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Sample records for 4k activated charcoal

  1. Activated Charcoal

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat poisonings, reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile ... lower cholesterol levels in the blood. Decreasing gas (flatulence). Some studies show that activated charcoal is effective ...

  2. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  3. Antidotal effectiveness of activated charcoal in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Curd-Sneed, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relative adsorption of radiolabeled /sup 14/C-sodium pentobarbital by three types of activated charcoal. Factors affection adsorption of the drug by SuperChar, United States Pharmacopeia (USP), and Darco G-60 activated charcoals with surface areas of 2800-3500 m2/g, 1000 m/sup 2//g, and 650 m/sup 2//g, respectively, were studied both in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro experiments, the drug was dissolved in water of 70% sorbitol (w/v), and the maximum binding capacity and dissociation constants for each of the charcoals were calculated. Rank order of maximum binding capacity was directly proportional to charcoal surface area in both water and sorbitol, while the dissociation constants for the charcoals in water were not different. For in vivo experiments, absorption of orally administered sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) was studied in rats with and without activated charcoal administration. The results of this research suggest that: (1) SuperChar given in water possesses the greatest antidotal efficacy, (2) sorbitol induced catharsis does not reduce oral absorption of sodium pentobarbital, and (3) sorbitol enhances the antidotal efficacy of USP charcoal.

  4. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  5. Bowel perforation after single-dose activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Green, Jason P; McCauley, William

    2006-09-01

    Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) after medication overdose are often given activated charcoal initially for gastrointestinal decontamination. Complications of charcoal are rare, but do occur. The following case describes a patient with pre-existing undiagnosed diverticular disease who developed sigmoid perforation after a single dose of activated charcoal, given without cathartic for a drug overdose. A literature search revealed no other cases of bowel perforation associated with single-dose activated charcoal. This case report discusses adverse effects associated with activated charcoal and the role of cathartics in gastrointestinal decontamination.

  6. In vitro adsorption of tilidine HCl by activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, J A; Van den Heede, M A; Heyndrickx, A M

    In vitro studies were carried out in order to determine the adsorption of tilidine HCl, a narcotic analgesic, by activated charcoal (max. adsorption capacity 185.5 mg/g of charcoal). The path of the adsorption isotherms at pH 1.2 and 7.5 suggests that the in vivo adsorption of tilidine HCl may be increased when the drug passes from the stomach to the intestine, unless the intestinal content exerts a displacing effect. Nevertheless, the adsorption was dependent on the quantity of activated charcoal used, becoming more complete when the quantity of activated charcoal was increased. The effects of additives on the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal were also investigated in vitro. Ethanol, sorbitol and sucrose significantly reduced drug adsorption, while cacao powder, milk and starch had no effect on tilidine adsorption. At an acid pH, Federa Activated Charcoal significantly adsorbed more drug than either Norit A or Activated Charcoal Merck.

  7. Effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of pholcodine, with special reference to delayed charcoal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Laine, K; Kivistö, K T; Ojala-Karlsson, P; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-02-01

    We conducted a randomized study with four parallel groups to investigate the effect of single and multiple doses of activated charcoal on the absorption and elimination of pholcodine administered in a cough syrup. The first group received 100 mg of pholcodine on an empty stomach with water only (control); the second group took 25 g of activated charcoal immediately after pholcodine; the third group received 25 g of activated charcoal 2 h and the fourth group 5 h after ingestion of the 100-mg dose of pholcodine. In addition, the fourth group received multiple doses (10 g each) of charcoal every 12 h for 84 h. Blood samples were collected for 96 h and urine for 72 h. Pholcodine concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A significant reduction in absorption was found when charcoal was administered immediately after pholcodine; the AUC0-96h was reduced by 91% (p < 0.0005), the Cmax by 77% (p < 0.0005), and the amount of pholcodine excreted into urine by 85% (p < 0.0005). When charcoal was administered 2 h after pholcodine, the AUC0-96h was reduced by 26% (p = 0.002), the Cmax by 23% (p = NS), and the urinary excretion by 28% (p = 0.004). When administered 5 h after pholcodine, charcoal produced only a 17% reduction in the AUC0-96h (p = 0.06), but reduced the further absorption of pholcodine still present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of charcoal administration, as measured by AUC5-96h (p = 0.006). Repeated administration of charcoal failed to accelerate the elimination of pholcodine. We conclude that activated charcoal is effective in preventing the absorption of pholcodine, and its administration can be beneficial even several hours after pholcodine ingestion.

  8. Improving the palatability of activated charcoal in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Adam; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2007-06-01

    To compare the taste preference and ease of swallowing of activated charcoal among healthy teenagers when mixed separately with 3 different additives: chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, and water. Healthy volunteers between 14 to 19 years of age were selected for the study. Five grams of activated charcoal (25 mL of 0.2 g/mL of Charcodote [Pharma Science, Montreal, Canada]) was mixed with 25 mL of chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, or water individually to make up 50 mL. The volunteers drank the 3 cups of the charcoal-additive mixture separately and then rated taste and ease of swallowing on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. The subjects then indicated their preferred charcoal-additive mixture if he/she had to drink 9 more portions of charcoal (this would estimate the dose of charcoal for a 50-kg child). A total of 44 subjects were recruited (25 boys and 19 girls). The mean scores for taste preference for chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, and water mixtures of charcoal were 5.5, 6.3, and 2.0, respectively, on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. Thus, subjects preferred the taste of charcoal mixed with chocolate milk or Coca-Cola over charcoal mixed with water (P = 0.0003 for both comparisons). The subjects did not show a statistically significant difference for ease of swallowing between the 3 charcoal-additive mixtures. Overall, 48% preferred the chocolate milk mixture, 45% preferred the Coca-Cola mixture, and 7% preferred charcoal mixed with water. Healthy teenaged subjects identified that activated charcoal (Charcodote) mixed with chocolate milk or Coca-Cola (in a 1:1 ratio) improved taste but had no significant effect on improving ease of swallowing. Overall, the addition of chocolate milk or coke improves the palatability of charcoal and is favored over charcoal mixed with water alone.

  9. Saline cathartics and adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Afonne, O J; Orisakwe, O E; Ofuefule, S I; Tsalha, S; Obi, E; Ilondu, N A; Okorie, O

    2002-01-01

    The effects of sodium chloride and sodium citrate on the in vitro adsorption of doxycycline to activated charcoal have been studied. Solutions of doxycycline alone and doxycycline with 7.5 mg/ml cathartic solutions were vortex-mixed for 30 s with different quantities of activated charcoal, incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C and analyzed for free doxycycline spectrophotometrically at 348 nm. Addition of NaCl had a significant (p<0.05) increase while sodium citrate produced a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the adsorption of doxycycline on activated charcoal. In all, the adsorption doxycycline on activated charcoal obeyed quantity-dependent kinetics.

  10. Effect of activated charcoal on apixaban pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Mondal, Sabiha; Wang, Jessie; Tirucherai, Giridhar; Zhang, Donglu; Boyd, Rebecca A; Frost, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Activated charcoal is commonly used to manage overdose or accidental ingestion of medicines. This study evaluated the effect of activated charcoal on apixaban exposure in human subjects. This was an open-label, three-treatment, three-period, randomized, crossover study of single-dose apixaban (20 mg) administered alone and with activated charcoal given at 2 or 6 h post-dose to healthy subjects. Blood samples for assay of plasma apixaban concentration were collected up to 72 h post-dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (Tmax), area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUCINF), and terminal half-life (T½), were derived from apixaban plasma concentration-time data. A general linear mixed-effect model analysis of Cmax and AUCINF was performed to estimate the effect of activated charcoal on apixaban exposure. A total of 18 subjects were treated and completed the study. AUCINF for apixaban without activated charcoal decreased by 50 and 28%, respectively, when charcoal was administered at 2 and 6 h post-dose. Apixaban Cmax and Tmax were similar across treatments. The mean T½ for apixaban alone (13.4 h) decreased to ~5 h when activated charcoal was administered at 2 or 6 h post-dose. Overall, apixaban was well tolerated in this healthy population, and most adverse events were consistent with the known profile of activated charcoal. Administration of activated charcoal up to 6 h after apixaban reduced apixaban exposure and facilitated the elimination of apixaban. These results suggest that activated charcoal may be useful in the management of apixaban overdose or accidental ingestion.

  11. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  12. Variability of mitomycin C adsorption by activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Shah, I A; Lindup, W E; McCulloch, P G

    1998-03-01

    A saline suspension of mitomycin C adsorbed on activated charcoal and administered intraperitoneally has been reported to be safe and effective in the treatment of gastric carcinoma. Activated charcoal specifically targets tumour and lymph-node tissues and the sustained higher local drug concentration is thought to be beneficial. The charcoal particles used in these suspensions have varied in size from > 147 microm to < 20 nm in diameter, but no data have been published to show how this might affect drug adsorption and delivery. Any variability in drug adsorption could pose a serious clinical risk for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. We have, therefore, investigated the adsorption of mitomycin C on activated charcoal in-vitro. Activated charcoal was ground and sieved to yield four size-fractions between 180 and 53 microm. Adsorption isotherms (n > or = 3) were constructed and applied to the Freundlich model with 0-l00 microg mL(-1) mitomycin C measured by HPLC with detection at 365 nm. Adsorption of mitomycin C by activated charcoal varied by a factor of three under identical conditions at room temperature (21 degrees C) and at 37 degrees C. The specific adsorption (microg mitomycin C (mg activated charcoal)(-1)) was generally higher at 37 degrees C than at room temperature. The variability of mitomycin C adsorption was greatly reduced by addition of the surface-active agent polyvinylpyrollidone, used to determine that adsorption of mitomycin C was independent of activated charcoal particle size. The characteristics of adsorption of mitomycin C by activated charcoal are complex and should be thoroughly investigated to discover the critical controlling factors before submitting the suspensions for further clinical evaluation.

  13. Activated charcoal for acute overdose: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Juurlink, David N

    2016-03-01

    Sometimes mistakenly characterized as a 'universal antidote,' activated charcoal (AC) is the most frequently employed method of gastrointestinal decontamination in the developed world. Typically administered as a single dose (SDAC), its tremendous surface area permits the binding of many drugs and toxins in the gastrointestinal lumen, reducing their systemic absorption. Like other decontamination procedures, the utility of SDAC attenuates with time, and, although generally safe, it is not free of risk. A large body of evidence demonstrates that SDAC can reduce the absorption of drugs and xenobiotics but most such studies involve volunteers and have little generalizability to clinical practice. Few rigorous clinical trials of SDAC have been conducted, and none validate or refute its utility in those patients who are intuitively most likely to benefit. Over the past decade, a growing body of observational data have demonstrated that SDAC can elicit substantial reductions in drug absorption in acutely poisoned patients. The challenge for clinicians rests in differentiating those patients most likely to benefit from SDAC from those in whom meaningful improvement is doubtful. This is often a difficult determination not well suited to an algorithmic approach. The present narrative review summarizes the data supporting the benefits and harms of SDAC, and offers pragmatic suggestions for clinical practice.

  14. Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

  15. [Use of activated charcoal plasmafiltration in the treatment of hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Candrina, R; Rossi, M; Cotelli, M C; Spandrio, S; Di Stefano, O

    1989-11-01

    We evaluated the use of activated charcoal plasmaperfusion in four patients already treated with synthetic antithyroid agents affected by severe hyperthyroid. Our patients showed no significant side-effect and a rapid improvement of their symptoms. Thyroid hormone levels were 30% lower after the procedure, but returned to previous levels after 7-10 days. Activated charcoal plasmaperfusion may represent a useful therapeutic adjunct to antithyroid drugs in patients affected by severe hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxic storm.

  16. Fluorine gettering by activated charcoal in a radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, L.K.; Toth, L.M.

    1988-10-01

    Activated charcoal has been shown to be an effective gettering agent for the fluorine gas that is liberated in a radiation environment. Even though activated charcoal is a commonly used getter, little is known about the radiation stability of the fluorine-charcoal product. This work has shown that not only is the product stable in high gamma radiation fields, but also that radiation enhances the capacity of the charcoal for the fluorine. The most useful application of this work is with the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel salt because the radioactive components (fission products and actinides) cause radiolytic damage to the solid LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ZrF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ (64.5, 30.3, 5.0, 0.13 mol %, respectively) resulting in the liberation of fluorine gas. This work has also demonstrated that the maximum damage to the fuel salt by approx.3 /times/ 10/sup 7/ R/h gamma radiation is approximately 2%, at which point the rate of recombination of fluorine with active metal sites within the salt lattice equals the rate of fluorine generation. The enhanced reactivity of the activated charcoal and radiation stability of the product ensures that the gettered fluorine will stay sequestered in the charcoal.

  17. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  18. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2005-01-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m(-3))(-1)(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 degrees C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  19. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  20. Activated charcoal. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include adsorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and description and evaluation of adsorptive abilities. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. [Sorption of amino acids from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal].

    PubMed

    Nekliudov, A D; Tsibanov, V V

    1985-03-01

    Various methods for quantitative description of amino acid sorption from solutions for parenteral nutrition on activated charcoal were studied under dynamic and static conditions. With the use of the well-known Freindlich and Langmuir absorption isotherms it was shown to be possible to describe in a simplified way the complex multicomponent process of sorption of the amino acids and to estimate their loss at the filtration stage.

  2. A retrospective review of the prehospital use of activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Joseph; Kahn, Christopher A; Dunford, James V; Patel, Ekta; Clark, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    We studied the complications and timing implications of prehospital activated charcoal (PAC). Appropriateness of PAC administration was also evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed prehospital records over 32 months for overdose cases, where PAC was administered. Cases were assessed for amount and type of ingestant, clinical findings, timing of PAC, timing of transport and arrival into the emergency department (ED), and complications. Encounter duration in cases of PAC was compared with that, for all cases during the study period, where an overdose patient who did not receive activated charcoal was transported. Two thousand eight hundred forty-five total cases were identified. In 441 cases, PAC was given; and complications could be assessed. Two hundred eighty-one of these had complete information regarding timing of ingestion, activated charcoal administration, and transport. The average time between overdose and PAC was 49.8 minutes (range, 7-199 minutes; median, 41.0 minutes; SD, 30.4 minutes). Complications included emesis (7%), declining mental status (4%), declining blood pressure (0.4%), and declining oxygen saturation (0.4%). Four hundred seventeen cases of PAC had documentation of timing of emergency medical service (EMS) arrival on scene and arrival at the ED. Average EMS encounter time was 29 minutes (range, 10-53 minutes; median, 27.9 minutes). Two thousand forty-four poisoning patients were transported who did not receive PAC. The average EMS encounter time for this group was 28.1 minutes (range, 4-82 minutes; median, 27.3 minutes), not significantly different (P =.114). Prehospital activated charcoal did not appear to markedly delay transport or arrival of overdose patients into the ED and was generally safe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gas and Chemical Activation of Charcoal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-06-29

    supplemented ’ by runs in the laboratory has shown that zinc chloride is by far the most suitable activating agent. 1. In the dehydration mixing of...istics with time of dehydration . 3. The physical appearance of the mixture during the impregnation pperation provides sufficient significant information...to enable the operator to predict .mechanical characteristics of the briquet. CONFIDENTIAL " • ’< i£: • CONFIDENTIAL -4- 4* In the dehydration

  4. Comparison of Impurities in Charcoal Sorbents Found by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Finn, Erin C.; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Neutron activation of gas samples in a reactor often requires a medium to retain sufficient amounts of the gas for analysis. Charcoal is commonly used to adsorb gas and hold it for activation; however, the amount of activated sodium in the charcoal after irradiation swamps most signals of interest. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on several commonly available charcoal samples in an effort to determine the activation background. The results for several elements, including the dominant sodium element, are reported. It was found that ECN charcoal had the lowest elemental background, containing sodium at 2.65 ± 0.05 ppm, as well as trace levels of copper and tungsten.

  5. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

  6. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage: a simulated large paracetamol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Hoegberg, L C G; Angelo, H R; Kampmann, J P

    2002-01-01

    Aims Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have not provided evidence of additional efficacy compared with the use of activated charcoal alone. There are also doubts regarding the efficacy of activated charcoal, when administered more than 1 h after the overdose. The aim of this study was to examine if there was a difference in the effect of the two interventions 1 h post ingestion, and to determine if activated charcoal was effective in reducing the systemic absorption of a drug, when administered 2 h post ingestion. Methods We performed a four-limbed randomized cross-over study in 12 volunteers, who 1 h after a standard meal ingested paracetamol 50 mg kg−1 in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h. Serum paracetamol concentrations were determined by h.p.l.c. Percentage reductions in the area under the curve (AUC) were used to estimate the efficacy of each intervention (paired observations). Results There was a significant (P < 0.005) reduction in the paracetamol AUC with activated charcoal at 1 h (median reduction 66%, 95% confidence intervals 49, 76) compared with controls, and a significant (P < 0.01) reduction for gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal at 1 h (median reduction 48.2%, 95% confidence interval 32.4, 63.7) compared with controls. There was no significant difference between the two interventions (95% confidence interval for the difference −3.8, 34.0). Furthermore, we found a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the paracetamol AUC when activated charcoal was

  7. Multiple-dose activated charcoal in acute self-poisoning: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Juszczak, Edmund; Buckley, Nick A; Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Dissanayake, Wasantha; Hittarage, Ariyasena; Azher, Shifa; Jeganathan, K; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Warrell, David A

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background The case-fatality for intentional self-poisoning in the rural developing world is 10–50-fold higher than that in industrialised countries, mostly because of the use of highly toxic pesticides and plants. We therefore aimed to assess whether routine treatment with multiple-dose activated charcoal, to interrupt enterovascular or enterohepatic circulations, offers benefit compared with no charcoal in such an environment. Methods We did an open-label, parallel group, randomised, controlled trial of six 50 g doses of activated charcoal at 4-h intervals versus no charcoal versus one 50 g dose of activated charcoal in three Sri Lankan hospitals. 4632 patients were randomised to receive no charcoal (n=1554), one dose of charcoal (n=1545), or six doses of charcoal (n=1533); outcomes were available for 4629 patients. 2338 (51%) individuals had ingested pesticides, whereas 1647 (36%) had ingested yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seeds. Mortality was the primary outcome measure. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN02920054. Findings Mortality did not differ between the groups. 97 (6·3%) of 1531 participants in the multiple-dose group died, compared with 105 (6·8%) of 1554 in the no charcoal group (adjusted odds ratio 0·96, 95% CI 0·70–1·33). No differences were noted for patients who took particular poisons, were severely ill on admission, or who presented early. Interpretation We cannot recommend the routine use of multiple-dose activated charcoal in rural Asia Pacific; although further studies of early charcoal administration might be useful, effective affordable treatments are urgently needed. PMID:18280328

  8. In vitro adsorption of ciprofloxacin on activated charcoal and Talc.

    PubMed

    Ibezim, E C; Ofoefule, S I; Ejeahalaka, C N; Orisakwe, O E

    1999-07-01

    The in vitro adsorption of ciprofloxacin, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial with actions against a wide variety of microorganisms on activated charcoal (AC) and talc (TC), was investigated at various pH values that simulate the pH of most regions of the gastrointestinal tract. The results of the study indicate that AC and TC adsorbed ciprofloxacin effectively. Adsorption depended on the quantity of the adsorbents used, and for AC adsorption was complete within 2 hours and for TC it was complete within 1 hour with 0.5 g of either of the adsorbents. AC exhibited higher adsorptive capacity for ciprofloxacin than TC. Overall, AC and TC could be used as effective antidotes in poisoning resulting from ciprofloxacin.

  9. Some theoretical priciples of the activation of wood charcoal by steam

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Kinetics and diffusion in the pores of a carbonaceous material are considered. The macroscopic rate of the reaction of steam with the carbon of wood charcoal has been determined. The optimum conditions for the activation of wood charcoal have been found.

  10. Radon-222 activity flux measurement using activated charcoal canisters: revisiting the methodology.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2014-03-01

    The measurement of radon ((222)Rn) activity flux using activated charcoal canisters was examined to investigate the distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the relationship between (222)Rn activity flux and exposure time. The activity flux of (222)Rn from five sources of varying strengths was measured for exposure times of one, two, three, five, seven, 10, and 14 days. The distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed was obtained by dividing the bed into six layers and counting each layer separately after the exposure. (222)Rn activity decreased in the layers that were away from the exposed surface. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that only a small correction might be required in the actual application of charcoal canisters for activity flux measurement, where calibration standards were often prepared by the uniform mixing of radium ((226)Ra) in the matrix. This was because the diffusion of (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the detection efficiency as a function of the charcoal depth tended to counterbalance each other. The influence of exposure time on the measured (222)Rn activity flux was observed in two situations of the canister exposure layout: (a) canister sealed to an open bed of the material and (b) canister sealed over a jar containing the material. The measured (222)Rn activity flux decreased as the exposure time increased. The change in the former situation was significant with an exponential decrease as the exposure time increased. In the latter case, lesser reduction was noticed in the observed activity flux with respect to exposure time. This reduction might have been related to certain factors, such as absorption site saturation or the back diffusion of (222)Rn gas occurring at the canister-soil interface.

  11. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Danai, Laura V.; DiStefano, Marina T.; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K.; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo. After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  13. Using Macroscopic Charcoal to Reconstruct the Holocene Fire Activity of the Willamette Valley, Oregon and Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, M. K.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P. J.; Pearl, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution macroscopic charcoal analysis of two lacustrine records has revealed the Holocene fire activity of the Willamette Valley, located between the Coast and Cascade ranges of southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. The Willamette Valley experienced major environmental and cultural changes during the Holocene, however, its long-term fire history is poorly known. Of particular interest are shifts in fire activity that occurred in response to (1) millennial- and centennial-scale climate and vegetation changes (e.g., the Early Holocene warm period, the Little Ice Age) and (2) major shifts in human activity and population size (e.g., Native American population decline, Euro-American settlement). Macroscopic charcoal analysis of contiguous core samples was used to reconstruct fire activity at each site. Charcoal source (i.e., herbaceous or woody) was also determined based on particle morphology. Charcoal influx was decomposed into a peak component (which indicates fire episodes) and a background component (which indicates changes in burnable biomass). Charcoal records from Battle Ground Lake and Beaver Lake reveal major shifts in fire activity that are consistent with known changes in regional climate on orbital time scales. The Battle Ground Lake charcoal data, for example, show a general increase in fire frequency from the beginning of the Holocene to a maximum of ~18 fire episodes/1000 years at 6500 cal yr BP, associated with the early Holocene insolation maximum and its influence on summer drought, followed by a decrease to ~5 fire episodes/1000 years at present. Similar trends are indicated by the Beaver Lake charcoal data. Both records also indicate shifts in fire activity that suggest the possibility of anthropogenic burning, but at different times at each site. Additional records are being analyzed to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of fire activity across the Willamette Valley as a whole.

  14. Use of Activated Charcoal for Hemoperfusion in Dutch Rabbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-14

    heparin (1,000 U/nd) was are needed for removing circulating coal and filters were obtained commer- injected iv. Fifteen minutes after the hep- toxic ...quickly, if the half-life of a toxic coal column in conscious, restrained sion, all rabbits appeared normal. substance is short, or if the substance Dutch...Res, Vol 42, No. 3 of severely poisoned patients. Br Mfed J 1:5-9~. 4. Russo ME: Management of theophylline of competition in charcoal hemoperfusion

  15. Effect of particle size of activated charcoal on separation of Triton X-100 from protein, liver cytosol, and lipoxygenase extracts.

    PubMed

    Marcus, L; Prusky, D

    1987-05-15

    Triton X-100 was almost completely removed from bovine serum albumin solutions, BALB/c mouse liver extracts, and avocado peel lipoxygenase extracts by stirring the samples for 30 min in the presence of 250-350 mesh activated charcoal. The procedure did not remove protein significantly and did not reduce enzyme activity. At higher charcoal particle sizes, the efficiency of Triton adsorption was decreased and protein adsorption was increased. ElevateD temperatures enhanced Triton and protein adsorption. Adsorption on activated charcoal of 250-350 mesh is a simple and rapid procedure for Triton removal at a ratio of 0.23 g Triton X-100 per gram of activated charcoal.

  16. In vitro analysis of the effect of supplementation with activated charcoal on the equine hindgut

    PubMed Central

    EDMUNDS, J.L.; WORGAN, H.J.; DOUGAL, K.; GIRDWOOD, S.E.; DOUGLAS, J.-L.; MCEWAN, N.R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study uses in vitro analytical techniques to investigate the effect of activated charcoal on the microbial community of the equine hindgut and the metabolites they produce. Incubations were performed in Wheaton bottles using a 50 ml incubation of a high-energy feed or a low-energy feed, plus bottles with no added food source, together with five levels of activated charcoal (0, 10, 25, 50 or 100 mg per bottle) and fecal samples as a bacterial inoculum. Using this method the rate of gas production, volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and pH values were analyzed and found to vary depending on the addition of feed, but the activated charcoal had no effect (P>0.05) on any of these. It is already believed that the effect of activated charcoal as a control for toxic substances is at its highest in the foregut or midgut of animals, and therefore should have little impact on the hindgut. The data presented here suggest that if any of the activated charcoal does reach the hindgut, then it has no significant impact on the microbial community present, nor on the major metabolites produced, and so should not have a detrimental effect on the principal site of fermentation in the horse. PMID:27330398

  17. In vitro study of the effect of dog food on the adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen E; Humm, Karen R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dog food on the adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal. In vitro laboratory study. University veterinary teaching hospital. None. None. A fixed quantity of acetaminophen (50 mg) was added to a fixed quantity of activated charcoal (1 g), mixed with varying amounts of dog food (2-14 g). The admixture was agitated for 5 minutes, incubated at 38.5°C for 1 hour and then centrifuged for 30 minutes. The concentration of residual, nonadsorbed acetaminophen in the supernatant was quantitatively assayed by reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Data were tested by linear regression analysis and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. A statistically significant reduction in the adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal was demonstrated with increasing amounts of dog food (R(2) = 0.54; P = 0.0018). However, all measurements of residual acetaminophen were less than 100 mg/L, representing a reduction in acetaminophen concentration of more than 98.6%. The addition of dog food to activated charcoal reduces its total adsorptive capacity for acetaminophen. However, this reduction in adsorptive capacity is unlikely to be clinically significant in the presence of both the formulation of dog food and the ratio of dog food to charcoal used in this study. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  18. Molecular and structural properties of polymer composites filled with activated charcoal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Liong, Syarifuddin; Bakri, Fahrul

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the molecular properties, structural properties, and chemical composition of composites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. FTIR spectra shows absorption band of hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH3) and aromatic group (C-C). The absorption band for aromatic group (C-C) shows the formation of carbonaceous in composites. XRF shows chemical composition of composites, which the main chemicals are SO3, Cl, and ZnO. The loss on ignition value (LOI) of activated charcoal indicates high carbonaceous matter. The crystallite size for diffraction pattern from hydrogel polymer is about 17 nm and for activated charcoal are about 19 nm. The crystallite size of the polymer is lower than that of activated charcoal, which make possible of the particle from filler in contact with each other to form continuous conducting polymer through polymer matrix.

  19. Development and optimization of the activated charcoal suspension composition based on a mixture design approach.

    PubMed

    Ronowicz, Joanna; Kupcewicz, Bogumiła; Pałkowski, Łukasz; Krysiński, Jerzy

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a new drug product containing activated charcoal was designed and developed. The excipient levels in the pharmaceutical formulation were optimized using a mixture design approach. The adsorption power of the activated charcoal suspension was selected as the critical quality attribute influencing the efficacy of medical treatment. Significant prognostic models (p<0.05) were obtained to describe in detail the interrelations between excipient levels and the adsorption power of the formulation. Liquid flavour had a critical impact on the adsorption power of the suspension. Formulations containing the largest amount of liquid flavour showed the lowest adsorption power. Sorbitol was not adsorbed onto activated charcoal so strongly as liquid flavour. A slight increase in the content of carboxymethylcellulose sodium led to a marked decrease in adsorption power. The obtained mathematical models and response surface allowed selection of the optimal composition of excipients in a final drug product.

  20. Evaluation of fructooligosaccharides separation using a fixed-bed column packed with activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Raquel Cristine; Mazutti, Marcio A; Albertini, Lilian Buoro; Filho, Francisco Maugeri

    2014-05-25

    Recent studies have shown that the chromatographic separation of mixtures of saccharides may be improved by making use of activated charcoal, a promising low cost material for the separation of sugars, including fructooligosaccharides. In this work, the development of a methodology to separate fructooligosaccharides from glucose, fructose and sucrose, using a fixed bed column packed with activated charcoal is proposed. The influence of temperature, eluant concentration and step gradients were evaluated to increase the separation efficiency and fructooligosaccharide purity. The final degree of fructooligosaccharide purification and separation efficiency were about 94% and 3.03 respectively, using ethanol gradient concentration ranging from 3.5% to 15% (v/v) at 40°C. The fixed bed column packed with the activated charcoal was shown to be a promising alternative for sugar separation, mainly those rich in fructooligosaccharides, leading to solutions of acceptable degrees of purification.

  1. Molecular and structural properties of polymer composites filled with activated charcoal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, Dahlang Bakri, Fahrul; Liong, Syarifuddin

    2016-03-11

    We have studied the molecular properties, structural properties, and chemical composition of composites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. FTIR spectra shows absorption band of hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH{sub 3}) and aromatic group (C-C). The absorption band for aromatic group (C-C) shows the formation of carbonaceous in composites. XRF shows chemical composition of composites, which the main chemicals are SO{sub 3}, Cl, and ZnO. The loss on ignition value (LOI) of activated charcoal indicates high carbonaceous matter. The crystallite size for diffraction pattern from hydrogel polymer is about 17 nm and for activated charcoal are about 19 nm. The crystallite size of the polymer is lower than that of activated charcoal, which make possible of the particle from filler in contact with each other to form continuous conducting polymer through polymer matrix.

  2. Effectiveness of delayed activated charcoal administration in simulated paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, P J A; Thomas, S H L

    2000-01-01

    Aims Oral activated charcoal is used to treat drug overdose and is effective at reducing drug absorption when administered within 1 h of drug ingestion. There are fewer data on efficacy when the delay is longer, as is the case in most drug overdoses. This study investigated the efficacy of activated charcoal at preventing paracetamol (acetaminophen) absorption after simulated overdose when administration was delayed between 1 and 4 h. Methods An open randomized-order four-way crossover study was performed in healthy volunteers comparing the effect of activated charcoal 50 g on the absorption of 3 g paracetamol tablets when administered after an interval of 1, 2 or 4 h or not at all. Plasma paracetamol concentrations were measured over 9 h after paracetamol ingestion using h.p.l.c. and areas under the curve between 4 and 9 h (AUC(4,9 h)) calculated as a measure of paracetamol absorption. Results Activated charcoal significantly reduced paracetamol AUC(4,9 h) when administered after 1 h (mean reduction 56%; 95% Confidence intervals 34, 78; P < 0.002) or 2 h (22%; 6, 39; P < 0.03) but not after 4 h (8%; −8, 24). When administered after 1 h activated charcoal reduced individual plasma paracetamol concentrations significantly at all times between 4 and 9 h after paracetamol administration. Administration at 2 or 4 h had no significant effect. Conclusions These results in healthy volunteers cannot be extrapolated directly to poisoned patients. However, they provide no evidence of efficacy for activated charcoal when administered after an interval of more than 2 h. PMID:10606832

  3. Use of activated charcoal for the removal of patulin from cider.

    PubMed Central

    Sands, D C; McIntyre, J L; Walton, G S

    1976-01-01

    Penicillium urticae (NRRL 2159A) was grown in culture broth containing 1 muCi of [1-14C-A1acetate to produce [14C]patulin. [14C]patulin was purified from the broth and added to apple cider. After the patulin concentration of the cider was adjusted to 30 mug/ml with unlabeled patulin, the cider was subjected to various charcoal treatments. [14C]patulin was completely removed by shaking the cider with 20 mg of activated charcoal per ml and by eluting the cider through a 40- to 60-mesh charcoal column. Activated charcola at 5 mg/ml reduced patulin in naturally contaminated cider to nondetectable levels. PMID:984816

  4. Effect of sorbitol, single, and multidose activated charcoal administration on carprofen absorption following experimental overdose in dogs.

    PubMed

    Koenigshof, Amy M; Beal, Matthew W; Poppenga, Robert H; Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of single dose activated charcoal, single dose activated charcoal with sorbitol, and multidose activated charcoal in reducing plasma carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Randomized, four period cross-over study. University research setting. Eight healthy Beagles. A 120 mg/kg of carprofen was administered orally to each dog followed by either (i) a single 2 g/kg activated charcoal administration 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (AC); (ii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal with 3.84 g/kg sorbitol 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (ACS); (iii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal 1 hour after carprofen ingestion and repeated every 6 hours for a total of 4 doses (MD); (iv) no treatment (control). Plasma carprofen concentrations were obtained over a 36-hour period following carprofen ingestion for each protocol. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed and time versus concentration, area under the curve, maximum plasma concentration, time to maximum concentration, and elimination half-life were calculated and compared among the groups using ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Activated charcoal, activated charcoal with sorbitol (ACS), and multiple-dose activated charcoal (MD) significantly reduced the area under the curve compared to the control group. AC and MD significantly reduced the maximum concentration when compared to the control group. MD significantly reduced elimination half-life when compared to ACS and the control group. There were no other significant differences among the treatment groups. Activated charcoal and ACS are as effective as MD in reducing serum carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of AC, ACS, and MD in the clinical setting. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  5. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing four levels of activated charcoal supplemental (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of BW). Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 tre...

  6. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing activated charcoal at 0.0, 0.33, 0.67 or 1.00 g / kg of body weight. Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment levels. La...

  7. Fractionation of honey carbohydrates using pressurized liquid extraction with activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Matute, A I; Ramos, L; Martínez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2008-09-24

    This article describes the development of a new procedure that combines the use of activated charcoal and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to obtain enriched fractions of di- and trisaccharides from honey. Honey was adsorbed onto activated charcoal and packed into a PLE extraction cell. Optimum results were obtained at 10 MPa and 40 degrees C using two consecutive PLE cycles: first, 1:99 (v/v) ethanol/water for 5 min and second, 50:50 (v/v) ethanol/water for 10 min. Di- and trisaccharide fractions were enriched after PLE treatment, accounting for 73% and 8% of total carbohydrates, respectively. This procedure was also compared with other methodologies reported in the literature for the fractionation of honey carbohydrates (yeast treatment and extraction from activated charcoal). While the removal of monosaccharides was more efficient with yeast treatment, recovery of di- and trisaccharides was higher when either the PLE or the activated charcoal treatment was used. PLE was found to be the faster technique; it also required less solvent volume and minimized handling of the sample.

  8. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    de Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F; Polo, Aldino N B; Benedetti, Angélica M; Leão, Mônica M D; Slusarski-Santana, Veronice; Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R C

    2013-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb2O5 catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb2O5/NaX, Nb2O5/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  9. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema.

    PubMed

    Dey, Neekkan; Das, Archita; Ghosh, Arunava; Chatterjee, Indu B

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100-200 μg/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73-80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70- 90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  10. Dynamic Competing Histone H4 K5K8 Acetylation and Butyrylation Are Hallmarks of Highly Active Gene Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Afsaneh; Zhang, Di; Huang, He; Barral, Sophie; Kwon, Oh Kwang; Qi, Shankang; Tang, Zhanyun; Buchou, Thierry; Vitte, Anne-Laure; He, Tieming; Cheng, Zhongyi; Montellier, Emilie; Gaucher, Jonathan; Curtet, Sandrine; Debernardi, Alexandra; Charbonnier, Guillaume; Puthier, Denis; Petosa, Carlo; Panne, Daniel; Rousseaux, Sophie; Roeder, Robert G.; Zhao, Yingming; Khochbin, Saadi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Recently discovered histone lysine acylation marks increase the functional diversity of nucleosomes well beyond acetylation. Here, we focus on histone butyrylation in the context of sperm cell differentiation. Specifically, we investigate the butyrylation of histone H4 lysine 5 and 8 at gene promoters where acetylation guides the binding of Brdt, a bromodomain-containing protein, thereby mediating stage-specific gene expression programs and post-meiotic chromatin reorganization. Genome-wide mapping data show that highly active Brdt-bound gene promoters systematically harbor competing histone acetylation and butyrylation marks at H4 K5 and H4 K8. Despite acting as a direct stimulator of transcription, histone butyrylation competes with acetylation, especially at H4 K5, to prevent Brdt binding. Additionally, H4 K5K8 butyrylation also marks retarded histone removal during late spermatogenesis. Hence, alternating H4 acetylation and butyrylation, while sustaining direct gene activation and dynamic bromodomain binding, could impact the final male epigenome features. PMID:27105113

  11. A fluorogenic method for measuring enteropeptidase activity: spectral shift in the emission of GD4K-conjugated 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Lee, Eungyeong; Chung, Hye-Shin; Jang, Sei-Heon; Lee, ChangWoo

    2011-07-01

    Enteropeptidase is a serine protease secreted by the pancreas and converts inactive trypsinogen to active trypsin. Enteropeptidase cleaves the C-terminal end of the substrate recognition sequence Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys (D(4)K). The assay for enteropeptidase has utilized GD(4)K-conjugated 2-naphthylamine (GD(4)K-NA) as a fluorogenic probe over the last 30 years. However, no other D(4)K-conjugated fluorogenic substrates of enteropeptidase have been reported. Furthermore, naphthalene is known as carcinogenic to humans. In this study, we used shift in the emission spectrum of GD(4)K-conjugated 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (GD(4)K-AMC) as a fluorogenic method to measure enteropeptidase activity. The kinetic analysis revealed that enteropeptidase has a K(M) of 0.025 mM and a k(cat) of 65 sec(-1) for GD(4)K-AMC, whereas it has a K(M) of 0.5 to 0.6 mM and a k(cat) of 25 sec(-1) for GD(4)K-NA. The optimum pH of GD(4)K-AMC hydrolysis was pH 8.0. Our data indicate that GD(4)K-AMC is more suitable as a substrate for enteropeptidase than GD(4)K-NA.

  12. Effect of electric current frequency on the activation kinetics of raw charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, A.O.; Ivakhnyuk, G.K.; Fedorov, N.F.

    1993-12-10

    The effect of electric current frequency on the kinetics of raw charcoal activation with water vapor has been investigated. It was established that under the effect of alternating current the rate constant increases under otherwise equal conditions. A dependence of the reaction rate on the current frequency was found. It was discovered that under the effect of alternating current the activation energy of interaction with water vapor diminishes.

  13. Effect of activated charcoal alone or given after gastric lavage in reducing the absorption of diazepam, ibuprofen and citalopram

    PubMed Central

    Lapatto-Reiniluoto, O; Kivistö, K T; Neuvonen, P J

    1999-01-01

    Aims The efficacy of activated charcoal alone, and gastric lavage followed by charcoal in reducing the absorption of diazepam, ibuprofen and citalopram was studied in healthy volunteers. Methods In a randomized cross-over study with three phases, nine healthy volunteers were administered single oral doses of 5 mg diazepam, 400 mg ibuprofen and 20 mg citalopram, taken simultaneously after an overnight fast. Thirty minutes later, the subjects were assigned to one of the following treatments: 200 ml water (control), 25 g activated charcoal as a suspension in 200 ml water or gastric lavage followed by 25 g charcoal in suspension given through the lavage tube. Plasma concentrations of diazepam, ibuprofen and citalopram were determined up to 10 h. Results The AUC(0,10 h) of diazepam was reduced by 27% (P < 0.05) by both charcoal alone and charcoal combined with lavage. The increase in plasma diazepam concentration from 0.5 h onwards was prevented by both interventions (P≤0.05), whereas the Cmax of diazepam was not significantly affected by either treatment. The AUC(0, 10 h) of ibuprofen was reduced by 49% (P < 0.05) after the combination treatment and by 30% (P < 0.05) after charcoal alone, but there was no significant difference between these two treatments. Both charcoal alone and the combination treatment were equally effective in preventing the increase in plasma ibuprofen from 0.5 h onwards (P < 0.01). The Cmax of ibuprofen was reduced by 45% (P < 0.05) and by 21% (P = NS), respectively. The AUC(0,10 h) of citalopram was reduced by 51% (P < 0.05) after both charcoal alone and charcoal combined with lavage, and the Cmax by 52% (P < 0.05) and 54% (P < 0.05), respectively. The increase in plasma citalopram concentration from 0.5 h onwards was reduced by about 50% (P < 0.01) by both interventions. Conclusions Activated charcoal alone and charcoal combined with lavage showed similar efficacy in preventing the absorption of diazepam, ibuprofen and citalopram. These

  14. Adsorption of H2, Ne, and N2 on Activated Charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. K.; Tward, E.; Boudaie, K. I.

    1986-01-01

    9-page report presents measured adsorption isotherms of hydrogen, neon, and nitrogen on activated charcoal for temperatures from 77 to 400 K and pressures from 1 to 80 atmospheres (0.1 to 8.1 MPa). Heats of adsorption calculated from isotherms also presented. Report gives expressions, based on ideal-gas law, which show relationship between different definitions of volume of gas adsorbed and used in describing low-pressure isotherms.

  15. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  16. Activated Charcoal Does Not Reduce Duration of Phenytoin Toxicity in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Cumpston, Kirk; Stromberg, Paul; Wills, Brandon K; Rose, S Rutherfoord

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin toxicity frequently results in a prolonged inpatient admission. Several publications avow multidose activated charcoal (MDAC) will enhance the elimination of phenytoin. However, these claims are not consistent, and the mechanism of enhanced eliminaiton is unproven. The aim of this investigation is to compare the time to reach a clinical composite end point in phenytoin overdose patients treated with no activated charcoal (NoAC), single-dose activated charcoal (SDAC), and MDAC. This was a retrospective study using electronic poison center data. Patients treated in a health care facility with phenytoin concentrations >20 mg/L were included. Patients were grouped by use of SDAC, MDAC, and NoAC. The primary end points were either time to resolution of symptoms, hospital discharge, or the case was closed by a toxicologist. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 132 cases were included for analysis. There were 88 NoAC, 13 SDAC, and 31 MDAC cases. The groups were similar in symptomatology, age, and chronicity of expsoure. Mean peak phenytoin concentrations (SD) were 42 mg/L (12), 41 mg/L (11), and 42 mg/L (11) for NoAC, SDAC, and MDAC, respectively. Mean time to reach the study end point was 39 hours [95% confidence interval (CI), 31-48], 52 hours (95% CI, 36-68), and 60 hours (95% CI, 45-75) for NoAC, SDAC, and MDAC, respectively. The groups appeared similar with respect to peak phenytoin concentrations and prevalence of signs and symptoms. In this observational series, the use of activated charcoal was associated with increased time to reach the composite end point of clinical improvement.

  17. Determining the sizes of micropores in activated charcoals by the pulsed NMR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogelashvili, G. Sh.; Khozina, E. V.; Vartapetyan, R. Sh.; Ladychuk, D. V.; Grunin, Yu. B.

    2011-07-01

    The pulsed NMR method was used to measure the nuclear spin-spin relaxation of protons of water adsorbed in micropores of activated charcoal (AC) samples with different porous structures. A correlation was found between the spin-spin relaxation time of water protons in AC with completely filled micropores and the volume density of water primary adsorption centers in the AC samples. An equation for approximating obtained dependences is proposed that allows us to determine the volume of micropores in AC.

  18. Liquid phase adsorption behavior of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-05-20

    This study describes liquid phase adsorption characteristics of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of inulin. Nearly neutral solution (pH 6-8) was favorable to the adsorption and the equilibrium was attained after 40 min with the maximum adsorption Qmax 0.182 g/g (adsorbate/adsorbent) at 298 K. The experimental data analysis indicated that the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2) = 1) and Langmuir isotherms model (R(2) > 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic with a physical nature. Inulin desorption could reach 95.9% using 50% ethanol solution and activated charcoal could be reused without significant losses in adsorption capacity. These results are of practical significance for the application of activated charcoal in the production and purification of inulin-type fructan.

  19. Antifungal activity of nano and micro charcoal particle polymers against Paecilomyces variotii, Trichoderma virens and Chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee Jin; Cha, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hern; Choi, Shin Sik

    2016-01-25

    This study investigates the antifungal activity of a polymer integrated with nano-porous charcoal particles against Paecilomyces variotii, Chaetomium globosum, Trichoderma virens, which are all filamentous fungi. The charcoal polymers were prepared by combining charcoal powders with plastic resin under a vacuum to form charcoal particle protrusions on the polymer surface. The mycelial growth of P. variotii and T. virens exhibited a reduction of 10 and 30%, respectively, after the conidia were pre-treated with charcoal polymers, and in particular, no mycelial growth was found in C. globosum during 5 days of culture. The adsorption of Ca(2+) into charcoal was suggested to inhibit growth due to the reduction in the flux of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) into the hyphae. In 5 h, about 15 mM of Ca(2+) were removed from CaCl2 solution with 0.2 g/mL of polymers, and the nano-sized pores of the charcoals on the polymer were responsible for the Ca(2+) adsorption.

  20. Randomized controlled study on the use of multiple-dose activated charcoal in patients with supratherapeutic phenytoin levels.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Carl G; Chang, Arthur S; Matthews, Andre S; Reedy, Sarah Jane; Morgan, Brent W

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a prospective randomized controlled study on the influence of multiple doses of activated charcoal (MDAC) in patients with supratherapeutic serum phenytoin levels; Patients with serum phenytoin levels greater than 30 mg/L upon presentation to the ED were recruited from two urban teaching hospitals. Patients enrolled were older than 18, nonpregnant, able to tolerate activated charcoal by mouth and able to give written consent. They were randomized to receive 50 g activated charcoal by mouth every 4 hours or no activated charcoal. They continued in the study until the patient was discharged or the serum level was <25 mg/L. Serum levels were drawn every 6 hours initially, then every 24 hours after the 1st day. The presence of gait abnormalities and nystagmus was recorded and mini-mental status exam (MMSE) scores were collected from each patient enrolled. Time to reach subtoxic levels was recorded; Seventeen patients were enrolled in the study. Seven patients received MDAC, eight patients served as controls and two patients who were initially enrolled as controls inadvertently received one dose of activated charcoal and were excluded from the analysis. Both groups were comparable in age and all were male. The median time to reach a subtoxic level was 41.1 hours (range, 11.6-196) and 19.3 hours (range, 13-33) in the control and charcoal groups, respectively (p = 0.049). The median and range peak serum levels were 40.0 hours (range, 32.0-47.6) and 35.6 hours (range, 32.5-40.0) in the control and charcoal groups, respectively (p = 0.082). The median and range MMSE scores were 20 points (range, 12-30) and 19.5 points (range, 16-29) in the control and charcoal groups, respectively; Further study is needed to determine if MDAC decreases the time to reach a subtoxic level of phenytoin in patients with supratherapeutic phenytoin levels.

  1. Aminocyclopyrachlor sorption in biochar and activated charcoal amended soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aminocyclopyrachlor is a new herbicide active ingredient, classified as a member of the new chemical class “pyrimidine carboxylic acids”. It is used for control of broadleaf weeds and brush on non-cropland. Due to its potential mobility in some soils, there is interest in whether aminocyclopyrachlor...

  2. Binding Potency of Heparin Immobilized on Activated Charcoal for DNA Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Snezhkova, E A; Tridon, A; Evrard, B; Nikolaev, V G; Uvarov, V Yu; Tsimbalyuk, R S; Ivanuk, A A; Komov, V V; Sakhno, L A

    2016-02-01

    In vitro experiments showed that heparin adsorbed on activated charcoal can bind antibodies raised against native and single-stranded DNA in a diluted sera pool with a high level of these DNA. Thus, heparin used as anticoagulant during hemosorption procedure can demonstrate supplementary therapeutic activity resulting from its interaction with various agents involved in acute and chronic inflammatory reactions such as DNA- and RNA-binding substances, proinflammatory cytokines, complement components, growth factors, etc. Research and development of heparin-containing carbonic adsorbents for the therapy of numerous inflammatory and autoimmune diseases seems to be a promising avenue in hematology.

  3. Use of Activated Charcoal for {sup 220}Rn Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.L.

    1999-03-01

    Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of {sup 220}Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm/s (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft/min) with a continuous input concentration of {sup 220}Rn in the range of 9 x 10{sup 3} pCi/L. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of {sup 220}Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a {sup 220}Rn adsorption media, the source term for available {sup 220}Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to {sup 220}Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall 220Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10{sup 9} for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm/s (35 ft/min) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10{sup 6}. The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a {sup 220}Rn activity on the order of 10{sup 10} Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny.

  4. Use of Activated Charcoal for Rn-220 Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.L.

    1999-03-17

    Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of {sup 220}Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm s{sup -1} (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft min{sup -1}) with a continuous input concentration of {sup 220}Rn in the range of 9 x 10{sup 3} pCi L{sup -1}. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of {sup 220}Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a {sup 220}Rn adsorption media, the source term for available {sup 220}Rn and gaseous fission products was evaluated and compared to what is believed to be present in the deposit. The results indicate that only a few percent of the total {sup 220}Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to {sup 220}Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall {sup 220}Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10{sup 9} for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm s{sup -1} (35 ft min{sup -1}) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10{sup 6}. The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate

  5. A wheat PI4K gene whose product possesses threonine autophophorylation activity confers tolerance to drought and salt in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Pan-Pan, Lu; Hu, Di; Chen, Ming; Li, Lian-Cheng; Ma, You-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are involved in regulation of recruitment and activity of signalling proteins in cell membranes. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinases (PI4Ks) generate PI4-phosphate the precursor of regulatory phosphoinositides. No type II PI4K research on the abiotic stress response has previously been reported in plants. A stress-inducible type II PI4K gene, named TaPI4KIIγ, was obtained by de novo transcriptome sequencing of drought-treated wheat (Triticum aestivum). TaPI4KIIγ, localized on the plasma membrane, underwent threonine autophosphorylation, but had no detectable lipid kinase activity. Interaction of TaPI4KIIγ with wheat ubiquitin fusion degradation protein (TaUDF1) indicated that it might be hydrolysed by the proteinase system. Overexpression of TaPI4KIIγ revealed that it could enhance drought and salt stress tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. A ubdkγ7 mutant, identified as an orthologue of TaPI4KIIγ in Arabidopsis, was sensitive to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and abscisic acid (ABA), and overexpression of TaPI4KIIγ in the ubdkγ7 mutant compensated stress sensitivity. TaPI4KIIγ promoted root growth in Arabidopsis, suggesting that TaPI4KIIγ might enhance stress resistance by improving root growth. Overexpression of TaPI4KIIγ led to an altered expression level of stress-related genes and changes in several physiological traits that made the plants more tolerant to stress. The results provided evidence that overexpression of TaPI4KIIγ could improve drought and salt tolerance. PMID:23682116

  6. Evaluation of radon adsorption characteristics of a coconut shell-based activated charcoal system for radon and thoron removal applications.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Sudeep Kumara, K; Yashodhara, I; Sahoo, B K; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2015-04-01

    Radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn), and their decay products contribute a major fraction (more than 50%) of doses received from ionisation radiation in public domain indoor environments and occupation environments such as uranium mines, thorium plants, and underground facilities, and are recognised as important radiological hazardous materials, which need to be controlled. This paper presents studies on the removal of (222)Rn and (220)Rn from air using coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal cylindrical adsorber beds. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the (222)Rn and (220)Rn adsorption characteristics, and the mitigation efficiency of coconut-based activated charcoal available in India. The performance parameters evaluated include breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K), and degassing characteristics of the charcoal bed of varying dimensions at different flow rates. While the breakthrough for (222)Rn occurred depending on the dimension of the adsorber bed and flow rates, for (220)Rn, the breakthrough did not occur. The breakthrough curve exhibited a stretched S-shape response, instead of the theoretically predicted sharp step function. The experiments confirm that the breakthrough time individually satisfies the quadratic relationship with respect to the diameter of the bed, and the linear relationship with respect to the length, as predicted in the theory. The K value varied in the range of 2.3-4.12 m(3) kg(-1) with a mean value of 2.99 m(3) kg(-1). The K value was found to increase with the increase in flow rate. Heating the charcoal to ∼ 100 °C resulted in degassing of the adsorbed (222)Rn, and the K of the degassed charcoal and virgin charcoal were found to be similar with no deterioration in performance indicating the re-usability of the charcoal.

  7. Treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia with repetitive oral activated charcoal as an adjunct to phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Y; Regev, M; Arad, I; Peleg, O; Boehnert, M

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of multiple dose oral activated charcoal (OAC) therapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was prospectively studied in 30 jaundiced newborns receiving phototherapy, randomly assigned to a study group (n = 14) or control group (n = 16). The study group received OAC before meals with a total amount of 8.5 +/- 0.85 gms (M +/- SEM). Serum bilirubin levels upon initiation of phototherapy were (M +/- SEM) 265 +/- 8 and 253 +/- 4 mumol/L respectively. After 24 hours there was no significant decrease in serum bilirubin levels in the control group (M +/- SEM = 240 +/- 8 mumol/L) but bilirubin levels of the study group decreased (M +/- SEM = 235 +/- 7 mumol/L, p < 0.02). At 48 hours serum bilirubin levels were significantly lower than baseline values in both groups. However, the decline in bilirubin levels in the study group (M +/- SEM = 56 +/- 10 mumol/L) was greater than that of the controls (M +/- SEM = 21 +/- 10 mumol/L p < 0.02). Oral activated charcoal seems to be an effective adjunct to phototherapy in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  8. The effect of activated charcoal on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Badreldin H; Alza'abi, Mohamed; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Waly, Mostafa I; Beegam, Sumaya; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Brand, Susanne; Schupp, Nicole

    2014-03-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) is a sorbent that has been shown to remove urinary toxins like urea and indoxyl sulfate. Here, the influence of AC on kidney function of rats with experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) is investigated. CRF was induced in rats by feeding adenine (0.75%) for four weeks. As an intervention, AC was added to the feed at concentrations of 10%, 15% or 20%. Adenine treatment impaired kidney function: it lowered creatinine clearance and increased plasma concentrations of creatinine, urea, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and vanin-1. Furthermore, it raised plasma concentrations of the uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate, phosphate and uric acid. Renal morphology was severely damaged and histopathological markers of inflammation and fibrosis were especially increased. In renal homogenates, antioxidant indices, including superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were adversely affected. Most of these changes were significantly ameliorated by dietary administration of AC at a concentration of 20%, while effects induced by lower doses of dietary AC on adenine nephrotoxicity were not statistically significant. The results suggest that charcoal is a useful sorbent agent in dietary adenine-induced CRF in rats and that its usability as a nephroprotective agent in human kidney disease should be studied.

  9. Oral iodinated activated charcoal improves lung function in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Skogvall, Staffan; Erjefält, Jonas S; Olin, Anders I; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif

    2014-06-01

    The effect of 8 weeks treatment with oral iodinated activated charcoal (IAC) on lung function of patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was examined in a double blind randomized placebo controlled parallel group study with 40 patients. In the IAC group, patients showed a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 baseline by 130 ml compared to placebo, corresponding to 8.2% improvement (p = 0.031*). Correlation statistics revealed that the improvement of FEV1 baseline was significantly correlated both to FEV1 post-bronchodilator (p = 0.0020**) and FEV1 post-exercise (0.033*) values. This demonstrates that the improved baseline lung function by IAC did not inhibit a further beta2-adrenoceptor relaxation, and thus that patients did not reach a limit for maximal improvement of the lung function after IAC treatment. Eight patients in the IAC group developed abnormal thyroid hormone levels transiently during the treatment. This side effect was not correlated to improvement of lung function (p = 0.82). No serious adverse effects directly related to the treatment were recorded. In summary, this study demonstrates that iodinated activated charcoal surprisingly and significantly improved lung function of patients with moderate COPD. The underlying mechanism of action is unclear, but is likely to be different from the drugs used today. The immediate conclusion is that further studies are now justified in order to determine clinical efficacy of IAC in COPD and explore possible mechanisms of action.

  10. Removal of ciprofloxacin in simulated digestive media by activated charcoal entrapped within zinc-pectinate beads.

    PubMed

    Khoder, Mouhamad; Tsapis, Nicolas; Huguet, Hélène; Besnard, Madeleine; Gueutin, Claire; Fattal, Elias

    2009-09-11

    Beads made of a zinc-pectinate matrix containing activated charcoal were designed for the adsorption of colonic residual antibiotics responsible of the emergence of resistance. Bead stability was shown to correlate with bead zinc content, 0.08 mg/mg being the minimal amount of zinc that protects the egg-box structure against total disintegration. Moreover, the stability in simulated gastro-intestinal media was shown to be related to the composition of the incubation medium. Indeed, gastric medium was shown to extract a large amount of zinc inducing an early disintegration of the beads in the intestinal medium, making necessary their protection by gastro-resistant capsules. Simulated intestinal medium buffered by phosphate was not adapted for the disintegration studies since the formation of a zinc phosphate precipitate on beads surface enhances their resistance to further degradation by pectinases contained in colonic medium. On the other hand, beads incubated in HEPES were stable in intestinal medium and nicely degraded by pectinases contained in simulated colonic medium. Despite this stability, coating with Eudragit RS was needed to prevent the early adsorption of antibiotics in intestinal medium. Adsorption studies in the simulated colonic medium show that the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal is not modified after its encapsulation within pectin beads making the elimination of ciprofloxacin reaching the colon clinically feasible.

  11. Lead Induced Hepato-renal Damage in Male Albino Rats and Effects of Activated Charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Offor, Samuel J.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2017-01-01

    Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various cancers, diseases of the hepatic, renal, and reproductive systems etc. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated the role of activated charcoal in chronic lead exposure in albino rats. Eighteen mature male albino rats were used, divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats) received deionised water (10 ml/kg), group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg) followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Rats in group 2 showed significant increases in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotransferase, urea, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoproteins, Total White Blood Cell Counts, Malondialdehyde, Interleukin-6, and decreases in Packed Cell Volume, hemoglobin concentration, Red blood cell count, total proteins, albumins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total glutathione. Co-administration of AC significantly decreased these biomarkers with the exception of the sperm parameters. Histopathology of liver and kidney also confirmed the protective effective of AC against lead induced hepato-renal damage. AC may be beneficial in chronic lead induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:28352230

  12. [Possible release of aluminum from activated charcoal filters used in home hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Jourdan, J L; Maingourd, C; Meguin, C; Nivet, H; Martin, C; Moulier, M C

    1986-01-01

    In 1984, 38 sera from home hemodialysis patients were found with a significant increase of aluminum (Al) from 67.8 +/- 44.3 to 102.0 +/- 45.9 micrograms/l (p less than 0.001) compared to 1983. The only change was an activated charcoal (AC) filter in the water treatment circuit, added downstream of the water softener. Five different home hemodialysis AC filters were tested: Microclean CA Dia Cuno, Traitement Standard des Eaux (TSE)R, Permo, C2R, Gambro. AC was shown to be the main source of Al, its content ranging from 1251 +/- 116 to 7569 +/- 969 mg/kg. Al released in 2000 l of liter rinsing water varied from 1.6 +/- 1.3 to 41.3 +/- 5.5 mg. (mean concentration: 0.8 to 20.6 micrograms/l): Gambro less than or equal to C2R less than TSE less than Permo less than Cuno (p less than 0.01). Al loading of charcoal could occur either before or during the activation process, by contaminated water, other added substances, or during packaging. In conclusion, our study suggests, first, to put AC filters upstream of Al captor to avoid Al intoxication, second, to systematically dose Al and may be other metallic substances in every manufactured AC sold for therapeutic purpose.

  13. In vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by SuperChar, USP and Darco G-60 activated charcoals

    SciTech Connect

    Curd-Sneed, C.D.; Parks, K.S.; Bordelon, J.G.; Stewart, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by three activated charcoals. Solutions of sodium pentobarbital (20 mM) were prepared in distilled water and in 70% sorbitol (w/v). Radiolabeled (/sup 14/C) sodium pentobarbital was added to each solution to serve as a concentration marker. Two ml of each drug solution was added to test tubes containing 40 mg of either Darco G-60, USP, or SuperChar activated charcoal. The drug-charcoal mixtures were incubated at 37 degrees C for O, 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 min. Equilibrium, indicated by a constant percentage of drug bound for two consecutive time periods, was established immediately for the aqueous mixtures and for Darco G-60 in sorbitol. The time to equilibrium was prolonged for USP (2.5 min) and SuperChar (5 min) in the presence of sorbitol. In the second series of experiments, solutions of sodium pentobarbital (1.25 to 160 mM) were prepared in either distilled water or sorbitol. Amount of drug bound by 10 to 320 mg of activated charcoal within a 10 min incubation period was determined. Scatchard analysis determined maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and dissociation constants (Kd) for each activated charcoal. In water, Bmax (mumoles/gm) was greatest for SuperChar (1141), followed by USP (580) and Darco G-60 (381), while the Kd's did not differ. Sorbitol did not change the Bmax or Kd of USP or Darco G-60, but the additive significantly decreased the Bmax (717) and increased the Kd for SuperChar (3.3 to 10.1 mM). The results suggest that relative binding capacity of activated charcoal is directly proportional to surface area, and that sorbitol significantly reduces sodium pentobarbital binding to SuperChar.

  14. Effects of the dietary supplements, activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin, on urinary excretion of trimethylamine in Japanese trimethylaminuria patients.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Masaki; Togashi, Masahiro; Saito, Tetsuya; Preti, George; Cashman, John R; Kamataki, Tetsuya

    2004-04-16

    Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability to oxidize and convert dietary-derived trimethylamine (TMA) to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). This disorder has been relatively well-documented in European and North American populations, but no reports have appeared regarding patients in Japan. We identified seven Japanese individuals that showed a low metabolic capacity to convert TMA to its odorless metabolite, TMAO. The metabolic capacity, as defined by the concentration of TMAO excreted in the urine divided by TMA concentration plus TMAO concentration, in these seven individuals ranged from 70 to 90%. In contrast, there were no healthy controls examined with less than 95% of the metabolic capacity to convert TMA to TMAO. The intake of dietary charcoal (total 1.5 g charcoal per day for 10 days) reduced the urinary free TMA concentration and increased the concentration of TMAO to normal values during charcoal administration. Copper chlorophyllin (total 180 mg per day for 3 weeks) was also effective at reducing free urinary TMA concentration and increasing TMAO to those of concentrations present in normal individuals. In the TMAU subjects examined, the effects of copper chlorophyllin appeared to last longer (i.e., several weeks) than those observed for activated charcoal. The results suggest that the daily intake of charcoal and/or copper chlorophyllin may be of significant use in improving the quality of life of individuals suffering from TMAU.

  15. Kinetics studies of d-glucose hydrogenation over activated charcoal supported platinum catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Muthanna J.

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of the catalytic hydrogenation of d-glucose to produce d-sorbitol was studied in a three-phase laboratory scale reactor. The hydrogenation reactions were performed on activated charcoal supported platinum catalyst in the temperature range 25-65°C and in a constant pressure of 1 atm. The kinetic data were modeled by zero, first and second-order reaction equations. In the operating regimes studied, the results show that the hydrogenation reaction was of a first order with respect to d-glucose concentration. Also the activation energy of the reaction was determined, and found to be 12.33 kJ mole-1. A set of experiment was carried out to test the deactivation of the catalyst, and the results show that the deactivation is slow with the ability of using the catalyst for several times with a small decrease in product yield.

  16. Synthesis of a high-yield activated carbon by air gasification of macadamia nut shell charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, X.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1999-09-01

    Macadamia nut shell charcoal was heated in an inert environment to temperatures above 1000 K (carbonized), reacted with oxygen (Po{sub 2} = 2.68--11.3 kPa) at temperatures between 525 and 586 K (oxygenated), and heated again in an inert environment to temperatures above 1000 K (activated) to produce an activated carbon. Carbons produced by this process possess surface areas and iodine numbers in the range of 400--550. Overall yields of these carbons (based on the dry, raw macadamia nut shell feed) ranged from 24 to 30 wt %. Under the conditions employed in this work, the rates of chemisorption and gasification were not mass transfer limited. Initially, the gasification reaction was first-order with respect to oxygen concentration but became independent of oxygen concentration as the surface sites of the carbon became saturated with oxygen.

  17. Charcoal burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bakic, M.C.

    1988-12-27

    A combustible fuel apparatus is described comprising: side walls formed contiguous with and extending upward from a base and converging to form a closed container, having stacked charcoal fuel particles therein. The base may be placed directly on a substantially horizontal surface and the container may be ignited and substantially burned to ash, and the charcoal fuel particles may be ignited and sufficiently burned for cooking, wherein the charcoal fuel particles are stacked on the base in a relatively stable position prior to the igniting of the container, and are maintained in a relatively stable position during and after the igniting and burning of the container, whereby a mound of ignited charcoal fuel particles remains on the substantially horizontal surface after the burning of the container, the mound having a configuration substantially similar to the shape of the container prior to the combustion thereof.

  18. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Li; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Gurbani, Deepak; ...

    2014-07-17

    Here, we developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16more » and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. Lastly, a 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors.« less

  19. Removal of detergents from protein extracts using activated charcoal prior to immunological analysis.

    PubMed

    Malhas, Ashraf N; Abuknesha, Ramadan A; Price, Robert G

    2002-06-01

    The use of dextran-coated activated charcoal (DCC) powder to absorb solubilising detergents from cell lysates is described. Normal embryonic epithelial cells were lysed in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The detergent was then absorbed with DCC to facilitate analysis of polycystin-1 with antibody-based methods. Polycystin-1 is a membrane protein that is involved in the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The adverse effect of SDS on antibody-polycystin-1 binding was studied and the improvement resulting from its removal demonstrated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The results indicate that DCC can be used in a simple manner to remove highly reactive membrane-solubilising reagents from protein mixtures prior to immunological analysis. This procedure may be relevant to a variety of other techniques that are normally affected by detergents.

  20. Effect of activated charcoal on patulin, fumaric acid and some other properties of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kadakal, C; Nas, S

    2002-02-01

    In this study, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g/l amounts of activated charcoal (AC) were added into apple juice with a patulin content of 62.3 ppb obtained from a well-established manufacturing company. Apple juice samples were then mixed for 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Considerable reduction in the patulin and HMF values was found while there is a dramatic improvement in the colour and clearness of apple juice. However, AC did not cause a significant decrease in the fumaric acid level of apple juice. The best result was obtained at 3.0 g/l AC mixed for 5 min. In addition, a negligible reduction in brix and pH values of samples was observed.

  1. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Hilber, Isabel; Wyss, Gabriela S; Mäder, Paul; Bucheli, Thomas D; Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg(-1) of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg(-1), and total uptake from 2 to 1 microg in the 800 mg kg(-1) AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled.

  2. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  3. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  4. Effects of scorched food leachates with or without activated charcoal pretreatment on AhR activation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor activated by xenobiotics, including dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although AhR is also activated by some dietary constituents, it has not been completely clarified in what circumstances AhR ligands are ingested in our daily life. Because PAHs are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, we hypothesized that scorched foods might contain and leach out AhR ligands sufficient to stimulate AhR in vitro. To test this hypothesis, scorched foods (bread, cheese, etc.) were mixed vigorously with water, and the supernatants were retrieved as samples. The samples were added to HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was analyzed by RT-PCR in different cell lines treated with the samples. We further tested whether pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal would alter their AhR-stimulating activity. All the supernatant samples tested induced AhR-dependent reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In some samples, these inductions were inhibited by pretreatment with activated charcoal. Our findings indicate that scorched food leachates stimulate AhR in cultured cells and that activated charcoal adsorbs the AhR-stimulating substances in some leachates. Thus, people who habitually eat scorched foods are exposed to AhR ligands on a regular basis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether burnt foods actually exert biological effects on our health.

  5. Study of Single Catalytic Events at Copper-in-Charcoal: Localization of Click Activity Through Subdiffraction Observation of Single Catalytic Events.

    PubMed

    Decan, Matthew R; Scaiano, Juan C

    2015-10-15

    Single molecule fluorescence microscopy reveals that copper-in-charcoal--a high performance click catalyst- has remarkably few catalytic sites, with 90% of the charcoal particles being inactive, and for the catalytic ones the active sites represent a minute fraction (∼0.003%) of the surface. The intermittent nature of the catalytic events enables subdiffraction resolution and mapping of the catalytic sites.

  6. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuaprakone, T.; Wongphaet, N.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-04-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 °C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 °C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m2/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  7. Feasibility of prehospital treatment with activated charcoal: Who could we treat, who should we treat?

    PubMed Central

    Isbister, G; Dawson, A; Whyte, I

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Review of deliberate self poisoning presentations to the emergency department (ED) of a toxicology unit by ambulance over six years. Data were extracted from a standardised prospective database of poisonings. Outcomes included: number of patients attended by ambulance and number arriving in emergency within one hour. Cases were stratified by ingestion type, based on toxicity and sedative activity. Results: 2041 poisoning admissions were included. The median time to ambulance attendance was 1 h 23 min (IQR 37 min–3 h) and to hospital attendance was 2 h 15 min (IQR 1 h 25 min–4 h). In 774 cases (38%) ambulance attendance occurred within one hour, but in only 161 (8%) did ED attendance occur within one hour. Non-sedating, highly toxic substances were ingested in 55 cases, 24 (23 with GCS>14) with ambulance attendance, and five with ED attendance, within one hour. Conversely 439 patients ingested a less toxic, sedative agent, 160 with ambulance attendance, and 32 with ED attendance, within one hour. Limiting decontamination to patients ingesting highly toxic, non-sedating compounds (GCS<14) reduces the proportion requiring treatment to 23 of the 774 (3.0%), an additional 18 patients. Conclusion: More patients could potentially be decontaminated if all patients attended by ambulance within one hour received charcoal. However, this would expose 128 patients with sedative, low risk poisonings to the risk of aspiration, and only treat 18 extra high risk poisonings. This small potential benefit of prehospital charcoal is unlikely to justify the expense in training and protocols required to implement it PMID:12835364

  8. Replacement of charcoal sorbent in the VOST

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    EPA Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources, specifies the use of petroleum-base charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data on comparability and variability of charcoals for VOST application has created uncertainty when other charcoals are substituted. Five potential sorbent replacements for charcoal in Method 0030 were evaluated along with a reference charcoal. Two of the sorbents tested, Ambersorb XE-340 and Tenax GR, did not perform well enough to qualify as replacements. Three candidates, Anasorb 747, Carbosieve S-III and Kureha Beaded Activated Charcoal, performed adequately, and produced statistically equivalent results. Anasorb 747 appears to be an acceptable replacement for petroleum charcoal, based on a combination of performance, availability, and cost.

  9. An EELS-based study of the effects of pyrolysis on natural carbonaceous materials used for activated charcoal preparation.

    PubMed

    Jeanne-Rose, V; Golabkan, V; Mansot, J L; Largitte, L; Césaire, T; Ouensanga, A

    2003-04-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been used to characterize the electronic structure of charcoal phases at the nanoscale, thus demonstrating that the technique can be applied to environmental science. Activated charcoal is extensively used to remove pollutants from liquid and gaseous sewage. It is mainly obtained by activation of coke or charcoal produced from ligneous precursors. The present study concerns the use of by-products of local Caribbean agriculture, such as sugar cane bagasse, fruit stones and seeds, for use as activated charcoal precursors. Charcoal phases are prepared by high-temperature pyrolysis of lignocellulosic raw materials under a nitrogen gas flow. With the aim of optimizing the pyrolysis temperature and duration and oxygen content, the concentration of carbon sp2 hybridized chemical bonds and structural ordering have been followed by EELS for different treatment temperatures. To quantify the carbon sp2 content, near edge structure (NES) at the carbon K edge has been measured to determine the strength of pi --> pi* and 1s --> pi* transitions. Three precursors of plant origin, shells of Terminalia catappa and Acrocomia karukerana and seeds of Psidium guajava, with the pyrolysis temperatures between 600 and 900 degrees C, were investigated. The fraction of carbon sp2 bonding is found to increase when the temperature rises from 600 degrees C to the range 700-750 degrees C and becomes stable at higher temperatures. For temperatures in excess of 700 degrees C, structural ordering probably occurs and well-defined 1s --> sigma* NES is present, whose intensity increases with increasing preparation temperature. For the highest temperature of around 900 degrees C, the structure of the final product is less well organized than graphitized carbon but a few per cent of a highly ordered phase is found.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  11. Fast activated charcoal prepurification of Fusarium solani β-glucosidase for an efficient oleuropein bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Boudabbous, Manel; Saibi, Walid; Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Dardouri, Mosbeh; Sayadi, Sami; Belghith, Hafedh; Mechichi, Tahar; Gargouri, Ali

    2017-02-07

    Fungal β-glucosidases were extensively studied regarding their various potential biotechnology applications. Here, we report the selection of Fusarium solani strain producing high yield of β-glucosidase activity. The effect of some factors on β-glucosidase production was studied including: Initial pH, medium composition, concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources, and particle size of raw substrates. The optimal enzyme production was obtained with 4 units of pH. The highest β-glucosidase activity was produced on 4% wheat bran (WB) as raw carbon sources, reaching 5 U/mL. A positive correlation between WB particle size and the β-glucosidase production level was settled. The last one was enhanced to 13.60 U/mL in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) of ammonium sulfate. Interestingly, the activated charcoal was used as an inexpensive reagent enabling a rapid and efficient purification prior step that improved the enzyme-specific activity. Eventually, F. solani β-glucosidase acts efficiently during the bioconversion process of oleuropein. Indeed, 82.5% of oleuropein was deglycosylated after 1 hr at 40°C. Altogether, our data showed that the β-glucosidase of F. solani has a potential application to convert oleuropein to ameliorate food quality.

  12. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    The volatile organic sampling train (VOST) is currently one the leading methodologies available for the sampling and analysis of volatile principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) and products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from stationary sources at very low levels. However, revisions to the original method are necessary to maintain VOST as a viable regulatory tool. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. The following carbon-based candidate sorbents were considered: Tenax-GR (a graphitized Tenax); a Petroleum-based Charcoal; Ambersorbe XE-340 (hydrophobic carbonized resin bead); Anasorb 747 (beaded active carbon with very regular pore size); Carbosieve{reg_sign} S-III (carbon molecular sieve); and a Beaded Activated Charcoal (BAC) (with a very regular pore size). The results indicated that Tenax-GR showed significantly poorer performance than the other candidates in preliminary experimental results. Ambersorb did not retain the gaseous volatile organic compounds tested as well as the others and recovery of vinyl chloride was very low at all levels of spiking. Carbosieve was eliminated as a candidate replacement because of cost and handling problems. The petroleum-based charcoal was eliminated because of difficulties in handling a finely-divided powder. The availability of Anasorb 747 proved to be the deciding factor between it and the BAC. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb{reg_sign} 747 a good choice for replacement of SKC Lot 104. 1 tab.

  13. Charcoal rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charcoal rot is reported occasionally on alfalfa in the U.S. and has also been found in Australia, Pakistan, Uganda, east Africa, and the former Soviet Union. The fungus causing the disease is widespread throughout tropical and subtropical countries. It causes disease on more than 500 crop and we...

  14. Chamomile Flower, Myrrh, and Coffee Charcoal, Components of a Traditional Herbal Medicinal Product, Diminish Proinflammatory Activation in Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Vissiennon, Cica; Hammoud, Dima; Rodewald, Steffen; Fester, Karin; Goos, Karl-Heinz; Nieber, Karen; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    A traditional herbal medicinal product, containing myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal, has been used in Germany for the relief of gastrointestinal complaints for decades. Clinical studies suggest its use in the maintenance therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. However, the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the clinical effects are not yet fully understood.The present study aims to elucidate immunopharmacological activities of myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal by studying the influence of each plant extract on gene expression and protein release of activated human macrophages.The plant extracts effect on gene and protein expression of activated human monocyte-derived macrophages was investigated by microarray gene expression analysis and assessment of the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators (TNFα, chemokine CXCL13, and interleukin-10) using an ELISA test system.The extracts of myrrh, chamomile flower, and coffee charcoal influenced gene expression of activated human macrophages within the cytokine/chemokine signaling pathway. Particularly, chemokine gene expression was suppressed. Subsequently, the production of CXCL13 and, to a minor extent, cytokine TNFα was inhibited by all herbal extracts. Chamomile flower and coffee charcoal extracts enhanced interleukin-10 release from activated macrophages. The observed effects on protein release were comparable to the effect of budesonide, which decreased TNFα and CXCL13 and enhanced interleukin-10 release.The components of the herbal medicinal product influence the activity of activated human macrophages on both gene and protein level. The induced alterations within chemokine/cytokine signaling could contribute to a positive effect on the immunological homeostasis, which is disturbed in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Decolorization of crude latex by activated charcoal, purification and physico-chemical characterization of religiosin, a milk-clotting serine protease from the latex of Ficus religiosa.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Moni; Sharma, Anurag; Jagannadham, M V

    2010-07-14

    The crude latex of Ficus religiosa is decolorized by activated charcoal. Decolorization follows the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. A serine protease, named religiosin, has been purified to homogeneity from the decolorized latex using anion exchange chromatography. Religiosin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 43.4 kDa by MALDI-TOF. Religiosin is an acidic protein with a pI value of 3.8 and acts optimally at pH 8.0-8.5 and temperature 50 degrees C. The proteolytic activity of religiosin is strongly inhibited by PMSF and chymostatin indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. The extinction coefficient (epsilon(1%)(280)) of religiosin is 29.47 M(-1) cm(-1)with 16 tryptophan, 26 tyrosine, and 11 cysteine residues per molecule. The enzyme shows broad substrate specificity against natural as well as synthetic substrates with an apparent K(m) of 0.066 mM and 6.25 mM using casein and Leu-pNA, respectively. MS/MS analysis confirms the novelty of the enzyme. Religiosin is highly stable against denaturants, metal ions, and detergents as well as over a wide range of pH and temperature. In addition, the enzyme exhibits milk-clotting as well as detergent activity.

  16. Microbial Contamination of Ice Machines Is Mediated by Activated Charcoal Filtration Systems in a City Hospital.

    PubMed

    Yorioka, Katsuhiro; Oie, Shigeharu; Hayashi, Koji; Kimoto, Hiroo; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Although microbial contamination of ice machines has been reported, no previous study has addressed microbial contamination of ice produced by machines equipped with activated charcoal (AC) filters in hospitals. The aim of this study was to provide clinical data for evaluating AC filters to prevent microbial contamination of ice. We compared microbial contamination in ice samples produced by machines with (n = 20) and without an AC filter (n = 40) in Shunan City Shinnanyo Municipal Hospital. All samples from the ice machine equipped with an AC filter contained 10-116 CFUs/g of glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. No microorganisms were detected in samples from ice machines without AC filters. After the AC filter was removed from the ice machine that tested positive for Gram-negative bacteria, the ice was resampled (n = 20). Analysis found no contaminants. Ice machines equipped with AC filters pose a serious risk factor for ice contamination. New filter-use guidelines and regulations on bacterial detection limits to prevent contamination of ice in healthcare facilities are necessary.

  17. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent.

  18. Effects of p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, arabinogalactan, and activated charcoal on microspore embryogenesis in kale.

    PubMed

    Niu, R Q; Zhang, Y; Tong, Y; Liu, Z Y; Wang, Y H; Feng, H

    2015-04-27

    To improve embryogenesis in microspore cultures of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), arabinogalactan (AG), p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), and activated charcoal (AC) were added to the medium using four varieties of kale. The results showed that the addition of AG (0.1-0.2 g/L), AC (0.1-0.2 g/L) or a combination of 6-BA (0.1-0.2 mg/L) and NAA (0.1-0.2 mg/L) promoted embryo-genesis. Adding 40 μM PCIB or a combination of 40 μM PCIB and 0.2 g/L AC to NLN-13 medium at pH 5.8 effectively enhanced embryogenesis. Treatment with a combination of 40 μM PCIB and 10 mg/L AG gave the highest rate of embryonic induction, especially in genotype "Y007," which showed a twelve-fold increase in yield.

  19. Release of soluble protein from peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) and its adsorption by activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Randall; Van, Trang; Kim, Ara; Helm, Ricki

    2011-01-12

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, Leguminosae) allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis. The potential use of activated charcoal (AC) to adsorb and reduce the bioavailability of peanut protein allergens for use in the moderation of hypersensitivity reactions was investigated. The rate and extent of protein release from peanut and the adsorption of the solubilized protein by AC was determined under physiological pH values and confirmed in vivo using a porcine animal model system. Peanut proteins were adsorbed with equal efficiency at pH 2 and 7 and are completely removed from solution by an AC/protein ratio of approximately 80:1. This suggests that AC can bind protein under gastric (pH 2) or intestinal (pH 7) conditions. The rapid adsorption of soluble peanut allergens and the continuous binding of allergens released from peanut particulate material suggest the potential efficacy of using AC for gastric decontamination and possible elimination of a biphasic allergic reaction.

  20. Adsorptive desulphurization study of liquid fuels using Tin (Sn) impregnated activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Sikandar; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Ahmad, Waqas

    2016-03-05

    Keeping in view the growing concern regarding desulphurization of petroleum products, the present study was under taken to investigate the efficiency of tin impregnated activated charcoal (Sn-AC) as a potential adsorbent for the desulphurization of model and real commercial straight run kerosene and diesel oil samples. The adsorbent Sn-AC was prepared by wet impregnation process in the laboratory and characterized by SEM, EDX and surface area analysis. Initial experiments were carried out using model oil, which was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT) in cyclohexane, the optimum conditions for desulfurization were found to be, 60°C temperature, 1h contact time and adsorbent dosage of 0.8g, under which about 99.4% of DBT removal was attained. Under optimized conditions the desulfurization of real oil i.e., kerosene and diesel oil was also investigated. Kinetic studies revealed that DBT adsorption followed pseudo second order kinetics and the data best fits in the Langmuir adsorption isotherm as compared to Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The adsorbent could be easily regenerated simply by washing with toluene for a multiple cycles and reused without losing its efficiency.

  1. Lead(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions by raw and activated charcoals of Melocanna baccifera Roxburgh (bamboo)--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lalhruaitluanga, H; Jayaram, K; Prasad, M N V; Kumar, K K

    2010-03-15

    Melocanna baccifera (Poaceae) is the most abundant and economically important non-timber product in state of Mizoram, India. The communities of the region use this potential resource in many ways, charcoal production is one of them. Bamboo charcoal has application in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Activated charcoal was prepared from M. baccifera charcoal by chemical pretreatment in order to make better use of this abundant biomass material. Batch experiments were conducted under varying range of pH (2.0-6.0), contact time (15-360 min) and metal ion concentrations (50-90 mg L(-1)). The optimum conditions for lead biosorption are almost same for M. baccifera raw charcoal (MBRC) and M. baccifera activated charcoal (MBAC)-pH 5.0, contact time 120 min, adsorption capacity q(max) 10.66 mg g(-1) and 53.76 mg g(-1), respectively. However, the biomass of MBAC was found to be more suitable than MBRC for the development of an efficient adsorbent for the removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions. FTIR analysis revealed that -OH, C-H bending, C=O stretching vibration and carbonyl functional groups were mainly responsible for Pb(II) biosorption. Thus, this study demonstrated that both the charcoal biomass could be used as adsorbents for the treatment of Pb(II) from aqueous solution.

  2. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of escitalopram in overdose and the effect of activated charcoal

    PubMed Central

    van Gorp, Freek; Duffull, Stephen; Hackett, L Peter; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PKPD) of escitalopram in overdose and its effect on QT prolongation, including the effectiveness of single dose activated charcoal (SDAC). METHODS The data set included 78 escitalopram overdose events (median dose, 140 mg [10–560 mg]). SDAC was administered 1.0 to 2.6 h after 12 overdoses (15%). A fully Bayesian analysis was undertaken in WinBUGS 1.4.3, first for a population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis followed by a PKPD analysis. The developed PKPD model was used to predict the probability of having an abnormal QT as a surrogate for torsade de pointes. RESULTS A one compartment model with first order input and first-order elimination described the PK data, including uncertainty in dose and a baseline concentration for patients taking escitalopram therapeutically. SDAC reduced the fraction absorbed by 31% and reduced the individual predicted area under the curve adjusted for dose (AUCi/dose). The absolute QT interval was related to the observed heart rate with an estimated individual heart rate correction factor (α = 0.35). The heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) was linearly dependent on predicted escitalopram concentration [slope = 87 ms/(mg l–1)], using a hypothetical effect-compartment (half-life of effect-delay, 1.0h). Administration of SDAC significantly reduced QT prolongation and was shown to reduce the risk of having an abnormal QT by approximately 35% for escitalopram doses above 200 mg. CONCLUSIONS There was a dose-related lengthening of the QT interval that lagged the increase in drug concentration. SDAC resulted in a moderate reduction in fraction of escitalopram absorbed and reduced the risk of the QT interval being abnormal. PMID:21883384

  3. The pharmacokinetics of sertraline in overdose and the effect of activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Joyce M; Duffull, Stephen B; Saiao, Ana S; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of sertraline in overdose and the effect of single dose activated charcoal (SDAC). Patients presenting to a toxicology unit with sertraline overdoses had demographic and clinical information recorded, and serial serum collected for measurement of sertraline concentrations. Monolix® version 4.2 was used to develop a population PK model of sertraline overdose and the effect of SDAC. Uncertainty in dose time was accounted for by shifting dose time using lag time with between subject variability (BSV). BSV on relative fraction absorbed was used to model uncertainty in dose. There were 77 timed sertraline concentrations measured in 28 patients with sertraline overdoses with a median dose of 1550 mg (250-5000 mg). SDAC was given to seven patients between 1.5 and 4 h post-overdose. A one compartment model with lag time of 1 h and first order input and elimination adequately described the data. Including BSV on both lag time and relative fraction absorbed improved the model. The population PK parameter estimates for absorption rate constant, volume of distribution and clearance were 0.895 h(-1) , 5340 l and 130 l h(-1) , respectively. The calculated half-life of sertraline following overdose was 28 h (IQR 19.4-30.6h). When given up to 4 h post-overdose, SDAC significantly increased the clearance of sertraline by a factor of 1.9, decreased the area under the curve and decreased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ). Sertraline had linear kinetics in overdose with parameter values similar to those in therapeutic use. SDAC is effective in increasing clearance when given 1.5 to 4 h post-overdose. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. The pharmacokinetics of sertraline in overdose and the effect of activated charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Joyce M; Duffull, Stephen B; Saiao, Ana S; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of sertraline in overdose and the effect of single dose activated charcoal (SDAC). Methods Patients presenting to a toxicology unit with sertraline overdoses had demographic and clinical information recorded, and serial serum collected for measurement of sertraline concentrations. Monolix® version 4.2 was used to develop a population PK model of sertraline overdose and the effect of SDAC. Uncertainty in dose time was accounted for by shifting dose time using lag time with between subject variability (BSV). BSV on relative fraction absorbed was used to model uncertainty in dose. Results There were 77 timed sertraline concentrations measured in 28 patients with sertraline overdoses with a median dose of 1550 mg (250–5000 mg). SDAC was given to seven patients between 1.5 and 4 h post-overdose. A one compartment model with lag time of 1 h and first order input and elimination adequately described the data. Including BSV on both lag time and relative fraction absorbed improved the model. The population PK parameter estimates for absorption rate constant, volume of distribution and clearance were 0.895 h−1, 5340 l and 130 l h−1, respectively. The calculated half-life of sertraline following overdose was 28 h (IQR 19.4−30.6h). When given up to 4 h post-overdose, SDAC significantly increased the clearance of sertraline by a factor of 1.9, decreased the area under the curve and decreased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax). Conclusions Sertraline had linear kinetics in overdose with parameter values similar to those in therapeutic use. SDAC is effective in increasing clearance when given 1.5 to 4 h post-overdose. PMID:25155462

  5. A theoretical model for {sup 222}Rn adsorption on activated charcoal canisters in humid air based on Polanyi`s potential theory

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpitta, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Water vapor interferes with adsorption {sup 222}Rn gas by passive activated charcoal devices used to estimate indoor air concentrations. The {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing charcoal`s ability to adsorb {sup 222}Rn. The Dubinin-Radushkevich equation, based on Polanyi`s potential theory, was modified to include two terms quantifying the effect of both water vapor and sampling time on the {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficient of passive charcoal devices. A single equation was derived that quantities the {sup 222}Rn adsorption coefficients at any temperature, humidity and exposure time using six experimentally determined physical constants that are unique for a particular passive charcoal device. The theoretical model was verified with published experimental data, and it showed a good correlation between theory and experiment. The model proved to be consistent with experimental data, provided that the amount of water vapor adsorbed by the charcoal device during sampling remains below a critical level, termed the breakpoint. 44 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. SirT1 activator represses the transcription of TNF-α in THP-1 cells of a sepsis model via deacetylation of H4K16

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Dong; Yu, Wei-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response resulting from the excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Sirtuin 1 (SirT1) actively deacetylates histone proteins, and facilitates chromatin compaction and gene silencing. In the present study, a cell model of sepsis, comprising lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-tolerant THP-1 cells, was used to investigate whether the SirT1 activator, resveratrol, repressed the transcription of TNF-α. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and real-time PCR were used to determine the transcription of the TNF-α promoter. The result revealed that the binding of SirT1 to the TNF-α promoter was decreased by LPS stimulation in normal cells. However, in LPS-tolerant cells, nuclear protein levels of SirT1 remained elevated, and LPS stimulation had no significant effect on the binding of SirT1 to the TNF-α promoter. However, the activity of SirT1 was increased and binding of ace-H4K16 to the TNF-α promoter was decreased with resveratrol treatment in the tolerant cells. It was concluded that resveratrol stimulated sirtuin activity in LPS-tolerant THP-1 cells, and repressed TNF-α transcription through the deacetylation of H4K16, without affecting the methylation of H3K9. Resveratrol offers potential as an infective candidate to alleviate inflammation in patients with sepsis. PMID:27878240

  7. [Clinical presentation, therapeutic approach and outcomes in acute poisoning treated with activated charcoal. Are there differences between men and women?].

    PubMed

    Amigó-Tadín, Montserrat; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Miró-Andreu, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether there are gender-based differences in the clinical presentation, therapeutic approaches and outcomes in acute poisoning treated with activated charcoal. A descriptive study conducted in the Emergency Department of the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona over the 7 years between the years 2001 and 2008. The study included poisoned patients who had received activated charcoal. The variables included, epidemiological data, clinical and toxicological presentation, therapeutic approach, time in emergency department and outcomes. A total of 575 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 37.8 (SD 14.8) years and 65.7% were females. No differences were observed between males and females with respect to age, number of drugs involved in the poisoning or the number of tablets ingested, but a higher prevalence of benzodiazepine poisoning was observed in females compared to males (69.8 vs. 61.2%; P<0.05). Alcohol combined with drug poisoning was more common in males than in females (32.4 vs.18.8%; P<0.001). Administration of activated charcoal in non-drug poisoning was also more common in males than in females (7.9 vs. 3.2%; P<0.05). There were no differences between genders as regards clinical presentation of the poisonings, delays in care, hours of emergency department stay, treatment or outcome. Benzodiazepine poisoning was more prevalent in females than in males. Non-drug poisonings and alcohol combined with drug ingestion were more common in males. The clinical outcomes of the poisonings, delays in care, therapeutic requirements and admissions were similar between genders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Use and knowledge of single dose activated charcoal: A survey of Australian doctors.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Gabriela; Chan, Betty; Chiew, Angela

    2016-10-01

    The use of single dose activated charcoal (SDAC) as a means of gastric decontamination is declining. The present study examined the potential use of SDAC in common overdose scenarios by Australian emergency doctors, compared with clinical toxicologists and current guidelines. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of emergency doctors and toxicologists on the use of SDAC. The survey covered demographic data, education and previous use of SDAC and six clinical scenarios. The scenarios selected included agents not bound to SDAC, sustained-release preparations and ingestions at varying time points. Statistical calculations were performed using Fisher's exact test. There were 397 emergency doctors and 20 toxicologists who responded to the survey. Seventy-one per cent (n = 280/397) of emergency doctors indicated they had received some education on decontamination. Eighty-three per cent (n = 331/397) had administered SDAC during their medical career, 29% (n = 117/397) within the past year. There was a significant difference in responses between emergency doctors and toxicologists in two scenarios; a toxic paracetamol ingestion presenting within 1 h (P = 0.009) and verapamil ingestion in a 3 year old boy (P = 0.001). Toxicologists were more likely to administer SDAC in these scenarios, 89% (n = 16/18) and 88% (n = 15/17), respectively, compared with 52% (n = 197/381) and 43% (n = 158/371) of emergency doctors. Our study showed that there is a significant variation in the use of SDAC between toxicologists and emergency doctors in some scenarios. Clinical toxicologists are more likely to administer SDAC in certain overdose settings. It is essential to provide education on the benefits versus actual risks of SDAC in acute poisoning so that doctors will understand when to administer SDAC or seek further advice. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  9. Adsorption saturation and chromatographic distortion effects on passive headspace sampling with activated charcoal in fire debris analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mary R; Fernandes, Denise; Bridge, Candice; Dorrien, Derek; Elliott, Stefanie; Sigman, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Distortion of the chromatographic profile obtained for hydrocarbons that have been sampled by adsorption onto activated charcoal is a well-known phenomenon. The work reported here helps to better define the causes of chromatographic profile distortion and offers a potential method to avoid chromatographic distortion in some cases through a subsampling technique. The recovery of hydrocarbons from an equimolar mixture was investigated to determine the influence of hydrocarbon concentration on the molar ratios of recovered components. In a one-quart container, hydrocarbon volumes as small as 24 microL (liquid) were sufficient to saturate the surface area available for adsorption on a 99.0 mm2 square of activated charcoal, resulting in significant distortions in the molar ratio and the chromatographic profile of the recovered hydrocarbons. Passive headspace sampling of a similarly small volume of unweathered gasoline spiked onto carpet padding resulted in a significant distortion of the chromatographic profile. The chromatographic profile of the recovered hydrocarbons closely resembled 75% weathered gasoline. Heating the container spiked with unweathered gasoline to evenly distribute the components and then removing a subsample of the carpet padding to a second container for passive headspace analysis greatly reduced the amount of distortion in the resulting chromatogram.

  10. How feasible is it to conform to the European guidelines on administration of activated charcoal within one hour of an overdose?

    PubMed Central

    Karim, A; Ivatts, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A

    2001-01-01

    Methods—63 patients who had taken potentially serious overdoses and required hospital admission from a London teaching hospital A&E department were identified over a six month period. The patients' case notes were analysed for age, sex, substances taken, and the timing of their management within the A&E department. Results—Median time of arrival after overdose was 136 minutes, and only 15 patients presented within an hour. Ten of these 15 patients were given activated charcoal, and only four of the 10 received it within the one hour limit. Sixteen patients received charcoal outside the time limit. Subanalysis of the individual cases given charcoal shows that triaging is fast (median five minutes), but a significant time delay occurs after this before charcoal is administered (median 21 minutes). Conclusions—These results are likely to be exaggerated in rural hospitals and demonstrate the difficulty of adhering to the recommended guidelines, unless activated charcoal can be safely administered to appropriate patients in the prehospital environment. PMID:11559618

  11. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific. PMID:22770504

  12. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex.

    PubMed

    Law, Chi-kin; Leung, Candi M C

    2012-07-06

    Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20-59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific.

  13. Effect of filtration by activated charcoal on the toxicological activity of cigarette mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, Charles L; Schramke, Heike; Diekmann, Joerg; Meisgen, Thomas J; Tewes, Franz J; Veltel, Detlef J; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick M; Rajendran, Narayanan; Muzzio, Miguel; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2009-07-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) filtration reportedly decreases the yields of smoke vapor phase constituents including some identified as human carcinogens and respiratory irritants. Non-clinical studies including chemical smoke analysis, in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity (bacterial and mammalian cells), and in vivo subchronic rat inhalation studies were carried out using machine smoking at ISO conditions with lit-end research cigarettes containing AC filters. The objective was to assess whether AC filter technology would alter the established toxicity profile of mainstream smoke by increasing or decreasing any known toxicological properties, or elicit new ones. The reduced yield of vapor phase irritants from AC filter cigarettes correlated with markedly decreased in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo morphology of the nose and lower respiratory tract. Increased yields of particulate phase constituents (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in AC filtered smoke were noted in comparison to controls in some studies. The in vitro bacterial mutagenicity of AC filtered smoke particulate preparations was occasionally increased over control levels. Laryngeal epithelial thickness was increased in some rats inhaling AC filtered smoke in comparison to controls, an effect perhaps related to higher inspiratory flow. When tested under more intense Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions, AC filter associated reductions in vapor phase constituent yields were smaller than those seen with ISO conditions, but the effect on in vitro cytotoxicity remained.

  14. Severe theophylline poisoning: charcoal haemoperfusion or haemodialysis?

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R. M.; Hearing, S.; Goldsmith, D. J.; Keevil, B.; Venning, M. C.; Ackrill, P.

    1995-01-01

    Theophylline poisoning with a blood level of 183 mg/l in a 38-year-old man was treated with activated charcoal by mouth, but despite this the blood level of theophylline rose and there was circulatory collapse with rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and hyperthermia. Treatment with charcoal haemoperfusion and simultaneous haemodialysis was given, followed by continuous arteriovenous haemodialysis (CAVHD). Mean extraction rates of theophylline were 26% during CAVHD, and 86% during combined dialysis and charcoal haemoperfusion. During combined treatment, the mean extraction rate of haemodialysis was 62%, compared with 48% for charcoal haemoperfusion. In summary, activated charcoal given by mouth may be unable to prevent a rise in blood levels and the development of complications after substantial theophylline overdose. If theophylline is to be removed from the blood, a combination of charcoal haemoperfusion and haemodialysis will give the best clearance, but haemodialysis alone may be effective. PMID:7784283

  15. Cell cycle stage-specific transcriptional activation of cyclins mediated by HAT2-dependent H4K10 acetylation of promoters in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Udita; Yadav, Aarti; Kumar, Devanand; Saha, Swati

    2017-09-01

    Chromatin modifications affect several processes. In investigating the Leishmania donovani histone acetyltransferase HAT2, using in vitro biochemical assays and HAT2-heterozygous genomic knockout we found the constitutively nuclear HAT2 acetylated histone H4K10 in vitro and in vivo. HAT2 was essential. HAT2-depleted cells displayed growth and cell cycle defects, and poor survival in host cells. Real time PCR and DNA microarray analyses, as well as rescue experiments, revealed that downregulation of cyclins CYC4 and CYC9 were responsible for S phase and G2/M defects of HAT2-depleted cells respectively. Leishmania genes are arranged in unidirectional clusters, and clustered genes are coordinately transcribed as long polycistronic units, typically from divergent strand switch regions (dSSRs) which initiate transcription bidirectionally on opposite strands. In investigating the mechanism by which CYC4 and CYC9 expression levels are reduced in HAT2-depleted cells without other genes in their polycistronic transcription units being coordinately downregulated, we found using reporter assays that CYC4 and CYC9 have their own specific promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with H4acetylK10 antibodies and real time PCR analyses of RNA suggested these gene-specific promoters were activated in cell cycle-dependent manner. Nuclear run-on analyses confirmed that CYC4 and CYC9 were transcriptionally activated from their own promoters at specific cell cycle stages. Thus, there are two tiers of gene regulation. Transcription of polycistronic units primarily initiates at dSSRs, and this most likely occurs constitutively. A subset of genes have their own promoters, at least some of which are activated in a cell-cycle dependent manner. This second tier of regulation is more sensitive to H4K10 acetylation levels, resulting in downregulation of expression in HAT2-depleted cells. This report presents the first data pointing to cell cycle-specific activation of promoters in

  16. Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods

    SciTech Connect

    Emrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

  17. [Biochemical effects of chronic peroral administration of carbon nanotubes and activated charcoal in drinking water in rats].

    PubMed

    Khripach, L V; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Mikhajlova, R I; Knyazeva, T D; Koganova, Z I; Zhelezniak, E V; Savostikova, O N; Alekseeva, A V; Kameneckaya, D V; Ryzhova, I N; Kruglova, E V; Revazova, T L

    2014-01-01

    Chronic 6-month experiment was carried out in rats, which received drinking water with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), diameter of 15-40 nm, length ≥ 2 mkm) or activated charcoal (AC, diameter of 10-100 mkm), blood samples of the animals were used for assessment of biochemical markers. Both coal compounds induced the appearance of signs of oxidative stress 2 weeks after the beginning of the experiment and alteration of serum markers of liver and renal damage, as well as changes of cortisol and protein serum concentrations later Thus, despite of known high (asbest-like) inhalation toxicity of carbon nanotubes in comparison with other carbon allotrops (fullerenes and black carbon), we have found similar effects of MWCNTs and carbon microparticles in orally treated rats.

  18. Development of a technique for the measurement of the radon exhalation rate using an activated charcoal collector.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Akasaka, Yoshinori; Koike, Yuya; Kosako, Toshiso

    2008-04-01

    A simple system to evaluate the 222Rn (radon) exhalation rate from soil has been improved. A sampling cuvette of 2.1 L is placed so that it covers the targeted ground soil, and radon emanating from the soil accumulates within the cuvette for 24 h. Its internal radon concentration is measured by the combination of an activated charcoal (PICO-RAD) and a liquid scintillation counting system. This study shows variations of the conversion factor (CF: unit Bq m(-3)/cpm) of PICO-RAD. The range of CF due to temperature (10-30 degrees C) was between -21% and +69%, and this due to humidity (30-90%) was between 0% and -15%. Humidity and radon concentration in the cuvette covering soil tended to saturate in a few hours. The above information was used to correct the CF for the evaluation. The improved system shows high reliability and can be easily applied to natural environments.

  19. Effect of a catalyst on the kinetics of reduction of celestite (SrSO{sub 4}) by active charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Sonawane, R.S.; Kale, B.B.; Apte, S.K.; Dongare, M.K.

    2000-02-01

    Reduction of celestite (SrSO{sub 4}) powder with particles of active charcoal has been studied extensively in the absence and presence of catalysts. The optimum temperature at the charging zone has been optimized to get a maximum water-soluble strontium sulfide value. The strontium value has been analyzed using a chemical method, which was verified by the instrumental method using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). The conversion-time data have been analyzed by using a modified volume-reaction (MVR) model, and the effect of the catalyst on kinetic parameters has been elucidated. It was found that potassium carbonate, potassium dichromate, sodium carbonate, and sodium dichromate catalysts were found to enhance the reaction rate quite satisfactorily in the reduction of the celestite (SrSO{sub 4}).

  20. Effects of pH and inorganic salts on the adsorption of phenol from aqueous systems on activated decolorizing charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Halhouli, K.A.; Darwish, N.A.; Al-Dhoon, N.M.

    1995-10-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of pH and three inorganic salts (KCl, KI, and NaCl) on the adsorption isotherms of phenol (from a dilute aqueous solution) on activated charcoal was conducted. Each salt was studied at three different concentrations, i.e., 0.1, 0.01, and 0.005 M. The effect of pH (in the pH range 3 to 11) in the presence of KI, KCl, and NaCl was also investigated. The concentration of phenol in the aqueous systems studied ranged from 10 to 200 ppm. The temperature effect was also studied, and the resulting experimental equilibrium isotherms at 30, 40, and 55{degrees}C are well represented by Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Paterson isotherms. The relevant parameters for these isotherms are presented.

  1. Somatic proembryo production from excised, wounded zygotic carrot embryos on hormone-free medium: evaluation of the effects of pH, ethylene and activated charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Wounded zygotic embryos of cultivated carrot produce somatic proembryos on hormone-free nutrient medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Continued maintenance of proembryos on this medium leads to a "pure" culture of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). Ethylene had no effect on this process. Also, somatic embryo production was not affected by growing cultures on activated charcoal-impregnated filter papers. However, somatic proembyros initiated on activated charcoal papers were not maintainable as PGSPs and developed into later embryo stages. Normally, medium pH dropped from 5.7 to 4 during each subculture period, but when using activated charcoal papers the pH endpoint was around 6 - 7 due to a leachable substance(s) within the filter papers. When powdered, activated charcoal was used in the medium as an adsorbent of products potentially released after wounding, pH dropped at the normal rate and to the expected levels; proembryos did not mature into later embryo stages and were maintainable exclusively as PGSPs. Low pH (approximately 4) is detrimental to proembyro production, but is essential to maintaining PGSPs on hormone-free nutrient medium, whereas a sustained pH > or = 5.7 allows continued development of PGSPs into later embryo stages.

  2. Somatic proembryo production from excised, wounded zygotic carrot embryos on hormone-free medium: evaluation of the effects of pH, ethylene and activated charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Wounded zygotic embryos of cultivated carrot produce somatic proembryos on hormone-free nutrient medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Continued maintenance of proembryos on this medium leads to a "pure" culture of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). Ethylene had no effect on this process. Also, somatic embryo production was not affected by growing cultures on activated charcoal-impregnated filter papers. However, somatic proembyros initiated on activated charcoal papers were not maintainable as PGSPs and developed into later embryo stages. Normally, medium pH dropped from 5.7 to 4 during each subculture period, but when using activated charcoal papers the pH endpoint was around 6 - 7 due to a leachable substance(s) within the filter papers. When powdered, activated charcoal was used in the medium as an adsorbent of products potentially released after wounding, pH dropped at the normal rate and to the expected levels; proembryos did not mature into later embryo stages and were maintainable exclusively as PGSPs. Low pH (approximately 4) is detrimental to proembyro production, but is essential to maintaining PGSPs on hormone-free nutrient medium, whereas a sustained pH > or = 5.7 allows continued development of PGSPs into later embryo stages.

  3. Clarifying the role of activated charcoal filters in preparing an anaesthetic workstation for malignant hyperthermia-susceptible patients.

    PubMed

    Bilmen, J G; Gillies, R I

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a life-threatening condition caused by exposure of susceptible individuals to volatile anaesthetics or suxamethonium. MH-susceptible individuals must avoid exposure to these drugs, so accurate and reproducible processes to remove residual anaesthetic agents from anaesthetic workstations are required. Activated charcoal filters (ACFs) have been used for this purpose. ACFs can reduce the time for preparing an anaesthetic workstation for MH patients. Currently, the only commercially available ACFs are the Vapor-Clean$trade; (Dynasthetics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) filters which retail at approximately AUD$130 per set of two, both of which are to be used in a single anaesthetic. Anaesthetic workstations were saturated with anaesthetic vapours and connected to a Miran ambient air analyser (SapphRe XL, ThermoScientific, Waltham, MA, USA) to measure vapour concentration. Various scenarios were tested in order to determine the most economical configurations of machine flushing, component change and activated charcoal filter use. We found that placement of filters in an unprepared, saturated circuit was insufficient to safely prepare an anaesthetic workstation. Following flushing of the anaesthetic workstation with high-flow oxygen for 90 seconds, a circuit and soda lime canister change and the placement of an ACF on the inspiratory limb, we were able to safely prepare a workstation in less than three minutes. A single filter on the inspiratory limb was able to maintain a clean circuit for 12 hours, with gas flows dropped from 10 lpm to 3 lpm after 90 minutes or removal of the filter after 90 minutes if high gas flows were maintained.

  4. Adsorption and desorption of noble gases on activated charcoal: II. sup 222 Rn studies in a monolayer and packed bed

    SciTech Connect

    Scarpitta, S.C.; Harley, N.H. )

    1990-10-01

    The adsorptive and desorptive characteristics of canisters containing a petroleum-based charcoal were investigated under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and Rn concentration. Charcoals exposed in a monolayer and packed bed during exposure intervals of 1-7 d demonstrate that Rn adsorption and desorption are dependent on bed depth and the amount of water adsorbed. Changes in the adsorptive and desorptive properties of the charcoal occurred near the break-point where the pores became occluded by water vapor that condenses in the entrance capillaries. Radon-222 adsorption is decreased by an order of magnitude as the amount of adsorbed water exceeds the break-point of the charcoal. The reduction in pore surface due to adsorbed water results in a marked increase in the rate of Rn loss from exposed canisters, accounting for reduced adsorption. The apparent desorption time-constant for a 2-cm bed of loose Witco 6 x 10 mesh charcoal containing 0.220-0.365 kg H{sub 2}O kg-1 is typically between 2-8 h. The apparent desorption time-constant for an equivalent packed bed containing a water vapor content of 0.026-0.060 kg H{sub 2}O kg-1, which is below the break-point of the charcoal, is about 15-30 h. Conventional charcoal canisters, if exposed in the fully-opened configuration, can achieve the break-point in less than 4 d at 70% humidity. The use of a diffusion barrier would allow for longer exposure times until the break-point of the charcoal is achieved.

  5. Gastrointestinal transit measurements in mice with 99mTc-DTPA-labeled activated charcoal using NanoSPECT-CT

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are commonly associated with chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Direct consequences are obstipation or diarrhea as opposite aspects of the irritable bowel syndrome, and more indirectly, alteration of appetite, feeling of fullness, flatulence, bloatedness, and eventually leading to altered absorption of nutrients. Moreover, GI retention and passage times have been recognized as important factors in determining the release site and hence the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. To facilitate the understanding of physiological and pathological processes involved, it is necessary to monitor the gut motility in animal models. Here, we describe a method for studying the GI transit time using technetium-labeled activated charcoal diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-Ch-DTPA) detected by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods Tc-DTPA was adsorbed onto activated charcoal and administered orally to trypan blue-tainted (n = 4) 129SvEv mice (50 to 80 MBq/animal, n = 11). The exact distribution and movement of radioactivity in the gastrointestinal tract was measured at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 22 h by SPECT-CT. In addition, in order to validate the imaging of GI transient time, loperamide (0.25 mg/animal, n = 3) was used to delay the GI transit. Results The transit time measured as the peak radioactivity occurring in the rectum was 6 to 7 h after gavaging of 99mTc-Ch-DTPA. After 1 h, the bolus had passed into the small intestine and entered the cecum and the colon. At 6 and 8 h, the cecum, the ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and the rectum showed significant labeling. Several pellets were stored in the rectum for defecation. After 22 h, little activity remained in the stomach and none was detected in the transverse colon or other GI locations. In contrast, 6 h after administration of loperamide, only the cecum and part of the transverse colon were labeled

  6. Influence of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin following intravenous and oral administration of a 400 mg single dose to healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Stass, H; Kubitza, D; Möller, J-G; Delesen, H

    2005-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the extent to which enterohepatic recycling circulation contributes to moxifloxacin bioavailability in healthy, males by administration of activated charcoal and to evaluate the efficacy of activated charcoal administration in decreasing systemic concentrations of moxifloxacin in the event of overdose. Methods Nine healthy males, mean age 34 years (range 23–45 years) participated in a single centre, randomized, nonplacebo-controlled, three way crossover study. The pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in plasma and urine were determined for up to 96 h following a 400 mg single dose randomly administered on three separate occasions with a minimum washout phase of 1 week. Treatment A was 400 mg moxifloxacin IV as a 1 h infusion, treatment B was 400 mg moxifloxacin IV as a 1 h infusion with oral activated charcoal (5 g directly before the start of the infusion, 5 g immediately after the end of the infusion, and 10 g at 2, 4 and 8 h after the start of the infusion), treatment C was 400 mg oral moxifloxacin with activated charcoal (10 g 15 min before and at 2, 4 and 8 h after drug administration). The subjects underwent a series of clinical and laboratory tests. Results Single 400 mg doses of moxifloxacin (PO and/or IV) were safe and well tolerated. The bioavailability of moxifloxacin was significantly decreased when given with charcoal (AUC = 35.5 (IV reference) vs 5.40 (PO) vs 28.5 (IV) mg l−1 h). Concurrently peak concentrations were lowered Cmax = 3.38 (IV reference) vs 0.62(PO) vs 2.97 (IV) mg l−1) by approximately 85% (P < 0.05) following oral administration and by 20% after IV treatment (P < 0.05). Bioavailability amounted to 15.4% (95% confidence interval 9.6, 25.0%) for treatment B while it was 80.4% (95% confidence interval 76.3.6, 84.6%) for treatment C. Terminal half-lives were not affected. The kinetics of urinary excretion corroborated these findings. Conclusions The results of this study show that moxifloxacin undergoes pronounced

  7. Detection of 5 CFU/g of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce using activated charcoal and real-time PCR without enrichment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Lim; Levin, Robert E

    2011-05-01

    A sample treatment method which separates Escherichia coli O157:H7 from lettuce and removes PCR inhibitors allowing 5 CFU/g of target cells to be detected using real-time PCR is described. Lettuce leaves inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 were rinsed with 0.025% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In this study, there were two major factors that strongly affected the recovery of E. coli O157:H7 during sample preparation, the amount of bentonite coated activated charcoal used to remove PCR inhibitors and the agitated contact time of the samples with the coated charcoal. When 3.0 g of activated carbon coated with bentonite were mixed with target cell suspensions (30 ml) derived from 50 g of lettuce, a high recovery of E. coli O157:H7 (93%) was obtained. Sample agitation with bentonite coated activated charcoal for 15 min resulted in 95% recovery of E. coli O157:H7. When a commercial DNA purification resin was used for detection of E. coli O157:H7 without the use of the bentonite treated charcoal, the real-time PCR (Rti-PCR) failed to detect 1 × 10(2) CFU/g. In contrast, with the use of use of bentonite coated activated charcoal and a commercial DNA purifying resin together, Rti-PCR was able to detect 5 CFU of E. coli O157:H7/g of lettuce which was equivalent to 2.8 CFU/Rti-PCR. Such a successful detection level was the result of the bentonite coated activated charcoal's ability to absorb the PCR inhibitors released from seeded lettuce during detachment. A standard curve was generated by plotting the Ct values against the log of CFU of target bacterial cells. A linear range of DNA amplification was exhibited from 5.0 × 10(0) to 1.0 × 10(4) CFU/g by using Rti-PCR. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficiency of membrane technology, activated charcoal, and a micelle-clay complex for removal of the acidic pharmaceutical mefenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Samer; Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Khamis, Mustafa; Nir, Shlomo; Bufo, Sabino A; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of sequential advanced membrane technology wastewater treatment plant towards removal of a widely used non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) mefenamic acid was investigated. The sequential system included activated sludge, ultrafiltration by hollow fibre membranes with 100 kDa cutoff, and spiral wound membranes with 20 kDa cutoff, activated carbon and a reverse osmosis (RO) unit. The performance of the integrated plant showed complete removal of mefenamic acid from spiked wastewater samples. The activated carbon column was the most effective component in removing mefenamic acid with a removal efficiency of 97.2%. Stability study of mefenamic acid in pure water and Al-Quds activated sludge revealed that the anti-inflammatory drug was resistant to degradation in both environments. Batch adsorption of mefenamic acid by activated charcoal and a composite micelle (otadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA)-clay (montmorillonite) was determined at 25.0°C. Langmuir isotherm was found to fit the data with Qmax of 90.9 mg g(-1) and 100.0 mg g(-1) for activated carbon and micelle-clay complex, respectively. Filtration experiment by micelle-clay columns mixed with sand in the mg L(-1) range revealed complete removal of the drug with much larger capacity than activated carbon column. The combined results demonstrated that an integration of a micelle-clay column in the plant system has a good potential to improve the removal efficiency of the plant towards NSAID drugs such as mefenamic acid.

  9. Soil organic matter dynamics and microbial activity in a cropland and soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omil, B.; Fonturbel, M. T.; Vega, J. A.; Balboa, M. A.; Merino, A.

    2012-04-01

    Wood ash is generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, and can be applied to soil to improve nutritional status and crop production. The application of mixed wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, may also improve the SOM content and quality. The charcoal contained in mixed wood ash is a pyrogenic organic material, a heterogeneous mixture of thermally altered polymers with aromatic domains. This structure may favour oxidation, facilitating further microbial attack and generation of new SOM compounds. In addition, accelerated C mineralization of this material may also be due to the priming effect of the rhizosphere, which may even enhance the decomposition of more recalcitrant SOM. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last few decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %). The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash, 16 Mg mixed wood ash and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark. The changes in SOM were monitored over two years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Both 13 C-CPMAS NMR spectra and DSC curves revealed that the SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds. However, both methods also revealed increases in other labile C compounds. Microbial biomass and soil respiration increased significantly as a result of these effects and possibly also due to a priming effect. The treatments also led to increases in the functional diversity indices. The amended soils

  10. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Li, Dongwei; Kexiang, Liu; Zhang, Yuewei

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the coupled system can further enhance the remediation process. In the optimization tests, the maximum removals of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were achieved under different experimental conditions. The voltage gradient and processing time were shown to have significant effects on the removal of Cu and Cd, whereas the addition of the oxalic acid had a more significant influence on the removal of Pb. Generally, the processing time is the most significant factor in changing the removal rates of HMs in the enhanced coupled system. In terms of the leaching toxicity, the specimen remediated by ENEKR + PRB showed the lowest leaching value for each HM in the S2 and S3 regions.

  11. Removal of residual colonic ciprofloxacin in the rat by activated charcoal entrapped within zinc-pectinate beads.

    PubMed

    Khoder, Mouhamad; Tsapis, Nicolas; Domergue-Dupont, Valérie; Gueutin, Claire; Fattal, Elias

    2010-10-09

    Residual antibiotics reaching the colon have many deleterious effects on the colonic microbiota including the selection of new antibiotic resistances. In order to avoid the selection of ciprofloxacin resistance, intestine or colon-targeted zinc-pectinate beads containing activated charcoal (AC) were designed for the inactivation of residual ciprofloxacin in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. Bead stability after oral administration was adjusted by tuning the concentration of zinc in the gelling bath and the number of washings. Intestine and colon-targeted beads were administered along with 50mg/kg of ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin was dosed in the plasma and the feces using HPLC. Ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics was not affected by the oral co-administration of beads. The co-administration of intestine-targeted beads led to a significant decrease of the residual fecal free ciprofloxacin with a pronounced dose effect. Our study suggests the rat model is not appropriate for the investigation of bacteria responsive colon-targeted beads probably due to the important anatomical and physiological differences between human and rat gastrointestinal tracts. The ability of AC loaded zinc-pectinate beads to selectively decrease the intestinal residual fraction of ciprofloxacin could provide a better protection of the intestinal microbiota and may prevent the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Comparative efficacy of Bentonite clay, activated charcoal and Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans in regulating the feed-to-tissue transfer of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Sheraz Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Hassan, Zahoor Ul; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Saqib, Muhammad; Khatoon, Aisha; Akhter, Masood

    2017-07-11

    Mycotoxins contamination in animal products and by-products is a persistent threat to the food and feed industry. The present study was designed to evaluate the comparative inhibitory effects of Bentonite (BN), activated charcoal (AC) and a newly discovered yeast, Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (TM), against feed-to-tissue transfer of mycotoxins. A dose dependent increase as determined by HPLC, in the residues of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was exhibited in the groups of birds fed AFB1 and OTA alone. The dietary addition of BN and AC to AFB1-contaminated diets resulted in a 41-87% and 16-72% decrease in AFB1 residues in liver of the birds, respectively. However, this decrease was non-significant with addition of TM as AFB1 binder. A partial to non-significant protection was observed by dietary BN and AC, against OTA residues, while a significant decrease in OTA residues (38-84%) was noted in TM-OTA co-fed groups. The order of efficacy in terms of lowering AFB1 residues in the liver was BN > AC > TM, while against OTA it was TM > BN > AC. The findings of present study suggest that, based upon the nature of target mycotoxins, a mixture of multi-mycotoxins binders/detoxifiers should be incorporated in the animal feeds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Li, Dongwei; Kexiang, Liu; Zhang, Yuewei

    2015-10-21

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the coupled system can further enhance the remediation process. In the optimization tests, the maximum removals of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were achieved under different experimental conditions. The voltage gradient and processing time were shown to have significant effects on the removal of Cu and Cd, whereas the addition of the oxalic acid had a more significant influence on the removal of Pb. Generally, the processing time is the most significant factor in changing the removal rates of HMs in the enhanced coupled system. In terms of the leaching toxicity, the specimen remediated by ENEKR + PRB showed the lowest leaching value for each HM in the S2 and S3 regions.

  14. A simple and rapid technique for radiochemical separation of iodine radionuclides from irradiated tellurium using an activated charcoal column.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Saha Das, Sujata

    2009-10-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for the separation of medically useful no-carrier-added (nca) iodine radionuclides from bulk amounts of irradiated tellurium dioxide (TeO(2)) target was developed. The beta(-) emitting (131)I radionuclide, produced by the decay of (131)Te through the (nat)Te(n, gamma)(131)Te nuclear reaction, was used for standardization of the radiochemical separation procedure. The radiochemical separation was performed by precipitation followed by column (activated charcoal) chromatography. Quantitative post-irradiation recovery of the TeO(2) target material (98-99%), in a form suitable for reuse in future irradiations, was achieved. The overall radiochemical yield for the complete separation of (131)I was 75-85% (n=8). The separated nca (131)I was of high, approximately 99%, radionuclidic and radiochemical purities and did not contain detectable amounts of the target material. This method can be adopted for the radiochemical separation of other different iodine radionuclides produced from tellurium matrices through cyclotron as well as reactor irradiation.

  15. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Li, Dongwei; Kexiang, Liu; Zhang, Yuewei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the coupled system can further enhance the remediation process. In the optimization tests, the maximum removals of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were achieved under different experimental conditions. The voltage gradient and processing time were shown to have significant effects on the removal of Cu and Cd, whereas the addition of the oxalic acid had a more significant influence on the removal of Pb. Generally, the processing time is the most significant factor in changing the removal rates of HMs in the enhanced coupled system. In terms of the leaching toxicity, the specimen remediated by ENEKR + PRB showed the lowest leaching value for each HM in the S2 and S3 regions. PMID:26486449

  16. [Evaluation of adsorption effect of activated charcoal on oral paraquat poisoning: an experimental study on large animal].

    PubMed

    Sun, Baisheng; He, Yuezhong; Pei, Yuhao; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Xigang; Yang, Zhan

    2017-03-01

    To study the adsorption effect of activated charcoal suspension on paraquat (PQ) in gastrointestinal tract of beagles exposed to PQ. Twenty healthy male beagles were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, with 6 beagles in each group. 20% PQ solution (a dose of 30 mg/kg) was prescribed through stomach for beagles in both groups. After exposure to PQ for 30 minutes, the beagles in experimental group were given activated charcoal suspension (1.0 g/kg of type I activated charcoal powder mixed with 100 mL of normal saline) by gavage, while the control group was only given equal volume of normal saline. After exposure to PQ for 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours, blood was collected from hepatic portal veins and peripheral veins to detect the PQ concentration change in the plasma. The toxicokinetics software DAS 2.1.1 was applied to analyze PQ concentration and compare the change in toxicokinetics parameters between the both groups. The change in vital signs including heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) was dynamically monitored 10 minutes before exposure, 4 hours and each day from the 1st to the 7th day after exposure. After exposure to PQ, the poison concentration in the plasma of hepatic portal veins and peripheral veins in the control group rose quickly and reached peak 4 hours later. It fell quickly at first, and fell slowly 8 hours later. But in the experimental group, the increase rate to the peak was significantly slow. Besides, PQ peak fell more obviously than that in the control group and it was about 50% of the control group (μg/L: 123.50±11.67 vs. 255.18±12.29 in blood from hepatic portal veins, 122.35±11.72 vs. 250.86±11.15 in blood from peripheral veins). After 8 hours it fell much more quickly than that of the control group. After exposure to PQ for 48 hours, PQ concentration in the plasma was still lower than that of the control group (μg/L: 0.53±0.18 vs. 15.98±5

  17. Determination of trace elements in medicinal activated charcoal using slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with low vaporization temperature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chou; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2015-01-01

    The determination of Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in medicinal activated charcoal by ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) was described. EDTA was used as the modifier to enhance the volatility of elements studied. The influences of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were studied. A relatively low vaporization temperature of 1000°C was used, which separated the analyte from the major matrix components that improved ion signals. The method has been applied to determine Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in an NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash reference material and three brands of medicinal activated charcoal capsules using isotope dilution and standard addition calibration methods. The concentrations that are in ng g(-1) levels were in good agreement between different calibration methods. The precision between sample replicates was better than 7% with USS-ETV-ICP-MS technique. The method detection limit estimated from standard addition curves was 0.4, 0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 0.04 and 0.9 ng g(-1) for Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb, respectively, in original medicinal activated charcoal.

  18. High resolution N2 adsorption isotherms at 77.4 K and 87.3 K by carbon blacks and activated carbon fibers--analysis of porous texture of activated carbon fibers by αs-method.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kazuyuki; Nakada, Yoko; Hakuman, Masako; Yoshida, Masayuki; Senda, Yousuke; Tateishi, Yuko; Sonoda, Joji; Naono, Hiromitsu

    2012-02-01

    The standard α(s)-data of N(2) at 87.3 K by graphitized and nongraphitized carbon black samples (GCB-I and NGCB) (cf.Figs. 3 and 4) have been determined on the basis of the high resolution adsorption isotherms of N(2) at 87.3 K, which were repeatedly measured in the pressure range of p/p(o)=5×10(-8)-0.4. The high resolution adsorption isotherms of N(2) by two kinds of activated carbon fibers (ACF-I and ACF-II) were measured from p/p(o)=10(-7) to p/p(o)=0.995 at 77.4 K and from p/p(o)=10(-7) to p/p(o)=0.4 at 87.3 K. Combination of the adsorption isotherms by ACF-I and ACF-II with the standard α(s)-data by NGCB at 77.4 K and 87.3 K make it possible to construct the high resolution α(s)-plots from very low filling (1%) to complete filling (100%). The high resolution α(s)-plots of N(2) at 77.4 K and 87.3 K were analyzed. On the basis of the analyzed result, the porous textures of ACF-I and ACF-II will be discussed.

  19. Activation of waste MDF sawdust charcoal and its reactive dye adsorption characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gan, Q; Allen, S J; Matthews, R

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of converting waste medium density fibreboard (MDF) sawdust into chars and activated carbon using chemical activation and thermal carbonisation processes. The MDF sawdust generated during the production of architectural mouldings was characterised and found to have unique properties in terms of fine particle size and high particle density. It also has a high content of urea formaldehyde resin used as a binder in the manufacturing of MDF board. Direct thermal carbonisation and chemical activation of the sawdust by metal impregnation and acid (phosphoric acid) treatment prior to pyrolysis treatment were carried out. The surface morphology of the raw dust, its chars and activated carbon were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adsorptive properties and total pore volume of the materials were also analysed using the BET nitrogen adsorption method. Liquid adsorption of a reactive dye (Levafix Brilliant red E-4BA) by the derived sawdust carbon was investigated in batch isothermal adsorption process and the results compared to adsorption on to a commercial activated carbon (Filtrasorb F400). The MDF sawdust carbon exhibited in general a very low adsorption capacity towards the reactive dye, and physical characterisation of the carbon revealed that the conventional chemical activation and thermal carbonisation process were ineffective in developing a microporous structure in the dust particles. The small size of the powdery dust, the high particle density, and the presence of the urea formaldehyde resin all contributed to the difficulty of developing a proper porous structure during the thermal and chemical activation process. Finally, activation of the dust material in a consolidated form (cylindrical pellet) only achieved very limited improvement in the dye adsorption capacity. This original study, reporting some unexpected outcomes, may serve as a stepping-stone for future investigations of recycle and

  20. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal.

    PubMed

    Peters, A K; Leonards, P E; Zhao, B; Bergman, A; Denison, M S; Van den Berg, M

    2006-09-10

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167 were purified on an active charcoal column to remove AhR agonists that could be present as impurities. Activation or inhibition of AhR-dependent gene expression by purified MO-PCBs was studied in stably transfected cell lines (H1G1.1c3 mouse, H4G1.1c2 rat hepatoma), containing an AhR-responsive (AhR-EGFP) reporter gene. In addition, EROD activity was used as marker for CYP1A1 activity in these cell lines. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156 induced AhR-EGFP expression in both rodent cell lines, with PCB-156 (10microM) being most effectively; inducing gene expression to approximately 27% of TCDD (mouse cells) and 62.5+/-3.4% (rat cells) of TCDD. This concurred with increased EROD activity in both cell lines to maxima of 20.5+/-1.5% and 68+/-3.2% of TCDD, respectively. No induction was observed for PCB-167. In the H1G1.1c3 mouse cells, PCB-105, -118 and -156 (10microM) significantly reduced TCDD-induced AhR-EGFP expression to 50.9+/-2.9%, 58.3+/-2.2% and 70.8+/-1.3% of TCDD. Reduced EROD activity was also observed, of 39.3+/-2.8%, 67+/-5% and 48.3+/-4% compared to TCDD. PCB-167 did not result in significant reduction. In rat cells, only PCB-156 resulted in significant decrease in TCDD-induced AhR-EGFP expression of 35%, suggesting species differences play a role. Our results suggest that purification of MO-PCBs is an essential step in determining accurate REP values, and could very likely lead to lower TEF values than those presently assigned by the WHO.

  1. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Peters, A.K.; Leonards, P.E.; Zhao, B.; Bergman, Å.; Denison, M.S.; Van den Berg, M.

    2011-01-01

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167 were purified on an active charcoal column to remove AhR agonists that could be present as impurities. Activation or inhibition of AhR-dependent gene expression by purified MO-PCBs was studied in stably transfected cell lines (H1G1.1c3 mouse, H4G1.1c2 rat hepatoma), containing an AhR-responsive (AhR-EGFP) reporter gene. In addition, EROD activity was used as marker for CYP1A1 activity in these cell lines. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156 induced AhR-EGFP expression in both rodent cell lines, with PCB-156 (10 μM) being most effectively; inducing gene expression to ~27% of TCDD (mouse cells) and 62.5 ± 3.4% (rat cells) of TCDD. This concurred with increased EROD activity in both cell lines to maxima of 20.5 ± 1.5% and 68 ± 3.2% of TCDD, respectively. No induction was observed for PCB-167. In the H1G1.1c3 mouse cells, PCB-105, -118 and -156 (10 μM) significantly reduced TCDD-induced AhR-EGFP expression to 50.9 ± 2.9%, 58.3 ± 2.2% and 70.8 ± 1.3% of TCDD. Reduced EROD activity was also observed, of 39.3 ± 2.8%, 67 ± 5% and 48.3 ± 4% compared to TCDD. PCB-167 did not result in significant reduction. In rat cells, only PCB-156 resulted in significant decrease in TCDD-induced AhR-EGFP expression of 35%, suggesting species differences play a role. Our results suggest that purification of MO-PCBs is an essential step in determining accurate REP values, and could very likely lead to lower TEF values than those presently assigned by the WHO. PMID:16750337

  2. Removal of organic matter from stabilized landfill leachate using Coagulation-Flocculation-Fenton coupled with activated charcoal adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Ahmad Razali; Hamid, Fauziah Shahul; Mohamad, Sharifah; Tay, Kheng Soo

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of stabilized landfill leachate (SLL) by conventional biological treatment is often inefficient due to the presence of bio-recalcitrant substances. In this study, the feasibility of coagulation-flocculation coupled with the Fenton reaction in the treatment of SLL was evaluated. The efficiency of the selected treatment methods was evaluated through total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SLL. With ferric chloride as the coagulant, coagulation-flocculation was found to achieve the highest TOC removal of 71% at pH 6. Then, the pretreated SLL was subjected to the Fenton reaction. Nearly 50% of TOC removal was achieved when the reaction was carried out at pH 3, H2O2:Fe(2+) ratio of 20:1, H2O2 dosage of 240 mM and 1 h of reaction time. By coupling the coagulation-flocculation with the Fenton reaction, the removal of TOC, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and turbidity of SLL were 85%, 84% and 100%, respectively. The ecotoxicity study performed using zebrafish revealed that 96 h LC50 for raw SLL was 1.40% (v/v). After coagulation-flocculation, the LC50 of the pretreated SLL was increased to 25.44%. However, after the Fenton reaction, the LC50 of the treated SLL was found to decrease to 10.96% due to the presence of H2O2 residue. In this study, H2O2 residue was removed using powdered activated charcoal. This method increased the LC50 of treated effluent to 34.48% and the removal of TOC and COD was further increased to 90%. This finding demonstrated that the combination of the selected treatment methods can be an efficient treatment method for SLL.

  3. An exploratory study; the therapeutic effects of premixed activated charcoal-sorbitol administration in patients poisoned with organophosphate pesticide.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeongmi; Chun, Byeongjo; Song, Kyounghwan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of activated charcoal (AC) mixed with cathartics for gastric decontamination in the management of organophosphate (OP) poisoning remain unknown due to limited clinical evidence. This exploratory study assessed the effectiveness of premixed AC-sorbitol as a treatment for OP poisoning. This retrospective observational case study included patients who either did not receive AC-sorbitol or received a single dose of AC-sorbitol within 24 h after OP ingestion. The patients were divided into three groups: no AC-sorbitol treatment, patients who received AC-sorbitol within 1 h of OP ingestion, and patients who received AC-sorbitol more than 1 h after OP ingestion. Mortality, the development of respiratory failure, and the duration of mechanical ventilation were used as outcome measurements for effectiveness, whereas aspiration pneumonia and electrolyte imbalance were employed as safety measurements. Among 262 patients with OP poisoning, 198 were included. Of these, 133 patients did not receive AC-sorbitol, whereas 14 and 51 patients received AC-sorbitol within 1 h or more than 1 h after ingestion, respectively. The time from ingestion to hospital arrival and time from ingestion to administration of atropine and pralidoxime differed among the groups, whereas other characteristics, including age, amount ingested, and type of ingested OP, were similar among the groups. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the administration of AC-sorbitol was not associated with outcome measures for effectiveness and did not significantly increase either aspiration pneumonia or electrolyte imbalances during hospitalization. The administration of AC-sorbitol exerted neither beneficial nor harmful effects on the outcomes of OP-poisoned patients regardless of the time from OP ingestion to administration, compared with those of patients who did not receive AC-sorbitol. However, this study enrolled a small number of patients who received AC-sorbitol; further qualified

  4. Activated charcoal significantly reduces the amount of colchicine released from Gloriosa superba in simulated gastric and intestinal media.

    PubMed

    Zawahir, Shukry; Gawarammana, Indika; Dargan, Paul I; Abdulghni, Mahfoudh; Dawson, Andrew H

    2017-09-01

    Poisoning with Gloriosa superba, a plant containing colchicine, is common in Sri Lanka. This study was to estimate release of colchicine from 5 g of different parts of Gloriosa superba in simulated gastric and intestinal media, and examine the binding efficacy of activated charcoal (AC) to colchicine within this model. A USP dissolution apparatus-II was used to prepare samples for analysis of colchicine using HPLC. Cumulative colchicine release from tuber in gastric media at 120 minutes was significantly higher (2883 μg/g) than in intestinal media (1015 μg/g) (p < .001). Mean ± SD cumulative colchicine concentration over 2 hours from tuber, leaves and trunk in gastric medium was 2883.15 ± 1295.63, 578.25 ± 366.26 and 345.60 ± 200.08 μg/g respectively and the release in intestinal media was 1014.75 ± 268.16, 347.40 ± 262.61 and 251.55 ± 285.72 μg/g respectively. Introduction of 50 g of AC into both media made colchicine undetectable (<0.1 μg/ml). The tuber released the highest quantity of colchicine. The colchicine release and elapse time to achieve saturated, equilibrium dissolution mainly depends on physicochemical properties of plant part. Significant in vitro binding of colchicine to AC suggests that AC has a role in decontamination of patients presenting to hospital after ingestion of Gloriosa superba.

  5. Gasification of blended animal manures to produce synthesis gas and activated charcoal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blended swine solids, chicken litter, and hardwood are renewable and expensive sources to produce combined heat and power (CHP), fuels and related chemicals. The therrmochemical pathway to gasify manure has the added advantage of destroying harmful pathogens and pharmaceutically active compounds dur...

  6. Spacelab Charcoal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slivon, L. E.; Hernon-Kenny, L. A.; Katona, V. R.; Dejarme, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods and results obtained from chemical analysis of 31 charcoal samples in five sets. Each set was obtained from a single scrubber used to filter ambient air on board a Spacelab mission. Analysis of the charcoal samples was conducted by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All samples were analyzed using identical methods. The method used for these analyses was able to detect compounds independent of their polarity or volatility. In addition to the charcoal samples, analyses of three Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) water samples were conducted specifically for trimethylamine.

  7. The Effect of Humidity on the Collection Efficiency for Oxygenated Compounds Absorbed on Activated Charcoal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    Adsorption Equilibria Using Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory. Environmental Science Technology 19(11) 1037-43 (1985). 22. Crittenden, J. C,, R. D...of OrganiQ Vapors. Environmental Science Technology . 16: 10-14, (1981). 25. Jonas, L. A., R. B. Sansone, T. S. Farris: Prediction of Activated Carbon...char. In 1822, Bussy increased the adsorptive power of blood char twenty to fifty times through a heating process which altumately led to the

  8. Synthesis of activated charcoal supported Bi-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under solar light irradiation for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandraboss, V. L.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, activated charcoal (AC) supported bismuth (Bi)-doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite was synthesized by precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of AC-Bi/TiO2 was investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The incorporation of Bi3+ into the TiO2 lattice shifts the absorbance of TiO2 to the visible region then the addition of high adsorption capacity activated charcoal to improve the efficiency of TiO2. AC-Bi/TiO2 is found to be more efficient than Bi/TiO2 and undoped TiO2 for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation. Surface morphology and bulk composition of the composite was obtained using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystal structure evolution and elemental composition were analyzed by combining Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra show that the absorption edge for the composite with Bi3+ has red shift as compared with that of undoped TiO2. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated a decrease in the direct band gap of AC-Bi/TiO2. BET surface area, pore radius and pore volume of the materials were calculated by applying the BET equation to the sorption isotherms. The production of hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) on the surface of solar light irradiated materialswere detected by photoluminescence technique using coumarin as a probe molecule. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of the AC-Bi/TiO2 was proposed for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation.

  9. VOST charcoal specification study

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    The volatile organic sampling train, SW-846 Method 0030, (VOST) is currently one of the leading methodology`s available for the sampling and analysis of volatile organic hazardous compounds from stationary sources at very low levels. The method does not identify a specific equivalent sorbent, nor the performance specifications which would allow determination of an equivalent. Lot 104 petroleum-based charcoal is no longer commercially available. Laboratories are presently using a wide range of substitutes with varying performance from batch to batch of charcoal. To provide performance specifications and identify a replacement for SKC Lot 104 charcoal, a VOST charcoal specification study was initiated. Performance, cost, ease of handling, and plentiful supply make Anasorb 747 a good choice for replacement of SKX Lot 104.

  10. Plant growth-promotion (PGP) activities and molecular characterization of rhizobacterial strains isolated from soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) plants against charcoal rot pathogen, Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, D K

    2011-11-01

    Charcoal rot disease, caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, leads to significant yield losses of soybean crops. One strategy to control charcoal rot is the use of antagonistic, root-colonizing bacteria. Rhizobacteria A(5)F and FPT(7)21 and Pseudomonas sp. strain GRP(3) were characterized for their plant growth-promotion activities against the pathogen. Rhizobacterium FPT(7)21 exhibited higher antagonistic activity against the pathogen on dual plate assay compared to strain A(5)F and GRP(3). FPT(7)21 and GRP(3) gave decreased disease intensity in terms of average number of pathogen-infested plants. Lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) activities were estimated in extracts of plants grown from seeds that were treated with rhizobacteria, and inoculated with spore suspension of M. phaseolina. The activity of these enzymes after challenge with the test pathogen increased. Strains FPT(7)21 and GRP(3) exhibited maximum increases in LOX, PAL and POD activity (U mg(-1) fresh leaf wt) compared to strain A(5)F.

  11. Inhibition of mammalian DNA polymerases and the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses by tyrosol from used activated charcoal waste generated during sake production.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Yoshiaki; Onodera, Takefumi; Kuriyama, Isoko; Sakamoto, Yuka; Nishikori, Shu; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio

    2014-08-06

    The components adsorbed onto activated charcoal following the fermentation process of the Japanese rice wine "sake" have been studied with the aim of identifying suitable applications for this industrial food waste product. The absorbed materials were effectively extracted from the charcoal, and inhibited the activity of several mammalian DNA polymerases (pols). Subsequent purification of the extract afforded tyrosol [4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenol] as the active component, which selectively inhibited the activity of 11 mammalian pols with IC50 values in the range of 34.3-46.1 μM. In contrast, this compound did not influence the activities of plant or prokaryotic pols or any of the other DNA metabolic enzymes tested. Tyrosol suppressed both anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects in vivo, including 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, and immunoglobulin E-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice. These results suggested that this byproduct formed during the sake-brewing process could be used as an anti-inflammatory and/or antiallergic agent.

  12. Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the Patent Bibliographic database with exemplary claims. ) Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, waste conversion, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, swimming pool filtration, tobacco smoke filters, kitchen ventilators, medical filtration treatment, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic File with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications are discussed, including drinking water purification, air and water pollution control, manufacture of industrial materials, materials recovery, waste treatment, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, cigarette filters, ventilation systems, medical filtration, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains a minimum of 125 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications are discussed, including drinking water purification, air and water pollution control, manufacture of industrial materials, materials recovery, waste treatment, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, cigarette filters, ventilation systems, medical filtration, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Activated-charcoal filters: water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. January 1970-July 1988 (citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated-charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic gases and pollutants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, swimming pool filtration, waste conversion, automobile fuel and exhaust systems, and footwear deodorizing. (Contains 129 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  16. A Novel Activated-Charcoal-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid for Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Outperforming Pt Electrode.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Choi, Yun Seon; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-03-23

    Highly conductive mesoporous carbon structures based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and activated charcoal (AC) were synthesized by an enzymatic dispersion method. The synthesized carbon configuration consists of synchronized structures of highly conductive MWCNT and porous activated charcoal morphology. The proposed carbon structure was used as counter electrode (CE) for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The AC-doped MWCNT hybrid showed much enhanced electrocatalytic activity (ECA) toward polymer gel electrolyte and revealed a charge transfer resistance (RCT) of 0.60 Ω, demonstrating a fast electron transport mechanism. The exceptional electrocatalytic activity and high conductivity of the AC-doped MWCNT hybrid CE are associated with its synchronized features of high surface area and electronic conductivity, which produces higher interfacial reaction with the quasi-solid electrolyte. Morphological studies confirm the forms of amorphous and conductive 3D carbon structure with high density of CNT colloid. The excessive oxygen surface groups and defect-rich structure can entrap an excessive volume of quasi-solid electrolyte and locate multiple sites for iodide/triiodide catalytic reaction. The resultant D719 DSSC composed of this novel hybrid CE fabricated with polymer gel electrolyte demonstrated an efficiency of 10.05% with a high fill factor (83%), outperforming the Pt electrode. Such facile synthesis of CE together with low cost and sustainability supports the proposed DSSCs' structure to stand out as an efficient next-generation photovoltaic device.

  17. paleofire: An R package to analyse sedimentary charcoal records from the Global Charcoal Database to reconstruct past biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Vannière, Boris; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Power, Mitchell J.; Brewer, Simon; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2014-11-01

    We describe a new R package, paleofire, for analysis and synthesis of charcoal time series, such as those contained in the Global Charcoal Database (GCD), that are used to reconstruct paleofire activity (past biomass burning). paleofire is an initiative of the Global Paleofire Working Group core team (www.gpwg.org), whose aim is to encourage the use of sedimentary charcoal series to develop regional-to-global syntheses of paleofire activity, and to enhance access to the GCD data by providing a common research framework. Currently, paleofire features are organized into three different parts related to (i) site selection and charcoal series extraction from the GCD; (ii) charcoal data transformation; and (iii) charcoal series compositing and synthesis. We provide a technical description of paleofire and describe some new implementations such as the circular block bootstrap procedure. We tested the software using GCDv3 data from eastern North America, and provide examples of interpreting results of regional and global syntheses.

  18. Determination of trace triclosan in environmental water by microporous bamboo-activated charcoal solid-phase extraction combined with HPLC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Yi, Chun-Liang; Zhao, Ru-Song; Wang, Xia; Jiang, Wen-Qiang; Wang, Xi-Kui

    2012-10-01

    A sensitive and efficient analytical method for triclosan (TCS) determination in water, which involves enrichment with bamboo-activated charcoal and detection with HPLC-ESI-MS, was developed. The influence of several operational parameters, including the eluant and its volume, the flow rate, the volume andacidity of the sample, and the amount of bamboo-activated charcoal, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linearity of the method was observed in the range of 0.02-20 μg/L, with correlation coefficients (r(2) ) >0.9990. The limit of detection was 0.002 μg/L based on the ratio of chromatographic signal to baseline noise (S/N = 3). The spiked recoveries of TCS in real water samples were achieved in the range of 97.6-112.5%. The proposed method was applied to analyze TCS in real aqueous samples. All the surface water samples collected in Xiaoqing River had detectable levels of TCS with concentrations of 42-197 ng/L.

  19. Charcoal filter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  20. Paracetamol biodegradation by activated sludge and photocatalysis and its removal by a micelle-clay complex, activated charcoal, and reverse osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik; Khamis, Mustafa; Abbadi, Jehad; Amro, Ahmad; Qurie, Mohannad; Ayyad, Ibrahim; Ayyash, Fatima; Hamarsheh, Omar; Yaqmour, Reem; Nir, Shlomo; Bufo, Sabino A; Scrano, Laura; Lerman, Sofia; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic studies on the stability of the pain killer paracetamol in Al-Quds activated sludge demonstrated that paracetamol underwent biodegradation within less than one month to furnish p-aminophenol in high yields. Characterizations of bacteria contained in Al-Quds sludge were accomplished. It was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the bacterium most responsible for the biodegradation of paracetamol to p-aminophenol and hydroquinone. Batch adsorptions of paracetamol and its biodegradation product (p-aminophenol) by activated charcoal and a composite micelle (octadecyltrimethylammonium)-clay (montmorillonite) were determined at 25°C. Adsorption was adequately described by a Langmuir isotherm, and indicated better efficiency of removal by the micelle-clay complex. The ability of bench top reverse osmosis (RO) plant as well as advanced membrane pilot plant to remove paracetamol was also studied at different water matrixes to test the effect of organic matter composition. The results showed that at least 90% rejection was obtained by both plants. In addition, removal of paracetamol from RO brine was investigated by using photocatalytic processes; optimal conditions were found to be acidic or basic pH, in which paracetamol degraded in less than 5 min. Toxicity studies indicated that the effluent and brine were not toxic except for using extra low energy membrane which displayed a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC-50) value of 80%.

  1. FOXP3 Orchestrates H4K16 Acetylation and H3K4 Tri-Methylation for Activation of Multiple Genes through Recruiting MOF and Causing Displacement of PLU-1

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Hiroto; Qin, Zhaohui S.; Liu, Runhua; Wang, Lizhong; Li, Weiquan; Li, Xiangzhi; Wu, Lipeng; Du, Zhanwen; Lyons, Robert; Liu, Chang-Gong; Liu, Xiuping; Dou, Yali; Zheng, Pan; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Both H4K16 acetylation and H3K4 tri-methylation are required for gene activation. However, it is still largely unclear how these modifications are orchestrated by transcriptional factors. Here we analyzed the mechanism of the transcriptional activation by FOXP3, an X-linked suppressor of autoimmune diseases and cancers. FOXP3 binds near transcriptional start sites of its target genes. By recruiting MOF and displacing histone H3K4 demethylase PLU-1, FOXP3 increases both H4K16 acetylation and H3K4 tri-methylation at the FOXP3-associated chromatins of multiple FOXP3-activated genes. RNAi-mediated silencing of MOF reduced both gene activation and tumor suppression by FOXP3, while both somatic mutations in clinical cancer samples and targeted mutation of FOXP3 in mouse prostate epithelial disrupted nuclear localization of MOF. Our data demonstrate a pull-push model in which a single transcription factor orchestrates two epigenetic alterations necessary for gene activation and provide a mechanism for somatic inactivation of the FOXP3 protein function in cancer cells. PMID:22152480

  2. Active targeting co-delivery system based on pH-sensitive methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)2K-poly(ε-caprolactone)4K-poly(glutamic acid)1K for enhanced cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Nuannuan; Huang, Chunzhi; Luan, Yuxia; Song, Aixin; Song, Yunmei; Garg, Sanjay

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, we successfully synthesized folate-modified pH-sensitive copolymer methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)2K-poly(ε-caprolactone)4K-poly(glutamic acid)1K (mPEG2K-PCL4K-PGA1K-FA), which could form the polymeric assembly in an aqueous solution, for co-delivering hydrophilic drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and verapamil hydrochloride (VER) (FA-poly(DOX+VER)). Since VER was an effective P-glycoprotein inhibitor, the combination of DOX and VER could reverse the multidrug resistance efficiently and enhance the therapeutic effect. Therefore, the inhibition ratios of MCF-7/ADR resistant cancer cell treated by FA-poly (DOX+VER) were almost more than 30% higher than those of FA-polyDOX after 48h and 72h. Furthermore, the conjugation of FA could lead the co-delivery systems actively targeting into the FA receptor over-expressing cancer cells in addition to the passive accumulation of the assembly in tumor tissues. Importantly, the prepared mPEG2K-PCL4K-PGA1K-FA assembly showed high pH-sensitive property, which made the drugs mostly released in tumor tissue (acid environment) than in physiological environment (neutral environment). In summary, the as-prepared co-delivery system FA-poly(DOX+VER) demonstrated a high efficiency in reversing the multidrug resistance and targeting FA receptor to improve the anticancer effect of DOX in MCF-7/ADR resistant cells.

  3. Le Carbone, a charcoal supplement, modulates DSS-induced acute colitis in mice through activation of AMPKα and downregulation of STAT3 and caspase 3 dependent apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Mst Rejina; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Rahman, Md Azizur; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Sreedhar, Remya; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Suzuki, Kenji; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2017-02-01

    Le Carbone (LC) is a charcoal supplement, which contains a large amount of dietary fibers. Several studies suggested that charcoal supplement may be beneficial for stomach disorders, diarrhea, gas and indigestion. But no studies address whether LC intake would suppress inflammation, cell proliferation or disease progression in colitis. In the present study, the effect of LC on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice and its possible mechanism of action were examined. A study was designed for 8days, using C57BL/6 female mice that were administered with 3% DSS in drinking water for 7days followed by another 1day consumption of normal water with or without treatment. LC suspension was administered daily for 7days via oral gavage using 5mg/mouse in treatment group and normal group was supplied with drinking water. LC suspension significantly attenuated the loss of body weight and shortening of colon length induced by DSS. The disease activity index, histopathologic changes were significantly reduced by LC treatment. The inflammatory mediators TNFα, IL-1β, p-STAT3 and p-NF-κB induced in the colon by DSS were markedly suppressed by LC. The increased activation of AMPKα in the colon was also detected in LC group. Furthermore, the apoptotic marker protein cleaved caspase 3 was down-regulated and anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl2 and Bcl-xL were significantly up-regulated by LC treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate the ability of LC to inhibit inflammation, apoptosis and give some evidence for its potential use as adjuvant treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Activated Charcoal Haemoperfusion in the Treatment of Experimental Amitriptyline Poisoning in Pigs - The Effect on Amitriptyline Plasma Concentration and Haemodynamic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Tejs; Petersen, Henrik; Malskaer, Cecilie M; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Dalhoff, Kim; Eriksen, Thomas; Belhage, Bo; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-05-01

    Coated activated charcoal haemoperfusion (CAC-HP) is a well-known treatment modality. Case reports have revealed conflicting results about the efficacy of CAC-HP in the treatment of amitriptyline (AT) poisoning, and no randomized clinical trials have been identified in the literature. This study aimed at quantifying the efficacy of modern CAC-HP as an adjunctive treatment of AT intoxication compared with standard care alone. Fourteen female Danish landrace pigs were randomized to either standard care or standard care plus 4 hr of CAC-HP. The pigs were anaesthetized, and vital parameters were continuously recorded. Amitriptyline infusion (7.5 mg/kg) was completed in 20 min. Thirty minutes after AT infusion, activated charcoal was instilled orally in both groups. In the intervention group, CAC-HP was initiated 60 min. after AT infusion. Blood and urine samples were collected as were vital parameters at specific time intervals. The protocol was approved by the Danish Experimental Animal Expectorate and complied with the NIH guide for care and use of laboratory animals. Data were managed according to the ARRIVE guidelines. No statistical significant differences between intervention and control groups were found when analysing for differences in AT levels in plasma at any time-point. Furthermore, significant differences between the control and intervention groups in regard to vital parameters could not be found either. In our animal model, the addition of CAC-HP did not improve the clearance of AT compared with standard treatment alone. We suggest that the effect of modern CAC-HP as a treatment modality in AT-poisoned human patients may be inadequate. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  5. Charcoal bed operation for optimal organic carbon removal

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, C.M.; Scala, F.R.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, evaporation, reverse osmosis or charcoal-demineralizer systems have been used to remove impurities in liquid radwaste processing systems. At Nine Mile point, we recently replaced our evaporators with charcoal-demineralizer systems to purify floor drain water. A comparison of the evaporator to the charcoal-demineralizer system has shown that the charcoal-demineralizer system is more effective in organic carbon removal. We also show the performance data of the Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC) vessel as a mechanical filter. Actual data showing that frequent backflushing and controlled flow rates through the GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. GAC vessel dramatically increases Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Recommendations are provided for operating the GAC vessel to ensure optimal performance.

  6. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Late Neolithic phytolith and charcoal records of human activities and vegetation change in Shijiahe culture, Tanjialing site, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao Hong; Li, Bing; Ma, Chun Mei; Zhu, Cheng; Wu, Li; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    There is significant archaeological evidence marking the collapse of the Shijiahe culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the late Neolithic Period. However, the causes for this cultural collapse remain unclear. Our sedimentary records from a 3.3 m long profile and 76 phytolith and charcoal samples from the Tanjialing archaeological sites provide records of interactions between an ancient culture and vegetation change. During the early Shijiahe culture (c, 4850–4400 cal BP), the climate was warm and humid. Fire was intensively used to clear the vegetation. In the mid-period of the Shijiahe culture (c, 4400–4200 cal BP), the climate became slightly dry-cold and this was accompanied by decreasing water, leading to settlements. From c, 4200 cal BP, severe drought eroded the economic foundation of rice-cultivation. These conditions forced people to abandon the Shijiahe ancient city to find water in other regions, leading to the collapse of the Shijiahe culture. PMID:28542219

  8. Late Neolithic phytolith and charcoal records of human activities and vegetation change in Shijiahe culture, Tanjialing site, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Hong; Li, Bing; Ma, Chun Mei; Zhu, Cheng; Wu, Li; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    There is significant archaeological evidence marking the collapse of the Shijiahe culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the late Neolithic Period. However, the causes for this cultural collapse remain unclear. Our sedimentary records from a 3.3 m long profile and 76 phytolith and charcoal samples from the Tanjialing archaeological sites provide records of interactions between an ancient culture and vegetation change. During the early Shijiahe culture (c, 4850-4400 cal BP), the climate was warm and humid. Fire was intensively used to clear the vegetation. In the mid-period of the Shijiahe culture (c, 4400-4200 cal BP), the climate became slightly dry-cold and this was accompanied by decreasing water, leading to settlements. From c, 4200 cal BP, severe drought eroded the economic foundation of rice-cultivation. These conditions forced people to abandon the Shijiahe ancient city to find water in other regions, leading to the collapse of the Shijiahe culture.

  9. RECYCLE AND REUSE OF CHARCOAL MADE FROM EXCESS SLUDGE IN MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tuyet Thi; Shafiquzzaman, Md.; Nakajima, Jun

    Charcoal produced from excess sludge appeared to be useful for removing SMP (soluble microbial products) in MBR (membrane bioreactors) and therefore for reducing membrane fouling. Batch experiments and long-term MBR experiments were performed by using charcoal made of actual excess sludge. In the batch experiments, SMP was removed effectively through charcoal addition. This approach proved especially effective for the removal of carbohydrate. Charcoal would serve as an absorbent and coagulant in SMP removal. High BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) removal efficiencies produced no negative effects on biological activity in the reactors during the long-term MBR experiments involving charcoal addition. The decrease of humic substances and COD (chemical oxygen demand) through charcoal addition suggested that this approach effectively enhanced the performance of activated sludge treatment. A charcoal addition of more than 0.1% in long-term MBR experiments effectively decreased the membrane fouling frequency. The use of charcoal therefore served to mitigate membrane fouling. A decrease in carbohydrate, corresponding to the increase in the mean fouling period, suggested that a charcoal addition of more than 0.1% effectively removed SMP, especially carbohydrate. A charcoal cyclic reuse system is also proposed. This system would involve charcoal production and charcoal addition to MBR.

  10. Impact of land-use and long-term (>150 years) charcoal accumulation on microbial activity, biomass and community structure in temperate soils (Belgium).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Dufey, Joseph E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, biochar has been increasingly investigated as a soil amendment for long-term soil carbon sequestration while improving soil fertility. On the short term, biochar application to soil generally increases soil respiration as well as microbial biomass and activity and affects significantly the microbial community structure. However, such effects are relatively short-term and tend to vanish over time. In our study, we investigated the long-term impact of charcoal accumulation and land-use on soil biota in temperate haplic Luvisols developed in the loess belt of Wallonia (Belgium). Charcoal-enriched soils were collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial (>150 years old) charcoal kilns in forest (4 sites) and cropland (5 sites). The topsoil of the adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils was sampled in a comparable way. Soils were characterized (pH, total, organic and inorganic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na, cation exchange capacity and available P) and natural soil organic matter (SOM) and black carbon (BC) contents were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. After rewetting at pF 2.5, soils were incubated during 140 days at 20 °C. At 70 days of incubation, 10 g of each soil were freeze dried in order to measure total microbial biomass and community structure by PLFA analysis. The PLFA dataset was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) while soil parameters were used as supplementary variables. For both agricultural and forest soils, the respiration rate is highly related to the total microbial biomass (R²=0.90). Both soil respiration and microbial biomass greatly depend on the SOM content, which indicates that the BC pool is relatively inert microbiologically. Land-use explains most of the variance in the PLFA dataset, largely governing the first principal component of the ACP. In forest soils, we observe a larger proportion of gram + bacteria, actinomycetes and an increased bacteria:fungi ratio compared to cropland, where gram

  11. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    PubMed

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning.

  12. Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P.

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

  13. Fire history reconstruction in grassland ecosystems: amount of charcoal reflects local area burned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Bérangère; Brewer, Simon C.; McConaghy, Scott; Mueller, Joshua; McLauchlan, Kendra K.

    2015-11-01

    Fire is one of the most prevalent disturbances in the Earth system, and its past characteristics can be reconstructed using charcoal particles preserved in depositional environments. Although researchers know that fires produce charcoal particles, interpretation of the quantity or composition of charcoal particles in terms of fire source remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a unique four-year dataset of charcoal deposited in traps from a native tallgrass prairie in mid-North America to test which environmental factors were linked to charcoal measurements on three spatial scales. We investigated small and large charcoal particles commonly used as a proxy of fire activity at different spatial scales, and charcoal morphotypes representing different types of fuel. We found that small (125-250 μm) and large (250 μm-1 mm) particles of charcoal are well-correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.88) and likely reflect the same spatial scale of fire activity in a system with both herbaceous and woody fuels. There was no significant relationship between charcoal pieces and fire parameters <500 m from the traps. Moreover, local area burned (<5 km distance radius from traps) explained the total charcoal amount, and regional burning (200 km radius distance from traps) explained the ratio of non arboreal to total charcoal (NA/T ratio). Charcoal variables, including total charcoal count and NA/T ratio, did not correlate with other fire parameters, vegetation cover, landscape, or climate variables. Thus, in long-term studies that involve fire history reconstructions, total charcoal particles, even of a small size (125-250 μm), could be an indicator of local area burned. Further studies may determine relationships among amount of charcoal recorded, fire intensity, vegetation cover, and climatic parameters.

  14. Recovery of datable charcoal beneath young lavas: lessons from Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockwood, J.P.; Lipman, P.W.

    1980-01-01

    Field studies in Hawaii aimed at providing a radiocarbon-based chronology of prehistoric eruptive activity have led to a good understanding of the processes that govern the formation and preservation of charcoal beneath basaltic lava flows. Charcoal formation is a rate-dependent process controlled primarily by temperature and duration of heating, as well as by moisture content, density, and size of original woody material. Charcoal will form wherever wood buried by lava is raised to sufficiently high temperatures, but owing to the availability of oxygen it is commonly burned to ash soon after formation. Wherever oxygen circulation is sufficiently restricted, charcoal will be preserved, but where atmospheric oxygen circulates freely, charcoal will only be preserved at a lower temperature, below that required for charcoal ignition or catalytic oxidation. These factors cause carbonized wood, especially that derived from living roots, to be commonly preserved beneath all parts of pahoehoe flows (where oxygen circulation is restricted), but only under margins of aa. Practical guidelines are given for the recovery of datable charcoal beneath pahoehoe and aa. Although based on Hawaiian basaltic flows, the guidelines should be applicable to other areas. -Authors

  15. Implementing microscopic charcoal in a global climate-aerosol model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgen, Anina; Lohmann, Ulrike; Brügger, Sandra; Adolf, Carole; Ickes, Luisa

    2017-04-01

    Information about past fire activity is crucial to validate fire models and to better understand their deficiencies. Several paleofire records exist, among them ice cores and sediments, which preserve fire tracers like levoglucosan, vanillic acid, or charcoal particles. In this work, we implement microscopic charcoal particles (maximum dimension 10-100 μm) into the global climate-aerosol model ECHAM6.3HAM2.3. Since we are not aware of any reliable estimates of microscopic charcoal emissions, we scaled black carbon emissions from GFAS to capture the charcoal fluxes from a calibration dataset. After that, model results were compared with a validation dataset. The coarse model resolution (T63L31; 1.9°x1.9°) impedes the model to capture local variability of charcoal fluxes. However, variability on the global scale is pronounced due to highly-variable fire emissions. In future, we plan to model charcoal fluxes in the past 1-2 centuries using fire emissions provided from fire models. Furthermore, we intend to compare modelled charcoal fluxes from prescribed fire emissions with those calculated by an interactive fire model.

  16. Electrosorption and photocatalytic one-stage combined process using a new type of nanosized TiO₂/activated charcoal plate electrode.

    PubMed

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil; Khataee, Alireza; Alipour, Esmaeel

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an activated charcoal (AC) plate was prepared by physical activation method. Its surface was coated with TiO₂ nanoparticles by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The average crystallite size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined approximately 28 nm. The nature of prepared electrode was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement before and after immobilization. The electrosorption and photocatalytic one-stage combined process was investigated in degradation of Lanasol Red 5B (LR5B), and the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte concentration, pH, voltage, and contact time was optimized and modeled using response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The dye concentration of 30 mg L(-1), Na₂SO₄ concentration of 4.38 g L(-1), pH of 4, voltage of 250 mV, and contact time of 120 min were determined as optimum conditions. Decolorization efficiency increased in combined process to 85.65% at optimum conditions compared to 66.03% in TiO₂/AC photocatalytic, 20.09% in TiO₂/AC electrosorption, and 1.91% in AC photocatalytic processes.

  17. Charcoal disrupts cell-cell communication through multiple mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Cheng, H. Y.; Liu, S.; Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.; Del Valle, I.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial cell-cell communication through the release and detection of small signaling molecules is employed by soil microbes to manage many biogeochemically relevant processes including production of biofilms, priming effects on native SOM, and management of methanogenesis and denitrification. Charcoal is a ubiquitous component of soil, entering soil either from natural fire or intentionally amended as biochar. Charcoal's presence in soil introduces spatial and temporal heterogeneity in nutrients and habitats for soil microbes and may trigger a range of biological effects not yet predictable, in part because it interferes with microbial cell-cell communication. We hypothesized that charcoal's alkalinity and large active surface area could affect the lifetime of some chemical compounds that microbes use for cell-cell signaling on times scales relevant to growth and communication. To test this idea, we examined the extent and rate of charcoal quenching of cell-cell communication caused by ten charcoals with a wide range of physicochemical properties. Our measurements focused on signaling mediated by an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, which is used by many gram-negative bacteria for quorum sensing. Our results from a bioassay and chemical sorption experiments revealed that charcoal can decrease the bioavailable level of AHL through a combination of sorption and pH-dependent hydrolysis of the lactone ring. We found that the kinetics of hydrolysis can exceed those of sorption. These findings implicate charcoal surface area and alkalinity as properties that could be tuned to regulate the degradation rates of cell-cell signaling molecules in soils. We then built a quantitative model that predicts the half-lives of different microbial signaling compounds in the presence of charcoals varying in pH and surface area. Our model results suggest that the effects of charcoal on pH-sensitive bacterial AHL signals will be fundamentally

  18. Cr(VI) removal from synthetic wastewater using coconut shell charcoal and commercial activated carbon modified with oxidizing agents and/or chitosan.

    PubMed

    Babel, Sandhya; Kurniawan, Tonni Agustiono

    2004-02-01

    In this study, the technical feasibility of coconut shell charcoal (CSC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC) for Cr(VI) removal is investigated in batch studies using synthetic electroplating wastewater. Both granular adsorbents are made up of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L.), an agricultural waste from local coconut industries. Surface modifications of CSC and CAC with chitosan and/or oxidizing agents, such as sulfuric acid and nitric acid, respectively, are also conducted to improve removal performance. The results of their Cr removal performances are statistically compared. It is evident that adsorbents chemically modified with an oxidizing agent demonstrate better Cr(VI) removal capabilities than as-received adsorbents in terms of adsorption rate. Both CSC and CAC, which have been oxidized with nitric acid, have higher Cr adsorption capacities (CSC: 10.88, CAC: 15.47 mg g(-1)) than those oxidized with sulfuric acid (CSC: 4.05, CAC: 8.94 mg g(-1)) and non-treated CSC coated with chitosan (CSCCC: 3.65 mg g(-1)), respectively, suggesting that surface modification of a carbon adsorbent with a strong oxidizing agent generates more adsorption sites on their solid surface for metal adsorption.

  19. Preparation of highly developed mesoporous activated carbon fiber from liquefied wood using wood charcoal as additive and its adsorption of methylene blue from solution.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Junyan; Yu, Lili; Liu, Xinyan

    2014-07-01

    Activated carbon fiber (C-WACF) with super high surface area and well-developed small mesopores were prepared by liquefied wood and uses wood charcoal (WC) as additive. The characterization and properties of C-WACF were investigated by XRD, XPS and N2 adsorption. Results showed the pore development was significant at temperatures >750°C, and reached a maximum BET surface area (2604.7 m(2)/g) and total pore volume (1.433 cm(3)/g) at 850°C, of which 86.8% was from the contribution of the small mesopores of 2-4 nm. It was also found that the mesopore volume and methylene blue adsorption of C-WACF were highly increased as the temperature increases from 750 to 850°C. Additionally, the reduction of graphitic layers, the obvious changes of functional groups and the more unstable carbons on the surface of C-WACF, which played important roles in the formation of mesopores, were also observed.

  20. Comparison of activated charcoal and sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin efficiency on reduction of amitriptyline oral absorption in rat as treatments for overdose and toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Bizhani, Mohammad; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Gholamzadeh, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Comparative in vivo studies were carried out to determine the adsorption characteristics of amitriptyline (AMT) on activated charcoal (AC) and sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS). AC has been long used as gastric decontamination agent for tricyclic antidepressants and SPS has showed to be highly effective on in-vitro drugs adsorption. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into six groups. Group I: control, group II: AMT 200 mg/kg as single dose orally, group III and IV: AC 1g/kg as single dose orally 5 and 30 min after AMT administration respectively, and group 5 and 6: SPS 1 g/kg as single dose orally 5 and 30 min after AMT administration, respectively. 60 min after oral administration of AMT (Tmax of AMT determined in rats), Cmax plasma levels were determined by a validated GC-Mass method. Results: The Cmax values for groups II to IV were determined as 1.1, 0.5, 0.6, 0.1 and 0.3 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: AC and SPS could significantly reduce Cmax of AMT when administrated either 5 or 30 min after AMT overdose (P<0.05). However, SPS showed to be more effective than AC in reducing Cmax when was administrated immediately (5 min) after AMT overdose. The results suggest a more efficient alternative to AC for AMT and probably other TCA overdoses. PMID:28133524

  1. Determination of the Impregnant Concentrations on ASC Type Charcoal. A Magnetic Susceptibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    chloropicrin etc., before and after adsorption on the diamagnetic charcoal prepared from coconut shell . However, the conclusions drawn from these... activation analysis for 55 elements was performed on two charcoal samples, namely the BPL and the CAL-1048, both supplied directly from Calgon Carbon ...of Neutron Activation Analysis on the BPL- Charcoal (Coal-Based, No Impregnants)................2424 TABLE B-2: Result of Neutron Activation Analysis

  2. The 4 K Stirling cryocooler demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, W. Dodd

    1992-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the results and conclusions from an SBIR program intended to demonstrate an innovative Stirling cycle cryocooler concept for efficiently lifting heat from 4 K. Refrigeration at 4 K, a temperature useful for superconductors and sensitive instruments, is beyond the reach of conventional regenerative thermodynamic cycles due to the rapid loss of regenerator matrix heat capacity at temperatures below about 20 K. To overcome this fundamental limit, the cryocooler developed under this program integrated three unique features: recuperative regeneration between the displacement gas flow streams of two independent Stirling cycles operating at a 180 degree phase angle, tailored distortion of the two expander volume waveforms from sinusoidal to perfectly match the instantaneous regenerator heat flux from the two cycles and thereby unload the regenerator, and metal diaphragm working volumes to promote near isothermal expansion and compression processes. Use of diaphragms also provides unlimited operating life potential and eliminates bearings and high precision running seals. A phase 1 proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated that counterflow regenerator operation between 77 K and 4 K increases regenerator effectiveness by minimizing metal temperature transient cycling. In phase 2, a detailed design package for a breadboard cryocooler was completed. Fabrication techniques were successfully developed for manufacturing high precision miniature parallel plate recuperators, and samples were produced and inspected. Process development for fabricating suitably flat diaphragms proved more difficult and expensive than anticipated, and construction of the cryocooler was suspended at a completion level of approximately 75%. Subsequent development efforts on other projects have successfully overcome diaphragm fabrication difficulties, and alternate funding is currently being sought for completion and demonstration testing of the 4 K Stirling cryocooler.

  3. Three newly discovered sub-Jupiter-mass planets: WASP-69b and WASP-84b transit active K dwarfs and WASP-70Ab transits the evolved primary of a G4+K3 binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Faedi, F.; Fumel, A.; Gillon, M.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Skillen, I.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-69b, WASP-70Ab and WASP-84b, each of which orbits a bright star (V ˜ 10). WASP-69b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.26 MJup, 1.06 RJup) in a 3.868-d period around an active, ˜1-Gyr, mid-K dwarf. ROSAT detected X-rays 60±27 arcsec from WASP-69. If the star is the source then the planet could be undergoing mass-loss at a rate of ˜1012 g s-1. This is one to two orders of magnitude higher than the evaporation rate estimated for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, both of which have exhibited anomalously large Lyman α absorption during transit. WASP-70Ab is a sub-Jupiter-mass planet (0.59 MJup, 1.16 RJup) in a 3.713-d orbit around the primary of a spatially resolved, 9-10-Gyr, G4+K3 binary, with a separation of 3.3 arcsec (≥800 au). WASP-84b is a sub-Jupiter-mass planet (0.69 MJup, 0.94 RJup) in an 8.523-d orbit around an active, ˜1-Gyr, early-K dwarf. Of the transiting planets discovered from the ground to date, WASP-84b has the third-longest period. For the active stars WASP-69 and WASP-84, we pre-whitened the radial velocities using a low-order harmonic series. We found that this reduced the residual scatter more than did the oft-used method of pre-whitening with a fit between residual radial velocity and bisector span. The system parameters were essentially unaffected by pre-whitening.

  4. Facile xenon capture and release at room temperature using a metal-organic framework: a comparison with activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Grate, Jay W.; Motkuri, Radha K.

    2012-01-11

    Two well known Metal organic frameworks (MOF-5, NiDOBDC) were synthesized and studied for facile xenon capture and separation. Our results indicate the NiDOBDC adsorbs significantly more xenon than MOF-5, releases it more readily than activated carbon, and is more selective for Xe over Kr than activated carbon.

  5. Essential Oils of Myrtaceae Species Growing Wild in Tunisia: Chemical Variability and Antifungal Activity Against Biscogniauxia mediterranea, the Causative Agent of Charcoal Canker.

    PubMed

    Yangui, Islem; Zouaoui Boutiti, Meriem; Boussaid, Mohamed; Messaoud, Chokri

    2017-07-01

    The chemical composition of five Eucalyptus species and five Myrtus communis L. populations was investigated using GC/MS and GC-FID. For Eucalyptus essential oils, 32 compounds, representing 88.56 - 96.83% of the total oil according to species, were identified. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-gurjunene, α-aromadendrene, and β-phellandrene. For Myrtle essential oils, 26 compounds, representing 93.13 - 98.91% of the total oil were identified. α-Pinene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, and myrtenyl acetate were found to be the major compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed chemical differentiation between Eucalyptus species and between Myrtle populations. Biscogniauxia mediterranea, the causative agent of charcoal canker, was identified according to its morphological and molecular characteristics. Essential oils of the investigated Eucalyptus species and Myrtle populations were tested for their antifungal capacity against this fungus. The antifungal activity varied according to the essential oil composition. Biscogniauxia mediterranea exhibited powerful resistance to some essential oils including them of Eucalyptus lehmannii and Eucalyptus sideroxylon but it was very sensitive to Eucalyptus camaldulensis oil (IC50  = 3.83 mg/ml) and M. communis oil from Zaghouan (IC50  = 1 mg/ml). This sensitivity was found to be correlated to some essential oil compounds such as p-cymene, carvacrol, cuminaldehyde, and linalool. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Findings Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%–0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. Conclusions The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds. PMID:23537338

  7. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds.

    PubMed

    Rajakani, Raja; Narnoliya, Lokesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Gupta, Vikrant

    2013-03-28

    High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it failed in case of Azadirachta indica and several other medicinal and aromatic plants. Here we report the use of adsorption property of activated charcoal (0.03%-0.1%) in RNA isolation procedures to remove complex secondary metabolites and polyphenolics to yield good quality RNA from Azadirachta indica. We tested and validated our modified RNA isolation method across 21 different plants including Andrographis paniculata, Aloe vera, Rosa damascena, Pelargonium graveolens, Phyllanthus amarus etc. from 13 other different families, many of which are considered as tough system for isolating RNA. The A260/280 ratio of the extracted RNA ranged between 1.8-2.0 and distinct 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA bands were observed in denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis. Analysis using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer revealed intact total RNA yield with very good RNA Integrity Number. The RNA isolated by our modified method was found to be of high quality and amenable for sensitive downstream molecular applications like subtractive library construction and RT-PCR. This modified RNA isolation procedure would aid and accelerate the biotechnological studies in complex medicinal and aromatic plants which are extremely rich in secondary metabolic compounds.

  8. Neither hollow-fibre membrane filters nor activated-charcoal filters remove fluoride from fluoridated tap water.

    PubMed

    Konno, Hideki; Yaegaki, Ken; Tanaka, Tomoko; Sato, Tsutomu; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Imai, Toshio; Murata, Takatoshi; Herai, Mayumi

    2008-06-01

    Previous reports of the reduction of fluoride concentrations in fluoridated water by domestic water treatment systems have indicated that further supplementation with fluoride is required. However, the absorption of fluoride by filters has not yet been directly identified. If these filters do not absorb fluoride, further fluoride supplementation may increase fluorosis. In this study, we determined whether filtering systems absorb fluoride ions. We directly measured the amounts of fluoride absorbed by activated-carbon filters or hollow-fibre membrane filters using pyrohydrolysis of the filters and flow-injection analysis, the sensitivity of which is more than 100 times greater than that of conventional methods. We made fluoride solutions of pure or tap water and determined changes in fluoride concentration as a result of filtering with a fluoride electrode. Hollow-fibre membrane filters did not affect fluoride concentrations in the fluoridated water, but activated-carbon filters removed some fluoride, especially from the pure-water solution. Filtering a pure-water solution with a fluoride concentration of 0.8 mg F/L reduced the fluoride concentration until 210 L of the solution had been filtered. However, filtering a tap-water solution of 0.8 mg F/L reduced the fluoride concentration only until 8 L had been filtered. The concentration of absorbed fluoride in the filter at 10 L of filtration was 4.7 mg/kg activated carbon. Further fluoride supplementation of fluoridated water should not be necessary, regardless of whether an activated-carbon or hollow-fibre membrane filter is installed on a domestic water treatment system.

  9. [Hygienic study of an activated fibrous charcoal material as a sorbing filtering element for drinking water afterpurification].

    PubMed

    Prokopov, V A; Mironets, N V; Gakal, R K; Maktaz, E D; Dugan, A M; Teteneva, I A; Tarabarova, S B; Martyshchenko, N V; Nadvornaia, Zh D

    1993-01-01

    The results of complex toxicological and hygienic study showed that the quality of pipe water filtered through the activated carbonic fibrous material (ACFM) "Dnepr-F" forming a part of absorptive filtering element improved markedly. The content of organic substances decreased drastically as well as that of nitrates and iron. Microbiological indices did not suffer appreciable changes and were within permissible limits. The water filtered through the absorptive element with ACFM had no adverse influence on the organisms of warm-blooded animals. Proceeding from foregoing one can conclude that the "Dnepr-F" may be recommended as a part of absorptive filtering element for the final refinement of drinking water.

  10. Targeting Plasmodium PI(4)K to eliminate malaria.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Case W; Lee, Marcus Cs; Lim, Chek Shik; Lim, Siau Hoi; Roland, Jason; Simon, Oliver; Yeung, Bryan Ks; Chatterjee, Arnab K; McCormack, Susan L; Manary, Micah J; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Dechering, Koen J; Kumar, Tr Santha; Henrich, Philipp P; Gagaring, Kerstin; Ibanez, Maureen; Kato, Nobutaka; Kuhen, Kelli L; Fischli, Christoph; Nagle, Advait; Rottmann, Matthias; Plouffe, David M; Bursulaya, Badry; Meister, Stephan; Rameh, Lucia; Trappe, Joerg; Haasen, Dorothea; Timmerman, Martijn; Sauerwein, Robert W; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Tully, David C; Kocken, Clemens Hm; Glynne, Richard J; Bodenreider, Christophe; Fidock, David A; Diagana, Thierry T; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2013-12-12

    Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI(4)K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a new antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium species at each stage of infection in the vertebrate host. Imidazopyrazines demonstrate potent preventive, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking activity in rodent malaria models, are active against blood-stage field isolates of the major human pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax, and inhibit liver-stage hypnozoites in the simian parasite P. cynomolgi. We show that imidazopyrazines exert their effect through inhibitory interaction with the ATP-binding pocket of PI(4)K, altering the intracellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Collectively, our data define PI(4)K as a key Plasmodium vulnerability, opening up new avenues of target-based discovery to identify drugs with an ideal activity profile for the prevention, treatment and elimination of malaria.

  11. Targeting Plasmodium PI(4)K to eliminate malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Case W.; Lee, Marcus C. S.; Lim, Chek Shik; Lim, Siau Hoi; Roland, Jason; Nagle, Advait; Simon, Oliver; Yeung, Bryan K. S.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; McCormack, Susan L.; Manary, Micah J.; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Dechering, Koen J.; Kumar, T. R. Santha; Henrich, Philipp P.; Gagaring, Kerstin; Ibanez, Maureen; Kato, Nobutaka; Kuhen, Kelli L.; Fischli, Christoph; Rottmann, Matthias; Plouffe, David M.; Bursulaya, Badry; Meister, Stephan; Rameh, Lucia; Trappe, Joerg; Haasen, Dorothea; Timmerman, Martijn; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Tully, David C.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Glynne, Richard J.; Bodenreider, Christophe; Fidock, David A.; Diagana, Thierry T.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2013-12-01

    Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI(4)K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a new antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium species at each stage of infection in the vertebrate host. Imidazopyrazines demonstrate potent preventive, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking activity in rodent malaria models, are active against blood-stage field isolates of the major human pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax, and inhibit liver-stage hypnozoites in the simian parasite P. cynomolgi. We show that imidazopyrazines exert their effect through inhibitory interaction with the ATP-binding pocket of PI(4)K, altering the intracellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Collectively, our data define PI(4)K as a key Plasmodium vulnerability, opening up new avenues of target-based discovery to identify drugs with an ideal activity profile for the prevention, treatment and elimination of malaria.

  12. Removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Shigehisa; Furutsuka, Takeshi

    1996-12-31

    In recent years, much attention has been devoted to environmental problems such as acid rain, photochemical smog and water pollution. In particular, NOx emissions from factories, auto mobiles, etc. in urban areas have become worse. To solve these problems on environmental pollution on a global scale, the use of activated charcoal to reduce air pollutants is increasing. However, the capability of wood-based charcoal materials is not yet fully known. The removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases such as N{sub 2} should be described. In this study, the adsorption of NO over wood charcoal or metal oxide-dispersed wood charcoal was investigated. In particular, carbonized wood powder of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) was used to study the effectivity of using these materials in adsorbing NOx. Since wood charcoal is chemically stable, metal oxide with the ability of photocatalysis was dispersed into wood charcoal to improve its adsorption and capability to use the light energy effectively.

  13. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Testing of the cryogenically cooled charcoal using fusion-compatible binders for pumping helium has shown promising results. The program demonstrated comparable or improved performance with these binders compared to the charcoal (type and size) using an epoxy binder.

  14. Charcoal industry grows in the Midwest

    Treesearch

    Joe F. Christopher; D. R. Bower; J. L. Smith; R. C. Thatcher; B. E. Carpenter

    1962-01-01

    The Midsouth manufactured 95, 000 tons of wood charcoal in 1961. This represents a gain of 28 percent over output in 1956, when the industry was last surveyed. The number of charcoal plants has increased from 29 to 90.

  15. Combustion characteristics of husk charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, H.; Kimura, T.; Nishiyama, Y.; Terui, T.

    1984-07-01

    This paper analyzes the factors involved in the extraordinary temperature generation in husk combustion furnaces, and investigates methods of protecting furnaces from heat damage. The combustion characteristics of fixed carbon in rice husks are examined in relation to the air flow rate using different husk charcoals. The theoretical flame temperature in a practical bed was determined from the combustion propagation velocity. It is determined that deviation from the regression line relating the combustion propagation velocity with the specific air flow rate showed a slight correlation with the bulk density of the charcoal samples used.

  16. Reconstructing grassland fire history using sedimentary charcoal: Considering count, size and shape.

    PubMed

    Leys, Berangere A; Commerford, Julie L; McLauchlan, Kendra K

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a key Earth system process, with 80% of annual fire activity taking place in grassland areas. However, past fire regimes in grassland systems have been difficult to quantify due to challenges in interpreting the charcoal signal in depositional environments. To improve reconstructions of grassland fire regimes, it is essential to assess two key traits: (1) charcoal count, and (2) charcoal shape. In this study, we quantified the number of charcoal pieces in 51 sediment samples of ponds in the Great Plains and tested its relevance as a proxy for the fire regime by examining 13 potential factors influencing charcoal count, including various fire regime components (e.g. the fire frequency, the area burned, and the fire season), vegetation cover and pollen assemblages, and climate variables. We also quantified the width to length (W:L) ratio of charcoal particles, to assess its utility as a proxy of fuel types in grassland environments by direct comparison with vegetation cover and pollen assemblages. Our first conclusion is that charcoal particles produced by grassland fires are smaller than those produced by forest fires. Thus, a mesh size of 120μm as used in forested environments is too large for grassland ecosystems. We recommend counting all charcoal particles over 60μm in grasslands and mixed grass-forest environments to increase the number of samples with useful data. Second, a W:L ratio of 0.5 or smaller appears to be an indicator for fuel types, when vegetation surrounding the site is before composed of at least 40% grassland vegetation. Third, the area burned within 1060m of the depositional environments explained both the count and the area of charcoal particles. Therefore, changes in charcoal count or charcoal area through time indicate a change in area burned. The fire regimes of grassland systems, including both human and climatic influences on fire behavior, can be characterized by long-term charcoal records.

  17. Reconstructing grassland fire history using sedimentary charcoal: Considering count, size and shape

    PubMed Central

    Leys, Berangere A.; Commerford, Julie L.; McLauchlan, Kendra K.

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a key Earth system process, with 80% of annual fire activity taking place in grassland areas. However, past fire regimes in grassland systems have been difficult to quantify due to challenges in interpreting the charcoal signal in depositional environments. To improve reconstructions of grassland fire regimes, it is essential to assess two key traits: (1) charcoal count, and (2) charcoal shape. In this study, we quantified the number of charcoal pieces in 51 sediment samples of ponds in the Great Plains and tested its relevance as a proxy for the fire regime by examining 13 potential factors influencing charcoal count, including various fire regime components (e.g. the fire frequency, the area burned, and the fire season), vegetation cover and pollen assemblages, and climate variables. We also quantified the width to length (W:L) ratio of charcoal particles, to assess its utility as a proxy of fuel types in grassland environments by direct comparison with vegetation cover and pollen assemblages. Our first conclusion is that charcoal particles produced by grassland fires are smaller than those produced by forest fires. Thus, a mesh size of 120μm as used in forested environments is too large for grassland ecosystems. We recommend counting all charcoal particles over 60μm in grasslands and mixed grass-forest environments to increase the number of samples with useful data. Second, a W:L ratio of 0.5 or smaller appears to be an indicator for fuel types, when vegetation surrounding the site is before composed of at least 40% grassland vegetation. Third, the area burned within 1060m of the depositional environments explained both the count and the area of charcoal particles. Therefore, changes in charcoal count or charcoal area through time indicate a change in area burned. The fire regimes of grassland systems, including both human and climatic influences on fire behavior, can be characterized by long-term charcoal records. PMID:28448597

  18. Effects of quebracho tannin extract (Schinopsis balansae Engl.) and activated charcoal on nitrogen balance, rumen microbial protein synthesis and faecal composition of growing Boer goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, Amal; Dickhoefer, Uta; Schlecht, Eva; Sundrum, Albert; Schiborra, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Under irrigated arid conditions, organic fertiliser rich in slowly decomposable nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) is needed for soil fertility maintenance. Feeding ruminants with condensed tannins will lower ruminal protein degradation, reduce urinary N excretion and might increase the faecal fraction of slowly decomposable N. Supplementation with activated charcoal (AC) might enrich manure with slowly degrading C. Therefore, we investigated the effects of feeding quebracho tannin extract (QTE) and AC on the N balance of goats, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (EMPS) and the composition of faeces. The feeding trial comprised three periods; in each period, 12 male Boer goats (28 ± 3.9 kg live weight) were assigned to six treatments: a Control diet (per kg diet 500 g grass hay and 500 g concentrate) and to further five treatments the Control diet was supplemented with QTE (20 g and 40 g/kg; diets QTE2 and QTE4, respectively), with AC (15 g and 30 g/kg, diets AC1.5 and AC3.0, respectively) and a mixture of QTE (20 g/kg) plus AC (15 g/kg) (diet QTEAC). In addition to the N balance, EMPS was calculated from daily excretions of purine derivatives, and the composition of faecal N was determined. There was no effect of QTE and AC supplementation on the intake of organic matter (OM), N and fibre, but apparent total tract digestibility of OM was reduced (p = 0.035). Feeding QTE induced a shift in N excretion from urine to faeces (p ≤ 0.001) without altering N retention. Total N excretion tended to decrease with QTE treatments (p = 0.053), but EMPS was not different between treatments. Faecal C excretion was higher in QTE and AC treatments (p = 0.001) compared with the Control, while the composition of faecal N differed only in concentration of undigested dietary N (p = 0.001). The results demonstrate that QTE can be included into diets of goats up to 40 g/kg, without affecting N utilisation, but simultaneously increasing the

  19. Charcoal production in the Mopane woodlands of Mozambique: what are the trade-offs with other ecosystem services?

    PubMed Central

    Baumert, Sophia; Vollmer, Frank; Grundy, Isla; Fisher, Janet; Fernando, Jone; Luz, Ana; Lisboa, Sá N.

    2016-01-01

    African woodlands form a major part of the tropical grassy biome and support the livelihoods of millions of rural and urban people. Charcoal production in particular is a major economic activity, but its impact on other ecosystem services is little studied. To address this, our study collected biophysical and social datasets, which were combined in ecological production functions, to assess ecosystem service provision and its change under different charcoal production scenarios in Gaza Province, southern Mozambique. We found that villages with longer histories of charcoal production had experienced declines in wood suitable for charcoal, firewood and construction, and tended to have lower perceived availabilities of these services. Scenarios of future charcoal impacts indicated that firewood and woody construction services were likely to trade-off with charcoal production. However, even under the most extreme charcoal scenario, these services were not completely lost. Other provisioning services, such as wild food, medicinal plants and grass, were largely unaffected by charcoal production. To reduce the future impacts of charcoal production, producers must avoid increased intensification of charcoal extraction by avoiding the expansion of species and sizes of trees used for charcoal production. This is a major challenge to land managers and policymakers in the area. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation’. PMID:27502380

  20. Map4k4 signaling nodes in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Virbasius, Joseph V.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Map4k4, originally identified in siRNA screens and characterized by tissue specific gene deletions, is emerging as a regulator of glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular health. Recent studies have shown that Map4k4 gene ablation or inhibition of its kinase activity attenuates hyperglycemia and plaque formation in mouse models of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, and suggest roles for Map4k4 in multiple signaling systems, including NFκB activation, small GTPase regulation, the Hippo cascade, and regulation of cell dynamics by FERM domain proteins. This new and promising area of inquiry raises key questions that need to be addressed in the future, such as defining which of the above or other effectors mediate Map4k4 control of metabolic and vascular functions, and identifying upstream activators of Map4k4. PMID:27160798

  1. Map4k4 suppresses Srebp-1 and adipocyte lipogenesis independent of JNK signaling[S

    PubMed Central

    Danai, Laura V.; Guilherme, Adilson; Guntur, Kalyani V.; Straubhaar, Juerg; Nicoloro, Sarah M.; Czech, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipogenesis is paradoxically impaired in human obesity, promoting ectopic triglyceride (TG) deposition, lipotoxicity, and insulin resistance. We previously identified mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4), a sterile 20 protein kinase reported to be upstream of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, as a novel negative regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes. Using full-genome microarray analysis we uncovered a novel role for Map4k4 as a suppressor of lipid synthesis. We further report here the surprising finding that Map4k4 suppresses adipocyte lipogenesis independently of JNK. Thus, while Map4k4 silencing in adipocytes enhances the expression of lipogenic enzymes, concomitant with increased conversion of 14C-glucose and 14C-acetate into TGs and fatty acids, JNK1 and JNK2 depletion causes the opposite effects. Furthermore, high expression of Map4k4 fails to activate endogenous JNK, while Map4k4 depletion does not attenuate JNK activation by tumor necrosis factor α. Map4k4 silencing in cultured adipocytes elevates both the total protein expression and cleavage of sterol-regulated element binding protein-1 (Srebp-1) in a rapamycin-sensitive manner, consistent with Map4k4 signaling via mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). We show Map4k4 depletion requires Srebp-1 upregulation to increase lipogenesis and further show that Map4k4 promotes AMP-protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and the phosphorylation of mTORC1 binding partner raptor (Ser792) to inhibit mTORC1. Our results indicate that Map4k4 inhibits adipose lipogenesis by suppression of Srebp-1 in an AMPK- and mTOR-dependent but JNK-independent mechanism. PMID:23924694

  2. Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Gaworski, Charles L

    2008-04-01

    A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas-vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a reduction in the cytotoxic action of the volatile smoke constituents. Results of a short-term clinical study show small reductions in the biomarkers of the gas-vapor phase smoke constituents in subjects smoking charcoal-filtered cigarettes, compared to subjects smoking non-charcoal filtered cigarettes. The very limited epidemiology data (a single study) fail to demonstrate a conclusive beneficial effect of charcoal-filtered cigarette products compared to non-charcoal filtered cigarette products. Review of the scientific literature is hindered due to the lack of documentation regarding the activity of the charcoal used in the filter, and the inconsistency in product designs used between the various different disciplines (chemistry, pre-clinical, clinical and epidemiology) that have conducted studies with charcoal filtered cigarettes. There do not appear to be any published studies using a combination of data from the different disciplines based on a consistently designed charcoal cigarette filter. Although the literature presently available would suggest that smoke filtration provided by current charcoal filter techniques alone may not be substantial enough to reduce smoking-related disease, the data are limited. Therefore, for the reduction of smoking-induced disease, it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion regarding the potential health benefits of using charcoal as a smoke filtration technology.

  3. Charcoal as a capture material for silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillicuddy, Eoin; Morrison, Liam; Cormican, Martin; Morris, Dearbháile

    2017-04-01

    Background: The reported antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has led to their incorporation into numerous consumer products including; textiles, domestic appliances, food containers, cosmetics, paints, medical and medicinal products. The AgNPs incorporated into these products can be released into the environment and aquatic system during their production, use and end of life disposal. In the aquatic environment, uncertainties surround the concentration, fate and effects of AgNPs. The aim of this project is to examine charcoal as a potential material for capture of silver nanoparticles from the aquatic environment. Material/methods: Activated charcoal is a commonly used filter material and was selected for this project to determine its suitability as a capture material for AgNPs in water samples. Activated charcoal (Norit® CA1 (Sigma-Aldrich)) was exposed to 100 ppb, 25 nm PVP coated AgNPs (nanoComposix) prepared in Milli-Q water. These solutions were exposed to unaltered charcoal granules for 20 hours after which the decrease of silver in the solution was measured using ICP-MS. In order to improve the removal, the surface area of the charcoal was increased firstly by grinding with a pestle and mortar and secondly by milling the charcoal. The milled charcoal was prepared using an agate ball mill running at 500 rpm for 5 minutes. The activated charcoal was then exposed to samples containing 10 ppb AgNPs. Results: In the initial tests, approximately 10% of the silver was removed from the water samples using the unaltered activated charcoal granules. Further experiments were carried out to compare the unaltered granules with the ground and milled charcoal. These tests were carried out similarly to the previous test however lower concentration of 10 ppb was used. After 20 hours of exposure the granule samples, as previously, showed approximately a 10% reduction in silver content with the ground charcoal giving approximately 30% reduction in silver

  4. The role of MAP4K3 in lifespan regulation of Caenorhabditiselegans

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Maruf H.; Hart, Matthew J.; Rea, Shane L.

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of MAP4K3 by RNAi leads to increased mean lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutation in the citron homology domain of MAP4K3 leads to increased mean lifespan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutation in the kinase domain of MAP4K3 has no significant effect on mean lifespan. -- Abstract: The TOR pathway is a kinase signaling pathway that regulates cellular growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors. TOR signaling is also important in lifespan regulation - when this pathway is inhibited, either naturally, by genetic mutation, or by pharmacological means, lifespan is extended. MAP4K3 is a Ser/Thr kinase that has recently been found to be involved in TOR activation. Unexpectedly, the effect of this protein is not mediated via Rheb, the more widely known TOR activation pathway. Given the role of TOR in growth and lifespan control, we looked at how inhibiting MAP4K3 in Caenorhabditiselegans affects lifespan. We used both feeding RNAi and genetic mutants to look at the effect of MAP4K3 deficiency. Our results show a small but significant increase in mean lifespan in MAP4K3 deficient worms. MAP4K3 thus represents a new target in the TOR pathway that can be targeted for pharmacological intervention to control lifespan.

  5. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products

    PubMed Central

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559

  6. Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air

    SciTech Connect

    Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

  7. Effects of carbonization parameters of Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal on capturing carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Hsing; Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000(°)C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000(°)C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorpt on capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.

  8. Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Jhan, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Hau-Hsein

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon. PMID:25225639

  9. Spatial variation in the charcoal pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlson, M.; Bjune, A. E.; Kasin, I.; Nordtug Wist, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mikael Ohlson, Anne E. Bjune, Isabella Kasin and Anveig Nordtug Wist It is well known that the soil charcoal pool varies significantly in size across different types of forest landscapes and regional climates. However, the level of variation on fine spatial scales within a given forest landscape remains poorly known. Here we use a geostatistical approach to describe the spatial structure and variability of the soil charcoal pool in a boreal forest landscape. Our study landscape is a watershed including a small lake and two distinct types of forests, viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests. The study is based on 200 forest soil cores and one lake sediment core in which the amount of macroscopic charcoal was measured. The amount of charcoal in the forest soil cores was very variable and ranged from 0 to 3600 g per square meter. The variation was profound also on fine spatial scales, i.e. 0.05 - 0.2 m, and geostatistical analysis revealed only weak spatial structuring on scales from 0.05 up to 200 m. Although weak spatial structuring, there were three significant and general patterns in the soil charcoal pool. First, there was a positive relationship between the amount of charcoal in the soil and the density of the contemporary forest. Second, there was more charcoal in the spruce forest than in the pine forest. Third, the amount of charcoal in the soil increased with increasing distance from the lake. The lake sediment core, which had a depth of 3 m and an age of 11 000 years, recorded a continuous influx of macroscopic charcoal throughout the Holocene. Interestingly, the amount of charcoal in the lake sediment exceeded that in the majority of the forest soil cores, indicating a relatively high degradation rate of charcoal in the forest soil and that charcoal is well preserved in the lake sediment.

  10. Charcoal kiln relicts - a favorable site for tree growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Allan; Hirsch, Florian; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    the German lowlands (e.g. Raab et al., 2015) and their potentially adverse effects on tree growth, these findings elucidate a yet unknown impact of past human activities on recent biological processes. Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G., and Zech, W., 2001: The 'Terra Preta' phenomenon: a model for sustainable agriculture in the humid tropics. Naturwissenschaften, 88, 37-41. Raab, A., Takla, M., Raab, T., Nicolay, A., Schneider, A., Rösler, H., Heußner, K.U., Bönisch, E., 2015. Pre-industrial charcoal production in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany): Detection and evaluation of a large charcoal-burning field by combining archaeological studies, GIS-based analyses of shaded-relief maps and dendrochronological age determination. Quaternary International, doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2014.09.041.

  11. Impact of histone H4K16 acetylation on the meiotic recombination checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Cavero, Santiago; Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; San-Segundo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    In meiotic cells, the pachytene checkpoint or meiotic recombination checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that monitors critical processes, such as recombination and chromosome synapsis, which are essential for proper distribution of chromosomes to the meiotic progeny. Failures in these processes lead to the formation of aneuploid gametes. Meiotic recombination occurs in the context of chromatin; in fact, the histone methyltransferase Dot1 and the histone deacetylase Sir2 are known regulators of the pachytene checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report here that Sas2-mediated acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac), one of the Sir2 targets, modulates meiotic checkpoint activity in response to synaptonemal complex defects. We show that, like sir2, the H4-K16Q mutation, mimicking constitutive acetylation of H4K16, eliminates the delay in meiotic cell cycle progression imposed by the checkpoint in the synapsis-defective zip1 mutant. We also demonstrate that, like in dot1, zip1-induced phosphorylation of the Hop1 checkpoint adaptor at threonine 318 and the ensuing Mek1 activation are impaired in H4-K16 mutants. However, in contrast to sir2 and dot1, the H4-K16R and H4-K16Q mutations have only a minor effect in checkpoint activation and localization of the nucleolar Pch2 checkpoint factor in ndt80-prophase-arrested cells. We also provide evidence for a cross-talk between Dot1-dependent H3K79 methylation and H4K16ac and show that Sir2 excludes H4K16ac from the rDNA region on meiotic chromosomes. Our results reveal that proper levels of H4K16ac orchestrate this meiotic quality control mechanism and that Sir2 impinges on additional targets to fully activate the checkpoint. PMID:28357333

  12. Charcoal/Nitrogen Adsorption Cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Refrigerator with no wear-related moving parts produces 0.5 W of cooling at 118 K. When fully developed, refrigerator needs no electrical power, and life expectancy of more than 10 yr, operates unattended to cool sensitive infrared detectors for long periods. Only moving parts in adsorption cryocooler are check valves. As charcoal is cooled in canister, gas pressure drops, allowing inlet check valve to open and admit more nitrogen. When canister is heated, pressure rises, closing inlet valve and eventually opening outlet valve.

  13. A neglected - but not negligible - carbon reservoir in the Italian forests: relic charcoal kiln soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrolonardo, Giovanni; Francioso, Ornella; Carrari, Elisa; Brogi, Cristiana; Venturi, Martina; Certini, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal production in forests is one of the oldest human activities in Italy and the other European countries. Here, 3 thousand years ago civilizations were already used to convert wood into charcoal for energetic and metallurgic purposes. The technique for making charcoal remained substantially unchanged in time: wood piles covered with turf were built in appositely shaped emplacements, and then left to pyrolyse for days under controlled semi-anoxic conditions. This widespread activity lasted until a few decades ago, leaving as legacy a plethora of repeatedly used emplacements where soil shows a thick top layer very rich in charcoal. Despite the high frequency of relic charcoal kilns in the European forests, no studies aimed at accurately determining their C stock to assess their relevance as C sink in forest environment. In this work, we studied some relic charcoal kilns in a mixed oak forest at Marsiliana, Tuscany, central Italy, where charcoal production was enduring and massive at least since the Middle age. At Marsiliana, density of charcoal kiln sites was not uniform within the forest areas as it mostly depends on biomass availability. According to the aspect, northerly or southerly, we recognized two main forest areas where kiln sites density ranged between 2 and 3 sites per hectare. In general, the C content in the kiln soils was eight times the one in the surrounding soil, with just one third of the C in the form of pyrogenic C. Hence, natural organic carbon content was significantly higher in the kiln soils. Such a finding confirms that charcoal gives a substantial contribution to the C stock in the kilns but does not fully account for their particular richness in C. It has been thus hypothesized that charcoal is somehow able to stimulate the accumulation of native soil organic matter. At Marsiliana forest, relic charcoal kilns soils cover less than 0.5% of total surface. Nonetheless, their contribution to the total C stock in the top soil (30 cm

  14. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  15. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  16. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1985-09-30

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos. The optimum combination is a 12 x 30 mesh coconut charcoal attached to a 0.48 cm thick copper substrate by a 0.015 cm thick silver phosphorus copper braze. A copper cement bond for attaching charcoal to a substrate was identified and tested. Helium pumping performance of this combination was comparable to that of the charcoal braze system. Environmental tests showed the charcoal's susceptibility to vacuum chamber contamination. Performance degradation followed exposure of ambient temperature charcoal to a vacuum for prolonged periods. Maintaining a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield between the charcoal and the source of contamination prevented this degradation. A combination of bake-out and LN shielding effected recovery of degraded performance.

  17. Epidemic of charcoal burning suicide in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Eiji; Hanley, Sharon J B; Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Saijo, Yasuaki

    2014-01-01

    The charcoal burning suicide epidemics in both Hong Kong and Taiwan have been well documented. However, little is known about the situation in Japan. To examine the impact of charcoal burning suicide on the overall and other method-specific suicide rates between 1998 and 2007 in Japan. Using data obtained from the Vital Statistics of Japan, negative binomial regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of the charcoal burning method. In males and females aged 15-24 and 25-44 years, the charcoal burning epidemic led to a substantial increase in overall suicides, without a decrease in other methods. In all other age groups, no such trend was observed. In young Japanese, the charcoal burning method may have appealed to individuals who might not have chosen other highly or relatively lethal methods, and consequently led to an increase in overall suicides.

  18. H4K44 Acetylation Facilitates Chromatin Accessibility during Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jialei; Donahue, Greg; Dorsey, Jean; Govin, Jérôme; Yuan, Zuofei; Garcia, Benjamin A; Shah, Parisha P; Berger, Shelley L

    2015-12-01

    Meiotic recombination hotspots are associated with histone post-translational modifications and open chromatin. However, it remains unclear how histone modifications and chromatin structure regulate meiotic recombination. Here, we identify acetylation of histone H4 at Lys44 (H4K44ac) occurring on the nucleosomal lateral surface. We show that H4K44 is acetylated at pre-meiosis and meiosis and displays genome-wide enrichment at recombination hotspots in meiosis. Acetylation at H4K44 is required for normal meiotic recombination, normal levels of double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiosis, and optimal sporulation. Non-modifiable H4K44R results in increased nucleosomal occupancy around DSB hotspots. Our results indicate that H4K44ac functions to facilitate chromatin accessibility favorable for normal DSB formation and meiotic recombination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHARCOAL ADSORPTION TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF RADON CONTENT IN NATURAL GAS.

    PubMed

    Paewpanchon, P; Chanyotha, S

    2017-09-18

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. What can we tell from particle morphology in Mesozoic charcoal assemblages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Alastair; Belcher, Claire

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary charcoal particles provide a valuable record of palaeofire activity on both human and geological timescales. Charcoal is both an unambiguous indicator of wildfire, and a means of preservation of plant material in an inert form; thus it records not only the occurrence and extent of wildfire, but also the species affected. While scanning electron microscopy can be usefully employed for precise taxonomic identification of charcoals, the time and cost associated with this limit the extent to which the technique is employed. Morphometric analysis of mesocharcoal particles (c. 125-1000 µm) potentially provides a simple method for obtaining useful information from optical microscopy images. Grass fires have been shown to produce mesocharcoal particles with a higher length-to-width ratio than woodland fuel sources. In Holocene archives, aspect ratio measurements are thus used to infer the broad taxonomic affinity of the burned vegetation. Since Mesozoic charcoals display similarly heterogeneous morphologies, we investigate whether there is a similar potential to infer the broad botanical affinities of Mesozoic charcoal assemblages from simple morphological metrics. We have used image analysis to analyse a range of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks representing different vegetation communities and depositional environments, and also to determine the range of charcoal particle morphologies which can be produced from different modern taxa under laboratory conditions. We find that modern charcoals break down into mesocharcoal particles of very variable aspect ratio, and this appears to be dependent on taxonomic position. Our analysis of fragmented laboratory-produced charcoals indicates that pteridophytes produce much more elongate particles than either conifers or non-grass angiosperms. We suggest that for charcoal assemblages that predate the evolution of grasses, high average aspect ratios may be a useful indicator of the burning of a pteridophyte

  1. Charcoal hemoperfusion in bupropion overdose.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Hızır Ufuk; Calışkan, Fatih; Duran, Latif; Katı, Celal; Güngörer, Bülent; Ocak, Metin

    2014-10-01

    Bupropion is a relatively new and popular medication for depression, with seizures as its major side effect. In the literature, there are insufficient data about hemodialysis following bupropion overdose. A 23-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency department with acute change in mental status and seizure after deliberate self-poisoning with approximately 25-30 tablets of bupropion hydrochloride. Her Glasgow coma scale score was 8/15. The patient underwent hemodialysis about 4 hours later. After 4 hours of extracorporeal treatment, she became conscious and was extubated. We present a case of full recovery after charcoal hemoperfusion following a bupropion overdose. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Suicide by burning barbecue charcoal in England.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Bennewith, Olive; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Cooper, Jayne; Kapur, Nav; Gunnell, David

    2013-06-01

    Suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning from burning barbecue charcoal has become a common method of suicide in several Asian countries over the last 15 years. The characteristics of people using this method in Western countries have received little attention. We reviewed the inquest reports of 12 English Coroners (11% of all Coroners) to identify charcoal-burning suicides. We compared socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of suicide by charcoal burning occurring between 2005 and 2007 with suicides using other methods in 2005. Eleven charcoal-burning suicides were identified; people using this method were younger (mean age 33.4 versus 44.8 years, P = 0.02), and more likely to be unemployed (70.0 versus 30.1%, P = 0.01) and unmarried (100 versus 70%, P = 0.04) than those using other methods. Charcoal-burning suicides had higher levels of contact with psychiatric services (80.0 versus 59.1%) and previous self-harm (63.6 versus 53.0%) compared with suicides using other methods, but these differences did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. Over one-third of people dying by charcoal burning obtained information on this method from the Internet. Working with media, including Internet Service Providers, and close monitoring of changes in the incidence of suicide using this method might help prevent an epidemic of charcoal-burning suicides such as that seen in some Asian countries.

  3. In Vitro Activities of Dermaseptins K4S4 and K4K20S4 against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrières, Lionel; Latour-Lambert, Patricia; Beloin, Christophe; Tangy, Frédéric; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Hani, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    The rising number of infections caused by biofilm formation and the difficulties associated with their treatment by conventional antimicrobial therapies have led to an intensive search for novel antibiofilm agents. Dermaseptins are antimicrobial peptides with a number of attractive properties that might offer alternative therapies against resistant microorganisms. In this study, we synthesized a set of dermaseptin-derived peptides and evaluated their activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial biofilm formation. All dermaseptin-derived peptides demonstrated concentration-dependent antibiofilm activities at microgram concentrations, and their activities were dependent on the nature of the peptides, with the highest levels of activity being exhibited by highly charged molecules. Fluorescent binding and confocal microscopy demonstrated that dermaseptin K4S4, a substituted derivative of the native molecule S4, significantly decreased the viability of planktonic and surface-attached bacteria and stopped biofilm formation under dynamic flow conditions. Cytotoxicity assays with HeLa cells showed that some of the tested peptides were less cytotoxic than current antibiotics. Overall, these findings indicate that dermaseptin derivatives might constitute new lead structures for the development of potent antibiofilm agents. PMID:24492362

  4. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  5. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  6. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  7. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405... Materials § 176.405 Stowage of charcoal. (a) Before stowing charcoal Division 4.2 (flammable solid), UN 1361... petroleum product, a vegetable or animal oil, nitrate, or sulfur, must be removed. (b) Charcoal packed...

  8. Development of an incineration system for pulverized spent charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Osamu; Shibata, Minoru; Kani, Koichi

    1995-12-31

    In the existing charcoal treatment system granular charcoal is charged directly into an incinerator together with other combustible waste. Since the combustion rate of the charcoal is slow in this system, there is a problem that unburnt charcoal accumulates at the bottom of the incinerator, when incineration is performed for an extended period of time. To prevent this difficulty, the combustion rate of the charcoal must be limited to 6 kg/h. To increase the incineration rate of charcoal, the authors have developed a system in which the charcoal is pulverized and incinerated while it is mixed with propane gas. The operational performance of this system was tested using an actual equipment.

  9. Soil charcoal to assess the impacts of past human disturbances on tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie; Biwolé, Achille B; Daïnou, Kasso; Gillet, Jean-François; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Drouet, Thomas; Hardy, Olivier J

    2014-01-01

    The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: "recent" charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while "ancient" charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other environmental

  10. Homology modeling and virtual screening for inhibitors of lipid kinase PI(4)K from Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ji-Xia; Gao, Na-Na; Cao, Xue-Song; Hu, Quan-An; Xie, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Malaria parasite strains have emerged to tolerate the therapeutic effects of the prophylactics and drugs presently available. Recent studies have shown that KAI715 and its analogs inhibit malaria parasites growth by binding to lipid kinase PI(4)K (phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase) of the parasites. Therefore, targeting PI(4)K may open up new avenues of target-based drug discovery to identify novel anti-malaria drugs. In this investigation, we describe the discovery of novel potent PfPI(4)K (PI(4)K from P. falciparum) inhibitors by employing a proposed hybrid virtual screening (VS) method, including pharmacophore model, drug-likeness prediction and molecular docking approach. 3D structure of PfPI(4)K has been established by homology modeling. Pharmacophore model HypoA of PfPI(4)K inhibitors has been developed based on the ligand complexed with its corresponding receptor. 174 compounds with good ADMET properties were carefully selected by a hybrid virtual screening method. Finally, the 174 hits were further validated by using a new pharmacophore model HypoB built based on the docking pose of BQR685, and 95 compounds passed the last filter. These compounds would be further evaluated by biological activity assays. The molecular interactions of the top two potential inhibitors with the active site residues are discussed in detail. These identified hits can be further used for designing the more potent inhibitors against PfPI(4)K by scaffold hopping, and deserve consideration for further structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies.

  11. Camphor intoxication treated by charcoal haemoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Mascie-Taylor, Brian H.; Widdop, Brian; Davison, Alexander M.

    1981-01-01

    A case of camphor intoxication in which lipid haemodialysis and charcoal haemoperfusion were applied is described. Although the patient recovered rapidly with no resultant sequelae, the analytical data indicated that extra-corporeal therapy was ineffective. PMID:7339609

  12. Mapping the Legacies of Historic Charcoal Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Raab, A.; Raab, T. A.; Takla, M.; Nicolay, A.; Rösler, H.

    2014-12-01

    The historic production of charcoal is an important component of the late Holocene fire history for many landscapes. Charcoal production can have numerous effects on ecosystems, e.g., through changes in forest area and structure, or through the effects of pyrolysis, charcoal and ash addition to soils. To assess such effects, it is necessary to understand the spatial extent and patterns of historic charcoal production, which has so far hardly been approached for the Northern European Lowlands. In the forefield of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (north of Cottbus, Germany), archaeological excavations have revealed one of the largest charcoal production fields described so far. For this area, we applied and evaluated different methods for mapping the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln remains. We present methods and results of our work in this exceptionally well-described charcoal production field and of additional studies on kiln site distribution in regions of the Northern European Lowlands. The large-scale excavations in the mine forefield provide exact information on kiln site geometry. Using airborne laser scanning elevation models, the mapping of kiln sites could be extended to areas beyond the mine forefield. To detect kiln sites for larger areas, an automated GIS based mapping routine, based on a combination of morphometric parameters, was developed and evaluated. By manual digitization from Shaded Relief Maps, more than 5000 kiln sites in an area of 32 km2 were detected in the Jänschwalde mine forefield, with 1355 kiln sites that are wider than 12 m. These relatively large kiln sites could be mapped with detection rates that are close to those of manual digitization using the automated routine. First results for different study areas indicate that charcoal production is a so far underestimated component of the land use history in many parts of the Northern European Lowlands.

  13. Charcoal Performance under Simulated Accident Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    demonstrated how TEDA impregnations alone will behave. 30 6. REFERENCES (1) "Effects of Weathering on Impregnated Charcoal Perform- ance," Victor R. Deitz, NUREG ...CR-2112, NRL Memo Report 4516 (1981). (2) "Effects of Weathering on Impregnated Charcoal Perform- ance," Victor R. Deitz, NRL Memo Report 4006, NUREG ...Characteristics. 4 i i 42 BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET NUREG /CR/2550 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND MAILING ADDRESS finclud ZIP Cod.) DATE REPORT ISSUED Naval

  14. Quaternary Charcoal Records from Western North and South America: Linkages to Fire, Climate, and Vegetation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, C.; Marlon, J.; Bartlein, P.

    2006-12-01

    Particulate charcoal preserved in lake sediments has become an important tool for examining the long-term role of fire as an ecosystem process. The record of microscopic charcoal (100 micron diameter or less) offers information on regional burning patterns, whereas macroscopic particles travel less far and are used to infer local fire history. Reconstruction of past fire activity is based on observations of modern charcoal production, transport, and deposition; modeling; and information on current fire regimes. Approaches and statistics used to interpret charcoal records generally focus on (1) quantifying charcoal content in contiguous samples, (2) determining an appropriate age model, (3) converting raw data to charcoal accumulation rates, and (4) extracting fire signal from noise. Detection of signal in charcoal time series is based on knowledge of recent fires provided by dendrochronological and documentary data. Additional paleofire information is obtained from stratigraphic changes in charcoal composition, pollen assemblages adapted to fire, and other paleoenvironmental proxy. Fire-history studies from western North and South America provide examples of Holocene fire-history reconstructions at spatial scales ranging from watershed to regional. Individual sites show dramatic shifts from crown to surface fire regimes associated with major changes in vegetation. Networks of records reveal regional variations in fire activity and vegetation that are attributed to insolation- driven shifts in atmospheric circulation and changes in short-term climate variability. A global database of paleofire records under development offers an opportunity to consider continental-scale fire patterns and their broad consequences for vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, and atmospheric chemistry.

  15. Fluidized bed charcoal particle production system

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.

    1985-04-09

    A fluidized bed charcoal particle production system, including apparatus and method, wherein pieces of combustible waste, such as sawdust, fragments of wood, etc., are continuously disposed within a fluidized bed of a pyrolytic vessel. Preferably, the fluidized bed is caused to reach operating temperatures by use of an external pre-heater. The fluidized bed is situated above an air delivery system at the bottom of the vessel, which supports pyrolysis within the fluidized bed. Charcoal particles are thus formed within the bed from the combustible waste and are lifted from the bed and placed in suspension above the bed by forced air passing upwardly through the bed. The suspended charcoal particles and the gaseous medium in which the particles are suspended are displaced from the vessel into a cyclone mechanism where the charcoal particles are separated. The separated charcoal particles are quenched with water to terminate all further charcoal oxidation. The remaining off-gas is burned and, preferably, the heat therefrom used to generate steam, kiln dry lumber, etc. Preferably, the bed material is continuously recirculated and purified by removing tramp material.

  16. Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, Tim; Brovkin, Victor; Kloster, Silvia; Marlon, Jennifer; Power, Mitch

    2014-05-01

    An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes. Brücher, T., Brovkin, V., Kloster, S., Marlon, J. R., and Power, M. J.: Comparing modelled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene, Clim. Past Discuss., 9, 6429-6458, doi:10.5194/cpd-9-6429-2013, 2013.

  17. Inducible Deletion of Protein Kinase Map4k4 in Obese Mice Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Liver and Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Danai, Laura V; Flach, Rachel J Roth; Virbasius, Joseph V; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Czech, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    Studies in vitro suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) attenuates insulin signaling, but confirmation in vivo is lacking since Map4k4 knockout is lethal during embryogenesis. We thus generated mice with floxed Map4k4 alleles and a tamoxifen-inducible Cre/ERT2 recombinase under the control of the ubiquitin C promoter to induce whole-body Map4k4 deletion after these animals reached maturity. Tamoxifen administration to these mice induced Map4k4 deletion in all tissues examined, causing decreased fasting blood glucose concentrations and enhanced insulin signaling to AKT in adipose tissue and liver but not in skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, however, mice generated with a conditional Map4k4 deletion in adiponectin-positive adipocytes or in albumin-positive hepatocytes displayed no detectable metabolic phenotypes. Instead, mice with Map4k4 deleted in Myf5-positive tissues, including all skeletal muscles tested, were protected from obesity-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Remarkably, these mice also showed increased insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue but not skeletal muscle, similar to the metabolic phenotypes observed in inducible whole-body knockout mice. Taken together, these results indicate that (i) Map4k4 controls a pathway in Myf5-positive cells that suppresses whole-body insulin sensitivity and (ii) Map4k4 is a potential therapeutic target for improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.

  18. Inducible Deletion of Protein Kinase Map4k4 in Obese Mice Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Liver and Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Danai, Laura V.; Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Virbasius, Joseph V.; Garcia Menendez, Lorena; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in vitro suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) attenuates insulin signaling, but confirmation in vivo is lacking since Map4k4 knockout is lethal during embryogenesis. We thus generated mice with floxed Map4k4 alleles and a tamoxifen-inducible Cre/ERT2 recombinase under the control of the ubiquitin C promoter to induce whole-body Map4k4 deletion after these animals reached maturity. Tamoxifen administration to these mice induced Map4k4 deletion in all tissues examined, causing decreased fasting blood glucose concentrations and enhanced insulin signaling to AKT in adipose tissue and liver but not in skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, however, mice generated with a conditional Map4k4 deletion in adiponectin-positive adipocytes or in albumin-positive hepatocytes displayed no detectable metabolic phenotypes. Instead, mice with Map4k4 deleted in Myf5-positive tissues, including all skeletal muscles tested, were protected from obesity-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Remarkably, these mice also showed increased insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue but not skeletal muscle, similar to the metabolic phenotypes observed in inducible whole-body knockout mice. Taken together, these results indicate that (i) Map4k4 controls a pathway in Myf5-positive cells that suppresses whole-body insulin sensitivity and (ii) Map4k4 is a potential therapeutic target for improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25918248

  19. Adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Liu, Guangjia; Kang, Feiyu

    2011-06-15

    The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide from an aqueous solution by a cost-effective bamboo charcoal from Dendrocalamus was studied in comparison with other carbon adsorbents. The bamboo charcoal exhibited superior adsorption on dimethyl sulfide compared with powdered activated carbons at different adsorbent dosages. The adsorption characteristics of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal were investigated under varying experimental conditions such as particle size, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. The dimethyl sulfide removal was enhanced from 31 to 63% as the particle size was decreased from 24-40 to >300 mesh for the bamboo charcoal. The removal efficiency increased with increasing the adsorbent dosage from 0.5 to 10mg, and reached 70% removal efficiency at 10mg adsorbed. The adsorption capacity (μg/g) increased with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulfide while the removal efficiency decreased. The adsorption process conforms well to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The adsorption of dimethyl sulfide is more appropriately described by the Freundlich isotherm (R(2), 0.9926) than by the Langmuir isotherm (R(2), 0.8685). Bamboo charcoal was characterized by various analytical methods to understand the adsorption mechanism. Bamboo charcoal is abundant in acidic and alcohol functional groups normally not observed in PAC. A distinct difference is that the superior mineral composition of Fe (0.4 wt%) and Mn (0.6 wt%) was detected in bamboo charcoal-elements not found in PAC. Acidic functional group and specific adsorption sites would be responsible for the strong adsorption of dimethyl sulfide onto bamboo charcoal of Dendrocalamus origin.

  20. Post-Flight Sampling and Loading Characterization of Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Cole, H. E.; Cramblitt, E. L.; El-Lessy, H. N.; Manuel, S.; Tucker, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminants produced by equipment offgassing and human metabolic processes are removed from the atmosphere of the International Space Station s U.S. Segment by a trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS). The TCCS employs a combination of physical adsorption, thermal catalytic oxidation, and chemical adsorption processes to accomplish its task. A large bed of granular activated charcoal is a primary component of the TCCS. The charcoal contained in this bed, known as the charcoal bed assembly (CBA), is expendable and must be replaced periodically. Pre-flight engineering analyses based upon TCCS performance testing results established a service life estimate of 1 year. After nearly 1 year of cumulative in-flight operations, the first CBA was returned for refurbishment. Charcoal samples were collected and analyzed for loading to determine the best estimate for the CBAs service life. A history of in-flight TCCS operations is presented as well as a discussion of the charcoal sampling procedures and chemical analysis results. A projected service life derived from the observed charcoal loading is provided. Recommendations for better managing TCCS resources are presented.

  1. Thermal properties of dielectric solids below 4 K. I - Polycarbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cieloszyk, G. S.; Cruz, M. T.; Salinger, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Polymers and other dielectric materials are frequently used for many purposes in the construction of cryogenic apparatus. Yet very few values of the thermal properties of these materials below 4 K have been reported. It is, however, known that one can not use the Debye theory to extrapolate to lower temperatures the measurements of the specific heat capacity above 1 K. The thermal conductivity also follows no theoretically predictable temperature dependence. As a by-product of our studies of the thermal properties of amorphous and partly crystalline materials below 4 K, we wish to report values for the thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and velocity of sound below 4 K in materials useful for the construction of cryogenic apparatus. In this article we will describe our measurement techniques and report values for polycarbonate (Lexan). In subsequent notes we will give values for other materials of interest.

  2. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

  3. Endosomal sorting of VAMP3 is regulated by PI4K2A.

    PubMed

    Jović, Marko; Kean, Michelle J; Dubankova, Anna; Boura, Evzen; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Brill, Julie A; Balla, Tamas

    2014-09-01

    Specificity of membrane fusion in vesicular trafficking is dependent on proper subcellular distribution of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). Although SNARE complexes are fairly promiscuous in vitro, substantial specificity is achieved in cells owing to the spatial segregation and shielding of SNARE motifs prior to association with cognate Q-SNAREs. In this study, we identified phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα (PI4K2A) as a binding partner of vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3), a small R-SNARE involved in recycling and retrograde transport, and found that the two proteins co-reside on tubulo-vesicular endosomes. PI4K2A knockdown inhibited VAMP3 trafficking to perinuclear membranes and impaired the rate of VAMP3-mediated recycling of the transferrin receptor. Moreover, depletion of PI4K2A significantly decreased association of VAMP3 with its cognate Q-SNARE Vti1a. Although binding of VAMP3 to PI4K2A did not require kinase activity, acute depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) on endosomes significantly delayed VAMP3 trafficking. Modulation of SNARE function by phospholipids had previously been proposed based on in vitro studies, and our study provides mechanistic evidence in support of these claims by identifying PI4K2A and PtdIns4P as regulators of an R-SNARE in intact cells.

  4. Novel Application of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and 3D Volume Rendering toward Improving the Resolution of the Fossil Record of Charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Claire M.; Punyasena, Surangi W.; Sivaguru, Mayandi

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the abundance of fossil charcoals between rocks and sediments are assumed to reflect changes in fire activity in Earth’s past. These variations in fire activity are often considered to be in response to environmental, ecological or climatic changes. The role that fire plays in feedbacks to such changes is becoming increasingly important to understand and highlights the need to create robust estimates of variations in fossil charcoal abundance. The majority of charcoal based fire reconstructions quantify the abundance of charcoal particles and do not consider the changes in the morphology of the individual particles that may have occurred due to fragmentation as part of their transport history. We have developed a novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to image processing that enables the 3-dimensional reconstruction of individual charcoal particles. This method is able to measure the volume of both microfossil and mesofossil charcoal particles and allows the abundance of charcoal in a sample to be expressed as total volume of charcoal. The method further measures particle surface area and shape allowing both relationships between different size and shape metrics to be analysed and full consideration of variations in particle size and size sorting between different samples to be studied. We believe application of this new imaging approach could allow significant improvement in our ability to estimate variations in past fire activity using fossil charcoals. PMID:23977267

  5. Novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D volume rendering toward improving the resolution of the fossil record of charcoal.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Claire M; Punyasena, Surangi W; Sivaguru, Mayandi

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the abundance of fossil charcoals between rocks and sediments are assumed to reflect changes in fire activity in Earth's past. These variations in fire activity are often considered to be in response to environmental, ecological or climatic changes. The role that fire plays in feedbacks to such changes is becoming increasingly important to understand and highlights the need to create robust estimates of variations in fossil charcoal abundance. The majority of charcoal based fire reconstructions quantify the abundance of charcoal particles and do not consider the changes in the morphology of the individual particles that may have occurred due to fragmentation as part of their transport history. We have developed a novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to image processing that enables the 3-dimensional reconstruction of individual charcoal particles. This method is able to measure the volume of both microfossil and mesofossil charcoal particles and allows the abundance of charcoal in a sample to be expressed as total volume of charcoal. The method further measures particle surface area and shape allowing both relationships between different size and shape metrics to be analysed and full consideration of variations in particle size and size sorting between different samples to be studied. We believe application of this new imaging approach could allow significant improvement in our ability to estimate variations in past fire activity using fossil charcoals.

  6. Effect of Charcoal Volatile Matter Content and Feedstock on Soil Microbe-Carbon-Nitrogen Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, T.; Deenik, J. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Campbell, S.; Antal, M. J., Jr.

    2010-12-01

    Charcoal has important biogeochemical implications in soil—first as a means to sequester carbon, and second as a soil conditioner to potentially enhance soil quality and fertility. Volatile matter (VM) content is a property of charcoal which describes its degree of thermal alteration, or carbonization. Results from greenhouse experiments have shown that plant growth can be negatively affected by charcoals with high VM content (20-35%), with and without fertilizer supplements, whereas low VM charcoal (6-9%) increased plant growth when combined with fertilizer. We conducted two laboratory studies to characterize the VM content of charcoals derived from two feedstocks (corncob and kiawe) and relate observed differences to key aspects of soil fertility. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), total phenol content (using a Prussian blue colorimetric assay), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found that the VM content of charcoal primarily consisted of alkanes, oxygen-substituted alkanes, and phenolic compounds. However, the GC-MS data indicated that charcoals can differ vastly in their extractable fraction, depending upon both VM content and feedstock. In a second set of experiments, we examined the effect of VM content and feedstock on soil microbial activity, available nitrogen (N), and soluble carbon (C). High VM corncob charcoals significantly enhanced microbial activity, coupled with net reduction in available N and soluble C. For a given feedstock, the extent of this effect was dependent upon VM content. However, the overall effect of VM content on microbial dynamics was apparently related to the composition of the acetone-extractable fraction, which was particularly important when comparing two charcoals derived from different feedstocks but with the equivalent VM contents. Removing the acetone-extractable fraction from the 23% VM corncob charcoal significantly reduced the enhancement of

  7. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, M. E. M.; Sujo, L. C.; Villalba, L.; Peinado, J. S.; Jimenez, A. C.; Baca, A. M.; Gandara, S. D.; Villalobos, M. R.; Miranda, A. L.; Peraza, E. F. H.

    2003-10-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10% of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico.

  8. Soils on historic charcoal hearths - chemical properties and terminology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas; Ouimet, William; Dethier, David; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal hearths are a unique archive for the long term interaction between biochar, soil development and plant growth. Charcoal as raw material was crucial for the production of iron in iron works and hence numerous charcoal hearths can be found in the forests near historic iron works in Europe as well as the Eastern United States. Charcoal hearths are round to elliptical forms often around 10 m in diameter, and consisting of a several decimeter thick layer containing charcoal fragments, ash, and burnt soil. We studied the soil chemistry of 24 charcoal hearths and compared them to the surrounding 'natural' soils in Litchfield County, Connecticut. The thickness of the organic rich horizons on the charcoal hearths and their carbon content is remarkably higher than in the surrounding topsoils. The wide distribution of charcoal hearths, their usually high quantity, and their occurrence in different ecosystems underlines their importance for further pedological research.

  9. Recovery of Technetium Adsorbed on Charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Mark D.; Metz, Lori A.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2006-05-01

    Two methods capable of near complete recovery of technetium adsorbed on charcoal are presented. The first involves liquid extraction of the technetium from the charcoal by hot 4M nitric acid. An average recovery of 98% (n=3) is obtained after three rounds of extraction. The second method involves dry ashing with air in a quartz combustion tube at 400-450 C. This method yields an average recovery of 96% (n=5). Other thermal methods were attempted, but resulted in reduced recovery and incomplete material balance

  10. [Charcoal, cocaine and rattlesnakes: evidence-based treatment of poisoning].

    PubMed

    Schaper, A

    2013-10-01

    Since ancient times poisoning has been treated medicinally. Clinical toxicology, in the narrow sense of the term, developed from the foundation of specialized medical treatment units for poisoning and the formation of the first poison information centers in the second half of the twentieth century. Historically, the first poison information centers were often localized at pediatric clinics or departments of internal medicine. It became increasingly more obvious that this pooling of competences made sense. This article gives a general introduction in clinical toxicology and presents the functions and key activities of emergency poison centers. The organisation and work of a poisons centre is demonstrated on the basis of the Poisons Information Center (GIZ) North annual report for 2011. In a short summary the basic principles of clinical toxicology are elucidated: the primary removal of poisons by gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal, secondary removal of poisons by enhanced elimination using hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, multi-dose activated charcoal and molecular adsorbent recirculating systems (MARS) and the indications for administration of specific antidotes or antivenins (antisera against poisoning by poisonous animals). Gastric lavage is indicated within 1 h after ingestion of a potentially life-threatening dose of a poison. In cases of poisoning with substances which penetrate the central nervous system (CNS) gastric lavage should be performed only after endotracheal intubation due to the risk of aspiration. The basic management of poisoned patients by emergency medicine personnel out of hospital and on the way to hospital is presented. The Bremen list, a compilation of the five antidotes, atropine, 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-DMAP), tolonium chloride, naloxone and activated charcoal for out of hospital treatment by emergency doctors is presented. In all, even questionable cases of poisoning consultation at emergency poison centers is

  11. Guides to manufacturing and marketing charcoal in the Northeastern States

    Treesearch

    Fred C. Simmons

    1957-01-01

    Charcoal manufacture has become the subject of a tremendous new interest in the Northeast in the past few years. In many communities, retailers have been unable to find enough charcoal to fill the demands - even though in the same localities there are large supplies of surplus wood that could be used in making charcoal. As a result of this unfilled demand, we have...

  12. Charcoal from the pyrolysis of rapeseed plant straw-stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tetik, E.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal is an important product of pyrolysis of biomass sources. Charcoal can be used for domestic, agricultural, metallurgical, and chemical purposes. In this study different characteristics of charcoal, one of the rape seed plant straw-stalk pyrolysis product, was researched and presented as candidates.

  13. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Lee, Whei-May Grace; Wu, Feng-Shu

    2016-01-25

    Ten types of commercial charcoal commonly used in Taiwan were investigated to study the potential health effects of air pollutants generated during charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The charcoal samples were combusted in a tubular high-temperature furnace to simulate the high-temperature charcoal combustion in barbecue restaurants. The results indicated that traditional charcoal has higher heating value than green synthetic charcoal. The amount of PM10 and PM2.5 emitted during the smoldering stage increased when the burning temperature was raised. The EF for CO and CO2 fell within the range of 68-300 and 644-1225 g/kg, respectively. Among the charcoals, the lowest EF for PM2.5 and PM10 were found in Binchōtan (B1). Sawdust briquette charcoal (I1S) emitted the smallest amount of carbonyl compounds. Charcoal briquettes (C2S) emitted the largest amount of air pollutants during burning, with the EF for HC, PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde being the highest among the charcoals studied. The emission of PM2.5, PM10, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde were 5-10 times those of the second highest charcoal. The results suggest that the adverse effects of the large amounts of air pollutants generated during indoor charcoal combustion on health and indoor air quality must not be ignored.

  14. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A 4 K FTS demonstrator for future cooled space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, David; Veenendaal, Ian; Gom, Brad; Ade, Peter

    2016-07-01

    A commercial Fourier transform spectrometer scanning mechanism has been modified for operation at cryogenic temperatures. When installed in a 4 K cryostat with a multiple component blackbody calibration source and sensitive sub-Kelvin detector, the spectrometer will allow the evaluation of different scanning methods, metrology options and data compression techniques. It will also enable the study of the performance of critical optical components such as beam splitters and filters at their intended operating temperatures.

  16. A 4 K Gifford-McMahon Refrigerator for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plambeck, R. L.; Thatte, N. A.; Sykes, P. B.

    1993-05-01

    SIS mixers on the BIMA array are cooled to 4 K with novel closed cycle refrigerators. These refrigerators utilize the Gifford-McMahon cycle, which is used in most commercially available cryopumps. In this cycle helium is expanded from 20 to 6 atm after it is precooled in a heat exchanger matrix, or regenerator. Conventional GM refrigerators bottom out at temperatures of 8 to 10 K because their regenerators have inadequate heat capacity at lower temperatures. By adding a third stage to a standard commercial refrigerator, and by using spheres of Er_3Ni as the third stage regenerator, we reach much lower temperatures. Our refrigerator operates at 2.2 K with no heat load applied to the third stage. With 10 W on the first stage, 1 W on the second stage, and 50 mW on the third stage, the third stage temperature can be maintained at 3.5 K. By comparison with hybrid Joule-Thomson/GM refrigerators traditionally used to reach 4 K, our refrigerator is far more compact, cools more quickly (to 4 K in a little over an hour), requires only a single helium compressor, and is less prone to clogging by contamination. The principal challenge in building such a refrigerator is to fabricate a helium-tight reciprocating seal which operates reliably at 7 K on the refrigerator's third stage. This work was supported by NSF Grant AST91-00307.

  17. Determination of 63Ni and 59Ni in spent ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Taddei, M H T; Macacini, J F; Vicente, R; Marumo, J T; Sakata, S K; Terremoto, L A A

    2013-07-01

    A radiochemical method has been adapted to determine (59)Ni and (63)Ni in samples of radioactive wastes from the water cleanup system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The process includes extraction chromatographic resin with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as a functional group. Activity concentrations of (59)Ni and (63)Ni were measured, respectively, by X-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting, whereas the chemical yield was determined by ICP-OES. The average ratio of measured activity concentrations of (63)Ni and (59)Ni agree well with theory.

  18. Respiratory health effects of occupational exposure to charcoal dust in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Kgabi, Nnenesi

    2016-01-01

    Background Charcoal processing activities can increase the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes. Objective To determine dose–response relationships between occupational exposure to charcoal dust, respiratory symptoms and lung function among charcoal-processing workers in Namibia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 307 workers from charcoal factories in Namibia. All respondents completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Spirometry was performed, ambient and respirable dust levels were assessed in different work sections. Multiple logistic regression analysis estimated the overall effect of charcoal dust exposure on respiratory outcomes, while linear regression estimated the exposure-related effect on lung function. Workers were stratified according to cumulative dust exposure category. Results Exposure to respirable charcoal dust levels was above occupational exposure limits in most sectors, with packing and weighing having the highest dust exposure levels (median 27.7 mg/m3, range: 0.2–33.0 for the 8-h time-weighted average). The high cumulative dust exposure category was significantly associated with usual cough (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–4.0), usual phlegm (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–4.1), episodes of phlegm and cough (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1–6.1), and shortness of breath. A non-statistically significant lower adjusted mean-predicted % FEV1 was observed (98.1% for male and 95.5% for female) among workers with greater exposure. Conclusions Charcoal dust levels exceeded the US OSHA recommended limit of 3.5 mg/m3 for carbon-black-containing material and study participants presented with exposure-related adverse respiratory outcomes in a dose–response manner. Our findings suggest that the Namibian Ministry of Labour introduce stronger enforcement strategies of existing national health and safety regulations within the industry. PMID:27687528

  19. The charcoal-degradation nexus: contested 'fuelscapes' in the sub-Saharan drylands of northern Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Christoph; Petersen, Maike; Roden, Paul; Nüsser, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal ranks amongst the most commercialized but least regulated commodities in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its prevalence as an energy source for cooking and heating, localized environmental and livelihood impacts of charcoal production are poorly understood so far. The identified research deficit is amplified by widespread negative views of this activity as a poverty-driven cause of deforestation and land degradation. However, the charcoal-degradation nexus is apparently more complicated, not least because the extraction of biomass from already degraded woodlands can also be interpreted as an appropriate option under given management regimes. In order to better calibrate existing research agendas to site-specific geographies of charcoal production, we propose a re-conceptualization of such energy landscapes as 'fuelscapes' with complex material and social dimensions. The concept is tested with reference to a case study in Central Pokot, northern Kenya, where charcoal production only began in the early 1990's. Based on the assumption that the fine line between sustainable land management and degradation in dryland energy landscapes is not only highly variable but also increasingly contested, our study combines the knowledge input of different stakeholders with longitudinal time series of remote sensing data. Based on the results of our interdisciplinary analyses, we outline an integrated tool for the co-operative monitoring and management of prevailing degradation processes against the background of diversified livelihood activities in sub-Saharan drylands.

  20. Sawdust and Charcoal: Fuel for Raku.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisson, Harriet E.

    1980-01-01

    Raku is an ancient Japanese process of firing pottery in which the bisqued piece is glazed and placed in a preheated kiln. Described are the benefits of substituting sawdust and charcoal for firing pottery by those people who do not have access to a kiln. (KC)

  1. Late Quaternary stratigraphic charcoal records from Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burney, David A.

    1987-09-01

    The classic view regarding the cause of the extinction of at least 17 species of large mammals, birds, and reptiles in Madagascar during the late Holocene implicates human use of fire to modify the environment. However, analysis of the charcoal stratigraphy of three sediment cores from Madagascar shows that late Pleistocene and early- to mid-Holocene sediments deposited prior to human settlement often contain more charcoal than postsettlement and modern sediments. This observation, which is confirmed by independent measurements from direct assay and palynological counting techniques, suggests that widely held but previously untested beliefs concerning the importance of anthropogenic fires in late Holocene environmental changes and megafaunal extinctions of Madagascar may be based on an overly simplified version of actual prehistoric conditions. Moderate to low charcoal values characterized only the late Holocene millennia immediately prior to the presumed time of arrival of the first settlers. Human settlement is probably indicated in the stratigraphy by the sharp rise in charcoal content observed beginning ca. 1500 yr B.P. Fire appears to be a significant natural component of prehuman environments in Madagascar, but some factor, probably climate, has modulated the extent of natural burning.

  2. Sawdust and Charcoal: Fuel for Raku.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisson, Harriet E.

    1980-01-01

    Raku is an ancient Japanese process of firing pottery in which the bisqued piece is glazed and placed in a preheated kiln. Described are the benefits of substituting sawdust and charcoal for firing pottery by those people who do not have access to a kiln. (KC)

  3. A 4K x 4K HgCdTe astronomical camera enabled by the JWST NIR detector development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Donald N. B.; Luppino, Gerard; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Garnett, James D.; Loose, Markus; Zandian, Majid

    2004-09-01

    The ambitious science goals of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) have driven spectacular advances in λco ~ 5um detector technology over the past five years. This paper reviews both the UH/RSC team"s Phase A development and evaluation of 2Kx2K arrays exceeding the detector requirements for JWST"s near infrared instruments and also the hardware integration of these into a 4Kx4K (16Mpxl) close packed mosaic focal plane array housed in an Ultra Low Background test facility. Both individual first generation 2Kx2K SCA"s and 4Kx4K mosaic focal planes have been extensively characterized in the laboratory and, since September 2003, a NIR camera utilizing the 4Kx4K mosaic focal plane has been in use for nearly 100 nights at the UH 2.2 m telescope on Mauna Kea. Typical test results for the first generation 2Kx2K arrays and their integration into 4Kx4K mosaic focal planes are reported. Demonstration of the design concepts and both array and mosaic focal plane performance in actual hardware, as described here, has provided the foundation for design iterations leading to later generations of 2Kx2K arrays and 4Kx4K mosaic focal planes. Four major technology developments leading to first generation hardware demonstrations of both 2Kx2K SCA"s and a 4Kx4K mosaic FPA are reviewed. These are: 1) improvement in test equipment and procedures to characterize the detectors against JWST requirements and goals, primarily at 37K but with the capability to test from 30K to 100K; 2) optimization of λc ~ 5 um MBE HgCdTe material on a CZT substrate for low dark current (goal of 0.003 e-/sec at 37K) with high quantum efficiency, low cross-talk and greatly reduced image persistence; 3) development of the 2Kx2K HAWAII-2RG multiplexer designed specifically to take full advantage of these detector characteristics for a wide range of astronomical applications (and fully compatible with an ASIC controller developed under the JWST Instrument Technology Development initiative) and 4) development of

  4. [The effect of the application sorption of a fibrous activated charcoal material with highly dispersed iron on the course of a wound process].

    PubMed

    Symorot, M I; Shvets, T M; Kryzyna, P S; Kushchevs'ka, N F; Denys, R O

    1999-09-01

    Results of the experiments carried out show that the use of the activated carbon fibrous material "Dnipro" for medical purposes (ABBM "Dnipro" MP) and the suspension of high-dispersity iron combined in treatment of infected and suppurating wounds is associated with a more pronounced therapeutical effect than application to the wound surfaces of the standard ABBM "Dnipro" MP. The compositional method using ABBM "Dnipro" MP and high-dispersity iron obtainable by thermochemical techniques has a marked antimicrobial action and stimulates the course of the wound process.

  5. Comparing modeled fire dynamics with charcoal records for the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruecher, T.; Brovkin, V.; Kloster, S.; Marlon, J. R.; Power, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    An Earth System model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, and land surface model JSBACH that includes dynamic vegetation, carbon cycle, and fire regime are used for simulation of natural fire dynamics through the last 8,000 years. To compare the fire model results with the charcoal reconstructions, several output variables of the fire model (burned area, carbon emissions) and several approaches of model output processing are tested. The z-scores out of charcoal dataset have been calculated for the period 8,000 to 200 BP to exclude a period of strong anthropogenic forcing during the last two centuries. The model analysis points mainly to an increasing fire activity during the Holocene for most of the investigated areas, which is in good correspondence to reconstructed fire trends out of charcoal data for most of the tested regions, while for few regions such as Europe the simulated trend and the reconstructed trends are different. The difference between the modeled and reconstructed fire activity could be due to absence of the anthropogenic forcing in the model simulations, but also due to limitations of model assumptions for modeling fire dynamics. For the model trends, the usage of averaging or z-score processing of model output resulted in similar directions of trend. Therefore, the approach of fire model output processing does not effect results of the model-data comparison. Global fire modeling is still in its infancy; improving our representations of fire through validation exercises such as what we present here is thus essential before testing hypotheses about the effects of extreme climate changes on fire behavior and potential feedbacks that result from those changes.

  6. A new cue for torpor induction: charcoal, ash and smoke.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Nowack, Julia; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2017-01-15

    Recent work has shown that the use of torpor for energy conservation increases after forest fires in heterothermic mammals, probably in response to the reduction of food. However, the specific environmental cues for this increased torpor expression remain unknown. It is possible that smoke and the novel substrate of charcoal and ash act as signals for an impending period of starvation requiring torpor. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the combined cues of smoke, a charcoal/ash substrate and food shortage will enhance torpor expression in a small forest-dwelling marsupial, the yellow-footed antechinus (Antechinus flavipes), because like other animals that live in fire-prone habitats they must effectively respond to fires to ensure survival. Activity and body temperature patterns of individuals in outdoor aviaries were measured under natural environmental conditions. All individuals were strictly nocturnal, but diurnal activity was observed shortly after smoke exposure. Overall, torpor in females was longer and deeper than that in males. Interestingly, while both males and females increased daily torpor duration during food restriction by >2-fold as anticipated, a combination of food restriction and smoke exposure on a charcoal/ash substrate further increased daily torpor duration by ∼2-fold in both sexes. These data show that this combination of cues for torpor induction is stronger than food shortage on its own. Our study provides significant new information on how a small forest-dwelling mammal responds to fire cues during and immediately after a fire and identifies a new, not previously recognised, regulatory mechanism for thermal biology in mammals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Fire history in western Patagonia from paired tree-ring fire-scar and charcoal records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, A.; Haberle, S.; Veblen, T. T.; de Pol-Holz, R.; Southon, J.

    2012-03-01

    Fire history reconstructions are typically based on tree ages and tree-ring fire scars or on charcoal in sedimentary records from lakes or bogs, but rarely on both. In this study of fire history in western Patagonia (47-48° S) in southern South America (SSA) we compared three sedimentary charcoal records collected in bogs with tree-ring fire-scar data collected at 13 nearby sample sites. We examined the temporal and spatial correspondence between the two fire proxies and also compared them to published charcoal records from distant sites in SSA, and with published proxy reconstructions of regional climate variability and large-scale climate modes. Two of our three charcoal records record fire activity for the last 4 ka yr and one for the last 11 ka yr. For the last ca. 400 yr, charcoal accumulation peaks tend to coincide with high fire activity in the tree-ring fire scar records, but the charcoal records failed to detect some of the fire activity recorded by tree rings. Potentially, this discrepancy reflects low-severity fires that burn in herbaceous and other fine fuels without depositing charcoal in the sedimentary record. Periods of high fire activity tended to be synchronous across sample areas, across proxy types, and with proxy records of regional climatic variability as well as major climate drivers. Fire activity throughout the Holocene in western Patagonia has responded to regional climate variation affecting a broad region of southern South America that is teleconnected to both tropical- and high-latitude climate drivers-El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. An early Holocene peak in fire activity pre-dates any known human presence in our study area, and consequently implicates lightning as the ignition source. In contrast, the increased fire activity during the 20th century, which was concomitantly recorded by charcoal from all the sampled bogs and at all fire-scar sample sites, is attributed to human-set fires and is outside the

  8. Automatic 300-4 K temperature cycling apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, C A

    1978-05-01

    The apparatus described here automatically cycles small samples between 300 and 4 K by alternately raising and lowering the sample through the neck of a commercial liquid helium storage Dewar. A bellows, which is pressurized by the helium boil-off gas, provides all of the required mechanical motion. By utilizing the cooling available from the boil-off gas, liquid helium helium consumption is limited to 0.03 l/cyc for a 12-g sample. Cycle times can be as short as 5 min.

  9. Melasma: successful treatment with pidobenzone 4% (K5lipogel).

    PubMed

    Zanieri, Fabio; Assad, Gelareh Bani; Campolmi, Piero; Lotti, Torello

    2008-07-01

    Melasma (a term derived from the Greek word "melas" meaning black) is an acquired blotchy, irregularly patterned, brown or sometimes gray brown hypermelanosis of the face and occasionally the neck. Its etiology is poorly understood but mainly related to sunlight and genetic predisposition. Melasma seems to be more frequent in darker skinned people, especially women. Its treatment is always difficult and the condition usually relapses. The treatment with pidobenzone 4% (K5 lipogel), twice per day for 16 weeks has proved to be safe and effective. Pidobenzone 4% lipogel, according to the present study, seems also to represent a useful, reliable, and safe treatment of the different types of melasma.

  10. Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Jönsson, Håkan; Hylander, Lars D; Hui, Nan; Yu, Dan; Pell, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the effects of greywater application on the dynamics and functions of biofilms developed in bark, activated charcoal and sand filters used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen. Duplicate columns (20 cm diameter, 60 cm deep) were packed with bark, charcoal or sand with effective size 1.4 mm and uniformity coefficient 2.2, and dosed with 32 L m(-2) day(-1) of an artificial greywater (14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1)) for 116 days. Potential respiration rate (PRR), determined in filter samples after addition of excess glucose, and bacterial diversity and composition, analysed by 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA, were measured at different times and depths in the filters. The bark and charcoal filters were more efficient in removing BOD5 than the sand (98, 97% and 75%, respectively). The highest PRR in the 0-2 cm layer of the columns on day 84 was found in the bark filters, followed by the charcoal and sand filters (632 ± 66, 222 ± 34 and 56 ± 2 mg O2 L(-1), respectively; n = 2). Bacterial community in the bark filters showed the highest richness. The charcoal and sand filters both developed more diverse and dynamic (changing over time and depth) bacterial communities than the bark. In addition to the greywater, the lignocelluosic composition of the bark and its lower pH probably selected for the bacterial community structure and the organic content provided additional substrate, as shown by its higher PRR and its different nitrifying bacterial genera. In the oligotrophic charcoal and sand, the composition of the greywater itself defined the bacterial community. Thus, the initially low bacterial biomass in the latter filters was enriched over time, allowing a diversified bacterial community to develop. The top layers of the bark and charcoal filters displayed a high dominance of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, which were less evident in the 60 cm layer, whereas in the sand filters these genera were

  11. Continuous Cooling from 10 K to 4 K Using a Toroidal ADR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Future large infrared space telescopes will require cooling to 4K to achieve background limited performance for submillimeter wavelengths. These observatories will require lifetimes of many years and will have relatively large cooling requirements making stored helium dewars impractical. We have designed and are building an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) for use in cooling relatively large loads (10- 100 mW) at 4K and rejecting that heat to a cryocooler operating at 1 OK. Cryocoolers below 1 OK have poor thermodynamic efficiency and ADRs can operate in this temperature range with an efficiency of 75% of Carnot or better. Overall, this can save as much as 2/3 of the input power required to operate a 4K cryocooler. The ADR magnet consists of 8 short coils wired in series and arranged in a toroid to provide self shielding of its magnetic field. This will save mass (about 30% of the mass or about 1.5 kg in our small version, higher percentages in higher cooling power, larger versions) that would have been used for passive or active shields in an ordinary solenoid. The toroid has a 100 mm outer diameter and will produce an approximately 3T average field. In the initial demonstration model the toroid coils will be wound with ordinary NbTi wire and operated at 4K. A second version will then use Nb3Sn wire to provide complete 10K operation. As a refrigerant for this temperature range we will use either GdLiF4 or GdF3 crystals, pending tests of these crystals' cooling capacity per field and thermal conductance. Preliminary indications are that these materials are superior to GGG. We will use gas gap heat switches to alternately connect the toroid to the cold load and the warm heat sink. A small continuous stage will maintain the cold end at 4K while the main toroid is recycled.

  12. Mechanical Properties of JK2LB at 4K

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Jun; Kim, JiHyun; Ballinger, Ronald G.; Minervini, Joseph V.

    2006-03-31

    The jacket of the central solenoid (CS) for ITER is designed to support cyclic tension load generated by the electro-magnetic hoop force during operation. Therefore, the CS jacket material requires high tensile strength, high ductility, and high resistance to fatigue. JK2LB was developed in Japan as a candidate material for CS jacket by using low carbon and boron additions in JK2. The preliminary data of mechanical property for JK2LB without cold work has shown improvement of ductility in comparison to JK2. As a routine multi-party verification process, a series of new mechanical tests including tensile, fatigue crack growth and fracture toughness have been carried out at 4K in MIT for both the base metal and welds of JK2LB. The test materials provided by JAREI were subjected to various cold work and aging before testing. It is found that the cold work has significant impact on the properties. Large variation of the tensile properties is observed. It includes a few specimens with brittle-like behavior. The fracture toughness of JK2LB is greatly reduced after cold work. High notch sensitivity at 4K is observed for side-grooved CT specimens. The current results indicate a need for more tests and studies.

  13. High-frequency Pulse-tube Refrigerator for 4 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaeva, I. A.; Klaasse Bos, C. G.; de Waele, A. T. A. M.

    2006-04-01

    At present pulse-tube refrigerators (PTRs), used for the important temperature region of 4 K, are of the Gifford-McMahon (GM)-type. The main sources of losses in GM-type PTRs are the compressor and the rotary valve. The efficiency of the combination of the compressor and the rotary valve is only about 30%. In addition to that GM-type compressors are heavy and need periodic maintenance. The main goal of this research is to develop a Stirling-type 4-K pulse-tube refrigerator. This implies higher operating frequencies, compared to the usual 1-2 Hz. At higher frequencies a number of properties of a pulse-tube system, such as length-to-diameter ratios of the pulse tubes and the regenerator, volume and configuration of a regenerator material, phase-shift control method, etc., change significantly, and, therefore, require detailed study. The interactions between various parameters of the pulse tube and of the linear compressor are very complicated. Therefore, as a first part of this research, we study the pulse tube at high frequencies, independent of the compressor. We generate high-frequency pressure oscillations, using a GM-type compressor and a special type of rotary valve, which enables us to operate at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Results of this work are described in this contribution.

  14. Steady-state response of a charcoal bed to radon in flowing air with water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, T.E.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Fentiman, A.W.

    1995-06-01

    Previously we have developed a mathematical model of radon adsorption in active air with water vapor on small U.S. Environmental Protection Agency charcoal canisters that are used for environmental measurements of radon. The purpose of this paper is to extend this mathematical model to describe the adsorption of radon by large charcoal beds with radon-laden air flowing through them. The resulting model equations are solved analytically to predict the steady-state adsorption of radon by such beds. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  15. High-speed ultrashort pulse fiber ring laser using charcoal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbo; Hu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Shuai; Fu, Kan; Dutta, Niloy K

    2016-03-20

    A mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser that is easy to set up is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to generate a high-repetition-rate optical pulse train with an ultrashort pulse width. The laser combines a rational harmonic mode-locking technique and charcoal nanoparticles as saturable absorbers. Compared to a solely active mode-locking scheme, the scheme with charcoal nanoparticles can remove the supermodes and narrow the pulse width by a factor of 0.57 at a repetition rate of 20 GHz. Numerical simulation of the laser performance is also provided, which shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Effects of resin or charcoal treatment on fetal bovine serum and bovine calf serum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhimin; West, Clint; Norton-Wenzel, Carol S; Rej, Robert; Davis, Faith B; Davis, Paul J; Rej, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal- or resin-stripping of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or bovine calf serum (BCS) intended for supplementation of cell culture media is widely practiced to remove a variety of endogenous compounds, including steroid, peptide, and thyroid hormones. The possibility that stripping removes other biologically relevant factors from serum may not be appreciated. In this report, standardized clinical laboratory testing methods were used to assess the effects of resin- and charcoal-stripping on content in FBS and BCS of more than 25 analytes in the sera. In addition to hormones, the serum constituents affected by stripping are certain vitamins, electrolytes, enzyme activities, and metabolites.

  17. Soil Charcoal to Assess the Impacts of Past Human Disturbances on Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Vleminckx, Jason; Morin-Rivat, Julie; Biwolé, Achille B.; Daïnou, Kasso; Gillet, Jean-François; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Drouet, Thomas; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2014-01-01

    The canopy of many central African forests is dominated by light-demanding tree species that do not regenerate well under themselves. The prevalence of these species might result from ancient slash-and-burn agricultural activities that created large openings, while a decline of these activities since the colonial period could explain their deficit of regeneration. To verify this hypothesis, we compared soil charcoal abundance, used as a proxy for past slash-and-burn agriculture, and tree species composition assessed on 208 rainforest 0.2 ha plots located in three areas from Southern Cameroon. Species were classified in regeneration guilds (pioneer, non-pioneer light-demanding, shade-bearer) and characterized by their wood-specific gravity, assumed to reflect light requirement. We tested the correlation between soil charcoal abundance and: (i) the relative abundance of each guild, (ii) each species and family abundance and (iii) mean wood-specific gravity. Charcoal was found in 83% of the plots, indicating frequent past forest fires. Radiocarbon dating revealed two periods of fires: “recent” charcoal were on average 300 years old (up to 860 BP, n = 16) and occurred in the uppermost 20 cm soil layer, while “ancient” charcoal were on average 1900 years old (range: 1500 to 2800 BP, n = 43, excluding one sample dated 9400 BP), and found in all soil layers. While we expected a positive correlation between the relative abundance of light-demanding species and charcoal abundance in the upper soil layer, overall there was no evidence that the current heterogeneity in tree species composition can be explained by charcoal abundance in any soil layer. The absence of signal supporting our hypothesis might result from (i) a relatively uniform impact of past slash-and-burn activities, (ii) pedoturbation processes bringing ancient charcoal to the upper soil layer, blurring the signal of centuries-old Human disturbances, or (iii) the prevalence of other

  18. Effect of White Charcoal on COD Reduction in Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pijarn, Nuchanaporn; Butsee, Manipa; Buakul, Kanokwan; Seng, Hasan; Sribuarai, Tinnphat; Phonprasert, Pongtep; Taneeto, Kla; Atthameth, Prasertsil

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the COD reduction in wastewater between using coconut shell and coconut spathe white charcoal from Khlong Wat NongPra-Ong, Krathumbaen, SamutSakhon province, Thailand. The waste water samples were collected using composite sampling method. The experimental section can be divided into 2 parts. The first part was study the optimum of COD adsorption time using both white charcoals. The second part was study the optimum amount of white charcoal for chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction. The pre-treatment of wastewater was examined in parameters include temperature, alkalinity (pH), conductivity, turbidity, suspended solid (SS), total dissolved solid (TDS), and COD. The results show that both white charcoals can reduce COD of wastewater. The pH of pre-treatment wastewater had pH 9 but post-treatment wastewaters using both white charcoals have pH 8. The COD of pre-treatment wastewater had COD as 258 mg/L but post-treatment wastewater using coconut shell white charcoal had COD steady at 40 mg/L in 30 min and the amount of white charcoals 4 g. The COD of post-treatment wastewater using coconut spathe white charcoal had COD steady at 71 mg/L in 30 min and the amount of white charcoals 4 g. Therefore comparison of COD reduction between coconut shell white charcoal versus coconut spathe white charcoal found that the coconut shell white charcoal had efficiency for COD reduction better than coconut spathe white charcoal.

  19. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  20. Charcoal as an airway isoflurane reflection filter.

    PubMed

    Dahm, S L; Steptoe, P; Luttropp, H H; Reinstrup, P

    1998-03-01

    The isoflurane-saving and CO2-retaining effects of a charcoal filter were compared with a Siemens standard heat and moisture (HME) exchanger and an emptied specimen (dummy). Isoflurane was delivered during the inspiratory phase and consumption investigated at 10, 15 and 25 cycles min-1. The investigation was performed by ventilation with humidified air with a constant end-tidal CO2 and temperature. For a comparison, isoflurane was delivered in a conventional manner via the ventilator. The arrangement with a charcoal filter reduced the isoflurane consumption by a factor of 2.0-2.6, depending on ventilatory rate. Most of the saving was a result of the method of isoflurane delivery (factor 1.4-2.0), while adding the reflector gave a further reduction (factor 1.3-1.5). One circumstance that reduced the net efficiency of the charcoal filter was that it also reflected CO2; consequently, total minute ventilation had to be increased to maintain constant end-tidal CO2.

  1. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  2. Efficient helium recondensing using a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao

    2005-12-01

    This paper introduces helium recondensing in a 4000 l dewar using a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler at Amundsen-Scott research station at the South Pole. The helium dewar has a normal boil-off rate of 14 l/day. Two features of cooling the dewar neck by helium vapor and precooling helium gas to be liquefied ensured high efficiency of the pulse tube recondenser in this application. The liquefier/recondenser has being successfully operating in the dewar at South Pole station since February 2005. It not only maintains zero boil-off of the dewar, but also liquefies helium gas supplied from outside of the dewar with a rate around 2.7 l/day.

  3. A helium liquefier using three 4 k pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Oviedo, Abner

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a helium liquefier which can be used for recondensing/reliquefying helium vapor in a helium cryostat or liquefying helium gas in a storage dewar. The helium liquefier employs three 4 K pulse tube cryocoolers, Cryomech model PT415. Each PT415 has remote motor/rotary valve assembly to minimize vibration, providing ≥ 1.5W at 4.2K. The liquefier can liquefy room temperature helium gas with a liquefaction rate of 62 Liter/day. When installing it in the cryostat, it can recondense and reliquefy helium vapor with a rate of 78 L/day. The liquefier will be installed in a gravitational wave detector in Brazil to recondense/reliquefy the helium boil off from the cryostat.

  4. Study of low vibration 4 K pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingyao; Nakano, Kyosuke; Saito, Motokazu; Takayama, Hirokazu; Tsuchiya, Akihiro; Maruyama, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) has been continuously improving the efficiency and reducing the vibration of a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler. One advantage of a pulse tube cryocooler over a GM cryocooler is low vibration. In order to reduce vibration, both the displacement and the acceleration have to be reduced. The vibration acceleration can be reduced by splitting the valve unit from the cold head. One simple way to reduce vibration displacement is to increase the wall thickness of the tubes on the cylinder. However, heat conduction loss increases while the wall thickness increases. To overcome this dilemma, a novel concept, a tube with non-uniform wall thickness, is proposed. Theoretical analysis of this concept, and the measured vibration results of an SHI lowvibration pulse tube cryocooler, will be introduced in this paper.

  5. Mediterranean fire histories since the Last Glacial Maximum from lake sedimentary micro- charcoals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C.; Turner, R.

    2006-12-01

    Microscopic charcoal analysis has been used to reconstruct past fire activity over a range of spatial and temporal scales in Europe, the Americas and Australasia. By contrast, and despite the importance of fire in its modern landscape ecology, few systematic attempts have been made in the circum-Mediterranean region to reconstruct long-term fire histories using micro-charcoals or other methods of analysis. This study has used non-destructive methods of charcoal extraction based on sieving plus heavy-liquid separation (Turner et al in press In: Charcoal from the past: cultural and palaeoenvironmental implications. BAR International Series, Archaeopress, Oxford) along with contiguous core sampling of sedimentary core sequences from a number of East Mediterranean lakes that span the last glacial-interglacial climatic transition. At Eski Acýgöl, central Turkey (Roberts et al. Holocene, 2001, 11, 719-734), then a deepwater crater lake, overall micro-charcoal concentrations in sediments are low and were dominated by influx from regional-landscape rather than local- scale fire events. This record therefore provides a good proxy for overall fire frequency/intensity across the central Anatolia plateau, whose (hypothetical) modern "natural" vegetation is predominantly open oak-grass- Artemisia parkland. Shallow water sites such as Akgöl typically record much higher overall micro-charcoal abundance as a result of local-scale burning of the marsh surface at times of lowered water table, and thus received episodic local charcoal influx superimposed on background regional airborne sources. These results indicate that site type / catchment area and sampling / analytic methodology can critically influence reconstructed fire histories. We have correlated our charcoal records with existing multi-proxy data from the same cores (stable isotopes and pollen). This shows that climatic variations and biomass availability were the main factors controlling the timing of regional fire

  6. Administration of charcoal, Yucca schidigera, and zinc acetate to reduce malodorous flatulence in dogs.

    PubMed

    Giffard, C J; Collins, S B; Stoodley, N C; Butterwick, R F; Batt, R M

    2001-03-15

    To determine whether feeding activated charcoal, Yucca schidigera, and zinc acetate would ameliorate the frequency and odor characteristics of flatulence in dogs. In vitro screening of active agents followed by a randomized controlled trial. 8 adult dogs. A fecal fermentation system was used to assess the effects of activated charcoal, Yucca schidigera, and zinc acetate alone and in combination on total gas production and production of hydrogen sulfide, the primary determinant of flatus malodor in dogs. All 3 agents were subsequently incorporated into edible treats that were fed 30 minutes after the dogs ate their daily rations, and the number, frequency, and odor characteristics of flatulence were measured for 5 hours, using a device that sampled rectal gases and monitored hydrogen sulfide concentrations. Total gas production and number and frequency of flatulence episodes were unaffected by any of the agents. Production of hydrogen sulfide in vitro was significantly reduced by charcoal, Yucca schidigera, and zinc acetate by 71, 38, and 58%, respectively, and was reduced by 86% by the combination of the 3 agents. Consumption of the 3 agents was associated with a significant decrease (86%) in the percentage of flatulence episodes with bad or unbearable odor and a proportional increase in the percentage of episodes of no or only slightly noticeable odor. Results suggest that activated charcoal, Yucca schidigera, and zinc acetate reduce malodor of flatus in dogs by altering the production or availability of hydrogen sulfide in the large intestine.

  7. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  8. Impact of ancient charcoal kilns on chemical properties of several forest soils after 2 centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufey, Joseph; Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon plays a major role in soil biogeochemical processes and carbon budgets. Until the early 19th century, charcoal was the unique combustible used for iron metallurgy in Wallonia (Belgium). Traditional charcoal kilns were built directly in the forest: wood logs were piled into a mound and isolated from air oxygen with a covering of vegetation residues and soil before setting fire, inducing wood pyrolysis. Nowadays, ancient wood-charring platforms are still easy to identify on the forest floor as heightened domes of 10 meters in diameter characterized by a very dark topsoil horizon containing charcoal dust and fragments. Our goal is to assess the effects of wood charring at mound kiln sites on the properties of various forest soil types in Wallonia (Belgium), after two centuries. We sampled soil by horizon in 18 ancient kiln sites to 1.20 meter depth. The adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils were sampled the same way. We also collected recent charcoal fragments and topsoil samples from a still active charcoal kiln located close to Dole (France) to apprehend the evolution of soil properties over time. The pH, total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, available phosphorus (Pav), cation exchange capacity at pH 7 (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+) and loss on ignition at 550°C (LI550) were measured on each soil sample. We separated the soil profiles in 5 groups based on the nature of soil substrate and pedogenesis for interpretation of the results. We show that the total carbon stock is significantly increased at kiln sites due to higher C concentrations and greater depth of the organo-mineral horizon. The C/N ratio in charcoal-enriched soil horizons is significantly higher than in the neighboring reference soils but clearly attenuated compared to pure wood-charcoal fragments. The CEC is higher in the charcoal-enriched soil horizons, not only due to higher C concentrations but also to increased CEC by carbon unit at kiln sites. The high

  9. Charcoal deposition and redeposition in Elk Lake, Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platt, Bradbury J.

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentary charcoal, diatom and phytolith records of the past 1500 years at Elk Lake, Minnesota, in combination with sediment trap studies and a transect of surface sediment samples, document the mechanisms by which previously deposited charcoal is redeposited and finally buried in this lake. The frequent correspondence of high diatom concentrations and peaks of phytolith and charcoal fragments suggest that currents and turbulence related to lake circulation are responsible for winnowing charcoal and phytoliths from shallow water depositional sites to deeper areas of the lake. High diatom concentrations in the record relate to increased nutrient fluxes also supplied by circulation. Despite the fact that the watershed and area around Elk Lake has not been burned since AD 1922, charcoal continues to reach the profundal zone from littoral source areas in Elk Lake. The variable redeposition of within-lake charcoal requires evaluation before fire-history records can be related to global, regional or even local fire events.

  10. Charcoal in the soil and the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    Charcoal occurs in the natural environment as either a result of wildfire or volcanic processes. Charcoal is one of a range of pyrolysis products that may be included in the term black carbon. This paper outlines aspects of charcoal formation (both natural and experimental) and briefly considers the taphonomic processes leading to a final assemblage. This is done using examples from recent fires and through experimentation. In particular, it is shown that the temperature of charcoal formation may influence the rate of subsequent decay. This has significance for biochar studies. While charcoal may remain near the place of it's formation and be buried in soils it still may be affected by physical and chemical changes that result in fragmentation and subsequent loss to the soil. Charcoal may also be washed out of the fire site by overland flow particularly if the rain occurs soon after the fire. Charcoal is abundant in many sedimentary rocks deposited in a wide range of environments, from terrestrial to marine. Charcoal has a long fossil record and is found in rock sequences from the late Silurian onwards. Charcoal provides evidence of the deep time history of wildfire. There is an intimate relationship between the history of oxygen in the atmosphere and periods of extensive wildfires. High atmospheric oxygen levels (around 30%) in the late Palaeozoic and Cretaceous had a profound effect on the Earth System. The use of charcoal for plant evolution studies, fire history studies, vegetation studies, anatomical studies, climate and atmospheric studies and the wider importance of charcoal for the Earth and Biological Sciences will be considered (Scott 2010, Glasspool and Scott in press). Charcoal is information-rich but yet is an under-utilized resource.

  11. Compact 4-kHz XeF laser with a multisectional discharge gap

    SciTech Connect

    Andramanov, A V; Kabaev, S A; Lazhintsev, B V; Nor-Arevyan, V A; Selemir, Victor D

    2005-04-30

    A XeF electric-discharge laser with a pulse repetition rate f of up to 4 kHz is developed. The laser electrode unit is based on plate electrodes with inductive-capacitive discharge stabilisation. He and Ne are used as buffer gases, and NF{sub 3} serves as a fluorine donor. A narrow ({approx}1 mm) discharge is achieved; the specific energy deposition per unit length of the active volume is as high as 2 J m{sup -1}. The maximum energy in a laser pulse is {approx}3 mJ for NF{sub 3}-Xe-He and NF{sub 3}-Xe-Ne mixtures at total pressures of 0.8 and 1.2 atm, respectively, and the maximum lasing efficiency is {approx}0.73%. The maximum gas velocity in the working gap is 19 m s{sup -1}. The laser-pulse energy at a high pulse repetition rate (4 kHz) virtually coincides with that obtained at a low repetition rate. The mean output pulse power at f = 4 kHz reaches 12 W, and the rms deviation of the laser-pulse energy is {approx}2.5%. (lasers)

  12. Release of carbon granules from cigarettes with charcoal filters

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, J. L.; Stegmeier, S. J.; Mayer, A. G.; Lesses, J. D.; Streck, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To inspect cigarettes with a triple granular filter for charcoal granules on the cut filter surface and, if present, to determine whether the charcoal granules on the filter are released during smoking. DESIGN: 400 Lark cigarettes in 20 packs were examined individually by each of three investigators for the presence of charcoal granules on the cut surface of the cellulose acetate filter. Without removing the cigarettes from the pack, the filters were examined with a stereo zoom microscope for charcoal granules. The percentage of cigarettes that had charcoal granules was defined, and charcoal granules on each filter were counted. Randomly selected cigarettes were then smoked by consenting adult smokers to assess whether the charcoal granules were released during smoking. Lark cigarettes were smoked with a conventional cigarette holder that had been configured to contain an in-line membrane. After smoking, the membrane was analysed microscopically for charcoal granules and other components of the filter that had been released during smoking. RESULTS: Charcoal granules were observed in 79.8% (319/400) of the cigarettes examined. The number of granules per cigarette was 3.3 (SD 3.7). Gaps between the tipping papers--the wrapping papers that surround the filter--were often seen (70%; 242 (71); n = 400 cigarettes). Further, the charcoal cavity was about 60% empty. For all smokers (n = 8/8), charcoal granules were released during smoking. The number of charcoal granules captured on the membranes was 22.5 (16.2) per cigarette. CONCLUSIONS: Charcoal granules are incorporated into cigarette filters to aid in removing toxins in cigarette smoke. In studies of Lark, a popular American cigarette with a charcoal filter, charcoal granules were observed on the filter surface, and were released from the filter when the cigarettes were smoked. During smoking, the toxin-containing charcoal granules are inhaled or ingested. The specific adverse health effects of inhaling or

  13. Influences of charcoal and bamboo charcoal amendment on soil-fluoride fractions and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjian; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun

    2012-10-01

    High levels of fluoride in tea plants pose a potential health risk to humans who drink tea. It has been demonstrated that tea plant fluoride is closely related to the available fluoride in soil. But approaches that could be used to regulate the availability of fluoride in soil have been rarely seen. This study aims to investigate how the addition of charcoal and bamboo charcoal affected soil fluoride availability and bioaccumulation of fluoride in tea plants. In a microcosm experiment, tea plants were grown in the tea garden soil mixed with different amounts of charcoal and bamboo charcoal [that is, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 % (w/w)]. Soil-fluoride fractions and fluoride accumulated in tea plants were determined using the sequential extraction and ion selective electrode method. Obtained results showed that both charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions significantly enhanced the concentrations of Fe/Mn oxide-bound fluoride, but significantly reduced the concentrations of water-soluble and exchangeable fluoride (p < 0.05) in soil. Charcoal and bamboo charcoal additions also significantly decreased the amounts of fluoride in tea roots and tea leaves (p < 0.05). However, the additions of charcoal and bamboo charcoal had no impacts on the tea quality, as indexed by the concentrations of polysaccharides, polyphenols, amino acids, and caffeine in tea leaves. These results suggested that application of charcoal and bamboo charcoal may provide a useful method to reduce the availability of fluoride in soil and the subsequent fluoride uptake by tea plants.

  14. Intravenous theophylline poisoning and multiple-dose charcoal in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Kulig, K W; Bar-Or, D; Rumack, B H

    1987-08-01

    Large overdoses of IV theophylline (50 to 100 mg/kg) were administered to five canines on two separate occasions. On day one, with no charcoal administered, theophylline levels were serially obtained between ten minutes and 12 hours after infusion and the animals were recovered from anesthesia. Three days later the same dose of theophylline was administered, but then 50 g activated charcoal was placed through a nasogastric tube into the duodenum every hour for eight doses. In all five animals tested, activated charcoal significantly decreased the area under the serum concentration-time curve, decreased the half-life of elimination, and increased the clearance of theophylline. This effect on pharmacokinetics was not seen when the nasogastric tube was put into the stomach instead of the small bowel because the charcoal administered did not pass beyond the pylorus. In a separate experiment in which bile theophylline concentrations were measured, it was demonstrated that enhanced elimination was not from interruption of enterohepatic circulation of theophylline. This suggests that the demonstrated physiologic mechanism is that of gastrointestinal dialysis.

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase (PIP4K) regulates TOR signaling and cell growth during Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit; Toscano, Sarah; Trivedi, Deepti; Jones, David R.; Mathre, Swarna; Clarke, Jonathan H.; Divecha, Nullin; Raghu, Padinjat

    2013-01-01

    During development, Drosophila larvae undergo a dramatic increase in body mass wherein nutritional and developmental cues are transduced into growth through the activity of complex signaling pathways. Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases have an established role in this process. In this study we identify Drosophila phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase (dPIP4K) as a phosphoinositide kinase that regulates growth during larval development. Loss-of-function mutants in dPIP4K show reduced body weight and prolonged larval development, whereas overexpression of dPIP4K results both in an increase in body weight and shortening of larval development. The growth defect associated with dPIP4K loss of function is accompanied by a reduction in the average cell size of larval endoreplicative tissues. Our findings reveal that these phenotypes are underpinned by changes in the signaling input into the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling complex and changes in the activity of its direct downstream target p70 S6 kinase. Together, these results define dPIP4K activity as a regulator of cell growth and TOR signaling during larval development. PMID:23530222

  16. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase (PIP4K) regulates TOR signaling and cell growth during Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Toscano, Sarah; Trivedi, Deepti; Jones, David R; Mathre, Swarna; Clarke, Jonathan H; Divecha, Nullin; Raghu, Padinjat

    2013-04-09

    During development, Drosophila larvae undergo a dramatic increase in body mass wherein nutritional and developmental cues are transduced into growth through the activity of complex signaling pathways. Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases have an established role in this process. In this study we identify Drosophila phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase (dPIP4K) as a phosphoinositide kinase that regulates growth during larval development. Loss-of-function mutants in dPIP4K show reduced body weight and prolonged larval development, whereas overexpression of dPIP4K results both in an increase in body weight and shortening of larval development. The growth defect associated with dPIP4K loss of function is accompanied by a reduction in the average cell size of larval endoreplicative tissues. Our findings reveal that these phenotypes are underpinned by changes in the signaling input into the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling complex and changes in the activity of its direct downstream target p70 S6 kinase. Together, these results define dPIP4K activity as a regulator of cell growth and TOR signaling during larval development.

  17. Charcoal as an alternative energy source. sub-project: briquetting of charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Enstad, G.G.

    1982-02-02

    Charcoal briquettes have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. It appears most realistic to use binders in solution. Binders of this kind have been examined and the briquettes' mechanical properties measured. Most promising are borresperse, gum arabic, dynolex, and wood tar.

  18. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 4): Wrigley Charcoal Superfund Site, Hickman County, Wrigley, TN, February 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected Interim Remedial Action (IRA) for the Wrigley Charcoal Site, in Wrigley, Hickman County, Tennessee. The U.S. EPA has modified a wide variety of items that require immediate response action for the first step of cleanup activities to be taken at the Wrigley Charcoal Site. The major goal of these cleanup activities is to address the most serious threats at the Wrigley Charcoal Site by removing contaminated media from the Primary Site flood plain, remediating wastes at the Storage Basin, and through limited access restrictions at the Primary Site and the Storage Basin. The cleanup activities as presented in this IRA Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment will achieve significant risk reduction and will prepare the Site for future remedial activities.

  19. Charcoal tattoo localization for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence in the central compartment of the neck.

    PubMed

    Soprani, F; Bondi, F; Puccetti, M; Armaroli, V

    2012-04-01

    Recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer can often require further surgical options. Reoperations may carry significant risk of surgical complications; additionally, as the anatomy is subverted, there is the possibility of leaving residual neoplasm. In order to avoid such problems during reoperation for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence, we have introduced the technique of preoperative ultrasound-guided tattooing localization of the lymphatic structure to be removed with a 4% solution of active charcoal. Using ultrasound guidance, the lesion is identified and 0.5-2 ml of colloidal charcoal is injected near the lesion. The extraction of the needle is accompanied by injection at constant pressure of other charcoal as to leave a trace of colouring along the path of the needle up to the skin. The preoperative injection was well tolerated in all cases. In the last 5 years, we have used this technique in 13 patients with suspected recurrence in the central compartment (all from papillary carcinomas). Postoperative ultrasound and histological examination confirmed the removal of the lesion in all patients; in one case, the lesion was a parathyroid cyst. Complications were observed in two of 13 (15.4%) cases (one transitory hypoparathyroidism, and one transitory vocal cord paresis). Considering our experience, charcoal tattoo localization can be considered a safe, low-cost technique that is extremely useful for facilitating surgical procedures, and reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage.

  20. Deletion of the gene Pip4k2c, a novel phosphatidylinositol kinase, results in hyperactivation of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Hyeseok; Wu, Chuan; Ramsamooj, Shivan; Bosch, Kaitlyn N.; Chen, Zuojia; Emerling, Brooke M.; Yun, Jihye; Liu, Hui; Choo-Wing, Rayman; Yang, Zhiwei; Wulf, Gerburg M.; Kuchroo, Vijay Kumar; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase (PI5P4K) converts phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. Mammals have three enzymes PI5P4Kα, PI5P4Kβ, and PI5P4Kγ, and these enzymes have been implicated in metabolic control, growth control, and a variety of stress responses. Here, we show that mice with germline deletion of type 2 phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase gamma (Pip4k2c), the gene encoding PI5P4Kγ, appear normal in regard to growth and viability but have increased inflammation and T-cell activation as they age. Immune cell infiltrates increased in Pip4k2c−/− mouse tissues. Also, there was an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, including IFNγ, interleukin 12, and interleukin 2 in plasma of Pip4k2c−/− mice. Pip4k2c−/− mice had an increase in T-helper-cell populations and a decrease in regulatory T-cell populations with increased proliferation of T cells. Interestingly, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling was hyperactivated in several tissues from Pip4k2c−/− mice and treating Pip4k2c−/− mice with rapamycin reduced the inflammatory phenotype, resulting in a decrease in mTORC1 signaling in tissues and a decrease in proinflammatory cytokines in plasma. These results indicate that PI5P4Kγ plays a role in the regulation of the immune system via mTORC1 signaling. PMID:27313209

  1. H4K20me1 contributes to downregulation of X-linked genes for C. elegans dosage compensation.

    PubMed

    Vielle, Anne; Lang, Jackie; Dong, Yan; Ercan, Sevinc; Kotwaliwale, Chitra; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Appert, Alex; Chen, Q Brent; Dose, Andrea; Egelhofer, Thea; Kimura, Hiroshi; Stempor, Przemyslaw; Dernburg, Abby; Lieb, Jason D; Strome, Susan; Ahringer, Julie

    2012-09-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans dosage compensation complex (DCC) equalizes X-chromosome gene dosage between XO males and XX hermaphrodites by two-fold repression of X-linked gene expression in hermaphrodites. The DCC localizes to the X chromosomes in hermaphrodites but not in males, and some subunits form a complex homologous to condensin. The mechanism by which the DCC downregulates gene expression remains unclear. Here we show that the DCC controls the methylation state of lysine 20 of histone H4, leading to higher H4K20me1 and lower H4K20me3 levels on the X chromosomes of XX hermaphrodites relative to autosomes. We identify the PR-SET7 ortholog SET-1 and the Suv4-20 ortholog SET-4 as the major histone methyltransferases for monomethylation and di/trimethylation of H4K20, respectively, and provide evidence that X-chromosome enrichment of H4K20me1 involves inhibition of SET-4 activity on the X. RNAi knockdown of set-1 results in synthetic lethality with dosage compensation mutants and upregulation of X-linked gene expression, supporting a model whereby H4K20me1 functions with the condensin-like C. elegans DCC to repress transcription of X-linked genes. H4K20me1 is important for mitotic chromosome condensation in mammals, suggesting that increased H4K20me1 on the X may restrict access of the transcription machinery to X-linked genes via chromatin compaction.

  2. Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to charcoal rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina causes more yield loss in soybean than most other diseases in the southern U.S.A. There are no commercial genotypes marketed as resistant to charcoal rot of soybean. Reactions of 27 maturity group (MG) III, 29 Early MG IV, 34 Late MG IV, and 59 MG V gen...

  3. Resistance to charcoal rot identified in ancestral soybean germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charcoal rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina, is an economically important disease on soybean and other crops including maize, sorghum, and sunflowers. Without effective cultural or chemical options to control charcoal rot in soybean, finding sources of genetic resistance is o...

  4. 40 CFR 59.208 - Charcoal lighter material testing protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.208 Charcoal... determined by the temperature above the charcoal, the organic vapor concentration measured by the...

  5. Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

  6. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  7. Effects of historic charcoal burning on soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Buras, Allan; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In Northeastern Germany the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kiln remains. At the study site in the forests north of Cottbus, Rubic Brunic Arenosols are developed on Weichselian glaciofluvial deposits. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained from several thousand kilns. The round charcoal kiln remains with inner diameters up to 20 m are smooth platforms elevated a few decimeters higher than the surrounding area. The remaining mounds consist of an about 40 cm thick sheet containing residuals of the charcoal production process such as charcoal fragments, ash but also organic material covering the Rubic Brunic Arenosols. The charcoal kiln remains are distanced only up to 100 m from each other. For the 32 square kilometers large study site, the ground area covered by such charcoal production residuals is about 0.5 square kilometer, i.e. 1.5% of the study area. The charcoal kiln sites are a remarkable carbon accumulator on the sandy parent material. Against this background, we aim to characterize the effects of pyrolysis and the enrichment of carbon, induced by the charcoal production, on soil properties. Field work was done during archaeological rescue excavations on three charcoal kiln relicts having diameters of about 15 m. We applied 150 l of Brilliant Blue solution on six 1 square meter plots (three inside, three outside of the charcoal kiln mound) and afterwards trenched horizontal and vertical profiles for recording the staining patterns. Undisturbed soil samples to study soil micromorphology and further undisturbed samples for characterizing soil physical and hydraulic properties were taken. Outside of the charcoal kiln remain the Brilliant Blue solution drained within less than 10 minutes, whereas on the charcoal kiln remains the draining took between 20 and 40 minutes. Preliminary laboratory analyses underline the findings from the field and

  8. Influence of charcoal burning induced pyrolysis on soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Florian; Nicolay, Alexander; Pötzsch, Bastian; Fritzsche, Marie; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In Lusatia, Northeastern Germany, the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kilns in the forests north of Cottbus. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained around Cottbus from several thousand charcoal kilns which had internal diameters up to 20 m. For the study site with 35 km2 area, the until now prospected total ground area below the charcoal kilns which was potentially affected by the pyrolysis is about 0,5 km2. Historic data indicates that the pyrolysis in the charcoal kiln took up to several weeks, for the kilns with a diameter of 20 m about 20 days. To characterize the depth of thermal alteration of soils below the kiln our current focus is on the differentiation of the iron hydroxides by small-scale vertical analysis of soil profiles. The study site is situated 16 km northeast of Cottbus at the opencast mine Jänschwalde. Field work was done during the archaeological rescue excavation of a charcoal kiln in a 50 m long trench crossing an about 15 m wide charcoal kiln. One vertical profile outside the charcoal kiln and two vertical profiles below the charcoal kiln were chosen for analysis. The magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ on the undisturbed profile and ex situ on stepwise heated samples (105, 350, 550, 750 and 950°C). The total iron content was quantified ex situ by x-ray fluorescence. Our first results indicate a change in the magnetic susceptibility in the contact area of the mineral soil and the charcoal kiln. The influence of the pyrolysis on the soil is restricted to areas where the soil was not shielded against the heat by ash or organic material.

  9. Density and porosity as controls on charcoal storage in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Liu, Z.; Ziegelgruber, K. L.; Dugan, B.; Gonnermann, H.; Chuang, V. J.; Zygourakis, K.

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have documented very low biotic and abiotic decomposition rates of charcoal in the environment, leading to the assumption that it stays within soils after deposition. This assumption forms one tenet of a promising carbon sequestration technique, soil biochar amendment. Laboratory and greenhouse trials with biochar (charcoal produced for addition to soil) do show that charcoal remains in soils after amendment. However, when charcoal has been added to soils in field trials, its retention rate in soils is highly variable. Low retention rates have been reported in some environments, leading to questions about its physical movement across landscapes. Density and porosity are fundamental physical characteristics that play a key role in determining charcoal soil residence time. Measuring the density of charcoal has been challenging historically because of its very high porosity (approaching 80%), making standard fluid displacement methods of density measurement error-prone. Here we review techniques available to measure the density and porosity of BC, focusing on two measurements: skeletal density (the density of the solid component of BC), and envelope density (the mass of a BC sample divided by the volume of its exterior envelope). We present skeletal and envelope density data for environmental charcoal samples and for a series of laboratory-produced charcoals, showing that the skeletal density of charcoal is significantly greater than 1.0 g/cc, while the envelope density is significantly less than 1.0 g/cc. This difference means that pore connectivity and pore structure will be important to quantify to understand landscape movement of charcoal.

  10. Discovery of an in Vivo Tool to Establish Proof-of-Concept for MAP4K4-Based Antidiabetic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in adipose tissue, pancreas, muscle, and macrophages suggest that MAP4K4, a serine/threonine protein kinase may be a viable target for antidiabetic drugs. As part of the evaluation of MAP4K4 as a novel antidiabetic target, a tool compound, 16 (PF-6260933) and a lead 17 possessing excellent kinome selectivity and suitable properties were delivered to establish proof of concept in vivo. The medicinal chemistry effort that led to the discovery of these lead compounds is described herein together with in vivo pharmacokinetic properties and activity in a model of insulin resistance. PMID:26617966

  11. Surgical reconstruction of attempted suicide charcoal burns.

    PubMed

    Burd, Andrew; Ahmed, Kawser; Noronha, Frederick V; Chan, Jimmy Y W; Pang, Peter C W

    2006-01-01

    Burning charcoal in an enclosed space is now the second most-common method of committing suicide in Hong Kong. When the suicide is unsuccessful, the patients can still sustain extensive tissue destruction from both direct and indirect thermal burns. We report a series of three patients who sustained deep injuries that, after débridement, left exposed bones and joints needing acute coverage. Free tissue transfer was required in each case to close the wounds. This short series illustrates the extensive destruction that can occur from both contact burns and radiant heat injury and the reconstructive challenges that can result. Of particular note was that serial débridment was necessary in the radiant heat injury because of the evolving and more extensive nature of the wound.

  12. Tubular bamboo charcoal for anode in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Jun; Ye, Dingding; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Zhang, Biao

    2014-12-01

    The anode material plays a significant role in determining the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, the bamboo charcoal tube is proposed as a novel anode substrate by carbonizing the natural bamboo. Its surface functional groups, biocompatibility and internal resistance are thoroughly investigated. Performance of the MFCs with a conventional graphite tube anode and a bamboo charcoal tube anode is also compared. The results indicate that the tubular bamboo charcoal anode exhibits advantages over the graphite tube anode in terms of rougher surface, superior biocompatibility and smaller total internal resistance. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis for the bamboo charcoal reveals that the introduced C-N bonds facilitate the electron transfer between the biofilm and electrodes. As a result, the MFC with a bamboo charcoal tube anode achieves a 50% improvement in the maximum power density over the graphite tube case. Furthermore, scale-up of the bamboo charcoal tube anode is demonstrated by employing a bundle of tubular bamboo charcoal to reach higher power output.

  13. Gastric decontamination performed 5 min after the ingestion of temazepam, verapamil and moclobemide: charcoal is superior to lavage

    PubMed Central

    Lapatto-reiniluoto, O; Kivistö, K T; Neuvonen, P J

    2000-01-01

    Aims The aim was to study the efficacy of gastric lavage and activated charcoal in preventing the absorption of temazepam, verapamil and moclobemide when gastric decontamination was performed immediately after ingestion of the drugs. Methods Nine healthy volunteers took part in a randomized cross-over study with three phases. The subjects were administered single oral doses of 10 mg temazepam, 80 mg verapamil and 150 mg moclobemide. Five minutes later, they were assigned to one of the following treatments: 200 ml water (control), 25 g activated charcoal as a suspension in 200 ml water or gastric lavage. Plasma concentrations and the cumulative excretion into urine of the three drugs were determined up to 24 h. Results The mean AUC(0,24 h) of temazepam, verapamil and moclobemide was reduced by 95.2% (P < 0.01), 92.8% (P < 0.01) and 99.7% (P < 0.01), respectively, by activated charcoal compared with control. Gastric lavage did not reduce significantly the AUC(0,24 h) of these drugs. The 24 h cumulative excretion of temazepam, verapamil and moclobemide into urine was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by charcoal but not by gastric lavage. Charcoal reduced the AUC(0,24 h), Cmax and urinary excretion of all three drugs significantly more than lavage. Conclusions Activated charcoal is very effective and gastric lavage can be rather ineffective in preventing the absorption of temazepam, verapamil and moclobemide when the treatment is given very rapidly after ingestion of the drugs, before tablet disintegration has occurred. PMID:10718784

  14. Ancient charcoal as a natural archive for paleofire regime and vegetation change in the Mayumbe, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubau, Wannes; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Kitin, Peter; Mees, Florias; Baert, Geert; Verschuren, Dirk; Nsenga, Laurent; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

    2013-09-01

    Charcoal was sampled in four soil profiles at the Mayumbe forest boundary (DRC). Five fire events were recorded and 44 charcoal types were identified. One stratified profile yielded charcoal assemblages around 530 cal yr BP and > 43.5 cal ka BP in age. The oldest assemblage precedes the period of recorded anthropogenic burning, illustrating occasional long-term absence of fire but also natural wildfire occurrences within tropical rainforest. No other charcoal assemblages older than 2500 cal yr BP were recorded, perhaps due to bioturbation and colluvial reworking. The recorded paleofires were possibly associated with short-lived climate anomalies. Progressively dry climatic conditions since ca. 4000 cal yr BP onward did not promote paleofire occurrence until increasing seasonality affected vegetation at the end of the third millennium BP, as illustrated by a fire occurring in mature rainforest that persisted until around 2050 cal yr BP. During a drought episode coinciding with the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly', mature rainforest was locally replaced by woodland savanna. Charcoal remains from pioneer forest indicate that fire hampered forest regeneration after climatic drought episodes. The presence of pottery shards and oil-palm endocarps associated with two relatively recent paleofires suggests that the effects of climate variability were amplified by human activities.

  15. Reduction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of charcoal smoke during grilling by charcoal preparation using high carbonisation and a preheating step.

    PubMed

    Chaemsai, Suriyapong; Kunanopparat, Thiranan; Srichumpuang, Jidapa; Nopharatana, Montira; Tangduangdee, Chairath; Siriwattanayotin, Suwit

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal-grilling may lead to contamination of food with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the grilling process. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of charcoal preparation on 16 USEPA priority PAHs in the smoke produced during the grilling process. Firstly, mangrove charcoal was prepared at carbonisation temperatures of 500, 750 and 1000 °C. The charcoal were then preheated by burning at 650 °C. This preheating step is usually used to prepare hot charcoal for the grilling process in the food industry. In this study, charcoal was preheated at different burning times at 5, 20 min and 5 h, at which time partial and whole charcoal glowed, and charcoal was completely burnt, respectively. Finally, PAHs in the smoke were collected and determined by GC/MS. The result showed that charcoal prepared at a carbonisation temperature of 500 °C had higher levels of PAHs released into the smoke. In contrast, charcoal produced at 750 and 1000 °C had lower PAHs released for all burning times. In addition, PAHs released for 5, 20 min and 5 h of burning time were about 19.9, 1.2 and 0.7 µg g(-1) dry charcoal for charcoal produced at 500 °C, and about 0.9-1.4, 0.8-1.2 and 0.15-0.3 µg g(-1) dry charcoal for charcoal produced at 750 and 1000 °C, respectively. Therefore, this research suggests that food grilled using charcoal carbonised at a high temperature of about 750 °C presents a lower risk of PAH contamination. In addition, in the preheating step, whole charcoal should fully glow in order to reduce the PAH content in charcoal before grilling.

  16. Predicting distributions of charcoal in Amazonian soils: approaches from earth and space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, C.; Palace, M. W.; Bush, M. B.; Braswell, R.; Hagen, S. C.; Czarnecki, C.; Neves, E.; Raczka, M.

    2011-12-01

    The direct linkage between fire and human activity in Amazonian rainforests is evidenced in both remote sensing datasets and field-based research. Paleoecological and archaeological data suggest the synergy has persisted millennia, and that human populations may have equaled modern numbers before European contact. Pre-Columbian people used fire to clear forests, but also combined charcoal with other materials to form Amazonian Black Earths (ABE), a nutrient rich anthrosol believed to be capable of sustaining large-scale permanent societies in such nutrient-poor tropical settings. The majority of impacted sites are found on bluffs overlooking Amazonian rivers, which are considered 'preferred' settings. Here, we examine predictions about preferred settings and the distributions of charcoal resulting from pre-Columbian human activity in western and central Amazonia using proxies from both earth and space. Soil sampling, stratified based on distance from river and forest seasonality, was used to determine whether preferred locations had higher probabilities of impacts. We analyzed more than 351 soil cores for ABE and macroscopic charcoal (> 500 μm) in the upper 20 cm of soil (representing modern fires), and in soils > 20 cm depth (representing historic fires). ABE was absent from all sites, but logistic regressions indicated that probabilities of finding soil charcoal significantly decreased as distance from river increased in aseasonal forests. However, in more seasonal forests, the probability of finding charcoal was increased, although distance from river was not a significant factor. Alternately, the location of ABE and charcoal mainly along major rivers may be an artifact of sampling. To look at distributions of ABE across broad spatial scales that may not be accessible from the ground, we used Hyperion satellite images to detect canopy chemistry differences resulting from various soil nutrients (i.e. soil enrichment occurring at ABE sites). Our initial findings

  17. INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, STOVE. SMALL CHARCOAL FIRES WERE LIT IN THE DEPRESSIONS, WHICH WERE COVERED WITH IRON GRATES TO SUSPEND POTS OVER THE HEAT SOURCE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW OF CHARCOAL KILNS AND IRON PLANT FROM SOUTH END OF BEACH, probably 1901. (From the Robert Teagle Private Collection, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  19. Formation of charcoal from biomass in a sealed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. ); Szabo, P.; Varhegyi, G.; Zelei, B. )

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, samples o cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and nine species of whole biomass are pyrolyzed in sealed reactors. Very high charcoal yields (e.g., 40% from cellulose, 48% from Eucalyptus gummifera) were obtained. Higher sample loading (sample mass per unit reactor volume) increased charcoal yield and the associated exothermic heat release and lowered the reaction onset temperature. These effects were induced by the vapor-phase concentrations of the volatile products, and not the system pressure. Addition of water catalyzed the reaction and increased the char yield. These observations suggest that charcoal formation is autocatalyzed by water, an initial pyrolysis product. When whole biomass was used as a feedstock, higher charcoal yields were obtained from species with high lignin and/or low hemicellulose content.

  20. Compliance for single and multiple dose regimens of superactivated charcoal: a prospective study of patients in a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Fahim; Sooriyarachchi, M Roshini; Senarathna, Lalith; Azhar, Shifa; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A; Eddleston, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Although activated charcoal is widely used for the treatment of self-poisoning, its effectiveness is unknown. An important consideration is patient compliance since poor compliance will limit effectiveness. We aimed to describe compliance in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) performed in Sri Lanka, presuming that this would set the upper limits for compliance in routine clinical use. Method 1103 patients randomized to single or multiple (6 doses q4h) 50 g doses of super-activated charcoal were prospectively observed. Charcoal was given by study doctors who recorded the amount ingested and the amount of persuasion required for the patients to drink the charcoal. Results 559 patients were randomized to receive one dose and 544 to receive six doses. Data was available for 1071 (97%) patients. Eighty eight were not able to complete their course; a further 98 required a NG tube, leaving 885 patients that received the first dose by mouth. The mean estimated amount of the prescribed dose of charcoal taken orally as a single or first dose was 83% (95% C.I. 82-84%). For patients receiving multiple doses, this amount fell over the next five doses to 66% (63-69%). While only 3.2% of patients refused the first dose, 12.3% refused the sixth. Relatively less persuasion was required for patients ingesting the first or single dose; 38% of patients required intense persuasion by the sixth dose. Conclusion Compliance for a single dose of superactivated charcoal among trial patients was good. However, even in the ideal circumstances of a RCT, compliance decreased thereafter for patients taking more than one dose. PMID:17364629

  1. Genome wide identification of promoter binding sites for H4K12ac in human sperm and its relevance for early embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Paradowska, Agnieszka S.; Miller, David; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai; Vieweg, Markus; Cerna, Martina; Dvorakova-Hortova, Katerina; Bartkuhn, Marek; Schuppe, Hans-Christian; Weidner, Wolfgang; Steger, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Sperm chromatin reveals two characteristic features in that protamines are the predominant nuclear proteins and remaining histones are highly acetylated. Histone H4 acetylated at lysine 12 (H4K12ac) is localized in the post-acrosomal region, while protamine-1 is present within the whole nucleus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with promoter array analysis allowed genome-wide identification of H4K12ac binding sites. Previously, we reported enrichment of H4K12ac at CTCF binding sites and promoters of genes involved in developmental processes. Here, we demonstrate that H4K12ac is enriched predominantly between ± 2 kb from the transcription start site. In addition, we identified developmentally relevant H4K12ac-associated promoters with high expression levels of their transcripts stored in mature sperm. The highest expressed mRNA codes for testis-specific PHD finger protein-7 (PHF7), suggesting an activating role of H4K12ac in the regulatory elements of this gene. H4K12ac-associated genes revealed a weak correlation with genes expressed at 4-cell stage human embryos, while 23 H4K12ac-associated genes were activated in 8-cell embryo and 39 in the blastocyst. Genes activated in 4-cell embryos are involved in gene expression, histone fold and DNA-dependent transcription, while genes expressed in the blastocyst were classified as involved in developmental processes. Immunofluorescence staining detected H4K12ac from the murine male pronucleus to early stages of embryogenesis. Aberrant histone acetylation within developmentally important gene promoters in infertile men may reflect insufficient sperm chromatin compaction, which may result in inappropriate transfer of epigenetic information to the oocyte. PMID:22894908

  2. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Koelmans, Albert A; Meulman, Brendo; Meijer, Thijs; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2009-02-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to HA-amended charcoal was calculated by subtracting the sorption contribution of HA from the total sorption to charcoal and HA. Association of PCBs with HA was proportional to hydrophobicity. However, the planar PCBs 77 and 126 had an additional 2-4 times stronger association than expected from hydrophobicity alone. Sorption isotherms for the raw charcoal fitted slightly better to a three-parameter Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model than to a two-parameter Langmuir model. Preloading the charcoal with 1-75 mg of HA/g of charcoal increasingly attenuated sorption to charcoal with up to a factor of 10. The resultant isotherms could be described adequately with the Freundlich model. Isotherm nonlinearity increased with HA loading, suggesting increased sorption competition between HA and PCBs. Attenuation was negligible in the PCB picogram per liter to nanogram per liter range and increased at higher PCB concentrations, which points to saturation of binding sites on the charcoal. Attenuation was highest for planar congeners, which suggests an additional site blockage mechanism. These variations due to HA loading and PCB concentration can explain the variability in attenuation reported in earlier work and imply that the use of constant "attenuation factors" to adjust sorption coefficients determined for pure carbonaceous materials in order to apply them to field situations may not be warranted.

  3. Charcoal versus LPG grilling: A carbon-footprint comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric

    2009-11-15

    Undoubtedly, grilling is popular. Britons fire up their barbeques some 60 million times a year, consuming many thousands of tonnes of fuel. In milder climates consumption is even higher, and in the developing world, charcoal continues to be an essential cooking fuel. So it is worth comparing the carbon footprints of the two major grill types, charcoal and LPG, and that was the purpose of the study this paper documents. Charcoal and LPG grill systems were defined, and their carbon footprints were calculated for a base case and for some plausible variations to that base case. In the base case, the charcoal grilling footprint of 998 kg CO{sub 2}e is almost three times as large as that for LPG grilling, 349 kg CO{sub 2}e. The relationship is robust under all plausible sensitivities. The overwhelming factors are that as a fuel, LPG is dramatically more efficient than charcoal in its production and considerably more efficient in cooking. Secondary factors are: use of firelighters, which LPG does not need; LPG's use of a heavier, more complicated grill; and LPG's use of cylinders that charcoal does not need.

  4. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates.

  5. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified.

  6. A 45-year-old man with a lung mass and history of charcoal aspiration.

    PubMed

    Seder, David B; Christman, Robert A; Quinn, Michael O; Knauft, M Elizabeth

    2006-11-01

    A 45-year-old man was seen in consultation for evaluation of a spiculated right-lower-lobe mass that enlarged over 1 year. The patient had suffered accidental instillation of activated charcoal into the right lung via nasogastric tube 2 years prior to this consultation, with resultant respiratory failure, pneumonia, and pneumothorax. Biopsy of the mass showed anthracosis and granulomatous inflammation. A positron emission tomogram was strongly positive at the lesion, and right-lower-lobectomy with partial diaphragmatic resection was performed. On gross examination of the mass, a charcoal concretion was evident. Histologic examination showed intrinsic and surrounding granulomatous inflammation, but without tumor. The patient recovered uneventfully, and after 1 year had not experienced further complications.

  7. Monte Carlo counting efficiencies for measuring Rn in a charcoal canister

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Owen J.

    1990-03-01

    The level of 222Rn adsorbed in an activated charcoal canister may be determined by direct measurement of the canister, using a NaI detector. The counting efficiency of this arrangement depends on the Rn distribution in the charcoal, and this varies as a function of sampling period. Provided the Rn profile can be predicted, a Monte Carlo program can be used to simulate the counting arrangement. The Rn distribution in a canister used for surface emanation measurements can be described accurately by use of an empirical expression. Three time dependent coefficients were used in the expression to determine the shape of the distribution as a function of sampling period. Counting efficiencies were estimated by use of a simple Monte Carlo program and these were all found to be in close agreement with measured values for various sampling periods.

  8. SETD4 Regulates Cell Quiescence and Catalyzes the Trimethylation of H4K20 during Diapause Formation in Artemia.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li; Ye, Sen; Li, Hua-Wei; Chen, Dian-Fu; Wang, Hong-Liang; Jia, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Cheng; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Fan; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2017-04-01

    As a prominent characteristic of cell life, the regulation of cell quiescence is important for proper development, regeneration, and stress resistance and may play a role in certain degenerative diseases. However, the mechanism underlying quiescence remains largely unknown. Encysted embryos of Artemia are useful for studying the regulation of this state because they remain quiescent for prolonged periods during diapause, a state of obligate dormancy. In the present study, SET domain-containing protein 4, a histone lysine methyltransferase from Artemia, was identified, characterized, and named Ar-SETD4. We found that Ar-SETD4 was expressed abundantly in Artemia diapause embryos, in which cells were in a quiescent state. Meanwhile, trimethylated histone H4K20 (H4K20me3) was enriched in diapause embryos. The knockdown of Ar-SETD4 reduced the level of H4K20me3 significantly and prevented the formation of diapause embryos in which neither the cell cycle nor embryogenesis ceased. The catalytic activity of Ar-SETD4 on H4K20me3 was confirmed by an in vitro histone methyltransferase (HMT) assay and overexpression in cell lines. This study provides insights into the function of SETD4 and the mechanism of cell quiescence regulation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. SETD4 Regulates Cell Quiescence and Catalyzes the Trimethylation of H4K20 during Diapause Formation in Artemia

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li; Ye, Sen; Li, Hua-Wei; Chen, Dian-Fu; Wang, Hong-Liang; Jia, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Cheng; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Fan; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a prominent characteristic of cell life, the regulation of cell quiescence is important for proper development, regeneration, and stress resistance and may play a role in certain degenerative diseases. However, the mechanism underlying quiescence remains largely unknown. Encysted embryos of Artemia are useful for studying the regulation of this state because they remain quiescent for prolonged periods during diapause, a state of obligate dormancy. In the present study, SET domain-containing protein 4, a histone lysine methyltransferase from Artemia, was identified, characterized, and named Ar-SETD4. We found that Ar-SETD4 was expressed abundantly in Artemia diapause embryos, in which cells were in a quiescent state. Meanwhile, trimethylated histone H4K20 (H4K20me3) was enriched in diapause embryos. The knockdown of Ar-SETD4 reduced the level of H4K20me3 significantly and prevented the formation of diapause embryos in which neither the cell cycle nor embryogenesis ceased. The catalytic activity of Ar-SETD4 on H4K20me3 was confirmed by an in vitro histone methyltransferase (HMT) assay and overexpression in cell lines. This study provides insights into the function of SETD4 and the mechanism of cell quiescence regulation. PMID:28031330

  10. Developmental Dynamics of X-Chromosome Dosage Compensation by the DCC and H4K20me1 in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Maxwell; Kranz, Anna-Lena; Su, Amanda; Winterkorn, Lara H; Albritton, Sarah Elizabeth; Ercan, Sevinc

    2015-12-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) specifically binds to and represses transcription from both X chromosomes in hermaphrodites. The DCC is composed of an X-specific condensin complex that interacts with several proteins. During embryogenesis, DCC starts localizing to the X chromosomes around the 40-cell stage, and is followed by X-enrichment of H4K20me1 between 100-cell to comma stage. Here, we analyzed dosage compensation of the X chromosome between sexes, and the roles of dpy-27 (condensin subunit), dpy-21 (non-condensin DCC member), set-1 (H4K20 monomethylase) and set-4 (H4K20 di-/tri-methylase) in X chromosome repression using mRNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses across several developmental time points. We found that the DCC starts repressing the X chromosomes by the 40-cell stage, but X-linked transcript levels remain significantly higher in hermaphrodites compared to males through the comma stage of embryogenesis. Dpy-27 and dpy-21 are required for X chromosome repression throughout development, but particularly in early embryos dpy-27 and dpy-21 mutations produced distinct expression changes, suggesting a DCC independent role for dpy-21. We previously hypothesized that the DCC increases H4K20me1 by reducing set-4 activity on the X chromosomes. Accordingly, in the set-4 mutant, H4K20me1 increased more from the autosomes compared to the X, equalizing H4K20me1 level between X and autosomes. H4K20me1 increase on the autosomes led to a slight repression, resulting in a relative effect of X derepression. H4K20me1 depletion in the set-1 mutant showed greater X derepression compared to equalization of H4K20me1 levels between X and autosomes in the set-4 mutant, indicating that H4K20me1 level is important, but X to autosomal balance of H4K20me1 contributes slightly to X-repression. Thus H4K20me1 is not only a downstream effector of the DCC [corrected].In summary, X chromosome dosage compensation starts in early embryos as the DCC localizes to

  11. Developmental Dynamics of X-Chromosome Dosage Compensation by the DCC and H4K20me1 in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Maxwell; Kranz, Anna-Lena; Su, Amanda; Winterkorn, Lara H.; Albritton, Sarah Elizabeth; Ercan, Sevinc

    2015-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) specifically binds to and represses transcription from both X chromosomes in hermaphrodites. The DCC is composed of an X-specific condensin complex that interacts with several proteins. During embryogenesis, DCC starts localizing to the X chromosomes around the 40-cell stage, and is followed by X-enrichment of H4K20me1 between 100-cell to comma stage. Here, we analyzed dosage compensation of the X chromosome between sexes, and the roles of dpy-27 (condensin subunit), dpy-21 (non-condensin DCC member), set-1 (H4K20 monomethylase) and set-4 (H4K20 di-/tri-methylase) in X chromosome repression using mRNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses across several developmental time points. We found that the DCC starts repressing the X chromosomes by the 40-cell stage, but X-linked transcript levels remain significantly higher in hermaphrodites compared to males through the comma stage of embryogenesis. Dpy-27 and dpy-21 are required for X chromosome repression throughout development, but particularly in early embryos dpy-27 and dpy-21 mutations produced distinct expression changes, suggesting a DCC independent role for dpy-21. We previously hypothesized that the DCC increases H4K20me1 by reducing set-4 activity on the X chromosomes. Accordingly, in the set-4 mutant, H4K20me1 increased more from the autosomes compared to the X, equalizing H4K20me1 level between X and autosomes. H4K20me1 increase on the autosomes led to a slight repression, resulting in a relative effect of X derepression. H4K20me1 depletion in the set-1 mutant showed greater X derepression compared to equalization of H4K20me1 levels between X and autosomes in the set-4 mutant, indicating that H4K20me1 level is important, but X to autosomal balance of H4K20me1 contributes only slightly to X-repression. Thus H4K20me1 by itself is not a downstream effector of the DCC. In summary, X chromosome dosage compensation starts in early embryos as the DCC localizes to

  12. Use of charcoals and broiler litter biochar for removal of radioactive cesium (Cs-134 plus Cs-137) from contaminated water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  13. Operationalizing measurement of forest degradation: Identification and quantification of charcoal production in tropical dry forests using very high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dons, K.; Smith-Hall, C.; Meilby, H.; Fensholt, R.

    2015-07-01

    Quantification of forest degradation in monitoring and reporting as well as in historic baselines is among the most challenging tasks in national REDD+ strategies. However, a recently introduced option is to base monitoring systems on subnational conditions such as prevalent degradation activities. In Tanzania, charcoal production is considered a major cause of forest degradation, but is challenging to quantify due to sub-canopy biomass loss, remote production sites and illegal trade. We studied two charcoal production sites in dry Miombo woodland representing open woodland conditions near human settlements and remote forest with nearly closed canopies. Supervised classification and adaptive thresholding were applied on a pansharpened QuickBird (QB) image to detect kiln burn marks (KBMs). Supervised classification showed reasonable detection accuracy in the remote forest site only, while adaptive thresholding was found acceptable at both locations. We used supervised classification and manual digitizing for KBM delineation and found acceptable delineation accuracy at both sites with RMSEs of 25-32% compared to ground measurements. Regression of charcoal production on KBM area delineated from QB resulted in R2s of 0.86-0.88 with cross-validation RMSE ranging from 2.22 to 2.29 Mg charcoal per kiln. This study demonstrates, how locally calibrated remote sensing techniques may be used to identify and delineate charcoal production sites for estimation of charcoal production and associated extraction of woody biomass.

  14. The Sedimentary Charcoal Record of Regional and Global Biomass Burning on Multi-decadal-to-Orbital Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlein, P. J.; Marlon, J.; Global Palaeofire Working Group

    2011-12-01

    The global charcoal database (GCD) assembled by the Global Palaeofire Working Group (GPWG) over the past several years provides over 800 sedimentary charcoal records of biomass burning that allows wildfire to be examined on a range of spatial and temporal scales. These data, and other analyses of sedimentary charcoal records show that: (1) The data-analytical aspects of sedimentary charcoal have matured to the extent that we can show that biomass burning is well represented by these records, that charcoal influx is a general indicator of area or biomass burning, and that peaks of charcoal influx in records with annual-to-decadal resolution provide evidence of individual fires. (2) The spatial coverage of the records is extensive enough to represent much of the global climate space, although coverage of Africa, Siberia, and grassland and desert ecosystems in general could be improved. (3) The temporal coverage is sufficient to resolve millennial-scale environmental changes over the past glacial cycle, and hemispheric and regional variations in biomass burning from the LGM to present. (4) Global biomass burning was very low at the LGM, and increases in biomass burning into the Holocene tracked hemispheric and regional climate changes. (5) Abrupt climate changes during deglaciation caused specific responses in the charcoal records; these responses are replicated during the abrupt warming and cooling episodes accompanying D-O cycles. (6) During the Holocene, biomass burning reflects regional climate changes and does not support the early anthropocene hypothesis. (7) Over the last millennium, biomass burning also tracks regional climate changes, and shows an unambiguous human influence only over the past 250 years. (8) The variations in global biomass burning on multiple time scales described by the sedimentary charcoal record are supported by the emerging ice core records of biomass burning. (9) Increases in biomass burning are strongly linked to temperature increases

  15. Suppression of charcoal rot in soybean by moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa GS-33 under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandeep; Paradeshi, Jayasinh; Chaudhari, Bhushan

    2016-08-01

    Charcoal rot severely limits the soybean crop yield under saline conditions. The present studies focus on biocontrol and plant growth promoting potential of phenazine producing moderately halotolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GS-33) in soybean under saline soil conditions. A marine isolate; GS-33 was identified as P. aeruginosa based on polyphasic characterization. This strain showed potent in vitro biocontrol activity against charcoal rot causing fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. It was capable of producing phenazine-1-carboxylic acid even at elevated salt concentrations. Moreover, GS-33 possessed other biocontrol traits like production of siderophores, HCN and protease under saline conditions. Multiple traits for plant growth promotion such as synthesis of IAA, NH3 , and solubilization of phosphate were also exhibited by GS-33. Plant growth promoting and biocontrol control potentials of GS-33 were evaluated by pot assay under saline soil conditions. Higher biomass and chlorophyll content were observed in GS-33 treated seedlings. A greater reduction in charcoal rot caused by fungal pathogens under both normal and saline soil conditions in GS-33 treated seedlings was observed. In a nut shell, phenazine producing halotolerant strain GS-33 could mitigate saline soil conditions (abiotic stress) and infestation of M. phaseolina (biotic stress) in soybean. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. 4 kW Test of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. K. Housley; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao

    2012-06-01

    A new test stand has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for multi-kW testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. This test stand will initially be operated at the 4 KW scale. The 4 kW tests will include two 60-cell stacks operating in parallel in a single hot zone. The stacks are internally manifolded with an inverted-U flow pattern and an active area of 100 cm2 per cell. Process gases to and from the two stacks are distributed from common inlet/outlet tubing using a custom base manifold unit that also serves as the bottom current collector plate. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells and electrode gases. Sealing is accomplished with compliant mica-glass seals. A spring-loaded test fixture is used for mechanical stack compression. Due to the power level and the large number of cells in the hot zone, process gas flow rates are high and heat recuperation is required to preheat the cold inlet gases upstream of the furnace. Heat recuperation is achieved by means of two inconel tube-in-tube counter-flow heat exchangers. A current density of 0.3 A/cm2 will be used for these tests, resulting in a hydrogen production rate of 25 NL/min. Inlet steam flow rates will be set to achieve a steam utilization value of 50%. The 4 kW test will be performed for a minimum duration of 1000 hours in order to document the long-term durability of the stacks. Details of the test apparatus and initial results will be provided.

  17. Initial Laboratory and Sky Testing Results for the Second Generation H4RG-10 4k x 4k, 10 Micron Visible CMOS-Hybrid Detector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Initial Laboratory and Sky Testing Results for tbe Second Generation H4RG -I0 4k x 4k, 10 micron visible CMOS-Hybrid Detector Bryan N. Dorland,a...results for the H4RG·IO (A2), the second generation orlhe H4RG -IO visible CMOS-Hybrid Sensor Chip Assembly (SeA). The lirst science grade H4RG - JO (A2...delivered in 2009, is an evolution of the first generation A I, fi rst delivered and tested in 2007. The H4RG - 10 is primarily intended for

  18. The Charcoal Component of Soil Organic Matter in the Boreal Forest of Western Quebec (Abitibi Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, C. M.; Simard, M.; Kurz, W. A.; Rampley, G.; Wasylishen, R. E.; Bernard, G. M.; Bergeron, Y.; Lecomte, N.

    2009-05-01

    Despite high interest in pyrogenic carbon (PyC) as a stable and possibly major component of soil organic matter (SOM), there is surprisingly little information on production, stocks, longevity, chemical properties or ecological role of PyC in boreal forests. We define the whole range of fire-transformed biomass and SOM as pyrogenic C (PyC), black carbon (BC) as the fraction resistant to laboratory oxidation, and charcoal as that determined visually. Fire is the major disturbance in boreal forests, with panboreal production estimated at 12.7 Tg/y as solid PyC and 0.38 Tg/y as atmospheric soot (estimated as 5% and 0.15% of emissions, respectively). PyC is considered a highly-stable component of SOM, and thus should contribute to long-term C sequestration by partially offsetting C losses due to fire. Forest floor charcoal is considered to enhance N availability after fire, partly by sorbing phenolics and providing microsites for microbial activity, while other studies have indicated that BC enhances mineral soil fertility, mainly by enhancing cation exchange capacity as it oxidizes. However, studies of its ecological role in boreal forests have not sufficiently isolated charcoal effects per se from direct effects of fire. Without fire disturbance many boreal forests undergo gradual paludification, with increasing thickness of organic horizons and dominance of sphagnum moss and ericaceous shrubs. As part of extensive studies of fire history and paludification in the Abitibi region of Quebec, charcoal fragments (>2mm) were separated at 1 cm depth increments (organic horizons plus varying depths of mineral soil, 2-3 monoliths per plot) in 31 plots of black spruce (Picea mariana) and 19 of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Plots included stands originating after high- and low-severity fires, the former defined as leaving <5 cm of organic horizon. Plots from low-severity fires (mainly black spruce, up to 229 y) generally had multiple layers of charcoal in the organic horizons

  19. Effects of charcoal kiln saunas (Jjimjilbang) on psychological states.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Shinya; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kajii, Eiji; Ide, Masahiro; Shibata, Yosuke; Noda, Tatsuya; Murata, Chiyoe; Nagata, Katsutaro; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2008-05-01

    This uncontrolled intervention study explored the effects of sauna bathing utilizing residual heat from charcoal kilns (charcoal kiln saunas) on psychological states. Forty-five volunteers (24 males and 21 females; mean age 51.9 years (S.D. 15.7) visiting a bamboo charcoal kiln in Japan participated in the study. They completed a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after charcoal kiln sauna bathing in order to determine mood and anxiety states. Six factors relating to mood were measured using the POMS: Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion. The two anxiety concepts of state anxiety and trait anxiety were also measured. Changes in psychological states before and after sauna bathing were then determined. All mood scales and both manifest anxiety measures were improved after sauna bathing. Charcoal kiln sauna bathing appears to improve mood and decrease anxiety. It is a limitation of this study that this was a descriptive prospective and an uncontrolled intervention study. Further investigation of the improvement of trait anxiety is required.

  20. Activated Charcoal—Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Derlet, Robert W.; Albertson, Timothy E.

    1986-01-01

    Poisoned patients were first treated with charcoal more than 150 years ago. Despite its almost universal acceptance today, activated charcoal's role has been overshadowed by the emphasis on treating poisoned patients first with gastric emptying. We review the current use of activated charcoal and recent studies that suggest that activated charcoal may be the single most effective treatment in many types of poisoning. New explanations for the mechanisms of action include “back diffusion” and disruption of enterohepatic loops. Clinical data endorse a new and aggressive role for activated charcoal in the management of poisoned and overdosed patients. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:3538661

  1. Design of an improved high cooling power 4 K GM cryocooler and helium compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X. H.

    2015-12-01

    High cooling power 4 K cryocoolers are in high demand given their broad applications in such fields as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and low temperature superconductors. ARS has recently designed and developed a high cooling power 4 K pneumatic-drive GM cryocooler which achieves a typical cooling power of 1.75 W/4.2 K. Steady input power of our newly developed helium compressor supplied to the cold head is 11.8 kW at 60 Hz. The operational speed of the cold head is 30 RPM. The effects of geometries and operational conditions on the cooling performance of this 4 K GM cryocooler are also experimentally tested.

  2. Surface changes of enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertiwi, U. I.; Eriwati, Y. K.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness changes of tooth enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste. Thirty specimens were brushed using distilled water (the first group), Strong® Formula toothpaste (the second group), and Charcoal® Formula toothpaste for four minutes and 40 seconds (equivalent to one month) and for 14 minutes (equivalent to three months) using a soft fleece toothbrush with a mass of 150 gr. The roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester, and the results were tested with repeated ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA. The value of the surface roughness of tooth enamel was significantly different (p<0.05) after brushing for an equivalent of one month and an equivalent of three months. Using toothpaste containing charcoal can increase the surface roughness of tooth enamel.

  3. The stability and functional properties of charcoal in Ghanaian agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxfield, Tom; Sohi, Saran

    2014-05-01

    Weathering of biochar will lead to its eventual mineralisation to CO2, but how does this happen and how quickly will the biochar break down? This study focuses on the fate of charcoal, as an analogue for biochar, over a ten year period in rural Ghana. The objectives of the work were to determine the stability of charcoal over this timeframe, the change in its functional properties and to calibrate or validate recently established approaches to age biochar artificially. The study showed that the oxygen-to-carbon ratio of charcoal surfaces generally increases over time. Gradually the oxidation penetrates the subsurface layers, causing surface layers to erode and exposing previously un-aged surfaces to degradation.

  4. Enhancing methane production during the anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol using Japanese cedar charcoal.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ryoya; Tada, Chika; Baba, Yasunori; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    The use of Japanese cedar charcoal as a support material for microbial attachment could enhance methane production during anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol and wastewater sludge. Methane yield from a charcoal-containing reactor was approximately 1.6 times higher than that from a reactor without charcoal, and methane production was stable over 50 days when the loading rate was 2.17 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) d(-1). Examination of microbial communities on the charcoal revealed the presence of Uncultured Desulfovibrio sp. clone V29 and Pelobacter seleniigenes, known as 1,3-propandiol degraders. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were also detected in the archaeal community on the charcoal. Methanosaeta, Methanoregula, and Methanocellus were present in the charcoal-containing reactor. The concentration of propionate in the charcoal-containing reactor was also lower than that in the control reactor. These results suggest that propionate degradation was enhanced by the consumption of hydrogen by hydrogenotrophic methanogens on the charcoal.

  5. Can Charcoal Provide Information About Fire Effects and Fire Severity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of

  6. Evaluation of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, A.G.; Sedgley, D.W.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. In this study, small coconut charcoal granules were utilized as the sorbent, and braze alloys and low temperature curing cements were used as the bonding agents for attachment to a copper support structure. Problems of scale-up of the bonding agent to a 40 cm diam panel were also investigated. Our results indicate that acceptable helium pumping performance of braze bonded and cement bonded charcoals can be achieved over the range of operating conditions expected in fusion reactors.

  7. Charcoal's physical properties are key to understanding its environmental behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, Caroline; Brewer, Catherine; Dugan, Brandon; Liu, Zuolin; Gonnermann, Helge; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Davies, Christian; Panzacchi, Pietro; Gao, Xiaodong; Pyle, Lacey

    2014-05-01

    Charcoal is a highly porous, low density material whose physical properties play a key role in its soil behavior and its environmental fate. In considering biochar, some of its most sought-after environmental effects are a result of its physical characteristics, not its chemical or biological properties. For example, the ability of biochar to retain soil water is widely attributed to its porosity. However, charcoal physical properties are so poorly understood that they are sometimes not characterized at all in the current literature. Here we outline a suite of basic physical properties of charcoal and the likely environmental effects of their variations, with a focus on the interactions between charcoal and water. The most basic physical property of charcoal, its particle size, likely plays a role in its ability to alter the rate of drainage in soils. Particle morphology is also relevant, affecting how particles of soil and char can pack together. Bulk densities of charcoal and soil mixtures can be used to generate a simple estimate of the efficiency of char-soil packing. Charcoal density is an additionally important property and can be measured in a number of ways. Density almost certainly controls the tendency of chars to sink or float, and to erode or remain on the land surface. However, charcoal density can vary by almost a factor of 10 depending on the measurement technique used. We discuss two simple techniques available for measuring char density and the value of information provided by each approach. Finally, we report a simple, fast technique to measure total char porosity, including all pores from nanometers to 10s of micrometers in size. Porosity is at least one of the key controls on the ability of biochar to improve plant-available water, and techniques to measure it have previously been limited to the smallest fraction of pores (N2 sorption) or have required expensive, hazardous procedures (Hg porosimetry). We show that char porosity varies primarily

  8. An RNA interference-based screen identifies MAP4K4/NIK as a negative regulator of PPARγ, adipogenesis, and insulin-responsive hexose transport

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoqing; Guilherme, Adilson; Chakladar, Abhijit; Powelka, Aimee M.; Konda, Silvana; Virbasius, Joseph V.; Nicoloro, Sarah M. C.; Straubhaar, Juerg; Czech, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The insulin-regulated glucose transporter GLUT4 is a key modulator of whole body glucose homeostasis, and its selective loss in adipose tissue or skeletal muscle causes insulin resistance and diabetes. Here we report an RNA interference-based screen of protein kinases expressed in adipocytes and identify four negative regulators of insulin-responsive glucose transport: the protein kinases PCTAIRE-1 (PCTK1), PFTAIRE-1 (PFTK1), IκB kinase α, and MAP4K4/NIK. Integrin-linked protein kinase was identified as a positive regulator of this process. We characterized one of these hits, MAP4K4/NIK, and found that it is unique among mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases expressed in cultured adipocytes in attenuating hexose transport. Remarkably, MAP4K4/NIK suppresses expression of the adipogenic transcription factors C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and PPARγ and of GLUT4 itself in these cells. RNA interference-mediated depletion of MAP4K4/NIK early in differentiation enhances adipogenesis and triglyceride deposition, and even in fully differentiated adipocytes its loss up-regulates GLUT4. Conversely, conditions that inhibit adipogenesis such as TNF-α treatment or depletion of PPARγ markedly up-regulate MAP4K4/NIK expression in cultured adipocytes. Furthermore, TNF-α signaling to down-regulate GLUT4 is impaired in the absence of MAP4K4/NIK, indicating that MAP4K4 expression is required for optimal TNF-α action. These results reveal a MAP4K4/NIK-dependent signaling pathway that potently inhibits PPARγ-responsive gene expression, adipogenesis, and insulin-stimulated glucose transport. PMID:16461467

  9. Both H4K20 mono-methylation and H3K56 acetylation mark transcription-dependent histone turnover in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hanna; Kwon, Chang Seob; Choi, Yoonjung; Lee, Daeyoup

    2016-08-05

    Nucleosome dynamics facilitated by histone turnover is required for transcription as well as DNA replication and repair. Histone turnover is often associated with various histone modifications such as H3K56 acetylation (H3K56Ac), H3K36 methylation (H3K36me), and H4K20 methylation (H4K20me). In order to correlate histone modifications and transcription-dependent histone turnover, we performed genome wide analyses for euchromatic regions in G2/M-arrested fission yeast. The results show that transcription-dependent histone turnover at 5′ promoter and 3′ termination regions is directly correlated with the occurrence of H3K56Ac and H4K20 mono-methylation (H4K20me1) in actively transcribed genes. Furthermore, the increase of H3K56Ac and H4K20me1 and antisense RNA production was observed in the absence of the histone H3K36 methyltransferase Set2 and histone deacetylase complex (HDAC) that are involved in the suppression of histone turnover within the coding regions. These results together indicate that H4K20me1 as well as H3K56Ac are bona fide marks for transcription-dependent histone turnover in fission yeast.

  10. Both H4K20 mono-methylation and H3K56 acetylation mark transcription-dependent histone turnover in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hanna; Kwon, Chang Seob; Choi, Yoonjung; Lee, Daeyoup

    2016-08-05

    Nucleosome dynamics facilitated by histone turnover is required for transcription as well as DNA replication and repair. Histone turnover is often associated with various histone modifications such as H3K56 acetylation (H3K56Ac), H3K36 methylation (H3K36me), and H4K20 methylation (H4K20me). In order to correlate histone modifications and transcription-dependent histone turnover, we performed genome wide analyses for euchromatic regions in G2/M-arrested fission yeast. The results show that transcription-dependent histone turnover at 5' promoter and 3' termination regions is directly correlated with the occurrence of H3K56Ac and H4K20 mono-methylation (H4K20me1) in actively transcribed genes. Furthermore, the increase of H3K56Ac and H4K20me1 and antisense RNA production was observed in the absence of the histone H3K36 methyltransferase Set2 and histone deacetylase complex (HDAC) that are involved in the suppression of histone turnover within the coding regions. These results together indicate that H4K20me1 as well as H3K56Ac are bona fide marks for transcription-dependent histone turnover in fission yeast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aging and the 4-kHz Air-Bone Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Tweed, Ted S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed age- and sex-related patterns in the prevalence and 10-year incidence of 4-kHz air-bone gaps and associated factors. Method: Data were obtained as part of the longitudinal, population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study ( Cruickshanks et al., 1998). An air-bone gap at 4 kHz was defined as an…

  12. Aging and the 4-kHz Air-Bone Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Tweed, Ted S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed age- and sex-related patterns in the prevalence and 10-year incidence of 4-kHz air-bone gaps and associated factors. Method: Data were obtained as part of the longitudinal, population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study ( Cruickshanks et al., 1998). An air-bone gap at 4 kHz was defined as an…

  13. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  14. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans

    Treesearch

    Rudolf Jaffe; Yan Ding; Jutta Niggemann; Anssi V. Vahatalo; Aron Stubbins; Robert G. M. Spencer; John Campbell; Thorsten. Dittmar

    2013-01-01

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent...

  15. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  16. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  17. Organic Carbon Analysis of Charcoal-Enriched Soils at Catoctin Mountain Park, MD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The application of charcoal to soils to increase carbon stocks has been of great interest recently. To gain a better understanding of the long-term effects of charcoal presence in soils, historic charcoal production sites at Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland were studied for organic carbon content and compared to nearby unaffected soils. Soil…

  18. Potency of bio-charcoal briquette from leather cassava tubers and industrial sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citrasari, Nita; Pinatih, Tety A.; Kuncoro, Eko P.; Soegianto, Agoes; Salamun, Irawan, Bambang

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of the bio-charcoal briquette with materials from leather cassava tubers and sludge of wastewater treatment plant. The first, bio-charcoal briquette analized stability test and compressive strength. Then, bio-charcoal briquette with best value analyzed for parameter including moisture content, ash content, calorific content, and burned test. The result briquette quality based on compressive strength for bio-charcoal briquettes carbonated water content between 3.8%-4.5% and non-carbonated bio-charcoal briquettes between 5.2%-7.6%. Bio-charcoal carbonation briquette ash content was between 5.30%-7.40% and non-carbonated bio-charcoal briquettes was between 6.86%-7.46%. Bio-charcoal carbonation levels briquettes heated between 578.2 calories/g-1837.7 calories/g and non carbonatedbio-charcoal briquettes between 858.1 calories/g-891.1 calories/g. Carbonated bio-charcoal burned test was between 48-63 minutes and non-carbonated bio-charcoal was between 22-42 minutes. Emissions resulted from the bio-charcoal briquettes for carbonated and non carbonated composition according to the government regulations ESDM No. 047 of 2006 which, at 128 mg/Nm3 and 139 mg/Nm3.

  19. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  20. Prognostic and Functional Significance of MAP4K5 in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Oliver H.; Azizian, Nancy; Guo, Ming; Capello, Michela; Deng, Defeng; Zang, Fenglin; Fry, Jason; Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Wolff, Robert A.; Hanash, Samir; Wang, Huamin; Maitra, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Objectives MAP4K5 plays an important role in regulating a range of cellular responses and is involved in Wnt signaling in hematopoietic cells. However, its functions in human malignancies have not been studied. The major objectives of this study are to examine the expression, functions and clinical significance of MAP4K5 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Materials and Methods The expression levels of MAP4K5, E-cadherin, vimentin, and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) were examined by immunohistochemistry in 105 PDAC and matched non-neoplastic pancreas samples from our institution. The RNA sequencing data of 112 PDAC patients were downloaded from the TCGA data portal. Immunoblotting and RNA sequencing analysis were used to examine the expression of MAP4K5 and E-cadherin in pancreatic cancer cell lines. The effect of knockdown MAP4K5 using siRNA on the expression of CDH1 and vimentin were examined by Real-time RT-PCR in Panc-1 and AsPC-1 cells. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics. Results MAP4K5 protein is expressed at high levels specifically in the pancreatic ductal cells of 100% non-neoplastic pancreas samples, but is decreased or lost in 77.1% (81/105) of PDAC samples. MAP4K5-low correlated with the loss of E-cadherin (P = 0.001) and reduced CES2 expression (P = 0.002) in our patient populations. The expression levels of MAP4K5 mRNA directly correlated with the expression levels of CDH1 mRNA (R = 0.2490, P = 0.008) in the second cohort of 112 PDAC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-seq dataset. Similar correlations between the expression of MAP4K5 and E-cadherin were observed both at protein and mRNA levels in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines. Knockdown MAP4K5 led to decreased CDH1 mRNA expression in Panc-1 and AsPC-1 cells. MAP4K5-low correlated significantly with reduced overall survival and was an independent prognosticator in patients with stage II PDAC. Conclusions MAP4K5 expression is decreased or lost in

  1. Air quality index from charcoal production sites, carboxyheamoglobin and lung function among occupationally exposed charcoal workers in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olujimi, O O; Ana, G R E E; Ogunseye, O O; Fabunmi, V T

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria. Four communities in Igbo-Ora and six communities in Alabata were purposively selected and levels of pollutant gases were assessed using appropriate gas meters, PM2.5 was assessed with Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with Piko-1 spirometer while COHb was assessed using non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad 57). Data were statistically analyzed and results were compared with recommended guidelines. The mean FEV1, PEFR, COHb and BMI for subjects and controls were 2.35 ± 0.73 and 2.69 ± 0.56, 253.72 ± 103.45 and 330.02 ± 94.61 (p < 0.01), 13.28 ± 3.91 and 8.50 ± 3.68 (p < 0.01) and 21.97 ± 2.19 and 23.36 ± 3.74 (p < 0.05) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between actual and expected values of FEV1 (p < 0.01) and PEFR (p < 0.01) among charcoal workers. There existed a positive correlation between CO and COHb while FEV1 and PEFR correlated negatively with PM2.5. The study showed that charcoal workers are exposed to high levels of CO and PM2.5, contributing to lowered respiratory functions for FEV1 and PEFR and high levels of COHb compared to the control group. Routine respiratory and

  2. Tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate--an unexpected organochlorine contaminant in some charcoal air-sampling sorbent tubes

    SciTech Connect

    van Netten, C.; Brands, R.; Park, J.; Deverall, R. )

    1991-09-01

    Air sampling in a government building was necessary in response to reports of a cancer cluster. SKC (Eighty Four, Pa.) charcoal coconut shell-based sorbent tubes (226-01 lot 120) were recommended for this procedure. A recently purchased supply was present at the University of British Columbia and consequently was used for this particular study. Analysis of the front charcoal section showed the presence of a flame retardant, tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate, which was confirmed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and mass spectrometry analysis. In an effort to identify the source of this fire retardant in the building, it became apparent from the analysis done on unknown field blanks that tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate was a contaminant of the sorbent tubes used. Analysis of additional blank tubes identified the foam separators as the most likely source of contamination. Levels of tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate in the front charcoal section ranged from 1.3 to 5.9 micrograms. The foam separator contained between 11.4 and 16.5 micrograms, and the backup charcoal section contained between 14.5 and 24.0 micrograms of tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate. In addition, another flame retardant, tri (1,3 dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate was also found. Because these contaminants have long column retention times in GLC, it may not be apparent that these contaminants are present and consequently are likely to have modified the sorbent characteristics of the activated charcoal. Another batch of sorbent tubes bearing the same catalog number and lot number was purchased from the supplier; no flame retardants were found in this batch.

  3. Paired charcoal and tree-ring records of high-frequency Holocene fire from two New Mexico bog sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.D.; Anderson, R. Scott; Jass, R.B.; Toney, J.L.; Baisan, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Two primary methods for reconstructing paleofire occurrence include dendrochronological dating of fire scars and stand ages from live or dead trees (extending back centuries into the past) and sedimentary records of charcoal particles from lakes and bogs, providing perspectives on fire history that can extend back for many thousands of years. Studies using both proxies have become more common in regions where lakes are present and fire frequencies are low, but are rare where high-frequency surface fires dominate and sedimentary deposits are primarily bogs and wetlands. Here we investigate sedimentary and fire-scar records of fire in two small watersheds in northern New Mexico, in settings recently characterised by relatively high-frequency fire where bogs and wetlands (Chihuahuen??os Bog and Alamo Bog) are more common than lakes. Our research demonstrates that: (1) essential features of the sedimentary charcoal record can be reproduced between multiple cores within a bog deposit; (2) evidence from both fire-scarred trees and charcoal deposits documents an anomalous lack of fire since ???1900, compared with the remainder of the Holocene; (3) sedimentary charcoal records probably underestimate the recurrence of fire events at these high-frequency fire sites; and (4) the sedimentary records from these bogs are complicated by factors such as burning and oxidation of these organic deposits, diversity of vegetation patterns within watersheds, and potential bioturbation by ungulates. We consider a suite of particular challenges in developing and interpreting fire histories from bog and wetland settings in the Southwest. The identification of these issues and constraints with interpretation of sedimentary charcoal fire records does not diminish their essential utility in assessing millennial-scale patterns of fire activity in this dry part of North America. ?? IAWF 2008.

  4. Tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate--an unexpected organochlorine contaminant in some charcoal air-sampling sorbent tubes.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Brands, R; Park, J; Deverall, R

    1991-09-01

    Air sampling in a government building was necessary in response to reports of a cancer cluster. SKC (Eighty Four, Pa.) charcoal coconut shell-based sorbent tubes (226-01 lot 120) were recommended for this procedure. A recently purchased supply was present at the University of British Columbia and consequently was used for this particular study. Analysis of the front charcoal section showed the presence of a flame retardant, tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate, which was confirmed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and mass spectrometry analysis. In an effort to identify the source of this fire retardant in the building, it became apparent from the analysis done on unknown field blanks that tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate was a contaminant of the sorbent tubes used. Analysis of additional blank tubes identified the foam separators as the most likely source of contamination. Levels of tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate in the front charcoal section ranged from 1.3 to 5.9 micrograms. The foam separator contained between 11.4 and 16.5 micrograms, and the backup charcoal section contained between 14.5 and 24.0 micrograms of tri (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate. In addition, another flame retardant, tri (1,3 dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate was also found. Because these contaminants have long column retention times in GLC, it may not be apparent that these contaminants are present and consequently are likely to have modified the sorbent characteristics of the activated charcoal. Another batch of sorbent tubes bearing the same catalog number and lot number was purchased from the supplier; no flame retardants were found in this batch.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. 49 CFR 176.405 - Stowage of charcoal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of charcoal. 176.405 Section 176.405 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... bags and offered for transportation on board a vessel in a quantity over 1016 kg (2240 pounds) must be...

  6. Small Scale Charcoal Making: A Manual for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karch, Ed; And Others

    This training program offers skills training in all stages of the development of technologies related to small-scale charcoal production, including the design, construction, operation, maintenance, repair, and evaluation of prototype kilns. The kiln designs are selected to be as consistent as possible with the realities of rural areas in…

  7. Release of offensive odorants from the combustion of barbecue charcoals.

    PubMed

    Mahmudur Rahman, Md; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-05-15

    A number of offensive odorants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs), carbonyls, and ammonia were measured along with several reference pollutants (like benzene (B), CS(2), SO(2), CO, and total hydrocarbon (THC)) from combusted fumes of barbecue charcoals produced from five different countries (Korea, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the US). Although the emission concentrations of most odorants were generally below the reference guideline set by the malodor prevention law in Korea, the mean concentration of some aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and isovaleraldehyde) and ammonia exceeded those guidelines. As such, aldehydes were the most dominant odorant released from charcoal combustion followed by VOC and ammonia. If odorant levels of charcoal products are compared, there are great distinctions between the products of different countries. If comparison is made using the concept of the sum of odor intensity (SOI), the magnitude of SOI for the charcoal products from the five different countries varied in the order of 4.30 (Korea), 3.10 (Indonesia), 2.97 (China), 2.76 (Malaysia), and 2.76 (the US). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed and of these 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 44 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in MS. All optimized loci were poly...

  9. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  10. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  11. EMISSIONS FROM STREET VENDOR COOKING DEVICES (CHARCOAL GRILLING)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a joint U.S./Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in t...

  12. On the palladium-on-charcoal disproportionation of rosin

    Treesearch

    Zhan-Qian Song; Eugene Zavarin; Duane F. Zinkel

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the composition of gum rosin during disproportionation in the presence of 5% palladium-on-charcoal have been determined by gas chromatography. The principal reaction product was dehydroabietic acid. The exocyclic vinyl group of the pimaric/isopimarictype resin acids was hydrogenated completely. Only a small amount of dihydroabietic acids was formed. Eight...

  13. Advancing our understanding of charcoal rot in soybeans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid ) of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], is an important but commonly misidentified disease, and very few summary articles exist on this pathosystem. Research conducted over the last 10 years has improved our understanding of the environment conducive...

  14. PRP4K is a HER2-regulated modifier of taxane sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Corkery, Dale P; Le Page, Cécile; Meunier, Liliane; Provencher, Diane; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Dellaire, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The taxanes are used alone or in combination with anthracyclines or platinum drugs to treat breast and ovarian cancer, respectively. Taxanes target microtubules in cancer cells and modifiers of taxane sensitivity have been identified in vitro, including drug efflux and mitotic checkpoint proteins. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ERBB2) gene amplification is associated with benefit from taxane therapy in breast cancer yet high HER2 expression also correlates with poor survival in both breast and ovarian cancer. The pre-mRNA splicing factor 4 kinase PRP4K (PRPF4B), which we identified as a component of the U5 snRNP also plays a role in regulating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in response to microtubule-targeting drugs. In this study, we found a positive correlation between PRP4K expression and HER2 status in breast and ovarian cancer patient tumors, which we determined was a direct result of PRP4K regulation by HER2 signaling. Knock-down of PRP4K expression reduced the sensitivity of breast and ovarian cancer cell lines to taxanes, and low PRP4K levels correlated with in vitro-derived and patient acquired taxane resistance in breast and ovarian cancer. Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer and high HER2 levels had poor overall survival; however, better survival in the low HER2 patient subgroup treated with platinum/taxane-based therapy correlated positively with PRP4K expression (HR = 0.37 [95% CI 0.15-0.88]; p = 0.03). Thus, PRP4K functions as a HER2-regulated modifier of taxane sensitivity that may have prognostic value as a marker of better overall survival in taxane-treated ovarian cancer patients. PMID:25602630

  15. Regeneration efficiency, shuttle heat loss and thermal conductivity in epoxy-composite annualr gap regenerators from 4K to 80K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrtle, K.; Cygax, S.; Plateel, C.; Winter, C.

    1983-01-01

    A test apparatus designed to simulate a section of a Stirling cycle cryocooler was built. Measurements of regeneration efficiency, shuttle heat loss and thermal conductivity reported for several regenerator test sections. The test composites were epoxy glass, epoxy glass with lead particles, epoxy glass with activated charcoal and epoxy graphite. Losses measured for these materials were approximately the same. Losses are in good agreement with those calculated theoretically for an epoxy glass (C-10) composite. The implications of these results on cryocooler design are discussed.

  16. A positive role for polycomb in transcriptional regulation via H4K20me1.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiangdong; Han, Zhijun; Chen, Hao; Yang, Bo; Yang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Yuanxin; Pan, Chenyu; Fu, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Han, Hui; Wu, Min; Zhou, Zhaocai; Zhang, Lei; Li, Lin; Wei, Gang; Zhao, Yun

    2016-05-01

    The highly conserved polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain heritable transcription repression of the genes essential for development from fly to mammals. However, sporadic reports imply a potential role of PcGs in positive regulation of gene transcription, although systematic investigation of such function and the underlying mechanism has rarely been reported. Here, we report a Pc-mediated, H3K27me3-dependent positive transcriptional regulation of Senseless (Sens), a key transcription factor required for development. Mechanistic studies show that Pc regulates Sens expression by promoting H4K20me1 at the Sens locus. Further bioinformatic analysis at genome-wide level indicates that the existence of H4K20me1 acts as a selective mark for positive transcriptional regulation by Pc/H3K27me3. Both the intensities and specific patterns of Pc and H3K27me3 are important for the fates of target gene transcription. Moreover, binding of transcription factor Broad (Br), which physically interacts with Pc and positively regulates the transcription of Sens, is observed in Pc(+)H3K27me3(+)H4K20me1(+) genes, but not in Pc(+)H3K27me3(+)H4K20me1(-) genes. Taken together, our study reveals that, coupling with the transcription factor Br, Pc positively regulates transcription of Pc(+)H3K27me3(+)H4K20me1(+) genes in developing Drosophila wing disc.

  17. Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system.

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Chen, Yingxu; Wu, Weixiang; Ma, Hongrui

    2011-04-01

    Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system were investigated to find the effect of bamboo charcoal on composting. According to a plate count test, abundances of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the treatment with bamboo charcoal were several times higher than those in treatment without bamboo charcoal. In addition, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis indicated that the bacterial community diversity in treatment with bamboo charcoal was greater than that of the control. Both results demonstrated that amendment with bamboo charcoal can increase microorganism population and microorganism community diversity in a sludge composting system. Moreover, the results of FTIR spectroscopy disclosed that aerobic composting can promote the formation of surface acid groups on bamboo charcoal. These surface acid groups may deprotonate and react with NH4+ to form stable complexes. Therefore, the increase of functional groups accompanied with greater assimilation of nitrogen by microorganisms could reduce nitrogen loss in sludge composting.

  18. The MOF chromobarrel domain controls genome-wide H4K16 acetylation and spreading of the MSL complex.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Cavalli, Florence M G; Holz, Herbert; Hallacli, Erinc; Kind, Jop; Ilik, Ibrahim; Vaquerizas, Juan M; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Akhtar, Asifa

    2012-03-13

    The histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16)-specific acetyltransferase MOF is part of two distinct complexes involved in X chromosome dosage compensation and autosomal transcription regulation. Here we show that the MOF chromobarrel domain is essential for H4K16 acetylation throughout the Drosophila genome and is required for spreading of the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex on the X chromosome. The MOF chromobarrel domain directly interacts with nucleic acids and potentiates MOF's enzymatic activity after chromatin binding, making it a unique example of a chromo-like domain directly controlling acetylation activity in vivo. We also show that the Drosophila-specific N terminus of MOF has evolved to perform sex-specific functions. It modulates nucleosome binding and HAT activity and controls MSL complex assembly, thus regulating MOF function in dosage compensation. We propose that MOF has been especially tailored to achieve tight regulation of its enzymatic activity and enable its dual role on X and autosomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A role for charcoal's physical properties in its carbon cycle fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Gao, X.; Pyle, L.; Sorrenti, G.; LaMere, L.; Liu, Z.; Zygourakis, K.

    2016-12-01

    The production of charcoal by fire generates a pool of soil carbon that is more biologically resistant to decomposition than many other forms of soil organic matter, and in some cases charcoal accumulates on the landscape. In other situations, however, charcoal does not accumulate, and is rapidly lost to rivers and eventually delivered to the ocean, where it can form a significant component of sedimentary organic carbon. The physical properties of charcoal form one basic dimension controlling whether charcoal is stored on the landscape or whether it moves to rivers and eventually marine sediments. It is simple to understand how charcoal density and porosity can play a crucial role in its mobility on the landscape: when charcoal pores are filled with air, the bulk density of charcoal can be as low as 0.25 g/cm3, and it will float and thus is easily transported with water runoff. As pores fill with water or soil minerals, the bulk density increases and can exceed 1 g/cm3, which will promote sinking and decrease mobility. For example, a charcoal with an internal porosity of 30% must have 90% of the pores saturated with water to achieve a bulk density greater than 1 g/cm3. Alternately for that same charcoal 20% of charcoal pores would need to infill with soil minerals (mineral density = 3.8 g/cm3) to achieve a density greater than 1 g/cm3. This mineral-infilling process has not been widely observed. Instead, early laboratory and field data suggest that the soil minerals partially block pores in charcoal and this process slows the rate of water transport into charcoal pores. If widespread, this process of partial pore throat occlusion may limit the rate of biochar saturation and thus help control the long-term landscape fate of charcoal.

  20. Effect of environmental exposure on charcoal density and porosity in a boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaodong; Driver, Laura E; Kasin, Isabella; Masiello, Caroline A; Pyle, Lacey A; Dugan, Brandon; Ohlson, Mikael

    2017-08-15

    Although charcoal's density and porosity shape its environmental roles (e.g. controlling its landscape movement and determining the internal pore space available as microbial habitat), the rate of change of these properties in the environment remains largely unknown. With time, charcoal pores may fill or charcoal particles may shatter, altering the ecosystem services delivered. In this study we examined the effects of environmental exposure on the density and porosity of charcoals pyrolyzed at two different temperatures (350 and 520°C). Fresh charcoal made from the dominant local tree (Pinus sylvestris) was returned in litter incubations to Norwegian boreal forest soils for 20months in three different placements: (i) aboveground, (ii) in the humus layer, and (iii) under the humus layer in contact with the mineral subsoil. By varying soil horizon placement we were able to separate the effects of infill from the effects of environmental disturbance on charcoal density and porosity. Environmental exposure changed charcoal density and porosity, and the response varied with environmental placement. Charcoal placed in soil layers increased in porosity by ~1-2% after 20months' incubation. This is likely because open indentations on the charcoal surface became partially occluded, creating more detectable pore space. In contrast, the porosity of charcoal incubated aboveground decreased slightly (~1-2% over 20months). Because there were no minerals or humic substances to infill the aboveground charcoal samples, this porosity reduction was likely caused by breakage of particles induced by weathering. When charcoal particles cleave through pores, internal pore space is destroyed. The small changes observed here indicate that environmental exposure did not trigger rapid shifts in charcoal density and porosity. In addition, these physical properties appear not to have reached equilibrium after 20months incubation, suggesting that the effect of environmental exposure on charcoal

  1. Spatiotemporal patterns of tundra fires: late-Quaternary charcoal records from Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipman, M. L.; Hudspith, V.; Higuera, P. E.; Duffy, P. A.; Kelly, R.; Oswald, W. W.; Hu, F. S.

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has altered many ecosystem processes in the Arctic tundra and may have resulted in unprecedented fire activity. Evaluating the significance of recent fires requires knowledge from the paleofire record because observational data in the Arctic span only several decades, much shorter than the natural fire rotation in Arctic tundra regions. Here we report results of charcoal analysis on lake sediments from four Alaskan lakes to infer the broad spatial and temporal patterns of tundra-fire occurrence over the past 35 000 years. Background charcoal accumulation rates are low in all records (range is 0-0.05 pieces cm-2 yr-1), suggesting minimal biomass burning across our study areas. Charcoal peak analysis reveals that the mean fire-return interval (FRI; years between consecutive fire events) ranged from ca. 1650 to 6050 years at our sites, and that the most recent fire events occurred from ca. 880 to 7030 years ago, except for the CE 2007 Anaktuvuk River Fire. These mean FRI estimates are longer than the fire rotation periods estimated for the past 63 years in the areas surrounding three of the four study lakes. This result suggests that the frequency of tundra burning was higher over the recent past compared to the late Quaternary in some tundra regions. However, the ranges of FRI estimates from our paleofire records overlap with the expected values based on fire-rotation-period estimates from the observational fire data, and the differences are statistically insignificant. Together with previous tundra-fire reconstructions, these data suggest that the rate of tundra burning was spatially variable and that fires were extremely rare in our study areas throughout the late Quaternary. Given the rarity of tundra burning over multiple millennia in our study areas and the pronounced effects of fire on tundra ecosystem processes such as carbon cycling, dramatic tundra ecosystem changes are expected if anthropogenic climate change leads to more

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns of tundra fires: late-Quaternary charcoal records from Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipman, M. L.; Hudspith, V.; Higuera, P. E.; Duffy, P. A.; Kelly, R.; Oswald, W. W.; Hu, F. S.

    2015-02-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has altered many ecosystem processes in the Arctic tundra and may have resulted in unprecedented fire activity. Evaluating the significance of recent fires requires knowledge from the paleo-fire record because observational data in the Arctic span only several decades, much shorter than the natural fire rotation in Arctic tundra regions. Here we report results of charcoal analysis on lake sediments from four Alaskan lakes to infer the broad spatial and temporal patterns of tundra fire occurrence over the past 35 000 years. Background charcoal accumulation rates are low in all records (range = 0-0.05 pieces cm-2 year-1), suggesting minimal biomass burning across our study areas. Charcoal peak analysis reveals that the mean fire return interval (FRI; years between consecutive fire events) ranged from 1648 to 6045 years at our sites, and that the most recent fire events occurred from 882 to 7031 years ago, except for the CE 2007 Anaktuvuk River Fire. These mean FRI estimates are longer than the fire rotation periods estimated for the past 63 years in the areas surrounding three of the four study lakes. This result suggests that the frequency of tundra burning was higher over the recent past compared to the late Quaternary in some tundra regions. However, the ranges of FRI estimates from our paleo-fire records overlap with the expected values based on fire-rotation-period estimates from the observational fire data, and thus quantitative differences are not significant. Together with previous tundra-fire reconstructions, these data suggest that the rate of tundra burning was spatially variable and that fires were extremely rare in our study areas throughout the late Quaternary. Given the rarity of tundra burning over multiple millennia in our study areas and the pronounced effects of fire on tundra ecosystem processes such as carbon cycling, dramatic tundra ecosystem changes are expected if anthropogenic climate change leads to more frequent

  3. Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, microscopic charcoal, and the transition from natural to human-modified basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, J.-D.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen and microscopic charcoal examined in Holocene sediment core samples record major environmental modifications affecting Alexandria's Eastern Harbor through time. We assess whether such changes on Egypt's coastal margin were influenced primarily by natural, or natural plus human, or primarily human factors. We focus on (1) the times when pollen assemblages and microscopic charcoal content changed in the core, (2) how they changed, and (3) why this occurred. The analysis takes into account the core's stratigraphy, regional climate variability, human history, and local archaeological record. Four pollenmicroscopic charcoal zones are identified. The earliest change occurred at ca. 6000 YBP, during Egypt's earlier Predynastic (Neolithic) period, coinciding with a lithologic break from sand to muddy sand. Pollen during this time indicates a transition to a much drier climate rather than effects of human activity. The second change in pollen occurred 3600-2900 YBP, during a period of continued aridity with no lithologic variation in this core interval. Pollen (cereal taxa, agricultural weeds, grape) and a sharp increase in microscopic charcoal indicate that human activity became prevalent at least 700 y before Alexander the Great's arrival in this region, and these results highlight the transition from a largely natural climatecontrolled environment to one influenced by both climate and anthropogenic activity. The third shift up-core in pollen assemblages is dated at ca. 2300 YBP, at the boundary between a sand and mud unit. It coincides with construction by the Ptolemies of the Heptastadion between Alexandria and Pharos Island. From this time onward, harbor sediment in the nearly enclosed catchment basin indicates a near-continuous record of dominant proximal human activity. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  4. Alternative splicing isoform of T cell factor 4K suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y C; Min, L; Chen, H; Liu, Y L

    2015-10-30

    The Wnt pathway has been implicated in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of lung cancer. T cell factor 4, a member of TCF/LEF family, acts as a transcriptional factor for Wnt pathways in lung cancer. Increasing amounts of evidence have shown that TCF-4 has multiple alternative splicing isoforms with transactivation or transrepression activity toward the Wnt pathway. Here, we found the presence of multiple TCF-4 isoforms in lung cancer cell lines and in normal bronchial epithelial cells. TCF-4K isoform expression was significantly decreased in lung cancer cells compared with normal bronchial epithelial cells and was identified as a transcriptional suppressor of the Wnt pathway in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Overexpression of TCF-4K significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells. Collectively, our data indicate that TCF-4K functions as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC by down-regulating the Wnt pathway.

  5. Charcoal-methanol adsorption refrigerator powered by a compound parabolic concentrating solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, O.StC.; Kothdiwala, A.F.; McDoom, I.A. )

    1994-08-01

    A compound parabolic concentrating solar collector (CPC) of concentration ratio 3.9 and aperture area 2.0 m[sup 2] was used to power an intermittent solid adsorption refrigerator and ice maker using activated charcoal (carbon) as the adsorbing medium and methanol as the working fluid. The copper tube receiver of the CPC was packed with 2.5 kg of imported adsorbent 207E3, which was only utilized when the performance of activated charcoal (ACJ1, produced from local coconut shells) was found to be inferior to the imported adsorbent. Up to 1 kg of ice at an evaporator temperature of [minus]6[degrees]C was produced, with the net solar coefficient of performance (COP) being of the order of 0.02. Maximum receiver/adsorbent temperature recorded was 154[degrees]C on a day when the insolation was 26.8 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]. Temperatures in excess of 150[degrees]C are undesirable since they favour the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether, a noncondensable gas which inhibits both condensation and adsorption. The major advantage of this system is its ability to produce ice even on overcast days (insolation [approximately] 10 MJ/m[sup [minus]2]).

  6. CAP4K Teacher Tour: Aligning State-Level Support with Classroom-Level Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In January 2009, the Colorado Department of Education (CDE) and the Colorado Education Association (CEA) initiated a 13-city teacher tour to engage teachers in a statewide discussion about CAP4K, its relevance to practice, its impact on teaching and learning and the kind of help that teachers would find useful for classroom implementation. Between…

  7. Electrical properties of Al-, Cu-, Zn- rice husk charcoal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahonog, L. A.; Tapia, A. K. G.

    2017-04-01

    Rice husk in the Philippines is considered as an agricultural waste. In order to utilize the material, one common technique is to carbonize these rice husks to produce charcoal briquettes. These materials are porous in nature exhibiting electrical properties from carbon structures. In this study, rice husk charcoals (RHC) were deposited on different metal substrates (Al, Cu, Zn) via a simple solution casting method. The deposited RHC on metal substrates was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films were characterized using two-point probe technique and the I-V curves were plotted. Al-RHC films appear to deviate from an ohmic behaviour while Zn-RHC and Cu-RHC showed diode-like behaviours.

  8. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  9. Coating charcoal with polyacrylate-polymethacrylate copolymer for haemoperfusion. III: The effect of the coat thickness on the adsorptioncapacity of the coated charcoal and its adsorptivity to small and middle size molecules.

    PubMed

    el-Kheshen, S; Zia, H; Badawi, A; Needham, T E; Luzzi, L A

    1995-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the coat thickness of polyacrylate-polymethacrylate copolymer on the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal to methylene blue as a model marker was investigated by constructing both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. It was found that the coat thickness significantly affected the adsorption coefficient of the coated charcoal to methylene blue as is reflected by the attractive forces between the adsorbent and the adsorbate. This effect is understandable as the membrane will act as a barrier between the adsorbent and the adsorbate. The coat thickness also had some effect on the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal but not as much as it affected the adsorption coefficient. The data followed the Freundlich isotherm more closely than the Langmuir equation. The effect of the coat thickness on the adsorption of selected drugs of different molecular size was also investigated using theophylline, paracetamol, sodium phenobarbital, creatinine and vitamin B12 as model drugs. The results showed that the adsorption patterns of theophylline, paracetamol and sodium phenobarbital were more or less similar. The apparent coating thickness did not affect the extent of adsorption of these model drugs and there was little effect on the adsorption rate especially during the first 15 min. The adsorption of vitamin B12 and creatinine showed completely different patterns which are discussed in detail.

  10. [Effects of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil bacterial community structure].

    PubMed

    Li, Song-Hao; He, Dong-Hua; Shen, Qiu-Lan; Xu, Qiu-Fang

    2014-08-01

    The effects of addition rates (0, 3% and 9%) and particle sizes (0.05, 0.05-1.0 and 1.0-2.0 mm) of bamboo charcoal on the growth of Trifolium repens and soil microbial community structure were investigated. The results showed that bamboo charcoal addition greatly promoted the early growth of T. repens, with the 9% charcoal addition rate being slightly better than the 3% charcoal addition rate. The effects of different particle sizes of bamboo charcoal on the growth of T. repens were not different significantly. Growth promotion declined with time during 120 days after sowing, and disappeared completely after 5 months. DGGE analysis of the bacterial 16S rDNA V3 fragment indicated that bamboo charcoal altered the soil bacterial community structure. The amount and Shannon diversity index of bacteria in the bamboo charcoal addition treatments increased compared with CK. The quantitative analysis showed that the amount of bacteria in the treatment with bamboo charcoal of fine particle (D < 0.05 mm) at the 9% addition rate was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The fine bamboo charcoal had a great effect on soil bacteria amount compared with the charcoal of other sizes at the same addition rate.

  11. The impact of media reporting on the emergence of charcoal burning suicide in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Gunnell, David; Yip, Paul S F

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning suicide with the incidence of such deaths in Taiwan during 1998-2002. A counting process approach was used to estimate the incidence of suicides and intensity of news reporting. Conditional Poisson generalized linear autoregressive models were performed to assess the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides with the actual number of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides the following day. We found that increases in the reporting of charcoal burning suicide were associated with increases in the incidence of charcoal burning suicide on the following day, with each reported charcoal burning news item being associated with a 16% increase in next day charcoal burning suicide (p<.0001). However, the reporting of other methods of suicide was not related to their incidence. We conclude that extensive media reporting of charcoal burning suicides appears to have contributed to the rapid rise in the incidence of the novel method in Taiwan during the initial stage of the suicide epidemic. Regulating media reporting of novel suicide methods may prevent an epidemic spread of such new methods.

  12. The Impact of Media Reporting on the Emergence of Charcoal Burning Suicide in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Gunnell, David; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning suicide with the incidence of such deaths in Taiwan during 1998–2002. A counting process approach was used to estimate the incidence of suicides and intensity of news reporting. Conditional Poisson generalized linear autoregressive models were performed to assess the association of the intensity of newspaper reporting of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides with the actual number of charcoal burning and non-charcoal burning suicides the following day. We found that increases in the reporting of charcoal burning suicide were associated with increases in the incidence of charcoal burning suicide on the following day, with each reported charcoal burning news item being associated with a 16% increase in next day charcoal burning suicide (p<.0001). However, the reporting of other methods of suicide was not related to their incidence. We conclude that extensive media reporting of charcoal burning suicides appears to have contributed to the rapid rise in the incidence of the novel method in Taiwan during the initial stage of the suicide epidemic. Regulating media reporting of novel suicide methods may prevent an epidemic spread of such new methods. PMID:23383027

  13. Morphed and moving: TNFα-driven motility promotes cell dissemination through MAP4K4-induced cytoskeleton remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Min; Baumgartner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Cell dissemination from an initial site of growth is a highly coordinated and controlled process that depends on cell motility. The mechanistic principles that orchestrate cell motility, namely cell shape control, traction and force generation, are highly conserved between cells of different origins. Correspondingly, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these critical aspects of migrating cells are likely functionally conserved too. Thus, cell motility deregulation of unrelated pathogenesis could be caused and maintained by similar mechanistic principles. One such motility deregulation disorder is the leukoproliferative cattle disease Tropical Theileriosis, which is caused by the intracellular, protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. T. annulata transforms its host cell and promotes the dissemination of parasite-infected cells throughout the body of the host. An analogous condition with a fundamentally different pathogenesis is metastatic cancer, where oncogenically transformed cells disseminate from the primary tumor to form distant metastases. Common to both diseases is the dissemination of motile cells from the original site. However, unlike metastatic cancer, host cell transformation by Theileria parasites can be reverted by drug treatment and cell signaling be analyzed under transformed and non-transformed conditions. We have used this reversible transformation model and investigated parasite control of host cell motile properties in the context of inflammatory signaling in Ma M. et al. [PLoS Pathog (2014) 10: e1004003]. We found that parasite infection promotes the production of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα in the host macrophage. We demonstrated that increased TNFα triggers motile and invasive properties by enhancing actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell motility through the ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. We concluded that inflammatory conditions resulting in increased TNFα could facilitate cell dissemination by activating the actin cytoskeleton regulatory

  14. LSD1n is a H4K20 demethylase regulating memory formation via transcriptional elongation control

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianxun; Telese, Francesca; Tan, Yuliang; Li, Wenbo; Jin, Chunyu; He, Xin; Basnet, Harihar; Ma, Qi; Merkurjev, Daria; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhijie; Zhang, Jie; Ohgi, Kenny; Taylor, Havilah; White, Ryan R.; Macfarlan, Todd S.; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    We report that a neuron-specific isoform of LSD1, LSD1n, resulting from an alternative splicing event, acquires a novel substrate specificity targeting histone H4 K20 methylation, both in vitro and in vivo. Selective genetic ablation of LSD1n leads to deficits in spatial learning and memory, revealing the functional importance of LSD1n in the regulation of neuronal activity-regulated transcription in a fashion indispensable for long-term memory formation. LSD1n occupies neuronal gene enhancers, promoters and transcribed coding regions, and is required for transcription initiation and elongation steps in response to neuronal activity, indicating the crucial role of H4K20 methylation in coordinating gene transcription with neuronal function. This study reveals that the alternative splicing of LSD1 in neurons, associated with altered substrate specificity, serves as an underlying mechanism acquired by neurons to achieve more precise control of gene expression in the complex processes underlying learning and memory. PMID:26214369

  15. Numerical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristic of 4k Regenerators at High Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuopei; Jiang, Yanlong; Gan, Zhihua; Qiu, Limin

    Regenerator is a key component for all regenerative cryocoolers. 4K regenerative cryocoolers can be applied to provide cooling for low temperature superconductors, space and military infrared detectors, and medical examination etc. Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC), one type of regenerative cryocoolers, operate at high frequencies. As a result, SPTCs have the advantage of compact structure and low weight compared with G-M type pulse tube cryocoolers operating at low frequencies. However, as the frequency increase the thermal penetration depth of helium gas in the regenerator is greatly reduced which makes the heat transfer between the gas and the regenerator worse. In order to improve the heat transfer efficiency, regenerator materials with smaller hydraulic diameters are used. Therefore the flow resistance between the gas and the regenerator material will increase leading to larger pressure drop from the hot end to the cold end of the regenerator. The cooling performance is deteriorated due to the decreased pressure ratio (maximum pressure divided by minimum pressure) at the cold end. Also, behavior of helium at 4K deviates remarkably from that of ideal gas which has a significant influence both the flow and heat transfer characteristic within a regenerator. In this paper numerical simulation on the behavior of a 4K regenerator at high frequency is carried out to provide guidance for the optimization of the flow and heat transfer performance within a regenerator. Thermodynamic analysis of effect of the non-ideal gas behavior of helium at 4K on 4K regenerator at high frequency is investigated.

  16. A positive role for polycomb in transcriptional regulation via H4K20me1

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiangdong; Han, Zhijun; Chen, Hao; Yang, Bo; Yang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Yuanxin; Pan, Chenyu; Fu, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Han, Hui; Wu, Min; Zhou, Zhaocai; Zhang, Lei; Li, Lin; Wei, Gang; Zhao, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain heritable transcription repression of the genes essential for development from fly to mammals. However, sporadic reports imply a potential role of PcGs in positive regulation of gene transcription, although systematic investigation of such function and the underlying mechanism has rarely been reported. Here, we report a Pc-mediated, H3K27me3-dependent positive transcriptional regulation of Senseless (Sens), a key transcription factor required for development. Mechanistic studies show that Pc regulates Sens expression by promoting H4K20me1 at the Sens locus. Further bioinformatic analysis at genome-wide level indicates that the existence of H4K20me1 acts as a selective mark for positive transcriptional regulation by Pc/H3K27me3. Both the intensities and specific patterns of Pc and H3K27me3 are important for the fates of target gene transcription. Moreover, binding of transcription factor Broad (Br), which physically interacts with Pc and positively regulates the transcription of Sens, is observed in Pc+H3K27me3+H4K20me1+ genes, but not in Pc+H3K27me3+H4K20me1− genes. Taken together, our study reveals that, coupling with the transcription factor Br, Pc positively regulates transcription of Pc+H3K27me3+H4K20me1+ genes in developing Drosophila wing disc. PMID:27002220

  17. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

  18. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

  19. Bio-charcoal production from municipal organic solid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlKhayat, Z. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The economic and environmental problems of handling the increasingly huge amounts of urban and/or suburban organic municipal solid wastes MSW, from collection to end disposal, in addition to the big fluctuations in power supply and other energy form costs for the various civilian needs, is studied for Baghdad city, the ancient and glamorous capital of Iraq, and a simple control device is suggested, built and tested by carbonizing these dried organic wastes in simple environment friendly bio-reactor in order to produce low pollution potential, economical and local charcoal capsules that might be useful for heating, cooking and other municipal uses. That is in addition to the solve of solid wastes management problem which involves huge human and financial resources and causes many lethal health and environmental problems. Leftovers of different social level residential campuses were collected, classified for organic materials then dried in order to be supplied into the bio-reactor, in which it is burnt and then mixed with small amounts of sugar sucrose that is extracted from Iraqi planted sugar cane, to produce well shaped charcoal capsules. The burning process is smoke free as the closed burner’s exhaust pipe is buried 1m underground hole, in order to use the subsurface soil as natural gas filter. This process has proved an excellent performance of handling about 120kg/day of classified MSW, producing about 80-100 kg of charcoal capsules, by the use of 200 l reactor volume.

  20. Measurement of the axial distribution of radioactivity in the auxiliary charcoal bed of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.F.; Buckner, M.; Buchanan, M.

    1999-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory commenced operation in 1964 and was shut down in 1969. It was fueled with {sup 233}UF{sub 4} in a carrier salt of LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4}, and it operated at 1,200 F. After it was shut down, the fuel was heated annually to 200 C to recombine fluorine (with the fuel) released due to radiation-induced reactions in the fuel salt. However, a competing reaction oxidized uranium to UF{sub 6}, which was released (along with F{sub 2}) from the fuel and trapped in one of four charcoal filters in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). One of the tasks for decommissioning of the MSRE requires that at least 90% of the estimated 3 kg of {sup 233}U, and radioactive decay products, in this filter be removed, and one of the proposed methods is to vacuum the charcoal above a specified axial position in the filter. This requires that the axial distribution of activity in the filter be measured in a 60 rad/h radiation field to determine where this penetration can be made. To accomplish this, the shielded detector with a pinhole collimator, and with a laser positioning capability, was remotely translated to various axial positions to accomplish these measurements. Activities in the steel screen, and various regions of the charcoal bed, are estimated, and uncertainties in these estimates are generally {lt}1%. Results from this analysis are used for continued operational decisions for decommissioning of the MSRE.

  1. Removal of radioactive cesium (134Cs plus 137Cs) from low-level contaminated water by charcoal and broiler litter biochar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  2. Charcoal and pollen analyses and vegetation reconstruction of the Alpine foreland in West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Náfrádi, Katalin; Sümegi, Pál; Törőcsik, Tünde

    2012-12-01

    In the area of archaeological excavations that were performed prior to the construction of Main Road No. 86 in Vas County (West Hungary) in the Alpine foreland new geoarchaeological analyses have been conducted. We used anthracology and pollen analyses to reconstruct the former vegetation cover at the study site. Charcoal data provide site-related information about the local woodland composition, management and human impact, while pollen data provide information on the arboreal and non-arboreal vegetation on a regional or local scale. Adequate samples for anthracological analyses derive from the Bronze Age, Iron Age, Imperial and Migration Periods and Middle-Ages archaeological objects. The core for pollen analyses originates from alluvial sediments of the Borzó Creek and covers the late Pleistocene and the Holocene until the Medieval Period. Charcoal analyses show the dominance of Quercus trees in the vicinity of the human settlements that might indicate a strong human selection, or the fragmentation of samples. Pollen analyses indicate thermophilous vegetation from the beginning of the Holocene, with increasing values of Fagus and Carpinus. Pollens of cereals indicate human activity, which is also demonstrated by the presence of pollen from Juglans and Vitis in the Iron Age sequence. Extensive forest clearance occurred in the Late Iron Age and the Imperial Period.

  3. Effects of Weathering on Impregnated Charcoal Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    4 A mixture of elemental iodine (0.5 wt.%) and an S" activated carbon (BC Type 177) from coconut shells was heated (6.70 C/min) in a flow of purified...Penetration of 1 3 1 ICH3 at 21°C for new (not used) Coconut Shell Commercial Carbons (impregnated) With and Without Prehumidification...Mixture of Elemental Iodine and Non-impregnated Coconut Activated Carbon . (Note: Y coordinate is logarithmic)... 87 29. Formation of Organic Iodides

  4. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans.

    PubMed

    Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M; Campbell, John; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-04-19

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent transport to the ocean. The global flux of soluble charcoal accounts to 26.5 ± 1.8 million tons per year, which is ~10% of the global riverine flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We suggest that the mobilization of charcoal and DOC out of soils is mechanistically coupled. This study closes a major gap in the global charcoal budget and provides critical information in the context of geoengineering.

  5. Histone H1-mediated epigenetic regulation controls germline stem cell self-renewal by modulating H4K16 acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Wei, Hui-Min; Xu, Jiang; Chang, Jian-Feng; Yang, Zhihao; Ren, Xingjie; Lv, Wen-Wen; Liu, Lu-Ping; Pan, Li-Xia; Wang, Xia; Qiao, Huan-Huan; Zhu, Bing; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Yan, Dong; Xie, Ting; Sun, Fang-Lin; Ni, Jian-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays critical roles in controlling stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Histone H1 is one of the most critical chromatin regulators, but its role in adult stem cell regulation remains unclear. Here we report that H1 is intrinsically required in the regulation of germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila ovary. The loss of H1 from GSCs causes their premature differentiation through activation of the key GSC differentiation factor bam. Interestingly, the acetylated H4 lysine 16 (H4K16ac) is selectively augmented in the H1-depleted GSCs. Furthermore, overexpression of mof reduces H1 association on chromatin. In contrast, the knocking down of mof significantly rescues the GSC loss phenotype. Taken together, these results suggest that H1 functions intrinsically to promote GSC self-renewal by antagonizing MOF function. Since H1 and H4K16 acetylation are highly conserved from fly to human, the findings from this study might be applicable to stem cells in other systems. PMID:26581759

  6. Effect of beer marinades on formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in charcoal-grilled pork.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gandara, Jesus; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2014-03-26

    The effect of marinating meat with Pilsner beer, nonalcoholic Pilsner beer, and Black beer (coded respectively PB, P0B, and BB) on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in charcoal-grilled pork was evaluated and compared with the formation of these compounds in unmarinated meat. Antiradical activity of marinades (DPPH assay) was assayed. BB exhibited the strongest scavenging activity (68.0%), followed by P0B (36.5%) and PB (29.5%). Control and marinated meat samples contained the eight PAHs named PAH8 by the EFSA and classified as suitable indicators for carcinogenic potency of PAHs in food. BB showed the highest inhibitory effect in the formation of PAH8 (53%), followed by P0B (25%) and PB (13%). The inhibitory effect of beer marinades on PAH8 increased with the increase of their radical-scavenging activity. BB marinade was the most efficient on reduction of PAH formation, providing a proper mitigation strategy.

  7. SIRTF/IRS cryogenic grating drive mechanism (ARC second positioning at 4 K)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements, design, and test results of a grating drive mechanism for the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) science instrument on the proposed superfluid helium-cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are described. The IRS grating drive mechanism, tested in the fall of 1989, satisfied all performance requirements in vacuum at 4 K. Measured mechanism performance included: 1.4 arc sec root-mean-square (rms) error positioning resolution; 2.2 arc sec rms position repeatability error, less than 10 millijoules/deg dissipated power; and 170 deg angular range of travel. Mechanisms that precisely position optical elements at very low cryogenic temperatures (at/below 4 K) are vital to the operating success of a number of proposed infrared scientific instruments like those in SIRTF.

  8. A cryogenic analog to digital converter operating from 300 K down to 4.4 K.

    PubMed

    Okcan, Burak; Merken, Patrick; Gielen, Georges; Van Hoof, Chris

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a cryogenic successive approximation register (SAR) based analog to digital converter (ADC) implemented in a standard 0.35 microm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. It operates from room temperature down to 4.4 K, achieving 10.47 effective number of bits (ENOB) at room temperature. At 4.4 K, the ADC achieves 8.53 ENOB at 50 kS/s sampling rate with a current consumption of 90 microA from a 3.3 V supply. The ADC utilizes an improved comparator architecture, which performs offset cancellation by using preamplifiers designed for cryogenic operation. The conventional offset cancellation algorithm is also modified in order to eliminate the effect of cryogenic anomalies below freeze-out temperature. The power efficiency is significantly improved compared to the state of the art semiconductor ADCs operating in the same temperature range.

  9. Temperature coefficients of crystalline-quartz elastic constants over the cryogenic range [4 K, 15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bon, Jérémy; Galliou, Serge; Bourquin, Roger

    2016-12-01

    This paper brings out the temperature coefficients of synthetic-quartz elastic constants at liquid helium temperature. The method is based on the relationship between the resonance frequencies of a quartz acoustic cavity and the elastic constants of the material. The temperature coefficients of the elastic constants are extracted from experimental frequency-temperature data collected within the very useful cryogenic range [4 K-15 K] from a set of resonators of various cut angles, because of the anisotropy of quartz.

  10. Thermalization of a manganin band-cable at 1.4 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Angel

    2009-12-01

    The thermalization of wires for electrical connections was measured at temperatures of ˜1.4 K in a pumped 4He cryostat, using a simple but efficient device composed of a band-cable of 50 manganin wires clamped into a heat sink. We applied a varied input power from 1 up to 20μW to the wires and we observed that the power dissipation can be reduced down to very low levels.

  11. Recovery and Determination of Adsorbed Technetium on Savannah River Site Charcoal Stack Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Lahoda, Kristy G.; Engelmann, Mark D.; Farmer, Orville T.; Ballou, Nathan E.

    2008-03-01

    Experimental results are provided for the sample analyses for technetium (Tc) in charcoal samples placed in-line with a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing stack effluent stream as a part of an environmental surveillance program. The method for Tc removal from charcoal was based on that originally developed with high purity charcoal. Presented is the process that allowed for the quantitative analysis of 99Tc in SRS charcoal stack samples with and without 97Tc as a tracer. The results obtained with the method using the 97Tc tracer quantitatively confirm the results obtained with no tracer added. All samples contain 99Tc at the pg g-1 level.

  12. Relationships among charcoal particles from modern lacustrine sediments and remotely sensed fire events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Pérez, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of charcoal particles from lacustrine sediments is a useful tool to understand fire regimes through time, and their relationships with climate and vegetation. However, the extent of the relationship between charcoal particles and their origin in terms of the spatial and temporal extent of the fire events is poorly known in the tropics. Modern sediments were collected from lakes in the Yucatan Peninsula and Central Mexico, 51 and 22 lakes respectively, to analyze their charcoal concentration and its relationships with modern fire events. Number of modern fire events was derived from the public source Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) for concentric spatial rings that ranged from 1 to 30 km of radius. The association between charcoal and fires was evaluated through the construction of linear models to explain charcoal concentration as a function of the number of fires recorded. Additionally, charcoal particles were stratified according to size to determine the association between fire distance and charcoal size classes. The relationship between total charcoal concentration and fire events was stronger for central Mexico than for the Yucatan Peninsula, which is probably the result of differences in vegetation cover. The highest determination coefficients were obtained for charcoal particle sizes ranging between 0.2 and 0.8 mm2, and for fire event distances of between 0 and 15 km from the lake. Overall, the analyses presented here offer useful tools to quantitatively and spatially reconstruct past regional fire dynamics in Central Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula.

  13. Charcoal morphometry for paleoecological analysis: The effects of fuel type and transportation on morphological parameters1

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Alastair J.; Belcher, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Charcoal particles preserved in sediments are used as indicators of paleowildfire. Most research focuses on abundance as an indicator of fire frequency, but charcoals also convey information about the vegetation from which they are derived. One potential source of information is their morphology, which is influenced by the parent material, the nature of the fire, and subsequent transportation and burial. • Methods: We charcoalified 26 materials from a range of plant taxa, and subjected them to simulated fluvial transport by tumbling them with water and gravel. We photographed the resulting particles, and used image analysis software to measure morphological parameters. • Results: Leaf charcoal displayed a logarithmic decrease in area, and a logarithmic increase in circularity, with transportation time. Trends were less clear for stem or wood charcoal. Grass charcoal displayed significantly higher aspect ratios than other charcoal types. • Conclusions: Leaf charcoal displays more easily definable relationships between morphological parameters and degree of breakdown than stem or wood charcoal. The aspect ratios of fossil mesocharcoal can indicate the broad botanical source of an assemblage. Coupled to estimates of charcoal abundance, this will improve understanding of the variation in flammability of ancient ecosystems. PMID:25202644

  14. Solvent Controlled Structural Transition of KI4K Self-Assemblies: from Nanotubes to Nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yurong; Deng, Li; Wang, Jiqian; Xu, Hai; Lu, Jian R

    2015-12-01

    The structural modulation of peptide and protein assemblies under well-controlled conditions is of both fundamental and practical significance. In spite of extensive studies, it remains hugely challenging to tune the self-assembled nanostructures in a controllable manner because the self-assembly processes are dictated by various noncovalent interactions and their interplay. We report here how to manipulate the self-assembly of a designed, symmetric amphiphilic peptide (KI4K) via the solvent-controlled structural transition. Structural transition processes were carefully followed by the combination of transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The results show that the introduction of acetonitrile into water significantly affected the hydrophobic interactions among hydrophobic side chains while imposing little impact on the β-sheet hydrogen bonding between peptide backbones. A structural transition occurred from nanotubes to helical/twisted ribbons and then to thin fibrils with the addition of acetonitrile due to the reduced hydrophobic interactions and the consequent weakening of the lateral stacking between KI4K β-sheets. The increased intermolecular electrostatic repulsions among lysine side chain amino groups had little effect on the lateral stacking of KI4K β-sheets due to the molecular symmetry. Complementary molecular dynamic (MD) simulations also indicated the solvation of acetonitrile molecules into the hydrophobic domains weakening the coherence between the neighboring sheets.

  15. New long-zoom lens for 4K super 35mm digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Laurence J.; Usui, Fumiaki; Kamata, Ryuhei

    2015-05-01

    The world of television production is beginning to adopt 4K Super 35 mm (S35) image capture for a widening range of program genres that seek both the unique imaging properties of that large image format and the protection of their program assets in a world anticipating future 4K services. Documentary and natural history production in particular are transitioning to this form of production. The nature of their shooting demands long zoom lenses. In their traditional world of 2/3-inch digital HDTV cameras they have a broad choice in portable lenses - with zoom ranges as high as 40:1. In the world of Super 35mm the longest zoom lens is limited to 12:1 offering a telephoto of 400mm. Canon was requested to consider a significantly longer focal range lens while severely curtailing its size and weight. Extensive computer simulation explored countless combinations of optical and optomechanical systems in a quest to ensure that all operational requests and full 4K performance could be met. The final lens design is anticipated to have applications beyond entertainment production, including a variety of security systems.

  16. The effect of weathering on charcoal filter performance. 2; The effect of contaminants on the CH sub 3 I removal efficiency of TEDA charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of various contaminants, namely NO{sub 2} SO{sub 2}, 2-butanone (methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK)), and NH{sub 3}, on the radioiodine removal efficiency of triethylenediamine (TEDA)-impregnated charcoal filters has been studied, and an attempt was made to characterize and quantify the weathering process of TEDA charcoal by these contaminants. The effects of the contaminants on the CH{sub 3}I removal efficiency of TEDA charcoal under dry and humid conditions are described. Based on our results, the efficiency of TEDA charcoal is degraded most by NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} has a negligible effect, and MEK produces a mild degradation. The degree of degradation parallels the contaminant's ability to be chemisorbed on the TEDA impregnant. The combined effect of water vapor and a contaminant of the charcoal efficiency is different for each contaminant. Nitrogen dioxide absorbed under dry conditions is more effective in degrading the CH{sub 2}I removal efficiency of the charcoal that when absorbed under humid conditions. On the other hand, a completely opposite result is observed for SO{sub 2}. The MEK contaminant behaves similarly to SO{sub 2} but the effect of humidity was less significant than for SO{sub 2}. Ammonia has no effect on the efficiency of the charcoal regardless of humidity.

  17. Impact of Plasma Surface Treatment on Bamboo Charcoal/silver Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignesh, K.; Vijayalakshmi, K. A.; Karthikeyan, N.

    2016-10-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) accompanied silver (Ag) nanocomposite is synthesized through sol-gel method. The produced BC/Ag nanocomposite was surface modified by air and oxygen plasma treatments. Silver ions (Ag+) will serve to improve the antibacterial activity as well as the surface area of BC. Plasma treatment has improved the surface functional groups, crystalline intensity and antibacterial activity of the prepared nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that Ag nanoparticles have good agreement with BC and the particle size has a mean diameter of 20-40nm. We observe the carboxyl functional groups in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after the oxygen plasma treatment. Moreover surface area and adsorption were analyzed by using the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area (SBET) and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  18. Acute Kidney Injury Predicts Mortality after Charcoal Burning Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chin; Tseng, Yi-Chia; Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Yang, Huang-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Fu, Jen-Fen; Lin, Wey-Ran; Wang, I-Kuan; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2016-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on risk factors for mortality in charcoal burning suicide. In this observational study, we analyzed the data of 126 patients with charcoal burning suicide that seen between 2002 and 2013. Patients were grouped according to status of renal damage as acute kidney injury (N = 49) or non-acute kidney injury (N = 77). It was found that patients with acute kidney injury suffered severer complications such as respiratory failure (P = 0.002), myocardial injury (P = 0.049), hepatic injury (P < 0.001), rhabdomyolysis (P = 0.045) and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (P = 0.028) than patients without acute kidney injury. Moreover, patients with acute kidney injury suffered longer hospitalization duration (16.9 ± 18.3 versus 10.7 ± 10.9, P = 0.002) and had higher mortality rate (8.2% versus 0%, P = 0.011) than patients without injury. In a multivariate Cox regression model, it was demonstrated that serum creatinine level (P = 0.019) and heart rate (P = 0.022) were significant risk factors for mortality. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with acute kidney injury suffered lower cumulative survival than without injury (P = 0.016). In summary, the overall mortality rate of charcoal burning suicide population was 3.2%, and acute kidney injury was a powerful predictor of mortality. Further studies are warranted. PMID:27430168

  19. Detection of hidden pre-industrial charcoal kilns by high-resolution LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Thomas; Raab, Alexandra; Nicolay, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Rösler, Horst; Bönisch, Eberhard

    2013-04-01

    Over the last decade, systematic archaeological excavations in the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (Brandenburg, Germany) have revealed one of the largest, archaeologically excavated pre-industrial charcoal production area in Central Europe. Many of the charcoal kiln relics are easy to detect by survey as they lie close to the surface and charcoal pieces hint on their existence. In the excavations the remains of the charcoal kilns are distinct, black circles in the light-coloured sands. To date, in the former Königlich-Taubendorfer Forst c. 800 remains of charcoal hearths have been excavated and documented by archaeologists in an area of about 20 km2. Further c. 300 charcoal hearths are prospected by survey. Unfortunately, the spatial information about the charcoal kiln sites in Lower Lusatia (and elsewhere) is incomplete since we only have data from the archaeological excavation and prospection in the directly affected mining district. To fill this gap, we decided to test the applicability of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data for charcoal kiln prospection. The particularly improved quality of the recent high-resolution light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data enabled the computer-aided detection of charcoal kilns and their evaluation using a geographical information system (GIS). Following data processing, the charcoal kilns are visible as buttons-like shapes in the shaded-relief maps (SRM). The characteristic shapes arise because the kiln plates are some centimetres to decimetres higher than the ditches around them. Numerous ground checks confirmed the applicability of the prospection by ALS data. But, we also assume that c. 10% of the charcoal kilns remain unidentified. A 26.6 km2 study area in the Tauerscher Forst, a forest about 10 km northwest of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde, was selected for prospection using a 1 m resolution ALS data set from the year 2011. Today, the area is forested with pine, and no archaeological excavation has been carried out so far

  20. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina).

    PubMed

    Baird, Richard E; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Xinwang; Johnson, Denita H; Rinehart, Timothy A; Abbas, Hamed K; Shier, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N

    2009-05-01

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed, and of these, 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 55 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in Mississippi. Twelve of the optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 22. These microsatellites will be useful in population and pathogenicity studies to correspond with development of potential disease-resistant soybean and other susceptible crops. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  1. A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sarah E; Arp, Hans Peter H; Kupryianchyk, Darya; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2016-02-01

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K(D)) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K(D) values at 1 µg/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and O/C ratios and organic compound octanol-water partitioning coefficient, were correlated with KD values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r(2) = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K(D)=(0.18 ± 0.06) log K(ow) + (5.74 ± 1.40) log T + (0.85 ± 0.15) log SA + (1.60 ± 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 ± 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 ± 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation.

  2. Estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1)-signaling regulates the expression of the taxane-response biomarker PRP4K.

    PubMed

    Lahsaee, Sara; Corkery, Dale P; Anthes, Livia E; Holly, Alice; Dellaire, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The pre-mRNA splicing factor 4 kinase PRP4K (PRPF4B), is an essential kinase that is a component of the U5 snRNP and functions in spliceosome assembly. We demonstrated that PRP4K is a novel biological marker for taxane response in ovarian cancer patients and reduced levels of PRP4K correlate with intrinsic and acquired taxane resistance in both breast and ovarian cancer. Breast cancer treatments are chosen based on hormone and growth factor receptor status, with HER2 (ERBB2) positive breast cancer patients receiving anti-HER2 agents and taxanes and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) positive (ER+) breast cancer patients receiving anti-estrogen therapies such as tamoxifen. Here we demonstrate that PRP4K is expressed in the normal mammary duct epithelial cells of the mouse, and that estrogen induces PRP4K gene and protein expression in ER+ human MCF7 breast cancer cells. Estrogen acts through ESR1 to regulate PRP4K expression, as over-expression of ESR1 in the ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line increased the expression of this kinase, and knock-down of ESR1 in ER+ T47D breast cancer cells reduced PRP4K levels. Furthermore, treatment with 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in PRP4K protein expression in MCF7 cells. Consistent with our previous studies identifying PRP4K as a taxane-response biomarker, reduced PRP4K expression in 4-OHT-treated cells correlated with reduced sensitivity to paclitaxel. Thus, PRP4K is novel estrogen regulated kinase, and its levels can be reduced by 4-OHT in ER+ breast cancer cells altering their response to taxanes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Test of a Sub-4K Mechanical Cooler for IXO and Other Space Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petach, Michael B.; Casement, L.; Michaelian, M.; Nguyen, T.; Raab, J.; Tward, E.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer Sensors on missions such as the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) require cooling to temperatures around 50mK to achieve the required sensitivity in the 0.6-10 keV band. Cooling an X-ray Sensor such as a Transition Edge Sensor (TES) to 50mK without the limitations on lifetime, mass, volume and reliability penalties of stored cryogen systems can be achieved with a multiple stage mechanical cryocooler. While no single cryocooler technology is appropriate for all of the stages, a hybrid cryocooler can be used. Fortunately, three cooler technologies that are each optimized for efficiency over the appropriate parts of the temperature range are rapidly maturing. For the lowest temperature stage, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) efficiently cools between 50mK and 2K to 4K. Next, a helium Joule Thomson cooler can efficiently pump the heat to 14K. Finally, a multistage pulse tube cooler efficiently pumps the heat from 14K to 300K. An existing ADR cooler, such as that demonstrated by NASA Goddard to TRL 5, can be cooled by a hybrid JT and pulse tube cooler similar to the cooler that NGST is building for the JWST/MIRI instrument, if its temperature is lowered from 6K to below 4K. The MIRI cooler leverages extensive NGST cooler heritage with >60 years of on-orbit performance with 11 pulse tube coolers currently operating continuously in orbit without failure. In this poster we present test results of a laboratory demonstration JT cooler stage with the sub-4K temperatures needed by the ADR cooler. By basing the test on the 6 K cooler technologies developed for the JWST MIRI program, the current development program provides the next step to reach the goal of TRL6 in time to support the IXO mission. This successful test provides demonstration of TRL 4 for the missing components required for an IXO cooler.

  4. Development of a 4K-10K Collins-type cryocooler for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, Charles; Krass, Brady; Gerstmann, Joseph; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson, John; Smith, Joseph, Jr.; Davis, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    An innovative cryocooler is under development that promises to provide high efficiency 4K-10K cooling for space-based focal plane arrays. It is based upon a novel modification of the Collins cycle, which is commonly used in large-scale high-efficiency terrestrial cryogenic machines. Cryogenic machines based on the conventional Collins or Brayton cycles routinely operate with input powers of about 740 Watts per Watt of refrigeration at 4K. Currently available small-scale cryocoolers capable of about 1W of cooling at 4K typically require 5kW - 7.5kW per Watt of cooling. Microelectronic technology is employed in the modified cycle to enable a reduction in scale and mechanical complexity while retaining the high efficiency potential of the conventional Collins cycle. The modified Collins cycle is a continuous, or DC, flow device. This eliminates the need for the costly exotic alloys used in the regenerators of periodic, or AC, flow pulse-tube and Stirling type cryocoolers. It also permits separation of the cryocooler cold head from the load without a significant thermodynamic penalty, thereby enabling vibration isolation and the potential for improved system integration. An engineering prototype is currently undergoing development testing to demonstrate the potential of this concept to provide cooling at 10K and below. This paper will present the major design concepts employed in the engineering prototype, the results of initial engineering prototype development testing, as well as a discussion of the benefits of this approach and the anticipated space-based and terrestrial applications.

  5. Effects of changing hydraulic and organic loading rates on pollutant reduction in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Pell, Mikael; Hylander, Lars D; Lalander, Cecilia; Vinnerås, Björn; Jönsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Greywater flows and concentrations vary greatly, thus evaluation and prediction of the response of on-site treatment filters to variable loading regimes is challenging. The performance of 0.6 m × 0.2 m (height × diameter) filters of bark, activated charcoal and sand in reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (Tot-N) and total phosphorus (Tot-P) under variable loading regimes was investigated and modelled. During seven runs, the filters were fed with synthetic greywater at hydraulic loading rates (HLR) of 32-128 L m(-2) day(-1) and organic loading rates (OLR) of 13-76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1). Based on the changes in HLR and OLR, the reduction in pollutants was modelled using multiple linear regression. The models showed that increasing the HLR from 32 to 128 L m(-2) day(-1) decreased COD reduction in the bark filters from 74 to 40%, but increased COD reduction in the charcoal and sand filters from 76 to 90% and 65 to 83%, respectively. Moreover, the models showed that increasing the OLR from 13 to 76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters except for Tot-P in the bark filters, which decreased slightly from 81 to 73%. Decreasing the HLR from 128 to 32 L m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters, but decreasing the OLR from 76 to 14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) detached biofilm and decreased the Tot-N and Tot-P reduction in the bark and sand filters. Overall, the bark filters had the capacity to treat high OLR, while the charcoal filters had the capacity to treat high HLR and high OLR. Both bark and charcoal filters had higher capacity than sand filters in dealing with high and variable loads. Bark seems to be an attractive substitute for sand filters in settings short in water and its effluent would be valuable for irrigation, while charcoal filters should be an attractive alternative for settings both rich and short in water supply and when

  6. Spatial analysis of charcoal kiln remains in the former royal forest district Tauer (Lower Lusatia, North German Lowlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Alexandra; Schneider, Anna; Bonhage, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Müller, Frank; Rösler, Horst; Heußner, Karl-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations have revealed more than thousand charcoal kiln remains (CKRs) in the prefield of the active opencast lignite mine Jänschwalde, situated about 150 km SE of Berlin (SE Brandenburg, Germany). The charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork Peitz nearby, which operated from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries. In a first approach, to estimate the dimension of the charcoal production, CKRs were mapped on shaded-relief maps (SRMs) derived from high-resolution LiDAR data (Raab et al. 2015). Subsequently, for a selected test area, identified CKRs on the SRMs were compared with archaeologically excavated CKRs in the field. This survey showed a considerably number of falsely detected sites. Therefore, the data was critically re-evaluated using additional relief visualisations. Further, we extended the CKR mapping to areas which are not archaeologically investigated. The study area, the former royal forest district Tauer, consists of two separate areas: the Tauersche Heide (c. 96 km2 area) N of Peitz and the area Jänschwalde (c. 32 km2 area) NE of Peitz. The study area is characterized by a flat topography. Different former and current anthropogenic uses (e.g., military training, solar power plant, forestry measures) have affected the study area, resulting in extensive disturbances of the terrain surface. The revised CKR abundance in the study area Jänschwalde was considerably smaller than the numbers produced by our first approach. Further, the CKR mapping revealed, that a total record of the CKRs is not possible for various reasons. Despite these limitations, a solid database can be provided for a much larger area than before. Basic statistic parameters of the CKR diameters and all comparative statistical tests were calculated using SPSS. To detect underlying spatial relationships in the CKR site distribution, we applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, a method to test for local spatial autocorrelation between neighbouring sites. The test is

  7. High Temperature Electrolysis 4 kW Experiment Design, Operation, and Results

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; K. DeWall; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao

    2012-09-01

    This report provides results of long-term stack testing completed in the new high-temperature steam electrolysis multi-kW test facility recently developed at INL. The report includes detailed descriptions of the piping layout, steam generation and delivery system, test fixture, heat recuperation system, hot zone, instrumentation, and operating conditions. This facility has provided a demonstration of high-temperature steam electrolysis operation at the 4 kW scale with advanced cell and stack technology. This successful large-scale demonstration of high-temperature steam electrolysis will help to advance the technology toward near-term commercialization.

  8. Performance of a cryogenic test facility for 4 K interferometer delay line investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, Ian; Naylor, David; Gom, Brad; Gunuganti, Sudhakar; Winter, Calvin; Jones, Martyn; Walker, David

    2016-07-01

    The next generation of space-borne instruments for far infrared astronomical spectroscopy will utilize large diameter, cryogenically cooled telescopes in order to achieve unprecedented sensitivities. Low background, ground-based cryogenic facilities are required for the cryogenic testing of materials, components and subsystems. The University of Lethbridge Test Facility Cryostat (TFC) is a large volume, closed cycle, 4 K cryogenic facility, developed for this purpose. This paper discusses the design and performance of the facility and associated metrology instrumentation, both internal and external to the TFC. Additionally, an apparatus for measuring the thermal and mechanical properties of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers is presented.

  9. The 1- to 4-K refrigeration techniques for cooling masers on a beam waveguide antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The status of technology is reported for various 1- to 4-K commercially available refrigeration systems capable of producing 1.5-K refrigeration to cool masers and superconducting cavity oscillators on the proposed beam waveguide antenna. The design requirements for the refrigeration system and the cryostat are presented. A continuously operating evaporation refrigerator that uses capillary tubing to provide a continuous, self-regulating flow of helium at approximately 1.5 K has been selected as the first refrigerator design for the beam waveguide antenna.

  10. Potassium and Phosphorus effects on disease severity of charcoal rot of soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  11. Water adsorption on charcoal: New approach in experimental studies and data representation

    SciTech Connect

    Geynisman, M.; Walker, R.

    1991-08-01

    The experimental apparatus was built to study the H{sub 2}O adsorption on charcoal at very low concentrations and collect the data in the form of isosteres. Experimental method is discussed and the global three-dimensional fit is constructed to predict the post-regeneration conditions of charcoal absorbers. 11 refs.

  12. The effect of weathering on charcoal filter performance. 1; The adsorption and desorption behavior of contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on triethylenediamine (TEDA) impregnated charcoals, used in nuclear reactors to safeguard against the release of airborne radioiodine, which show high efficiency under various reactor operation and accident conditions when the are new. However, during normal operation, charcoal filters are continuously degraded (or weathered) due to the adsorption of moisture and other air contaminants. The effect of weathering on the efficiency of charcoal for removing radioiodine is of great interest. The results of a study on the adsorption behavior of various contaminants NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} 2-butanone (methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK)) and NH{sub 3} on TEDA charcoal are presented. This study is an attempt to characterize and quantify the weathering process of TEDA charcoal by these contaminants. The adsorption and desorption of characteristics of these contaminants range from completely irreversible (NO{sub 2}) to completely reversible (NH{sub 3}). The effect of absorbed water (or humidity) on absorption is different for each contaminant. Absorbed water increases the absorption rate and capacity of TEDA charcoal for NO{sub 2}. However, it appears that SO{sub 2} is absorbed as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the wet charcoal. Absorbed water slightly reduces the adsorption capacity of the charcoal for MEK, but does not affect the absorption of NH{sub 3}.

  13. Potassium and Phosphorus Have No Effects on Severity of Charcoal Rot of Soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers on charcoal rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are unknown. Therefore, the severity of charcoal rot was studied at five levels of K (0, 37, 75, 111 and 149 kg K ha-1) and a level that was equal to the recommended fertilizer applicatio...

  14. Rapid spread of suicide by charcoal burning from 2007 to 2011 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ah-Rong; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Tae Yeop; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-11-30

    Despite rapid increase of suicide by charcoal burning within 5 years, little is known about the characteristics of charcoal burning suicide in Korea. This study aimed to examine the trends and risk factors in the spread of suicide using this method. We identified an association between media reporting of suicide by charcoal burning and its incidence. Data on suicide from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the Korean National Statistical Office. Cross-correlation analysis was used. Increasing incidence of suicide by charcoal burning was correlated with higher education levels, male sex, and the latter half of the year. Victims of charcoal burning suicide were more likely to be young, male, single, highly educated, professional, urban-based, and to die between October and December. Internet reports of suicide via charcoal burning tended to precede the increased incidence of suicide using this method, but only during the early period of the suicide epidemic. Our findings suggest that one episode of heavy media coverage of a novel method, such as charcoal burning, is sufficient to increase the prevalence of suicide by that method even after media coverage decreases. These findings are expected to contribute to the prevention of increasing rates of suicide by charcoal burning.

  15. ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM CHARCOAL LIGHTER FLUID AND REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from charcoal lighter fluid, a consumer product consisting entirely of volatile constituents. An estimated 46,250 tons (42,000 Mg) of charcoal lighter fluid is used in the U.S. each year. ...

  16. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    PubMed

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2)) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2)). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  17. Digital image processing applications in the ignition and combustion of char/coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Kharbat, E.; Goplakrishnan, C.

    1992-12-01

    Digital image processing, is employed in this remarch study in order to visually investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated char/coal particles as well as the effect of interactivecombustion in two-particle char/coal arrays. Preliminary experiments are conducted on miniature isolated candles as well as two-candle arrays.

  18. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil

    Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  19. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil

    Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  20. Water adsorption on charcoal: New approach in experimental studies and data representation

    SciTech Connect

    Geynisman, M.; Walker, R.

    1991-08-01

    The experimental apparatus was built to study the H{sub 2}O adsorption on charcoal at very low concentrations and collect the data in the form of isosteres. Experimental method is discussed and the global three-dimensional fit is constructed to predict the post-regeneration conditions of charcoal absorbers. 11 refs.

  1. The use of charcoal in modified cigarette filters for mainstream smoke carbonyl reduction

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Matthew R.; Ding, Yan S.; Yan, Xizheng; Chan, Michele; Chafin, Dana; Perez, Jose; Mendez, Magaly I.; Cardenas, Roberto Bravo; Watson, Clifford

    2017-01-01

    Carbonyls are harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS). Carbonyls, including formaldehyde and acrolein, are carcinogenic or mutagenic in a dose-dependent manner. Past studies demonstrate significant reduction of HPHCs by charcoal filtration. However, limits of charcoal filtration and cigarette design have not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. Objective data is needed concerning the feasibility of HPHC reduction in combustible filtered cigarettes. This systematic study evaluates the effect of charcoal filtration on carbonyl reduction in MSS. We modified filters of ten popular cigarette products with predetermined quantities (100–400 mg) of charcoal in a plug-space-plug configuration. MSS carbonyls, as well as total particulate matter, tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide (TNCO), and draw resistance were quantified. Significant carbonyl reductions were observed across all cigarette products as charcoal loading increased. At the highest charcoal loadings, carbonyls were reduced by nearly 99%. Tar and nicotine decreased modestly (<20%) compared to reductions in carbonyls. Increased draw resistance was significant at only the highest charcoal loadings. This work addresses information gaps in the science base that can inform the evaluation of charcoal filtration as an available technological adaptation to cigarette design which reduces levels of carbonyls in MSS. PMID:28238852

  2. Effect of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of isoproturon in soils.

    PubMed

    Si, Youbin; Wang, Midao; Tian, Chao; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Dongmei

    2011-04-01

    The effects of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of the herbicide isoproturon in soils were studied under laboratory conditions. The adsorption data all fitted well with the Freundlich empirical equation. It was found that the adsorption of isoproturon in soils increased with the rate of charcoal amended (correlation coefficient r=0.957**, P<0.01). The amount of isoproturon in leachate decreased with the increase of the amount of charcoal addition to soil column, while the retention of isoproturon in soils increased with an increase in the charcoal content of soil samples. Biodegradation was still the most significant mechanism for isoproturon dissipation from soil. Charcoal amendment greatly reduced the biodegradation of isoproturon in soils. The half-lives of isoproturon degradation (DT(50)) in soils greatly extended when the rate of added charcoal increased from 0 to 50 g kg(-1) (for Paddy soil, DT(50) values increased from 54.6 to 71.4 days; for Alfisol, DT(50) from 16.0 to 136 days; and for Vertisol, DT(50) from 15.2 to 107 days). The degradation rate of isoproturon in soils was significantly negatively correlated with the amount of added charcoal. This research suggests that charcoal amendment may be an effective management practice for reducing pesticide leaching and enhancing its persistence in soils.

  3. Carbon Sequestration and Fertility after Centennial Time Scale Incorporation of Charcoal into Soil

    PubMed Central

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m−2) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m−2). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters’ estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study. PMID:24614647

  4. Preoperative localization of neck recurrences from thyroid cancer: charcoal tattooing under ultrasound guidance.

    PubMed

    Chami, Linda; Hartl, Dana; Leboulleux, Sophie; Baudin, Eric; Lumbroso, Jean; Schlumberger, Martin; Travagli, Jean Paul

    2015-03-01

    Reoperation for thyroid cancer recurrence is a surgical challenge in previously dissected necks, and there is a need for a reliable procedure for surgeon guidance. In this study, the usefulness of preoperative charcoal tattooing for surgical guidance was evaluated. From July 2007 to May 2010, 53 patients (40 females; Mage=44 years, range 19-76 years) were prospectively included for preoperative localization of neck recurrences from differentiated (n=46) or medullary thyroid cancer (n=7). Preoperative cytological assessment was performed for at least one lesion in each patient. Ultrasound (US) imaging was performed with high-frequency probes (8-14 Mhz). Micronized peat charcoal (0.5-3 mL) was injected under US guidance using a 25 gauge needle, 0-15 days preoperatively. A total of 106 lesions were selected for charcoal tattooing. Of these, 101 had been tattooed, and 102 were removed (85 metastases, 17 benign on pathology). The tolerance of charcoal injection was good in all but three patients. A mean volume of 1 mL of charcoal was injected with a mean of two targets per patient. Charcoal labeling facilitated intraoperative detection in 56 "difficult" lesions (i.e., small size, dense fibrosis, anatomical pitfalls), and charcoal trace facilitated intraoperative guidance in 17 lesions. Feasibility and usefulness rates were 83% and 70.7% respectively. These findings suggest that charcoal tattooing under US guidance is an easy to implement, safe, and useful procedure for surgeon guidance in neck reoperation for thyroid cancer.

  5. ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM CHARCOAL LIGHTER FLUID AND REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from charcoal lighter fluid, a consumer product consisting entirely of volatile constituents. An estimated 46,250 tons (42,000 Mg) of charcoal lighter fluid is used in the U.S. each year. ...

  6. Rational synthesis of zerovalent iron/bamboo charcoal composites with high saturation magnetization

    Treesearch

    Mingshan Wu; Jianfeng Ma; Zhiyong Cai; Genlin Tian; Shumin Yang; Youhong Wang; Xing' e Liu

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of magnetic biochar composites is a major new research area in advanced materials sciences. A series of magnetic bamboo charcoal composites (MBC800, MBC1000 and MBC1200) with high saturation magnetization (Ms) was fabricated in this work by mixing bamboo charcoal powder with an aqueous ferric chloride solution and subsequently...

  7. Chemical structure of wood charcoal by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Treesearch

    Nicole Labbe; David Harper; Timothy Rials; Thomas Elder

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the effect of temperature on charcoal structure and chemical composition is investigated for four tree species. Wood charcoal carbonized at various temperatures is analyzed by mid infrared spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis and by thermogravimetric analysis to characterize the chemical composition during the carbonization process. The...

  8. Experimental Research of Pyrolysis Gases Cracking on Surface of Charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosov, Valentin; Kosov, Vladimir; Zaichenko, Victor

    For several years, in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, two-stage technology of biomass processing has been developing [1]. The technology is based on pyrolysis of biomass as the first stage. The second stage is high-temperature conversion of liquid fraction of the pyrolysis on the surface of porous charcoal matrix. Synthesis gas consisted of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is the main products of the technology. This gas is proposed to be used as fuel for gas-engine power plant. For practical implementation of the technology it is important to know the size of hot char filter for full cracking of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of charcoal. Theoretical determination of the cracking parameters of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of coal is extremely difficult because the pyrolysis gases include tars, whose composition and structure is complicated and depends on the type of initial biomass. It is also necessary to know the surface area of the char used in the filter, which is also a difficult task. Experimental determination of the hot char filter parameters is presented. It is shown that proposed experimental method can be used for different types of biomass.

  9. Lamtoro charcoal (l. leucocephala) as bioreductor in nickel laterite reduction: performance and kinetics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrus, H. T. B. M.; Diga, A.; Rhamdani, A. R.; Warmada, I. W.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Perdana, I.

    2017-04-01

    The performance and kinetic of nickel laterite reduction were studied. In this work, the reduction of nickel laterite ores by anthracite coal, representing the high-grade carbon content matter, and lamtoro charcoal, representing the bioreductor, were conducted in air and CO2 atmosphere, within the temperature ranged from 800°C and 1000°C. XRD analysis was applied to observe the performance of anthracite and lamtoro as a reductor. Two models were applied, sphere particle geometry model and Ginstling-Brounhstein diffusion model, to study the kinetic parameters. The results indicated that the type of reductant and the reduction atmosphere used greatly influence the kinetic parameters. The obtained values of activation energy vary in the range of 13.42-18.12 kcal/mol.

  10. Autoclave inactivation of infectious radioactive laboratory waste contained within a charcoal filtration system

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.C.; Green, B.L.; Marquardt, C.J.; Ducatman, A.M. )

    1991-07-01

    A model system was developed previously for disposal of solid laboratory waste that is both radioactive and heat sensitive, e.g., HIV. A double polypropylene bag with charcoal vent filter and absorbent was designed to meet requirements for both steam sterilization and disposal as solid radioactive waste. Earlier work demonstrated the effective containment of radioactive gases by the filter and inactivation of organisms as heat sensitive as HIV. The authors sought to broaden the application of this model to ensure inactivation of microorganisms that are more heat resistant than HIV. The efficacy of steam sterilization using water or solutions of iodophor, hypochlorite, or hydrogen peroxide was studied under constant temperature and time conditions. The systems were monitored with internal probes, physical, chemical, and biological indicators. Biological indicators documented inactivation when bags containing hydrogen peroxide (3%) were autoclaved for 60 min at 121C. Synergistic activity between hydrogen peroxide and autoclave conditions significantly reduced processing time.

  11. Removal of nitrate-nitrogen from drinking water using bamboo powder charcoal.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Kei; Matsumoto, Toshitatsu; Hatate, Yasuo; Nishihara, Keiichi; Nakanishi, Tomoki

    2004-12-01

    The adsorption effectiveness of bamboo powder charcoal (BPC); made from the residual of Moso bamboo manufacturing; in removing nitrate-nitrogen from water has been investigated. Commercial activated carbon (CAC) was also used to compare the effectiveness of adsorption in removal of nitrate-nitrogen. The adsorption effectiveness of BPC was higher than that of CAC; regardless of the concentration of nitrate-nitrogen; in the range of 0-10 mg/l. The effect of temperature on adsorption by BPC and CAC in the range of 10-20 degrees C was also investigated. From the results, it was found that the temperature dependency of the adsorption effectiveness of BPC was weaker than that of CAC. This fact indicates that BPC can be an attractive option for the in situ treatment by adsorption of nitrate-nitrogen-contaminated underground and surface water.

  12. Ammonia Adsorption of Four Thailand White Charcoals for Air Purification Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pijarn, Nuchanaporn; Sribuarai, Tinnphat; Butsee, Manipa; Buakul, Kanokwan; Seng, Hasan; Phonprasert, Pongtep; Kitisriworaphan, Thanate; Atthameth, Prasertsil

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this work was to study the efficiency of ammonia adsorption of four white charcoals include Bamboo, Coconut spathe, Coconut shell and Miscellaneous woods. The ammonia 20 mL was used as the odour sample for adsorption, 0.1 grams of each white charcoal was used as adsorbent and adsorption time were studied in 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. The gravimetric method was used as method for study ammonia adsorption. The results show all white charcoals have saturated adsorption in range 40-60 min. The sequent of ammonia adsorption with white charcoal from descending were Miscellaneous > Coconut spathe > Coconut shell > Bamboo. A statistical test with Paired Samples T-Test, the result of four white charcoal to absorb the odour of ammonia in the all adsorption times have difference statistically significant at the 95% confidence.

  13. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  14. Use of charcoal haemoperfusion in the management of severely poisoned patients.

    PubMed Central

    Vale, J A; Rees, A J; Widdop, B; Goulding, R

    1975-01-01

    The clinical use of uncoated charcoal haemoperfusion systems, despite their efficacy, has hitherto been prevented by the occurrence of a number of adverse effects including charcoal embolism and marked thrombocytopenia. Charcoal coated with a synthetic hydrogel overcomes many of the disadvantages associated with the use of uncoated material in that there is a much reduced thrombocytopenia and no evidence of charcoal embolism. Six patients, severely poisoned as a result of overdoses of either a barbiturate or glutethimide, were haemoperfused using such a system. Four made complete recoveries, and the two patients who died had both suffered cardiorespiratory arrests before perfusion. In contrast to haemodialysis charcoal haemoperfusion is simple to initiate, less expensive in terms of manpower and equipment, and gives superior clearance data for all barbiturates and glutethimide. We believe that this technique may have a significant role to play in the management of the severely poisoned patient. Images FIG. 2 PMID:1120248

  15. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material – though anisotropically contracted – and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: • Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope. • Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven. • Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls. PMID:26150989

  16. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    particles, extractable DOC was lower and less aromatic than in the adjacent control soil, likely due to strong sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) onto charcoal particles. We suggest that higher sorption of DOM onto the surface of biochar in the control soil provided additional acid functional groups and thus increased the surface charge to a greater extent than in the DOC poorer kiln soil. Hence, biochars incubated in the kiln soil showed less changes in CEC and surface acidity. Higher availability of DOM in the control soil could also stimulate microbial activity to a larger extent, resulting in higher oxidation rates of biochars incubated in the control soil.

  17. Cold Inertance Tube for 4 K Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, ZhuoPei; Gan, ZhiHua; Qiu, LiMin

    The losses in the regenerator are minimized when the amplitude of the mass flow is minimized for a given acoustic power which requires that the mass flow lags the pressure by about 30° at the cold end of regenerator. The phase shift provided by an inertance tube is strongly influenced by the temperature of the inertance tube and the acoustic power at the cold end of the regenerator. For a 4 K Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler, the acoustic power at the cold end of the regenerator decreases significantly with the temperature thereby it's difficult to achieve ideal phase relationship with ambient inertance tube. While cold inertance tube provide a larger phase shift in that the viscosity of the working fluid decreases and the density increases as the temperature decreases. However, use of cold inertance tube increases additional heat load to the regenerator. Therefore it's of great significance to determine when a cold inertance tube should be used. In this paper effect of temperature of inertance tube is calculated for a 4 K Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler with different acoustic powers at the cold end. A comparison of ambient temperature inertance tube and cold inertance tube is made.

  18. Experimental design, operation, and results of a 4 kW high temperature steam electrolysis experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; O'Brien, James E.; Tao, Greg; Zhou, Can; Housley, Gregory K.

    2015-11-01

    High temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) is a promising technology for large-scale hydrogen production. However, research on HTSE performance above the kW level is limited. This paper presents the results of 4 kW HTSE long-term test completed in a multi-kW test facility recently developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The 4 kW HTSE unit consisted of two solid oxide electrolysis stacks electrically connected in parallel, each of which included 40 electrode-supported planar cells. A current density of 0.41 A cm-2 was used for the long-term operating at a constant current mode, resulting in a theoretical hydrogen production rate about 23 slpm. A demonstration of 830 h stable operation was achieved with a degradation rate of 3.1% per 1000 h. The paper also includes detailed descriptions of the piping layout, steam generation and delivery system, test fixture, heat recuperation system, hot zone, instrumentation, and operating conditions. This successful demonstration of multi-kW scale HTSE unit will help to advance the technology toward near-term commercialization.

  19. A vibration free closed-cycle 1 K cryostat with a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Lichtenwalter, Ben

    2014-01-01

    A 1 K closed-cycle cryostat, pre-cooled by a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler, has been developed. The Cryomech PT410 pulse tube cryocooler liquefies helium in a vacuum insulated sleeve at a pressure of ˜1 atm. Liquid helium flows through a JT valve and into a 1 K pot that is evacuated by a vacuum pump. The discharged gas from the vacuum is routed to the top of the sleeve to be liquefied. This design accomplishes closed-cycle 1 K refrigeration and provides continuous cooling below 2 K. Using two XDS10 vacuum pumps and with the JT valve optimized for maximum cooling capacity, the 1 K cooling station can reach a no-load temperature of 1.51 K and provide a capacity of 225 mW at 1.76 K. The temperature oscillations on the 4 K and 1 K cooling stations are ± 3 mK. The cryostat is designed so that there is no direct mechanical contact between the pulse tube cryocooler heat exchangers and the 1 K cooling station. This design feature enables exceptionally low vibration operation at the 1 K cooling station.

  20. Towards an improvement of carbon accounting for wildfires: incorporation of charcoal production into carbon emission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan H.; Santin, Cristina; de Groot, Bill

    2015-04-01

    Every year fires release to the atmosphere the equivalent to 20-30% of the carbon (C) emissions from fossil fuel consumption, with future emissions from wildfires expected to increase under a warming climate. Critically, however, part of the biomass C affected by fire is not emitted during burning, but converted into charcoal, which is very resistant to environmental degradation and, thus, contributes to long-term C sequestration. The magnitude of charcoal production from wildfires as a long-term C sink remains essentially unknown and, to the date, charcoal production has not been included in wildfire emission and C budget models. Here we present complete inventories of charcoal production in two fuel-rich, but otherwise very different ecosystems: i) a boreal conifer forest (experimental stand-replacing crown fire; Canada, 2012) and a dry eucalyptus forest (high-intensity fuel reduction burn; Australia 2014). Our data show that, when considering all the fuel components and quantifying all the charcoal produced from each (i.e. bark, dead wood debris, fine fuels), the overall amount of charcoal produced is significant: up to a third of the biomass C affected by fire. These findings indicate that charcoal production from wildfires could represent a major and currently unaccounted error in the estimation of the effects of wildfires in the global C balance. We suggest an initial approach to include charcoal production in C emission models, by using our case study of a boreal forest fire and the Canadian Fire Effects Model (CanFIRE). We also provide recommendations of how a 'conversion factor' for charcoal production could be relatively easily estimated when emission factors for different types of fuels and fire conditions are experimentally obtained. Ultimately, this presentation is a call for integrative collaboration between the fire emission modelling community and the charcoal community to work together towards the improvement of C accounting for wildfires.

  1. Towards an inventory of historic charcoal production fields in Brandenburg, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Takla, Melanie; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Bonhage, Alexander; Hirsch, Florian; Rösler, Horst

    2015-04-01

    The historic production of charcoal is an important component of the late Holocene fire history for many landscapes. Charcoal production can have numerous effects on ecosystems, e.g., through changes in forest area and structure, or through the effects of pyrolysis, charcoal and ash addition to soils. To assess such effects, it is necessary to understand the spatial extent and patterns of historic charcoal production, which has so far hardly been approached for the Northern European Lowlands. In the forefield of the open-cast mine Jänschwalde (north of Cottbus, Germany), archaeological excavations have revealed one of the largest charcoal production fields described so far. For this area, we applied and evaluated different methods for mapping the spatial distribution of charcoal kiln remains. Based on our results from this exceptionally well-described charcoal production field, we attempted to detect and map other large occurrences of charcoal kiln remains in the state of Brandenburg. For the mine forefield, archaeological excavations provide certain and exact information on kiln site location and geometry. Using airborne laser scanning elevation models, the mapping of kiln sites could be extended to areas beyond the mine forefield, using a manual digitization for thorough mapping in forest areas north of Cottbus, and an automated mapping approach for detection of kiln sites for additional areas in Brandenburg. Potential areas of large-scale production were identified in a GIS-based analysis of environmental and historic data. By manual digitization from Shaded Relief Maps, more than 5000 kiln sites in an area of 32 km2 were detected in the Jänschwalde mine forefield. First results of mapping for larger areas indicate similar densities, but smaller diameters of kiln sites in other charcoal production fields; and show that charcoal production is a so far underestimated component of the land use history in many parts of the Northern European Lowlands.

  2. Production of Charcoals from Cultural Waste of Mushroom and Soybean Hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yoshiki; Miyamoto, Kazumichi; Machida, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Takeru; Horikoshi, Kenichi; Okamoto, Masashi

    In order to utilize cultural waste of mushroom and soybean hull as coke, conversion from dry cultural waste of mushroom (DCWM) and soybean hull (SH) into charcoal by carbonization at 400-800°C, and conversion from them into formed charcoal were investigated. The thermogravimetry tendency of DCWM was intermediate between xylan and lignin, and that of SH was intermediate between cellulose and xylan. Carbonization of DCWM and SH led to make charcoal with high carbon content and higher heating value than raw material. Regarding charcoal carbonized at 800°C, carbon contents of DCWM and SH were 56 and 72%, higher heating values of them were 20.59 and 25.52 MJ/kg, respectively. It was affected by high ash content of DCWM and SH, that carbon contents and higher heating values of these charcoals were lower than coke. On utilization charcoal of DCWM and SH as coke, a preventative method must be taken regarding lower heating value of these than coke. By hot-press forming at 160°C 98MPa from charcoal carbonized at 250°C of DCWM or SH, these charcoal pellets could be produced. And by carbonization at 300-800°C of the pellet formed at 70°C 98MPa from DCWM, carbonized pellet could be produced. In the same manner for producing carbonized pellet of DCWM, the carbonized pellet of SH could be produced, but maximum temperature of carbonization was about 400°C, from the phenomena that puff occur on the pellet in the process of carbonization of it at 500°C. From these results, it is considered effective for increasing energy density of biomass, to convert from raw material into charcoal or formed charcoal.

  3. Cellular MicroRNA Let-7a Suppresses KSHV Replication through Targeting MAP4K4 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaohua; Gao, Yuan; Nan, Yulong; Zhang, Jinxia; Di, Chunhong; Wang, Xiaobo; Lian, Fuzhi; Cao, Yifei; Hu, Yu; Xu, Liangwen; Ma, Haiyan; Hong, Yu; Liu, Tingjie; Wu, Yinyin; Xu, Xianrong; Yan, Yutao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of KS, the most common AIDS-related malignancy. The majority of KS tumor cells harbor latent KSHV virus but only a small percentage undergoes spontaneous lytic replication. Viral reactivation from latency is crucial for the pathogenesis and development of KS, but the cellular mechanisms underlying the switch between viral latency and replication are not well understood. Methods The level of let-7 miRNAs and MAP4K4 in KSHV infected 293T cells were quantified by real-time PCRs. Let-7 expression was silenced by the miRNA sponge technique. In let-7a transfected 293T cells, the expression of MAP4K4 was measured by real-time PCR and western blot. Luciferease expression was employed to examine the effect of let-7a on the 3’-untranslated region (UTR) of the MAP4K4 gene in 293T cells. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the KSHV copy numbers in BC-3 cells in which the expression of let-7a and/or MAP4K4 were altered. Finally, ERK, JNK and p38 protein production and their phosphorylation status were detected by western blots in let-7a or MAP4K4 transfected BCBL-1 cells. Results The expression of microRNA let-7 was dramatically decreased in KSHV infected 293T cells, but that of MAP4K4 was increased significantly. Let-7a is physically associated with and targets the MAP4K4 3’UTR, and inhibits MAP4K4 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. MAP4K4 stimulates KSHV reactivation from latency, whereas let-7a inhibits the function of MAP4K4 by reversing the function of MAP4K4 on JNK, phospho-JNK and phospho-ERK1/2 levels. Conclusion Our results establish that let-7a specifically suppresses MAP4K4 expression, and further inhibits KSHV reactivation by interfering with the function of MAP4K4 on the MAPK pathway, highlighting let-7a as a potential treatment for KS. PMID:26197270

  4. Influence of regenerator void volume on performance of a precooled 4 K Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuopei; Jiang, Yanlong; Gan, Zhihua; Qiu, Limin; Chen, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC), typically operating at 30-60 Hz, have the advantage of compact structure, light weight, and long life compared with Gifford-McMahon type (1-2 Hz) PTC (GMPTC). The behavior of flow and heat transfer in the regenerator of a 4 K SPTC deviates from that at warmer temperatures and low frequencies. In this paper the behavior of 4 K regenerator at high frequencies is investigated based on a single-stage 4 K SPTC precooled by a two-stage GMPTC. The 4 K SPTC and the GMPTC is thermally coupled with two thermal bridges. The 4 K SPTC uses a 10 K cold inertance tube as phase shifter to improve phase relationship between mass flow and pressure. The regenerator void volume is an important factor that significantly influences the heat transfer between regenerator matrix and working fluid helium, pressure drop along the regenerator, and phase shift between mass flow and pressure. In this paper, influence of regenerator void volume on the performance of the 4 K SPTC with different operating parameters including operating frequencies and average pressure is studied theoretically and experimentally. The first and second precooling powers provided by the GMPTC are obtained which are important parameters to evaluate the efficiency of the whole 4 K system with precooling. The results of the regenerator void volume are given and discussed in normalized form for general use.

  5. A silencing pathway to induce H3-K9 and H4-K20 trimethylation at constitutive heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Schotta, Gunnar; Lachner, Monika; Sarma, Kavitha; Ebert, Anja; Sengupta, Roopsha; Reuter, Gunter; Reinberg, Danny; Jenuwein, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    Histone lysine methylation is a central modification to mark functionally distinct chromatin regions. In particular, H3-K9 trimethylation has emerged as a hallmark of pericentric heterochromatin in mammals. Here we show that H4-K20 trimethylation is also focally enriched at pericentric heterochromatin. Intriguingly, H3-K9 trimethylation by the Suv39h HMTases is required for the induction of H4-K20 trimethylation, although the H4 Lys 20 position is not an intrinsic substrate for these enzymes. By using a candidate approach, we identified Suv4-20h1 and Suv4-20h2 as two novel SET domain HMTases that localize to pericentric heterochromatin and specifically act as nucleosomal H4-K20 trimethylating enzymes. Interaction of the Suv4-20h enzymes with HP1 isoforms suggests a sequential mechanism to establish H3-K9 and H4-K20 trimethylation at pericentric heterochromatin. Heterochromatic H4-K20 trimethylation is evolutionarily conserved, and in Drosophila, the Suv4-20 homolog is a novel PEV modifier to regulate position-effect variegation. Together, our data indicate a function for H4-K20 trimethylation in gene silencing and further suggest H3-K9 and H4-K20 trimethylation as important components of a repressive pathway that can index pericentric heterochromatin.

  6. Occurrence of Thermoacoustic Phenomena at 0.8 K, 4 K and above

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stautner, W.; Chen, R.; Xu, M.; Rochford, J.; Trigger, J.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoacoustics in cryogenics continues to be a very interesting phenomenon which is still poorly understood but often experienced unexpectedly in experiments where it causes unacceptable heat leaks. The authors report on the appearance and onset of this unwanted occurrence at temperatures below 35 K. A number of physical experiments are presented, where the authors had the means to take quantitative measurements of the heat leak caused by these pressure oscillations in apparatus with bent tubes ranging from 4.55 and 4.7 mm inner diameter, with heat stationing links. The parameters which indicate the likelihood of inadvertently developing these thermoacoustic oscillations are presented and means developed to avoiding them in that instance are given. Furthermore, we had the rare opportunity to record and analyze 4 K TAOs experienced on a test setup and present the simple method that was used to eliminate them.

  7. Cine-servo lens technology for 4K broadcast and cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurishi, Ryuji; Wakazono, Tsuyoshi; Usui, Fumiaki

    2015-09-01

    Central to the rapid evolution of 4K image capture technology in the past few years, deployment of large-format cameras with Super35mm Single Sensors is increasing in TV production for diverse shows such as dramas, documentaries, wildlife, and sports. While large format image capture has been the standard in the cinema world for quite some time, the recent experiences within the broadcast industry have revealed a variety of requirement differences for large format lenses compared to those of the cinema industry. A typical requirement for a broadcast lens is a considerably higher zoom ratio in order to avoid changing lenses in the middle of a live event, which is mostly not the case for traditional cinema productions. Another example is the need for compact size, light weight, and servo operability for a single camera operator shooting in a shoulder-mount ENG style. On the other hand, there are new requirements that are common to both worlds, such as smooth and seamless change in angle of view throughout the long zoom range, which potentially offers new image expression that never existed in the past. This paper will discuss the requirements from the two industries of cinema and broadcast, while at the same time introducing the new technologies and new optical design concepts applied to our latest "CINE-SERVO" lens series which presently consists of two models, CN7x17KAS-S and CN20x50IAS-H. It will further explain how Canon has realized 4K optical performance and fast servo control while simultaneously achieving compact size, light weight and high zoom ratio, by referring to patent-pending technologies such as the optical power layout, lens construction, and glass material combinations.

  8. Development of high efficiency 4 K two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers with split valve unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Kyosuke; Xu, Mingyao; Takayama, Hirokazu; Tsuchiya, Akihiro; Saito, Motokazu

    2012-06-01

    SHI has been continuously improving the efficiency and reducing the vibration of a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler. A high-efficiency 4 K pulse tube cryocooler with a split or a remote valve unit has been developed. The valve unit of the cryocooler is split from the cold head by one flexible gas line and two stainless pipes. The experimental data of a highefficiency pulse tube cryocooler with a split or a remote valve unit is reported in this paper. The diameter of the gas lines between the valve unit and the cold head is optimized. The wall thickness of the tubes on the cylinder is optimized for low vibration with minimum impact on cooling performance. The typical vibration displacement is ±10.3 ìm at the first stage and ±14.6 ìm at the second stage when the compressor is operated at 50 Hz. When the valve unit is split with 1 m lines, the cooling capacity is reduced because of increased pressure drop and dead volume. The minimum temperature of a prototype unit is 23.0 K at the first stage and 2.30 K at the second stage when the compressor is operated at 50 Hz, and 22.3 K and 2.39 K when the compressor is operated at 60 Hz. A typical cooling capacity of the prototype unit is 35 W at 41.8 K on the first stage and 0.9 W at 4.05 K on the second stage when the compressor is operated at 50 Hz and 35 W at 41.8 K on the first stage and 0.9 W at 4.07 K when the compressor is operated at 60 Hz.

  9. Structure-Based Design of GNE-495, a Potent and Selective MAP4K4 Inhibitor with Efficacy in Retinal Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diverse biological roles for mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) have necessitated the identification of potent inhibitors in order to study its function in various disease contexts. In particular, compounds that can be used to carry out such studies in vivo would be critical for elucidating the potential for therapeutic intervention. A structure-based design effort coupled with property-guided optimization directed at minimizing the ability of the inhibitors to cross into the CNS led to an advanced compound 13 (GNE-495) that showed excellent potency and good PK and was used to demonstrate in vivo efficacy in a retinal angiogenesis model recapitulating effects that were observed in the inducible Map4k4 knockout mice. PMID:26288693

  10. Structure-Based Design of GNE-495, a Potent and Selective MAP4K4 Inhibitor with Efficacy in Retinal Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ndubaku, Chudi O; Crawford, Terry D; Chen, Huifen; Boggs, Jason W; Drobnick, Joy; Harris, Seth F; Jesudason, Rajiv; McNamara, Erin; Nonomiya, Jim; Sambrone, Amy; Schmidt, Stephen; Smyczek, Tanya; Vitorino, Philip; Wang, Lan; Wu, Ping; Yeung, Stacey; Chen, Jinhua; Chen, Kevin; Ding, Charles Z; Wang, Tao; Xu, Zijin; Gould, Stephen E; Murray, Lesley J; Ye, Weilan

    2015-08-13

    Diverse biological roles for mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) have necessitated the identification of potent inhibitors in order to study its function in various disease contexts. In particular, compounds that can be used to carry out such studies in vivo would be critical for elucidating the potential for therapeutic intervention. A structure-based design effort coupled with property-guided optimization directed at minimizing the ability of the inhibitors to cross into the CNS led to an advanced compound 13 (GNE-495) that showed excellent potency and good PK and was used to demonstrate in vivo efficacy in a retinal angiogenesis model recapitulating effects that were observed in the inducible Map4k4 knockout mice.

  11. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio < 0.5 and T50 en DSC= 500 ºC). The evolution of SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil

  12. [Caring for families of charcoal-burning suicide patients].

    PubMed

    Pien, Feng-Chen; Feng, Hsin-Pei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2013-12-01

    Charcoal-burning is the second major cause of suicide death in Taiwan. Predicting the variable damage and sequelae in this suicide mode is difficult due to the rapid combination of carbon monoxide with red blood cells. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) may result in significantly extended recovery times, causing additional stress to the family. Nurses may help increase family understanding and support and guide family members to more positive intra-family interactions, shared perspectives on the recovery process, and resource seeking behavior by depicting subsequent family life and helping the entire family develop coping strategies those allow all members to effect cognitive, emotional and behavioral change. This result may help families of attempted suicide individuals recover successfully.

  13. Charcoal as evidence of fire regimes in the Pleistocene of the California Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. C.; Hardiman, M.; Pinter, N.; Anderson, R. S.

    2012-04-01

    Charcoal has been recovered from a range of late Pleistocene sites both in Santa Cruz Island and Santa Rosa Island, belonging to the California Channel Islands. Sediments have been dated using radiocarbon measurements based on wood charcoal, fungal sclerotia, glassy carbon and fecal pellets and are given as calendar years bp. Charcoal assemblages from samples dating from 24,694 to 12,900 years are dominated by coniferous wood charcoal. Little angiosperm charcoal was recovered in any of the samples. Fungal sclerotia are frequent in a number of samples from a range of ages both on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa. Fecal pellets are common in most samples and abundant in others. Some of the fecal pellets have hexagonal sides and are likely to represent termite frass. The sediments are fluvial in origin and the distribution of charcoal is irregular. The charcoal records a significant record of fire before the earliest documented human arrival on the islands and there is no evidence for a catstrophic fire triggered by a cometary impact at the onset of the younger Dryas, 12,900 cal years bp.

  14. The impact of charcoal production on forest degradation: a case study in Tete, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedano, F.; Silva, J. A.; Machoco, R.; Meque, C. H.; Sitoe, A.; Ribeiro, N.; Anderson, K.; Ombe, Z. A.; Baule, S. H.; Tucker, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    Charcoal production for urban energy consumption is a main driver of forest degradation in sub Saharan Africa. Urban growth projections for the continent suggest that the relevance of this process will increase in the coming decades. Forest degradation associated to charcoal production is difficult to monitor and commonly overlooked and underrepresented in forest cover change and carbon emission estimates. We use a multitemporal dataset of very high-resolution remote sensing images to map kiln locations in a representative study area of tropical woodlands in central Mozambique. The resulting maps provided a characterization of the spatial extent and temporal dynamics of charcoal production. Using an indirect approach we combine kiln maps and field information on charcoal making to describe the magnitude and intensity of forest degradation linked to charcoal production, including aboveground biomass and carbon emissions. Our findings reveal that forest degradation associated to charcoal production in the study area is largely independent from deforestation driven by agricultural expansion and that its impact on forest cover change is in the same order of magnitude as deforestation. Our work illustrates the feasibility of using estimates of urban charcoal consumption to establish a link between urban energy demands and forest degradation. This kind of approach has potential to reduce uncertainties in forest cover change and carbon emission assessments in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Semi-volatiles in mainstream smoke delivery from select charcoal-filtered cigarette brand variants.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Bryan A; Ding, Yan S; Vaughan, Christina; Zhang, Liqin; Polzin, Gregory; Caudill, Samuel P; Watson, Clifford H; Ashley, David L

    2010-06-01

    It has been reported that charcoal added to cigarette filters selectively removes many of the more volatile chemicals, but it is not clear to what extent charcoal may reduce the delivery of important less volatile chemical constituents in mainstream cigarette smoke. We analysed machine-derived mainstream smoke deliveries (under three smoking regimens) for variants of a charcoal-filtered cigarette commercially test-marketed in the USA, focusing on selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). While charcoal-containing filters selectively removed lower molecular weight PAHs from mainstream smoke, they did not significantly remove the heavier and more toxic PAHs studied, such as benzo[a]pyrene, a known carcinogen. Likewise, charcoal-containing filters removed phenols and TSNAs from mainstream smoke to differing amounts depending on the compound, filter design and the smoking regimen. The addition of sufficient charcoal to cigarette filters is known to remove many volatile compounds and can potentially reduce deliveries of certain semi-volatile compounds under some machine smoking regimens. Less volatile compounds, with a significant portion in the particulate phase, are less available for selective filtration by charcoal-containing filters than the more volatile compounds that reside predominantly in the gas phase.

  16. Concentrations and bioaccessibilities of trace elements in barbecue charcoals.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Annabel; Turner, Andrew

    2013-11-15

    Total and bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been measured in charcoals from 15 barbecue products available from UK retailers. Total concentrations (available to boiling aqua regia) were greater in briquetted products (with mean concentrations ranging from 0.16 μg g(-1) for Cd to 3240 μg g(-1) for Al) than in lumpwoods (0.007 μg g(-1) for Cd to 28 μg g(-1) for Fe), presumably because of the use of additives and secondary constituents (e.g. coal) in the former. On ashing, and with the exception of Hg, elemental concentrations increased by factors ranging from about 1.5 to 50, an effect attributed to the combustion of organic components and offset to varying extents by the different volatilities of the elements. Concentrations in the ashed products that were bioaccessible, or available to a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) that simulates, successively, the chemical conditions in the human stomach and intestine, exhibited considerable variation among the elements studied. Overall, however, bioaccessible concentrations relative to corresponding total concentrations were greatest for As, Cu and Ni (attaining 100% in either or both simulated PBET phases in some cases) and lowest for Pb (generally <1% in both phases). A comparison of bioaccessible concentrations in ashed charcoals with estimates of daily dietary intake suggest that Al and As are the trace elements of greatest concern to human health from barbecuing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Criticality safety study of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Hopper, C.M.

    1996-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. The objective of the experiment was to investigate the practicality of developing a power reactor consisting of a graphite lattice with circulating molten uranium salt as fuel for application in central power stations. When the experiment was terminated in 1969, approximately 4710 kg of salt containing approximately 36.3 kg of uranium, 675 g of plutonium, and various fission products were transferred to two fuel drain tanks (FDTs). The almost 30.5 kg of Uranium 233 in the salt is the primary fissile constituent, but about 0.93 kg of Uranium 235 is also present. In April 1994, a gas sample from the MSRE off-gas system (OGS) indicated that uranium had migrated from the FDTs into the OGS. Further investigation revealed a likely accumulation of approximately 2.6 kg of uranium in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), which is located in the concrete-lined charcoal bed cell (CBC) below ground level outside the MSRE building. The nuclear criticality safety (NCS) situation was further complicated by the CBC being filled with water up to the overflow pipe, which completely submerged the ACB. Thus there was not only an increased risk of criticality because of water reflection in the ACB, but also because of potential moderation in the ACB in case of water inleakage. Leakage into the ACB would result in a direct path for water between the CBC and the OGS or FDTs, thus increasing the risk of criticality in these areas. When uranium was discovered in the ACB, a number of steps, detailed in this report, were immediately taken to try to understand and ameliorate the situation. After all the actions were completed, a validation of the results obtained for the ACB was performed.

  18. Evaluation of efficacy of mineral oil, charcoal, and smectite in a rat model of equine cantharidin toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Qualls, H J; Holbrook, T C; Gilliam, L L; Njaa, B L; Panciera, R J; Pope, C N; Payton, M E

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of orally administered therapeutics for the treatment of cantharidin intoxication has not been evaluated in controlled studies. To develop a model of acute cantharidin intoxication in laboratory rats and to evaluate in this model the relative efficacy of 3 gastrointestinal therapies used to treat equine cantharidin toxicosis. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats. A blinded, randomized, controlled study was performed on rats surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters for evaluating heart rate, locomotor activity, and body temperature. Orogastric administration of cantharidin was performed within 15 seconds before administration of mineral oil, activated charcoal, or smectite. Negative control groups received therapeutic agents alone. Urine was collected for cantharidin analysis. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after intoxication, and tissues were collected for histopathologic evaluation. Data analysis included ANOVA procedures and contingency tables. Six of 8 cantharidin-intoxicated rats treated with mineral oil died; bradycardia and hypothermia developed in the animals of this group 0-8 hours after intoxication. Rats treated with mineral oil had higher urine cantharidin concentrations than rats receiving cantharidin alone or with smectite (P = .04). The most severe hypothermia (30.6°C ± 1.0) developed in rats administered mineral oil at 4-8 hours after intoxication, whereas those treated with charcoal (35.2°C ± 0.8) had mean body temperatures higher than all other treatment groups (P = .03). Survival times in the charcoal (P = .16) and smectite (P = .12) treatment groups were not statistically different from negative controls. Mineral oil is often used in the treatment of equine cantharidin toxicosis. Our findings suggest that mineral oil increases cantharidin absorption, worsening morbidity and fatality in rats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Charcoal addition to soils in NE England: a carbon sink with environmental co-benefits?

    PubMed

    Bell, M J; Worrall, F

    2011-04-01

    Interest in the application of biochar (charcoal produced during the pyrolysis of biomass) to agricultural land is increasing across the world, recognised as a potential way to capture and store atmospheric carbon. Its interest is heightened by its potential co-benefits for soil quality and fertility. The majority of research has however been undertaken in tropical rather than temperate regions. This study assessed the potential for lump-wood charcoal addition (as a substitute for biochar) to soil types which are typically under arable and forest land-use in North East England. The study was undertaken over a 28 week period and found: i) No significant difference in net ecosystem respiration (NER) between soils containing charcoal and those without, other than in week 1 of the trial. ii) A significantly higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux from soils containing large amounts of charcoal than from those untreated, when planted with ryegrass. iii) That when increased respiration or DOC loss did occur, neither was sufficiently large to alter the carbon sink benefits of charcoal application. iv) That charcoal incorporation resulted in a significantly lower nitrate flux in soil leachate from mineral soils. v) That charcoal incorporation caused significant increases in soil pH, from 6.98 to 7.22 on bare arable soils when 87,500 kg charcoal/ha was applied. Consideration of both the carbon sink and environmental benefits observed here suggests that charcoal application to temperate soils typical of North East England should be considered as a method of carbon sequestration. Before large scale land application is encouraged, further large scale trials should be undertaken to confirm the positive results of this research.

  20. Visualization of the Charcoal Agar Resazurin Assay for Semi-quantitative, Medium-throughput Enumeration of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ben; Lopez Quezada, Landys; Glasheen, Jou; Ballinger, Elaine; Somersan-Karakaya, Selin; Warrier, Thulasi; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to discover and progress anti-infectives that shorten the duration of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, is refractory to rapid and lasting chemotherapy due to the presence of bacilli exhibiting phenotypic drug resistance. The charcoal agar resazurin assay (CARA) was developed as a tool to characterize active molecules discovered by high-throughput screening campaigns against replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis. Inclusion of activated charcoal in bacteriologic agar medium helps mitigate the impact of compound carry-over, and eliminates the requirement to pre-dilute cells prior to spotting on CARA microplates. After a 7-10 day incubation period at 37 °C, the reduction of resazurin by mycobacterial microcolonies growing on the surface of CARA microplate wells permits semi-quantitative assessment of bacterial numbers via fluorometry. The CARA detects approximately a 2-3 log10 difference in bacterial numbers and predicts a minimal bactericidal concentration leading to ≥99% bacterial kill (MBC≥99). The CARA helps determine whether a molecule is active on bacilli that are replicating, non-replicating, or both. Pilot experiments using the CARA facilitate the identification of which concentration of test agent and time of compound exposure require further evaluation by colony forming unit (CFU) assays. In addition, the CARA can predict if replicating actives are bactericidal or bacteriostatic. PMID:28060290

  1. Visualization of the Charcoal Agar Resazurin Assay for Semi-quantitative, Medium-throughput Enumeration of Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Gold, Ben; Roberts, Julia; Ling, Yan; Lopez Quezada, Landys; Glasheen, Jou; Ballinger, Elaine; Somersan-Karakaya, Selin; Warrier, Thulasi; Nathan, Carl

    2016-12-14

    There is an urgent need to discover and progress anti-infectives that shorten the duration of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, is refractory to rapid and lasting chemotherapy due to the presence of bacilli exhibiting phenotypic drug resistance. The charcoal agar resazurin assay (CARA) was developed as a tool to characterize active molecules discovered by high-throughput screening campaigns against replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis. Inclusion of activated charcoal in bacteriologic agar medium helps mitigate the impact of compound carry-over, and eliminates the requirement to pre-dilute cells prior to spotting on CARA microplates. After a 7-10 day incubation period at 37 °C, the reduction of resazurin by mycobacterial microcolonies growing on the surface of CARA microplate wells permits semi-quantitative assessment of bacterial numbers via fluorometry. The CARA detects approximately a 2-3 log10 difference in bacterial numbers and predicts a minimal bactericidal concentration leading to ≥99% bacterial kill (MBC≥99). The CARA helps determine whether a molecule is active on bacilli that are replicating, non-replicating, or both. Pilot experiments using the CARA facilitate the identification of which concentration of test agent and time of compound exposure require further evaluation by colony forming unit (CFU) assays. In addition, the CARA can predict if replicating actives are bactericidal or bacteriostatic.

  2. Relative efficacy of separation of "free" and "bound" (3',5'-3H) pteroylglutamate by charcoal coated with various materials.

    PubMed

    Zettner, A; Duly, P E

    1975-12-01

    We studied the effectiveness with which various charcoal preparations separate free [3H]pteroylglutamate from that complexed with milk folate binder. We tested, in various concentrations, uncoated charcoals and charcoals coated with dextrans of various molecular weights, or with albumin, hemoglubin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone with an average molecular weight of 40 000. Althouth there was some distinction between the "bound" and "free" fractions with all charcoals, those treated with dextrans of average molecular weights of 43 500 or 70 000, or with polyvinylpyrrolidone gave the best separation over a greater range of charcoal concentration. Uncoated charcoal and charcoals coated with albumin, hemoglobin, or dextran T10 (average molecular weight, 10 500) were least effective.

  3. Black carbon quantification in charcoal-enriched soils by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), the solid residue of the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, is ubiquitous in soil and sediments, fulfilling several environmental services such as long-term carbon storage. BC is a particularly important terrestrial carbon pool due to its large residence time compared to thermally unaltered organic matter, which is largely attributed to its aromatic structure. However, BC refers to a wide range of pyrogenic products from partly charred biomass to highly condensed soot, with a degree of aromaticity and aromatic condensation varying to a large extend across the BC continuum. As a result, BC quantification largely depends on operational definitions, with the extraction efficiency of each method varying across the entire BC range. In our study, we investigated the adequacy of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the quantification of BC in charcoal-enriched soils collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial charcoal kilns in forest and cropland of Wallonia, Belgium, where charcoal residues are mixed to uncharred soil organic matter (SOM). We compared the results to the fraction of the total organic carbon (TOC) resisting to K2Cr2O7 oxidation, another simple method often used for BC measurement. In our soils, DSC clearly discriminates SOM from chars. SOM is less thermally stable than charcoal and shows a peak maximum around 295°C. In forest and agricultural charcoal-enriched soils, three peaks were attributed to the thermal degradati