Science.gov

Sample records for 4th grade reading

  1. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  2. Examining General and Specific Factors in the Dimensionality of Oral Language and Reading in 4th-10th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population--adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to…

  3. The Leap into 4th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  4. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 4th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the 4th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. Much has changed since the first "Kids & Family Reading Report" was issued in 2006, but literacy remains the critical skill needed for school success. Today's children are growing up in a world full of…

  5. Computer-Based Reading Technology in the Classroom: The Affective Influence of Performance Contingent Point Accumulation on 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, S. Michael

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the number of Accelerated Reader points accumulated by students and their level of self-efficacy and value of reading. The fourteen week study examined 68 fourth grade students who attended an elementary school in a suburban location near a large Midwestern city.…

  6. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  7. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  8. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  9. 4th-Grade Readers . . . Not Too Old to Snuggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutshall, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Although parents and teachers appreciate the value of reading aloud to early elementary children, they often forget that upper elementary children can still benefit from individual attention during reading. A small pilot study in a South Carolina elementary school demonstrates the value of pairing adults and children for regular reading time.…

  10. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 4th Grade - Mangrove Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade four prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  11. Improving Social Interaction among 4th Grade Students through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Shannon; Karwowski, Sandra; Shudes-Eitel, Jennifer

    This action research project implemented a program for improving social skills in order to establish positive interaction among 4th grade students at a northern Chicago suburban school. Social skills deficiency was documented through behavior checklists and referrals, teacher observations and student reflection. Teachers reported that low incomes,…

  12. Assessment of an Engineering Technology Outreach Program for 4th-7th Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Elizabeth M.; Christman, Jeanne; Garrick, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop led by female Engineering Technology students, with support from female faculty, to provide an introduction to Engineering Technology to 4th-7th grade girls through a series of interactive laboratory experiments. This outreach program was developed to improve attitudes towards science and engineering in middle…

  13. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  14. Project ASTRO: Local Coalitions for Bringing Astronomers to 4th - 9th Grade Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1998-05-01

    We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).

  15. Impacts of a Discussion-Based Academic Language Program on Classroom Interactions in 4th through 7th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, James; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of treatment-control differences in the quality of classroom interactions in 4th through 7th grade urban classrooms. Word Generation (WG) is a research-based academic language program for middle school students designed to teach novel vocabulary and literacy through language arts, math, science, and…

  16. Impact of a Health and Media Literacy Curriculum on 4th-Grade Girls: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Heidi A.; Damico, Amy M.; Rodgers, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that young girls are preoccupied with their body size and that the media may be a contributing factor. This study aimed to discover the impact of an interdisciplinary media literacy intervention curriculum on 4th-grade girls in an urban elementary school. The authors developed and implemented a series of lessons that…

  17. Assessment of Physical Activity Levels of 3rd and 4th Grade Children Using Pedometers during Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John; Nichols, David; Biggerstaff, Kyle; DiMarco, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of physical activity in which children engage during physical education classes and factors that mediate their participation. Third and 4th grade students wore pedometers during each 30-min physical education class for one school year. Steps per class were collected daily during structured and…

  18. Comparing Science Learning among 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-Grade Students: STS versus Textbook-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…

  19. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  20. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  1. Reading: Students' Attitudes and Interests in Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades in Official Portuguese Schools in the USA (A Leitura: Atitudes e Preferencias dos Educandos do 4th, 5th, e 6th Anos de Escolaridade nas Escolas Oficiais Portuguesas nos Estados Unidos da America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Maria da Graca Borges

    A study investigated attitudes and preferences concerning reading among fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Portuguese-language schools in the United States. Extrinsic factors influencing students (parents, teachers) were also analyzed. The research took place in 10 schools in 5 states. Data were obtained using questionnaires (students)…

  2. Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Skalik, I; House, D E; Hudnell, H K

    1996-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of school children in the Czech Republic indicate that 2nd-grade children could perform the following NES tests satisfactorily: Finger Tapping, Visual Digit Span. Continuous Performance, Symbol-Digit Substitution, Pattern Comparison, and simpler conditions of Switching Attention. Comparative scores of boys and girls from the 2nd, 4th, and 8th grades and power analyses to estimate appropriate sample size were presented. Performance varied systematically with grade level and gender. Larger samples were needed with younger children to achieve comparable levels of statistical power. Gender comparisons indicated that boys responded faster, but made more errors than girls. PMID:8866533

  3. [Getting Ready for Our World Journey: Africa, Australia, and the Netherlands. 4th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 4. SUBJECT MATTER: Social Studies; including units entitled "Getting Ready for Our World Journey,""Africa,""Australia," and "The Netherlands." ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four separately bound units. Each unit is further subdivided into lessons. The units are mimeographed and staple-bound.…

  4. NAEP Fourth-, Eighth-, and Twelfth-Grade Reading Scores by Gender: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecker, Beverly M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a secondary analysis of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scores by gender. Data were national public 4th- and 8th-grade reading scores from composite and subscales for 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. Twelfth-grade scores for composite and literary experience from 2005, 2009, and 2013 and gain…

  5. Analysis of 4th Grade Students' Problem Solving Skills in Terms of Several Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Gülcan; Bal, Pervin Nedim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine if the level of primary school students in solving problems differs according to some demographic variables. The research is descriptive type in the general survey method, it was carried out with quantitative research techniques. The sample of the study consisted of 587 primary school students in Grade 4. The…

  6. Do Animals Have Rights? Teacher's Packet (for 4th, 5th, & 6th Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy; Sturla, Kim

    Activities in this unit are designed to sensitize students in grades 4-6 to the needs of animals and to the injustices many species suffer. The lessons focus on inhumane acts such as the use of steel-jaw traps, dogfighting, hunting, keeping exotic pets in captivity, using animals in entertainment, habitat destruction, factory farming, and animal…

  7. The Universal House: Energy, Shelter & The California Indian. Activity Guide, 4th/5th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Energy Extension Service, Sacramento.

    This activity guide links energy awareness with resource management and traditional California Indian cultures for the 3rd-6th grade span. The materials combine cooperative, hands-on activities with background information and learning extensions. The interdisciplinary lessons are built upon themes, concepts, and learning processes outlined in…

  8. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.

  9. Physical activity participation by parental language use in 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students in Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Lewis, Kayan; Kelder, Steven H; Fernandez, Maria E; Barroso, Cristina S; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2010-10-01

    Research on physical activity (PA) by level of acculturation in Hispanic children is limited and findings have been mixed. We examined PA participation by primary language used with parents in a representative sample of 4th, 8th, and 11th grade Texas public school students. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted using cross-sectional data from the 2004-2005 School Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (n = 22,049). Self-reported PA was compared among three language-ethnic groups: Spanish-Hispanic (SH) (referent); English-Hispanic (EH); and English-Other (EO). EH and/or EO girls were generally between 1.25 and 2.58 [OR] times more likely to participate in PA across grade levels, with the largest differences found for school sports in 8th grade girls. EH and EO 8th grade boys were 1.71 (CI: 1.40, 2.10) and 2.06 (CI: 1.68, 2.51) times, respectively, more likely to participate in school sports. Findings indicate important disparities in Spanish-speaking Hispanic children's PA participation. PMID:19365728

  10. An Ecological Study of Food Desert Prevalence and 4th Grade Academic Achievement in New York State School Districts

    PubMed Central

    Frndak, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. Results The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Conclusions Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public health The prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at

  11. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature.

  12. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  13. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Reading Error Correction Procedures on the Reading Accuracy, Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Jennifer N.

    2013-01-01

    As education law evolves, educators are faced with difficult decisions regarding curriculum, prevention programs, and intervention strategies to use with their students. The use of evidence-based strategies for all academic skill areas, including reading, has become increasingly common in schools. Twenty-four 4th grade students participated in an…

  14. The Effects of Guided Reading Instruction on the Reading Comprehension and Reading Attitudes of Fourth-Grade At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Laquanda T.

    2010-01-01

    America's public schools have faced challenges in educating students, particularly those identified as at risk. According to the No Child Left Behind Act, nearly 70% of 4th grade students are unable to perform on a basic level on national reading tests. The research problem in this study addressed the significance of guided reading instruction,…

  15. Unmet Needs of Low Academic Level Adult (0-4th Grade Level) Students: A Follow-Up Study. A Special Demonstration/Teacher Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portage Township Schools, IN.

    An Indiana 310 Project was conducted to determine the needs of very low level adult basic education students (0-4th grade). Specifically, the study sought to answer the following four questions: (1) What brings low academic level students into ABE programs? (2) What aspects of the ABE programs do low academic level students dislike? (3) Why do low…

  16. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  17. Examining Differentiation and Utilization of iPads across Content Areas in an Independent, PreK-4th Grade Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Natalie B.; Carlson-Bancroft, Angela; Vanden Boogart, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods case study examined the implementation of a 1:1 iPad initiative in a suburban, co-educational, independent, preK-4th grade elementary school in the United States. This article focuses on how teachers used iPads to differentiate instruction and across multiple content areas. Findings show the processes by which teachers employed…

  18. [Level of smoking of 3rd and 4th grade students studying health and related factors: follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (p< 0.05). The most important reason to begin smoking was curiosity (55.2%) while bad breath and yellowing of teeth were the reasons to quit (91.7%). 83.3% of the students thought that the law will be effective on quit smoking. The level of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking.

  19. [Level of smoking of 3rd and 4th grade students studying health and related factors: follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Göktalay, Tuğba; Cengiz Özyurt, Beyhan; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşin; Celik, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    The levels of smoking of 1st and 2nd year students at Faculty of Medicine and Manisa School of Health at Celal Bayar University were investigated in 2006-2007. This study is carried out in order to see if there is a change in the same students' level of smoking while they are in 3rd and 4th year. In addition, the study aimed to examine the factors affecting the level of use and attitudes towards the law effectuated in July 19, 2009. This is a follow-up study with 80.42% return rate. A 26-item structured questionnaire was administered. The participants filled out the questionnaires under supervision of the researchers in their classrooms. The University Institutional Review Board approved the study. The total of participants (263) of the follow-up study included 189 female and 74 male. The rate of experimenting with smoking was 49% with the mean age of 15.7 (SD= 4.01 years). The mean age of experimenting with smoking was the earliest on male students studying at faculty of medicine. The level of smoking was found to be the most on females, studying at faculty of medicine and staying at the dormitory, with smoking parents (p< 0.05). The most important reason to begin smoking was curiosity (55.2%) while bad breath and yellowing of teeth were the reasons to quit (91.7%). 83.3% of the students thought that the law will be effective on quit smoking. The level of both experimenting and use of smoking has been increased over time. It is suggested that medical students' awareness about the danger of smoking should be raised at earlier grades. In addition, lectures should be offered to students at School of Health and they should be encouraged to unite in order to fight with smoking. PMID:22233305

  20. Graded Readers: Validating Reading Levels across Publishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Graded readers can be an optimal resource to help language students improve and personalize their learning experience. An extensive reading library with graded readers and well-defined levels of reading difficulty increases language students' chances of having a successful reading experience and become independent readers. However, when it comes…

  1. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  2. Reading for All; Proceedings of the IRA (International Reading Association) World Congress on Reading (4th, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 3-5, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers presented at the Fourth International Reading Association World Congress on Reading in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in August 1972. The contents of the book are divided into three parts: "Literacy and Literature" includes papers on libraries, books, and reading by Jorge Borges, the future of reading by Theodore Harris, the…

  3. Relationship between Second Grade Oral Reading Fluency and Third Grade Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Samantha Kane; Schoeneberger, Jason; Tingle, Lynne; Algozzine, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is a critical feature and outcome of early literacy instruction and it has amassed great attention as a powerful predictor of success at all levels of schooling. We examined relationships between second grade oral reading fluency scores and third grade end-of-grade reading achievement scores for students (N = 9562) in a large…

  4. Granite School District First Grade Reading Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castner, Myra H.; And Others

    A comparative study of first-grade reading instructional methods was undertaken with the support of the Granite School District Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction. This study was conducted in 19 schools of the district and involved approximately 1,295 students. Nine hypotheses concerning the various approaches used in reading instruction…

  5. Sixth Grade Reading: A Needs Assessment Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Program Planning and Needs Assessment.

    This study reports the findings of a 1971 assessment of the reading achievement of 22,000 sixth grade students in Texas. The study used the Prescriptive Reading Test (PRT) and a Pupil Identification Form (PID). Results from the PRT are reported in terms of the percentage of pupils who achieved each of 48 reading objectives. Nineteen objectives…

  6. I Invite You To Know the Earth I. Elementary School 2nd to 4th Grade Teacher's Guidebook [and] Text for Elementary School 2nd to 4th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    This student text is designed for grades 2-4 and explores various earth science topics. A cartoon character named Tommy Tsumi explains earth facts and concepts throughout the text. Activities, materials, and learning objectives for each unit in the textbook are provided in the teacher's guide. Units in both include: (1) "What Does Our Earth Look…

  7. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study from Grade 1 to Grade 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-09-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2, after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in Grade 1, whereas silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency in Grade 2.

  8. Encouraging Recreational Reading in the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Pat; De Young, Jennifer; Hutchinson, Sandy; Pedersen, Susan

    This report describes a program encouraging students to choose reading as a recreational activity. The targeted population consisted of first, second, third, and fourth grade students in a growing middle class community, near a large Midwestern city. The problem of students choosing recreational activities other than reading was documented through…

  9. Functional Reading Levels: From Graded Word Lists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese, Victor

    This study investigated the feasibility of using only the McCracken Word List (MWL), a subtest of the Standard Reading Inventory (SRI), rather than the entire SRI to determine functional grade placement in reading. The MWL is one of the few word lists with well-documented reliability and validity. In addition, the MWL has been shown to be highly…

  10. What Can Readers Read after Graded Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…

  11. Improving Reading in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Nell K.; Block, Meghan K.

    2012-01-01

    Almost fifteen years have passed since the publication of the National Research Council's seminal report "Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children," which provided research-based recommendations on what could be done to better position students in pre-kindergarten through third grade for success in grade four and above. This article by…

  12. Breakfast patterns among low-income, ethnically-diverse 4th-6th grade children in an urban area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing school breakfast participation has been advocated as a method to prevent childhood obesity. However, little is known about children’s breakfast patterns outside of school (e.g., home, corner store). Policies that increase school breakfast participation without an understanding of children’s breakfast habits outside of school may result in children consuming multiple breakfasts and may undermine efforts to prevent obesity. The aim of the current study was to describe morning food and drink consumption patterns among low-income, urban children and their associations with relative weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 651 4th-6th graders (51.7% female, 61.2% African American, 10.7 years) in 2012. Students completed surveys at school that included all foods eaten and their locations that morning. Height and weight were measured by trained research staff. Results On the day surveyed, 12.4% of youth reported not eating breakfast, 49.8% reported eating one breakfast, 25.5% reported eating two breakfasts, and 12.3% reported eating three or more breakfasts. The number of breakfasts consumed and BMI percentile showed a significant curvilinear relationship, with higher mean BMI percentiles observed among children who did not consume any breakfast and those who consumed ≥ 3 breakfasts. Sixth graders were significantly less likely to have consumed breakfast compared to younger children. A greater proportion of obese youth had no breakfast (18.0%) compared to healthy weight (10.1%) and overweight youth (10.7%, p = .01). Conclusions When promoting school breakfast, policies will need to be mindful of both over- and under-consumption to effectively address childhood obesity and food insecurity. Clinical trial registration NCT01924130 from http://clinicaltrials.gov/. PMID:24928474

  13. Closely Reading Informational Texts in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the differences between close reading in the primary grades and upper elementary grades. We focus on text selection, initial reading. repeated reading, annotation, text-based discussions, and responding to texts.

  14. The Effects of Kindergarten through Second Grade Reading Instruction and Intervention on Third Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier-Metzger, Teresia

    2013-01-01

    State and local assessment data from 117 students in one school in the California Central Valley were examined to determine how much participation in a kindergarten through second grade multitiered reading intervention model contributed to third grade reading achievement, over and above the demographic factors of ethnicity, socioeconomic status,…

  15. Communication through Reading; Proceedings of the Australian Reading Conference (4th, Brisbane, August 25-27, 1978). Volume 2. Diverse Needs: Creative Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Glenda, Ed.; And Others

    The second of a two-volume set, this collection of 11 papers concentrates on current developments in the teaching of reading, such as translating commonly accepted reading theories or assumptions into classroom practices, maintaining an input of structured, meaningful, rhythmic language in an independent reading program, and relating reading and…

  16. Improving reading in the primary grades.

    PubMed

    Duke, Nell K; Block, Meghan K

    2012-01-01

    Almost fifteen years have passed since the publication of the National Research Council's seminal report Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, which provided research-based recommendations on what could be done to better position students in prekindergarten through third grade for success in grade four and above. This article by Nell Duke and Meghan Block first examines whether specific key recommendations from the report have been implemented in U.S. classrooms. They find that recommendations regarding increased access to kindergarten and greater attention to and improvement of students' word-reading skills have been widely adopted. Others have not. Vocabulary and comprehension, long neglected in the primary grades, still appear to be neglected. Contrary to the report's recommendations, attention to building conceptual and content knowledge in science and social studies has actually decreased in the past fifteen years. In other words, the easier-to-master skills are being attended to, but the broader domains of accomplishment that constitute preparation for comprehension and learning in the later grades--vocabulary knowledge, comprehension strategy use, and conceptual and content knowledge--are being neglected. Near stagnation in fourth-grade students' comprehension achievement is thus unsurprising. The authors then turn to research and reviews of research on improving primary-grade reading published since 1998, when Preventing Reading Difficulties was issued. They discuss several instructional approaches identified as effective in improving word-reading skill, vocabulary and conceptual knowledge, comprehension strategies, and reading outside of school; they discuss advances in interventions for struggling readers, and in whole-school literacy reform. Duke and Block then identify three key obstacles that have prevented widespread adoption of these best practices in teaching reading. The first obstacle is a short-term orientation toward instruction and

  17. Improving reading in the primary grades.

    PubMed

    Duke, Nell K; Block, Meghan K

    2012-01-01

    Almost fifteen years have passed since the publication of the National Research Council's seminal report Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, which provided research-based recommendations on what could be done to better position students in prekindergarten through third grade for success in grade four and above. This article by Nell Duke and Meghan Block first examines whether specific key recommendations from the report have been implemented in U.S. classrooms. They find that recommendations regarding increased access to kindergarten and greater attention to and improvement of students' word-reading skills have been widely adopted. Others have not. Vocabulary and comprehension, long neglected in the primary grades, still appear to be neglected. Contrary to the report's recommendations, attention to building conceptual and content knowledge in science and social studies has actually decreased in the past fifteen years. In other words, the easier-to-master skills are being attended to, but the broader domains of accomplishment that constitute preparation for comprehension and learning in the later grades--vocabulary knowledge, comprehension strategy use, and conceptual and content knowledge--are being neglected. Near stagnation in fourth-grade students' comprehension achievement is thus unsurprising. The authors then turn to research and reviews of research on improving primary-grade reading published since 1998, when Preventing Reading Difficulties was issued. They discuss several instructional approaches identified as effective in improving word-reading skill, vocabulary and conceptual knowledge, comprehension strategies, and reading outside of school; they discuss advances in interventions for struggling readers, and in whole-school literacy reform. Duke and Block then identify three key obstacles that have prevented widespread adoption of these best practices in teaching reading. The first obstacle is a short-term orientation toward instruction and

  18. Changes in the regional prevalence of child obesity in 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students in Texas from 2000-2002 to 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H; Pérez, Adriana; Day, R Sue; Benoit, Julia S; Frankowski, Ralph F; Walker, Joey L; Lee, Eun S

    2010-07-01

    Although national and state estimates of child obesity are available, data at these levels are insufficient to monitor effects of local obesity prevention initiatives. The purpose of this study was to examine regional changes in the prevalence of obesity due to statewide policies and programs among children in grades 4, 8, and 11 in Texas Health Services Regions (HSRs) between 2000-2002 and 2004-2005, and nine selected counties in 2004-2005. A cross-sectional, probability-based sample of 23,190 Texas students in grades 4, 8, and 11 were weighed and measured to obtain BMI. Obesity was >95th percentile for BMI by age/sex using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Child obesity prevalence significantly decreased between 2000-2002 and 2004-2005 for 4th grade students in the El Paso HSR (-7.0%, P = 0.005). A leveling off in the prevalence of obesity was noted for all other regions for grades 4, 8, and 11. County-level data supported the statistically significant decreases noted in the El Paso region. The reduction of child obesity levels observed in the El Paso area is one of the few examples of effective programs and policies based on a population-wide survey: in this region, a local foundation funded extensive regional implementation of community programs for obesity prevention, including an evidence-based elementary school-based health promotion program, adult nutrition and physical activity programs, and a radio and television advertising campaign. Results emphasize the need for sustained school, community, and policy efforts, and that these efforts can result in decreases in child obesity at the population level. PMID:19798066

  19. Seventh Grade Reading and Composition Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlandale Independent School District, San Antonio, TX. Career Education Center.

    The guide is arranged in vertical columns relating seventh grade reading and composition concepts to curriculum performance objectives, career concepts, and career performance objectives, suggested teaching methods, and resource materials. Broad career concepts--such as "there are problems to face and overcome in any field of work" and "the…

  20. Red River Valley. Selected Readings. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Sixteen readings dating from 1854 through 1969, many of which are primary materials excerpted from dated Minnesota newspapers, are intended for fifth grade students. Five themes describe past and present conditions in the Red River Valley: 1) show the importance of fur trade and describe the wooden carts in the train that carried the trade; 2)…

  1. Reading, Grade 5. TEAMS Instructional Strategies Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) was developed by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), in response to Texas House Bill 72 (1984), which mandated a new basic skills assessment program for mathematics, reading, and writing at grades 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. This is one in a series of Instructional Strategies Guides designed to…

  2. Reading, Grade 9. TEAMS Instructional Strategies Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) was developed by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), in response to Texas House Bill 72 (1984), which mandated a new basic skills assessment program for mathematics, reading, and writing at grades 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. This is one in a series of Instructional Strategies Guides designed to…

  3. Reading, Grade 7. TEAMS Instructional Strategies Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) was developed by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), in response to Texas House Bill 72 (1984), which mandated a new basic skills assessment program for mathematics, reading, and writing at grades 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. This is one in a series of Instructional Strategies Guides designed to…

  4. A Kinesthetic Learning Approach to Earth Science for 3rd and 4th Grade Students on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wershow, H. N.; Green, M.; Stocker, A.; Staires, D.

    2010-12-01

    Current efforts towards Earth Science literacy in New Mexico are guided by the New Mexico Science Benchmarks [1]. We are geoscience professionals in Los Alamos, NM who believe there is an important role for non-traditional educators utilizing innovative teaching methods. We propose to further Earth Science literacy for local 3rd and 4th grade students using a kinesthetic learning approach, with the goal of fostering an interactive relationship between the students and their geologic environment. We will be working in partnership with the Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC), which teaches the natural heritage of the Pajarito Plateau to 3rd and 4th grade students from the surrounding area, as well as the Family YMCA’s Adventure Programs Director. The Pajarito Plateau provides a remarkable geologic classroom because minimal structural features complicate the stratigraphy and dramatic volcanic and erosional processes are plainly on display and easily accessible. Our methodology consists of two approaches. First, we will build an interpretive display of the local geology at PEEC that will highlight prominent rock formations and geologic processes seen on a daily basis. It will include a simplified stratigraphic section with field specimens and a map linked to each specimen’s location to encourage further exploration. Second, we will develop and implement a kinesthetic curriculum for an exploratory field class. Active engagement with geologic phenomena will take place in many forms, such as a scavenger hunt for precipitated crystals in the vesicles of basalt flows and a search for progressively smaller rhyodacite clasts scattered along an actively eroding canyon. We believe students will be more receptive to origin explanations when they possess a piece of the story. Students will be provided with field books to make drawings of geologic features. This will encourage independent assessment of phenomena and introduce the skill of scientific observation. We

  5. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  6. Highlights from PIRLS 2011: Reading Achievement of U.S. Fourth-Grade Students in an International Context. NCES 2013-010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sheila; Provasnik, Stephen; Kastberg, David; Ferraro, David; Lemanski, Nita; Roey, Stephen; Jenkins, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) is an international comparative study of student achievement. In 2011, PIRLS was administered to nationally representative samples of 4th-grade students in 53 education systems around the world. The PIRLS assessment measures student performance on a combined reading literacy scale, as…

  7. How Do 4th, 5th, and 6th Grade Students' Categories of Cognitive Reflections in Interviews on Derivational Morphology Compare to Their Upper Level Spelling Inventory Orthographic Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Darcie D.

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-seven 4th, 5th and 6th grade students were administered the "Derivational Relatedness Interview" (DRI) (Templeton, Smith, Moloney, Van Pelt, & Ives, 2009). The purpose of this instrument is to explore students' understanding of derivational morphology. During the same week, the subjects were also administered an Upper…

  8. Early Childhood Reading Skills and Proficiency in NAEP Eighth-Grade Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Enis; Ogut, Burhan; Kim, Young Yee

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between reading skills in earlier grades and achieving "Proficiency" on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) grade 8 reading assessment was examined by establishing a statistical link between NAEP and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) grade 8 reading assessments using data from a common…

  9. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  10. Relations among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (a) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency, (b) silent reading fluency…

  11. A Comparison of Two Reading Programs on the Reading Outcomes of First-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kevin G.; Calhoon, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two theoretically different reading programs on the reading outcomes of first-grade students (N = 107). Two elementary schools were chosen for participation based on the first-grade reading program currently being implemented in the schools. One school used the "Horizons Fast Track A-B"…

  12. The Effects of Repeated Readings on Third Grade Students' Reading Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheriff, Tennille Joie Natasha

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a reading strategy, repeated readings, on third grade students' reading achievement and attitudes. One hundred sixteen third grade students as members of six classrooms in one elementary school participated in this 10 week study. Using a quasi-experimental pretest posttest design, students' mean…

  13. ITRI Informational Text Reading Inventory: Grade 1 Teacher Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Grade 1 Informational Text Reading Inventory (ITRI) was developed to help early primary students develop the skills necessary to read and use informational text. This booklet contains all the information teachers need to use the Grade 1 ITRI materials, including assessments, mock textbook pages, mini books designed to look like commercial…

  14. ITRI Informational Text Reading Inventory: Grade 2 Teacher Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Grade 2 Informational Text Reading Inventory (ITRI) was developed to help early primary students develop the skills necessary to read and use informational text. This booklet contains all the information teachers need to use the Grade 2 ITRI materials, including assessments, mock textbook pages, mini books designed to look like commercial…

  15. Implementing Guided Reading Strategies with Kindergarten and First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Lindsey; Dornbush, Abby; Giddings, Anne; Thomas, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In the action research project report, the teacher researchers found that many kindergarten and first-grade students did not have the reading readiness skills to be reading at their benchmark target. The purpose of the project was to improve the students overall reading ability. The dates of the project began on September 8 through December 20,…

  16. Seventh Grade Reading Improvement Program; A Mini-Grant Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Arkansas Education Center, Little Rock.

    Thirteen seventh grade students who ranked low in reading achievement on either or both vocabulary skills and comprehension skills based on their Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test scores were the participants in this project. A program of instruction was developed that included four behavioral objectives in the areas of reading comprehension,…

  17. Reading Grade Levels of Air Force Civilian Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Randy H.; Mathews, John J.

    A study was conducted to examine the reading levels of United States Air Force civilian employees according to occupational groupings and grade structure. Approximately 1,050 Air Force civilian subjects were tested on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test or the California Reading Test. Subjects were selected from eight Air Force bases representing the…

  18. Oral Reading Rates of Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chuang; Algozzine, Bob; Ma, Wen; Porfeli, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The importance of reading fluently is widely recognized in school effectiveness, reform, and improvement efforts of the educational community, yet there are few large-scale, structured assessments of the progression of students' reading rates over time. This study documented 2nd-grade students' oral reading rates on the basis of fall, winter, and…

  19. Extensive Graded Reading in the Liberal Arts and Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulshock, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    For this research, learners did extensive graded reading (EGR) with traditional graded readers, and they also interacted with short graded stories in the liberal arts and sciences (LAS). This study describes the purpose and format of the LAS stories used by hundreds of university students and adult learners in Japan. It summarizes the results of…

  20. Who's Reading and Why: Reading Habits of 1st Grade through Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Deanne

    2007-01-01

    The habit of reading develops over a period of time. This study explored reading habits across a wide range of students. An open-ended survey of reading habits involved 242 participants from grades 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, undergraduate non-education majors, undergraduate elementary majors, and graduate reading majors. As data were analyzed, themes emerged…

  1. Metacognition Theory as Related to Reading Strategies and Reading Comprehension at the Fifth Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppins, Laci Sharyl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the application of metacognition theory as related to reading strategies and reading comprehension in the Fifth Grade. Specifically, the researcher examined the impact of metacognition in reading comprehension, the effect of metacognition on reading strategies, and the role the teacher…

  2. Time Is of the Essence: An Investigation of 4th and 5th Grade Teachers' Instructional Practices within the Literacy Block

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the amount of time that fourth and fifth grade teachers devoted to literacy instruction within the time allotted to them within the daily literacy block. Prior research of the literacy block focused largely on primary grades (Allington, McGill-Franzen et a1.,2010; Cunningham & Allington, 2003; Morrow, 1992);…

  3. Reading Achievements of Vietnamese Grade 5 Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick; Thanh, Mai Thi

    2006-01-01

    This article described a national study in Vietnam whereby a probability sample of students was chosen from each of the 61 provinces. A reading test consisting of 60 items was administered. The items were matched to the Vietnam reading and language curriculum for Year 5 students. Using a skills audit of the items, a variable of reading development…

  4. The Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Fifth-Grade Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Yildirim, Kasim; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Shawn; Zimmerman, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This research study focused on the relationships among the various components of reading fluency components (word recognition accuracy, automaticity, and prosody), as well as their relationships with reading comprehension among fifth-grade students in Turkey. A total of 119 fifth-grade elementary school students participated in the study. The…

  5. Incentives: The Effects on Reading Attitude and Reading Behaviors of Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Gayle M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether third grade literacy students who receive incentive rewards as part of their instruction will exhibit significantly higher reading habits and attitudes toward recreational reading than they did before the incentives were introduced. The study examined 19 third grade students with fairly high…

  6. WWC Review of the Report “Large-Scale Randomized Controlled Trial with 4th Graders Using Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy to Improve Nonfiction Reading Comprehension.” What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined the effects of a web-based tutoring program, “Intelligent Tutoring of the Structure Strategy” (“ITSS”), on the reading comprehension of fourth-grade students in language arts classrooms. The analysis included 1,875 to 2,371 fourth-grade students from 100 to 117 classrooms in Pennsylvania elementary schools…

  7. RAN Components and Reading Development from Grade 3 to Grade 5: What Underlies Their Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno; Kirby, John R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined (a) how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--predict reading accuracy and reading fluency in Grades 4 and 5, and (b) what cognitive-processing skills (phonological processing, orthographic processing, or speed of processing) mediate the RAN-reading relationship. Sixty children were followed from…

  8. Relationships Among Grade Point Average, Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, and Reading Rate of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutchler, Virginia

    Relationships among grade point averages and reading test scores were sought in an effort to learn whether successful students are characterized by good vocabularies, understanding, and rapid reading. Seniors within a few weeks of graduation and obtaining their elementary teaching certificates were given the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. Pearson's…

  9. Kindergarten Predictors of Second versus Eighth Grade Reading Comprehension Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.; Lee, Jaehoon

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge are good predictors of reading achievement in the primary grades. However, less attention has been given to the early predictors of later reading achievement. This study used a modified best-subsets variable-selection technique to examine…

  10. Increasing Reading Ability among First and Third Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commare, Colleen C.; Sedlack, Sarah E.

    The purpose of this study was designed to increase the reading abilities of students in the targeted first and third grade classes in two elementary schools located in the Midwest. The study involved an action research project highlighting the overall growth of the students' academic achievement through increased reading growth. The study was…

  11. Selected Readings on New York City. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Sixteen readings, intended for fifth grade students, describe New York City from 1628 through 1845. Arranged chronologically, the readings, many of which are secondary materials, show changes and development within the city from its beginning in 1628 as a farming community called New Amsterdam to its growth as a commercial city by 1845. Topics are…

  12. Assessing Reading: Multiple Measures for Kindergarten through Eighth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consortium on Reading Excellence, Inc., Emeryville, CA.

    This book contains a collection of formal and informal reading assessments for use with students in Grades K-8. These assessments assist the teacher in targeting areas of strength and weakness, in monitoring student reading development, and in planning appropriate instruction. The book's assessments (some in both English and Spanish) range from…

  13. ITRI Informational Text Reading Inventory: Grade 4 Teacher Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Informational Text Reading Inventory (ITRI) was created when the Center for Innovation in Assessment (CIA) observed that students in grade four experience a significant drop in performance in all of their subject areas. CIA researched solutions and identified the critical issue as the students' struggle to apply the reading skills they have…

  14. Examining General and Specific Factors in the Dimensionality of Oral Language and Reading in 4th–10th Grades

    PubMed Central

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population—adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to represent these constructs with minimal error and to examine whether residual variance unaccounted for by oral language can be captured by specific factors of syntax and vocabulary. A 1-, 3-, 4-, and bifactor model were tested with 1,792 students in 18 schools in 2 large urban districts in the Southeast. Students were individually administered measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary, syntax, and decoding fluency in mid-year. At the end of the year students took the state reading test as well as a group-administered, norm-referenced test of reading comprehension. The bifactor model fit the data best in all 7 grades and explained 72% to 99% of the variance in reading comprehension. The specific factors of syntax and vocabulary explained significant unique variance in reading comprehension in 1 grade each. The decoding fluency factor was significantly correlated with the reading comprehension and oral language factors in all grades, but, in the presence of the oral language factor, was not significantly associated with the reading comprehension factor. Results support a bifactor model of lexical knowledge rather than the 3-factor model of the Simple View of Reading, with the vast amount of variance in reading comprehension explained by a general oral language factor. PMID:26346839

  15. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Motivation to Read and Reading Fluency Skill in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Matthew; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Webb, Mi-young

    2009-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated the relationships between students' reading self-concept, goals for reading, and reading fluency skill over the course of the second grade year. Second-grade children (N = 185) were administered the Test of Word Reading Efficiency, the second-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills,…

  16. Reading Interests of Children in Grades Four through Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Hannah Elizabeth Miller

    This study surveyed children's expressed reading interests and attempted to determine whether these were related to grade level, sex, race, and socioeconomic level. A total of 784 children in grades four through eight in four elementary schools of Fairfield, Alabama, answered a questionnaire composed of 120 annotated fictitious titles representing…

  17. An Assessment of 4th-, 8th-, and 11th-Grade Students' Environmental Science Knowledge Related to Oregon's Marine Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Assesses the understanding that a sample of Oregon public school students (n=159) had of geology, physical and chemical characteristics, ecology, and natural resources as related to a marine environment. Results indicate that student understanding in some areas does not progress beyond the early grades and that the interdisciplinary approach of…

  18. Differences in Math Achievement between Boys and Girls in 4th and 8th Grade in Coeducational Orthodox Jewish Day Schools in the New York Metropolitan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witty, Emily Amie

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in mathematics have been of particular interest over the past decades. Research has shown a disparity in mathematical proficiency between boys and girls depending on the area of mathematics tested, the age and grade of the student, and the structure of the test question (i.e., how the question is posed). Although, much of the…

  19. An Analysis of Two Beginning Reading Programs: Scott Foresman's "Reading Unlimited" and Pittsburgh LRDC's "New Primary Grades Reading Systems."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Helen Mitchell

    The two reading programs discussed in this paper, "Reading Unlimited" (RU) published by Scott Foresman and "New Primary Grades Reading Systems" (RS) by the University of Pittsburgh Learning Research and Development Center, provide maximal contrasts in materials and teaching strategies. The instructional strategies in RU are analytic and inductive,…

  20. Bidirectional Relations between Text Reading Prosody and Reading Comprehension in the Upper Primary School Grades: A Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the directionality of the relationship between text reading prosody and reading comprehension in the upper grades of primary school. We compared 3 theoretical possibilities: Two unidirectional relations from text reading prosody to reading comprehension and from reading comprehension to text reading prosody…

  1. The Schema Strategies in Reading Comprehension Tasks of Fourth-Grade Students with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutkind, Rebeka Chaia

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method study investigated the schema strategy uses of fourth-grade boys with reading challenges; specifically, their ability to understand text based on two components within schema theory: tuning and restructuring. Based on the reading comprehension scores from the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (Form 2010), four comparison groups were…

  2. The Impact of Reading Recovery on the Reading Achievement of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    There are so many different intervention programs for educators to use to increase the reading achievement of below grade level students, that it can often be difficult to choose the appropriate one for the students. Most programs are scripted and are used with small groups of students. Reading Recovery is not a scripted program and is taught in a…

  3. Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1986 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains eight short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, including the following: "Thieving Raffles" (Eric Nicol); "Flight of the Roller Coaster"…

  4. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. June 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the English 30 Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in Alberta, Canada, this test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the reading component of the June 1988 tests. Representing the genres of fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, the 10 selections consist of:…

  5. English 30, Part B: Reading. Readings Booklet [and] Questions Booklet. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, June 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    These booklets are intended for students in Alberta, Canada, taking the Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 30. The readings booklet presents 7 reading selections from fiction and nonfiction literature. After instructions for students, the booklet presents: (1) Lance Morrow's essay "Metaphors of the World, Unite!"; (2) Carl Sandburg's poem…

  6. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1986 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 10 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, including the following: "My Magical Metronome" (Lewis Thomas); "Queen Street Trolley" (Dale…

  7. English 30, Part B: Reading. Readings Booklet. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, January 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 30, this "readings booklet" presents 8 reading selections from fiction and nonfiction. After instructions for students, the booklet presents (1) Robert Penn Warren's poem "Summer Afternoons and Hypnosis"; (2) an excerpt from an interview with William Golding; (3) a dramatic…

  8. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 10 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry and drama, including the following: "At the Age at Which Mozart Was Dead Already" (Ellen Goodman); "Embassy" (W.…

  9. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 10 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, including the following: an excerpt from "Where Did You Go?""Out." (Robert Paul Smith); "Lines on…

  10. Effects of Three Interventions on the Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities in Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Stefan; Falth, Linda; Svensson, Idor; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, the effects of three intervention strategies on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2 were analyzed. The interventions consisted of computerized training programs: One bottom-up intervention aimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second…

  11. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 33. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 33 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 8 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, including the following: an excerpt from "Circus Nerves" (Eric Nicol); "Follower" (Seamus Heaney); an…

  12. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 33. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1986 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 33 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains 10 short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama, including the following: "How to Set a World Record" (William Allen); "Andy Shaw" (Alden…

  13. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 33. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. June 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the English 33 Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in Alberta, Canada, this test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) contains the reading selections portion of Part B, the reading component of the June 1988 tests. The following short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama, and day-to-day…

  14. Comprehensive Reading Instruction across the Grade Levels: A Collection of Papers from the Reading Research 2001 Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M., Ed.

    This collection of 9 papers from the International Reading Association's Reading Research 2001 Conference (RR2001) addresses comprehensive reading instruction across the grade levels. The introduction, "How Will We Develop the Concept of Comprehensive Reading Instruction Across Grade Levels?," notes that five quandaries arose in the discussion of…

  15. Extensive Reading Interventions for Students with Reading Difficulties after Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Scammacca, Nancy K.; Metz, Kristina; Murray, Christy S.; Roberts, Greg; Danielson, Louis

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis extends a report of research on extensive interventions in kindergarten through third grade (Wanzek & Vaughn, 2007) to students in Grades 4 through 12, recognizing that many of the same questions about the effectiveness of reading interventions with younger students are important to address with older students, including (a) how…

  16. Comprehension Instruction for Students with Reading Disabilities in Grades 4 through 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Many students with reading difficulties in grades 4 through 12 experience challenges in understanding and learning from text. Some of these learners have demonstrated reading challenges from the early grades and have not acquired successful reading skills. Others were adequate readers in the early grades when word reading was the focus and when…

  17. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Motivation to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nocola Ann

    2011-01-01

    A discrepancy exists on both state and local assessments between economically disadvantaged and noneconomically disadvantaged 4th grade students in the area of reading. As students enter the intermediate grades, their motivation to read begins to dwindle. This lack of motivation can ultimately put the academic career of these students in jeopardy.…

  18. A Comparison of Reading Achievement in Second Grade Students Using the Accelerated Reading Program and Independent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Adrienne

    Accelerated Reader is a computer program designed by Advantage Learning Systems to assess students' reading comprehension levels and keep detailed and accurate reports of such findings. This research studied the Accelerated Reader program with a second grade class over a 6-week time frame. One class of 20 students read books picked from the…

  19. Does repeated reading predict reading development over time? A study of children from Grade 3 to 4.

    PubMed

    Gellert, Anna S

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether immediate gains in reading fluency achieved during repeated reading of text can predict long-term reading development over and above traditional predictors of reading development. Eighty-one Grade 3 children read texts three times consecutively and were instructed either to read as quickly as possible (speed-focused repeated reading), or to retell the text afterwards (meaning-focused repeated reading). Measures of text reading fluency, sentence reading fluency, and text comprehension were administered to the children in Grades 3 and 4 to assess their reading development over time. The results indicate that children's immediate response to repeated reading can contribute to the prediction of their development of reading fluency over time. Even after controlling for individual differences in general cognitive ability, word reading fluency, rapid automatized naming, and vocabulary, the experimental measure with meaning-focused repeated reading remained a significant predictor. PMID:24825172

  20. Improving Grade One Students' Reading Motivation with Online Electronic Storybooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciampa, Katia

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study stemmed from a concern of the perceived decline in students' reading motivation after the early years of schooling. The current research explored eight grade 1 students' experiences with online electronic storybooks (eBooks). Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software programs over 15 weeks.…

  1. Paradigmatic Responding as a Predictor of First Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceprano, Maria A.

    To ascertain whether paradigmatic performance on a word association test administered at the end of kindergarten is an effective predictor of reading achievement, 37 children were tested on the Syntagmatic-Paradigmatic Assessment (SPA) at the end of their kindergarten year. At the end of their first grade year, the children were administered a…

  2. Fifth Grade Social Studies Unit and Student Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park Forest Public Schools District 163, IL.

    The social studies resource unit and student readings for fifth grade pupils present the main idea that America is a heterogeneous society composed of different racial, religious, cultural, and ethnic groups who have continued the struggle to gain equal rights and opportunities. Pupils discover where immigrants came from, why they came to America,…

  3. TEACHING LITERATURE AND READING SIMULTANEOUSLY, NINTH GRADE ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINKEAD, THOMAS; LEVINE, MILTON

    SPECIFIC STUDY MATERIALS AND A GUIDE FOR TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION AND LITERATURE ARE PRESENTED. THE STUDY MATERIALS PROVIDE FOR A WIDE RANGE OF ABILITY AND ACHIEVEMENT AND ARE APPLIED TO THE TITLES REGULARLY USED IN THE NINTH-GRADE LITERATURE PROGRAM OF THE RAMAPO CENTRAL SCHOOL DISTRICT IN SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK. EXCERPTS FROM "THE THREAD…

  4. P-2 Years Targeted to Achieve Grade 3 Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In a bid to help more students read proficiently in 3rd grade--a skill considered critical to their future educational success--new laws and initiatives springing up around the country require educators to step up their efforts to identify and help struggling readers even before they enter kindergarten. It's not unusual for states or school…

  5. PREVENTIVE MEASURES TO REDUCE READING RETARDATION IN THE PRIMARY GRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REID, HALE C.; AND OTHERS

    COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROJECT-2698 WAS EXTENDED TO THE SECOND-GRADE LEVEL IN ORDER TO DEVELOP AND MEASURE THE EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUAL OR SMALL-GROUP INSTRUCTION FOR LOW-SCORING SECOND GRADERS IN READING, OF LESSONS ADAPTED TO THE NEEDS OF THE LOW GROUP, AND OF INSERVICE TRAINING OF TEACHERS. SECOND GRADERS WHO RECEIVED TOTAL METROPOLITAN ACHIEVEMENT…

  6. Digital Reading: A Look at a Second Grade Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study was recently done with students in a second grade class examining their use of eBooks and other digital online reading materials, as well as their use of traditional print books. In the classroom chosen from the study, the students were being taught through the use of balanced literacy instruction, which includes both whole…

  7. Reading Fluency: More than Automaticity? More than a Concern for the Primary Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy; Rikli, Andrew; Johnston, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency has traditionally been viewed as a goal of reading that is taught and mastered in the elementary grades. In this article we challenge that notion by exploring the role of reading fluency as a contributor to reading proficiency and difficulty among intermediate and middle grade students. We assessed reading fluency development among…

  8. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Holly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction with Increasing Black and Latino Reading Fluency, as Compared to Asian and White Second-Grade Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Franklin Dickerson

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) on improving reading fluency for an ethnically diverse sample of second-grade students. FORI incorporates the repeated reading of a grade-level text over the course of an academic week. This approach to reading uses scaffolding by expert readers. Results indicate…

  10. Beginning Reading Intervention as Inoculation or Insulin: First-Grade Reading Performance of Strong Responders to Kindergarten Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, M.D.; Kame'enui, E.J.; Simmons, D.C.; Harn, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the first-grade reading progress of children who participated in an intensive beginning reading intervention in kindergarten. Specifically, the study investigated whether kindergarten intervention could prevent first-grade reading difficulties, or produce an "inoculation" effect, for some children under certain instructional…

  11. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  12. Early Oral Language Comprehension, Task Orientation, and Foundational Reading Skills as Predictors of Grade 3 Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Kiuru, Noona; Laakkonen, Eero; Niemi, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    The present five-year longitudinal study from preschool to grade 3 examined the developmental associations among oral language comprehension, task orientation, reading precursors, and reading fluency, as well as their role in predicting grade 3 reading comprehension. Ninety Finnish-speaking students participated in the study. The students' oral…

  13. Metacognition and Learning to Read: An Examination of the Metacognitive Strategies Fifth Grade Students Use Before, During, and after Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    Students who have the ability of working through text, while at the same time comprehending what they read, increase the likelihood of school success and lifelong learning (Johnson, 2006). In primary grades, teachers understand that students are learning how to read and in intermediate grades, students are reading to learn new knowledge about a…

  14. Effects of Metalinguistic Awareness on Reading Comprehension and the Mediator Role of Reading Fluency from Grades 2 to 4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the contribution of metalinguistic awareness including morphological awareness, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness to reading comprehension, and the role of reading fluency as a mediator of the effects of metalinguistic awareness on reading comprehension from grades 2 to 4. Methods Four hundred and fifteen elementary students in China mainland were administered a test battery that included measures of morphological awareness, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, reading fluency, reading comprehension and IQ. Hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results Morphological awareness uniquely explained 9%, 10% and 13% variance of reading comprehension respectively from grade 2 to grade 4, however, phonological awareness and orthographical awareness did not contribute to reading comprehension; Reading fluency partially mediated the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension in grades 2-4. Conclusions These findings indicated that reading fluency and morphological awareness should be facilitated in the Chinese instruction. Morphological awareness played an important role in Chinese reading and affected reading comprehension in grades 2 to 4; Reading fluency was a significant link between morphological awareness and reading comprehension in grades 2-4. PMID:25799530

  15. Effects of Intensive Reading Intervention for Eighth-Grade Students with Persistently Inadequate Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Leroux, Audrey; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn; Barth, Amy; Fletcher, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the effects of a yearlong, very small-group, intensive reading intervention for eighth-grade students with serious reading difficulties who had demonstrated low response to intervention (RTI) in both Grades 6 and 7. At the beginning of Grade 6, a cohort of students identified as having reading difficulties were randomized to…

  16. The Effects of a Kindergarten and Second-Grade Partnership on Student Reading Skills and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druyor, Peggy S.

    2012-01-01

    Improving student reading skill and attitudes toward reading creates challenges in the classroom. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of reading partnerships on the reading skills and attitudes of kindergarten and second-grade students. Participants included two kindergarten and two second-grade intact classes in a pretest…

  17. Improving Reading, Writing, and Content Learning for Students in Grades 4-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rosemarye T.

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to the primary grades when children are learning to read, students in grades 4 through 12 are expected to learn content as they read, yet they may still struggle with reading basics. This book provides a realistic and systematic process for improving reading and writing while enhancing content knowledge and skills. Based on proven…

  18. Environmental and Developmental Indicators in Early Childhood: Relations to Second-Grade Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gina A.

    2010-01-01

    Reading success has been linked to high school completion, future job success, and future generations of children who can read. Unfortunately, children who are unable to read on grade level by the end of first grade are at a great disadvantage and unlikely to catch up later. Without the ability to read and comprehend text, all aspects of schooling…

  19. Increasing Word Recognition with Racially Diverse Second-Grade Students Using Fluency-Oriented Reading Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Franklin Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    The author examined the effectiveness of 2 fluency-oriented reading programs on improving reading fluency for an ethnically diverse sample of second-grade students. The first approach is Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (S. A. Stahl & K. Heubach, 2005), which incorporates the repeated reading of a grade-level text over the course of an…

  20. Beyond the Basics: Effective Reading Programs for the Upper Elementary Grades. [Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    What reading programs have been proven to help students in grades 2-5 to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the reading achievement of students in grades 2-5: (1) Reading Curricula (Curr), such as "Open Court," "Harcourt," "Reading Street" and other standard and alternative…

  1. Perceptual priming and reading speed among fourth grade children.

    PubMed

    Soler, Maria José; Dasí, Carmen; Bellver, Vicente; Ruiz, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the perceptual priming in fourth grade primary school children using a word-fragment completion task. The children were classified into two categories according to their reading speed: high and low. Using several sub-scales of the WISC-IV, their working memory was measured, and their total IQ was estimated, in order to control for their effects on priming. The statistical analyses showed that children with high reading speed were significantly better at word-fragment completion and showed greater priming (p < .01); in other words, the prior processing of the words from which the fragments came produced a greater benefit in the performance of the word-fragment completion task. A regression model was developed to explain reading speed based on the following variables: perceptual priming, working memory and percentage of completed fragments belonging to words not previously processed (adjusted R 2 = 0.64).

  2. The Relationship between Different Measures of Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Second-Grade Students Who Evidence Different Oral Reading Fluency Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Justin C.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Wolf, Maryanne; Kuhn, Melanie; Meisinger, Beth; Schwanenflugel, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether different measures of oral reading fluency relate differentially to reading comprehension performance in two samples of second-grade students: (a) students who evidenced difficulties with nonsense-word oral reading fluency, real-word oral reading fluency, and oral reading fluency of…

  3. A Comparison of Reading Rates, Comprehension, and Stamina in Oral and Silent Reading of Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainin, Guy; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Wilson, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between silent and oral reading fluency and comprehension. Findings indicated that fourth grade students had consistent levels of comprehension in both reading modes. Students of all reading levels showed a similar pattern across the segments of a text set in both oral and silent reading--a gradual increase in…

  4. Analysis of Reading Comprehension Levels of Fifth Grade Students Who Learned to Read and Write with the Sentence Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagirli, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the determination of reading comprehension levels of fifth grade's students who learned to read and write with the sentence method. With the program of 2005, it has been amended in the first reading and writing method. In the teaching of first reading and writing, it was passed to the sentence method instead of sound…

  5. Learning to Read: A Guide to Federal Funding for Grade-Level Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cheryl D.; Bhat, Soumya; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Martinez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The audience for this guide is state, local, and program leaders who want to learn more about federal funding sources that can support early literacy programs and systems reform. Funding available through federal programs can help address the underlying causes of children failing to learn to read by the end of third grade, such as limited access…

  6. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 33. Part B. Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1987 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking Grade 12 Diploma Examinations in English 33 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test is designed to be administered with a questions booklet. The following short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama, and day-to-day functional materials are included: (1) "Interpreter" (Gary Hyland); (2) an excerpt from…

  7. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. June 1989 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) includes the following eight short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama: "Loyalties" (Roo Borson); "Clever Animals" (Lewis Thomas); "Death of the Nation" (Ernst…

  8. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examinations in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) includes the following nine short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama: "The Biggest Liar in the World" (Harry Mark Petrakis); "Victorian Grandmother" (Margo…

  9. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, English 30. Part B: Reading (Multiple Choice). Readings Booklet. 1987 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for students taking the Grade 12 Examination in English 30 in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with a questions booklet) includes the following 10 short selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama: "Parents as People (with Children)" (Ellen Goodman); "Everybody Knows about the Arctic" (Jim…

  10. Building Reading Fluency in a Learning-Disabled Middle School Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell; Gaffney, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes a year-long, tutorial intervention with a disfluent eighth-grade reader. Focused instruction, including guided reading at the appropriate instructional level (4th grade), repeated readings, and home tape-recorder readings, led the student to improve his reading rate by 33% (75 wpm to 100 wpm). Formative and summative…

  11. An Investigation of the Effects of Read 180[R] on Fourth Grade Reading Achievement and How Selected Teachers Implement the Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Anne Judith

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the "READ 180"[R] program on the reading achievement levels of fourth grade students who participated in the "READ 180"[R] program (Scholastic Incorporated, 2005) compared to fourth grade students who were reading below grade level but who were not participating in the "READ 180"[R] program. The study compared…

  12. EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF VARIABILITY IN READING RATE IN GRADES FOUR, FIVE AND SIX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARRIS, THEODORE L.; AND OTHERS

    METHODS OF TESTING, EVALUATING, AND TEACHING READING IN THE FOURTH, FIFTH AND SIXTH GRADES ARE DESCRIBED. CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF VARIABILITY IN READING SPEED ARE DISCUSSED. DESIGN WAS BASED ON THE RATIONALE THAT A MEANINGFUL READING-TIME SCORE DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE SUBJECT'S PURPOSE FOR READING. WHILE READING SPEED MAY…

  13. The Impact of Structured Daily Independent Self-Selected Reading on Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culmo, Jill R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of second grade students about reading, themselves as readers, their motivation to read, and their subsequent reading achievement. Allowing students time to read independently during the school day and providing various reading materials in the classroom are options that some school…

  14. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

  15. Grade Level and Gender Differences in a School-Based Reading Tutoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…

  16. Accurate reading comprehension rate as an indicator of broad reading in students in first, second, and third grades.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Dennis; Thompson, Kelly; Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reading comprehension rate measures and broad reading skill development was examined using data from approximately 1425 students (grades 1-3). Students read 3 passages, from a pool of 30, and answered open-ended comprehension questions. Accurate reading comprehension rate (ARCR) was calculated by dividing the percentage of questions answered correctly (%QC) by seconds required to read the passage. Across all 30 passages, ARCR and its two components, %QC correct and time spent reading (1/seconds spent reading the passage), were significantly correlated with broad reading scores, with %QC resulting in the lowest correlations. Two sequential regressions supported previous findings which suggest that ARCR measures consistently produced meaningful incremental increases beyond %QC in the amount of variance explained in broad reading skill; however, ARCR produced small or no incremental increases beyond reading time. Discussion focuses on the importance of the measure of reading time embedded in brief accurate reading rate measures and directions for future research.

  17. Involving Parents in a Summer Book Reading Program to Promote Reading Comprehension, Fluency, and Vocabulary in Grade 3 and Grade 5 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagan, Stephanie; Sénéchal, Monique

    2014-01-01

    In this research, parents and children participated in a comprehensive book reading intervention designed to improve children's literacy. Over eight weeks during the summer, children in the intervention condition were encouraged to read one book weekly and parents were trained to foster reading comprehension. Forty-eight Grades 3 and 5 children…

  18. Modeling the Relationships between Cognitive and Reading Measures in Third and Fourth Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between cognitive and reading measures in third and fourth grade children were analyzed using path modeling. Third graders were tested in word identification, pseudo word reading, orthographic speed, rapid naming, and oral vocabulary knowledge. In third and fourth grades, the students were tested in oral reading fluency and in…

  19. Eighth Grade Students' Reading Responses to Encoded Inflectional, Syntactic, Grammatical and Semantic Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Leon E.; And Others

    A study investigated the reading responses of 60 eighth grade students to encoded inflectional, syntactic, grammatical, and semantic errors. The students were equally divided into three categories based on grade level reading competency and given three Aesopian fables to read. The text of the fables contained the following errors: (1) words to…

  20. Minimum Reading Fluency Necessary for Comprehension among Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Kwoka, Heather; Lim, Becky; Crone, Melissa; Haegele, Katherine; Parker, David C.; Petersen, Shawna; Scholin, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between oral reading fluency (ORF) and reading comprehension for students in second grade. A total of 84 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions that involved reading a grade-appropriate passage with either 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% scrambled words and answering subsequent comprehension…

  1. Oral and Silent Reading Rates of Fourth Grade Students: Are All Good Readers Fast Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Diane D.

    A study examined oral and silent reading rates at various levels of difficulty to establish criterion rates for fluent reading at the fourth grade level. Subjects, 27 male and 45 female students from 6 classes in 3 public schools in central Oklahoma who read at an average of more than one year above grade placement, had their oral and silent…

  2. Improving the Reading Scores of Students Who Fall below Grade Level Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varcadipane, Vincent N.

    This report describes the process used by a small, one-building kindergarten-through-grade-six school district in New Jersey to improve the reading scores of students who had fallen below their current grade in reading. Areas of need included improving the reading scores of students in regular education, special education, and…

  3. An Investigation of the Sustained Effects of Reading Recovery ® on Economically Disadvantaged Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the long-term benefits of the Reading Recovery ® program for economically disadvantaged students who were successfully discontinued after the first grade. The hypothesis was tested that students exiting first grade with grade-level reading abilities and with similar low socio-economic status (economically disadvantaged), who…

  4. Reading Cooperatively or Independently? Study on ELL Student Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siping; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cooperative reading teaching activities and independent reading activities for English language learner (ELL) students at 4th grade level. Based on simple linear regression and correlational analyses of data collected from two large data bases, PIRLS and NAEP, the study found that cooperative reading…

  5. Effects of three interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in grade 2.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Stefan; Fälth, Linda; Svensson, Idor; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, the effects of three intervention strategies on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2 were analyzed. The interventions consisted of computerized training programs: One bottom-up intervention aimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second intervention focused on top-down processing on the word and sentence levels, and the third was a combination of these two training programs (n = 25 in each group). In addition, there were two comparison groups, 25 children with reading disabilities who received ordinary special instruction and 30 age-matched typical readers. All reading disabled participants completed 25 training sessions with special education teachers. All groups improved their reading skills. The group who received combined training showed higher improvements than the ordinary special instruction group and the typical readers. Different cognitive variables were related to treatment gains for different groups. Thus, a treatment combining bottom-up and top-down aspects of reading was the most effective in general, but individual differences among children need to be considered.

  6. The Relationship between Delivery Models and the Grade-Level Reading Development of Sixth-Grade English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Holly Weber

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between delivery models (the class size reduction model and the sheltered instruction model) and language development levels on the grade-level reading development of sixth-grade English learners (ELs) attending public middle schools in metro Atlanta, Georgia. The instrument used to measure grade-level mastery…

  7. The Relationship of Reading Comprehension Success with Metacognitive Awareness, Motivation, and Reading Levels of Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memis, Aysel; Bozkurt, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationship between metacognitive awareness, reading motivations, reading levels and reading comprehension success of fifth grade students using comparative relative scan model. There were 577 students. In the result of the research, in which data were collected with four scales, it was concluded that reading…

  8. Miller-Unruh Reading Center: The Comparison of Progress in Reading with Second and Third Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mildred C.

    The study reported was designed to test the hypothesis that no difference in reading achievement scores of second and third grade children requiring remediation would result between Ss receiving both regular classroom and Miller-Unruh Reading Center instruction and Ss receiving classroom instruction only. Reading Center instruction took a…

  9. The Developmental Reading Assessment and the Third Grade Reading Ohio Achievement Assessment: An Investigation of Possible Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This ex post facto, participatory action research study investigated the relationship between a criterion-referenced, inventory-based reading assessment and the standardized Third Grade Reading Ohio Achievement Assessment (OAA). The study, conducted in a suburban Ohio district where the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) has been used since…

  10. Dialect Variation and Reading: Is Change in Nonmainstream American English Use Related to Reading Achievement in First and Second Grades?

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Nicole Patton; Connor, Carol McDonald; Petscher, Yaacov; Conlin, Catherine Ross

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this study, we examined (a) whether children who spoke Nonmainstream American English (NMAE) frequently in school at the beginning of 1st grade increased their use of Mainstream American English (MAE) through the end of 2nd grade, and whether increasing MAE use was associated with (b) language and reading skills and school context and (c) greater gains in reading skills. Method A longitudinal design was implemented with 49 children who spoke NMAE moderately to strongly. Spoken production of NMAE forms, word reading, and reading comprehension were measured at the beginning, middle, and end of 1st and 2nd grades. Various oral language skills were also measured at the beginning of 1st grade. Results Results indicate that most children increased their MAE production during 1st grade and maintained these levels in 2nd grade. Increasing MAE use was predicted by children’s expressive vocabulary and nonword repetition skills at the beginning of 1st grade. Finally, the more children increased their MAE production, the greater were their reading gains from 1st grade through 2nd grade. Conclusions The findings extend previous reports of a significant association between NMAE use and specific reading skills among young children and have implications for theory, educational practice, and future research. PMID:22199203

  11. Successful Strategies for Teaching Reading to Middle Grades English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolos, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews exemplary strategies for teaching reading to middle grades English language learners (ELLs) derived from 21 peer-reviewed journal articles and professional books. The author presents an in-depth look at three successful categories of reading strategies: interactive read-alouds to model fluent reading and engage learners, the…

  12. Independent Reading in the Sixth Grade: Free Choice and Access to Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy-Shaffer, Joye; Pettit, Shirley

    A study conducted in the Orange County Public Schools in central Florida investigated the reading interests of sixth-grade students. The study also gathered information from teachers regarding the nature and source of reading materials used for independent reading in their classrooms and on the implementation of sustained silent reading practices.…

  13. The Relationship of Error Rate and Comprehension in Second and Third Grade Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 second and 974 third graders. Results found a significant relationship between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and…

  14. The use of music to enhance reading skills of second grade students and students with reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Register, Dena; Darrow, Alice-Ann; Standley, Jayne; Swedberg, Olivia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of using music as a remedial strategy to enhance the reading skills of second-grade students and students who have been identified as having a specific learning disability (SLD) in reading. First, an intensive short-term music curriculum was designed to target reading comprehension and vocabulary skills at the second grade level. The curriculum was then implemented in classrooms at two public schools in the Southeast. Reading skills were evaluated pre and post curriculum intervention via the vocabulary and reading comprehension subtests of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test for second grade. Analysis of pre/posttest data revealed that students with a specific disability in reading improved significantly from pre to post on all three subtests: word decoding (p = .04), word knowledge (p = .01), reading comprehension (p = .01), and test total (p = .01). Paired t-tests revealed that for 2nd grade students, both treatment and control classes improved significantly from pre to post on the subtests word decoding, word knowledge, and test total. While both classes made gains from pre to post on the subtest, reading comprehension, neither improved significantly. Analysis of Covariance revealed that the treatment class made greater gains pre to post than the control class on all 3 subtests (Including reading comprehension), and significantly greater gains on the subtest, word knowledge (p = .01). PMID:17419662

  15. The use of music to enhance reading skills of second grade students and students with reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Register, Dena; Darrow, Alice-Ann; Standley, Jayne; Swedberg, Olivia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of using music as a remedial strategy to enhance the reading skills of second-grade students and students who have been identified as having a specific learning disability (SLD) in reading. First, an intensive short-term music curriculum was designed to target reading comprehension and vocabulary skills at the second grade level. The curriculum was then implemented in classrooms at two public schools in the Southeast. Reading skills were evaluated pre and post curriculum intervention via the vocabulary and reading comprehension subtests of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test for second grade. Analysis of pre/posttest data revealed that students with a specific disability in reading improved significantly from pre to post on all three subtests: word decoding (p = .04), word knowledge (p = .01), reading comprehension (p = .01), and test total (p = .01). Paired t-tests revealed that for 2nd grade students, both treatment and control classes improved significantly from pre to post on the subtests word decoding, word knowledge, and test total. While both classes made gains from pre to post on the subtest, reading comprehension, neither improved significantly. Analysis of Covariance revealed that the treatment class made greater gains pre to post than the control class on all 3 subtests (Including reading comprehension), and significantly greater gains on the subtest, word knowledge (p = .01).

  16. Effects of Intensive Reading Intervention for Eighth-Grade Students With Persistently Inadequate Response to Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Leroux, Audrey; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn; Barth, Amy; Fletcher, Jack

    2013-01-01

    The authors report the effects of a yearlong, very small-group, intensive reading intervention for eighth-grade students with serious reading difficulties who had demonstrated low response to intervention (RTI) in both Grades 6 and 7. At the beginning of Grade 6, a cohort of students identified as having reading difficulties were randomized to treatment or comparison conditions. Treatment group students received researcher-provided reading intervention in Grade 6, which continued in Grade 7 for those with low response to intervention; comparison students received no researcher-provided intervention. Participants in the Grade 8 study were members of the original treatment (N = 28) and comparison (N = 13) conditions who had failed to pass a state-mandated reading comprehension test in both Grades 6 and 7. In Grade 8, treatment group students received a 50-minute, daily, individualized, intensive reading intervention in groups of two to four students per teacher. The results showed that students in the treatment condition demonstrated significantly higher scores than comparison students on standardized measures of comprehension (effect size = 1.20) and word identification (effect size = 0.49), although most continued to lack grade-level proficiency in reading despite 3 years of intervention. Findings from this study provide a rationale for intensive intervention for middle school students with severe reading difficulties. PMID:21512102

  17. Validity of CBM Measures of Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension on High-Stakes Reading Assessments in Grades 7 and 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Doris Luft; Biancarosa, Gina; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Bousselot, Tracy; Smith, Jean-Louise; Baker, Scott K.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    We examined the criterion validity and diagnostic efficiency of oral reading fluency (ORF), word reading accuracy, and reading comprehension (RC) for students in Grades 7 and 8 taking into account form effects of ORF, time of assessment, and individual differences, including student designations of limited English proficiency and special education…

  18. Text (Oral) Reading Fluency as a Construct in Reading Development: An Investigation of its Mediating Role for Children from Grades 1 to 4

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated a developmentally changing role of text reading fluency in mediating the relations of word reading fluency and listening comprehension to reading comprehension. We addressed this question by using longitudinal data from Grades 1 to 4, and employing structural equation models. Results showed that the role of text reading fluency changes over time as children’s reading proficiency develops. In the beginning phase of reading development (Grade 1), text reading fluency was not independently related to reading comprehension over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. In Grades 2 to 4, however, text reading fluency completely mediated the relation between word reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas it partially mediated the relation between listening comprehension and reading comprehension. These results suggest that text reading fluency is a dissociable construct that plays a developmentally changing role in reading acquisition. PMID:25848201

  19. The Effects of Control for Ability Level on EFL Reading of Graded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan-a-rom, Udorn

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to examine how EFL learners of English reacted to graded readers in terms of reading strategy use, comprehension, speed, and attitude as well as motivation when control for ability level was determined. Eighty Thai high school students placed into their own reading level of graded readers by the scores gained from the graded…

  20. Determining the Predictive Value of Selected Measures for First Grade Reading Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Bob Gene

    This study investigated the predictive value of certain tests in relationship to first grade reading success. The Metropolitan Readiness Test, Naming Letters Test, Light Response Test, and Matching Symbol Test were administered to 70 first grade students during the first two weeks of school. The Teacher's Reading Readiness Rating Scale was filled…

  1. Has First-Grade Core Reading Program Text Complexity Changed across Six Decades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Relyea, Jackie Eunjung; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to address possible text complexity shifts across the past six decades for a continually best-selling first-grade core reading program. The anthologies of one publisher's seven first-grade core reading programs were examined using computer-based analytics, dating from 1962 to 2013. Variables were Overall Text…

  2. Reading Error Protocol Study: A Data Base. Volume V. Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Chambers, Richard

    This is the fifth of six volumes providing information drawn from a project designed to compile a substantial data base on reading errors for use by researchers and teachers. This volume contains transcriptions of oral reading error studies conducted with sixth grade students. The transcriptions are organized according to grade and…

  3. Reading Error Protocol Study: A Data Base. Volume II. Grades One and Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Chambers, Richard

    This is the second of six volumes providing information drawn from a project designed to compile a substantial data base on reading errors for use by researchers and teachers. This volume contains transcriptions of oral reading error studies conducted with first and second grade students. The transcriptions are organized according to grade and the…

  4. Reading Error Protocol Study: A Data Base. Volume IV. Grade Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Chambers, Richard

    This is the fourth of six volumes providing information drawn from a project designed to compile a substantial data base on reading errors for use by researchers and teachers. This volume contains transcriptions of oral reading error studies conducted with fifth grade students. The transcriptions are organized according to grade and…

  5. Reading Error Protocol Study: A Data Base. Volume III. Grades Three and Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Chambers, Richard

    This is the third of six volumes providing information drawn from a project designed to compile a substantial data base on reading errors for use by researchers and teachers. This volume contains transcriptions of oral reading error studies conducted with third and fourth grade students. The transcriptions are organized according to grade and…

  6. The Analysis of Reading Skills and Visual Perception Levels of First Grade Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memis, Aysel; Sivri, Diler Ayvaz

    2016-01-01

    In this study, primary school first grade students' reading skills and visual perception levels were investigated. Sample of the study, which was designed with relational scanning model, consisted of 168 first grade students studying at three public primary schools in Kozlu, Zonguldak, in 2013-2014 education year. Students' reading level, reading…

  7. Relationship of Word- and Sentence-Level Working Memory to Reading and Writing in Second, Fourth, and Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Swanson, H. Lee; Lovitt, Dan; Trivedi, Pam; Lin, Shin-Ju; Gould, Laura; Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of working memory at the word and sentence levels of language to reading and writing outcomes. Method: Measures of working memory at the word and sentence levels, reading and writing, were administered to 2nd (N = 122), 4th (N = 222), and 6th (N = 105) graders. Structural equation…

  8. The Frequency of Parents' Reading-Related Activities at Home and Children's Reading Skills during Kindergarten and Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Tolvanen, Asko; Niemi, Pekka; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the associations between the frequency of parents' reading-related activities at home and their children's reading-related skills during the transition from kindergarten to Grade 1. Longitudinal data were obtained for 1436 Finnish children (5- to 6-year-olds at baseline) and their mothers and fathers. 684 girls…

  9. The Role of Reading Disability Risk and Environmental Protective Factors in Students' Reading Fluency in Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading disability (RD) risk and environmental protective factors in reading fluency in grade 4. The sample consisted of 538 Finnish-speaking students. Kindergarten measures included the students' risk for RD based on poor achievement in phonological awareness and letter knowledge as well as information on the…

  10. Supporting Young Second Language Learners' Reading through Guided Reading and Strategy Instruction in a Second Grade Classroom in Lebanon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaya, Darine; Ghosn, Irma-Kaarina

    2010-01-01

    Learning to read in English still developing literacy in one's mother tongue is a challenge facing many young English language learners (ELLs) around the world. Reading progress of six young language learners was followed in a second grade classroom in an urban English-immersion school in Lebanon. Two of the six children were identified as…

  11. Exploring the Effect of Reader Response Plus on Twelfth Grade Students with Disabilities' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes toward Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Noelle; Black, Alison; Miller, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine how reader response journals followed by classroom discussion ("Reader Response Plus") contributed to students' reading comprehension and to their attitudes toward reading. The study was conducted in a rural school in upstate New York. The twelfth grade class that participated in the study…

  12. The Relationship between Reading Attitude, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and the Reading Achievement of Fifth Grade African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Quentarius Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    Using a correlational research design, this dissertation sought to examine the variables--self-efficacy, motivation, reading attitude, and gender--which could serve as a predictors for reading achievement with a purposive sample of 81 African-American 5th grade males attending two elementary schools in North Texas. Using a bivariate correlation,…

  13. The Effect of Repeated Readings within Readers Theater on the Reading Fluency Rates of At-Risk Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Margaret Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that various reading intervention strategies have shown improvement over time. In a rural south central Pennsylvania school district, 25% of the third grade students are not proficient in reading, leading to possible disadvantages throughout life. This study investigated whether the theory of automaticity…

  14. A Causal-Comparative Study of Third Grade Reading Achievement and the Use of Commercial Reading Programs to Promote Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Wendy E.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, causal-comparative study examined the reading achievement of third grade students to ascertain the reading health of elementary students as measured through South Carolina's standardized assessment, the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS). The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference…

  15. The Relationship of Supplemental Reading Services and the Reading Achievement Scores of First and Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Debra G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the relationship supplemental reading services had on first and second grade students who were identified in need of intervention services. Participants were from three elementary schools. Two of the schools received funding through Title I. The third school's supplemental reading services were funded…

  16. Predicting Performance on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment for Third Grade Reading Students Using Reading Curriculum Based Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Scott; Lampley, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between three predictor variables (Fall R-CBM, Winter R-CBM, and Spring R-CBM) and the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program third grade reading and language arts assessment. The population selected for this study included all third grade students from an East Tennessee school…

  17. Self-Contained to Departmentalized: How Reading Habits Changed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1976-01-01

    Examined the reading habits of four 4th grade classes before and after a changeover from self-contained to departmentalized instruction. Results indicated a slightly lower mean number of books read and far less variation among classes in the number of books read after departmentalization. (JMB)

  18. Predicting English Word Reading Skills for Spanish-Speaking Students in First Grade

    PubMed Central

    Páez, Mariela; Rinaldi, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the word reading skills in English and Spanish for a sample of 244 Spanish-speaking, English-learning (hence, bilingual) students in first grade and presents a predictive model for English word reading skills. The children in the study were assessed at the end of kindergarten and first grade, respectively. Data were gathered with 3 subtests of the Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery and a researcher-developed phonological awareness task. Results showed that, on average, children's English word reading skills were similar to monolingual norms whereas their Spanish word reading skills averaged 1 SD below the mean. English vocabulary, English phonological awareness, and Spanish word reading skills in kindergarten were found to be significant predictors of English word reading skills in first grade. Educational implications for screening language and reading skills and promising areas for targeted instruction for this population are discussed. PMID:20396623

  19. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Grade 2 Reading Measures. Technical Report #1004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamgochian, Elisa; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Saez, Leilani; Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this technical report, we provide reliability and validity evidence for the easyCBM[R] Reading measures for grade 2 (word and passage reading fluency and multiple choice reading comprehension). Evidence for reliability includes internal consistency and item invariance. Evidence for validity includes concurrent, predictive, and construct…

  20. First-Grade Cognitive Abilities as Long-Term Predictors of Reading Comprehension and Disability Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bryant, V. Joan; Hamlett, Carol L.; Lambert, Warren

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal…

  1. An Analysis of a Reading Rate Improvement Program in Grades Two, Four, and Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sylvia Louise

    The problem of this study was concerned with instruction in reading rate acceleration and the effects upon comprehension. Correlates of reading achievement, sex, IQ, age, and interest were also considered. A six-week reading rate training program was completed by the three experimental classes randomly selected in each of grades two, four, and six…

  2. Enhancing Literacy in the Second Grade: Five Related Studies Using the Register Music/Reading Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Cassidy, Jane W.; Flowers, Patricia J.; Register, Dena; Sims, Wendy; Standley, Jayne M.; Menard, Elizabeth; Swedberg, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of these five related studies was to ascertain the effects of a music curriculum designed to enhance reading skills of second-grade students. The dependent variables were subtest scores on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test administered pre and post the music/reading intervention. Results showed that the total test gain scores of…

  3. A Musical Approach to Reading Fluency: An Experimental Study in First-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leguizamon, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to investigate the relationship between Kodaly-based music instruction and reading fluency in first-grade classrooms. Reading fluency and overall reading achievement were measured for 109 participants at mid-point in the academic year pre- and post treatment. Tests were carried out to…

  4. Reading for Meaning: Fostering Comprehension in the Middle Grades. Language and Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara M., Ed.; Graves, Michael F., Ed.; van den Broek, Paul, Ed.

    Reading comprehension is of great concern to many Americans, as evidenced by the mandate in most states today for graduation standards in reading and for assessments aligned to those standards. This book focuses on what has been learned from research about fostering reading comprehension in the middle grades, providing a broad overview of current…

  5. Paths to Reading Comprehension in At-Risk Second-Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Vermeulen, Karin; Fulton, Cynthia M.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies of second graders at risk for reading disability, which were guided by levels of language and functional reading system theory, focused on reading comprehension in this population. In Study 1 (n = 96), confirmatory factor analysis of five comprehension measures loaded on one factor in both fall and spring of second grade. Phonological…

  6. Correlates of Orthographic Learning in Third-Grade Children's Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowey, Judith A.; Miller, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    This study examined word identification, phonological recoding efficiency, familiar word reading efficiency, orthographic choice for familiar words and serial naming speed as potential correlates of orthographic learning following silent reading in third-grade children. Children silently read a series of short stories, each containing six…

  7. Implementation and Effects of Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Fifth-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreassen, Rune; Braten, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    In this intervention study, teachers tried to implement four instructional principles derived from the literature on research-based, explicit reading comprehension instruction in their fifth-grade classrooms. The principles focused on relevant background knowledge, reading comprehension strategies, reading-group organization, and reading…

  8. Teacher Implementation of Guided Reading and the Effect on Students in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Melissa S.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored implementing guided reading in grades 3-5 in a suburban school district located in Southeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how teachers implement guided reading in their classrooms and how the use of guided reading affects student achievement in Text Structure and Vocabulary, Reading…

  9. Cross-Language Transfer of Reading Ability: Evidence from Taiwanese Ninth-Grade Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Hui-Kai; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Dixon, L. Quentin

    2012-01-01

    How proficiency in reading the first language (L1) influences proficiency in reading in the second language (L2) was explored in this study. Reading scores in Mandarin Chinese (L1) and in English (L2) for 30,000 Taiwanese ninth-grade students were randomly selected from all who took the national Basic Competency Test during a 6-year period in…

  10. The Early Grade Reading Assessment: Applications and Interventions to Improve Basic Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Amber, Ed.; Wetterberg, Anna, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book highlights the experience of Liberia in both assessing and improving reading in primary schools. As a result of an Early Grade Reading Assessment, the Ministry of Education and partners, including the United States Agency for International Development, came together to identify and develop strategies for improving reading in schools.…

  11. The Implementation of a Reading Recovery Program for At-Risk First-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Angie L.

    2010-01-01

    This 8-week case study involved evaluating the impact of the Reading Recovery intervention program on students with reading difficulties. The participants of this case study were 2 at-risk first-grade students selected for participation in the Reading Recovery program, which provided 30 minutes daily of one-on-one instruction. This study employed…

  12. Longitudinal stability in reading comprehension is largely heritable from grades 1 to 6.

    PubMed

    Soden, Brooke; Christopher, Micaela E; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Olson, Richard K; Cutting, Laurie; Keenan, Janice M; Thompson, Lee A; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a foundational academic skill and significant attention has focused on reading development. This report is the first to examine the stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reading comprehension across Grades 1 to 6. This developmental range is particularly important because it encompasses the timespan in which most children move from learning how to read to using reading for learning. Longitudinal simplex models were fitted separately for two independent twin samples (N = 706; N = 976). Results suggested that the shared environment contributed to variance in early but not later reading. Instead, stability in reading development was largely mediated by continuous genetic influences. Thus, although reading is clearly a learned skill and the environment remains important for reading development, individual differences in reading comprehension appear to be also influenced by a core of genetic stability that persists through the developmental course of reading.

  13. Teacher-Student Discordance and First-Grade Reading Comprehension: Exploration of an Ecological Construct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, G. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-three failure-prone students being promoted to first grade were profiled by kindergarten teachers, and incompatibility with subsequently assigned first-grade teachers was determined. Results indicate that teacher-student incompatibility may be related to end-of-first-grade deficits in student reading achievement. (Author/JDD)

  14. Introducing Laptops to Children: An Examination of Ubiquitous Computing in Grade 3 Reading, Language, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robert M.; Bethel, Edward Clement; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the achievement outcomes accompanying the implementation of a Grade 3 laptop or so-­called "ubiquitous computing" program in a Quebec school district. CAT­3 reading, language, and mathematics batteries were administered at the end of Grade 2 and again at the end of Grade 3, after the first year of computer…

  15. The Effect of Two Reading Programs on Grade 1 Students' Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Susie

    2010-01-01

    The National Reading Panel has identified 5 essential components of reading instruction, all of which are needed to achieve the complex skill of reading, one of which is oral reading fluency (ORF). The Alabama Reading Initiative endorses teaching a scientifically research-based reading program to fidelity to raise ORF scores. In a rural Alabama…

  16. Developmental Relations between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Study from Grade 1 to Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders.…

  17. Recommended Readings in Literature, Annotated Edition: Kindergarten through Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This book, compiled by teachers, administrators, curriculum planners, and librarians located throughout California, is meant to (1) encourage students to read and to view reading as a worthwhile activity; (2) help local curriculum planners select books for their reading programs; and (3) stimulate educators at the local level to evaluate their…

  18. Structure Graded Readings in English. Books One and Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costinett, Sandra

    These volumes are the first two in a series of structured reading materials for classes in English as a foreign language. These readers may be used to give initial training in reading to non-native speakers, or as supplementary material with other English language teaching texts. Each book is designed to give practice not only in reading but also…

  19. Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten through Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Compiled by teachers, administrators, curriculum planners, and librarians, this list is intended to help local level curriculum planners and teachers select books for their reading programs and evaluate their literature programs, and to encourage students to read by improving their reading attitudes. To accommodate a variety of tastes, abilities,…

  20. Computer-Based Instruction in Reading: Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, John D.; Atkinson, R. C.

    A lengthy and detailed description is given of a computer-based curriculum for initial reading, with emphasis on reading as decoding. The initial curriculum, prepared for a school in Cupertino, California, was closely linked to the three basal reading texts then being used in the district's primary classrooms and was programed as three separate…

  1. The Incremental Variance of Morphological Knowledge to Reading Comprehension in Grades 3-10 beyond Prior Reading Comprehension, Spelling, and Text Reading Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov; Bishop, M. Denise

    2012-01-01

    We know that knowledge of word structure--morphology--relates to reading, but there is limited research on its unique contribution to reading comprehension, especially with students in middle and high schools and with the nesting of students within classrooms taken into account. In this study with 4780 students in grades 3 to 10, we examined how…

  2. Effect of Repeated Reading and Self-Directed Behavior on Reading Skills and Generalization of the Reading Skills of Third-Grade Hill Tribe Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compan, Boonlert; Iamsupasit, Sompoch; Samuels, Jay

    A study tested a method for developing reading fluency with third-grade Hill Tribe children in a welfare school in Chiang Mai, a city located in northern Thailand. Most of the students were bilingual, speaking their native tongues and Thai, their second language. Only 18.7% of the Hill Tribe population can read Thai, and many students fail to…

  3. Effects of Individualised and Small-Group Guided Oral Reading Interventions on Reading Skills and Reading Attitude of Poor Readers in Grades 2-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostdam, Ron; Blok, Henk; Boendermaker, Conny

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of guided oral reading as a remedy for low-achieving readers, two experiments were conducted in the early grades of primary school. In the first, poor-reading students were randomly divided between two treatment groups and a control group. In treatment groups, the intervention was delivered one-to-one, either in a repeated…

  4. Assessing for Generalized Improvements in Reading Comprehension by Intervening to Improve Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neddenriep, Christine E.; Fritz, Abigail M.; Carrier, Miranda E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between reading fluency and comprehension was evaluated in five 4th-grade students. These students were identified as being at risk of not meeting yearly goals in reading fluency and comprehension based on fall benchmark assessment data. A brief intervention assessment was used to determine which intervention components would be…

  5. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  6. Preschool Matters: Predicting Reading Difficulties for Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Students in First Grade

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Claudia; Páez, Mariela

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal analysis of factors that predict the word reading skills in English and Spanish for a sample of 234 Spanish-speaking students in first grade. The children were assessed at the end of preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. Data include three subtests of the Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery and a researcher-developed phonological awareness task. Results showed that, on average, children's English word reading skills were similar to those of monolingual norms, while their Spanish word readings skills were, on average, one standard deviation below the mean. English vocabulary, English recalling skills, Spanish vocabulary, and Spanish word reading skills in preschool were found to be significant predictors of English word reading skills in first grade. Educational implications for assessment and instruction for this population during the early childhood years are discussed. PMID:21720567

  7. Rhythm reproduction in kindergarten, reading performance at second grade, and developmental dyslexia theories.

    PubMed

    Dellatolas, Georges; Watier, Laurence; Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Lubart, Todd; Chevrie-Muller, Claude

    2009-09-01

    Temporal processing deficit could be associated with a specific difficulty in learning to read. In 1951, Stambak provided preliminary evidence that children with dyslexia performed less well than good readers in reproduction of 21 rhythmic patterns. Stambak's task was administered to 1,028 French children aged 5-6 years. The score distribution (from 0 to 21) was quasi-normal, with some children failing completely and other performing perfectly. In second grade, reading was assessed in 695 of these children. Kindergarten variables explained 26% of the variance of the reading score at second grade. The Stambak score was strongly and linearly related to reading performance in second grade, after partialling out performance on other tasks (oral repetition, attention, and visuo-spatial tasks) and socio-cultural level. Findings are discussed in relation to perceptual, cerebellar, intermodal, and attention-related theories of developmental dyslexia. It is concluded that simple rhythm reproduction tasks in kindergarten are predictive of later reading performance.

  8. Development of Spelling and Differential Relations to Text Reading in Grades 3-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2010-01-01

    The authors claim that assessing spelling in Grades 3-12 has utility. They base their claim on data from 875,040 students in Grades 3-12 in 52,923 classes in 840 Florida schools who took the Reading Comprehension, Maze, and Word Analysis spelling portions of the "Florida Assessments for Instruction in Reading" during the 2009-2010 school year. The…

  9. NAEP 1992 Reading State Report for Hawaii. The Trial State Assessment at Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Assessment of Educational Progress, Princeton, NJ.

    In 1990, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. In 1992, the NAEP Program included an expanded TSA in fourth-grade reading. The 1992 reading assessment considered students' performance in situations that…

  10. Developmental Profiles of Task-Avoidant Behaviour and Reading Skills in Grades 1 and 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi, Katrin; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    A latent profile analysis approach was used to examine the developmental profiles of task-avoidant behaviour and reading skills in Grades 1 and 2, as well as their antecedents in kindergarten. The participants in this study were 448 children. Four different developmental profiles of task-avoidant behaviour and reading skills were identified. Our…

  11. An Investigation of Reading Research in the Intermediate Grades with Recommendations for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Geraldine

    The purposes of this research were to consolidate the findings from research on reading instruction in the intermediate grades in a manner that would be usable for teachers, administrators, and curriculum planners, and to offer suggestions and procedures for the teaching of intermediate reading. The procedures used involved an intensive…

  12. Using Literature Circles to Increase Reading Comprehension in Third Grade Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Shawna R.

    2010-01-01

    Reading comprehension strategies are important skills for a child to learn. Good strategies support struggling students to be more successful in all subjects at school as reading is the basis for subsequent mastery of most subjects (Bender & Larkin, 2003). This action research project examined the use of literature circles in a third grade class.…

  13. Predicting Reading and Mathematics Achievement in Fourth-Grade Children from Kindergarten Readiness Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Sinclair, Ronald J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined age and gender differences in verbal skills and visuomotor skills at kindergarten, in achievement in reading and mathematics at Grade four, and the link between skills at kindergarten and later achievement. Readiness in auditory memory and verbal associations predicted later reading achievement while readiness in number skills and visual…

  14. The Effects of an ICT-Based Reading Intervention on Students' Achievement in Grade Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Deborah; Chambers, Alex; Mather, Nancy; Bauschatz, Retina; Bauer, Meredyth; Doan, Lesli

    2016-01-01

    A controlled quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the use of MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach on participants' reading and spelling achievement. After attrition, participants included 170 students enrolled in eight second-grade classrooms (four classrooms in each school) in two public elementary schools in the southwestern…

  15. Reading Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities in the Upper Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Kent, Shawn C.

    2012-01-01

    For students with learning disabilities, the upper elementary grades may represent a unique opportunity to provide successful remediation for lessening a reading difficulty and preventing students with learning disabilities from falling behind in other content areas. This article discusses effective reading interventions for students with learning…

  16. Improving the Reading Comprehension Skills of Unmotivated Fifth Grade Students through Literature-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunze, Caroline Ryan

    A practicum was developed to improve the inferential comprehension, the textual and functional skills, and the overall attitudes toward reading of fifth-grade students. A target group of six students in a private school who were deficient in these skills was established. The practicum contained basic strategies for improving reading skills and…

  17. An Experimental Study of Scheduling and Duration of "Tier 2" First-Grade Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barth, Amy E.; Romain, Melissa; Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects on reading outcomes of delivering supplemental, small-group intervention to first-grade students at risk for reading difficulties randomly assigned to one of three different treatment schedules: extended (4 sessions per week, 16 weeks; n = 66), concentrated (4 sessions per week, 8 weeks; n = 64), or distributed (2…

  18. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…

  19. Indexing Response to Intervention: A Longitudinal Study of Reading Risk from Kindergarten through Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah C.; Coyne, Michael D.; Kwok, Oi-man; McDonagh, Sarah; Harn, Beth A.; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, response to intervention and stability of reading performance of 41 kindergarten children identified as at risk of reading difficulty were evaluated from kindergarten through third grade. All students were assessed in the fall of each academic year to evaluate need for intervention, and students who fell below the 30th percentile on…

  20. Relationships between Reading Ability in Third Grade and Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannell, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify relationships that exist between reading ability in 3rd grade and phonological awareness in kindergarten. A second purpose was to identify specific prereading skills that best predict later reading success. This study used a quantitative research design to answer the research questions posed. The…

  1. Electronic Storybooks: A Constructivist Approach to Improving Reading Motivation in Grade 1 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciampa, Katia

    2012-01-01

    This study stemmed from a concern of the perceived decline in students' reading motivation after the early years of schooling. This research investigated the effectiveness of online eBooks on eight grade 1 students' reading motivation. Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software programs over 15 weeks. Qualitative data were…

  2. The Effects of a Teacher-Guided Library Selection Program on Fourth-Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Sherri M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the impact that a teacher-guided library selection program had on overall reading scores and how this program may or may not promote reading improvement of fourth-grade students at a small suburban school in western New York. Forty fourth graders were used as the sample population, which was…

  3. The Effects of Written Language Awareness on First Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nancy E.; Blum, Irene H.

    A battery of four reading readiness assessment tasks was administered to 267 first grade students to determine if the tasks predicted reading achievement as well as the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT). The four tasks, which were the best predictors in a previous study of seven readiness tasks, were the aural word boundaries task, the…

  4. The Difficulties That Seventh Grade Students Face in Comprehensive Reading Skill for English Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albdour, Waddah Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the difficulties affecting the student in the area of reading comprehension skill in English language curricula, measuring the differences in English language teachers' attitudes towards difficulties that seventh grade students face in reading comprehension skill for English language according to personal variables.…

  5. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  6. Identifying Writing Difficulties in First Grade: An Investigation of Writing and Reading Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Coker, David L., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of students who are at risk for writing difficulties is an important first step in improving writing performance. First grade students (N = 150) were administered a set of early writing measures and reading measures in January. Sentence Writing Quality and Oral Reading Fluency demonstrated strong classification accuracy when a…

  7. Student Performance on the 2013 Assessment Program in Primary Reading (Kindergarten to Grade 2). Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    This evaluation report provides details for school year 2013 on the percentage of primary students who met or exceeded grade-level reading benchmarks on the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools' (MCPS) Assessment Program in Primary Reading (AP-PR). The percentage remained above 90% for kindergarten students and showed a small decrease for…

  8. The Contribution of Morphological Knowledge to 7th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Neel, Joanna; Matatall, Abbey; Richards, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of morphology, an important yet largely understudied source of difficulty, in reading ability among 7th grade students in one junior high school in the southwestern United States. We sought to find out how much variance in reading ability is accounted for by these students' morphological knowledge, and whether…

  9. Monitoring Early First-Grade Reading Progress: A Comparison of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Nathan H.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Taylor, Aaron B.; Caskie, Grace L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the validity of progress monitoring slope of nonsense word fluency (NWF) and word identification fluency (WIF) with early first-grade readers. Students ("N" = 80) considered to be at risk for reading difficulty were monitored with NWF and WIF on a 1-2 week basis across 11 weeks. Reading skills at the end of first…

  10. Assessing Reading: Multiple Measures for Kindergarten through Twelfth Grade. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Linda, Ed.; Thorsnes, B. J., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book contains a collection of formal and informal reading assessments for use with students in Grades K-12. These assessments assist the teacher in targeting areas of strength and weakness, in monitoring student reading development, and in planning appropriate instruction. Unlike large-scale achievement tests, the majority of these…

  11. English Reading Skills of Kindergarten and Grade One French Immersion Students [and] Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Janet Ross; And Others

    The reading skill development of anglophone kindergarten children in French immersion programs in Canada is the subject of the two papers included in this document. The first paper describes a study that examined the English reading ability of both kindergarten and first grade children in immersion programs and compared the results with those of…

  12. Research in Reading for the Middle Grades: An Annotated Bibliography. Bulletin, 1963, No. 31. OE-30009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutts, Warren G.

    1963-01-01

    This bulletin presents reading research studies in the upper elementary grades during the period from 1955 through 1960. It represents an attempt to bring together the unpublished as well as published studies for that period. This compilation was undertaken by the U.S. Office of Education in response to requests from reading and language arts…

  13. Reading Error Protocol Study: A Data Base. Volume VI. Grades Eight through Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Herbert D.; Chambers, Richard

    This is the last of six volumes providing information drawn from a project designed to compile a substantial data base on reading errors for use by researchers and teachers. This volume contains transcriptions of oral reading error studies conducted with eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The transcriptions are organized according to grade…

  14. The Effects of a Composing Model on Fifth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Doris L.; Terry, C. Ann

    A study was conducted to determine whether students who mapped prior and post knowledge of a basal reading lesson would achieve higher scores on a comprehension test and write better summaries of those stories than would students who received traditional basal reading instruction. Subjects, 30 fifth grade students, participated in either a…

  15. Effect of Formal Study Skills Training on Sixth Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udziela, Theresa

    A study examined whether sixth grade students taught formal study skills would obtain significantly higher reading achievement than those not taught these skills. Study skills can be broken down into ten or more skill areas including: study habits, time management, test taking, lecture notetaking, reading comprehension, vocabulary, test anxiety,…

  16. The Effects of Preschool on the Reading Achievement of Second Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Beverly

    A study examined the reading achievement of students who attended preschool. Subjects for the study were 2 groups of 30 African American students, randomly selected from 120 second-grade students in a Chicago area public school, 48 of whom had attended preschool and 72 who had not. Results from the 1995 Iowa Tests of Basic Skills reading subtest…

  17. Extensive Reading for Second Language Learners of Japanese in Higher Education: Graded Readers and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Teiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of Japanese extensive reading with international students studying at a Japanese university using graded readers (GRs). GRs chosen for the present study were simplified versions of original Japanese literature and were used to support students in acquiring a top-down reading strategy, a wide range of…

  18. Reading Interests and Habits of Connecticut Students in Grades Four through Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Drawing from data obtained from a two-page student questionnaire mailed to a number of Connecticut English and reading teachers in all types of schools, this paper reports on the reading interests and habits of students in grades four through twelve. Usable responses were received from 3,339 students from 51 schools in 37 different towns and…

  19. Understanding the Relations between RAN Letter Subtest Components and Word Reading in First-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Graham F.; Swank, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    First grade students (n=221) were tested on measures of verbal fluency, visual attention, phonological awareness, orthographic recognition, rapid automated naming (RAN) of letters and objects, and reading. Findings indicated that word reading was directly and significantly predicted by RAN letter naming and general RAN cognitive processing time of…

  20. A STUDY OF APPROACHES TO FIRST-GRADE ENGLISH READING INSTRUCTION FOR CHILDREN FROM SPANISH-SPEAKING HOMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCANNE, ROY

    COMPARISONS WERE MADE AMONG THREE APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING ENGLISH ARTS SKILLS, PARTICULARLY IN READING, WITH FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN FROM SPANISH-SPEAKING HOMES. PARTICIPATING CHILDREN WERE RANDOMLY GIVEN ONE OF THREE INSTRUCTIONAL TREATMENTS FOR ENGLISH-READING--(1) BASAL READING, (2) SECOND LANGUAGE READING, AND (3) LANGUAGE-EXPERIENCE READING. IT…

  1. The Prediction of Reading Achievement in Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James B., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to devise a simple instrument that could be helpful in predicting reading success by classroom teachers and school administrators who are not experts in the field of reading. The subjects, 190 randomly selected first graders, were given "Alphabet" and "Numbers" of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests and "Information" and…

  2. Diversity of Authors & Illustrators in First Grade Core Reading Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buescher, Eileen M.; Lightner, Sarah C.; Kelly, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the diversity of the authors and illustrators in core reading series and to evaluate the opportunities and limitations of these texts in relation to the goals of multicultural education. The authors began their research concerned about whose stories are told in core reading series, and who gets to tell…

  3. Reading Comprehension, Learning Styles, and Seventh Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Reading is a basic life skill. Unfortunately, in 2007, only 29% of all eighth graders were able to comprehend at or above a proficient reading comprehension level. Sensory learning styles (kinesthetic, tactile, auditory, and visual) affect the way that students prefer to learn and the areas in which they will have difficulty learning. This study…

  4. Identification of Students in Late Elementary Grades with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Piecewise latent class growth analysis (LCGA) was used to examine growth patterns in reading comprehension and passage reading fluency on easyCBM, a popular formative assessment system. Unlike conventional growth modeling, LCGA takes into account the heterogeneity of growth and may provide reliable predictions for later development. Because…

  5. A READING PROGRAM FOR GIFTED CHILDREN IN THE PRIMARY GRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIGAJ, JAMES J.

    THE UNIQUE NEEDS OF THE GIFTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILD FOR READING INSTRUCTION ARE DESCRIBED. SUGGESTIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF GIFTED PUPILS INCLUDE TEACHER OBSERVATION CRITERIA AND STANDARDIZED TESTS OF INTELLIGENCE, READING READINESS, AND ACHIEVEMENT. IDENTIFICATION SHOULD BE BASED ON A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ALL POSSIBLE DATA. GUIDELINE…

  6. Learning from Picturebooks: Reading and Writing Multimodally in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Prisca; Martens, Ray; Doyle, Michelle Hassay; Loomis, Jenna; Aghalarov, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    This article shares the authors' work with first graders and how, through various reading, writing, and art experiences around picturebooks, the children learned to read and communicate through art along with written language. The work is grounded in multimodality theory and the belief that all modes (particularly art for the purposes of this…

  7. Eighth Grade Assessment of Mathematics and Reading. 1989 Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    In February 1989, statewide assessment tests in reading, mathematics, and writing were given to a sample of eighth graders throughout Oregon. The results and analyses of reading and mathematics assessments are presented. Important trends are described based on the analysis of data from 1985, 1987, and 1989. The 1989 information provides the first…

  8. Predicting Third Grade Reading Success from Kindergarten Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Although phonological awareness (PA) is an essential preliteracy skill with well-established predictive validity for elementary school reading success, previous research indicates that PA intervention does not demonstrate long term effects on reading. The theory of automaticity was the underlying foundation used to understand the importance of…

  9. Double Jeopardy: How Third-Grade Reading Skills and Poverty Influence High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long recognized the importance of mastering reading by the end of third grade. Students who fail to reach this critical milestone often falter in the later grades and drop out before earning a high school diploma. This study relies on a unique national database of 3,975 students born between 1979 and 1989. The…

  10. Comparing Two Approaches for Teaching Rhythm Reading Skills to First-Grade Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Delores; Dunn, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study compared two approaches for teaching rhythm reading skills to first-grade children. Two intact first-grade classes participated in six lessons focusing on simple rhythms (4 beats using eighth and quarter notes). The lessons were based on the same musical materials; only the approach was varied. After random assignment, Class 1…

  11. "Language Enrichment" Teacher Preparation and Practice Predicts Third Grade Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreker, Suzanne H.; Swank, Paul R.; Tillman-Dowdy, Lynn; Neuhaus, Graham F.; Monfils, Mary Jo; Montemayor, Mary Lou; Johnson, Paul

    2005-01-01

    First and second grade public school teachers were trained through interactive video-conferencing to implement "Language Enrichment," an Orton-Gillingham-based literacy instruction. The effectiveness of the linguistically informed training was demonstrated by documenting the longitudinal third grade reading comprehension achievement of their…

  12. Mitigating the Effects of Negative Stereotyping of Aging and the Elderly in Primary Grade Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutknecht, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Discusses depictions of aging and the elderly in primary grade reading instructional materials. Investigates the attitudes of primary grade students toward aging and the elderly. Suggests instructional approaches and materials that can mitigate the effects of negative stereotyping of aging and the elderly. (RS)

  13. High Stakes Testing + Middle School Collaboration = Reading and Writing in 6th Grade Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvis, Vicki Welch

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience in teaching sixth grade Spanish at Autrey Mill Middle School in Alpharetta, Georgia. Through the school's implementation of the middle school teaming concept, the author and her colleague on the sixth grade team have teamed up with other teachers in order to provide reading and writing…

  14. Reading and Study Behaviors of Fourth-Grade Hispanics: Can Teachers Assess Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontera, Lucy S.; Horowitz, Rosalind

    1995-01-01

    In a low-income south Texas school with primarily Mexican American students, teacher assessments of fourth-grade students' content reading ability and work habits predicted student success for that school year, as measured by grades and achievement scores. Teacher input can be critical in the early identification of students at risk of dropping…

  15. Increasing Primary Grade Children's Reading/Language Arts Worktime: Making Changes in Procedures, Organization, and Seatwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yatvin, Joanne

    To confirm or refute impressions that primary grade children do little in the way of actual school work during the day, a principal conducted informal observations in several first and second grade classrooms. Each type of activity the children might perform, such as reading, coloring, or moving about the room, was grouped into three major…

  16. Impact of Leveled Reading Books on the Fluency and Comprehension Levels of First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Melissa Paige

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this nonequivalent, control group, pretest-posttest design study was to evaluate the effectiveness of leveled book programs on first-grade students' oral reading fluency rates and comprehension levels. This study was conducted over a 10-week time span with four first-grade classes. All of the students in each class were given a…

  17. Parental Involvement and Its Influence on the Reading Achievement of 6th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawes, Carmen Ann; Plourde, Lee A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between reading achievement and parental involvement for sixth grade middle school students. The participants were forty-eight sixth grade students who completed parental involvement surveys. The parents of these students also completed a parental involvement survey. The results of the…

  18. AN EVALUATION OF THREE APPROACHES TO TEACHING READING IN FIRST GRADE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BORDEAUX, ELIZABETH A.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE THE FOLLOWING APPROACHES TO TEACHING FIRST GRADE READING (1) A TRADITIONAL BASAL READER, (2) BASAL READER PLUS INTENSIVE PHONICS INSTRUCTION, AND (3) THE LATTER TWO METHODS PLUS SENSORY EXPERIENCES. THESE THREE APPROACHES WERE TRIED FOR 140 SCHOOL DAYS (1 YEAR), USING 28 FIRST-GRADE CLASSES. THEY WERE…

  19. Are Attitudes toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study with Primary Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether attitude toward writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude toward reading for young beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). We individually administered to each child a 24-item attitude measure that contained…

  20. The Relationship between Reading Fluency, Writing Fluency, and Reading Comprehension in Suburban Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Mary Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The topic of reading fluency is of great importance in education today. Research has shown a significant positive relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, little is known about writing fluency and its connection with reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reading…

  1. Reading To Learn: Lessons from Exemplary Fourth-Grade Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Johnston, Peter H.

    Fourth graders around the country face new, high-stakes standardized tests, drawing increased attention to the need for effective literacy instruction in the upper elementary grades. This book goes beyond "political catch phrases" to examine what actually works in the fourth-grade classroom. The book offers a view of the techniques and strategies…

  2. The Structure of an Early Reading Test in Grade 1: In Search of a Relationship with Reading in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Monica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the "Tejas LEE or El Inventario de Lectura en Espanol de Tejas" (Grade 1) to determine if a relationship existed between reading comprehension in Spanish and the tested skills on the diagnostic assessment. This quantitative research design evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Tejas LEE and followed customary…

  3. The Effects of Explicit Reading Strategy Instruction and Cooperative Learning on Reading Comprehension in Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lencioni, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of explicit direct instruction and cooperative learning on reading comprehension in fourth grade students. A quasi-experimental design was used. There were six cognitive and three affective measures used to collect quantitative data. Cognitive measures included California State Test scores,…

  4. "It's a Different Kind of Reading": Two Middle-Grade Teachers' Evolving Perspectives on Reading in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Helen M.; Temple, Codruta

    2016-01-01

    Through a qualitative analysis of data collected over four years of design-based research on the implementation of a reform-oriented mathematics curriculum, this study describes two sixth-grade teachers' changing views of the role and place of reading in mathematics instruction. The findings reveal the evolution of the teachers' perspective on…

  5. Exploring Gains in Reading and Mathematics Achievement among Regular and Exceptional Students Using Growth Curve Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tacksoo; Davison, Mark L.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Chan, Chi-Keung; Heistad, David

    2013-01-01

    Using four-wave longitudinal reading and mathematics data (4th to 7th grades) from a large urban school district, growth curve modeling was used as a tool for examining three research questions: Are achievement gaps closing in reading and mathematics? What are the associations between prior-achievement and growth across the reading and mathematics…

  6. Francais de base. Programme de 9 ans, materiel didactique: 4e, 5e et 6e annees (Core French. Nine-Year Study Program, Instructional Materials: 4th, 5th and 6th Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Bureau of French Education.

    Official instructional materials for the first three years (grades 4-6) of the Manitoba Department of Education's core French language program consist of units in geography, weather and calendars, holidays, and music designed for each of the three instructional levels. The units on geography focus on Manitoba and Canada. Units on the calendar and…

  7. Are Attitudes Toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study With Primary Grade Children.

    PubMed

    Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether or not attitude towards writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude towards reading for young, beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). Each child was individually administered a 24 item attitude measure, which contained 12 items assessing attitude towards writing and 12 parallel items for reading. Students also wrote a narrative about a personal event in their life. A factor analysis of the 24 item attitude measure provided evidence that generally support the contention that writing and reading attitudes are separable constructs for young beginning writers, as it yielded three factors: a writing attitude factor with 9 items, a reading attitude factor with 9 parallel items, and an attitude about literacy interactions with others factor containing 4 items (2 items in writing and 2 parallel items in reading). Further validation that attitude towards writing is a separable construct from attitude towards reading was obtained at the third-grade level, where writing attitude made a unique and significant contribution, beyond the other two attitude measures, to the prediction of three measures of writing: quality, length, and longest correct word sequence. At the first-grade level, none of the 3 attitude measures predicted students' writing performance. Finally, girls had more positive attitudes concerning reading and writing than boys.

  8. The Prediction of Reading Levels between Second and Third Grade Limited English Proficient Students in a Bilingual Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Britani Creel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the third grade English reading TAKS scores while considering the same students' native language, Spanish, reading level as assessed by a state-approved reading assessment, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura (EDL), from the end of the second grade year. In addition, this study was been designed to…

  9. Do Children See the "Danger" in "Dangerous"? Grade 4, 6, and 8 Children's Reading of Morphologically Complex Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Whalen, Rachel; Kirby, John R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether Grade 4, 6, and 8 children access the base form when reading morphologically complex words. We asked children to read words varying systematically in the frequency of the surface and base forms and in the transparency of the base form. At all grade levels, children were faster at reading derived words with high rather than low…

  10. The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6-8 (N =…

  11. A Phenomenological Investigation of Male At-Risk Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade Students' Perceptions toward Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douma, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the perceptions that male at-risk sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' possess toward reading at a small rural public school district in Michigan. Male at-risk students was generally defined as students below grade level in reading based on their STAR reading assessment. Male…

  12. The Effects of a Reader's Theater Instructional Intervention on Second Grade Students' Reading Fluency and Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane D.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 75% of students who are poor readers in third grade continue to be lower achieving readers in ninth grade. The National Reading Panel has identified fluency as a prominent cause of reading comprehension problems which ultimately affect overall reading development. The purpose of this study was to test the theoretical framework of…

  13. The Lived Experiences of Six First-Grade Teachers Using Reading Mastery Plus Curriculum in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Elizabeth I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose and Method of Study. The purpose of this study is to examine the lived experiences of six first-grade teachers using Reading Mastery Plus in schools participating in the Reading First Grant. This study will also describe the teachers' experiences of working in a school participating in the Reading First Grant. First-grade teachers were…

  14. The simple view of second language reading throughout the primary grades.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan

    2012-09-01

    In the Simple View of Reading proposed by Hoover and Gough (1990), reading comprehension is conceived as the product of word decoding and listening comprehension. It is claimed that listening comprehension or the linguistic processes involved in the comprehension of oral language strongly constrain the process of reading comprehension. In several studies, evidence for this theoretical framework has been provided for first language learners. In the present study, an attempt was made to find empirical evidence for the same view underlying second language reading. Therefore, the word decoding and listening comprehension skills of samples of 1,293 first language (L1) learners and 394 second language (L2) learners of Dutch were related to their reading comprehension abilities throughout the primary grades. It was found that the levels of word decoding were more or less equal in the two groups of learners, whereas the L2 learners stayed behind their first L1 peers in both listening, and reading comprehension. The relationships between word decoding, listening comprehension and reading comprehension turned out to be highly comparable. A longitudinal analysis of data showed the Simple View of Reading to be equally valid for L1 and L2 learners. With progression of grade, the impact of word decoding on reading comprehension decreased, whereas the impact of listening comprehension showed an increase to the same extent in the two groups of learners. However, the reciprocity of the relationship between listening comprehension and reading comprehension tended to be less prominent in the group of L2 learners.

  15. Pathways to Third-Grade Calculation versus Word-Reading Competence: Are They More Alike or Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2016-01-01

    Children (n = 747; 6.5 years) were assessed on domain-general processes and mathematics and reading-related competencies (start of first grade), addition retrieval (end of second grade), and calculations and word reading (end of third grade). Attentive behavior, reasoning, visuospatial memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) indirectly…

  16. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Second Grade Reading Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Amanda Jill

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine if low SES students respond differently to Tier I and Tier II interventions than Non-Low SES students. The study also seeks to determine the effect Tier I and Tier II interventions have on a group of second grade students. Forty-four Tier I and Tier II Caucasian second grade students from a rural Ohio…

  17. Elementary School Children Reading Scientific Texts: Effects of Metacognitive Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalsky, Tova; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Haibi, Liora

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated effects of metacognitive instruction at different phases of reading scientific texts on elementary school students' scientific literacy and metacognitive awareness. In all, 108 Israeli 4th-grade students in 4 science classrooms read the same scientific texts and completed the same scientific tasks. From them, 3 treatment…

  18. The Effect of Text Types on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ayfer

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study is to determine the effect of narrative and informative text types on Reading Comprehension levels of Primary Education 4th and 5th grade students. Application was fulfilled in 2011-2012 academic year with 134 students in a primary education school in Province Kirsehir. Reading comprehension tests prepared according to text types…

  19. The Changes in Students' Self-Concepts as Readers and Values Placed on Reading from Sixth Grade to Eleventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Alexis Fitzgerald

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the research of Aiken (2006), which originally examined the reading motivation, attitudes, and habits for a cohort of 6th grade readers from an affluent suburban community. The purpose of this research was to investigate if the students' self-concepts as readers and values of reading have changed from their 6th grade year…

  20. An Experimental Evaluation of Guided Reading and Explicit Interventions for Primary-Grade Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Taylor, W. Pat; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research evidence supports the provision of explicit instruction for students at risk for reading difficulties; however, one of the most widely implemented approaches to early reading instruction is Guided Reading (GR; Fountas & Pinnel, 1996), which deemphasizes explicit instruction and practice of reading skills in favor of extended time reading text. This study evaluated the two approaches in the context of supplemental intervention for at-risk readers at the end of Grade 1. Students (n = 218) were randomly assigned to receive GR intervention, explicit intervention (EX), or typical school instruction (TSI). Both intervention groups performed significantly better than TSI on untimed word identification. Significant effects favored EX over TSI on phonemic decoding and one measure of comprehension. Outcomes for the intervention groups did not differ significantly from each other; however, an analysis of the added value of providing each intervention relative to expected growth with typical instruction indicated that EX is more likely to substantially accelerate student progress in phonemic decoding, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension than GR. Implications for selection of Tier 2 interventions within a response-to-intervention format are discussed. PMID:26779296

  1. Anxiety and Response to Reading Intervention among First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grills, Amie E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon; Barth, Amy; Denton, Carolyn A.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For school-aged children with reading difficulties, an emerging and important area of investigation concerns determining predictors of intervention response. Previous studies have focused exclusively on cognitive and broadly defined behavioral variables. What has been missing, however, are studies examining anxiety, which is among the…

  2. Critically Reading for Propaganda Techniques in Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bonnie

    This study was devised to determine whether teaching a unit on propaganda analysis to sixth graders would improve their ability to detect propaganda devices in literature and the mass media. An experimental group of students participated in a four week unit on propaganda techniques while a control group completed reading comprehension exercises. A…

  3. Validating Craft Knowledge: An Empirical Examination of Elementary-Grade Students' Performance on an Informal Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell; Bloodgood, Janet W.; Perney, Jan; Frye, Elizabeth M.; Kucan, Linda; Trathen, Woodrow; Ward, Devery; Schlagal, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated children's performance on several informal reading and spelling tasks. Students (n = 274) in a rural North Carolina county were assessed across grades 2 to 6 on the following measures: isolated word recognition (timed and untimed), oral reading accuracy, reading comprehension, reading rate, and spelling.…

  4. Building Tier 3 Intervention for Long-Term Slow Growers in Grades 3-4: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Victoria M.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    Tier 3 interventions are necessary for improving the reading performance of students who fail to respond adequately to Tier 1 general education instruction and Tier 2 supplemental reading intervention. In this pilot study, we identified 8 students in 3rd and 4th grade who had demonstrated slow response to Tier 2 reading interventions for three…

  5. Reading, Writing, and Revolution: Facilitating Social Activism in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Janelle M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how teachers can develop a sense of social activism in students through critical multiculturalism. Drawing upon data from a nine-month participant observation study of a first-grade public charter school classroom in central California, this article highlights how teachers can integrate critical multiculturalism within an…

  6. Effects of a Paired Bilingual Reading Program and an English-Only Program on the Reading Performance of English Learners in Grades 1-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Doris Luft; Park, Yonghan; Baker, Scott K.; Basaraba, Deni Lee; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Beck, Carrie Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of a paired bilingual program and an English-only reading program on English reading outcomes for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) in first, second, and third grades. Participants were 214 ELs enrolled in first grade in 12 high-poverty, low-achieving schools at the beginning of the study. Results…

  7. First-grade cognitive abilities as long-term predictors of reading comprehension and disability status.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S; Bryant, V Joan; Hamlett, Carol L; Lambert, Warren

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal reasoning. Throughout first grade, they also modeled the students' reading progress by means of weekly Word Identification Fluency (WIF) tests to derive December and May intercepts. The authors assessed their reading comprehension in the spring of Grades 1-5. With the four cognitive variables and the WIF December intercept as predictors, 50.3% of the variance in fifth-grade reading comprehension was explained: 52.1% of this 50.3% was unique to the cognitive variables, 13.1% to the WIF December intercept, and 34.8% was shared. All five predictors were statistically significant. The same four cognitive variables with the May (rather than December) WIF intercept produced a model that explained 62.1% of the variance. Of this amount, the cognitive variables and May WIF intercept accounted for 34.5% and 27.7%, respectively; they shared 37.8%. All predictors in this model were statistically significant except RAN. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the accuracy with which the cognitive variables predicted end-of-fifth-grade RD status was 73.9%. The May WIF intercept contributed reliably to this prediction; the December WIF intercept did not. Results are discussed in terms of a role for cognitive abilities in identifying, classifying, and instructing students with severe reading problems.

  8. Rapid Automatized Naming, Word-Level Reading, and Oral Reading Fluency in First-Grade Korean Readers at Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongil; Park, Yujeong; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate potential reading differences between low-achieving and typically achieving first-grade Korean-speaking children by (1) comparing their speed of lexical access on alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric tests of rapid automatized naming and (2) comparing relationships between the two groups' performance on…

  9. The Structure of Oral Language and Reading and Their Relation to Comprehension in Kindergarten through Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Herrera, Sarah; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the structure of oral language and reading and their relation to comprehension from a latent variable modeling perspective in Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Participants were students in Kindergarten (n = 218), Grade 1 (n = 372), and Grade 2 (n = 273), attending Title 1 schools. Students were administered phonological…

  10. Teacher-Parent Communication and Parents' Ability to Select Reading Material: A Study of a Baggy Book Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Kelley M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a home-reading program on parent-teacher communication and on the ability of parents to select reading material for their children. In this qualitative case study, parents of 4th grade students participated in a reading homework program with their children. Using constructivist theories, the study's…

  11. 166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    166. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 4TH AVENUE. VIEW NORTHEAST DOWN 4TH AVE. FROM BUILDING 44 SHOWING, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 46, 48, 55, AND 50 (PART OF ENLISTED BARRACKS COMPLEX), AND BUILDINGS 17, 16, 484, 483, 374, AND 375 (IN THE WAREHOUSE COMPLEX). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  12. Inter-reader variability in follicular lymphoma grading: Conventional and digital reading

    PubMed Central

    Lozanski, Gerard; Pennell, Michael; Shana’ah, Arwa; Zhao, Weiqiang; Gewirtz, Amy; Racke, Frederick; Hsi, Eric; Simpson, Sabrina; Mosse, Claudio; Alam, Shadia; Swierczynski, Sharon; Hasserjian, Robert P.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Pathologists grade follicular lymphoma (FL) cases by selecting 10, random high power fields (HPFs), counting the number of centroblasts (CBs) in these HPFs under the microscope and then calculating the average CB count for the whole slide. Previous studies have demonstrated that there is high inter-reader variability among pathologists using this methodology in grading. Aims: The objective of this study was to explore if newly available digital reading technologies can reduce inter-reader variability. Settings and Design: In this study, we considered three different reading conditions (RCs) in grading FL: (1) Conventional (glass-slide based) to establish the baseline, (2) digital whole slide viewing, (3) digital whole slide viewing with selected HPFs. Six board-certified pathologists from five different institutions read 17 FL slides in these three different RCs. Results: Although there was relative poor consensus in conventional reading, with lack of consensus in 41.2% of cases, which was similar to previously reported studies; we found that digital reading with pre-selected fields improved the inter-reader agreement, with only 5.9% lacking consensus among pathologists. Conclusions: Digital whole slide RC resulted in the worst concordance among pathologists while digital whole slide reading selected HPFs improved the concordance. Further studies are underway to determine if this performance can be sustained with a larger dataset and our automated HPF and CB detection algorithms can be employed to further improve the concordance. PMID:24392244

  13. Behaviour assessment and reading ability in second grade greek school children.

    PubMed

    Lazaratou, H; Vlassopoulos, M; Zelios, G; Kalogerakis, Z; Ploumbidis, D; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Dellatolas, G

    2010-01-01

    Studies on ADHD show high comorbidity with behavioural and learning disorders. However, the specific association of behavioural and attention factors with learning disorders is not clear. The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between hyperactivity, inattentionand reading ability in a non-referred sample in Greece. Data were collected from 201 pupils attending second grade in public school in an Athens district. The CBCL was administrated to parents in order to evaluate behavioural disorders, inattention and hyperactivity. Teachers completedthe CBCL and the Conner's scale. Reading ability was assessed by a reading test appropriate for second grade. Attention difficulties reported by the teacher were associated with lower readingskills, but hyperactivity and behaviour disorders were not. Correlations of reading skills with CBCL scores were very low, especially through parental ratings. Girls showed better reading skills and less"hyperactivity" than boys. There was consistency in teachers' ratings between the Conner's and the CBCL. Teacher-parent concordance on CBCL was very low or absent. Report of hyperactivity without report of attention problems was not associated with reading difficulties in a non-referred Greek sample of second grade schoolchildren. This observation must be considered when therapeutic and/or educational planning is undertaken. PMID:21914613

  14. A Comparison of Two Reading Programs on Third Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Tawana D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The No Child Left Behind Act legislation requires both higher standards and higher success rates at the same time. Failure of students to learn to read adequately as shown by national and state test results and the need for continued school success had prompted education officials to implement two reading programs--Voyager Universal…

  15. Accuracy of the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency Measure for Predicting Third Grade Reading Comprehension Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Alysia D.; Petscher, Yaacov; Nettles, Stephen M.; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Torgesen, Joseph K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the validity of DIBELS ("Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills") ORF ("Oral Reading Fluency") for predicting performance on the "Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test" (FCAT-SSS) and "Stanford Achievement Test" (SAT-10) reading comprehension measures. The usefulness of previously established ORF risk-level cutoffs [Good,…

  16. The Longitudinal Relationship between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension Skills in Second-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Stephanie A.; George Benjamin, Rebekah; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kuhn, Melanie R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluent readers can read connected text with accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. Without practice, automaticity cannot develop in reading, and readers must focus their attention on decoding, limiting their ability to simultaneously comprehend. Researchers have traditionally assumed that fluency and comprehension have a unidirectional relationship…

  17. An Informal Reading Readiness Inventory: A Diagnostic Method of Predicting First Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn C.; Koenke, Karl

    A study was undertaken to create and validate a diagnostic, task-based Informal Reading Readiness Inventory (IRRI). IRRI subtests were created to reflect four areas found to be important in reading readiness: awareness of self and media, language experience, reasoning, and phonics. Prereading curriculum components formed the basis for test item…

  18. Text (Oral) Reading Fluency as a Construct in Reading Development: An Investigation of Its Mediating Role for Children from Grades 1 to 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated a developmentally changing role of text reading fluency in mediating the relations of word reading fluency and listening comprehension to reading comprehension. We addressed this question by using longitudinal data from Grades 1 to 4 and employing structural equation models. Results showed that the role of text…

  19. Effectiveness of McGraw Hill's "Jamestown Reading Navigator" in Grades 9-10: A Study of Intensive Reading Classes in Miami-Dade High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarev, Valeriy; Atienza, Sara; Lai, Garrett; Ma, Boya; Sterling, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study designed to provide evidence of the effectiveness of the "Jamestown Reading Navigator" ("JRN") program for students in grades 9-10 was conducted in the Miami Dade Public School District (MDCSD). "Jamestown Reading Navigator" is a reading intervention program developed by McGraw-Hill Education to raise reading…

  20. The Reading Performance of English Learners in Grades 1-3: The Role of Initial Status and Growth on Reading Fluency in Spanish and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Doris Luft; Park, Yonghan; Baker, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the developmental patterns in pseudoword reading and oral reading fluency in Spanish and English for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) in grades 1-3, and (b) investigate whether initial status and growth rates in reading fluency in Spanish and English, significantly predicted reading…

  1. The Effects of a Computer Assisted Reading Program on the Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension of At-Risk, Urban First Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The current investigation studied the effects of a computer software program of the oral reading fluency and comprehension of eight, first grade students. These students were identified as being either "at-risk" or "some-risk" for reading failure on the DIBELS oral reading fluency winter benchmark assessment. A multiple probe…

  2. Longitudinal Prediction of 1st and 2nd Grade English Oral Reading Fluency in English Language Learners: Which Early Reading and Language Skills Are Better Predictors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solari, Emily J.; Aceves, Terese C.; Higareda, Ignacio; Richards-Tutor, Cara; Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between Spanish and English early literacy skills in kindergarten and first grade, and English oral reading fluency at the end of first and second grade in a sample of 150 Spanish-speaking English language learners. Students were assessed in kindergarten, first, and second grades on a broad bilingual academic…

  3. The Structure of Oral Language and Reading and Their Relation to Comprehension in Kindergarten through Grade 2

    PubMed Central

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Herrera, Sarah; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the structure of oral language and reading and their relation to comprehension from a latent variable modeling perspective in Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Participants were students in Kindergarten (n = 218), Grade 1 (n = 372), and Grade 2 (n = 273), attending Title 1 schools. Students were administered phonological awareness, syntax, vocabulary, listening comprehension, and decoding fluency measures in mid-year. Outcome measures included a listening comprehension measure in Kindergarten and a reading comprehension test in Grades1 and 2. In Kindergarten, oral language (consisting of listening comprehension, syntax, and vocabulary) shared variance with phonological awareness in predicting a listening comprehension outcome. However, in Grades 1 and 2, phonological awareness was no longer predictive of reading comprehension when decoding fluency and oral language were included in the model. In Grades 1 and 2, oral language and decoding fluency were significant predictors of reading comprehension.

  4. The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jennifer Dawn

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students. Models were developed and tested using multiple linear regression (MLR) to determine whether vocabulary knowledge is a statistically significant predictor of reading and science. A model was tested for reading achievement, and a model was tested for science achievement. Other independent variables in the models included socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, status as an English-language learner, status as a special education student, classification as gifted/talented, history of retention, and migrant status. Archival data from fifth-grade students in a large, urban public school district were used in the analyses. Both models were found to be statistically significant (p < .001). Findings indicated that reading vocabulary was a statistically significant predictor for both reading achievement (B = .571, p < .001) and science achievement (B = .241, p < .001). The significance of vocabulary to reading achievement confirmed past research. The role of reading vocabulary in science achievement revealed a significant, if modest, relationship. In addition, findings pointed out the significance of variables such as history of retention, gender, and status as an English-language learner. Conclusions from the study, pedagogical implications, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  5. Using Reading Grade Level to Assess Readability of Selected Plant and Soil Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graveel, John G.; Fribourg, Henry A.

    1987-01-01

    Reported is a study designed to determine whether reading grade level (RGL) assessment techniques used for elementary and secondary education textbooks would discriminate among plant and soil science textbooks. The study was to select the RGL indices suited to quantify the readability of these sources, and to identify the factors affecting…

  6. Effects of a Tier 2 Supplemental Reading Intervention for At-Risk Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Montanaro, Elizabeth A.; Speece, Deborah L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a Tier 2 intervention in the context of a response-to-intervention (RTI) model for 123 fourth-grade students identified as having a high probability of reading failure. A randomized control trial was used to evaluate the effects of a 24-session multicomponent supplemental intervention targeting fluency and expository…

  7. Investigating Vocabulary and Reading Strategies with Middle Grades English Language Learners: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisco, Brooke Kandel; Padron, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Recent data indicate that many adolescent English language learners (ELLs) comprehend English texts at only a limited literal level. The purpose of this research synthesis was to systematically identify and describe the research related to the English reading comprehension of middle grades ELLs while also making practical connections to…

  8. Differentiated Reading Instruction in Grades 4 and 5: Strategies and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, Sharon; McKenna, Michael C.; Philippakos, Zoi A.

    2011-01-01

    With a unique focus on grades 4 and 5, this book explains how to design and implement a research-based reading program that helps all students build major literacy skills (word recognition, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). The expert authors present ready-to-use activities, strategies, and lesson plans, along with detailed guidance for…

  9. Using Word Identification Fluency to Monitor First-Grade Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of sampling breadth on technical features of word identification fluency (WIF), a tool for screening and monitoring the reading development of first graders. From a potential pool of 704 first-grade students, the authors measured both a representative sample (n = 284) and 2 other subgroups: those with low reading…

  10. "Making the Difficult Choice": Understanding Georgia's Test-Based Grade Retention Policy in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The author uses Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital, and habitus to analyze how students, parents, teachers, and administrators are responding to Georgia's test-based grade retention policy in reading at one Georgia elementary school. In this multiple case study, the author interviewed, observed, and collected documents regarding ten fifth…

  11. Modeling Oral Reading Fluency Development in Latino Students: A Longitudinal Study across Second and Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov; Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Williams, Rihana S.; Dyrlund, Allison K.; Connor, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study examines growth in oral reading fluency across 2nd and 3rd grade for Latino students grouped in 3 English proficiency levels: students receiving English as a second language (ESL) services (n = 2,182), students exited from ESL services (n = 965), and students never designated as needing services (n = 1,857). An important focus was to…

  12. The Effect of Teachers' Cultural Proficiency Training on Sixth Grade Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells-Rivers, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the overall reading achievement of African American (n = 42) and White (n = 21) sixth grade students in an urban Midwestern school, after their teachers' engaged in culturally proficiency training provided by The Minnesota Humanities Center. Data for students in the study was collected for comprehension levels or acuity…

  13. Effect of Sentence Combining on Fifth Grade Reading and Writing Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Deurelle

    A study investigated the effects of sentence combining instruction on the reading comprehension and writing maturity of fifth grade children. The sample consisted of an experimental and a control group with 25 children in each group. For 6 weeks the experimental group received instruction in sentence combining, defined for purposes of the study as…

  14. Relationship between Metacognitive Strategy Instruction and Reading Comprehension in At-Risk Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diebold, Tamara W.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of efforts to achieve the reading proficiency requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, students' inability to comprehend text and meet grade level standards on state and national assessments continues to be problematic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of explicit direct instruction of…

  15. Failing to Succeed the First School: Exploring Phonological Factors and Letter Reading Ability in Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Remia, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    The context of this paper is studies worldwide on influence of phonological factors in language development of children. Such studies reveal the significance of Phonological Awareness in development language skills: including, predictive value of phonological short-term memory for reading skills in Grade 1. This paper throws light on factors in…

  16. Effect of Technology-Based Programs on First- and Second-Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda

    2008-01-01

    Data gathered from 25 rural public school districts in Texas during 2002-2003 were used to assess the impact of educator professional development and technology-intensive classroom learning activities on first- and second-grade students' reading achievement. Students from 18 school districts received the treatment while students from 7 randomly…

  17. Examining Reliability of Reading Comprehension Ratings of Fifth Grade Students' Oral Retellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernfeld, L. Elizabeth Shirley; Morrison, Timothy G.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Wilcox, Brad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to rate oral retellings of fifth graders to determine how passages, raters, and rating occasions affect those ratings, and to identify what combination of those elements produce reliable retelling ratings. A group of 36 fifth grade students read and orally retold three contemporary realistic fiction passages. Two…

  18. Teacher Sense of Efficacy for Literacy Instruction and Student Reading Achievement in Grades Three through Eight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of teacher sense of efficacy for literacy instruction on reading achievement in grades three through eight. In previous studies, a teacher's sense of efficacy was shown to be correlated to student achievement (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Moore & Esselman, 1992). However, research attempting to uncover the…

  19. Roar into Reading: A Guide for First Grade Teachers from "Between the Lions[TM]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is an award-winning PBS television series based on a comprehensive literacy curriculum that combines phonics and whole language. This guide has been created to help first grade teachers use "Between the Lions" in their classrooms to enhance their reading lessons. The guide is filled with engaging activities, classroom literacy…

  20. A Synthesis of Morphology Interventions and Effects on Reading Outcomes for Students in Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2008-01-01

    This article synthesized the morphology intervention studies conducted in English with students in kindergarten through 12th grade between 1986 and 2006. Seven studies were identified as focusing primarily on morphology instruction, including roots and affixes, and measuring one or more reading-related outcomes (e.g., word identification,…

  1. Grammatical Awareness, Field Independence, and Reading Ability in Second Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, Susan

    Forty-four second grade students participated in a study examining the relationships between field dependence/independence (FDI), grammatical awareness, reading ability, and training in grammatical awareness. After the children were pretested for their levels of cognitive development, degree of field independence, grammatical awareness, and…

  2. Good Readers Get Smart: Reading Orientations in a Second-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to better understand my students' reading orientations--what they believe it means to be a successful reader. I also seek to identify the relationship between those beliefs and my teaching. The data come primarily from six focal students in my second-grade classroom in an urban public charter elementary school…

  3. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  4. A B+ Average in Engineering with a Second Grade Reading Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, C.; Steg, D. R.

    Three evaluations were conducted to try to pinpoint the cause of the difficulties of a 23-year-old black male, who was highly gifted in mathematics but hampered by a second grade reading level, displayed difficulty in focusing his eyes together, spoke as if trying to avoid stuttering, and did not maintain eye contact. A neurological evaluation…

  5. Influence of Property School Wealth on Fifth Grade Student Achievement in Reading and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Jesus R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether, or to what extent, property wealth of the upper and lower 5% districts, per pupil expenditure, limited English proficient students, economically disadvantaged students, membership, and teacher experience contribute to student achievement in 5th grade reading and mathematics. To do this, the…

  6. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 2. Technical Report #1201

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  7. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6. Technical Report #1205

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  8. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 7. Technical Report #1206

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  9. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 4. Technical Report #1203

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  10. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 5. Technical Report #1204

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  11. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 3. Technical Report #1202

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  12. Semantic Categorization and Reading Skill across Dutch Primary Grades: Development Yes, Relationship No

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Ormel, Ellen A.; Hermans, Daan; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the development of semantic categorization and its relationship with reading was investigated across Dutch primary grade students. Three Exemplar-level tasks (Experiment 1) and two Superordinate-level tasks (Experiment 2) with different types of distracters (phonological, semantic and perceptual) were administered to assess…

  13. The Effects of Within Class Reading Grouping on the Self-Concept of Third Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonsiewicz, Ann Elizabeth

    The relationship between within-class reading grouping and self-concept was investigated in a sample of 257 third-grade children in 12 classes that employed within-class grouping. Pupils were tested at the beginning and end of the school year, using the Piers-Harris Test, a semantic differential, and an inventory containing four items about…

  14. Examining Differences in Mathematics and Reading Achievement among Grade 5 Pupils in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungi, Njora

    2008-01-01

    This study employed a multilevel technique to examine pupil-, school- and province-level factors that influence achievement in mathematics and reading of Grade 5 primary school pupils in Vietnam. The data for this study were collected as part of a major survey that sought to examine the quality of education offered in Vietnam primary schools.…

  15. An Evidence-Based Model for Early-Grade Reading Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John P.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a model for design of early-grade reading programmes that is based on research and the implementation of research findings. The model has three components: (1) schools should provide instruction in a language their students speak and understand; (2) teachers should employ instruction that is consistent with the current…

  16. APPROACHES TO FIRST GRADE ENGLISH READING INSTRUCTION FOR CHILDREN FROM SPANISH-SPEAKING HOMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCANNE, ROY

    TWENTY-NINE OUTSTANDING, EXPERIENCED TEACHERS WERE SELECTED TO CONDUCT A STUDY TO DETERMINE A SEQUENCE OF SKILLS APPROPRIATE FOR FIRST GRADE CHILDREN FROM SPANISH-SPEAKING HOMES WHO WERE LEARNING TO READ IN ENGLISH. THREE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TEACHING METHODS WERE USED--(1) A BASAL READER APPROACH, (2) A LANGUAGE-EXPERIENCE APPROACH, AND (3) THE USE…

  17. A Century of Progress: Reading Interventions for Students in Grades 4-12, 1914-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scammacca, Nancy K.; Roberts, Garrett J.; Cho, Eunsoo; Williams, Kelly J.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon R.; Carroll, Megan

    2016-01-01

    The history of research on interventions for struggling readers in Grades 4 through 12 dates back to 19th-century case studies of seemingly intelligent children who were unable to learn to read. Physicians, psychologists, educators, and others were determined to help them. In the process, they launched a century of research on a wide variety of…

  18. Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction for English Language Learners, Grades K-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    At last, a truly helpful, practical guide for K-4 teachers who want to ensure that their approach to teaching young English language learners is based on research and grounded in proven classroom practices. The authors of ASCD's best-selling book "Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Grades K-3" explain how you can help the English…

  19. Reading Attitudes and Interests of Gifted and Talented Children in the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Barbara R.

    The study investigated reading attitudes and interests of 30 fourth through ninth grade gifted and talented students. The data were gathered through the use of a questionnaire, which included statements with Likert type scale responses, multiple-choice, and short answers. Methods used to analyze the data were individual item analysis, analysis of…

  20. Minimum Performance Test: Reading Grade 3, Item Specifications. Blue Prints for Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Developed as part of the Arkansas Minimum Performance Testing Program (MPT), these item specifications relate to the third grade reading minimum performance test. There is one item specification for each instructional objective included in the MPT. Item specifications are intended to provide an overview of the general content and format of test…

  1. The Influence of Cultural Capital Transmission on Reading Achievement in African American Fifth Grade Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Toni Stepter; Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K) were used to examine the relationship between cultural capital transmission and reading achievement within a nationally representative sample of 5th grade African American males. Logistic regression techniques were used to examine several differences between high- and…

  2. Understanding Reading through the Eyes of Third-Grade Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggs, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Within the vast research base on struggling readers, very few studies address the nature of struggling readers from their own perspectives; that is, how struggling readers experience reading instruction. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to gain a deeper understanding of how three third-grade struggling readers viewed…

  3. Developing Self-Acceptance and Reading Achievement Among Second Grade Chicano Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Betty Joan

    This study was designed to ascertain whether the self-acceptance of second grade Chicano children could be improved by incorporating into the curriculum selected activities which reflected characteristics of each child to himself and by adding a supplementary language experience approach to reading. Subjects included 91 children from two…

  4. Construction and Evaluation of a Critical Reading and Thinking Measure for Grades Two and Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Ruth Marie

    This experiment included the construction and evaluation of a test of critical reading and thinking capable of identifying critical and noncritical readers among second and third grade children. Fact, fancy and opinion, assumption, relevancy, inference, and generalization were selected as subskill foci, based upon a survey of professional…

  5. The Effects of Differentiated Instruction Support Inclusion Services on Fifth Grade Reading/Language Arts Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Using a causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction Support Inclusion Services on fifth grade regular education and gifted students' Reading/Language Arts achievement. The study analyzed and compared the achievement of the regular education students who received no inclusion…

  6. Rhythm reproduction in kindergarten, reading performance at second grade, and developmental dyslexia theories.

    PubMed

    Dellatolas, Georges; Watier, Laurence; Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Lubart, Todd; Chevrie-Muller, Claude

    2009-09-01

    Temporal processing deficit could be associated with a specific difficulty in learning to read. In 1951, Stambak provided preliminary evidence that children with dyslexia performed less well than good readers in reproduction of 21 rhythmic patterns. Stambak's task was administered to 1,028 French children aged 5-6 years. The score distribution (from 0 to 21) was quasi-normal, with some children failing completely and other performing perfectly. In second grade, reading was assessed in 695 of these children. Kindergarten variables explained 26% of the variance of the reading score at second grade. The Stambak score was strongly and linearly related to reading performance in second grade, after partialling out performance on other tasks (oral repetition, attention, and visuo-spatial tasks) and socio-cultural level. Findings are discussed in relation to perceptual, cerebellar, intermodal, and attention-related theories of developmental dyslexia. It is concluded that simple rhythm reproduction tasks in kindergarten are predictive of later reading performance. PMID:19628461

  7. Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade. Educator's Practice Guide. NCEE 2016-4008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara; Beyler, Nicholas; Borradaile, Kelley; Coyne, Michael; Denton, Carolyn A.; Dimino, Joseph; Furgeson, Joshua; Hayes, Lynda; Henke, Juliette; Justice, Laura; Keating, Betsy; Lewis, Warnick; Sattar, Samina; Streke, Andrei; Wagner, Richard; Wissel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific, evidence-based recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. This guide is a companion to the existing practice guide, "Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade", and as a set, these guides…

  8. Building BRIDGES: A Design Experiment to Improve Reading and United States History Knowledge of Poor Readers in Eighth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.; Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria M.; Bocian, Kathleen M.; Flynn, Lindsay J.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the effects of teaching reading skills through U.S. history content for 38 eighth-grade poor readers whose reading ability ranged from second-to fourth-grade levels. Half of the students received special education services, and half of the students were English language learners. Students were taught to decode multisyllabic words, learn…

  9. Early Response-to-Intervention Measures and Criteria as Predictors of Reading Disability in the Beginning of Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Kristen D.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    We explored the usefulness of first and second grade reading measures and responsiveness criteria collected within a response-to-intervention (RtI) framework for predicting reading disability (RD) in third grade. We used existing data from 387 linguistically diverse students who had participated in a longitudinal RtI study. Model-based predictors…

  10. Using In-Depth Science Instruction to Accelerate Student Achievement in Science and Reading Comprehension in Grades 1-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitale, Michael R.; Romance, Nancy R.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on accelerating development of science knowledge and understanding at the primary level (grades 1-2) as a means for enhancing reading comprehension (i.e. early literacy). An adaptation of a grade 3-5 cognitive-science-based, instructional model ("Science IDEAS") that integrated science with reading and writing, this year-long…

  11. Effect on Reading Fluency of Struggling Third Grade Students: Computer-Assisted Intervention versus Teacher-Guided Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Corey; Elfreth, Jaime; Feng, Jay

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined two intervention programs, Read Naturally (computer-assisted) and The Six-Minute Solution (teacher-guided), for the purpose of finding their effects on reading fluency with 3rd grade students at an elementary school. The participants were from two separate third grade classrooms, randomly assigned to one of the two…

  12. Full-Day, Half-Day, and No Preschool: Effects on Urban Children's First-Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, Joy E.; Tracey, Diane H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between students' attendance at full-day, half-day, or no preschool and first grade reading achievement. 214 urban, low SES public first grade students of mixed ethnicities were studied. Using the students' Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2) scores (Beaver, 2006), results indicated that by the middle of…

  13. Reading Different Orthographic Structures in the Shallow-Pointed Hebrew Script: A Cross-Grade Study in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shany, Michal; Bar-On, Amalia; Katzir, Tami

    2012-01-01

    Hebrew-speaking children learn to read using a transparent, pointed writing system, but by grade three, they gradually begin using the non-pointed version of Hebrew script. The current study examined the development of reading, in the pointed script, of a nationally representative sample of children in grades two, four, and six. Rate and accuracy…

  14. A Study of the Effects of the Accelerated Reader Program on Fifth Grade Students' Reading Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Cindy M.; Smothers, Bobbie C.; Anderson, Eugene; Fulton, Ray; Replogle, William H.; Thomas, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reading achievement growth of fifth grade students following a year of participation in the Accelerated Reader program with the reading achievement growth of fifth grade students who did not participate in the Accelerated Reader program. The Terra Nova standardized achievement test was used as the…

  15. Effectiveness of McGraw-Hill's "Treasures" Reading Program in Grades 3-5: A Study in Osceola Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empirical Education Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Treasures, a basal reading program for students in grades K-6, was developed to address reading comprehension among students in the middle elementary grades. "Treasures" is based on extensive research in vocabulary, comprehension, fluency, and phonics and combines "explicit instruction and ample practice to ensure students' growth in reading…

  16. Educators' Perceptions of Reading First and Success for All for Mobile and Nonmobile First through Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ketchia

    2013-01-01

    Many mobile 1st through 3rd grade students are not reading on grade level in a southern urban school. The purpose of this study was to assess how teachers perceive the effectiveness of the "Success for All and Reading First" programs for their mobile and nonmobile students in order to create a new theory to improve instruction for the…

  17. Improving Oral Fluency, Written Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in the 3rd Grade Using Visual Art Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Brian K.

    Students in the targeted school exhibited a decline in reading scores between second and fourth grade. Due to poor reading levels for 2 consecutive years the state put the school on a probationary list with in its district. Evidence for the existence of the problem included documented low reading test scores, below proficiency assessment records,…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Reading Comprehension Achievement from Grades 3 to 10: Investigating Models of Stability, Cumulative Growth, and Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiatkowska-White, Bozena; Kirby, John R.; Lee, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 78 Canadian English-speaking students examined the applicability of the stability, cumulative, and compensatory models in reading comprehension development. Archival government-mandated assessments of reading comprehension at Grades 3, 6, and 10, and the Canadian Test of Basic Skills measure of reading comprehension…

  19. An Investigation of the Effects of Pre-Reading Guides on the Comprehension of Short Stories by Ninth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Charles David

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of pre-reading guides would effect better comprehension in the reading of short stories by ninth grade public school students. Four pre-reading guide sheets were prepared and validated for use in this study for each of the following stories: "The Interlopers" by Saki, "The Necklace" by…

  20. Kentucky's Teacher Quality Measures and Fourth-Grade Reading Achievement: A Secondary Analysis of 2002-2009 NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klecker, Beverly M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the increase from 2007-2009 in Kentucky's fourth- grade National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scores. This increase was notable because it came after a fifteen-year period of no change. This analysis of change included composite and sub-scale--"Reading Literary Experience" and "Reading to Gain…

  1. Effects of a Fluency-Building Program on the Reading Performance of Low-Achieving Second and Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Brian K.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Begeny, John C.; Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Montarello, Staci A.; Arbolino, Lauren A.; Reed, Derek D.; Fiese, Barbara H.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a fluency-based reading program with 15 second and third grade students and 15 matched controls. Gains in oral reading fluency on untrained CBM probes were evaluated using a matched-pairs group-comparison design, whereas immediate and two-day retention gains in oral reading fluency on trained passages were…

  2. The Effect of Release and Free Time as Reinforcement on Reading Achievement in Fourth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David Marshall

    Three groups of twenty-five children in fourth-grade reading classes were selected for this study. The subjects in class one received plastic tokens for desirable reading responses. The tokens were exchanged for release time from the classroom while reading instruction was in progress. The subjects in class two also received tokens for desirable…

  3. Do Reading Practices Make a Difference? Evidence from PIRLS Data for Hong Kong and Taiwan Primary School Grade 4 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Shek-Kam; Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ko, Hwa-Wei; Lam, Joseph Wai-Ip; Hui, Sau-Yan; Ng, Hung-Wai

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of classroom pedagogic reading practices and out-of-school practices in explaining why the reading attainment of Hong Kong Grade 4 students was superior to that of their counterparts in Taiwan in the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study. Analyses of scores from 9,301 students (4,712 from Hong Kong…

  4. COURSE OF STUDY OF SECONDARY READING. A SUPPLEMENT TO THE COURSE OF STUDY IN ENGLISH, GRADES 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALSTON, JUANITA S.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENTAL READING IN GRADES 7 THROUGH 12 WAS PRESENTED, GIVING PROCEDURE AND TECHNIQUES, READING MATERIALS, BASIC SKILLS, ENRICHMENT, LESSON PLANS, AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECOMMENDED READING. BASIC SKILLS CITED WERE--PHONETIC AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, COMPREHENSION, LOCATION, SKILLS, VOCABULARY, AND ENRICHMENT. EVALUATION, ORGANIZING, AND…

  5. The Effects of Using Reading Racetracks for Teaching of Sight Words to Three Third-Grade Students with Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Gregory L.; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark; Bucknell, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reading racetracks with three 8-year-old students with learning disabilities. All three children were performing well below grade level in reading. A single subject reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of employing reading racetracks. Corrects responses and errors were…

  6. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Predict Eighth-Grade Student Performance on a Statewide Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoux, Mindy J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between oral reading fluency (ORF) and Maze, two common Curriculum-Based Measures (CBMs), and the statewide large-scale assessment of reading in Oregon, the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills- Reading (OAKS-R). A sample of three cohorts of eighth-grade students in an Oregon school…

  7. Effects of a paired bilingual reading program and an English-only program on the reading performance of English learners in Grades 1-3.

    PubMed

    Baker, Doris Luft; Park, Yonghan; Baker, Scott K; Basaraba, Deni Lee; Kame'enui, Edward J; Beck, Carrie Thomas

    2012-12-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of a paired bilingual program and an English-only reading program on English reading outcomes for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) in first, second, and third grades. Participants were 214 ELs enrolled in first grade in 12 high-poverty, low-achieving schools at the beginning of the study. Results of piecewise growth modeling analysis indicated that ELs in the paired bilingual group made more growth on oral reading fluency in English than ELs in the English-only group across all grades. Conversely, regression analysis revealed that the difference in reading comprehension outcomes between these two groups was not statistically significant in first and third grades, independent of risk category, whereas in second-grade, at-risk ELs in the paired bilingual group had statistically significant higher scores in reading comprehension than ELs in the English-only group (d = +0.51). In general, ELs at risk for reading difficulties appeared to benefit more from the paired bilingual program than ELs with moderate or low-risk for reading difficulties. Implications of findings to advance theory and practice on the most effective program to teach reading to ELs are discussed. PMID:23245498

  8. Teachers' Perceptions of Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Teaching Reading and Writing for First Grade Students in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dhafir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the Kuwaiti first grade teachers' perceptions of developmentally appropriate practices in teaching reading and writing. To achieve the research purpose, a questionnaire was developed and administrated to 167 first grade teachers. Results revealed that first grade teachers hold moderate agreement towards…

  9. Read It Again! A Guide for Teaching Reading through Literature. Grades K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothlein, Liz; Christman, Terri

    This guide provides activities for use with 15 popular children's books. Basic information is provided for each book--author, illustrator, publisher, publication date, grade level, and a list of other works by the same author. Each section includes a summary of the book, an introduction to use when presenting the book to children, key vocabulary…

  10. Examining the Effect of Computer-Based Passage Presentation on Reading Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Jennifer; Russell, Michael; Hoffmann, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    To examine the impact of transitioning 4th grade reading comprehension assessments to the computer, 219 fourth graders were randomly assigned to take a one-hour reading comprehension assessment on paper, on a computer using scrolling text to navigate through passages, or on a computer using paging text to navigate through passages. This study…

  11. Modeling Oral Reading Fluency Development in Latino Students: A Longitudinal Study Across Second and Third Grade

    PubMed Central

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov; Williams, Rihana S.; Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Dyrlund, Allison K.; Connor, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study examines growth in oral reading fluency across 2nd and 3rd grade for Latino students grouped in 3 English proficiency levels: students receiving English as a second language (ESL) services (n = 2,182), students exited from ESL services (n = 965), and students never designated as needing services (n = 1,857). An important focus was to learn whether, within these 3 groups, proficiency levels and growth were reliably related to special education status. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors compared proficiency levels and growth in oral reading fluency in English between and within groups and then to state reading benchmarks. Findings indicate that oral reading fluency scores reliably distinguished between students with learning disabilities and typically developing students within each group (effect sizes ranging from 0.96 to 1.51). The growth trajectory included a significant quadratic trend (generally slowing over time). These findings support the effectiveness of using oral reading fluency in English to screen and monitor reading progress under Response to Intervention models, but also suggest caution in interpreting oral reading fluency data as part of the process in identifying students with learning disabilities. PMID:25132688

  12. Cognitive Predictors of Word and Pseudoword Reading in Spanish First-Grade Children.

    PubMed

    González-Valenzuela, María J; Díaz-Giráldez, Félix; López-Montiel, María D

    2016-01-01

    The study examines the individual and combined contribution of several cognitive variables (phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric rapid naming) to word and pseudoword reading ability among first-grade Spanish children. Participants were 116 Spanish-speaking children aged 6 years and without special educational needs, all of whom were attending schools in a medium socioeconomic area. Descriptive/exploratory and bivariate analyses were performed with the data derived from three measures of reading ability (accuracy, speed, and efficiency), and hierarchical multivariate regression models were constructed. In general, the results confirm that, with the exception of non-alphanumeric rapid naming, the cognitive variables studied are predictors of reading performance for words and pseudowords, although their influence differs depending on the reading measures and type of linguistic unit considered. Phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric rapid naming were the best predictors of reading accuracy for words and pseudowords. Variability in the other two measures of reading ability (speed and efficiency) was best explained by alphanumeric rapid naming. These results suggest that reading is a complex skill that depends on different types of cognitive variables according to the age and/or level of the reader, the type of orthography and the type of measure used. Furthermore, they highlight the need to provide instruction in these processes from an early age so as to address or prevent the problems that children may present.

  13. Cognitive Predictors of Word and Pseudoword Reading in Spanish First-Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    González-Valenzuela, María J.; Díaz-Giráldez, Félix; López-Montiel, María D.

    2016-01-01

    The study examines the individual and combined contribution of several cognitive variables (phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric rapid naming) to word and pseudoword reading ability among first-grade Spanish children. Participants were 116 Spanish-speaking children aged 6 years and without special educational needs, all of whom were attending schools in a medium socioeconomic area. Descriptive/exploratory and bivariate analyses were performed with the data derived from three measures of reading ability (accuracy, speed, and efficiency), and hierarchical multivariate regression models were constructed. In general, the results confirm that, with the exception of non-alphanumeric rapid naming, the cognitive variables studied are predictors of reading performance for words and pseudowords, although their influence differs depending on the reading measures and type of linguistic unit considered. Phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric rapid naming were the best predictors of reading accuracy for words and pseudowords. Variability in the other two measures of reading ability (speed and efficiency) was best explained by alphanumeric rapid naming. These results suggest that reading is a complex skill that depends on different types of cognitive variables according to the age and/or level of the reader, the type of orthography and the type of measure used. Furthermore, they highlight the need to provide instruction in these processes from an early age so as to address or prevent the problems that children may present. PMID:27303336

  14. Modeling Oral Reading Fluency Development in Latino Students: A Longitudinal Study Across Second and Third Grade.

    PubMed

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov; Williams, Rihana S; Pappamihiel, N Eleni; Dyrlund, Allison K; Connor, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study examines growth in oral reading fluency across 2nd and 3rd grade for Latino students grouped in 3 English proficiency levels: students receiving English as a second language (ESL) services (n = 2,182), students exited from ESL services (n = 965), and students never designated as needing services (n = 1,857). An important focus was to learn whether, within these 3 groups, proficiency levels and growth were reliably related to special education status. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors compared proficiency levels and growth in oral reading fluency in English between and within groups and then to state reading benchmarks. Findings indicate that oral reading fluency scores reliably distinguished between students with learning disabilities and typically developing students within each group (effect sizes ranging from 0.96 to 1.51). The growth trajectory included a significant quadratic trend (generally slowing over time). These findings support the effectiveness of using oral reading fluency in English to screen and monitor reading progress under Response to Intervention models, but also suggest caution in interpreting oral reading fluency data as part of the process in identifying students with learning disabilities.

  15. Cognitive Predictors of Word and Pseudoword Reading in Spanish First-Grade Children.

    PubMed

    González-Valenzuela, María J; Díaz-Giráldez, Félix; López-Montiel, María D

    2016-01-01

    The study examines the individual and combined contribution of several cognitive variables (phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric rapid naming) to word and pseudoword reading ability among first-grade Spanish children. Participants were 116 Spanish-speaking children aged 6 years and without special educational needs, all of whom were attending schools in a medium socioeconomic area. Descriptive/exploratory and bivariate analyses were performed with the data derived from three measures of reading ability (accuracy, speed, and efficiency), and hierarchical multivariate regression models were constructed. In general, the results confirm that, with the exception of non-alphanumeric rapid naming, the cognitive variables studied are predictors of reading performance for words and pseudowords, although their influence differs depending on the reading measures and type of linguistic unit considered. Phonemic awareness, phonological memory, and alphanumeric rapid naming were the best predictors of reading accuracy for words and pseudowords. Variability in the other two measures of reading ability (speed and efficiency) was best explained by alphanumeric rapid naming. These results suggest that reading is a complex skill that depends on different types of cognitive variables according to the age and/or level of the reader, the type of orthography and the type of measure used. Furthermore, they highlight the need to provide instruction in these processes from an early age so as to address or prevent the problems that children may present. PMID:27303336

  16. Effectiveness of Spanish intervention for first-grade English language learners at risk for reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Mathes, Patricia G; Cirino, Paul T; Carlson, Coleen D; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David J

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of an explicit, systematic reading intervention for first-grade students whose home language was Spanish and who were at risk for reading difficulties was examined. Participants were 69 students in 20 classrooms in 7 schools from 3 districts who initially did not pass the screening in Spanish and were randomly assigned within schools to a treatment or comparison group; after 7 months, 64 students remained in the study. The intervention matched the language of instruction of their core reading program (Spanish). Treatment groups of 3 to 5 students met daily for 50 min and were provided systematic and explicit instruction in oral language and reading by trained bilingual intervention teachers. Comparison students received the school's standard intervention for struggling readers. Observations during core reading instruction provided information about the reading instruction and language use of the teachers. There were no differences between the treatment and comparison groups in either Spanish or English on any measures at pretest, but there were significant posttest differences in favor of the treatment group for the following outcomes in Spanish: Letter-Sound Identification (d = 0.72), Phonological Awareness composite (d = 0.73), Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery-Revised Oral Language composite (d = 0.35), Word Attack (d = 0.85), Passage Comprehension (d = 0.55), and two measures of reading fluency (d = 0.58-0.75).

  17. Growth trajectories of early aggression, overactivity, and inattention: Relations to second-grade reading.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah A O; Carter, Alice S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Jones, Stephanie M; Wagmiller, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    The link between behavior problems and low academic achievement is well established, but few studies have examined longitudinal relations between early externalizing behaviors before school entry and low academic achievement following transition to formal schooling. Early inattention has been particularly overlooked, despite strong associations between inattention and reading difficulties later in development. Trajectories of infant and toddler aggression, overactivity, and inattention, developed from parent reports about 1- to 3-year-old children, were examined as predictors of direct assessments of 2nd-grade reading in an at-risk epidemiological study subsample (N = 359). Reports of inattentive and overactive behaviors at ages 1-3 years and changes in inattention through toddlerhood predicted reading achievement in 2nd grade. A parallel process model suggested that the effects of early inattention on reading appear to be most robust. Findings underscore the contribution of social-emotional development to school readiness and the importance of early identification of children with externalizing problems, as early interventions designed to reduce externalizing problems may improve later reading skills.

  18. States' Reading Outcomes of Students Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, researchers have identified that reading outcomes for students in upper grades who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) have typically rested around the late 3rd to early 4th grade. In recent years, wide-scale state-level testing has called into question these prognostications. The authors conducted a descriptive, multiunit,…

  19. Emergent literacy skills, behavior problems and familial antecedents of reading difficulties: a follow-up study of reading achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    PubMed

    Costa, Hugo Câmara; Perdry, Hervé; Soria, Carmen; Pulgar, Salomé; Cusin, Françoise; Dellatolas, Georges

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the relation between emergent literacy skills, teachers' reports of behavioral problems, and word reading achievement in a community sample of French students. Family background was investigated and included familial antecedents of reading difficulties (Fa/Rd) and parents' educational level. The analyses explored the pattern of concurrent relations between behavioral, familial and emergent literacy measures in a sample of 812 preschoolers, and their predictive power in explaining word reading achievement in a sub-sample of 150 children followed from kindergarten to fifth grade. Word reading at fifth grade was predicted by kindergarten measures of phonological awareness and letter knowledge. Teachers' reports of inattention symptoms at each grade level were associated with early reading skills and with subsequent word reading. Fa/Rd were concurrently and longitudinally associated with emergent literacy skills, teachers' reported inattention and word reading. These results indicate that children with a family history of reading difficulties are at increased risk for the co-occurrence of reading difficulties and attention problems from kindergarten onward. These findings confirm the shared influence of Fa/Rd on the comorbidity between inattention symptoms and reading difficulties in a non-diagnosed community sample of preschool children followed through late elementary school.

  20. A Comparison of the Basic Language Concepts and Psycholinguistic Abilities of Second Grade Boys Who Demonstrate Average and Below Average Levels of Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Charles Richards

    Thirty second-grade boys--15 reading at grade level, 15 reading below grade level--were tested to determine whether children showing average and below average levels of reading achievement differed from each other in their mastery of basic language concepts and psycholinguistic abilities. They all met the criteria of (1) non-bilingual Caucasian…

  1. An Analysis of the Impact of Second Grade Students' Self-Selection of Text on Their Engagement, Discourse, and Reading Strategies during Guided Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurley, Jackie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of self-selection of text on literacy behaviors in guided reading instruction. Four second grade students were observed during guided reading instruction. Literacy behaviors were defined as engagement, oral and written discourse, and strategies used to problem-solve unknown words or breaks in comprehension.…

  2. An Examination of the Effect of Reading Interest and Selected Demographic Factors on Reading Performance among Students in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Kamshia

    2013-01-01

    Much time is spent instilling in young students the importance of reading, and the impact reading has on their being considered "smart." The activities presented to students in primary (Pre-Kindergarten/Kindergarten) classrooms through third grade are engaging and cooperative, and they provide a sense of accomplishment for students who…

  3. Immediate and Long-Term Effects of Tier 2 Reading Instruction for First-Grade Students with a High Probability of Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Lisa; Speece, Deborah; Silverman, Rebecca; Schatschneider, Christopher; Montanaro, Elizabeth; Ritchey, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the immediate and long-term effects of a Tier 2 intervention for beginning readers identified as having a high probability of reading failure using a randomized control trial. First-grade participants (n = 123) were randomly assigned either to a 25-session intervention targeting key reading components, including…

  4. Effects of Culturally Relevant Materials on the Reading Performance of Second-Grade African Americans with Reading/Special Education Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Bennett, Jessica B.; Gallant, Dorinda J.; Ramnath, Rajiv; Keesey, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The use of culturally relevant material for urban students with special education/reading risk is frequently promoted in the literature; however, the empirical evidence appears limited. This study included eight African American urban second-grade students who scored within the at-risk range on the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency measure. The students…

  5. A Comparison of Seventh Grade Thai Students' Reading Comprehension and Motivation to Read English through Applied Instruction Based on the Genre-Based Approach and the Teacher's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawangsamutchai, Yutthasak; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compare the English reading comprehension and motivation to read of seventh grade Thai students taught with applied instruction through the genre-based approach and teachers' manual. A randomized pre-test post-test control group design was used through the cluster random sampling technique. The data were…

  6. The Componential Model of Reading: Predicting First Grade Reading Performance of Culturally Diverse Students from Ecological, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors Assessed at Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included…

  7. Using Electronic Reading Devices to Gauge Student Situational Interest in Reading: A Quantitative Study with Ninth-Grade Language Arts Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matis, Karen Louise

    2013-01-01

    Students' initial eagerness and excitement for learning to read are evident when they enter primary grades. Their levels of enthusiasm for reading diminish through elementary (Eccles, Wigfield, Harold, & Blumenfeld, 1993; Mazzoni, Gambell, & Koreamaki, 1999) and middle school (McKenna & Kearn, 1990; Oldfather & McLaughlin, 1993)…

  8. The Effects of Weekly, Sustained Silent Reading Time on Recreational Reading Habits and Attitudes in a 9th Grade English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Mary C.

    Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) has been around in various forms for over 40 years. While this subject has received much study in elementary schools, the influence of SSR on typical, non-at-risk high school students' reading habits appears to be lacking. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of SSR on ninth grade students' recreational…

  9. An Examination of the Efficacy of a Multitiered Intervention on Early Reading Outcomes for First Grade Students at Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, Hank; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.; Nelson, Nancy J.; Chaparro, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings of an efficacy trial examining the effect of a multitiered instruction and intervention model on first grade at-risk students' reading outcomes. Schools (N = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition. In the fall of Grade 1, students were assigned to an instructional tier on the basis of…

  10. Print-specific multimodal brain activation in kindergarten improves prediction of reading skills in second grade.

    PubMed

    Bach, Silvia; Richardson, Ulla; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Brem, Silvia

    2013-11-15

    Children who are poor readers usually experience troublesome school careers and consequently often suffer from secondary emotional and behavioural problems. Early identification and prediction of later reading problems thus are critical in order to start targeted interventions for those children with an elevated risk for emerging reading problems. In this study, behavioural precursors of reading were assessed in nineteen (aged 6.4 ± 0.3 years) non-reading kindergarteners before training letter-speech sound associations with a computerized game (Graphogame) for eight weeks. The training aimed to introduce the basic principles of letter-speech sound correspondences and to initialize the sensitization of specific brain areas to print. Event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were recorded during an explicit word/symbol processing task after the training. Reading skills were assessed two years later in second grade. The focus of this study was on clarifying whether electrophysiological and fMRI data of kindergarten children significantly improve prediction of future reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Based on evidence from previous studies demonstrating the importance of initial print sensitivity in the left occipito-temporal visual word form system (VWFS) for learning to read, the first pronounced difference in processing words compared to symbols in the ERP, an occipito-temporal negativity (N1: 188-281 ms) along with the corresponding functional activation in the left occipito-temporal VWFS were defined as potential predictors. ERP and fMRI data in kindergarteners significantly improved the prediction of reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Together with the behavioural measures they explained up to 88% of the variance. An additional discriminant analysis revealed a remarkably high accuracy in classifying normal (n=11) and poor readers (n=6). Due to the key limitation of the study

  11. Print-specific multimodal brain activation in kindergarten improves prediction of reading skills in second grade.

    PubMed

    Bach, Silvia; Richardson, Ulla; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Brem, Silvia

    2013-11-15

    Children who are poor readers usually experience troublesome school careers and consequently often suffer from secondary emotional and behavioural problems. Early identification and prediction of later reading problems thus are critical in order to start targeted interventions for those children with an elevated risk for emerging reading problems. In this study, behavioural precursors of reading were assessed in nineteen (aged 6.4 ± 0.3 years) non-reading kindergarteners before training letter-speech sound associations with a computerized game (Graphogame) for eight weeks. The training aimed to introduce the basic principles of letter-speech sound correspondences and to initialize the sensitization of specific brain areas to print. Event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were recorded during an explicit word/symbol processing task after the training. Reading skills were assessed two years later in second grade. The focus of this study was on clarifying whether electrophysiological and fMRI data of kindergarten children significantly improve prediction of future reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Based on evidence from previous studies demonstrating the importance of initial print sensitivity in the left occipito-temporal visual word form system (VWFS) for learning to read, the first pronounced difference in processing words compared to symbols in the ERP, an occipito-temporal negativity (N1: 188-281 ms) along with the corresponding functional activation in the left occipito-temporal VWFS were defined as potential predictors. ERP and fMRI data in kindergarteners significantly improved the prediction of reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Together with the behavioural measures they explained up to 88% of the variance. An additional discriminant analysis revealed a remarkably high accuracy in classifying normal (n=11) and poor readers (n=6). Due to the key limitation of the study

  12. Growth in Reading Skills of Children from Diverse Linguistic Backgrounds: Findings from a 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Rupp, Andre A.; Siegel, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a longitudinal investigation of the reading development of a sample of 824 children (406 girls, 418 boys). The sample included 689 native English-speaking (L1) children and 135 English-language learners (ELLs) representing 33 different native languages. In kindergarten and 4th grade, children's word reading,…

  13. Ethnic DIF in Reading Tests with Mixed Item Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine S.; Lee, Yoonsun

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a study of ethnic Differential Item Functioning (DIF) for 4th-, 7th-, and 10th-grade reading items on a state criterion-referenced achievement test. The tests, administered 1997 to 2001, were composed of multiple-choice and constructed-response items. Item performance by focal groups (i.e., students from Asian/Pacific Island,…

  14. Improving the Attitudes of 4th Graders toward Older People through a Multidimensional Intergenerational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynott, Patricia P.; Merola, Pamela R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an intergenerational program on children's attitudes toward older people. Four 4th grade classes, one each during the years 2002 through 2005, participated in the study. The elders and school children engaged in meaningful activities over a 5 month period, including the performance of a play…

  15. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…

  16. Reading Interventions for Struggling Readers in the Upper Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Ciullo, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis of the extant research on reading interventions for students with reading difficulties and disabilities in fourth and fifth grade (ages 9-11) is presented. Thirteen studies with treatment/comparison study designs and eleven single group or single subject studies were located and synthesized. Findings from the 24 studies revealed high…

  17. Assessing the Promise of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for At-Risk First Grade Students in a Public School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Neel, Joanna L.; Kaiser, Forrest; Le, Hong-Hai

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory quasi-experimental case study, we assessed the promise of a yearlong supplemental reading intervention with a small pilot group of at-risk first grade readers in an elementary school setting. Using standardized measures of reading proficiency, we found that after 47 hours of one-on-one tutoring instruction, students read…

  18. The Relations between Early Working Memory Abilities and Later Developing Reading Skills: A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Einat; Bar-Kochva, Irit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relations of early working-memory abilities (phonological and visual-spatial short-term memory [STM] and complex memory and episodic buffer memory) and later developing reading skills. Sixty Hebrew-speaking children were followed from kindergarten through Grade 5. Working memory was tested in kindergarten and reading in…

  19. The Impact of Year-Round Education on Fifth Grade African American Reading Achievement Scores in an Urban Illinois School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Carolyn Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to determine the impact of the year-round education school calendar on the standardized test performance of fifth grade African American students, as measured by the Illinois Standards Achievement Test (ISAT) in reading. The ISAT reading scores from two year-round education (YRE)…

  20. Comparison of Recreational Reading Books Levels Using the Fry Readability Graph and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoke, Brenda Lynn

    This study was done to see if readability levels printed on recreational reading books were as accurate as when the Fry formula and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level were applied to them. Three descriptive passages from each of 60 recreational reading books were analyzed using the Fry formula and the Flesch-Kincaid formula. The data was compared to…

  1. Reading Apprenticeship Classrooms: Effectiveness of Teacher Think-Alouds to Increase the Metacognition of 7th Grade Social Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matz, Debbie S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how the use of teacher think-alouds influenced and transferred to the reading comprehension and metacognition of seventh grade middle school social studies students in two Reading Apprenticeship classrooms. The researcher conducted classroom observations at a middle school in a mid-size suburban and rural school district in…

  2. Performance in a Visual Search Task Uniquely Predicts Reading Abilities in Third-Grade Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo; Chen, Xi; Chung, Kevin K. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the performance in a visual search task and reading ability in 92 third-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. The visual search task, which is considered a measure of visual-spatial attention, accounted for unique variance in Chinese character reading after controlling for age, nonverbal intelligence,…

  3. The Effects of Integrating a Multiple Intelligence Based Language Arts Curriculum on Reading Comprehension of First and Second Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gens, Patricia; Provance, Jane; VanDuyne, Kathleen; Zimmerman, Kimberlee

    A program was developed for improving primary level student intelligences in order to improve reading comprehension, prediction skills, and the ability to apply targeted reading strategies. The targeted population consisted of first and second grade students in a middle class community located in the far southern Chicago metropolitan area. The…

  4. Functional Grammar and Teaching of Reading--A Pedagogy Based on Graded Teaching of College English in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Tuo; Zhang, Beili

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of functional grammar and demonstrates its application to the teaching of reading among graded college students. Functional grammar holds that a discourse is composed of two levels: the interior level and the exterior level. Therefore, reading activities involve both linguistic elements and contexts.…

  5. The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2009. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 4 and 8. NCES 2010-458

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) presents results from the 2009 NAEP in reading. Nationally representative samples of more than 178,000 fourth-graders and 160,000 eighth-graders participated in the 2009 NAEP in reading. At each grade, students responded to questions designed to measure their knowledge of…

  6. A Study of Reading First Implementation and Literacy Performance of Students in Kindergarten through Fifth Grade in Lancaster School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Michele Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined elementary student literacy performance in Lancaster School District in kindergarten through 5th grades for 6 elementary schools implementing the Reading First program and 6 elementary schools not implementing Reading First. Subgroup data for English Language Learners, Hispanic, and African American students was closely…

  7. ICANREAD: The Effects of an Online Reading Program on Grade 1 Students' Engagement and Comprehension Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciampa, Katia

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study explores the impact of online electronic storybooks (e-books) on the reading motivation and listening comprehension of six grade 1 students (aged 7 years) from Ontario, Canada. The researcher measured participants' perceived enjoyment of the online e-book reading experience using standardized listening comprehension tests,…

  8. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Reading Measures (Grades 3-7), 2009-2010 Version. Technical Report #1005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez, Leilani; Park, Bitnara; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Jamgochian, Elisa; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Anderson, Daniel; Kamata, Akihito; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    In this series of studies, we investigated the technical adequacy of three curriculum-based measures used as benchmarks and for monitoring progress in three critical reading- related skills: fluency, reading comprehension, and vocabulary. In particular, we examined the following easyCBM measurement across grades 3-7 at fall, winter, and spring…

  9. Improving Second Grade Student's Reading Fluency and Comprehension Using Teacher-Guided iPad® App Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redcay, Jessica D.; Preston, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the differences in second grade students' reading fluency and comprehension scores when using varying levels of teacher-guided iPad® app instruction to determine effective reading practices. Design/methodology/approach: This study reports the results of the quasi-experimental pre-post study by providing…

  10. First Grade Teachers' Perceptions of the Five Strands of Effective Reading Instruction and Their Possible Influence on Daily Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Nghia Van

    2013-01-01

    First grade teachers play a critical role in shaping the foundation for early literacy skills acquisition of primary students. Past research studies have indicated that primary students whose teachers followed the"Big 5 Ideas" to teach reading had higher reading abilities when compared to other students. The purpose of this current…

  11. Longitudinal Relationships of Levels of Language in Writing and between Writing and Reading in Grades 1 to 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Fayol, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used to evaluate longitudinal relationships across adjacent grade levels 1 to 7 for levels of language in writing (Model 1, subword letter writing, word spelling, and text composing) or writing and reading (Model 2, subword letter writing and word spelling and reading; Model 3, word spelling and…

  12. Perception of Phonemic Length and Its Relation to Reading and Spelling Skills in Children with Family Risk for Dyslexia in the First Three Grades of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennala, Riitta; Eklund, Kenneth; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Richardson, Ulla; Martin, Maisa; Leiwo, Matti; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the ability to discriminate phonemic length and the association of this ability with reading accuracy, reading speed, and spelling accuracy in Finnish children throughout Grades 1-3. Method: Reading-disabled (RDFR, n = 35) and typically reading children (TRFR, n = 69) with family risk for dyslexia and typically reading control…

  13. Going beyond the Fab Five: Helping Students Cope with the Unique Linguistic Challenges of Expository Reading in Intermediate Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Zhihui

    2008-01-01

    As students transition from primary to intermediate grades, the kind of materials that they are expected to read and write become more heavily dominated by expository texts. Expository texts contain grammatical patterns that are distinct from those used in primary-grade storybooks. These linguistic features pose new comprehension challenges for…

  14. THE RELATION BETWEEN HAND-EYE PREFERENCE AND FIRST-GRADE READING--A FOLLOW-UP STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRY, MAURINE; MUEHL, SIEGMAR

    THE RESULTS OF A FOLLOWUP INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PERSISTENCE OF LEFT-LATERAL TENDENCIES OF A GROUP OF CHILDREN WAS RELATED TO FIRST-GRADE READING PERFORMANCE ARE REPORTED. THE ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION AT THE PRESCHOOL LEVEL INCLUDED 64 SUBJECTS. FORTY SUBJECTS REMAINED IN THE LOCAL SCHOOL SYSTEM THROUGH FIRST GRADE FOR THE FOLLOWUP…

  15. The Effects of Phonemic Awareness Instruction in First Grade on the Reading Scores of Rural Primary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Linda H.; Vinzant, Rebecca S.

    A study investigated the effect of phonemic awareness instruction on the reading ability of first and second grade students. Participants were 100 second graders who had been in 5 first grades at Westside Elementary in Searcy, Arkansas. Using a posttest only control group design and a t test for independent samples, it was found that second grade…

  16. 4th Generation ECR Ion Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, Claude M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D.S.; Sabbi, G.; Prestemon, S.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a 4th generation ECR ion source with an RF frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice Becr will be explored in this paper. Based on the semi-empirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current 3rd generation ECR ion sources, which operate at RF frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the 3rd generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials such as Nb3Sn to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with RF frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continue to make this a promising avenue for development.

  17. The relationship between language and reading. Preliminary results from a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Catts, H W; Fey, M E; Proctor-Williams, K

    2000-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between language and reading from three perspectives. First, we examined the reading and writing outcomes of children identified with spoken language impairments (LIs). Second, the early language abilities of children identified as poor readers were investigated. Finally, reading and language abilities were treated as continuous variables and the developmental relationship between them was studied. In general, the results indicated that language abilities (both phonological processing and oral language) significantly contributed to achievement in the early stages of reading (2nd grade) and had an even stronger effect as children acquired greater reading proficiency (4th grade).

  18. An Examination of a Relationship between Reading Attitudes and Reading Achievement for a Group of Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Susan Lynette

    2013-01-01

    The importance of reading proficiency is unquestioned. Although the nation has set a goal for all students to be proficient in reading, many of the nation's students are not proficient readers. The vast majority of research examining reading proficiency and reading achievement has concentrated on the cognitive aspects of reading and the use…

  19. Pathways to Third-Grade Calculation versus Word-Reading Competence: Are They More Alike or Different?

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2015-01-01

    Children (n=747; 6.5 years) were assessed on domain-general processes and mathematics and reading-related competencies (start of 1st grade); addition retrieval (end of 2nd grade); and calculations and word reading (end of 3rd grade). Attentive behavior, reasoning, visuospatial memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) indirectly contributed to both outcomes, via retrieval. However, there was no overlap in domain-general direct effects on calculations (attentive behavior, reasoning, working memory) versus word reading (language, phonological memory, RAN). Results suggest ease of forming associative relations and abilities engaged during the formation of these long-term memories are common to both outcomes and can be indexed by addition fact retrieval, but further growth in calculations and word reading is driven by different constellations of domain-general abilities. PMID:26700885

  20. Cognitive Abilities Underlying Reading Accuracy, Fluency and Spelling Acquisition in Korean Hangul Learners from Grades 1 to 4: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the cognitive abilities that predict reading and spelling performance in Korean children in Grades 1 to 4, depending on expertise and reading experience. As a result, visual cognition, phonological awareness, naming speed and receptive vocabulary significantly predicted reading accuracy in children in Grades 1 and 2, whereas visual cognition, phonological awareness and rapid naming speed did not predict reading accuracy in children in higher grades. For reading, fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and receptive vocabulary were crucial abilities in children in Grades 1 to 3, whereas phonological awareness was not a significant predictor in children in Grade 4. In spelling, reading ability and receptive vocabulary were the most important abilities for accurate Hangul spelling. The results suggested that the degree of cognitive abilities required for reading and spelling changed depending on expertise and reading experience.

  1. Effects of Technology Enhancements and Type of Teacher Support on Assessing Spanish-Speaking Children's Oral Reading Fluency in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Mary J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Santi, Kristi L.; Francis, David J.

    2011-01-01

    We examined student-, classroom-, and school-level effects in predicting second-grade Spanish-speaking children's oral reading fluency in Spanish. Teachers in 67 randomly selected urban schools administered the Tejas LEE to 1,537 first- and second-grade students. Oral reading fluency was measured in the passages students read for comprehension.…

  2. The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle-Grade Students.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Tolar, Tammy D; Fletcher, Jack M; Francis, David

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6-8 (N = 1,794). Students who were struggling (n = 704) and typically developing readers (n = 1,028) were randomly assigned to read five 1-min passages from each of 5 Lexile bands (within student range of 550 Lexiles). A series of multilevel analyses showed that student and text characteristics contributed uniquely to oral reading fluency rates. Student characteristics involving sight word reading efficiency and level of decoding ability accounted for more variability than reader type and verbal knowledge, with small, but statistically significant effects of grade and gender. The most significant text feature was passage difficulty level. Interactions involving student text characteristics, especially attributes involving overall ability level and difficulty of the text, were also apparent. These results support views of the development of oral reading fluency that involve interactions of student and text characteristics and highlight the importance of scaling for passage difficulty level in assessing individual differences in oral reading fluency. PMID:24567659

  3. The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle-Grade Students

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6–8 (N = 1,794). Students who were struggling (n = 704) and typically developing readers (n = 1,028) were randomly assigned to read five 1-min passages from each of 5 Lexile bands (within student range of 550 Lexiles). A series of multilevel analyses showed that student and text characteristics contributed uniquely to oral reading fluency rates. Student characteristics involving sight word reading efficiency and level of decoding ability accounted for more variability than reader type and verbal knowledge, with small, but statistically significant effects of grade and gender. The most significant text feature was passage difficulty level. Interactions involving student text characteristics, especially attributes involving overall ability level and difficulty of the text, were also apparent. These results support views of the development of oral reading fluency that involve interactions of student and text characteristics and highlight the importance of scaling for passage difficulty level in assessing individual differences in oral reading fluency. PMID:24567659

  4. Dependable Trend Measurement Is Not Just IRT Scaling: Commentary on "Linking Large-Scale Reading Assessments: Measuring International Trends over 40 Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    Linking IEA's international reading assessments across 40 years is an interesting endeavor from several perspectives. Being able to examine trends in reading achievement at the 4th grade over such a long period and relate these to policy changes during that time span is an attractive idea. However, this work brings to the fore many thorny issues…

  5. Using Word Identification Fluency to Monitor First-Grade Reading Development.

    PubMed

    Zumeta, Rebecca O; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of sampling breadth on technical features of word identification fluency (WIF), a tool for screening and monitoring the reading development of first graders. From a potential pool of 704 first-grade students, the authors measured both a representative sample (n = 284) and 2 other subgroups: those with low reading achievement (n = 202) and those with high/average achievement (n = 213). Data were collected weekly on broadly and narrowly sampled WIF lists for 15 weeks and on criterion measures in the fall and spring. Broad lists were developed by sampling words from 500 high-frequency words, whereas narrow lists were created by sampling from the 133 words from Dolch preprimer, primer, and first-grade word lists. Overall, predictive validity for performance level, predictive validity for growth, and commonality analysis showed narrow sampling was better for screening the representative group and the high/average subgroup. Broad sampling was superior for screening the low-achieving subgroup and for progress monitoring across groups. PMID:22736804

  6. The Influence of Reading on Vocabulary Growth: A Case for a Matthew Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Catts, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Individual differences in vocabulary development may affect academic or social opportunities. It has been proposed that individual differences in word reading could affect the rate of vocabulary growth, mediated by the amount of reading experience, a process referred to as a Matthew effect (Stanovich, 1986). Method In the current study, assessments of written word–reading skills in the 4th grade and oral vocabulary knowledge collected in kindergarten and in the 4th, 8th, and 10th grades from a large epidemiologically based sample (n = 485) allowed a test of the relationship of early word-reading skills and the subsequent rate of vocabulary growth. Results Consistent with the hypothesis, multilevel modeling revealed the rate of vocabulary growth after the 4th grade to be significantly related to 4th-grade word reading after controlling for kindergarten vocabulary level, that is, above average readers experienced a higher rate of vocabulary growth than did average readers. Conclusions Vocabulary growth rate differences accumulated over time such that the effect on vocabulary size was large. PMID:25812175

  7. An Experimental Evaluation of Guided Reading and Explicit Interventions for Primary-Grade Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Taylor, W. Pat; Barth, Amy E.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research evidence supports the provision of explicit instruction for students at risk for reading difficulties; however, one of the most widely implemented approaches to early reading instruction is Guided Reading (GR; Fountas & Pinnel, 1996), which deemphasizes explicit instruction and practice of reading skills in favor of…

  8. Do Children Who Read More Books Know "What is Good Writing" Better Than Children Who Read Less? A Comparison Between Grade Levels and SES Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Schiff, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    We investigated how SES, grade level, and book reading experiences are related to children's writing self-efficacy as well as to their knowledge of "good writing" and "writing difficulties." The sample included 199 middle-high (HSES) and low (LSES) SES children (63 second graders, 67 fourth graders, and 69 sixth graders). Gender and SES (low and…

  9. Effectiveness of Selected Supplemental Reading Comprehension Interventions: Impacts on a First Cohort of Fifth-Grade Students. NCEE 2009-4032

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Mansfield, Wendy; Deke, John; Carey, Nancy; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Hershey, Alan; Douglas, Aaron; Gersten, Russell; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Dimino, Joseph; Faddis, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    This document reports on the impacts on student achievement for four supplemental reading curricula that use similar overlapping instructional strategies designed to improve reading comprehension in social studies and science text. Fifth-grade reading comprehension for each of three commercially-available curricula (Project CRISS, ReadAbout, and…

  10. An Examination of the Efficacy of a Multitiered Intervention on Early Reading Outcomes for First Grade Students at Risk for Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Fien, Hank; Smith, Jean Louise M; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K; Nelson, Nancy J; Chaparro, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings of an efficacy trial examining the effect of a multitiered instruction and intervention model on first grade at-risk students' reading outcomes. Schools (N = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or control condition. In the fall of Grade 1, students were assigned to an instructional tier on the basis of Stanford Achievement Test-10th Edition scores (31st percentile and above = Tier 1; from the 10th to the 30th percentile = Tier 2). In both conditions, students identified as at risk (i.e., Tier 2; n = 267) received 90 min of whole group instruction (Tier 1) and an additional 30 min of daily small group intervention (Tier 2). In the treatment condition, teachers were trained to enhance core reading instruction by making instruction more explicit and increasing practice opportunities for students in Tier 1. In addition, at-risk readers were provided an additional 30-min daily small group intervention with content that was highly aligned with the Tier 1 core reading program. Results indicate significant, positive effects of the intervention on students' decoding and first semester fluent reading and potentially positive effects on reading comprehension and total reading achievement.

  11. Understanding the Misunderstanding: An Analysis of the Relationships between Reading Fluency Constructs, Reading Fluency Instruction and Oral Reading Fluency Assessment in the Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbs, Aimee M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the relationships between educator reading fluency constructs, reading fluency instruction and oral reading fluency assessment. Survey responses from sixty-six elementary educators in rural and urban north Georgia were analyzed to reach an understanding of why educators are likely to equate reading fluency with reading fast…

  12. The Effect of Repeated Reading Instruction on Oral Reading Fluency and Its Impact on Reading Comprehension of Grade 5 English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, W. Maria

    2011-01-01

    The Problem. In its meta-analysis on teaching children to read, U.S. National Reading Panel (NICHD & NIH, 2000) found repeated reading to be an effective technique for reading instruction. Specifically, the report determined that repeated reading procedures had a positive impact on word recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of…

  13. Types of writings found in the early levels of basal reading programs: Preprimers through second grade readers.

    PubMed

    Flood, J; Lapp, D; Flood, S

    1984-01-01

    Eight leading basal reading programs, approved for adoption in California public schools in 1983, were analyzed to determine the array of the types of writing included in the program from preprimers to second grade readers. The Teacher's Manuals were examined to determine whether provision was included for teaching children how to read a wide variety of discourse types. A third investigation was undertaken in this study to determine the array of discourse types in standardized reading tests and assessment tests included in the basal program.Data indicated that the majority of selections in all of the readers were narrative materials (56%), poems accounted for 25% of the total selections, and exposition accounted for 15% of the total selections. A second analysis of page allocation indicated narrative writings accounted for more than 80% of the total page allocation. Few differences by grade level or by individual programs were found.The Teacher's Manual of each of these programs provided instruction for teaching children how to read various types of writing. Suggestions for reading narrative writing constituted the greatest percentage.An analysis of discourse types in standardized tests indicated two discrepancies between reading programs and standardized tests: (1) few "whole" texts were included in tests before the end of second grade; and (2) most texts were narrative. The analysis of the assessment tests within each of the programs indicated narrative materials were most often used for testing and poetry was not assessed in any program.

  14. Evaluating a Computer-Based Sight-Word Reading Intervention in a Student with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaw, Jared; Skinner, Christopher H.; Orsega, Michael C.; Parkhurst, John; Booher, Joshua; Chambers, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a multiple-baseline-across-behaviors (i.e., word lists) design to evaluate a computer-based flashcard intervention on automatic sight-word reading in a 4th-grade student with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities. Immediately after the intervention was applied to each of three lists of sight words, the student made rapid…

  15. Ameliorating the English Reading Comprehension of Spanish-Speaking ELLs through a Reciprocal Teaching Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Through a single-subject multiple-baseline across-participants design, the present study examined the effects of Reciprocal Teaching (RT) instruction and Spanish use on the cognitive strategy use and English reading comprehension of four, 4th grade Spanish-speaking bilingual students that are "good" decoders but "poor"…

  16. A comparative study between clinical grading of anterior chamber flare and flare reading using the Kowa laser flare meter.

    PubMed

    Konstantopoulou, Kallirroi; Del'Omo, Roberto; Morley, Anne M; Karagiannis, Dimitris; Bunce, Catey; Pavesio, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of standard clinical grading of aqueous flare in uveitis according to the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature consensus, and compare the results with the readings of the laser flare meter, Kowa 500. Two examiners clinically graded the flare in 110 eyes. The flare was then measured using the Kowa laser flare meter. Twenty-nine eyes were graded as anterior chamber flare +2; for 18 of these, the clinicians were in agreement, the rest differed by the order of one grade. The range of the laser flare meter for these eyes was 5.2-899.1 photons/ms. The median value was 41.4. Seventy-four eyes were graded with flare +1. Agreement was established in 51 of these eyes. Disagreement for the rest was again by the order of 1, and the flare meter range was 1.1-169.9 photons/ms, median value 18.4. For the clinical measure of flare 0, the clinicians disagreed on three out of five eyes. The flare meter readings ranged from 2.5 to 14.1 photons/ms, median value 9.9. Only two eyes were graded with flare +3 and there was one step disagreement on both of them. We found little evidence of association between the flare readings and intraocular pressure or age. Our findings suggest that clinical evaluation of aqueous flare is subjective. Compared with the Kowa laser flare meter's numeric readings, the discrepancies observed indicate that clinical grading is an approximate science. The laser flare meter provides an accurate, reproducible, non-invasive assessment of aqueous flare that can prove valuable in research and clinical decisions.

  17. The componential model of reading: predicting first grade reading performance of culturally diverse students from ecological, psychological, and cognitive factors assessed at kindergarten entry.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included teacher-reported academic competence, social skills, and behavior; and elements within the cognitive domain included initial vocabulary, phonological, and morpho-syntactic skills, and alphabetic and word recognition skills. Data were obtained for 224 culturally diverse kindergarteners (58% Black, 34% White, and 8% Hispanic or other; 58% received free or reduced-price lunch) from a larger study conducted in seven predominantly high poverty schools (n = 20 classrooms) in a midsized city school district in northern Florida. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression (with variables in the ecological domain entered first, followed by the psychological and cognitive domains) revealed a model that explained roughly 56% of the variance in first grade reading achievement, using fall-of-kindergarten predictors. Letter-word reading and morpho-syntactic skill were the strongest significant predictors. The findings largely support the CMR model as a means to understand individual differences in reading acquisition and, in turn, to support data-based instructional decisions for a wider range of children.

  18. The componential model of reading: predicting first grade reading performance of culturally diverse students from ecological, psychological, and cognitive factors assessed at kindergarten entry.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included teacher-reported academic competence, social skills, and behavior; and elements within the cognitive domain included initial vocabulary, phonological, and morpho-syntactic skills, and alphabetic and word recognition skills. Data were obtained for 224 culturally diverse kindergarteners (58% Black, 34% White, and 8% Hispanic or other; 58% received free or reduced-price lunch) from a larger study conducted in seven predominantly high poverty schools (n = 20 classrooms) in a midsized city school district in northern Florida. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression (with variables in the ecological domain entered first, followed by the psychological and cognitive domains) revealed a model that explained roughly 56% of the variance in first grade reading achievement, using fall-of-kindergarten predictors. Letter-word reading and morpho-syntactic skill were the strongest significant predictors. The findings largely support the CMR model as a means to understand individual differences in reading acquisition and, in turn, to support data-based instructional decisions for a wider range of children. PMID:22227395

  19. Georgia Criterion-Referenced Tests Objectives and Assessment Characteristics for Sixth Grade Mathematics and Reading Tests (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Planning and Development.

    Examples are given of criterion-referenced test items in mathematics and reading used at the sixth grade level in Georgia. Three skill areas are identified for mathematics: concept identification, component operations, and problem solving. Tests measure students' ability to: (1) recognize whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; (2) identify…

  20. Internal Consistency of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading Measures: Grades 3-8. Technical Report #1407

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerreiro, Meg; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading measures, grades 3-8. Data, drawn from an extant data set gathered in school year 2013-2014, include scores from over 150,000 students' fall and winter benchmark assessments. Findings suggest that the…

  1. The Role of Gender and Reading Competence in the Development of Motivational Orientations from Kindergarten to Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepola, Janne

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined gender differences in motivation and the role of reading prerequisites, that is phonemic and comprehension skills, in the formation of motivational tendencies from kindergarten up to grade 1. The longitudinal sample consisted of 157 Finnish-speaking children. Teachers rated children's adaptive goals, (i.e. task…

  2. Writing Fluency and Quality in Kindergarten and First Grade: The Role of Attention, Reading, Transcription, and Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Shawn; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of kindergarten component skills on writing outcomes, both concurrently and longitudinally to first grade. Using data from 265 students, we investigated a model of writing development including attention regulation along with students' reading, spelling, handwriting fluency, and oral language…

  3. Learning to Read and Spell in Persian: A Cross-Sectional Study from Grades 1 to 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the reading and spelling development of 140 Persian children attending Grades 1-4 in Iran. Persian has very consistent letter-sound correspondences, but it varies in transparency because 3 of its 6 vowel phonemes are not marked with letters. Persian also varies in spelling consistency because 6 phonemes have more than one…

  4. Morphological Structure Processing during Word Recognition and Its Relationship to Character Reading among Third-Grade Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…

  5. Dialogic Strategies in Read-Alouds of English-Language Information Books in a Second-Grade Bilingual Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Christine C.; Varelas, Maria; Patton, Sofia Kokkino; Ye, Li; Ortiz, Ibett

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how various dialogic discourse strategies were used in read-alouds of English science information books in a 2nd-grade bilingual classroom. Using a variety of discursive strategies, Ibett encouraged her Spanish-speaking students to provide explanations and reasoning related to science ideas. Similarly, she used intertextual…

  6. The Impact of Reading Competence and Grade Level on the Ability to Take and Utilize a Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Mark

    A total of 168 fourth and sixth grade students participated in a study to examine two aspects of children's ability to apply structure while reading. The first part of the study investigated the amount of detail that must be provided in order for students to apply successfully a desired perspective (schema). Students were identified as either good…

  7. Growth in Rapid Automatized Naming from Grades K to 8 in Children with Math or Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely used to identify reading disabilities (RD) and has recently been considered a potential predictor of risk for mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). Here we longitudinally examine RAN performance from Grades K to 8, to view how growth on RAN response time differs for children with RD versus MLD. Across…

  8. Motivating Grade 1 Children to Read: Exploring the Role of Choice, Curiosity, and Challenge in Mobile Ebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciampa, Katia

    2016-01-01

    A pre-experimental case study design was used to explore the value of intrinsic motivation in mobile eBook reading among 30 Grade 1 child participants. Data collection comprised pre- and post-test motivation questionnaires and researcher field notes. Child participants' enjoyment of mobile eBooks corresponded to 3 motivational aspects of intrinsic…

  9. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report. Michigan. Grade 12, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Michigan's 2013 student achievement in…

  10. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report. Connecticut. Grade 12, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Connecticut's 2013 student achievement in…

  11. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report. Massachusetts. Grade 12, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Massachusetts' 2013 student achievement in…

  12. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report. Arkansas. Grade 12, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Arkansas' 2013 student achievement in…

  13. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report. Tennessee. Grade 12, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Tennessee's 2013 student achievement in…

  14. Survey of Achievement in Reading in Grade 5 of Vancouver Schools, November 29-December 3, 1971. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, E. N.

    Results of the administration in 1971 of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Survey D, Form 1M, to 5,480 fifth grade pupils of Vancouver schools are reported and compared with results obtained with the same test administered in 1968. The test results, which are presented in four tables, indicate that the 1971 students performed slightly better in…

  15. Developmental Reading in Social Studies; Westward Expansion and Transportation in New York State. A Guide for Teachers, Grade 7, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Minna; And Others

    This guide is designed to provide seventh-grade social studies teachers with materials needed to present instruction in reading skills and to teach those facts, concepts, and attitudes which are the aim of social studies education. Entries on the subject of westward expansion and transportation in New York State are arranged by topics, and…

  16. Use of an Individualized Reading Program Under Voluntary Complete Integration: Effects on Third Grade Pupils and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goolsby, Thomas M., Jr.; Frary, Robert B.

    This study was an attempt to assist a rural county school system in central Georgia with instruction at the third grade level in reading skills development after voluntary and complete integration. Specifically it was to (1) determine the general nature of the integration process in the county and its topical relationships and effects upon…

  17. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 State Snapshot Report. West Virginia. Grade 12, Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Each state and jurisdiction that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2013 Grade 12 Reading and Mathematics State Pilot assessment receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for West Virginia's 2013 student achievement in…

  18. The Effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading on Informational Text Comprehension and Metacognitive Awareness of Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCown, Margaret Averill

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) on informational text comprehension and metacognitive awareness of fifth grade students. This study tested the theories of metacognition and social cognition with a focus on self-regulation and self-efficacy. Participating students included a heterogeneous mix of regular…

  19. Predicting First Grade Reading Achievement for Spanish-Speaking Kindergartners: Is Early Literacy Screening in English Valid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.; Huang, Francis

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the viability of using kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, and orthographic knowledge, administered in English, to predict first grade reading achievement of Spanish-speaking English language learners. The primary research question was: Do kindergarten measures of early literacy skills in…

  20. Which Specific Skills Developing during Preschool Years Predict the Reading Performance in the First and Second Grade of Primary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Artemis M.; Vlachos, Filippos M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if specific skills that are developed during preschool years could predict the reading performance in the first and second grade of primary school. Two hundred and eighty-seven children participated in this longitudinal study. At the kindergarten level, phonological awareness (PA), rapid automatised naming,…

  1. Improving the Efficacy of First Grade Reading Screening: An Investigation of Word Identification Fluency with Other Early Literacy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Nathan H.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of several early literacy measures that have been used in research and practice for first grade reading screening. A set of measures, Word Identification Fluency (WIF), Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, and Nonsense Word Fluency, were administered as screening measures with 138 first grade…

  2. Experimental Results that Question the Ramirez-Castaneda Model for Teaching Reading to First Grade Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, S. Alan; Rodriquez, Samuel

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study conducted with first-grade Mexican American children indicate that direct reading instruction to precise behavioral objectives is more effective than teaching to Mexican American children's supposed "cultural learning styles" as recommended by Manuel Ramirez and Alfredo Castaneda in 1974. (GT)

  3. Opportunities Gained and Lost: Perceptions and Experiences of Sixth Grade Students Enrolled in a Title I Reading Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donalson, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the perceptions and experiences of one class of sixth grade students enrolled in a Title I supplemental reading class. Qualitative research methods included observations, interviews, archived data, and Miscue Analysis. I examined the data through a Vygotsky constructivist perspective to provide…

  4. A Dominance Analysis Approach to Determining Predictor Importance in Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate and rank order by importance the contributions of various cognitive predictors to reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth graders. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that for third grade, the best fit was a four-factor solution including fluency, verbal reasoning, nonverbal…

  5. Cognitive Attributes, Attention, and Self-Efficacy of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in a Fourth Grade Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eunsoo; Roberts, Garrett J.; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    We examined cognitive attributes, attention, and self-efficacy of fourth grade struggling readers who were identified as adequate responders (n = 27), inadequate responders with comprehension only deficits (n = 46), and inadequate responders with comprehension and word reading deficits (n = 52) after receiving a multicomponent reading…

  6. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  7. COMPARISON OF READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN TAUGHT BY A LINGUISTIC APPROACH AND A BASAL READER APPROACH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHNEYER, J. WESLEY; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO APPROACHES FOR TEACHING READING TO FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN AT HIGH, AVERAGE, AND LOW ABILITY SCORE LEVELS WAS INVESTIGATED, AND THE VARIABLES THAT DIFFERENTIATED BETWEEN HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVERS UNDER BOTH APPROACHES WERE COMPARED. THE TWO APPROACHES WERE--(1) THE FRIES LINGUISTIC METHOD, AND (2) THE SCOTT, FORESMAN…

  8. Exploration of a Blended Learning Approach to Reading Instruction for Low SES Students in Early Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Rachel; Macaruso, Paul; Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Brooke, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential benefits of a blended learning approach on the reading skills of low socioeconomic status students in Grades 1 and 2. Treatment students received English language arts instruction that was both teacher-led and technology-based. Comparisons were made with control students who received the same English language…

  9. TIMSS and PIRLS 2011: Relationships among Reading, Mathematics, and Science Achievement at the Fourth Grade--Implications for Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O., Ed.; Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) is an international assessment of mathematics and science at the fourth and eighth grades that has been conducted every four years since 1995, with the most recent assessment in 2011. PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) is an international assessment of reading…

  10. Emergent Understandings: Multilingual Fourth Grade Students Generating Close Readings and Multimodal Responses to Global and Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Michelle Medlin; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present findings from a yearlong ethnographic research study that examines the development of critical literacy within two urban fourth grade classrooms in Tennessee. This study examines how young second language learners in English-dominant classrooms learn to read critically, write, and construct multimodal…

  11. Precursors of Reading Skill from Infancy to First Grade in Finnish: Continuity and Change in a Highly Inflected Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silven, Maarit; Poskiparta, Elisa; Niemi, Pekka; Voeten, Marinus

    2007-01-01

    The course of language acquisition from infancy to public primary school was followed in a sample of 56 Finnish children to examine precursors to reading at first grade. Structural equation modeling of continuity suggested effects from growth in early vocabulary to mastery of inflectional forms at preschool age. The early language directly…

  12. Examining the Internal Structure of the easyCBM Reading Measures, Grades K-5. Technical Report #1302

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe a study examining the internal structures of the easyCBM reading measures, Grades K-5. Data were gathered from a convenience sample of 114 Kindergarten students, 43 first graders, 82 second graders, 100 third graders, 109 fourth graders, and 71 fifth graders attending schools in Oregon, Georgia, South…

  13. An Evaluation of an Explicit Read Aloud Intervention Taught in Whole-Classroom Formats In First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Scott K.; Santoro, Lana Edwards; Chard, David J.; Fien, Hank; Park, Yonghan; Otterstedt, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This study describes an evaluation of a read aloud intervention to improve comprehension and vocabulary of first-grade students. Twelve teachers were randomly assigned to an intervention or comparison condition. The study lasted 19 weeks, and the intervention focused on the systematic use of narrative and expository texts and dialogic interactions…

  14. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  15. Using Primary Language Support via Computer to Improve Reading Comprehension Skills of First-Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Cathi Draper; Filler, John; Higgins, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Through this exploratory study the authors investigated the effects of primary language support delivered via computer on the English reading comprehension skills of English language learners. Participants were 28 First-grade students identified as Limited English Proficient. The primary language of all participants was Spanish. Students were…

  16. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses in Reading-Related Cognitive Component among Grade Four Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Deenang, Exkarach; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the structure and the validity of the cognitive components of reading in Thai, which is a language with a high degree of grapheme-phoneme correspondence. The participants were 1181 fourth-grade students in 29 schools in Thailand, divided into two subsamples for data analysis. Phoneme isolation, rapid colour naming,…

  17. An Investigation into the Relationships Between Cloze Test Scores and Informal Reading Inventory Scores of Fifth Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Richard Barry

    This study investigated the relationship between instructional level scores as determined by a cloze test and instructional level scores as determined by an informal reading inventory (IRI). Fifty male and 50 female subjects were randomly selected from the total fifth grade population of five schools chosen from a total of 22 midwestern elementary…

  18. Developmental changes in the role of different metalinguistic awareness skills in Chinese reading acquisition from preschool to third grade.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tong-Qi; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bao-Guo; Liu, Ying; Weng, Xu-Chu; Wydell, Taeko N

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Chinese reading skills and metalinguistic awareness skills such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness for 101 Preschool, 94 Grade-1, 98 Grade-2, and 98 Grade-3 children from two primary schools in Mainland China. The aim of the study was to examine how each of these metalinguistic awareness skills would exert their influence on the success of reading in Chinese with age. The results showed that all three metalinguistic awareness skills significantly predicted reading success. It further revealed that orthographic awareness played a dominant role in the early stages of reading acquisition, and its influence decreased with age, while the opposite was true for the contribution of morphological awareness. The results were in stark contrast with studies in English, where phonological awareness is typically shown as the single most potent metalinguistic awareness factor in literacy acquisition. In order to account for the current data, a three-stage model of reading acquisition in Chinese is discussed.

  19. Taking a "Simple View" of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills as a Predictor of Multiple Measures of Third-Grade Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, Kristen A.; Blachman, Benita A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity evidence of first-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) scores for predicting third-grade reading comprehension scores. We used the "simple view" of reading as the theoretical foundation for examining the extent to which DIBELS subtest scores predict…

  20. Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin

    2011-01-01

    Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports the reading and math proficiency rates of grade 8 Native Hawaiian…