, and (6) solution of three-dimensional equations of motion for cylinders.

  17. Biogeochemistry and geomicrobiology of cold-water coral carbonate mounds - lessons learned from IODP Expedition 307

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdelman, Timothy; Wehrmann, Laura; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Kano, Akihiro; Williams, Trevor; Jean-Pierre, Henriet

    2010-05-01

    Large mound structures associated with cold-water coral ecosystems commonly occur on the slopes of continental margins, for instance, west of Ireland in the Porcupine Seabight, the Gulf of Cadiz or the Straits of Florida. In the Porcupine Seabight over 1500 mounds of up to 5 km in diameter and 250 m height lie at water depths of 600 to 900 m. The cold-water coral reef ecosystems associated with these structures are considered to be "hotspots" of organic carbon mineralization and microbial systems. To establish a depositional and biogeochemical/diagenetic model for cold-water carbonate mounds, Challenger Mound and adjacent continental slope sites were drilled in May 2005 during IODP Expedition 307. One major objective was to test whether deep sub-surface hydrocarbon flow and enhanced microbial activity within the mound structure was important in producing and stabilizing these sedimentary structures. Drilling results showed that the Challenger mound succession (IODP Site U1317) is 130 to 150 meters thick, and mainly consists of floatstone and rudstone facies formed of fine sediments and cold-water branching corals. Pronounced recurring cycles on the scales of several meters are recognized in carbonate content (up to 70% carbonate) and color reflectance, and are probably associated with Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. A role for methane seepage and subsequent anaerobic oxidation was discounted both as a hard-round substrate for mound initiation and as a principal source of carbonate within the mound succession. A broad sulfate-methane transition (approximately 50 m thick)within the Miocene sediments suggested that the zone of anaerobic oxidation of methane principally occurs below the moundbase. In the mound sediments, interstitial water profiles of sulfate, alkalinity, Mg, and Sr suggested a tight coupling between carbonate diagenesis and low rates of microbial sulfate reduction. Overall organic carbon mineralization within cold-water coral mound appeared

  18. Building Atoms Shell by Shell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…

  19. Building Atoms Shell by Shell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…

  20. Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R.K.

    1988-11-30

    An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.

  1. Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudeen, David Keith; Weber, Paula D.; Lord, David L.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage volume in the existing Bryan Mound 113 cavern from a starting volume of 7.4 million barrels (MMB) to its design volume of 11.2 MMB. The first stage was terminated several months earlier than expected in August, 2012, as the upper section of the leach zone expanded outward more quickly than design. The oil-brine interface was then re-positioned with the intent to resume leaching in the second stage configuration. This report evaluates the as-built configuration of the cavern at the end of the first stage, and recommends changes to the second stage plan in order to accommodate for the variance between the first stage plan and the as-built cavern. SANSMIC leach code simulations are presented and compared with sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes from the revised plan for the second stage leach.

  2. Automatic Modelling of Rubble Mound Breakwaters from LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, M.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; González-Jorge, H.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2015-08-01

    Rubble mound breakwaters maintenance is critical to the protection of beaches and ports. LiDAR systems provide accurate point clouds from the emerged part of the structure that can be modelled to make it more useful and easy to handle. This work introduces a methodology for the automatic modelling of breakwaters with armour units of cube shape. The algorithm is divided in three main steps: normal vector computation, plane segmentation, and cube reconstruction. Plane segmentation uses the normal orientation of the points and the edge length of the cube. Cube reconstruction uses the intersection of three perpendicular planes and the edge length. Three point clouds cropped from the main point cloud of the structure are used for the tests. The number of cubes detected is around 56 % for two of the point clouds and 32 % for the third one over the total physical cubes. Accuracy assessment is done by comparison with manually drawn cubes calculating the differences between the vertexes. It ranges between 6.4 cm and 15 cm. Computing time ranges between 578.5 s and 8018.2 s. The computing time increases with the number of cubes and the requirements of collision detection.

  3. Earth-mounded concrete bunker PLAP technical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, R.

    1989-11-01

    Under the US DOE Prototype License Application Project (PLAP), Ebasco Services Incorporated was commissioned to develop a preliminary design of the Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker (EMCB) concept for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. The EMCB disposal concept is of great interest because it represents the only engineered LLW disposal technology currently in use in the commercial sector. By definition, the EMCB disposal structure is located partially below grade and partially above grade. The concrete bunker is an engineered structure designed to be structurally stable for the prerequisite time horizon. The basic design parameters of the disposal facility were stipulated by US DOE, a northeast site location, representative waste, 30 year operational life, and a 250,000 ft{sup 3}/year disposal capacity. The design was developed to satisfy only US NRC Part 61 disposal requirements, not individual state requirements that may go beyond Part 61 requirements. The technical safety analysis of the preliminary design was documented according to the format specifications of NUREG-1199, to the extent practicable with quite limited resources.

  4. Origin Hypotheses for Kilometer-Scale Mounds on Dwarf Planet Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizemore, Hanna G.; Platz, Thomas; Schmidt, Britney E.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Russell, Christopher T.; Mest, Scott C.; Crown, David A.; Sykes, Mark V.; Hughson, Kynan H. G.; Chilton, Heather T.; Williams, David A.; Pieters, Carle M.; Marchi, Simone; Travis, Bryan; Raymond, Carol A.

    2015-11-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera has revealed numerous domical to conical features on Ceres, which may have relevance to the presence and history of near-surface ice. These features fall into two broad classes, large domes 10s to >100 km in diameter exhibiting 1-5 km of positive relief, and small mounds <10 km in diameter exhibiting sub-kilometer relief. Here, we propose three hypotheses for the origin of the ~150 small mounds identified thus far, and discuss morphological observations that could support each hypothesis as higher resolution data becomes available.Hypothesis 1: Kilometer-scale mounds are produced by localized eruption of cryomagma or hydrothermal material. Observational tests: Kilometer and sub-kilometer scale albedo variations; sub-kilometer flow features on individual mounds; localized vents; conical or domical shape. Challenge: Features are smaller than convective plumes expected from thermal evolution modeling.Hypothesis 2: Kilometer-scale mounds are analogous to terrestrial and martian pingos, which grow by drawing liquid water through a silicate matrix as a freezing front propagates downward. Observational tests: Mounds occurring on smooth material that floods or embays large-scale features; little or no local albedo variation; no small flows associated with individual mounds; domical or ring-shape; concentric or radial fractures on dome, or central depression. Challenge: Small Cerean mounds observed thus far are an order of magnitude larger than terrestrial or martian pingos.Hypothesis 3: Kilometer-scale mounds are rootless cones analogous to features observed on the surface of volcanic flows in volatile-rich regions of Earth and Mars. Rootless cones are produced when layers of fluid material inundate a region; localized devolatilization of a layer mobilizes clasts to form cone-shaped deposits. Observational tests: Mounds on smooth material that floods or embays large-scale features; conical, not domical, profile; large central

  5. AUV Reveals Deep-Water Coral Mound Distribution, Morphology and Oceanography in the Florida Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmueck, M.; Eberli, G. P.; Viggiano, D. A.; Correa, T.; Rathwell, G.; Luo, J.

    2006-12-01

    Since the 1960's dredge sampling and submersible dives have discovered numerous mound-forming deep- water corals in water depths of 400-800 m in the Straits of Florida. This extensive collection of samples and observations however can not be put into a geomorphologic context as existing bathymetric charts do not resolve coral mounds. To make progress in understanding the distribution and genesis of coral mounds, maps of morphology and oceanographic conditions resolving features at the 1-10 m scale are needed. On 11-18 December 2005 the C-Surveyor II(TM) mapped five sites ranging from 14-48 km2 in 590-875 m water acquiring 1-3 m resolution bathymetry and acoustic backscatter together with subbottom profiles, current vectors, salinity, and temperature. The areas mapped with the AUV contain hundreds of coral mounds with heights of 1-120 m. Mound distribution, morphology and currents are different for each survey site. Coral mounds develop on off-bank transported sediment ridges and slump features at the toe-of-slope of Great Bahama bank, while chevron pattern ridges and sinusoidal ridges are found further east in the Straits. Currents range from 0.1-0.5 m/s. At two sites currents reversed every 6 hours indicating tidal control. The AUV surveys and subsequent ground truthing with a drop camera and a submersible revealed a surprising abundance and diversity of deep-water coral habitats. The boundaries between mound fields and the barren muddy or sandy seafloor are sharp. Hull- mounted multi-beam reconnaissance mapping helped us select the most promising coral mound areas to optimize the use of valuable AUV time. Such combined use of hull-mounted and AUV-based mapping enables efficient environmental characterization of large deep-water regions such as the Florida Straits. The synoptic high-resolution datasets acquired by the multiple sensors on board the AUV enable for the first time a comprehensive assessment of deep-water coral mound ecosystems. Utilization of such

  6. The ultraviolet photochemistry of diacetylene - Direct detection of primary products of the metastable C4H2* + C4H2 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Lakshminarayan, Chitra; Frost, Rex K.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    The products of diacetylene's ultraviolet photochemistry over the 245-220 nm region were directly determined in experiments where C4H2 was excited within a small reaction tube attached to a pulsed nozzle. The products formed in the collisions of C4H2* with C4H2 were subsequently ionized by vacuum UV radiation (at 118 nm) in the ion source of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It was found that the reaction of C4H2* with C4H2 produces C6H2 (+C2H2), C8H2 (+2H,H2), and C8H3 (+H), confirming the results of Glicker and Okabe (1987). Under certain conditions, secondary products were observed. Mechanisms for the observed reactions are proposed.

  7. Shell worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  8. Perceptions of Missouri 4-H Youth Development Personnel Regarding Interorganizational Cooperative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Torres, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of 4-H youth development personnel regarding interorganizational cooperation were studied between the perceived and desired levels of cooperative activities between 4-H youth development personnel and secondary agriculture teachers. Results indicated that 4-H youth development personnel wanted higher levels of coordinated efforts…

  9. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  10. Using the Delphi Technique to Assess Educational Needs Related to Extension's 4-H Beef Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Gamon, Julia A.

    1997-01-01

    Delphi panels completing questionnaires included 32 parents of 4-H students, 16 extension beef specialists, 21 4-H field specialists, and 21 industry representatives. They identified 31 subject-matter and 30 life-skill topics useful for 4-H manuals. Emerging topics included consumer and environmental concerns. (SK)

  11. Examination of Attitude and Interest Measures for 4-H Science Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Worker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Science education research has demonstrated the influence of affect on learning. The National 4-H Science Logic Model outlines outcomes from youth participation in 4-H science programs, which includes attitude and interest outcomes. The associated measure, the National 4-H Science Common Measure, assesses these attitude constructs and not other…

  12. SADDLE HORSE AND OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS' PERCEPTIONS OF 4-H CLUB WORK IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROVES, ROBERT H.

    PERCEPTIONS AND UNDERSTANDINGS OF 4-H OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAMS OF 4-H SADDLE HORSE ADVISORS WERE COMPARED WITH THOSE OF OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS IN NORTHEASTERN AND SOUTHWESTERN DISTRICTS OF OHIO. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY QUESTIONNAIRES FROM 90 SADDLE HORSE AND 133 OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS. STATE 4-H STAFF AND SUPERVISORS PROVIDED CORRECT ANSWERS.…

  13. Examination of Attitude and Interest Measures for 4-H Science Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Worker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Science education research has demonstrated the influence of affect on learning. The National 4-H Science Logic Model outlines outcomes from youth participation in 4-H science programs, which includes attitude and interest outcomes. The associated measure, the National 4-H Science Common Measure, assesses these attitude constructs and not other…

  14. Relationship between Participation in 4-H and Community Leadership in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Allison; Frick, Martin; Steele, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the impact of 4-H on former members generally use alumni as one cohort. In rural states, such as Montana, it is important to understand the impact of 4-H on alumni in these rural areas and the role 4-H plays in community involvement. The study reported here sought to determine the perception of current community leaders in rural Montana…

  15. Perceptions of Missouri 4-H Youth Development Personnel Regarding Interorganizational Cooperative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Torres, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of 4-H youth development personnel regarding interorganizational cooperation were studied between the perceived and desired levels of cooperative activities between 4-H youth development personnel and secondary agriculture teachers. Results indicated that 4-H youth development personnel wanted higher levels of coordinated efforts…

  16. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  17. Text to Speech: A 4-H Model of Accessibility and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    4-H project manuals play an integral part in a youth's ability to achieve mastery in a specific project area. For youth who struggle with reading, written 4-H materials prove inadequate in addressing the needs of the learner. This article proposes a new delivery method of 4-H educational material designed to create a more inclusive and…

  18. Perceptions of Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors on Career Development, Higher Education, and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…

  19. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  20. Multiple-Methods Needs Assessment of California 4-H Science Education Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worker, Steven M.; Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Ambrose, Andrea; Brian, Kelley; Schoenfelder, Emily; Smith, Martin H.

    2017-01-01

    The California 4-H Science Leadership Team conducted a statewide assessment to evaluate the needs of county-based 4-H programs related to the key areas of the 4-H Science Initiative: program development and design, professional development, curricula, evaluation, partnerships, and fund development. The use of multiple qualitative data sources…

  1. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  2. Expression analysis of kenaf cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) ortholog during developmental and stress responses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to clone and analyze the expression pattern of a C4H gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). A full-length C4H ortholog was cloned using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. The full-length C4H ortholog...

  3. Perceptions of Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors on Career Development, Higher Education, and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…

  4. Concentration of Actinides in Plant Mounds at Safety Test Nuclear Sites in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Shafer; Jenna Gommes

    2008-09-15

    Plant mounds or blow-sand mounds are accumulations of soil particles and plant debris around large shrubs and are common features in deserts in the southwestern United States. Believed to be an important factor in their formation, the shrubs create surface roughness that causes wind-suspended particles to be deposited and resist further suspension. Shrub mounds occur in some plant communities on the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), including areas of surface soil contamination from past nuclear testing. In the 1970s as part of early studies to understand properties of actinides in the environment, the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) examined the accumulation of isotopes of Pu, {sup 241}Am, and U in plant mounds at safety test sites. The NAEG studies found concentrations of these contaminants to be greater in shrub mounds than in the surrounding areas of desert pavement. For example, at Project 57 on the NTTR, it was estimated that 15 percent of the radionuclide inventory of the site was associated with shrub mounds, which accounted for 17 percent of the surface area of the site, a ratio of inventory to area of 0.85. At Clean Slate III at the TTR, 29 percent of the inventory was associated with approximately 32 percent of the site covered by shrub mounds, a ratio of 0.91. While the total inventory of radionuclides in intershrub areas was greater, the ratio of radionuclide inventory to area was 0.40 and 0.38, respectively, at the two sites. The comparison between the shrub mounds and adjacent desert pavement areas was made for only the top 5 cm since radionuclides at safety test sites are concentrated in the top 5 cm of intershrub areas. Not accounting for radionuclides associated with the shrub mounds would cause the inventory of contaminants and potential exposure to be underestimated. As part of its Environmental Restoration Soils Subproject, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear

  5. Science Targets in the Landing Ellipse and Lower Mound at the Gale Crater Field Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. B.; Bell, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity will land at the ~155 km diameter Gale Crater (4.6°S 137.2°E) in early August of 2012. The landing ellipse is centered in the northwestern floor of the crater on an alluvial fan composed of material from the crater rim. MSL will sample this material and test the hypothesis that the fan was deposited by flowing liquid water, and then drive south toward the base of the >5km tall central mound of layered rocks. Along this traverse, the smooth, low-thermal-inertia surface of the alluvial fan transitions to a fractured, layered, and spectrally neutral high thermal inertia unit. MSL will be able to assess the interpretation of this unit as cemented alluvial material and determine the cementing agent. Fresh craters in the high thermal inertia unit are important targets for MSL because their ejecta has had less exposure to the harsh radiation environment of the surface which can destroy biomarkers. Continuing south, MSL will descend across a short scarp where the units of the crater floor have eroded to expose the underlying basal unit of the mound. This erosion has formed ridged mesas interpreted to be lithified aeolian bedforms that are part of a widespread "mound-skirting" unit. MSL will test the hypothesis that this unit comprises debris shed from the mound during an early stage of erosion. The heavily fractured basal unit is partially obscured by relatively young mafic dunes, which will provide information about modern aeolian processes on Mars. After analyzing the basal unit and the dunes, MSL will begin climbing the layered rocks of the mound, beginning with a light-toned ridge which shows spectral evidence of hydrated sulfates. Beyond this ridge, the rover will encounter a phyllosilicate-bearing surface exposed in a trough paralleling the ridge. These lower mound layers are the primary targets of the MSL traverse. MSL will test the hypothesis that the lower mound sediments were deposited in a lacustrine setting

  6. Carbonate mound reservoirs in the paradox formation: An outcrop analogue along the San Juan River, Southeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Chidsey, T. C. Jr.; Morgan, C.D.; Eby, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    Carbonate mound reservoirs within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation are major producers of oil and gas in the Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Outcrops of the Paradox Formation along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah provide small-scale analogues of reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, lithofacies, and geometry. These characteristics can be used in reservoir simulation models for secondary/tertiary recovery of oil from small fields in the basin. Exposures of the Paradox Formation Ismay zone in the Wild Horse Canyon area display lateral facies changes from phylloid algal mounds to off-mound detrital wedges or fans bounded at the top by a flooding surface. The phylloid mounds are composed of bafflestone, skeletal grainstone, packstone, and cementstone. Algal plates, brachiopods, bryozoans, and rugose corals are commonly found in the phylloid mounds. The mound wall is composed of rudstone, lumpstone, and cementstone. The detrital fan consists of transported algal material, grainstone, and mudstone with open-marine fossils. Within the mound complex is an inter-mound trough tentatively interpreted to be a tidal channel. The geometry and composition of the rocks in the trough significantly add to the overall heterogeneity of the mound. Reservoir models are being developed for possible water- and carbon-dioxide floods of small Paradox basin fields to determine the most effective secondary/tertiary recovery method. The models will include lithologic fabrics, flooding surfaces, and inter-mound troughs, based on the mound complex exposed at Wild Horse Canyon. This project may also provide reservoir information for simulation models in small Paleozoic carbonate mound fields in other basins worldwide.

  7. Elimination of the Mound-Building Termite, Nasutitermes exitiosus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in South-Eastern Australia Using Bistrifluron Bait.

    PubMed

    Webb, Garry A; Mcclintock, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Bistrifluron, a benzoylphenylurea compound, was evaluated for efficacy against Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill), a mound-building species in southern Australia. Bistrifluron bait (trade name Xterm) was delivered as containerized pellets inserted into plastic feeding stations implanted in the sides of mounds-60 g for bistrifluron bait-treated mounds and 120 g of blank bait for untreated mounds. Termites actively tunneled in the gaps between pellets and removed bait from the canisters. All five treated mounds were eventually eliminated, and all five untreated mounds remained active at the end of the trial. Four of the five treated mounds were considered dead and excavated after 26 wk, but there were earlier signs of mound distress-reduced repair of experimental casement damage and reduced activity in bait canisters by 22 wk and reduced internal mound temperature after 11 wk. One treated mound showed activity in the bait station right through until almost the end of the trial (47 wk), but excavation at 49 wk showed no further activity in the mound. The five untreated colonies removed on average 97% of blank bait offered, while the five treated colonies removed on average 39.1% of bait offered. There was a wide variation in temperature profiles of mounds (up to 15°C for both minimum and maximum internal temperatures), from the beginning of the trial and even before the effects of baiting were evident. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Porcupine Bank Canyon coral mounds: oceanographic and topographic steering of deep-water carbonate mound development and associated phosphatic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Akhmetzhanov, A.; Monteys, X.; Ivanov, M.

    2012-06-01

    The head of a canyon system extending along the western Porcupine Bank (west of Ireland) and which accommodates a large field of giant carbonate mounds was investigated during two cruises (INSS 2000 and TTR-13). Multibeam and sidescan sonar data (600-1,150 m water depth) suggest that the pre-existing seabed topography acts as a significant factor controlling mound distribution and shape. The mounds are concentrated along the edges of the canyon or are associated with a complex fault system traced around the canyon head, comprising escarpments up to 60 m high and several km long. The sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis of numerous types of authigenic deposits was guided by sidescan sonar and video recordings. Calcite-cemented biogenic rubble was observed at the top and on the flanks of the carbonate mounds, being associated with both living and dead corals ( Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and occasional Desmophyllum cristagalli). This can plausibly be explained by dissolution of coral debris facilitated by strong currents along the mound tops and flanks. In turn, the dissolved carbon is recycled and precipitated as interstitial micrite. Calcite, dolomite and phosphatic hardgrounds were identified in samples from the escarpment framing the eastern part of the survey area. The laterally extensive phosphatic hardgrounds represent a novel discovery in the region, supplying hard substrata for the establishment of new coral colonies. Based on existing knowledge of regional oceanographic conditions, complemented with new CTD measurements, it is suggested that water column stratification, enhanced bottom currents, and upwelling facilitate the deposition of organic matter, followed by phosphatisation leading to the formation of phosphate-glauconite deposits. The occurrence of strong bottom currents was confirmed by means of video observations combined with acoustic and sampling data, providing circumstantial evidence of fine- to medium-grained sand

  9. Permanent groundwater storage in basaltic dyke fractures and termite mound viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, Daniel; Rango, Tewodros

    2010-04-01

    Many basaltic dykes of the Ethiopian flood basalt province are observed in the northwestern Ethiopian lowlands. In this area, the termites preferentially build their epigeous mounds on the top of dolerite dykes. The relationship between termite mounds and dykes is investigated from the analysis of their distribution along one of these dykes, of thickness 2-5 m, that we could follow over 2000 m. Termite mounds are periodically spaced (mean distance 63 m, R2 = 0.995), and located exclusively where the topographic relief of the dyke is not more than 2 m above the surrounding area. From these observations and from the geological context, a hydrological circuit model is proposed in which (1) dykes are preferential conduits for groundwater drainage during the rainy season due to pervasive jointing, (2) during the dry season, the portion of the dyke forming a local topographic relief area dries up more quickly than the surroundings, the elevation difference between the dyke summit and the surroundings being a factor restricting termite mound development. For dyke topographic relief >2 m, drying is an obstacle for maintaining the appropriate humidity for the termite colony life. Periodic termite mound spacing is unlikely to be related to dyke or other geological properties. It is more likely related to termite population behaviour, perhaps to clay shortage, which restricts termite population growth by limiting the quantity of building material available for mound extension, and triggers exploration for a new colonization site that will be located along the dyke at a distance from the former colony that may be controlled by the extent of the zone covered by its trail pheromones. This work brings out the importance of dykes in channelling and storing groundwater in semiarid regions, and shows that dykes can store groundwater permanently in such settings even though the dry season is half the year long. It contributes also to shedding light on water supply conditions

  10. HiRISE Observations of Martian Mid-Latitude Fractured Mounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dundas, C. M.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.; Lefort, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Thomas, N.; HiRISE Team

    2007-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera has now returned thousands of images of the Martian surface with pixel scale as small as 26 cm/pixel. These have revealed fractured mounds up to several hundred meters in diameter, bearing some morphological resemblance to terrestrial pingos (ice-cored hills formed by freezing groundwater). Pingos on Mars would be valuable indicators of ground ice and have been suggested at a number of sites, but in several cases reexamination has supported different origins. Some differences do exist between the fractured mounds and terrestrial pingos. In several instances, the mounds have roughly trapezoidal topographic profiles with flat, fractured summits. Other morphologies are also seen; we report on the range of morphologies observed so far by HiRISE and similarities and differences with pingos on Earth. The fractured mounds observed to date generally appear in the mid-latitudes, at a range of longitudes. Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of flat-topped mounds in Utopia Planitia (including some previously proposed pingos) show a similar latitudinal dependence, generally occurring between 35-45° N. This supports a ground- ice related origin, particularly since the latitude range is close to the peak-abundance latitude of some other features likely related to water or ice, such as gullies. It is still uncertain whether the formation mechanism of the fractured mounds is the same as terrestrial pingos in detail. We discuss the distribution, properties and settings of fractured mounds observed planet-wide by HiRISE.

  11. Lithofacies distribution and reservoir heterogeneity within Pennsylvanian phylloid algal mounds, western Orogrande basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.A.; Soreghan, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    Pennsylvanian strata within the San Andres Mountains (western Orogrande basin) contain very well-developed phylloid algal bioherms, but these bioherms remain understudied owing to their location within the bounds of the U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range. The exposed Upper Pennsylvanian section within Hembrillo Canyon affords a three-dimensional view of mound structure, and thus an excellent opportunity for characterizing lithofacies distribution and reservoir heterogeneity that may prove useful for exploration/exploitation efforts in analogous petroliferous systems. The mounds are developed within a mixed carbonate-clastic shallow marine section punctuated by shoaling-upward cycles. Each mound site consists of a slack of individual biohermal growth events characterized by a subtidal wackestone initiation phase, core boundstone phase, and peritidal to subaerially exposed packstone/grainstone terminal phase. Individual biohermal growth events range up to 30 m in thickness; vertical stacking of these bioherms has produced aggregate mounds reaching up to 100 m in stratigraphic thickness and 300 m in diameter. Individual blohermal thicknesses decrease abruptly and markedly away from mound sites, and calcareous mudstones dominate in intermound regions. The controlling influences of paleogeography and glacioeustasy, respectively, produced the pronounced lateral and vertical heterogeneity characterizing these and analogous phylloid algal mound systems. Reservoirs within these systems are highly compartmentalized: wackestone initiation phases and peritidal to subaerial termination phases that envelope core facies may serve as porosity and permeability barriers that effectively partition the reservoir. Recognition of the scale, character, and probable controls on these lateral and vertical changes is important for effective exploration and exploitation in phylloid algal mound systems.

  12. Lithofacies distribution and reservoir heterogeneity within Pennsylvanian phylloid algal mounds, western Orogrande basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.A. ); Soreghan, G.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Pennsylvanian strata within the San Andres Mountains (western Orogrande basin) contain very well-developed phylloid algal bioherms, but these bioherms remain understudied owing to their location within the bounds of the U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range. The exposed Upper Pennsylvanian section within Hembrillo Canyon affords a three-dimensional view of mound structure, and thus an excellent opportunity for characterizing lithofacies distribution and reservoir heterogeneity that may prove useful for exploration/exploitation efforts in analogous petroliferous systems. The mounds are developed within a mixed carbonate-clastic shallow marine section punctuated by shoaling-upward cycles. Each mound site consists of a slack of individual biohermal growth events characterized by a subtidal wackestone initiation phase, core boundstone phase, and peritidal to subaerially exposed packstone/grainstone terminal phase. Individual biohermal growth events range up to 30 m in thickness; vertical stacking of these bioherms has produced aggregate mounds reaching up to 100 m in stratigraphic thickness and 300 m in diameter. Individual blohermal thicknesses decrease abruptly and markedly away from mound sites, and calcareous mudstones dominate in intermound regions. The controlling influences of paleogeography and glacioeustasy, respectively, produced the pronounced lateral and vertical heterogeneity characterizing these and analogous phylloid algal mound systems. Reservoirs within these systems are highly compartmentalized: wackestone initiation phases and peritidal to subaerial termination phases that envelope core facies may serve as porosity and permeability barriers that effectively partition the reservoir. Recognition of the scale, character, and probable controls on these lateral and vertical changes is important for effective exploration and exploitation in phylloid algal mound systems.

  13. Gopher mounds decrease nutrient cycling rates and increase adjacent vegetation in volcanic primary succession.

    PubMed

    Yurkewycz, Raymond P; Bishop, John G; Crisafulli, Charles M; Harrison, John A; Gill, Richard A

    2014-12-01

    Fossorial mammals may affect nutrient dynamics and vegetation in recently initiated primary successional ecosystems differently than in more developed systems because of strong C and N limitation to primary productivity and microbial communities. We investigated northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) effects on soil nutrient dynamics, soil physical properties, and plant communities on surfaces created by Mount St. Helens' 1980 eruption. For comparison to later successional systems, we summarized published studies on gopher effects on soil C and N and plant communities. In 2010, 18 years after gopher colonization, we found that gophers were active in ~2.5% of the study area and formed ~328 mounds ha(-1). Mounds exhibited decreased species density compared to undisturbed areas, while plant abundance on mound margins increased 77%. Plant burial increased total soil carbon (TC) by 13% and nitrogen (TN) by 11%, compared to undisturbed soils. Mound crusts decreased water infiltration, likely explaining the lack of detectable increases in rates of NO3-N, NH4-N or PO4-P leaching out of the rooting zone or in CO2 flux rates. We concluded that plant burial and reduced infiltration on gopher mounds may accelerate soil carbon accumulation, facilitate vegetation development at mound edges through resource concentration and competitive release, and increase small-scale heterogeneity of soils and communities across substantial sections of the primary successional landscape. Our review indicated that increases in TC, TN and plant density at mound margins contrasted with later successional systems, likely due to differences in physical effects and microbial resources between primary successional and older systems.

  14. Office of Inspector General report on audit of shutdown and transition of the Mound Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-24

    With the end of the Cold War, the Department of Energy (Department) has greatly reduced the production of nuclear weapons and redirected the capabilities and focus of the weapons complex. As part of this redirection, the Mound Plant was transferred from a Defense Program site to an Environmental Management site with emphasis on accelerated cleanup and transition of facilities and personal property to the local community. This audit was initiated to determine if the shutdown and transition of the Mound Plant was progressing effectively and efficiently. The Department prepared a Nonnuclear Consolidation Plan (NCP) designed to reduce its costs of operation by closing and consolidating facilities. In contrast to the goal of the NCP, the Department plans to keep a portion of the Mound Plant open solely to perform work for other Federal agencies. Specifically, the Department has decided to continue assembling and testing isotopic heat sources and radioisotope thermoelectric generators (HS/RTG) at the Mound Plant despite the transfer or planned transfer of all other production operations.The Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology decided to continue its HS/RTG operations at the Mound Plant without adequately considering the overall economic goals of the Department. As a result, the Department may not achieve the savings envisioned by the NCP. Also, the Department may incur between $4 million and $8.5 million more than necessary each year to continue its HS/RTG operations at the Mound Plant. Additionally, if the HS/RTG operations stay at the Mound Plant, the Department will spend more than $3 million to consolidate these operations into one location.

  15. Hydrophobins Sc3 and Sc4 gene expression in mounds, fruiting bodies and vegetative hyphae of Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutami; Robertson, Deborah L; Leonard, Thomas J

    2008-03-01

    An abnormal growth form called mound has been hypothesized to be a neoplasm in the filamentous fungus Schizophyllum commune. An alternative hypothesis is that mounds represent some unusual developmental form in the fruiting body morphogenetic pathway. Hydrophobin proteins have been found in fruiting bodies where they line the surface of gas exchange pores and function to keep the pores hydrophobic. To further determine possible relationships between mounds and fruiting bodies, mound tissue was examined for gas exchange pores and the presence of hydrophobins. Cryoscanning electron microscopic images revealed the presence of channels in mound tissue and presumptive hydrophobin rodlets similar to the air channels in fruiting bodies. Hydrophobin gene expression was also measured in mound tissue using quantitative real-time PCR and showed both monokaryotic and dikaryotic mound tissue exhibited high expression of the dikaryotic specific Sc4 hydrophobin gene. In contrast, Sc4 hydrophobin expression was barely detectable in monokaryotic fruiting bodies. The expression of Sc4 hydrophobin genes in mounds suggests mound development uses this aspect of the dikaryotic fruiting developmental pathway.

  16. Comparison of two carbonate mound sequences in the Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation, west Texas and southern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The El Paso Formations consists of four members, in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose McKelligon and Padre. Mounds in the McKelligon Member exposed in the southern Franklin Mountains were described by Toomey (1970). Most of these mounds are small but one large one is 5.8 m thick and about 13.7 m long in outcrop. The mound rock is chiefly bioclastic wackestone with minor packstone and boundstone. The varied fauna contains echinoderms, sponges and spicules, gastropods, trilobites, digitate algae, Nuia, Girvanella, Pulchrilamina, Calathium, and minor brachiopods and cephalopods. Intraclastic, bioclastic grainstone fills channels cut in the mounds. Similar, but smaller and less spectacular mounds occur in the McKelligon Member in the Florida, Big Hatchet, and Caballo Mountains, Lone Mountain, Cooke's Range, and elsewhere in southwestern New Mexico. A second type of mound is common in the upper part of the Hitt Canyon Member in the Cooke's Range, Red Hills, Caballo and Big Hatchet Mountains. These mounds also are typically small but one in the Red Hills is 13.7 m thick and about 30 m long in outcrop. The mound complex is about 75-80% SH-C and LLH-C stromatolite boundstone and bioclastic wackestone. The remaining 20-25% is bioclastic packstone and grainstone between the SH-C stromatolites and filling channels cut in the mound complex. The limited fauna contains small fragments of echinoderms, gastropods, trilobites, spicules, and Nuia.

  17. A photographic and acoustic transect across two deep-water seafloor mounds, Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, P.E.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Gardner, J.; Carney, R.S.; Fornari, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the northern Gulf of Mexico, a series of seafloor mounds lie along the floor of the Mississippi Canyon in Atwater Valley lease blocks 13 and 14. The mounds, one of which was drilled by the Chevron Joint Industry Project on Methane Hydrates in 2005, are interpreted to be vent-related features that may contain significant accumulations of gas hydrate adjacent to gas and fluid migration pathways. The mounds are located ???150 km south of Louisiana at ???1300 m water depth. New side-scan sonar data, multibeam bathymetry, and near-bottom photography along a 4 km northwest-southeast transect crossing two of the mounds (labeled D and F) reveal the mounds' detailed morphology and surficial characteristics. Mound D, ???250 m in diameter and 7-10 m in height, has exposures of authigenic carbonates and appears to result from a seafloor vent of slow-to-moderate flux. Mound F, which is ???400 m in diameter and 10-15 m high, is covered on its southwest flank by extruded mud flows, a characteristic associated with moderate-to-rapid flux. Chemosynthetic communities visible on the bottom photographs are restricted to bacterial mats on both mounds and mussels at Mound D. No indications of surficial gas hydrates are evident on the bottom photographs.

  18. Seepage carbonate mounds in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, M.; Calvo, J. P.; Scopelliti, G.; González-Acebrón, L.

    2016-04-01

    A number of carbonate mounds composed of indurate, strongly folded and/or brecciated calcite and dolomite beds occur interstratified in Cenozoic sedimentary sequences from the Las Minas Basin. Part of the fabric of the rock forming the carbonate mounds is composed of laminated to banded dolostone similar to the host rock but showing contrasted lithification. Moreover, the carbonate deposits of the mounds display aggrading neomorphism of dolomite, partial replacement of dolomite by calcite, calcite cementation, and extensive silicification, locally resulting in box-work fabric. Eight main lithofacies were distinguished in the carbonate mound deposits. In some lithofacies, chert is present as both microcrystalline to fibro-radial quartz and opal, the latter occurring mainly as cement whereas the former replace the carbonate and infill voids. Yet one of the carbonate mounds shows distinctive petrography and geochemical features thus suggesting a distinctive growth pattern. The carbon isotope compositions of calcite from the mound samples range from - 11.56 to - 5.15 δ‰ whilst dolomite is depleted in 13C, with values of - 12.38 to 3.02 δ‰. Oxygen isotopic compositions vary from - 9.42 to - 4.64 δ‰ for calcite and between - 6.68 and 8.19 δ‰ for dolomite. Carbonate in the mounds shows significant enrichment in Co, Cr, Ni and Pb content, especially in the strongly deformed (F-2-2 lithofacies) and brecciated carbonate (F-4). The carbonate deposits show depletion in REE and Y in contrast to that determined in lutite. The formation of the carbonate mounds was related to local artesian seepage thermal water flows of moderate to relative high temperatures. Pressure differences between the low permeability host rock and the circulating fluids accounted for dilational fracturing and brecciation of the host sediment packages, which combined with precipitation of new carbonate and silica mineral phases. Locally, some carbonate mounds developed where groundwater

  19. [Spatial correlation of active mounds locative distribution of Solenopsis invicta Buren polygyne populations].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong-yue; Li, Ning-dong; Liang, Guang-wen; Zeng, Ling

    2007-01-01

    By using geostatistic method, this paper studied the spatial distribution patterns of the active mounds of Solenopsis invicta Buren polygyne populations in Wuchuan and Shenzhen, and built up the spherical models of the interval distances and semivariances of the mounds. The semivariograms were described at the two directions of east-west and south-north, which were obviously positively correlated to the interval distances, revealing that the active mounds in locative area were space-dependent. The ranges of the 5 spherical models constructed for 5 sampling plots in Wuchuan were 9.1 m, 7.6 m, 23.5 m, 7.5 m and 14.5 m, respectively, with an average of 12.4 m. The mounds of any two plots in this range were significantly correlated. There was a randomicity in the spatial distribution of active mounds, and the randomicity index (Nugget/Sill) was 0.7034, 0.9247, 0.4398, 1.1196 and 0.4624, respectively. In Shenzhen, the relationships between the interval distances and semivariances were described by 7 spherical models, and the ranges were 14.5 m, 11.2 m, 10.8 m, 17.6 m, 11.3 m, 9.9 m and 12.8 m, respectively, with an average of 12.6 m.

  20. Environmental assessment and planning at Mound - environmental monitoring capabilities and personnel profiles

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Through its long experience with radioactive materials, Mound has developed a comprehensive, routine, offsite, environmental surveillance program to safeguard its employees, the physical plant, and the integrity of the surrounding environment from any potential adverse effects of its widely diverse operations. Effluent samples are analyzed for radiological and non-radiological parameters. The environment surrounding Mound Facility is continuously monitored - air, water, foodstuffs, vegetation, soil, and silt samples are analyzed to ensure that radioisotopic concentrations and other possible pollutants are well within the stringent standards adopted by the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agencies (both federal and state), and various regional and local agencies. Moreover, this environmental surveillance program has been designed to ensure that the facility is designed, constructed, managed, operated, and maintained in a manner that continues to meet all federal, state, and local standards for environmental protection. Work in environmental science has been broadened to assess environmental factors associated with various aspects of the National Energy Plan. Both the management and staff at Mound have undertaken a firm commitment to make Mound`s environmental monitoring capabilities available to agencies that have the responsibility for the resolution of important environmental issues.

  1. Soil respiration in pits and mounds following an experimental forest blowdown

    SciTech Connect

    Millikin, C.S.; Bowden, R.D.

    1996-11-01

    Extensive uprooting of trees by windthrow can create areas of severe soil disturbance in temperate forests. Specifically, uprooted trees leave shaded pits and mounds of exposed roots and mineral soil. To assess the contribution of pit and mound microenvironments to overall soil respiration in an experimental hurricane blowdown at the Harvard Forest Long-Term Ecological Research site (MA), summer CO{sub 2} effluxes were measured on pit, mound, and undisturbed microsites. Mean CO{sub 2} effluxes were 45.4, 80.1, and 99.0 mgC m{sup -2} h{sup -1} for pit, mound, and control microsites, respectively. Although soil respiration is lower in areas of disturbed soil than in undisturbed areas, the total efflux contribution (5.3%) form pits and mounds to the overall flux rate at the site was small. The area-weighted soil respiration estimate is 3.1% lower than the estimate obtained using flux measurements from control locations alone. Measurements taken from undisturbed plots represent a small but systematic overestimate of soil respiration across the site. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  2. The malar septum: the anatomic basis of malar mounds and malar edema.

    PubMed

    Pessa, J E; Garza, J R

    1997-01-01

    The anatomy of malar mounds and malar edema is evaluated in a series of 18 fresh cadaver dissections. Dye injection, histologic evaluation, and gross anatomic dissection are used to identify a previously unrecognized fascial structure of the lower eyelid and cheek. The malar septum originates from orbital rim periosteum superiorly and inserts into cheek skin 2.5 to 3 cm inferior to the lateral canthus. This fascial structure acts as a relatively impermeable barrier that allows tissue edema and hemoglobin pigment to accumulate above its cutaneous insertion. The malar septum, which acts as both a functional and a structural barrier, defines the lower boundary of several clinical entities: malar mounds, malar edema, malar festoons, and periorbital ecchymosis. The permeability characteristics of the malar septum suggest that, at least in some persons, malar mounds may be accentuated by chronic lower eyelid edema, and these characteristics may imply a time course in the progressive development from malar edema to malar mounds and, ultimately, to malar festoons. The anatomy of the malar septum is clinically relevant because it defines the four anatomic compartments of the malar mound that should be considered during surgery: the superior compartment of suborbicularis oculi fat, orbicularis oculi muscle, and superficial cheek fat and cheek skin superior to the cutaneous insertion of the malar septum.

  3. Behavior of subaqueous sediment mounds: Effect on dredged material disposal site capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Poindexter, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Dredging of contaminated sediments and subsequent disposal at legally designated disposal sites is an internationally accepted disposal alternative when adherence to strict disposal practices is maintained. As more highly contaminated sediments in the heavily industrialized harbors of the world must be dredged to maintain navigation and economic viability, use of subaqueous dredged material disposal sites is expected to increase. Use of these subaqueous sites has necessitated development of procedures to analyze disposal site capacity based upon physical, chemical, and biological considerations. A methodology of analysis was developed in this study to investigate the behavior of the crated subaqueous sediment mounds. Emphasis was placed upon the geotechnical engineering aspects of mound behavior although the methodology also includes chemical and biological aspects. This methodology was applied to four field sites at which dredged material mounds have been created. The procedure successfully predicted the geotechnical engineering behavior of the constructed dredged material mounds. This methodology of analysis provides a useful tool for evaluation of subaqueous disposal sites and the dredged materials mounds created within these sites.

  4. Schottky barrier modulation of metal/4H-SiC junction with thin interface spacer driven by surface polarization charge on 4H-SiC substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gahyun; Yoon, Hoon Hahn; Jung, Sungchul; Jeon, Youngeun; Lee, Jung Yong; Bahng, Wook; Park, Kibog

    2015-12-01

    The Au/Ni/Al2O3/4H-SiC junction with the Al2O3 film as a thin spacer layer was found to show the electrical characteristics of a typical rectifying Schottky contact, which is considered to be due to the leakiness of the spacer layer. The Schottky barrier of the junction was measured to be higher than an Au/Ni/4H-SiC junction with no spacer layer. It is believed that the negative surface bound charge originating from the spontaneous polarization of 4H-SiC causes the Schottky barrier increase. The use of a thin spacer layer can be an efficient experimental method to modulate Schottky barriers of metal/4H-SiC junctions.

  5. NIF Double Shell outer-shell experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, E. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Daughton, W. S.; Wilson, D. C.; Dodd, E. S.; Renner, D. B.; Cardenas, T.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    At the core of the Double Shell concept is the kinetic energy transfer from the outer shell to the inner shell via collision. This collision sets both the implosion shape of the inner shell, from imprinting of the shape of the outer shell, as well as the maximum energy available to compress the DT fuel. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to control the time-dependent shape of the outer shell, such that the outer shell is nominally round at the collision time. We present the experiment results from our sub-scale ( 1 MJ) NIF outer-shell only shape tuning campaign, where we vary shape by changing a turn-on time delay between the same pulse shape on the inner and outer cone beams. This type of shape tuning is unique to this platform and only possible since the Double Shell design uses a single-shock drive (4.5 ns reverse ramp pulse). The outer-shell only targets used a 5.75 mm diameter standard near-vacuum NIF hohlraum with 0.032 mg/cc He gas fill, and a Be capsule with 0.4% uniform Cu dopant, with 242 um thick ablator. We also present results from a third outer-shell only shot used to measure shell trajectory, which is critical in determining the shell impact time. This work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  6. Distribution and physical traits of red wood ant mounds in a managed Rhodope mountains forest.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Angelos; Karanikola, Paraskevi; Papageorgiou, Aristotelis C

    2016-07-01

    Red wood ants (RWA) are of great ecological importance for the forest ecosystem. Forestry practices, like clear-cutting, and trampling load, due to tourism, logging, and grazing stock, can greatly affect their colonies, disturbing their microhabitat. RWA in Greek forests have not been investigated so far. We herein report on the distribution and morphological traits of Formica lugubris mounds studied in Elatia forest (Rhodope mountains, Northern Greece), an all-aged managed mixed forest where selective logging practices are performed. Nearby vegetation, slope, canopy cover, shrub density, and distance from the nearest neighboring trees were also recorded. Mound density was shown to be much higher in this Greek forest compared to RWA mounds in other European-managed forests. Furthermore, we recorded a continuous nest establishment, despite forest management disturbances and trampling load. Our study suggests that single-tree selective forestry practices are essential for creating ideal microhabitats for the RWA and, therefore, for maintaining RWA populations.

  7. Geochemical characteristics and early diagenesis of recent carbonate mound sediments in the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaekers, Helen; Foubert, Anneleen; Wienberg, Claudia; Hebbeln, Dierk; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds occur in patches along the continental margin of the North Atlantic Ocean, from northern Norway down to Mauretania. Recent research has been focused on carbonate mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz, especially along the Moroccan margin. The Pen Duick, the Renard and the Vernadsky carbonate mound provinces in the Gulf of Cádiz are only some of the mound provinces which have been the subject of several recent research projects (Foubert et al., 2008; Wienberg et al., 2009). No living scleractinians could be found on top of those carbonate mounds. During cruise 64PE284 of RV Pelagia, gravity cores have been taken through carbonate mounds in the Carbonate Mound Provinces (CMP) SE of Yuma mud volcano and N of Meknes mud volcano. These cores have been analysed by several methods such as Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the geochemical characteristics of carbonate mounds, which can be used to quantify the effects of early diagenetic processes which may have altered the palaeo-environmental characteristics of the carbonate mounds. Dating has been done with 14C and U/Th methods pointing to mound growth phases being restricted to glacial periods. XRF and ICP-OES measurements give both qualitative and quantitative data of the chemical composition of the core. The main elements that have been analysed are Ca, Si, Fe, Sr, Al, K, Mg, Ti. According to the trend they follow, they can be devided in two groups, representative for the two encountered fraction types. These two fraction types (biogenic carbonate-rich fraction and terrigenous silicate-rich fraction) can be coupled to interglacial/glacial palaeo-environmental conditions. XRD measurements give an overview of the mineralogical composition of the cores. Thin sections, analysed by cathodeluminescence and classical optical petrography, and micro-CT scans are used to

  8. Conversion of the Bryan Mound geological site characterization reports to a three-dimensional model.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2005-04-01

    The Bryan Mound salt dome, located near Freeport, Texas, is home to one of four underground crude oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Bryan Mound site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 20 oil-storage caverns at the site. This work provides an internally consistent geologic model of the Bryan Mound site that can be used in support of future work.

  9. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to

  10. Chemosynthetic microbialites in the Devonian carbonate mounds of Hamar Laghdad (Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Barbieri, Roberto; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2007-08-01

    Veins cutting across the Devonian conical mounds of the Hamar Laghdad Ridge (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco) were the carriers of geofluids. Although not completely determined, the composition of these fluids seems related to hydrothermal and seepage fluxes that were the primary contributors to the establishment of sub-seafloor (cryptic) environments linking deeper fluid sources to the seafloor. The optical and scanning electron microscope investigation of the laminated carbonate infill of these veins has revealed that they consist of stromatolite- and oncolite-like fabrics. In the Early and Middle Devonian mounds, the laminated carbonates contain morphologies that are attributable to microbially mediated processes that in turn suggest a direct biological contribution to the deposition of the veins infill. Microbial evidence include rod-shaped and cocci clusters embedded in amorphous membranes, iron-rich filaments organized as mat-like and biodictyon filamentous aggregates, or isolated filaments, microbial clotted textures and peloids. Moreover, the oncoids from the veins of the Middle Devonian (Hollard) mound have been interpreted as the mineral replacement of crypto-microorganisms as Frutexites. Other microbial evidence are biominerals and include carbonate with spheroids and pyrite framboids, in which typifying hydrocarbon seep environments. The Hollard Mound, which is the only one with a well-documented origin by hydrocarbon seepage, shares a number of geomicrobiological evidence with other Early Devonian mounds. These evidence, which are supplemented by δ13C-depleted data, suggest that the infill of the veins system in the Hamar Laghdad mounds would be the product of chemotrophic/chemosynthetic microbial communities that are adapted to crypto-habitats sustained by hydrocarbon (and other components) fluid fluxes.

  11. Mounding of a non-Newtonian jet impinging on a solid substrate.

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Grillet, Anne Mary; Roberts, Scott A.; Baer, Thomas A.; Rao, Rekha Ranjana

    2010-06-01

    When a fluid jet impinges on a solid substrate, a variety of behaviors may occur around the impact region. One example is mounding, where the fluid enters the impact region faster than it can flow away, forming a mound of fluid above the main surface. For some operating conditions, this mound can destabilize and buckle, entraining air in the mound. Other behaviors include submerging flow, where the jet impinges into an otherwise steady pool of liquid, entraining a thin air layer as it enters the pool. This impact region is one of very high shear rates and as such, complex fluids behave very differently than do Newtonian fluids. In this work, we attempt to characterize this range of behavior for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids using dimensionless parameters. We model the fluid as a modified Bingham-Carreau-Yasuda fluid, which exhibits the full range of pseudoplastic flow properties throughout the impact region. Additionally, we study viscoelastic effects through the use of the Giesekus model. Both 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations are performed using a variety of finite element method techniques for tracking the jet interface, including Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE), diffuse level sets, and a conformal decomposition finite element method (CDFEM). The presence of shear-thinning characteristics drastically reduces unstable mounding behavior, yet can lead to air entrainment through the submerging flow regime. We construct an operating map to understand for what flow parameters mounding and submerging flows will occur, and how the fluid rheology affects these behaviors. This study has many implications in high-speed industrial bottle filling applications.

  12. Seismic Observations of a Possible Carbonate Mound on the Continental Slope off Vancouver Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, T.; Spence, G.; Hyndman, R.; Chapman, R. N.

    2003-12-01

    A large carbonate or mud mound was identified about 5 km west of ODP Site 889 on the Vancouver Island continental slope. At its base, the mound is ~1 km wide perpendicular to the margin and ~2 km long parallel to the margin. In dives with the remotely-operated submersible ROPOS in May 2001, we observed widespread carbonate pavement was observed which made it impossible to collect sediment push cores. Piston coring also failed to penetrate the pavement or collect sediment samples. ROPOS also observed several biological communities of tubeworms and clams, indicating that venting of methane was likely active. To interpret the structure of this carbonate mound, a high resolution single channel seismic survey was carried out in summer 2001. The source was a 40 cu.in. sleeve airgun, fired by distance at an interval of 12.5 m. The grid consisted of 80 lines, each 3 km in length and separated by 25 m. The seismic lines, recording coherent reflectivity down to about 400 m beneath the seafloor, provide excellent images of this carbonate/mud mound and of the BSR beneath it. The single channel data form a pseudo-3D single channel seismic grid with 25 m,e 25 m square bins, and so we can use 3D migration techniques to image the complex structures. The mound is bounded on its landward and seaward sides by faults that dip toward Vancouver Island. The faults appear to connect to a particularly strong section of BSR, which may trap locally large concentrations of gas. The faults intersect the surface on either side of the mound, and may provide pathways for methane and other fluids from the gas reservoir to vents at the surface.

  13. Antarctic Mirabilite Mounds as Mars Analogs: The Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul B.; Harvey, Ralph P.; Bish, David L.; Tonui, Eric

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed, based on geomorphic and geochemical arguments, that subsurface water has played an important role in the history of water on the planet Mars [1]. Subsurface water, if present, could provide a protected and long lived environment for potential life. Discovery of gullies [2] and recurring slopes [3] on Mars suggest the potential for subsurface liquid water or brines. Recent attention has also focused on small (< approx. 1km dia.) mound-like geomorphic features discovered within the mid to high latitudes on the surface of Mars which may be caused by eruptions of subsurface fluids [4, 5]. We have identified massive but highly localized Na-sulfate deposits (mirabilite mounds, Na2SO4 .10H2O) that may be derived from subsurface fluids and may provide insight into the processes associated with subsurface fluids on Mars. The mounds are found on the end moraine of the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue (LCIT) [6] in the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica, and are potential terrestrial analogs for mounds observed on the martian surface. The following characteristics distinguish LCIT evaporite mounds from other evaporite mounds found in Antarctic coastal environments and/or the McMurdo Dry Valleys: (1) much greater distance from the open ocean (approx.500 km); (2) higher elevation (approx.2200 meters); and (3) colder average annual temperature (average annual temperature = -30 C for LCIT [7] vs. 20 C at sea level in the McMurdo region [8]. Furthermore, the recent detection of subsurface water ice (inferred as debris-covered glacial ice) by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter [9] supports the use of an Antarctic glacial environment, particularly with respect to the mirabilite deposits described in this work, as an ideal terrestrial analog for understanding the geochemistry associated with near-surface martian processes. S and O isotopic compositions.

  14. Can mima-like mounds be Vertisol relics (Far North Region of Cameroon, Chad Basin)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; Cailleau, Guillaume; Sebag, David; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-anthropogenic earth mounds, defined as mima-like mounds in this study, have recently been observed in non-carbonate watersheds along the Sudano-Sahelian belt in the Chad Basin. In the Diamare piedmont (northern Cameroon) they are particularly well developed within stream networks. In less eroded areas, they occur as whaleback, flattened morphologies, or even as buried features. All these shapes are composed of clay-rich sediment associated with high proportions of secondary carbonate nodules and Fesbnd Mn micro-nodules. Their soil structure is prismatic to massive and vertical cracks are observed locally. Grain-size distributions emphasize the clay-rich nature of the sediment, with average clay contents of 32% ± 12.8% (n = 186), which is significantly higher than the clay content in the adjacent sediments in the landscape (mean = 10% ± 4%, n = 21). Moreover, high proportions of smectite characterize the soil, with average contents of 34 ± 7% (n = 25). At the micro-scale, the groundmass has a cross-striated b-fabric, with embedded smooth subangular quartz and feldspar grains of the silt-size fraction. All the characteristics point to altered vertic properties in the clay-rich sediment composing the mima-like mounds. Mima-like mounds are thus interpreted as degraded Vertisols. Compared to present-day Vertisols occurring in the piedmont, mima-like mounds are located upstream. It is thus proposed that the Vertisol areas were more extensive during a former and wetter period than the present-day. Subsequent changing climatic conditions increased erosion, revealing the gilgai micro-relief by preferential erosion in micro-lows rather than in micro-highs. Mima-like mounds of the Chad Basin might thus result from pedogenesis combined with later erosion. These local processes can be inherited from regional climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and likely be related to the African Humid Period.

  15. Experimental explanation of the formation mechanism of surface mound-structures by femtosecond laser on polycrystalline Ni60Nb40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Edwin; Tsubaki, Alfred; Zuhlke, Craig A.; Wang, Meiyu; Bell, Ryan; Lucis, Michael J.; Anderson, Troy P.; Alexander, Dennis R.; Gogos, George; Shield, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) is an emerging technique for creating functionalized surfaces with specialized properties, such as broadband optical absorption or superhydrophobicity/superhydrophilicity. It has been demonstrated in the past that FLSP can be used to form two distinct classes of mound-like, self-organized micro/nanostructures on the surfaces of various metals. Here, the formation mechanisms of below surface growth (BSG) and above surface growth (ASG) mounds on polycrystalline Ni60Nb40 are studied. Cross-sectional imaging of these mounds by focused ion beam milling and subsequent scanning electron microscopy revealed evidence of the unique formation processes for each class of microstructure. BSG-mound formation during FLSP did not alter the microstructure of the base material, indicating preferential valley ablation as the primary formation mechanism. For ASG-mounds, the microstructure at the peaks of the mounds was clearly different from the base material. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that hydrodynamic melting of the surface occurred during FLSP under ASG-mound forming conditions. Thus, there is a clear difference in the formation mechanisms of ASG- and BSG-mounds during FLSP.

  16. Seasonal Dynamics of Hyperspectral Reflectance Patterns Influencing Detection of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management affecting an estimated 8.1 million hectares in sod production, recreational, and residential settings in the southeastern U.S. Reflectance characteristics of imported fire ant mound features (i.e., ant m...

  17. 75 FR 27783 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Mound Site in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Doc No: 2010-11875] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Mound Site in Miamisburg, OH, To Be Included in the Special Exposure... decision to evaluate a petition to designate a class of employees from the Mound site in Miamisburg,...

  18. Subsurface microbiology and biogeochemistry of a deep, cold-water carbonate mound from the Porcupine Seabight (IODP Expedition 307)

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Gordon; Blazejak, Anna; Cragg, Barry A; Schippers, Axel; Sass, Henrik; Rinna, Joachim; Tang, Xiaohong; Mathes, Falko; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Fry, John C; Weightman, Andrew J; Parkes, R John

    2009-01-01

    The Porcupine Seabight Challenger Mound is the first carbonate mound to be drilled (∼270 m) and analyzed in detail microbiologically and biogeochemically. Two mound sites and a non-mound Reference site were analyzed with a range of molecular techniques [catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), quantitative PCR (16S rRNA and functional genes, dsrA and mcrA), and 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE] to assess prokaryotic diversity, and this was compared with the distribution of total and culturable cell counts, radiotracer activity measurements and geochemistry. There was a significant and active prokaryotic community both within and beneath the carbonate mound. Although total cell numbers at certain depths were lower than the global average for other subseafloor sediments and prokaryotic activities were relatively low (iron and sulfate reduction, acetate oxidation, methanogenesis) they were significantly enhanced compared with the Reference site. In addition, there was some stimulation of prokaryotic activity in the deepest sediments (Miocene, > 10 Ma) including potential for anaerobic oxidation of methane activity below the mound base. Both Bacteria and Archaea were present, with neither dominant, and these were related to sequences commonly found in other subseafloor sediments. With an estimate of some 1600 mounds in the Porcupine Basin alone, carbonate mounds may represent a significant prokaryotic subseafloor habitat. PMID:18826439

  19. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, or a designee, if the fund-raising... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, or a designee, if the fund-raising... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a)...

  1. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, or a designee, if the fund-raising... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a)...

  2. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  3. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  4. Overview of the earth mounded concrete bunker prototype license application project: Objectives and approach

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.E.

    1989-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the objectives and approach taken in developing the Earth-mounded Concrete Bunker Prototype License Application Project. The Prototype License Application Project was initiated by the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program in early 1987 and completed in November 1988. As part of this project a prototype safety analysis report was developed. The safety analysis report evaluates the licensibility of an earth-mounded concrete bunker for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility located on a hypothetical site in the northeastern United States. The project required approximately five person-years and twenty months to develop.

  5. Transformational Leadership and Its Relationship to Adult 4-H Volunteers' Sense of Empowerment in Youth Development Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of 4-H Youth Development Educators to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. There were 498 Oregon adult 4-H volunteers randomly selected to participate. Participants rated the leadership style of their 4-H Youth Development Educator (YDE) using Bass…

  6. Electronic spectrum of the protonated diacetylene cation (H2C4H+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, Katherine J.; Muller, Giel; Jusko, Pavol; Theulé, Patrice; Bieske, Evan J.; Jouvet, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    The B˜ 1A1←X˜ 1A1 electronic band system of the protonated diacetylene cation (H2C4H+) is measured over the 230-295 nm range by photodissociating H2C4H+ ions stored in a cryogenic ion trap and by photodissociating H2C4H+ tagged with Ar and N2 in a tandem mass spectrometer. The B˜ 1A1←X˜ 1A1 band system has an origin at 34 941 cm-1 for H2C4H+, 34 934 cm-1 for H2C4H+-Ar, and 34 920 cm-1 for H2C4H+-N2. The spectra of H2C4H+, H2C4H+-Ar, and H2C4H+-N2 display similar vibronic structure, which is assigned using ab initio calculations to progressions in two symmetric a1 C-C stretch vibrational modes (ν6 and ν4), with band spacings of 860 and 1481 cm-1, respectively.

  7. Physiological and Biogeochemical Traits of Bleaching and Recovery in the Mounding Species of Coral Porites lobata: Implications for Resilience in Mounding Corals

    PubMed Central

    Levas, Stephen J.; Grottoli, Andréa G.; Hughes, Adam; Osburn, Christopher L.; Matsui, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s) that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ13C of the skeletal, δ13C, and δ15N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions). Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via 13C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic sources of fixed carbon

  8. Physiological and biogeochemical traits of bleaching and recovery in the mounding species of coral Porites lobata: implications for resilience in mounding corals.

    PubMed

    Levas, Stephen J; Grottoli, Andréa G; Hughes, Adam; Osburn, Christopher L; Matsui, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s) that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ(13)C of the skeletal, δ(13)C, and δ(15)N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions). Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via (13)C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic sources of

  9. Physiological and Biogeochemical Traits of Bleaching and Recovery in the Mounding Species of Coral Porites lobata: Implications for Resilience in Mounding Corals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-02

    biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not...coming decades [4,6,7], and are already causing mass coral reef decline worldwide [8]. Coral bleaching suscepti- bility has been directly linked to the... bleaching in mounding and branching corals is essential to projecting how coral reef assemblages will change in the future. Thus, to determine how

  10. AB INITIO CHARACTERIZATION OF C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H, AND C{sub 4}H{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Senent, M. L.

    2010-01-10

    Using state-of-the-art theoretical methods, we investigate the stable isomers of C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H and C{sub 4}H{sup -}. Three of them are relevant for astrophysics and astrochemistry. These computations are performed using highly correlated ab initio methods and the aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T,Q) basis sets. In addition to the linear isomers, we predict the existence of several cyclic and branched forms for these molecules. For all the molecular species of interest here, sets of spectroscopic parameters are determined with perturbation theory, which compare quite well with experiment. For l - C{sub 4}H{sup -}(X {sup 1}SIGMA{sup +}), the quartic force field is computed at the coupled cluster level of theory. This force field is derived from full nine-dimensional potential energy surface generated close to the equilibrium geometry of this anion. Finally, we treat the thermochemistry of the hydrogen attachment and the electron attachment reactions that may lead to the formation of the C{sub 4}H{sup -} from either C{sup -}{sub 4} or C{sub 4}H.

  11. Differences between bacterial communities in the gut of a soil-feeding termite (Cubitermes niokoloensis) and its mounds.

    PubMed

    Fall, Saliou; Hamelin, Jérôme; Ndiaye, Farma; Assigbetse, Komi; Aragno, Michel; Chotte, Jean Luc; Brauman, Alain

    2007-08-01

    In tropical ecosystems, termite mound soils constitute an important soil compartment covering around 10% of African soils. Previous studies have shown (S. Fall, S. Nazaret, J. L. Chotte, and A. Brauman, Microb. Ecol. 28:191-199, 2004) that the bacterial genetic structure of the mounds of soil-feeding termites (Cubitermes niokoloensis) is different from that of their surrounding soil. The aim of this study was to characterize the specificity of bacterial communities within mounds with respect to the digestive and soil origins of the mound. We have compared the bacterial community structures of a termite mound, termite gut sections, and surrounding soil using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. DGGE analysis revealed a drastic difference between the genetic structures of the bacterial communities of the termite gut and the mound. Analysis of 266 clones, including 54 from excised bands, revealed a high level of diversity in each biota investigated. The soil-feeding termite mound was dominated by the Actinobacteria phylum, whereas the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla dominate the gut sections of termites and the surrounding soil, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a distinct clustering of Actinobacteria phylotypes between the mound and the surrounding soil. The Actinobacteria clones of the termite mound were diverse, distributed among 10 distinct families, and like those in the termite gut environment lightly dominated by the Nocardioidaceae family. Our findings confirmed that the soil-feeding termite mound (C. niokoloensis) represents a specific bacterial habitat in the tropics.

  12. Termite mound emissions of CH4 and CO2 are primarily determined by seasonal changes in termite biomass and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hizbullah; Livesley, Stephen J; Dawes, Tracy Z; Hutley, Lindsay B; Arndt, Stefan K

    2011-10-01

    Termites are a highly uncertain component in the global source budgets of CH(4) and CO(2). Large seasonal variations in termite mound fluxes of CH(4) and CO(2) have been reported in tropical savannas but the reason for this is largely unknown. This paper investigated the processes that govern these seasonal variations in CH(4) and CO(2) fluxes from the mounds of Microcerotermes nervosus Hill (Termitidae), a common termite species in Australian tropical savannas. Fluxes of CH(4) and CO(2) of termite mounds were 3.5-fold greater in the wet season as compared to the dry season and were a direct function of termite biomass. Termite biomass in mound samples was tenfold greater in the wet season compared to the dry season. When expressed per unit termite biomass, termite fluxes were only 1.2 (CH(4)) and 1.4 (CO(2))-fold greater in the wet season as compared to the dry season and could not explain the large seasonal variations in mound fluxes of CH(4) and CO(2). Seasonal variation in both gas diffusivity through mound walls and CH(4) oxidation by mound material was negligible. These results highlight for the first time that seasonal termite population dynamics are the main driver for the observed seasonal differences in mound fluxes of CH(4) and CO(2). These findings highlight the need to combine measurements of gas fluxes from termite mounds with detailed studies of termite population dynamics to reduce the uncertainty in quantifying seasonal variations in termite mound fluxes of CH(4) and CO(2).

  13. The early diagenetic and PETROphysical behaviour of recent cold-water CARbonate mounds in Deep Environments (PETROCARDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foubert, Anneleen; Pirlet, Hans; Thierens, Mieke; de Mol, Ben; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Sub-recent cold-water carbonate mounds localized in deeper slope settings on the Atlantic continental margins cannot be any longer neglected in the study of carbonate systems. They clearly play a major role in the dynamics of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and/or carbonate-dominated continental slopes. Carbonate accumulation rates of cold-water carbonate mounds are about 4 to 12 % of the carbonate accumulation rates of tropical shallow-water reefs but exceed the carbonate accumulation rates of their slope settings by a factor of 4 to 12 (Titschack et al., 2009). These findings emphasize the importance of these carbonate factories as carbonate niches on the continental margins. The primary environmental architecture of such carbonate bodies is well-characterized. However, despite proven evidences of early diagenesis overprinting the primary environmental record (e.g. aragonite dissolution) (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), the extent of early diagenetic and biogeochemical processes shaping the petrophysical nature of mounds is until now not yet fully understood. Understanding (1) the functioning of a carbonate mound as biogeochemical reactor triggering early diagenetic processes and (2) the impact of early diagenesis on the petrophysical behaviour of a carbonate mound in space and through time are necessary (vital) for the reliable prediction of potential late diagenetic processes. Approaching the fossil carbonate mound record, through a profound study of recent carbonate bodies is innovative and will help to better understand processes observed in the fossil mound world (such as cementation, brecciation, fracturing, etc…). In this study, the 155-m high Challenger mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW of Ireland), drilled during IODP Expedition 307 aboard the R/V Joides Resolution (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), and mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz (Moroccan margin) will be discussed in terms of early diagenetic processes and petrophysical behaviour. Early differential diagenesis

  14. 4-H Healthy Living Programs with Impact: A National Environmental Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development program of the nation's 109 land-grant universities and the Cooperative Extension System is one of the largest youth development organization in the United States serving approximately six million youth. The 4-H Healthy Living initiative began in 2008 to promote achievement of optimal physical, social, and emotional…

  15. Birds in Your Backyard. 4-H Leaders Guide. L-5-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; Held Phillips, Diane

    This pocket folder of instructional materials is designed to introduce youth aged 9 to 12 to ornithology, the study of birds. The package includes a 4-H member's guide and a Leader's guide. The illustrated 4-H member's guide contains information about attracting and feeding birds. It also includes activities for cooking for birds, making bird…

  16. Acquisition, Custody, and Storage of Firearms Used in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Smith, Jedediah D.

    2014-01-01

    Shooting sports has been a 4-H program offering since the 1930's. Tragic events related to the use of firearms as weapons have caused public and private entities to evaluate and consider the appropriateness of youth access to and usage of firearms. 4-H educators have the primary responsibility for managing the risk associated with shooting sports…

  17. The 4-H Debate Project: Getting Adults and Children Involved in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, Deborah F.

    Intended to enhance adult leadership skills, the 4-H Debate Project, developed by the 4-H Communication Committee of Delaware County (Pennsylvania), was designed to (1) increase the members' knowledge of library skills through research, (2) make them aware of current issues, (3) help them to become better public speakers and communicators, (4)…

  18. The Pennsylvania 4-H Consumer Education Activity: An Historical Perspective. Extension Studies 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzman, Mary Bucher

    In order to provide an historical perspective on the development of Consumerama (a 4-H program initiated in 1969 by the Pennsylvania Cooperative Extension Service), a 34-item questionnaire was developed and distributed to persons having prime responsibility for 4-H Consumerama activities in each of Pennsylvania's 67 counties. After securing a 100…

  19. College Transition Study Shows 4-H Helps Youth Prepare for and Succeed in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkos, Judy; Knollenberg, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults enter college without the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine if 4-H helps develop life skills needed for the transition to college and overall college success. An online survey was sent to college-attending 4-H alumni and a comparison group, with a final sample size…

  20. 4-H and Forestry Afterschool Clubs: A Collaboration to Foster Stewardship Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Angela S.; Grant, Samantha; Strauss, Andrea Lorek

    2012-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension's 4-H and Forestry Afterschool program combined the 4-H structure and various forestry curricula to foster positive attitudes towards the environment and stewardship-related behaviors as these may serve as precursors to later choices that benefit the environment. Evaluation of third through fifth grade club…

  1. Acquisition, Custody, and Storage of Firearms Used in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Smith, Jedediah D.

    2014-01-01

    Shooting sports has been a 4-H program offering since the 1930's. Tragic events related to the use of firearms as weapons have caused public and private entities to evaluate and consider the appropriateness of youth access to and usage of firearms. 4-H educators have the primary responsibility for managing the risk associated with shooting sports…

  2. 4-H Youth Development: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Hawkey, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Program within Cooperative Extension is more than 100 years old. As we celebrate 100 years of Cooperative Extension, the foundation built by the 4-H Program serves as grounds to meet the needs of today's youth. The diversity of the youth who participate continues to grow, families continue to become less traditional, potential…

  3. Global 4-H Network: Laying the Groundwork for Global Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jennifer; Miller, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive study examining 4-H programs in Africa, Asia, and Europe was conducted to provide understanding and direction in the establishment of a Global 4-H Network. Information regarding structure, organizational support, funding, and programming areas was gathered. Programs varied greatly by country, and many partnered with other 4-H…

  4. Characteristics and Perceptions of 4-H Participants: Gender and Age Differences across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…

  5. Fitting the Framework: The STEM Institute and the 4-H Essential Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Peek, Gina G.

    2014-01-01

    Extension and 4-H youth development programs are addressing a shortage of scientists, engineers, and other related professionals by promoting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This case study illustrates how the Oklahoma 4-H Youth Development program trained youth-adult teams to design and implement STEM projects. The STEM…

  6. 4-H Youth Development: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Hawkey, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Program within Cooperative Extension is more than 100 years old. As we celebrate 100 years of Cooperative Extension, the foundation built by the 4-H Program serves as grounds to meet the needs of today's youth. The diversity of the youth who participate continues to grow, families continue to become less traditional, potential…

  7. An Examination of 4-H Youths' Needs and Interests, and Implications for State Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Tarri Lou

    A study was conducted to determine the needs and interests of teens in 4-H and whether the Washington State Conference is meeting those needs and interests. A mail survey was developed and sent to 557 teen 4-H members in Washington who were randomly selected from the 1985 state enrollment list. Three hundred and sixty questionnaires were returned…

  8. The Significance of "Mississippi 4-H Field and Stream Workshops" for Volunteer Leaders and County Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State. Extension Service.

    Program materials for Mississippi 4-H Field and Stream are carefully controlled and made available only to volunteer leaders who have completed leader training workshops. This document describes the Mississippi 4-H Field and Stream program, discusses the leader training workshops and their significance, and provides responses to frequently asked…

  9. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  10. 4-H Healthy Living Programs with Impact: A National Environmental Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development program of the nation's 109 land-grant universities and the Cooperative Extension System is one of the largest youth development organization in the United States serving approximately six million youth. The 4-H Healthy Living initiative began in 2008 to promote achievement of optimal physical, social, and emotional…

  11. 4-H and Tech Ed Partnership Gets Students Geeked about STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Debra; Quam, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the 4-H Gateway Academies specifically designed to enhance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills and knowledge in middle school youth. The innovative summer day camps partnered Project Lead the Way--trained teachers with county 4-H staff from University of Wisconsin-Extension (UW-Extension) Cooperative…

  12. 4-H and Forestry Afterschool Clubs: A Collaboration to Foster Stewardship Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Angela S.; Grant, Samantha; Strauss, Andrea Lorek

    2012-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension's 4-H and Forestry Afterschool program combined the 4-H structure and various forestry curricula to foster positive attitudes towards the environment and stewardship-related behaviors as these may serve as precursors to later choices that benefit the environment. Evaluation of third through fifth grade club…

  13. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  14. 4-H and Tech Ed Partnership Gets Students Geeked about STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Debra; Quam, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the 4-H Gateway Academies specifically designed to enhance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills and knowledge in middle school youth. The innovative summer day camps partnered Project Lead the Way--trained teachers with county 4-H staff from University of Wisconsin-Extension (UW-Extension) Cooperative…

  15. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  16. Food Challenge: Serving Up 4-H to Non-Traditional Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Sara; Follmer-Reece, Holly E.; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Reyna, Roxanna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for introducing 4-H to non-traditional/diverse audiences using 4-H Food Challenge. Set in a low SES and minority-serving rural school, Food Challenge was presented during the school day to all 7th grade students, with almost half voluntarily participating in an after-school club component. Program design…

  17. Food Challenge: Serving Up 4-H to Non-Traditional Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Sara; Follmer-Reece, Holly E.; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Reyna, Roxanna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for introducing 4-H to non-traditional/diverse audiences using 4-H Food Challenge. Set in a low SES and minority-serving rural school, Food Challenge was presented during the school day to all 7th grade students, with almost half voluntarily participating in an after-school club component. Program design…

  18. Birds in Your Backyard. 4-H Leaders Guide. L-5-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; Held Phillips, Diane

    This pocket folder of instructional materials is designed to introduce youth aged 9 to 12 to ornithology, the study of birds. The package includes a 4-H member's guide and a Leader's guide. The illustrated 4-H member's guide contains information about attracting and feeding birds. It also includes activities for cooking for birds, making bird…

  19. Characteristics and Perceptions of 4-H Participants: Gender and Age Differences across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…

  20. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-raising programs using the 4-H Name or Emblem may be carried out for specific educational purposes. Such... Research, Education, and Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture, or a designee, if the fund-raising program is multi-State or Nationwide. (b) When used to promote 4-H educational...

  1. Fitting the Framework: The STEM Institute and the 4-H Essential Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Peek, Gina G.

    2014-01-01

    Extension and 4-H youth development programs are addressing a shortage of scientists, engineers, and other related professionals by promoting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This case study illustrates how the Oklahoma 4-H Youth Development program trained youth-adult teams to design and implement STEM projects. The STEM…

  2. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H) genes from Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding leguminous tree.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Omer, Sumita; Patel, Krunal; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-02-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a leguminous tree species accounting for one-fourth of raw material supplied to paper and pulp industry in India. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) is the second gene of phenylpropanoid pathway and a member of cytochrome P450 family. There is currently intense interest to alter or modify lignin content of L. leucocephala. Three highly similar C4H alleles of LlC4H1 gene were isolated and characterized. The alleles shared more than 98 % sequence identity at amino acid level to each other. Binding of partial promoter of another C4H gene LlC4H2, to varying amounts of crude nuclear proteins isolated from leaf and stem tissues of L. leucocephala formed two loose and one strong complex, respectively, suggesting that the abundance of proteins that bind with the partial C4H promoter is higher in stem tissue than in leaf tissue. Quantitative Real Time PCR study suggested that among tissues of same age, root tissues had highest level of C4H transcripts. Maximum transcript level was observed in 30 day old root tissue. Among the tissues investigated, C4H activity was highest in 60 day old root tissues. Tissue specific quantitative comparison of lignin from developing seedling stage to 1 year old tree stage indicated that Klason lignin increased in tissues with age.

  3. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  4. Factors Related to the Developmental Experiences of Youth Serving as 4-H Camp Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David N.; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental experiences of high-school-aged 4-H youth volunteering as counselors at Louisiana 4-H summer camps. A total of 288 counselors from 10 different camping sessions participated in the study. The Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 and the Developmental Experience Survey measured the personal…

  5. Unusual reaction paths of SN2 nucleophile substitution reactions CH4 + H- → CH4 + H- and CH4 + F- → CH3F + H-: Quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minyaev, Ruslan M.; Quapp, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Benjamin; Getmanskii, Ilya V.; Koval, Vitaliy V.

    2013-11-01

    Quantum chemical (CCSD(full)/6-311++G(3df,3pd), CCSD(T)(full)/6-311++G(3df,3pd)) and density function theory (B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd)) calculations were performed for the SN2 nucleophile substitution reactions CH4 + H- → CH4 + H- and CH4 + F- → CH3F + H-. The calculated gradient reaction pathways for both reactions have an unusual behavior. An unusual stationary point of index 2 lies on the gradient reaction path. Using Newton trajectories for the reaction path, we can detect VRI point at which the reaction path branches.

  6. Structural analysis of the 3C|4H boundaries formed on prismatic planes in 4H-SiC epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, T.; Matsuhata, H.; Naijo, T.; Momose, K.; Osawa, H.

    2016-12-01

    The boundaries between 3C and 4H-SiC domains on the prismatic planes of hexagonal lattices formed in a 4H-SiC epitaxial film were investigated using both transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. These observations determined that the boundaries have a periodic structure, in which each unit cell consists of 12 basal planes of the hexagonal lattice. Six Shockley partial dislocations are situated in each unit cell of the boundary structure. Burgers vectors and core structures of these partial dislocations are discussed.

  7. A large-scale middle Miocene carbonate (?) mound structure in the Norwegian-Danish Basin: evidence for hydrocarbon migration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, K. J.; Clausen, O. R.; Huuse, M.

    2007-12-01

    A mounded structure has been observed in the Norwegian-Danish Basin about 10 km east of the Coffee Soil Fault outside the Central Graben and almost directly on top of the mid-Miocene unconformity. The mounded structure has been mapped using 3D seismic data; it consists of two culminations arranged in a triangular area; one is 1500 m long, 800 m wide and 70 m high while the other is 800 m long, 400 m wide and 30 m high. The composite mound comprises a volume of some 29 mio m3 and is characterised by a high positive reflection amplitude at the top, differential compaction as compared to the surrounding sediments and velocity pull up in underlying reflections. These observations indicate a high velocity fill with higher acoustic impedance and less compaction than that of the surrounding sediments, and the interior of the mounded structure has thus been interpreted as a relatively hard, coarse grained or well cemented sediment. The observed mound is an isolated feature and there have been no reports on any similar structures in the surrounding area. Several possible morphological mound-shaped features have been considered such as igneous and clastic intrusions and extrusions, mud volcanoes, contourites, turbidites and carbonate mounds. The succession below the mound shows no vertical disturbance such as seismic chimneys or deformation of layers, and this seems to exclude an extrusive origin, which most likely would have had some influence on the sedimentary succession. Investigation of the base reflection in the surrounding area shows no sign of any erosional features such as submarine channels and this appears to exclude an origin as a turbidite or contourite since these features often are associated with some kind of erosion. Large present day seismic chimneys have been found in close proximity to the mound along with numerous elongated pockmarks in the Miocene succession right above the mound. These observations indicate that the study area is highly influenced by

  8. Stable isotope sales: Mound Facility customer and shipment summaries, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ruwe, Jr, A H

    1982-10-01

    A listing is given of Mound Facility's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur for Fiscal Year 1981. Purchasers are listed alphabetically and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross-reference index by location is included for domestic customers. Cross-reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers.

  9. Early Triassic calcimicrobial mounds and biostromes of the Nanpanjiang basin, south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrmann, Daniel J.

    1999-04-01

    Early Triassic framestones were discovered in the interior of an isolated, marine carbonate platform in the Nanpanjiang basin. The framestones occur in two horizons: (1) the lowermost Triassic (Griesbachian), as biostromes as much as 15 m thick, and (2) the upper part of the Lower Triassic (Smithian or Spathian) as isolated domal or inverted conical mounds as much as 1.5 m thick. The mounds and biostromes consist of a rigid calcimicrobial framework enclosing a network of internal cavities, 1 to 3 cm across, filled with peloidal-skeletal sediment. The framework is made of irregular-to-tufted masses of chambered-to-clotted micrite structures referable to Renalcis, a calcified coccoid cyanobacteria. The framework is reinforced by microbial induced micritic crusts as well as marine cement. Metazoan fossils within the framework include gastropods, bivalves, ostracodes, spirorbids, and brachiopods. The Early Triassic is widely considered to have been a global gap in reef and reef mound development. The global reef gap concept has formed the foundation of models of reef evolution and of the reorganization of reef ecosystems after the end-Permian extinction. These models should be revised to account for the existence of Early Triassic calcimicrobial mounds and biostromes discussed herein.

  10. Marketing research for EE G Mound Applied Technologies' heat treatment process of high strength materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shackson, R.H.

    1991-10-09

    This report summarizes research conducted by ITI to evaluate the commercialization potential of EG G Mound Applied Technologies' heat treatment process of high strength materials. The remainder of the report describes the nature of demand for maraging steel, extent of demand, competitors, environmental trends, technology life cycle, industry structure, and conclusion. (JL)

  11. Making Major Mounds on Mars: Shaping by Wind-Terrain Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, E. S.; Sneed, J.; Mayer, D. P.; Lewis, K. W.; Michaels, T. I.; Hore, A.; Rafkin, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Mars is the only other planet known to host an extensive sedimentary record. Mounds within Gale crater and the Valles Marineris (VM) canyon system contain some of Mars' thickest (2-8km) and best-exposed sequences of sedimentary rock (Malin & Edgett 2000, Milliken et al. 2010). We present several lines of evidence suggesting that major sedimentary mounds on Mars grew in place by net deposition of layers on preexisting topographic highs (anticompensational stacking): layer orientations, draped landslides, polar analogs, and draping of rocks over differentially-eroded paleo-domes. We use a simple landscape evolution model to show how mound shape can be modulated by terrain-induced winds (as well as by shifts in obliquity). The model is driven by a parameterization of terrain-influenced wind erosion that is derived from mesoscale modeling. Dry conditions bring aeolian processes to the fore, whereas vigorous and sustained fluvial erosion would inhibit mound construction. Therefore, landscape-wind feedbacks illuminate a record of sediment deposition on Mars that links geomorphology, sedimentology, and paleoclimate.

  12. Cultural Symbolism behind the Architectural Design of Mounds Park All-Nations Magnet School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pewewardy, Cornell; May, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    The architectural design of Mounds Park All-Nations Magnet School (St. Paul, Minnesota) incorporates cultural symbols representing the Native American worldview and Medicine Wheel Circle beliefs, as well as design elements from aboriginal housing styles, and colors and sculptured elements that reinforce the relationship of nature to building. (SV)

  13. Dewatering Through Mud Mounds on the Continental Fore-arc of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, N.; Grevemeyer, I.; Reston, T. J.; Spiess, V.

    2005-12-01

    Mud mounds occur abundantly on the continental fore-arc of Middle America Trench. Their role in subduction dewatering and contribution to fore-arc material output has been studied extensively throughout the past decade. Based on seismic and thermal investigations, we compare the tectonic, structural and thermal setting of a set of such features of possible diapiric origin at two locations. One is a single mound offshore Northern Costa Rica, located above incoming lithosphere from the East Pacific Rise (EPR), the other is a mound cluster further southeast, where the Fracture Zone Trace separating EPR crust from material produced at the Cocos-Nazca Spreading Center (CNS) subducts. Both target areas exhibit small-scale deformation resulting from subduction erosion and fore-arc subsidence, with variations caused by the topographical contrast of the subducting oceanic plate. This influences dewatering patterns, as does locally elevated sediment deposition near growth faults, or carbonate precipitates on the seafloor. The presence of gas hydrates in the subsurface is marked by the regional appearance of a negative-polarity bottom simulating reflector (BSR) in the seismic data. Using its depth below seafloor as an indicator of thermal changes, they are quantified through heat flow modelling to yield implications of the local thermal state in the vicinity of the mounds. These observations in turn enable us to track dewatering at depth as well as its along-trench variations.

  14. Seasonal Shifts in the Hyperspectral Characterization of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Safe, expedient, and cost-effective field- to landscape-scale treatments of imported fire ant (IFA) infestations require technological developments that exploit the use of remotely-sensed contrasting features to detect cryptic mounds in heavily-managed turfgrass. Ground-based implementation of hyper...

  15. SEASONAL SHIFTS IN THE HYPERSPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED FIRE ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) MOUND FEATURES IN TURFGRASS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Safe, expedient, and cost-effective field- to landscape-scale treatments of imported fire ant (IFA) infestations require technological developments that exploit the use of remotely-sensed contrasting features to detect cryptic mounds in heavily-managed turfgrass. Ground-based implementation of hyper...

  16. Mapping the fluid flow of the Mariana Mounds ridge flank hydrothermal system: Pore water chemical tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, C.G.; McDuff, R.E.

    1995-05-10

    The authors present a conceptual model of fluid circulation in a ridge flank hydrothermal system, the Mariana Mounds. The model is based on chemical data from pore waters extracted from piston cores and from push cores collected by deep-sea research vessel Alvin in small, meter-sized mounds situated on a local topographic high. These mounds are located within a region of heat flow exceeding that calculated from a conductive model and are zones of strong pore water upflow. The authors have interpreted the chemical data with time-dependent transport-reaction models to estimate pore water velocities. In the mounds themselves pore water velocities reach several meters per year to kilometers per year. Within about 100 m from these zones of focused upflow velocities decrease to several centimeters per year up to tens of centimeters per year. A large area of low heat flow surrounds these heat flow and topographic highs, with upwelling pore water velocities less than 2 cm/yr. In some nearby cores, downwelling of bottom seawater is evident but at speeds less than 2 cm/yr. Downwelling through the sediments appears to be a minor source of seawater recharge to the basaltic basement. The authors conclude that the principal source of seawater recharge to basement is where basement outcrops exist, most likely a scarpt about 2-4 km to the east and southeast of the study area. 71 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Revisiting platform mounds and townhouses in the Cherokee heartland: a collaborative approach

    Treesearch

    Benjamin A. Steere

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial results of the Western North Carolina Mounds and Towns Project, a collaborative endeavor initiated by the Tribal Historic Preservation Office of the Eastern Band of Cherokee and the Coweeta Long Term Ecological Research Program at the University of Georgia. The goal of this project is to generate new...

  18. Simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on silicon substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Asghar, M.; Shahid, M. Y.; Iqbal, F.; Fatima, K.; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Arbi, H. M.; Tsu, R.

    2016-03-15

    In this study we report thermal evaporation technique as a simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on p-type silicon substrate. A mixture of Si and C{sub 60} powder of high purity (99.99%) was evaporated from molybdenum boat. The as grown film was characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and Hall Measurements. The XRD pattern displayed four peaks at 2Θ angles 28.55{sup 0}, 32.70{sup 0}, 36.10{sup 0} and 58.90{sup 0} related to Si (1 1 1), 4H-SiC (1 0 0), 4H-SiC (1 1 1) and 4H-SiC (2 2 2), respectively. FTIR, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and electrical properties further strengthened the 4H-SiC growth.

  19. Simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Shahid, M. Y.; Iqbal, F.; Fatima, K.; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Arbi, H. M.; Tsu, R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study we report thermal evaporation technique as a simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on p-type silicon substrate. A mixture of Si and C60 powder of high purity (99.99%) was evaporated from molybdenum boat. The as grown film was characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and Hall Measurements. The XRD pattern displayed four peaks at 2Θ angles 28.550, 32.700, 36.100 and 58.900 related to Si (1 1 1), 4H-SiC (1 0 0), 4H-SiC (1 1 1) and 4H-SiC (2 2 2), respectively. FTIR, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and electrical properties further strengthened the 4H-SiC growth.

  20. Ultra high voltage MOS controlled 4H-SiC power switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S.; Capell, C.; Van Brunt, E.; Jonas, C.; O'Loughlin, M.; Clayton, J.; Lam, K.; Pala, V.; Hull, B.; Lemma, Y.; Lichtenwalner, D.; Zhang, Q. J.; Richmond, J.; Butler, P.; Grider, D.; Casady, J.; Allen, S.; Palmour, J.; Hinojosa, M.; Tipton, C. W.; Scozzie, C.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra high voltage (UHV, >15 kV) 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have the potential to significantly improve the system performance, reliability, and cost of energy conversion systems by providing reduced part count, simplified circuit topology, and reduced switching losses. In this paper, we compare the two MOS based UHV 4H-SiC power switching devices; 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFETs and 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET shows a specific on-resistance of 204 mΩ cm2 at 25 °C, which increased to 570 mΩ cm2 at 150 °C. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET provides low, temperature-independent, switching losses which makes the device more attractive for applications that require higher switching frequencies. The 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT shows a significantly lower forward voltage drop (VF), along with reasonable switching performance, which make it a very attractive device for high voltage applications with lower switching frequency requirements. An electrothermal analysis showed that the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT outperforms the 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET for applications with switching frequencies of less than 5 kHz. It was also shown that the use of a carrier storage layer (CSL) can significantly improve the conduction performance of the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs.

  1. An experimental and theoretical study of the thermal decomposition of C4H6 isomers

    DOE PAGES

    Lockhart, James P. A.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Randazzo, John B.; ...

    2017-04-25

    The chemistry of small unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as 1,3–butadiene (1,3–C4H6), 1,2–butadiene (1,2–C4H6), 2–butyne (2–C4H6) and 1–butyne (1–C4H6), is of central importance to the modeling of combustion systems. These species are important intermediates in combustion processes, and yet their high-temperature chemistry remains poorly understood, with various dissociation and isomerization pathways proposed in the literature. Here we investigate the thermal decompositions of 1,3–C4H6, 1,2–C4H6, 2–C4H6 and 1–C4H6 inside a diaphragmless shock tube, at post shock total pressures of 26–261 Torr and temperatures ranging from 1428–2354 K, using laser schlieren densitometry. The experimental work has been complemented by high-level ab initio calculations, whichmore » collectively provide strong evidence that formally direct dissociation is the major channel for pyrolysis of 1,3–C4H6 and 2–C4H6; these paths have not been previously reported but are critical to reconciling the current work and disparate literature reports. The reaction mechanism presented here simulates the current experiments and experimental data from the literature very well. As a result, pressure and temperature dependent rate coefficients are given for the isomerization, formally direct and direct dissociation paths.« less

  2. Giant polygons and mounds in the lowlands of Mars: signatures of an ancient ocean?

    PubMed

    Oehler, Dorothy Z; Allen, Carlton C

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the hypothesis that the well-known giant polygons and bright mounds of the martian lowlands may be related to a common process-a process of fluid expulsion that results from burial of fine-grained sediments beneath a body of water. Specifically, we hypothesize that giant polygons and mounds in Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae are analogous to kilometer-scale polygons and mud volcanoes in terrestrial, marine basins and that the co-occurrence of masses of these features in Chryse and Acidalia may be the signature of sedimentary processes in an ancient martian ocean. We base this hypothesis on recent data from both Earth and Mars. On Earth, 3-D seismic data illustrate kilometer-scale polygons that may be analogous to the giant polygons on Mars. The terrestrial polygons form in fine-grained sediments that have been deposited and buried in passive-margin, marine settings. These polygons are thought to result from compaction/dewatering, and they are commonly associated with fluid expulsion features, such as mud volcanoes. On Mars, in Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae, orbital data demonstrate that giant polygons and mounds have overlapping spatial distributions. There, each set of features occurs within a geological setting that is seemingly analogous to that of the terrestrial, kilometer-scale polygons (broad basin of deposition, predicted fine-grained sediments, and lack of significant horizontal stress). Regionally, the martian polygons and mounds both show a correlation to elevation, as if their formation were related to past water levels. Although these observations are based on older data with incomplete coverage, a similar correlation to elevation has been established in one local area studied in detail with newer higher-resolution data. Further mapping with the latest data sets should more clearly elucidate the relationship(s) of the polygons and mounds to elevation over the entire Chryse-Acidalia region and thereby provide more insight into this

  3. Microbial assemblages on a cold-water coral mound at the SE Rockall bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleijswijk, J. V.; Whalen, C.; Duineveld, G.; Lavaleye, M.; Witte, H.; Mienis, F.

    2016-02-01

    The microbial community composition over Haas Mound, one of the most prominent cold-water coral mounds of the Logachev Mound Province (Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic) was analysed by Roche GS-FLX amplicon sequencing targeting both Bacteria and Archaea. Overlaying water was collected from depths of 400 m as well as 5 and 10 m above the bottom using a CTD/Rosette system. Near-bottom water, sediment, and samples of mucus and skeleton of the coral Lophelia pertusa were obtained with a box-corer. We outline patterns of microbial distribution, vertically - from the seafloor to the water column - and laterally - across the mound - and couple these to mound topography and turbidity. A strong link was found between the microbial community composition and the specific biotopes. At all locations, the near-bottom water differed significantly from water at 5 m above the bottom, illustrating that the near-bottom water in between the coral framework represents a separate microbial habitat. Near-bottom water was distinct from other biotopes by outstanding relative abundance of the class Halobacteria (1.2%) and the genera Nitrosopumilus (3.2%), uncultured Xanthomonadales (1,6%), Defluviicoccus (1.3%), Marinicella (1.2%), and Brocadiaceae W4 lineage (1.1%). The Endozoicomonas found in near-bottom water (0.2%) is probably related to the presence of (dissolved) mucus in the water. The genus was not found in sediment, nor in overlaying water at 5 m above the bottom. The overlaying water community (sampled at 400m and at 500-1200m) was structured according to depth and correlated variables i.e. temperature, salinity and density (17% explained). Turbidity of the overlaying water explained an additional 14% and was correlated with sampling year.

  4. Directed Kinetic Self-Assembly of Mounds on Patterned GaAs (001): Tunable Arrangement, Pattern Amplification and Self-Limiting Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chuan-Fu; Kan, Hung-Chih; Kanakaraju, Subramaniam; Richardson, Christopher; Phaneuf, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We present results demonstrating directed self-assembly of nanometer-scale mounds during molecular beam epitaxial growth on patterned GaAs (001) surfaces. The mound arrangement is tunable via the growth temperature, with an inverse spacing or spatial frequency which can exceed that of the features of the template. We find that the range of film thickness over which particular mound arrangements persist is finite, due to an evolution of the shape of the mounds which causes their growth to self-limit. A difference in the film thickness at which mounds at different sites self-limit provides a means by which different arrangements can be produced.

  5. Wiggles and Wags: Dog 1--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guides are activity guides. Several fact-filled books about dogs are listed as resources on this guide. The activities are active, hands-on, and engaging and are guided by the 4-H motto: Learning by Doing. As youth explore a dog project topic of interest to them, they also practice essential life skills. Although a few dog project youth will…

  6. Wiggles and Wags: Dog 1--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guides are activity guides. Several fact-filled books about dogs are listed as resources on this guide. The activities are active, hands-on, and engaging and are guided by the 4-H motto: Learning by Doing. As youth explore a dog project topic of interest to them, they also practice essential life skills. Although a few dog project youth will…

  7. Testing the directed dispersal hypothesis: are native ant mounds (Formica sp.) favorable microhabitats for an invasive plant?

    PubMed

    Berg-Binder, Moni C; Suarez, Andrew V

    2012-07-01

    Ant-mediated seed dispersal may be a form of directed dispersal if collected seeds are placed in a favorable microhabitat (e.g., in or near an ant nest) that increases plant establishment, growth, and/or reproduction relative to random locations. We investigated whether the native ant community interacts with invasive leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a manner consistent with predictions of the directed dispersal hypothesis. Resident ants quickly located and dispersed 60% of experimentally offered E. esula seeds. Additionally, 40% of seeds whose final deposition site was observed were either brought inside or placed on top of an ant nest. Seed removal was 100% when seeds were placed experimentally on foraging trails of mound-building Formica obscuripes, although the deposition site of these seeds is unknown. Natural density and above-ground biomass of E. esula were greater on Formica mound edges compared to random locations. However, seedling recruitment and establishment from experimentally planted E. esula seeds was not greater on mound edges than random locations 3 m from the mound. Soil from Formica mound edges was greater in available nitrogen and available phosphorus relative to random soil locations 3 m from the mound. These results suggest Formica ant mounds are favorable microhabitats for E. esula growth following seedling establishment, a likely consequence of nutrient limitation during plant growth. The results also indicate positive species interactions may play an important role in biological invasions.

  8. Sub-kilometre (intra-crater) mounds in Utopia Planitia, Mars: character, occurrence and possible formation hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, Richard J.; Conway, Susan J.; Pearce, Geoffrey D.; Costard, François; Séjourné, Antoine

    2013-08-01

    At the middle latitudes of Utopia Planitia (˜35-45°N; ˜65-101°E) hundreds of small-sized mounds located in sub-kilometre impact craters dot the landscape. Their shape varies from circular to crescentic and their height ranges from ˜10 to 50 m. Often, metre to decametre pitting is observed, as is metres-thick banding or stratification. Mound albedo is relatively high, i.e. ˜0.16. The plain's terrain in the region, previously linked to the latitude-dependent mantle (LDM) of ice-dust, displays pitting and albedo similar to the small intra-crater mounds. Some workers have suggested that the mounds and the plain's terrain share a common ice-dust origin. If so, then scrutinising the mounds could provide analogical insight on the key geological characteristics and spatial distribution of the LDM itself. Other workers have hypothesised that the mounds are eroded sedimentary landforms or periglacial mounds underlain by a perennial ice-core (closed-system pingos). In this article we develop and then discuss each of the three mound-hypotheses in a much more substantial manner than has been done hitherto. Towards this end we use high-resolution images, present a detailed regional-map of mound distribution and establish a regional platform of topographical analysis using MOLA data superposed on a large-scale CTX mosaic. Although the ice-dust hypothesis is consistent with some observations and measurements, we find that a (loess-based) sedimentary hypothesis shows greater plausibility. Of the three hypotheses evaluated, the pingo or periglacial one is the weakest.

  9. Development of high sensitivity 4H-SiC detectors for fission neutron pulse shape measurements.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Jiang, Yong; Li, Meng; Zeng, Lina; Li, Junjie; Gao, Hui; Zou, Dehui; Bai, Zhongxiong; Ye, Cenming; Liang, Wenfeng; Dai, Shaofeng; Lu, Yi; Rong, Ru; Du, Jinfeng; Fan, Xiaoqiang

    2017-08-01

    4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) detectors are well suited for measurements of fission neutron pulse shape for their compact size, excellent radiation resistance, and hydrogen free composition. The aim of this study is to improve the 4H-SiC detector's sensitivity to fission neutron pulses. 4H-SiC detectors with varied epilayer thicknesses are fabricated and then tested in the pulsed neutron field of the Chinese Fast Burst Reactor II (CFBR II). The sensitivity of the 4H-SiC detector to the CFBR II neutron pulse is increased by 139.8%, with the enlargement of epilayer thickness from 20 μm to 120 μm. By employing the proton-recoil method, the sensitivity of the 4H-SiC detector to the CFBR II neutron pulse is further increased by 11.6%. With enhanced sensitivity to fission neutron pulses, 4H-SiC detectors are promising devices for high intensity neutron pulse measurements.

  10. Development of high sensitivity 4H-SiC detectors for fission neutron pulse shape measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Jiang, Yong; Li, Meng; Zeng, Lina; Li, Junjie; Gao, Hui; Zou, Dehui; Bai, Zhongxiong; Ye, Cenming; Liang, Wenfeng; Dai, Shaofeng; Lu, Yi; Rong, Ru; Du, Jinfeng; Fan, Xiaoqiang

    2017-08-01

    4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) detectors are well suited for measurements of fission neutron pulse shape for their compact size, excellent radiation resistance, and hydrogen free composition. The aim of this study is to improve the 4H-SiC detector's sensitivity to fission neutron pulses. 4H-SiC detectors with varied epilayer thicknesses are fabricated and then tested in the pulsed neutron field of the Chinese Fast Burst Reactor II (CFBR II). The sensitivity of the 4H-SiC detector to the CFBR II neutron pulse is increased by 139.8%, with the enlargement of epilayer thickness from 20 μm to 120 μm. By employing the proton-recoil method, the sensitivity of the 4H-SiC detector to the CFBR II neutron pulse is further increased by 11.6%. With enhanced sensitivity to fission neutron pulses, 4H-SiC detectors are promising devices for high intensity neutron pulse measurements.

  11. Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of 4-H.

    PubMed

    Kress, Cathann

    2006-01-01

    Founded in the early 1900s, the 4-H Youth Development program can serve as a model for out-of-school programs of the twenty-first century. The 4-H pledge, repeated by its members--over 7 million, ranging in age from five to twenty--articulates its core values: "I pledge: My head to clearer thinking, My heart to greater loyalty, My hands to larger service, and My health to better living for my club, my community, my country, and my world." The 4-H Development movement was created to provide opportunities for rural children, to help them become constructive adults. Through an emphasis on "learning by doing," 4-H teaches children the habits of lifelong learning. Historically, 4-H has tapped into university-level advancements, extending such knowledge to youth and thereby giving them early access to scientific discoveries and technological progress. Members apply this learning in their communities through hands-on projects crossing a wide-range of pertinent topics. Research shows that 4-H members are more successful in school than other children and develop a wide range of skills essential in the twenty-first century. Thus, the author makes the case that the foundation of 4-H is exceptionally relevant in today's complex world, perhaps even more so than a century ago. 4-H is a leader in youth development, making it a natural model for twenty-first century after-school programs. Expanding on the 4-H pledge, the author outlines the principles a successful youth development program would have: an emphasis on leadership skills, a feeling of connection and belonging, a forum for exploring career opportunities, and a component of meaningful community service.

  12. HIF-P4H-2 deficiency protects against skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Karsikas, Sara; Myllymäki, Mikko; Heikkilä, Minna; Sormunen, Raija; Kivirikko, Kari I; Myllyharju, Johanna; Serpi, Raisa; Koivunen, Peppi

    2016-03-01

    We show here that mice hypomorphic for hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4-hydroxylase-2 (HIF-P4H-2) (Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt)), the main regulator of the stability of the HIFα subunits, have normoxic stabilization of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in their skeletal muscles. The size of the capillaries, but not their number, was increased in the skeletal muscles of the Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) mice, whereas the amount of glycogen was reduced. The expression levels of genes for glycolytic enzymes, glycogen branching enzyme 1 and monocarboxylate transporter 4, were increased in the Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) skeletal muscles, whereas no significant increases were detected in the levels of any vasculature-influencing factor studied. Serum lactate levels of the Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) mice recovered faster than those of the wild type following exercise. The Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) mice had elevated hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, which may have contributed to the faster clearance of lactate. The Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) mice had smaller infarct size following limb ischemia-reperfusion injury. The increased capillary size correlated with the reduced infarct size. Following ischemia-reperfusion, glycogen content and ATP/ADP and CrP/Cr levels of the skeletal muscle of the Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) mice were higher than in the wild type. The higher glycogen content correlated with increased expression of phosphofructokinase messenger RNA (mRNA) and the increased ATP/ADP and CrP/Cr levels with reduced apoptosis, suggesting that HIF-P4H-2 deficiency supported energy metabolism during ischemia-reperfusion and protection against injury. Key messages: HIF-P4H-2 deficiency protects skeletal muscle from ischemia-reperfusion injury. The mechanisms involved are mediated via normoxic HIF-1α and HIF-2α stabilization. HIF-P4H-2 deficiency increases capillary size but not number. HIF-P4H-2 deficiency maintains energy metabolism during ischemia-reperfusion.

  13. Discovery Of An Extensive Hydrothermal Sulfide/Sulfate Mounds Field In East Diamante Caldera, Mariana Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. R.; de Ronde, C. E.; Ditchburn, R.; Leybourne, M. I.; Tamura, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Conrad, T. A.; Nichols, A. R.; Shukuno, H.; Embley, R. W.; Bloomer, S. H.; Ishizuka, O.; Hirahara, Y.; Senda, R.; Nunokawa, A.; Jordan, E.; Wada, I.

    2010-12-01

    An elongate field of hydrothermal mounds was discovered along the NE flank of a cluster of resurgent dacite domes in East Diamante Caldera using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin aboard the R.V. Natsushima in June 2009 and July 2010. East Diamante seamount lies about 80 km north of Saipan and is the northernmost volcano of the Southern Seamount Province of the Mariana magmatic arc. East Diamante is an irregular caldera about 10 km x 4 km that is breached on the north and south sides. The caldera floor has a maximum water depth of about 700 m. After caldera collapse, dacitic domes intruded into the center of the caldera providing the heat source for production and circulation of hydrothermal fluids that generated the large mounds field and two nearby chimney fields, one active and one inactive, found in 2004 during a NOAA Ring-of-Fire cruise. The mounds field is more than 100 m long and about 25-30 m wide and occurs along a NE-SW rift valley at water depths of about 365-400 m b.s.l. Individual hydrothermal mounds and ridges along this trend vary in size and the bases of the mounds are buried beneath hydrothermal sediment so that only minimum dimensions can be determined. Mounds are typically 1-3 m tall and 0.5-2 m wide, with lengths of about 3 to more than 5 m. The sulfide/sulfate mounds are layered and an iron- and manganese-oxide subsidiary mound venting low-temperature fluids caps some of them. Some mounds also support inactive sulfide/sulfate chimneys and spires; chimneys rarely occur as independent structures within the mounds field. The mounds are composed primarily of barite layers and sphalerite (high cadmium, low iron) plus galena layers with up to 470 ppm silver and 3 ppm gold. The subsidiary mounds are composed of 7A manganate and goethite that occur around a delicate network of 2-10 mm diameter anastomosing channels. Similar oxides cover the seabed throughout the mounds field and precipitated from diffuse fluid flow throughout the region, but formed by both diffuse

  14. Enigmatic mounds in 'Subglacial Meltwater Corridors' on the Canadian Shield: a record of channelised, subglacial meltwater drainage during Laurentide deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiblen, Anna; Ward, Brent; Normandeau, Philippe; Campbell, Janet

    2017-04-01

    Esker networks have traditionally been invoked to represent the channelised subglacial drainage system in shield terrains. However, eskers are only one landform found within 'subglacial meltwater corridors' (SMCs) on the Canadian Shield. SMCs are tracts where till has been eroded, bedrock is exposed, and glaciofluvial sediments have been deposited. SMCs are regularly spaced, parallel deglacial ice-flow directions, have undulating longitudinal profiles, and cross modern drainage divides. Our lidar- and field-based mapping near Lac de Gras, Northwest Territories, west of the Keewatin Ice Divide (KID), reveals that eskers are not present in the majority of SMCs. Instead, enigmatic mounds are commonly the dominant landform type. Enigmatic mounds typically occur in groups of 20 to 200. They are commonly composed of sandy diamicton that is coarser grained and better sorted than regional till. This diamicton is occasionally draped with well-sorted, stratified glaciofluvial sediments. Some enigmatic mounds have a single highpoint (individual mounds) while others have a complex, irregular form (complex mounds). Individual mounds have an average long-axis length of 43 m and an average height of < 2 m, however, their size is highly variable: the largest mounds are 170 m long and 15 m high. Complex mounds are typically larger than individual mounds. Our morphometric analysis shows that individual mounds have a mean length-to-width ratio of 1.8. The average mound elongation direction parallels the final ice flow that affected the area. However, where meltwater- and ice-flow directions differ, mound long-axis orientations typically cluster about meltwater flow directions. We have also observed SMCs and enigmatic mounds in the South Rae region of Northwest Territories, 450 km SE of Lac de Gras. Multiple types of enigmatic mounds are present in this area: some are similar to those near Lac de Gras, some are composed of till, and some are composed of sorted and stratified sediments

  15. Multiple shells in IRC+10216: shell properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauron, N.; Huggins, P. J.

    2000-07-01

    We report on the properties of the multiple shells in the circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216, using deep optical imaging, including data from the Hubble Space Telescope. The intensity profiles confirm the presence of thin ( ~ 0farcs5 -3'' ec), limb-brightened shells in the envelope, seen in stellar and ambient Galactic light scattered by dust. The shells are spaced at irregular intervals of ~ 5'' ec-20'' ec, corresponding to time scales of 200-800 yr, although intervals as short as ~ 1'' ec (40 yr) are seen close to the star. The location of the main shells shows a good correlation with high-resolution, molecular line maps of the inner envelope, indicating that the dust and gas are well coupled. The shell/intershell density contrast is typically ~ 3, and we find that the shells form the dominant mass component of the circumstellar envelope. The shells exhibit important evolutionary effects: the thickness increases with increasing radius, with an effective dispersion velocity of 0.7 km s-1 and there is evidence for shell interactions. Despite the presence of bipolar structure close to the star, the global shell pattern favors a roughly isotropic, episodic mass loss mechanism, with a range of time scales. Based on observations made with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, operated by CNRS, NRCC and UH, and on dearchived observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555

  16. Using Multiple Youth Programming Delivery Modes to Drive the Development of Social Capital in 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how 4-H youth participants are building social capital, or connections among individuals and community members, through their 4-H experiences. These experiences can be seen through the lens of such 4-H delivery modes as the traditional 4-H club, after-school programs, and school enrichment programs. In addition, other…

  17. Prismatic Slip in PVT-Grown 4H-SiC Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianqiu; Yang, Yu; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Kim, Jungyu; Dudley, Michael; Chung, Gilyong; Sanchez, Edward; Quast, Jeffrey; Manning, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Basal plane slip is the most frequently observed deformation mechanism in 4H-type silicon carbon (4H-SiC) single crystals grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method. However, it was recently reported that dislocations in such crystals can also glide in prismatic slip systems. In this study, we observed nonuniform distributions of three sets of prismatic dislocations in a commercial 4H-SiC substrate wafer. The nonuniformity is a result of the distribution of resolved shear stress on each prismatic slip system caused by radial thermal gradients in the growing crystal boule. A radial thermal model has been developed to estimate the thermal stress across the entire area of the crystal boule during PVT growth. The model results show excellent agreement with the observations, confirming that radial thermal gradients play a key role in activating prismatic slip in 4H-SiC during bulk growth.

  18. Electron channeling contrast imaging of atomic steps and threading dislocations in 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Y. N.; Twigg, M. E.; Caldwell, J. D.; Eddy, C. R.; Neudeck, P. G.; Trunek, A. J.; Powell, J. A.

    2007-06-01

    Direct imaging of atomic step morphologies and individual threading dislocations in on-axis epitaxial 4H-SiC surfaces is presented. Topographically sensitive electron images of the crystalline surfaces were obtained through forescattered electron detection inside a conventional scanning electron microscope. This technique, termed electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI), has been utilized to reveal the configuration of highly stepped, homoepitaxial 4H-SiC films grown on 4H-SiC mesa structures. Individual threading dislocations have been consistently imaged at the core of spiral atomic step morphologies located on the 4H-SiC surfaces. The ability of ECCI to image atomic steps was verified by atomic force microscopy.

  19. Reaching Migrant Farmworker Youth through 4-H Career and Workforce Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wille, Celina G.

    1999-01-01

    Migrant-farm-worker youth learned about employment and educational opportunities in agriculture through a 4-H-sponsored conference. The conference was developed by a partnership of university extension, community organizations, schools, and private industry. (SK)

  20. Prismatic Slip in PVT-Grown 4H-SiC Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianqiu; Yang, Yu; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Kim, Jungyu; Dudley, Michael; Chung, Gilyong; Sanchez, Edward; Quast, Jeffrey; Manning, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Basal plane slip is the most frequently observed deformation mechanism in 4H-type silicon carbon (4H-SiC) single crystals grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method. However, it was recently reported that dislocations in such crystals can also glide in prismatic slip systems. In this study, we observed nonuniform distributions of three sets of prismatic dislocations in a commercial 4H-SiC substrate wafer. The nonuniformity is a result of the distribution of resolved shear stress on each prismatic slip system caused by radial thermal gradients in the growing crystal boule. A radial thermal model has been developed to estimate the thermal stress across the entire area of the crystal boule during PVT growth. The model results show excellent agreement with the observations, confirming that radial thermal gradients play a key role in activating prismatic slip in 4H-SiC during bulk growth.

  1. Characterization of deep electron traps in 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelczuk, Ł.; Dąbrowska-Szata, M.; Sochacki, M.; Szmidt, J.

    2014-04-01

    Conventional deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique was used to study deep electron traps in 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifiers. 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, doped with nitrogen and grown on standard n+-4H-SiC substrates were exposed to low-dose aluminum ion implantation process under the Schottky contact in order to form both JBS grid and junction termination extension (JTE), and assure good rectifying properties of the diodes. Several deep electron traps were revealed and attributed to impurities or intrinsic defects in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, on the basis of comparison of their electrical parameters (i.e. activation energies, apparent capture cross sections and concentrations) with previously published results.

  2. Al4H7(-) is a resilient building block for aluminum hydrogen cluster materials.

    PubMed

    Roach, P J; Reber, A C; Woodward, W H; Khanna, S N; Castleman, A W

    2007-09-11

    The formation and oxygen etching of Al(n)H(m)(-) clusters are characterized in a flow reactor experiment with first-principles theoretical investigations to demonstrate the exceptional stability of Al(4)H(7)(-). The origin of the preponderance of Al(4)H(7)(-) in the mass spectra of hydrogenated aluminum anions and its resistance to O(2) etching are discussed. Al(4)H(7)(-) is shown to have the ability to bond with ionic partners to form stable hydrides through addition of an alkali atom [XAl(4)H(7) (X = Li-Cs)]. An intuitive model that can predict the existence of stable hydrogenated cluster species is proposed. The potential synthetic utility of the superatom assemblies built on these units is addressed.

  3. Enantioselective one-pot synthesis of 2-amino-4-(indol-3-yl)-4H-chromenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiliang; Cai, Yunfei; Fu, Xuan; Liu, Xiaohua; Lin, Lili; Feng, Xiaoming

    2011-09-16

    An enantioselective one-pot synthesis of 2-amino-4-(indol-3-yl)-4H-chromenes via a Knoevenagel/Pinner/Friedel-Crafts reaction of salicylaldehyde, malononitrile, and indole is presented. Moderate to good yields (up to 89%) and high enantioselectivities (up to 90% ee) were obtained with an N,N'-dioxide-Zn(II) complex as the catalyst. This strategy provides an efficient and convenient method to access enantiomerically enriched 2-amino-4H-chromene derivatives.

  4. Ferromagnetism in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ren-Wei; Wang, Hua-Jie; Chen, Wei-Bin; Li, Fei; Liu, Xue-Chao Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-04-15

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal. An initial increase in proton dose leads to pronounced ferromagnetism, accompanying with obvious increase in vacancy concentration. Further increase in irradiation dose lowers the saturation magnetization with the decrease in total vacancy defects due to the defects recombination. It is found that divacancies are the mainly defects in proton irradiated 4H-SiC and responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  5. Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC by liquid immersion excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Akihiro; Nishi, Koji; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2013-02-04

    Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC is performed by KrF excimer laser irradiation of 4H SiC immersed in phosphoric acid. Phosphorus is incorporated to a depth of a few tens of nanometers at a concentration of over 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} without generating significant crystal defects. Formation of a pn junction diode with an ideality factor of 1.06 is demonstrated.

  6. Key contribution of eIF4H-mediated translational control in tumor promotion

    PubMed Central

    Vaysse, Charlotte; Philippe, Céline; Martineau, Yvan; Quelen, Cathy; Hieblot, Corinne; Renaud, Claire; Nicaise, Yvan; Desquesnes, Aurore; Pannese, Maria; Filleron, Thomas; Escourrou, Ghislaine; Lawson, Malcolm; Rintoul, Robert C.; Delisle, Marie Bernadette; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Brousset, Pierre; Prats, Hervé; Touriol, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated expression of translation initiation factors has been associated with carcinogenesis, but underlying mechanisms remains to be fully understood. Here we show that eIF4H (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H), an activator of the RNA helicase eIF4A, is overexpressed in lung carcinomas and predictive of response to chemotherapy. In lung cancer cells, depletion of eIF4H enhances sensitization to chemotherapy, decreases cell migration and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, in association with reduced translation of mRNA encoding cell-proliferation (c-Myc, cyclin D1) angiogenic (FGF-2) and anti-apoptotic factors (CIAP-1, BCL-xL). Conversely, each isoform of eIF4H acts as an oncogene in NIH3T3 cells by stimulating transformation, invasion, tumor growth and resistance to drug-induced apoptosis together with increased translation of IRES-containing or structured 5′UTR mRNAs. These results demonstrate that eIF4H plays a crucial role in translational control and can promote cellular transformation by preferentially regulating the translation of potent growth and survival factor mRNAs, indicating that eIF4H is a promising new molecular target for cancer therapy. PMID:26498689

  7. The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation

    PubMed Central

    Low, Caroline M.; Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Löser, Stephan; Wong, Chi-Tung; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Hare, Stephen A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is implicated in the pathologies of an array of diseases and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) catalyses the distal step in LTB4 synthesis and hence inhibitors of this enzyme have been actively pursued. Despite potent LTA4H inhibitors entering clinical trials all have failed to show efficacy. We recently identified a secondary anti-inflammatory role for LTA4H in degrading the neutrophil chemoattractant Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and rationalized that the failure of conventional LTA4H inhibitors may be that they inadvertently prevented PGP degradation. We demonstrate that these inhibitors do indeed fail to discriminate between the dual activities of LTA4H, and enable PGP accumulation in mice. Accordingly, we have developed novel compounds that potently inhibit LTB4 generation whilst leaving PGP degradation unperturbed. These novel compounds could represent a safer and superior class of LTA4H inhibitors for translation into the clinic. PMID:28303931

  8. The development of novel LTA4H modulators to selectively target LTB4 generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Caroline M.; Akthar, Samia; Patel, Dhiren F.; Löser, Stephan; Wong, Chi-Tung; Jackson, Patricia L.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Hare, Stephen A.; Lloyd, Clare M.; Snelgrove, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    The pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is implicated in the pathologies of an array of diseases and thus represents an attractive therapeutic target. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) catalyses the distal step in LTB4 synthesis and hence inhibitors of this enzyme have been actively pursued. Despite potent LTA4H inhibitors entering clinical trials all have failed to show efficacy. We recently identified a secondary anti-inflammatory role for LTA4H in degrading the neutrophil chemoattractant Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) and rationalized that the failure of conventional LTA4H inhibitors may be that they inadvertently prevented PGP degradation. We demonstrate that these inhibitors do indeed fail to discriminate between the dual activities of LTA4H, and enable PGP accumulation in mice. Accordingly, we have developed novel compounds that potently inhibit LTB4 generation whilst leaving PGP degradation unperturbed. These novel compounds could represent a safer and superior class of LTA4H inhibitors for translation into the clinic.

  9. Properties of ternary insulating systems: the electronic structure of MgSO4.H2O.

    PubMed

    Maslyuk, V V; Tegenkamp, C; Pfnür, H; Bredow, T

    2005-05-12

    Structural and electronic properties of (100)-oriented MgSO(4) and MgSO(4).H(2)O surfaces and the adsorption of water on the latter were investigated theoretically with a combination of ab initio and semiempirical methods. Ab initio electronic structure calculations were based on a density functional theory (DFT)-Hartree-Fock (HF) hybrid approach. The semiempirical method MSINDO was used for the determination of the local adsorption geometry of the water molecule. With the hybrid method good agreement was obtained with the experimental band gap of 7.4 eV determined with electron energy loss spectroscopy of polycrystalline MgSO(4).H(2)O samples under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The valence bands of the (100) surfaces of both MgSO(4) and MgSO(4).H(2)O are formed mainly by the O2p levels, whereas the S2p states contribute to the lower part of the conduction band. The preferred adsorption site of water at MgSO(4).H(2)O (100) is above a surface Mg atom. The water molecule is stabilized by two additional hydrogen bonds with surface atoms. Only small differences between the electronic structure of MgSO(4).H(2)O and MgSO(4) were observed. Also, the molecular adsorption of water on the MgSO(4).H(2)O surface leads to only small shifts of the electronic energy levels.

  10. Fabrication of High-Q Nanobeam Photonic Crystals in Epitaxially Grown 4H-SiC.

    PubMed

    Bracher, David O; Hu, Evelyn L

    2015-09-09

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an intriguing material due to the presence of spin-active point defects in several polytypes, including 4H-SiC. For many quantum information and sensing applications involving such point defects, it is important to couple their emission to high quality optical cavities. Here we present the fabrication of 1D nanobeam photonic crystal cavities (PCC) in 4H-SiC using a dopant-selective etch to undercut a homoepitaxially grown epilayer of p-type 4H-SiC. These are the first PCCs demonstrated in 4H-SiC and show high quality factors (Q) of up to ∼7000 as well as low modal volumes of <0.5 (λ/n)(3). We take advantage of the high device yield of this fabrication method to characterize hundreds of devices and determine which PCC geometries are optimal. Additionally, we demonstrate two methods to tune the resonant wavelengths of the PCCs over 5 nm without significant degradation of the Q. Lastly, we characterize nanobeam PCCs coupled to luminescence from silicon vacancy point defects (V1, V2) in 4H-SiC. The fundamental modes of two such PCCs are tuned into spectral overlap with the zero phonon line (ZPL) of the V2 center, resulting in an intensity increase of up to 3-fold. These results are important steps on the path to developing 4H-SiC as a platform for quantum information and sensing.

  11. Meteoritic Metal Beads from the Havana, Illinois, Hopewell Mounds: A Source in Minnesota and Implications for Trade and Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Marquardt, A. E.; Vicenzi, E. P.; Ash, R. D.; Wasson, J. T.

    2008-03-01

    Meteoritic metal beads from an Illinois Hopewell burial mound (~350 BCE) are pieces of the Anoka, Minnesota iron, which were worked in Ohio or Michigan and transported to Illinois as a finished product.

  12. Classification Shell Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzold, Carol

    1983-01-01

    Discusses shell classification exercises. Through keying students advanced from the "I know what a shell looks like" stage to become involved in the classification process: observing, labeling, making decisions about categories, and identifying marine animals. (Author/JN)

  13. Sources of Sulfate Found in Mounds and Lakes at the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue, Transantarctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard; Sun, Tao; Harvey, Ralph P.; Bish, David L.; Tonui, Eric; Bao, Huiming; Niles, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Massive but highly localized Na-sulfate mounds (mirabilite, Na2SO4.10H2O) have been found at the terminal moraine of the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue (LCIT), Antarctica. (Sigma)34S and (Sigma)18O values of LCIT mirabilite range from +48.8 to +49.3% (CDT), and -16.6 to -17.1% (V-SMOW), respectively, while (Delta)17O average -0.37% (V-SMOW). LCIT mirabilite mounds are isotopically different from other mirabilite mounds found in coastal regions of Antarctica, which have isotope values close to seawater compositions. (Sigma)18O and (Delta)17O values suggest the incorporation of isotopically light glacial water. Data point to initial sulfate formation in an anoxic water body, either as a stratified anoxic deep lake on the surface, a sub-glacial water reservoir, or a sub-glacial lake. Several surface lakes of varying size are also present within this region of the LCIT, and in some cases are adjacent to the mirabilite mounds. O and D isotope compositions of surface lakes confirm they are derived from a mixture of glacial ice and snow that underwent moderate evaporation. (Sigma)18O and (Sigma)D (V-SMOW) values of snow, ice, and lake water range from -64.2 to -29.7%, and -456.0 to -231.7%, respectively. However, the isotope chemistry of these surface lakes is extremely different from the mounds. Dissolved SO4-2 (Sigma)34S and (Sigma)18O values range from +12.0 to +20.0% and -12.8 to -22.2% (the most negative (Sigma)18O of terrestrial sulfate ever reported), respectively, with sulfate (Delta)17O ranging from +0.93 to 2.24%. Ion chromatography data show that lake water is fresh to brackish in origin, with TDS less than 1500 ppm, and sulfate concentration less than 431 ppm. Isotope and chemical data suggest that these lakes are unlikely the source of the mirabilite mounds. We suggest that lake water sulfate is potentially composed of a mixture of atmospheric sulfate and minor components of sulfate of weathering origin, much like the sulfate in the polar plateau soils of the Mc

  14. Methane fluxes from the mound-building termite species of North Australian savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, H.; Livesely, S. J.; Arndt, S. K.; Dawes-Gromadzki, T.; Cook, G. D.; Hutley, L.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are estimated to contribute 3-19% to the global methane emissions. These estimates have large uncertainties because of the limited number of field-based studies and species studied, as well as issues of diel and seasonal variation. We measured methane fluxes from four common mound-building termite species (Microcerotermes nervosus, n=26; M. serratus, n=4; Tumulitermes pastinator, n=5; and Amitermes darwini, n=4) in tropical savannas near Darwin in the Northern Territory, Australia. Methane fluxes from replicated termite mounds were measured in the field using manual chambers with fluxes reported on a mound volume basis. Methane flux was measured in both wet and dry seasons and diel variation was investigated by measuring methane flux every 4 hours over a 24 hour period. Mound temperature was measured concurrently with flux to examine this relationship. In addition, five M. nervosus mounds removed from the field and incubated under controlled temperature conditions over a 24 hour period to remove the effect of varying temperature. During the observation campaigns, mean monthly minimum and maximum temperatures for February (wet season) were 24.7 and 30.8°C, respectively, and were 20.1 to 31.4 °C in June (dry season). Annual rainfall in 2008 for Darwin was 1970.1 mm, with a maximum of 670 mm falling in February and no rain in May and June. Methane fluxes were greatest in the wet season for all species, ranging from 265.1±101.1 (T. pastinator) to 2256.6±757.1 (M. serratus) µg CH4-C/m3/h. In the dry season, methane fluxes were at their lowest, ranging from 10.0±5.5 (T. pastinator) to 338.0±165.9 (M. serratus) µg CH4-C/m3/h. On a diel basis, methane fluxes were smallest at the coolest time of the day (~0700 hrs) and greatest at the warmest (~1400 hrs) for all species, and for both wet and dry seasons. Typical diel variation in flux from M. serratus dominated mounds ranged from 902.6±261.9 to 1392.1±408.1 µg CH4-C/m3/h in wet season and 99.6±57.4 to

  15. Genesis and fluid source in Arabia crater mounds: mapping, fractal analysis, and impact simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, R.; Mazzarini, F.; Rossi, A.; Lucchetti, A.; Pondrelli, M.; Marinangeli, L.; Martellato, E.; Cremonese, G.; Massironi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Arabia Terra is dominated by heavily cratered terrains, and some peculiar landforms can be found mostly in craters interior. With high-resolution images from HiRISE (25 cm/px) and CTX (6 m/px) cameras pitted cones, mounds and knobs can be easily recognized. Those mounds are interpreted to have worked as pathways for subsurface fluid. It is commonly hypothesized that Arabia Terra is an area of past fluid activity, being crater central bulges a place of sulfate precipitation. In this work we investigate the presence, origin and timing of their formation as well as the the depth of the mounds fluid source. The spatial distribution of monogenic eruptive structures within volcanic areas on Earth has been linked to fracture systems that allowed an efficient hydraulic connection between surface and crustal or subcrustal magma reservoirs. Self-similarity in vent distribution is described by a power law distribution with fractal exponent D and defined over a range of lengths comprised between a lower limit (lower cutoff, Lco) and an upper limit (upper cutoff, Uco). On Earth, volcanic vents as well as mud volcanoes have shown that the Uco of their fractal distribution scales with the depth of pressurized fluid reservoirs. The same approach has been this applied to mounds mapped at Firsoff and Crommelin craters. 431 mounds were mapped on Firsoff Crater's floor, and 160 on Crommelin Crater's floor. The reslulting Uco for both craters are similar giving a source depth of 2.3 ×0.3 km from Firsoff Crater's ground floor and 2.6 ×0.5 km from Crommelin's floor. Hence it is possible to hypothesize a common regional-scale pressurized fluid level at 2.5 km of depth from craters floor. Morphogic and stratigraphical analyses of the high-resolution imagery and topography of those mounds allowed us to discern from actual mud volcano candidates and stratigraphic erosional remnants. We also studied the craters formation by simulating the impact with the hydrocode. We used iSALE shock code

  16. Corrosion of copper in Mound's single-pass potable water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schleitweiler, P.M.; Miller, P.S.

    1990-12-07

    An increase in the number of copper plumbing failures at Mound prompted a thorough analysis of the failed components. Most of the components were elbow joints. All of these parts exhibited the same type of accelerated deterioration. The failed parts were analyzed optically and by scanning electron microscopy. Water chemistry, solder, and soldering fluxes were evaluated to determine their possible roles in the accelerated attack. Cross-sectioning of the elbow joints revealed residual soldering flux and cutting burrs on the inside of the elbows. Water analysis showed Mound's water was rated as corrosive. Recommendations for improved workmanship and design are presented. Testing of potable water at a regular basis was also recommended. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Island-dynamics model for mound formation: effect of a step-edge barrier.

    PubMed

    Papac, Joe; Margetis, Dionisios; Gibou, Frederic; Ratsch, Christian

    2014-08-01

    We formulate and implement a generalized island-dynamics model of epitaxial growth based on the level-set technique to include the effect of an additional energy barrier for the attachment and detachment of atoms at step edges. For this purpose, we invoke a mixed, Robin-type, boundary condition for the flux of adsorbed atoms (adatoms) at each step edge. In addition, we provide an analytic expression for the requisite equilibrium adatom concentration at the island boundary. The only inputs are atomistic kinetic rates. We present a numerical scheme for solving the adatom diffusion equation with such a mixed boundary condition. Our simulation results demonstrate that mounds form when the step-edge barrier is included, and that these mounds steepen as the step-edge barrier increases.

  18. A terrestrial weathering and wind abrasion analog for mound and moat morphology of Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Marjorie A.; Netoff, Dennis I.

    2017-05-01

    A striking feature of Gale crater is the 5.5 km high, central layered mound called Mount Sharp (Aeolis Mons)—the major exploration target for the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. Within the 154 km diameter crater, low plains (Aeolis Palous) resemble a moat surrounding Mount Sharp. There is a similar terrestrial analog in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah, USA, where a distinctive weathering pit 60 m wide by 20 m deep contains a central pillar/mound and moat. Strong regional and local winds are funneled to amplify their velocity and produce a Venturi effect that sculpts the pit via wind abrasion. Although the Navajo pit is orders of magnitude smaller than Gale crater, both show comparable morphologies accompanied by erosional wind features. The terrestrial example shows the impact of weathering and the ability of strong winds and vortices to shape lithified sedimentary rock over long periods of time.

  19. Geometry-Lithology-Origin: Solving the mystery of the Late Miocene mounded features below Lake Balaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnovitz, Ferenc; Horváth, Ferenc; Surányi, Gergely

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences of Eötvös University has carried out single- and multichannel water seismic surveys at the Lake Balaton since 1993. The dense grid of 2D profiles offers a high resolution image of the Late Miocene sedimentary strata (Tihany, Somló and Szák Formations) up to a thickness of 200 meters below the lake. These strata can be divided into smaller sedimentary units by numerous parasequence boundaries (Sztanó&Magyar, 2007). In one of these parasequence interesting, high amplitude mounded features have been observed that follow a seismic horizon over large area. It means that these features indicate a Late Miocene regional event. In terms of their shape these mounds are few tens of meters wide, several tens to a hundreds of meters long and few meters high. Their geometry and inner structure were mapped from 2D segments that were used for 3D reconstructions. The shape and stratigraphic position of these features have inspired Sacchi and Horvath (1999) to interpret them as the subsurface equivalent of the fresh-water siliceous-limestone mounds exposed on the Tihany Peninsula. They held these mounds as an evidence of dryland conditions in the time period of the formation of a Late Miocene erosional surface (PAN-2) that they regarded as a 3rd order sequence boundary. In addition to this so called "travertine" concept another explanation was also formulated as the mounds are the product of sedimentary failures e.g. slumps or water escape. To solve the problem an offshore drilling with a total depth of 19 meters was accomplished in October 2013 to sample one of these mounds and determine their origin. The well has not crossed any travertine body, instead alternating layers of clay-silt and very fine sand - without any convincing sign of fluid escape structures - were found in the core (typical lithology of the Tihany Formation). 3D structural analysis of the mounds revealed spherical organization composing bodies that are

  20. Comparison testing of a mound calorimeter and a Savannah River Site calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    ReFalo, L.A.; Foster, L.A.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the paired comparison testing of a Savannah River Site (SRS) calorimeter and a Mound calorimeter. Prior to this test, no offsite testing had been performed on an SRS calorimeter. The testing was performed at the Plutonium Facility of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The SRS calorimeter was designed, fabricated and delivered to LANL. The Mound calorimeter chosen for comparison was similar in well dimensions and located in the same room as the SRS calorimeter. There were three series of tests performed. First, twenty radiometric standard measurements were completed using two different standards. The second series of tests were dedicated to heat distribution measurements and the third series focused on measuring typical process samples.

  1. Cold-water coral growth and mound formation on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mienis, Furu; de Stigter, Henko C.; de Haas, Henk; Groot, Diane; Frank, Norbert; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.

    2010-05-01

    Abundant skeletal remains of cold-water corals in sediments around the Pen Duick Escarpment, southern Gulf of Cadiz, suggest that corals thrived in the area in a relatively recent past. Cold-water coral carbonate mounds with heights of up to 60 m are found at about 550 m water depth on the edge of an elevation delimited by the Pen Duick Escarpment. Coral debris is abundantly present in the sediment on the carbonate mounds as well as on the escarpment, with Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata as most common species. However, living coral is rare, and a mud drape of a few cm to tens of cm thick is usually found covering the coral-bearing sediment. On and off mound sediment cores are presently investigated in detail to determine the timing of the decline of cold-water coral communities on the Pen Duick Escarpment. Planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope stratigraphy and U/Th datings of coral debris from the on mound core show that the main framework building cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata were present on the mound during glacial periods (Marine Isotope Stage 2, 6 and 8) and the early Holocene, but absent during the late Holocene. During glacial periods a dense framework of cold-water corals existed and sedimentation rates were high. Both on and off mound cores show low magnetic susceptibility values until marine isotope stage 3, after which values are increasing. A large hiatus is found between 36 and 141 kyr. Our finding that cold-water corals on Pen Duick escarpment occurred mostly during glacial times contrasts with that of cold-water corals on the Rockall Trough margins and in the Porcupine Seabight, where they seem to have mainly lived during interglacials. The reason for the late Holocene decline of cold-water corals on Pen Duick escarpment is still a matter of speculation. Observations made with CTD and long-term deployment of benthic landers indicate activity of internal waves in the area with semi-diurnal periodicity, inducing

  2. Association among active seafloor deformation, mound formation, and gas hydrate growth and accumulation within the seafloor of the Santa Monica Basin, offshore California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.K.; Normark, W.R.; Ussler, W.; Caress, D.W.; Keaten, R.

    2008-01-01

    Seafloor blister-like mounds, methane migration and gas hydrate formation were investigated through detailed seafloor surveys in Santa Monica Basin, offshore of Los Angeles, California. Two distinct deep-water (??? 800??m water depth) topographic mounds were surveyed using an autonomous underwater vehicle (carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp sub-bottom profiler) and one of these was explored with the remotely operated vehicle Tiburon. The mounds are > 10??m high and > 100??m wide dome-shaped bathymetric features. These mounds protrude from crests of broad anticlines (~ 20??m high and 1 to 3??km long) formed within latest Quaternary-aged seafloor sediment associated with compression between lateral offsets in regional faults. No allochthonous sediments were observed on the mounds, except slumped material off the steep slopes of the mounds. Continuous streams of methane gas bubbles emanate from the crest of the northeastern mound, and extensive methane-derived authigenic carbonate pavements and chemosynthetic communities mantle the mound surface. The large local vertical displacements needed to produce these mounds suggests a corresponding net mass accumulation has occurred within the immediate subsurface. Formation and accumulation of pure gas hydrate lenses in the subsurface is proposed as a mechanism to blister the seafloor and form these mounds. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Microsite characteristics of pit and mound and their effects on the vegetation regeneration in Pinus koraiensis-dominated broadleaved mixed forest].

    PubMed

    Du, Shan; Duan, Wen-Biao; Wang, Li-Xia; Chen, Li-Xin; Wei, Quan-Shuai; Li, Meng; Wang, Li-dong

    2013-03-01

    Abstract: An investigation was conducted in a 2.55 hm2 plot of Pinus koraiensis-dominated broad-leaved mixed forest to study the microsite characteristics of pit and mound formed by 42 treefalls and the status of vegetation regeneration on the microsites. The soil water content, soil temperature, relative air humidity, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on five microsites (mound top, mound face, pit wall, pit bottom, and intact forest floor) were measured. Among the five mirosites, mound top had the highest PAR (527.9 micromol.m-2.s-1 ) while intact forest floor had the lowest one (58.7 micromol.m-2.s-), mound top had the highest soil temperature (16.0 degrees C) but pit bottom had the lowest one (13.3 degrees C), pit bottom had the highest soil water content (34.6%) but mound face had the lowest one (0.5%), and intact forest floor had the highest relative air humidity (75.9%) but mound top had the lowest one (68.0%). The frequency of forming pit/ mound complex by the tree species was decreased in the order of Pinus koraiensis (42. 9%) >Picea asperata (31.0%) > Betula platyphylla (16.7%) > Abies fabri (7. 1%) > Prunus padus (2.4%). Among the 42 treefalls, two-thirds of them were in northwest direction. The treefalls volume had significant positive correlations with pit depth, pit length, mound height, and mound width, but negative correlation with mound thickness. The treefall mean diameter at breast height had significant positive correlations with pit width (r=0.328, P=0.017) and pit length (r=0.527, P= 0). The tree species richness at the microsites decreased in the order of intact forest floor > pit > mound, and the tree species coverage was in the sequence of intact forest floor > pit > mound.

  4. A Terrestrial Wind Erosion Analog for Mound and Moat Morphology of Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. A.; Netoff, D. I.

    2016-12-01

    A striking feature of Gale crater is the 5.5 km high, layered mound called Mount Sharp- the major exploration target for the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. Within the 154 km diameter crater, low plains (e.g. Aeolis Palus) resemble a moat surrounding Mount Sharp. Current studies debate whether sedimentary layers completely filled the crater, as well as how the units were sculpted to their current morphology. Areas of southern Utah are favorable for terrestrial comparisons to Mars due to the exceptional exposure and lack of vegetation in the desert climate. Here, water is key in shaping large geomorphic features, but wind is also an effective sculptor of the landscape. In Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument, a distinctive weathering pit with a central mound and moat occurs in bleached eolian facies of the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone. This pit is 60 m wide by 20 m deep and was informally dubbed "inselberg pit", although it has recently gained notoriety under the name of "cosmic navel" or "cosmic ashtray". Inside the pit, loose dune sand shifts periodically and seasonally across the pit floor and up against the walls. Eolian abrasion features of cm to m scales include: grooves, flutes, and erosional-shaped fingers or stalks topped with concretions. Strong regional and local winds are funneled to amplify their velocity and produce a venturi effect that sculpts the pit via wind abrasion, creating an internal mound and moat morphology. Although the Navajo pit is significantly smaller than Gale crater on Mars by several orders of magnitude, both show comparable mound and moat morphologies accompanied by erosional wind features. In Gale crater, evidence for wind erosion includes yardangs, dunes, and wind streaks. The natural Navajo analogy suggests that strong, dynamic, focused winds on Mars could be capable of carving deeply into sedimentary layers over long periods of time to generate Mount Sharp, surrounded by low, eroded plains within Gale crater.

  5. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Methodology for Analysis of Subaqueous Sediment Mounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    development of procedures to analyze disposal site capacity based upon physical, chemical, and biological considerations. - p - A methodology of...ANALYSIS 46. A systematic procedure to analyze the behavior of subaqueous dredged material mounds was developed as a part of this investigation. For this...asso- ciated with dredged material disposal. By including all aspects, this proce- dure provides the necessary framework for successfully analyzing the

  6. Bug Hill: Excavation of a Multicomponent Midden Mound in the Jackfork Valley, Pushmataha County, Southeast Oklahoma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-25

    brief historic occupation dating to the late nineteenth century was also found,• The research conducted at Bug Hill altered our understanding of...Soils, Aquic Hapludalfs.....................20 Population A Soils, Cumulic ( Anthropic ) Hapludalf a 20 Population B Soils, Hollic Hapludalfs...mound (Number 11) and presumably represents a normal non- anthropic terrace soil. Several additional "normal" terrace soils were examined in natural

  7. Brief communication: Conjoined twins at angel mounds? an ancient DNA perspective.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Charla; Tench, Patricia A; Cook, Della Collins; Kaestle, Frederika A

    2011-09-01

    Conjoined twins are born when a single fertilized egg partially splits into two fetuses. A hypothetical case of infant conjoined twins from Angel Mounds, a Middle Mississippian site (A.D. 1050-1400) on the Ohio River near Evansville, Indiana, was discovered in 1941. Morphological analysis does not rule out the field interpretation of this double burial as twins. Ancient mitochondrial DNA recovered from both infants demonstrates that they were not maternal relatives, and hence that they cannot have been conjoined twins.

  8. The importance of the permanent thermocline to the cold water coral carbonate mound distribution in the NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Martin; Dorschel, Boris

    2010-08-01

    A prominent feature of the NW European continental slope is the presence of numerous cold water coral carbonate mounds that are clustered in a number of provinces. These provinces occupy a relatively narrow depth range along the continental slope: 95% of all coral carbonate mounds identified on the Irish seabed have their mound bases between 500 and 1000 m water depths, with a peak in distribution at ˜ 650 m water depth. The distribution in mound base depths is skewed with a tail extending from the maximum at 650 m to deeper depths. This distribution brackets the depth of the permanent thermocline in the NE Atlantic (600-1000 m) formed below the base of the winter mixed layer. It is shown that the permanent thermocline is associated with the strongest residual near seabed current flow, with typical residual current speeds up to 2-3 times larger at the thermocline depth compared to other depths. The strong vertical density gradient associated with the permanent thermocline, together with the steep continental slope at those depths, also enhances the energy of certain periodic motions such as internal waves and baroclinic tidal currents. These dynamic conditions favour mound growth through the promotion of significant along-slope sediment transport and also provide large across-slope sediment movement and organic matter fluxes. The stability of the thermocline structure is likely the key in providing favourable conditions over long time scales that allow mound growth through sediment baffling processes.

  9. Do Epigeal Termite Mounds Increase the Diversity of Plant Habitats in a Tropical Rain Forest in Peninsular Malaysia?

    PubMed Central

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Du, Yanjun; Rahman Kassim, Abdul; Rejmánek, Marcel; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which environmental heterogeneity can account for tree species coexistence in diverse ecosystems, such as tropical rainforests, is hotly debated, although the importance of spatial variability in contributing to species co-existence is well recognized. Termites contribute to the micro-topographical and nutrient spatial heterogeneity of tropical forests. We therefore investigated whether epigeal termite mounds could contribute to the coexistence of plant species within a 50 ha plot at Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. Overall, stem density was significantly higher on mounds than in their immediate surroundings, but tree species diversity was significantly lower. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that location on or off mounds significantly influenced species distribution when stems were characterized by basal area. Like studies of termite mounds in other ecosystems, our results suggest that epigeal termite mounds provide a specific microhabitat for the enhanced growth and survival of certain species in these species-rich tropical forests. However, the extent to which epigeal termite mounds facilitate species coexistence warrants further investigation. PMID:21625558

  10. Do epigeal termite mounds increase the diversity of plant habitats in a tropical rain forest in peninsular Malaysia?

    PubMed

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Du, Yanjun; Rahman Kassim, Abdul; Rejmánek, Marcel; Harrison, Rhett D

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which environmental heterogeneity can account for tree species coexistence in diverse ecosystems, such as tropical rainforests, is hotly debated, although the importance of spatial variability in contributing to species co-existence is well recognized. Termites contribute to the micro-topographical and nutrient spatial heterogeneity of tropical forests. We therefore investigated whether epigeal termite mounds could contribute to the coexistence of plant species within a 50 ha plot at Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. Overall, stem density was significantly higher on mounds than in their immediate surroundings, but tree species diversity was significantly lower. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that location on or off mounds significantly influenced species distribution when stems were characterized by basal area. Like studies of termite mounds in other ecosystems, our results suggest that epigeal termite mounds provide a specific microhabitat for the enhanced growth and survival of certain species in these species-rich tropical forests. However, the extent to which epigeal termite mounds facilitate species coexistence warrants further investigation.

  11. Effects of Erosion from Mounds of Different Termite Genera on Distinct Functional Grassland Types in an African Savannah.

    PubMed

    Gosling, Cleo M; Cromsigt, Joris P G M; Mpanza, Nokukhanya; Olff, Han

    A key aspect of savannah vegetation heterogeneity is mosaics formed by two functional grassland types, bunch grasslands, and grazing lawns. We investigated the role of termites, important ecosystem engineers, in creating high-nutrient patches in the form of grazing lawns. Some of the ways termites can contribute to grazing lawn development is through erosion of soil from aboveground mounds to the surrounding soil surface. This may alter the nutrient status of the surrounding soils. We hypothesize that the importance of this erosion varies with termite genera, depending on feeding strategy and mound type. To test this, we simulated erosion by applying mound soil from three termite genera (Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Trinervitermes) in both a field experiment and a greenhouse experiment. In the greenhouse experiment, we found soils with the highest macro nutrient levels (formed by Trinervitermes) promoted the quality and biomass of both a lawn (Digitaria longiflora) and a bunch (Sporobolus pyramidalis) grass species. In the field we found that soils with the highest micro nutrient levels (formed by Macrotermes) showed the largest increase in cover of grazing lawn species. By linking the different nutrient availability of the mounds to the development of different grassland states, we conclude that the presence of termite mounds influences grassland mosaics, but that the type of mound plays a crucial role in determining the nature of the effects.

  12. Sediment dynamics of a sandy contourite: the sedimentary context of the Darwin cold-water coral mounds, Northern Rockall Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huvenne, V. A. I.; Masson, D. G.; Wheeler, A. J.

    2009-06-01

    Grainsize, mineralogy and current-meter data from the Northern Rockall Trough are presented in order to characterise the sandy contourite that forms the sedimentary environment of the Darwin cold-water coral mounds, and to investigate the impact of this environment on the mound build-up. Large clusters of small cold-water coral mounds, 75 m across and 5 m high, have been found southwest of the Wyville Thomson Ridge, at 900-1,100 m water depth. Their present-day sedimentary environment consists of a subtly sorted sandy contourite, elongated NE-SW, roughly parallel to the contours. Critical erosional and depositional current speeds were calculated, and trends in both the quartz/feldspar and foraminifera fractions of the sands show a bi-directional fining from bedload/erosion-dominated sands in the NE to suspension/deposition-dominated sediments in the SW and towards the S (downslope). This is caused by a gradual reduction in governing current speed, linked to a reduction in slope gradient, and by the increasing distance from the current core in the downslope direction. No specific characteristics were found distinguishing the mound sediments from the surrounding sands: they fit in the overall spatial pattern. Some mound cores show hints of a fining-upward trend. Overall the mound build-up process is interpreted as a result of sediment baffling.

  13. Dickinson field lodgepole reservoir: Significance of this Waulsortian-type mound to exploration in the Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    Conoco`s No. 74 Dickinson State well, a deep test in Dickinson Field, Stark County, North Dakota, was completed in early 1993 capable of producing over 2,000 BOPD. It represents the first commercial oil production from the Lower Mississippian Lodgepole Formation in the U.S. portion of the Williston Basin. Three additional oil producers have now been completed and this Lodgepole discovery is fully developed. The producing reservoir, at depths of 9,700 to 10,000 ft, is a Waulsortian-type mound approximately 300 ft thick with a characteristic faunal assemblage of bryozoans and crinoids. The mound has an areal extent of slightly more than 1 square mile. Similar Waulsortian-type mounds have been recognized in rocks of Paleozoic age around the world, but have only been reported in the Williston Basin during the past decade. Such mounds are shallow to deep water deposits, tend to develop over structurally or topographically-positive areas, and may form by algal or by current action in conjunction with baffling action caused by bryozoans. The prolific nature of the Conoco discovery, plus several more-recent excellent mound discoveries in this same area, have caused renewed drilling and leasing activity. These events have also encouraged a review of existing seismic data, the shooting of new 3-D seismic programs and re-analysis of wells previously drilled through the Lodgepole Formation for evidence of similar mounds elsewhere in the basin.

  14. A perfluorobutylpentane (F4H5)-based solution for the removal of residual emulsified silicone oil.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Kei; Cheng, Ho Ching; Wu, Jing; Tang, Yuk Heng Matthew; Chan, San To; Wong, David; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2017-06-14

    The emulsification of silicone oil (SO) is associated with many complications. In this study, we investigate a new SO solvent, perfluorobutylpentane (F4H5) with 1% by volume of perfluorinated polyethers-polyethylene glycol-perfluorinated polyethers (PFPE-PEG-PFPE) triblock copolymer, for removing emulsified droplets. An in vitro 3D printed model eye chamber was used to evaluate the efficiency of the three test liquids in removing SO droplets, namely saline, F4H5 and F4H5 with surfactant PFPE-PEG-PFPE. The numbers of SO droplets were quantified using a Coulter Counter. The stability of double emulsion formed was tested with a fluidic device based on electro-coalescence. Two retinal cell lines were used to test the biocompatibility of the liquids. The mean number of droplets remaining in the eye chamber after rinsing with a solution of F4H5 with surfactant was 13 315 ± 4620/ml compared to saline (23 460 ± 7595/ml; p < 0.05). The double emulsion was found to be highly stable. The biocompatibility of F4H5 and the surfactant was similar to that of the saline control. By adding a small amount of surfactant, the resultant F4H5 solution is able to promote double emulsification and remove more SO droplets. Although further in vivo safety studies are necessary before clinical trials, the result of our study suggests that F4H5 with surfactant is a promising Rinsing Solution for removing emulsified droplets. This work therefore translates a well-known phenomenon in emulsion science to tackle the emulsification problem observed in the routine vitreoretinal surgery. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Predictors of performance in a 4-h mountain-bike race.

    PubMed

    Novak, Andrew R; Bennett, Kyle J M; Fransen, Job; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-04-13

    This study aimed to cross validate previously developed predictive models of mountain biking performance in a new cohort of mountain bikers during a 4-h event (XC4H). Eight amateur XC4H cyclists completed a multidimensional assessment battery including a power profile assessment that consisted of maximal efforts between 6 and 600 s, maximal hand grip strength assessments, a video-based decision-making test as well as a XC4H race. A multiple linear regression model was found to predict XC4H performance with good accuracy (R(2) = 0.99; P < 0.01). This model consisted of [Formula: see text] relative to total cycling mass (body mass including competition clothing and bicycle mass), maximum power output sustained over 60 s relative to total cycling mass, peak left hand grip strength and two-line decision-making score. Previous models for Olympic distance MTB performance demonstrated merit (R(2) = 0.93; P > 0.05) although subtle changes improved the fit, significance and normal distribution of residuals within the model (R(2) = 0.99; P < 0.01), highlighting differences between the disciplines. The high level of predictive accuracy of the new XC4H model further supports the use of a multidimensional approach in predicting MTB performance. The difference between the new, XC4H and previous Olympic MTB predictive models demonstrates subtle differences in physiological requirements and performance predictors between the two MTB disciplines.

  16. Pre-operational safety appraisal Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility, Mound facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dauby, J.J.; Flanagan, T.M.; Metcalf, L.W.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify, assess, and document the hazards which are associated with the proposed operation of the Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility at Mound Facility. A Pre-operational Safety Appraisal is a requirement as stated in Department of Energy Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System. The operations to be conducted in the new Tritiated Scrap Waste Recovery Facility are not new, but a continuation of a prime mission of Mound`s i.e. recovery of tritium from waste produced throughout the DOE complex. The new facility is a replacement of an existing process started in the early 1960`s and incorporates numerous design changes to enhance personnel and environmental safety. This report also documents the safety of a one time operation involving the recovery of tritium from material obtained by the Department of Energy from the State of Arizona. This project will involve the processing of 240,000 curies of tritium contained in glass ampoules that were to be used in items such as luminous dial watches. These were manufactured by the now defunct American Atomics Corporation, Tucson, Arizona.

  17. Carbonate cementation by cold marine waters: evidence from carbonate mounds at the NE Atlantic margin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taberner, C.; Richter, T. O.; van Weering, T. C. E.; Vonhof, H. B.; Stadnitskaya, A.

    2003-04-01

    Cementation of marine carbonate sediments by marine waters is well known to occur either in shallow tropical to temperate carbonate platforms, or during burial from modified interstitial brines. Cementation by cold marine waters is traditionally ruled out for both recent and fossil carbonates. We present petrographic and stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) results on well-cemented carbonates from cold-water carbonate mounds at the SW and SE Rockall Margin (700--800m water depth). Calcite micritic cements, as well as concentrically zoned microspar filling cavities (e.g. foraminifera), have been recognised in dredged hardground samples and carbonate concretions from sediment cores. Microsampled cements have δ13C and δ18O values (respectively ≈+3.5 ppm PDB and ≈+5 ppm PDB) that appear to be in equilibrium with glacial intermediate waters, more than with present-day Atlantic waters at those depths. Cementation during glacial intervals is also indicated by AMS 14C ages of well-cemented deep-water carbonate rocks (hardgrounds) of 25--29ka, thus bracketing the marine isotope stage 3/2 boundary. These data provide evidence for carbonate cementation by cold marine waters and have implications for the paleoceanographic interpretation of deep-water carbonate mounds. Additionally, these results provide new insights for the re-evaluation of the depth of deposition of carbonate mounds from the geological record.

  18. The P450 oxidoreductase, RedA, controls development beyond the mound stage in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Kristeller, Daniela C; Farage, Layla; Fiorini, Leonardo C; Loomis, William F; da Silva, Aline M

    2008-01-24

    NADPH-cytochrome-P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) is a ubiquitous enzyme that belongs to a family of diflavin oxidoreductases and is required for activity of the microsomal cytochrome-P450 monooxygenase system. CPR gene-disruption experiments have demonstrated that absence of this enzyme causes developmental defects both in mouse and insect. Annotation of the sequenced genome of D. discoideum revealed the presence of three genes (redA, redB and redC) that encode putative members of the diflavin oxidoreductase protein family. redA transcripts are present during growth and early development but then decline, reaching undetectable levels after the mound stage. redB transcripts are present in the same levels during growth and development while redC expression was detected only in vegetative growing cells. We isolated a mutant strain of Dictyostelium discoideum following restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis in which redA was disrupted. This mutant develops only to the mound stage and accumulates a bright yellow pigment. The mound-arrest phenotype is cell-autonomous suggesting that the defect occurs within the cells rather than in intercellular signaling. The developmental arrest due to disruption of redA implicates CPR in the metabolism of compounds that control cell differentiation.

  19. Subsurface methane sources and migration pathways within a gas hydrate mound system, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rachel M.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Simonetti, Antonello; Lapham, Laura; Lutken, Carol; Sleeper, Ken; D'Emidio, Marco; Pizzi, Marco; Knapp, James; Chanton, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical profiles were coupled with seismic information to examine subsurface hydrocarbon source, migration, and fate at a Gulf of Mexico carbonate-gas hydrate mound (Woolsey Mound). Three seafloor features were investigated in detail: (1) major faults resulting from a rising salt body, (2) an acoustic backscatter anomaly, and (3) a pockmark associated with a major fault. We analyzed sulfate, chloride, dissolved inorganic carbon, and hydrocarbon concentrations, and carbon isotopes in pore water extracted from 20 m piston cores to characterize gas source and calculate methane flux. Dissolved biogenic methane dominated the off-fault sites, while the contribution of thermogenic methane increased near a major fault where thermogenic gas hydrates were recovered. Within the pockmark, methane concentrations were low and isotopes indicated a biogenic source. Since pockmarks are typically formed from expulsive fluid flow, this suggests that either the pockmark is the legacy of a conduit that has become plugged or that the expulsed fluid is confined within the fault walls. At the acoustic anomaly, nonsteady state sulfate profiles suggested temporal variability in methane flux. Estimates from >75 gravity cores collected across Woolsey Mound since 2002 were mapped to display the spatial variability in methane flux relative to the faults. Methane flux to the seafloor was generally low, but increased several fold near the faults suggesting that the faults may provide conduits for hydrocarbons to bypass the "microbial biofilter" and cross the sediment water interface.

  20. The Nest Growth of the Neotropical Mound-Building Termite, Cornitermes cumulans: A Micromorphological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cosarinsky, Marcela I.

    2011-01-01

    The nests of Cornitermes cumulans K. (Isoptera: Termitidae), a very common termite in South American grasslands, display notable morphological transformations during the development of the colony. Young colonies inhabit small subterranean nests that develop into large, conspicuous, epigean mounds, inhabited by very populous colonies. Those macromorphological transformations are accompanied by micromorphological changes occurring gradually in the nest walls. The micromorphological changes during nest development described in the present study expand on previous macromorphological descriptions by explaining the re-organization of the soil components during nest growth. In subterranean nests, walls are composed of piles of lensshaped aggregates of soil material, each one surrounded by a thin organic coating. As the nest grows, mound walls are constructed by disassembling this first lenticular structure and rearranging the materials in a new fabric, where sand grains are loosely distributed among soil microaggregates of organic matter and clay. This is also a temporary construction, because the walls of large nests are composed of a porous mass of sands densely cemented with organic matter and clay in the mound, and a compact mass of the same components in the floor. PMID:22224433