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Sample records for 4th instar whitefly

  1. Host plant pubescence: effect on silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, fourth instar and pharate adult dimensions and ecdysteroid titer fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Dale B; Gerling, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The ability to generate physiologically synchronous groups of insects is vital to the performance of investigations designed to test insect responses to intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. During a given instar, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii, increase in depth but not in length or width. A staging system to identify physiologically synchronous 4th instar and pharate adult silverleaf whiteflies based on increasing body depth and the development of the adult eye has been described previously. This study determined the effect of host plant identity on ecdysteroid fluctuations during the 4th instar and pharate adult stages, and on the depth, length and width dimensions of 4th instar/pharate adult whiteflies. When grown on the pubescent-leafed green bean, tomato and poinsettia plants, these stages were significantly shorter and narrower, but attained greater depth than when grown on the glabrous-leafed cotton, collard and sweet potato plants. Thus, leaf pubescence is associated with reduced length and width dimensions, but increased depth dimensions in 4(th) instars and pharate adults. For all host plants, nymphal ecdysteroid titers peaked just prior to the initiation of adult development. However, when reared on pubescent-leafed plants, the initiation of adult development typically occurred in nymphs that had attained a depth of 0.2 to 0.25 mm (Stage 3 - 4). When reared on glabrous-leafed plants, the initiation of adult development typically occurred earlier, in nymphs that had attained a depth of only 0.15-0.18 mm (Stage 2 Old - early 3). Therefore, based on ecdysteroid concentration, it appears that Stage-2, -3 and -4/5 nymphs reared on pubescent-leafed plants are physiologically equivalent to Stage-1, -2 Young and -2 Old/3, respectively, nymphs reared on glabrous-leafed plants. The host plant affected the width but not the height of the nymphal-adult premolt ecdysteroid peak. However, leaf pubescence was not the determining factor. Thus, host plant

  2. Whiteflies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies have long been considered a major pest of ornamentals. Before 1986, the primary pest species was the greenhouse whitefly until Bemisia tabaci was found attacking an array of ornamental plants in Florida greenhouses. The Q biotype was detected in Arizona in 2004 and is problematic because ...

  3. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) genome project: analysis of sequenced clones from egg, instar, and adult (viruliferous and non-viruliferous) cDNA libraries

    PubMed Central

    Leshkowitz, Dena; Gazit, Shirley; Reuveni, Eli; Ghanim, Murad; Czosnek, Henryk; McKenzie, Cindy; Shatters, Robert L; Brown, Judith K

    2006-01-01

    Background The past three decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in interest in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, owing to its nature as a taxonomically cryptic species, the damage it causes to a large number of herbaceous plants because of its specialized feeding in the phloem, and to its ability to serve as a vector of plant viruses. Among the most important plant viruses to be transmitted by B. tabaci are those in the genus Begomovirus (family, Geminiviridae). Surprisingly, little is known about the genome of this whitefly. The haploid genome size for male B. tabaci has been estimated to be approximately one billion bp by flow cytometry analysis, about five times the size of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The genes involved in whitefly development, in host range plasticity, and in begomovirus vector specificity and competency, are unknown. Results To address this general shortage of genomic sequence information, we have constructed three cDNA libraries from non-viruliferous whiteflies (eggs, immature instars, and adults) and two from adult insects that fed on tomato plants infected by two geminiviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV). In total, the sequence of 18,976 clones was determined. After quality control, and removal of 5,542 clones of mitochondrial origin 9,110 sequences remained which included 3,843 singletons and 1,017 contigs. Comparisons with public databases indicated that the libraries contained genes involved in cellular and developmental processes. In addition, approximately 1,000 bases aligned with the genome of the B. tabaci endosymbiotic bacterium Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, originating primarily from the egg and instar libraries. Apart from the mitochondrial sequences, the longest and most abundant sequence encodes vitellogenin, which originated from whitefly adult libraries, indicating that much of the gene expression in this insect is directed toward the production of eggs. Conclusion This

  4. Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing S.; Gelman, Dale B.; Blackburn, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring)], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. Host age influenced the day on which E. formosa nymphs hatching from eggs was first observed. Mean embryonic development was significantly longer when 1st (5.4 days) rather than 2nd, 3rd or 4th instars (4.1, 3.4 and 3.5 days, respectively) were parasitized. The duration of the 1st instar parasitoid and the pupa, but not the 2nd or 3rd instar parasitoid, were also significantly greater when 1st instars were parasitized than when older host instars were parasitized. Interestingly, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid did not molt to the 3rd instar until the 4th instar host had reached a depth of about 0.23 mm (Stage 4–5) and had initiated the nymphal-adult molt and adult development. Histological studies revealed that whitefly eye and wing structures had either disintegrated or were adult in nature whenever a 3rd instar parasitoid was present. It appears, then, that the molt of the parasitoid to its last instar is associated with the host whitefly's nymphal-adult molt. However, the initiation of the host's final molt, while a prerequisite for the parasitoid's 2nd–3rd instar molt, did not necessarily trigger this molt. In contrast to its significant effect on various aspects of parasitoid development, host instar did not significantly influence the mean size of the parasitoid larva, pupa, or adult. Larval and pupal length and adult head width were similar for all parasitoids, regardless of which host instar was parasitized as was adult longevity. Adult parasitoid emergence

  5. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid's immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present in

  6. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid’s immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present

  7. Inactivation of Wolbachia Reveals Its Biological Roles in Whitefly Host

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xia; Li, Shao-Jian; Ahmed, Muhammad Z.; De Barro, Paul J.; Ren, Shun-Xiang; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2012-01-01

    Background The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is cryptic species complex composed of numerous species. Individual species from the complex harbor a diversity of bacterial endosymbionts including Wolbachia. However, while Wolbachia is known to have a number of different roles, its role in B. tabaci is unclear. Here, the antibiotic rifampicin is used to selectively eliminate Wolbachia from B. tabaci so as to enable its roles in whitefly development and reproduction to be explored. The indirect effects of Wolbachia elimination on the biology of Encarsia bimaculata, a dominant parasitoid of B. tabaci in South China, were also investigated. Methodology/Principal Finding qRT-PCR and FISH were used to show that after 48 h exposure to 1.0 mg/ml rifampicin, Wolbachia was completely inactivated from B. tabaci Mediterranean (MED) without any significant impact on either the primary symbiont, Portiera aleyrodidarum or any of the other secondary endosymbionts present. For B. tabaci MED, Wolbachia was shown to be associated with decreased juvenile development time, increased likelihood that nymphs completed development, increased adult life span and increased percentage of female progeny. Inactivation was associated with a significant decrease in the body size of the 4th instar which leads us to speculate as to whether Wolbachia may have a nutrient supplementation role. The reduction in nymph body size has consequences for its parasitoid, E. bimaculata. The elimination of Wolbachia lead to a marked increase in the proportion of parasitoid eggs that completed their development, but the reduced size of the whitefly host was also associated with a significant reduction in the size of the emerging parasitoid adult and this was in turn associated with a marked reduction in adult parasitoid longevity. Conclusions/Significance Wolbachia increases the fitness of the whitefly host and provides some protection against parasitization. These observations add to our understanding of the roles

  8. Whitefly management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies have long been considered a major pest of ornamentals. Until Bemisia tabaci (biotype B) was found attacking an array of ornamental plants in Florida greenhouses in 1986, the primary pest species was the greenhouse whitefly. The Q biotype was introduced in 2004 and has since spread to 25 s...

  9. Diapause and its regulation in the whitefly Trialeurodes lauri.

    PubMed

    Gerling, D; Guershon, M; Erel, E; Inbar, M

    2011-12-01

    This study focuses on the regulation of synchronization between the life cycle of the oligophagous whitefly, Trialeurodes lauri (Signoret), and its evergreen host tree Arbutus andrachne in Mediterranean chaparral. Whitefly infestations vary considerably among trees. The adults of the univoltine (one generation per year) whitefly emerge en masse during April and May and oviposit on the new spring foliage. Following approximately one month of development to the early fourth instar, the nymphs enter nine-month diapauses, terminating in February. This diapause is induced and maintained by the plant and can be experimentally avoided (in the case of developing young nymphs) or terminated (in the case of diapausing fourth instars), if whitefly-bearing branches are severed from the tree and placed in water under laboratory conditions. This study is the first report of a whitefly diapausing through both summer and winter seasons. The role of the host plant in the process is discussed. PMID:21092381

  10. Barcoding exotic whitefly in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A portion of a mitochondrial gene has been sequenced for three recent invasive whitefly pests in Florida: Fig whitefly, Bondar’s whitefly and rugose spiraling whitefly. Diagnostic tests based on these sequences remain to be developed. ...

  11. Whitefly parasitoids: distribution, life history, bionomics, and utilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Xian; Stansly, Philip A; Gerling, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies are small hemipterans numbering more than 1,550 described species, of which about 50 are agricultural pests. Adults are free-living, whereas late first to fourth instars are sessile on the plant. All known species of whitefly parasitoids belong to Hymenoptera; two genera, Encarsia and Eretmocerus, occur worldwide, and others are mostly specific to different continents. All parasitoid eggs are laid in-or in Eretmocerus, under-the host. They develop within whitefly nymphs and emerge from the fourth instar, and in Cales, from either the third or fourth instar. Parasitized hosts are recognized by conspecifics, but super- and hyperparasitism occur. Dispersal flights are influenced by gender and mating status, but no long-range attraction to whitefly presence on leaves is known. Studies on En. formosa have laid the foundation for behavioral studies and biological control in general. We review past and ongoing studies of whitefly parasitoids worldwide, updating available information on species diversity, biology, behavior, tritrophic interactions, and utilization in pest management. PMID:25341095

  12. Insecticidal Activity of Some Reducing Sugars Against the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, Biotype B

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing S.; Gelman, Dale B.; Salvucci, Michael E.; Chen, Yan P.; Blackburn, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of 16 sugars (arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, gentiobiose, glucose, inositol, lactose, maltose, mannitol (a sugar alcohol), mannose, melibiose, ribose, sorbitol, trehalose, and xylose) on sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) survival were determined using in vitro bioassays. Of these sugars, arabinose, mannose, ribose, and xylose were strongly inhibitory to both nymphal and adult survival. When 10% mannose was added to the nymphal diet, 10.5%, 1.0%, and 0% developed to the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars, respectively. When 10% arabinose was added, 10.8% and 0% of the nymphs molted to the 2nd and 3rd instars, respectively. Addition of 10% xylose or ribose completely terminated B. tabaci development, preventing the molt to the 2nd instar. With decreasing sugar concentrations the inhibitory effect was significantly reduced. In tests using adults, arabinose, galactose, inositol, lactose, maltose, mannitol, mannose, melibiose, ribose, sorbitol, trehalose, and xylose significantly reduced mean day survival. Mortality rates were highest when arabinose, mannitol, mannose, ribose, or xylose was added to the diet. Mean day survival was less than 2 days when adults were fed on diet containing 10% of any one of these five sugars. When lower concentrations of sugars were used there was a decrease in mortality. Mode of action studies revealed that toxicity was not due to the inhibition of alpha glucosidase (converts sucrose to glucose and fructose) and/or trehalulose synthase (converts sucrose to trehalulose) activity. The result of agarose gel electrophoresis of RT-PCR products of bacterial endosymbionts amplified from RNA isolated from whiteflies fed with 10% arabinose, mannose, or xylose indicated that the concentration of endosymbionts in mycetomes was not affected by the toxic sugars. Experiments in which B. tabaci were fed on diets that contained radio-labeled sucrose, methionine or inulin and one or none (control) of

  13. Biology and Feeding Behaviour of Ladybird, Clitostethus arcuatus, the Predator of the Ash Whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae, in Fars Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tavadjoh, Z.; Hamzehzarghani, H.; Alemansoor, H.; Khalghani, J.; Vikram, A.

    2010-01-01

    Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is considered as one of the most important natural biological control agents of the ash whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Iran. In the current survey, the development, survival, longevity, fecundity, feeding behaviour, and population dynamics of the predator under laboratory and field conditions were studied. The longevity of female insects was significantly longer than that of males. Total feeding of 4th larval instars and females was significantly higher than males and other larval instars. The overall mortality rate from egg to adult under laboratory conditions was 22.7% while under field conditions it was 38.2%. Copulation lasted approximately 67 minutes while the average pre-mating and pre-oviposition times recorded were 3.8 and 1.8 days, respectively. The mean number of eggs laid by each female was 181. The adults could survive starvation for 4 days with a normal longevity of 62–73 days. The maximum population density of the predator was recorded in late August that coincided with the decline of the S. phillyreae population. C. arcuatus had four generations per year, and the adults were observed until mid December. Possible application of C. arcuatus for biological control of S. phillyreae in integrated pest management programs is discussed. PMID:20874601

  14. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible.

  15. Pathogenicity of Aschersonia spp. against whiteflies Bemisia argentifolii and Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    PubMed

    Meekes, Ellis T M; Fransen, Joanne J; van Lenteren, Joop C

    2002-09-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Aschersonia are specific for whitefly and scale insects. They can be used as biological control agents against silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Forty-four isolates of Aschersonia spp. were tested for their ability to sporulate and germinate on semi-artificial media and to infect insect hosts. Seven isolates sporulated poorly (less than 1x10(7) conidia/dry weight) and 10 were not able to infect either of the whitefly species. Several isolates were able to produce capilliconidia. Infection level was not correlated with germination on water agar. After a selection based on spore production and infection, virulence of 31 isolates was evaluated on third instar nymphs of both whitefly species on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima). Whitefly infection levels varied between 2 and 70%, and infection percentages of B. argentifolii correlated with that of T. vaporariorum. However, mortality was higher for T. vaporariorum than for B. argentifolii, as a result of a higher 'mortality due to unknown causes.' Several isolates, among which unidentified species of Aschersonia originating from Thailand and Malaysia, A. aleyrodis from Colombia, and A. placenta from India showed high spore production on semi-artificial medium and high infection levels of both whitefly species. PMID:12417207

  16. Pathogens of Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies belong to the order Homoptera, and the family Aleyrodidae. They are tropical and subtropical in origin, and can be serious pests in field crops of the southern areas of the world and in glasshouses. Whiteflies have many pathogens, but nearly all known pathogens are fungi, which can infect...

  17. THE Q-BIOTYPE WHITEFLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2004, the Q-biotype of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, was identified in the U.S. for the first time. The level of insecticide resistance to pyriproxyfen (Distance) and imidacloprid (Marathon) of the Q-biotype was higher than any U.S. population of B-biotype whiteflies (silverleaf white...

  18. Q-BIOTYPE WHITEFLY UPDATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a new version of an old pest that is now appearing in ornamental production facilities. In 2005, a new biotype of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci was identified by a team of scientists from the Universities of California and Arizona. A population of whiteflies was collected from p...

  19. MODIFICATION OF CC WHITEFLY TRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications of CC whitefly traps are in progress to improve their potential for adult whitefly control in greenhouses. Adult catches in the modified CC traps have been increased by 50% by coating trap tops with Tanglefoot and removing the deflector plates. In laboratory studies, installation of ...

  20. Functional response, host stage preference and interference of two whitefly parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Yun; Yang, Nian-Wan; Duan, Min; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2016-02-01

    The functional responses of two parasitoids, Eretmocerus hayati Zolnerowich & Rose and Encarsia sophia Girault & Dodd, of whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius Middle East-Asia Minor 1 were studied under laboratory conditions. In addition, the influence of host density and host stage on the competitive interactions between the two parasitoids, and biological control effect on whitefly were evaluated. In the functional response study, adult parasitoids were tested individually, with a conspecific or heterospecific competitor. Both Er. hayati and En. sophia exhibited a type II response to increasing host density, whether a conspecific or heterospecific competitor was present or not. Difference of searching rates and handling times between treatments suggested interference interactions existed between two parasitoid species. In the host stage preference study, two parasitoid species were jointly tested. Er. hayati had a competitive advantage over En. sophia when provided young host instars (first and second instar), whereas no advantage was found on old host instars (third and fourth instar). The biological control effect of Er. hayati and En. sophia in different introductions varied with host density. However, the effect of host instar on host mortality was not significant. These findings provide information for the practice of biological control and give better insight into how parasitoid species may coexist in diverse environments. PMID:25393924

  1. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  2. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  3. Delphastus catalinae and Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Eric; Labrecque, Claude; Coderre, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Predation efficacy and compatibility of the predatory lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake and Delphastus catalinae (Horn) against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) were studied in laboratory on glabrous fuchsia (Fuchsia hybrida Voss cv Lena Corolla) and pubescent poinsettia plants (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd ex Klotzch cv Dark Red Annette Hegg). On glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults of C maculata were the most efficient, both against whitefly eggs and pupae. On pubescent plants (poinsettia), the larger stages of C maculata were negatively affected and less efficient than adults of D catalinae. The presence of plant structure did not affect the voracity of either predator species. Finally, the simultaneous use of both predator species generated inter-specific competition. These results provide recommendations for biological control of whitefly in horticultural greenhouses. PMID:15532680

  4. Insecticidal Activity of Chromobacterium subtsugae on the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, Biotype B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromobacterium subtsugae crude extracts contain compounds that are toxic to nymphal and adult Bemisia tabaci. When fed on artificial diet containing 10% of the supernatant of an aqueous cell-free extract of C subtsugae, the number of 2nd and 4th instar nymphs and of emerged adults was significantl...

  5. Temporal changes of symbiont density and host fitness after rifampicin treatment in a whitefly of the Bemisia tabaci species complex.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Yan, Ting-Ting; Tang, Hai-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Liu, Yin-Quan

    2016-04-01

    Microbial symbionts are essential or important partners to phloem-feeding insects. Antibiotics have been used to selectively eliminate symbionts from their host insects and establish host lines with or without certain symbionts for investigating functions of the symbionts. In this study, using the antibiotic rifampicin we attempted to selectively eliminate certain symbionts from a population of the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 whitefly of the Bemisia tabaci species complex, which harbors the primary symbiont "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" and two secondary symbionts "Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa" and Rickettsia. Neither the primary nor the secondary symbionts were completely depleted in the adults (F0) that fed for 48 h on a diet treated with rifampicin at concentrations of 1-100 μg/mL. However, both the primary and secondary symbionts were nearly completely depleted in the offspring (F1) of the rifampicin-treated adults. Although the F1 adults produced some eggs (F2), most of the eggs failed to hatch and none of them reached the second instar, and consequently the rifampicin-treated whitefly colony vanished at the F2 generation. Interestingly, quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays showed that in the rifampicin-treated whiteflies, the density of the primary symbiont was reduced at an obviously slower pace than the secondary symbionts. Mating experiments between rifampicin-treated and untreated adults demonstrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were expressed when the females were treated by the antibiotic, and whether males were treated or not by the antibiotic had little contribution to the negative effects. These observations indicate that with this whitefly population it is not feasible to selectively eliminate the secondary symbionts using rifampicin without affecting the primary symbiont and establish host lines for experimental studies. However, the extinction of the whitefly colony at the second generation after

  6. Giant whitefly (Aleurodicus dugesii) as a surrogate for evaluating the parasitoid wasp (Encarsiella noysei) for biological control of Rugose Spiraling Whitefly (Aleurodicus rugioperculatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both Giant whitefly (GW), Aleurodicus dugesii and Rugose Spiraling Whitefly (RSWF), Aleurodicus rugioperculatus, are whitefly pests in Florida landscapes. Giant whitefly was first discovered in Florida in 1996 while Rugose Spiraling Whitefly was discovered in March 2009. To develop a rearing system...

  7. Whitefly transmission of the Sweet potato leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is highly adaptive and polyphagous on taxonomically diverse species of plants on a global scale. This whitefly transmits numerous plant viruses, including Begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). We recently found the Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus (SPLCV) ...

  8. Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium muscarium, against the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci under laboratory and glasshouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Walters, Keith F A

    2005-11-01

    The potential for using the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium to control the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci has been established in the laboratory by other studies. Laboratory studies however frequently overestimate the level of control achieved by biological control agents in the glasshouse. Before full-scale commercial or field development is considered, glasshouse trials are required to confirm laboratory results. Under both controlled laboratory and glasshouse conditions high mortality of second instar B. tabaci was recorded after application of L. muscarium. The potential of incorporating L. muscarium into integrated pest management strategies for the control of B. tabaci is discussed. PMID:16244900

  9. Inheritance of Resistance to Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a common economic pest in a great number of crops throughout the world. In soybean, they can be vectors of viruses, e.g. soybean crinkle mosaic and soybean dwarf mosaic. Resistance to whitefly has been identified in soybean, however, whitefly resistance genes h...

  10. Head capsule widths of nymphal instars of the cotton fleahopper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current guidelines for distinguishing the five nymphal instars of the cotton fleahopper are based on wing pad characteristics. However, wing pads on earlier instars can be difficult to discern, and distinctions among wing pad characteristics of these instars are rather subtle. Consequently, inexpe...

  11. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  12. Analysis of the Transcriptional Differences between Indigenous and Invasive Whiteflies Reveals Possible Mechanisms of Whitefly Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Liang; Wang, Yu-Jun; Luan, Jun-Bo; Yan, Gen-Hong; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background The whitefly Bemisa tabaci is a species complex of more than 31 cryptic species which include some of the most destructive invasive pests of crops worldwide. Among them, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean have invaded many countries and displaced the native whitefly species. The successful invasion of the two species is largely due to their wide range of host plants, high resistance to insecticides and remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses. However, the molecular differences between invasive and indigenous whiteflies remain largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here the global transcriptional difference between the two invasive whitefly species (MEAM1, MED) and one indigenous whitefly species (Asia II 3) were analyzed using the Illumina sequencing. Our analysis indicated that 2,422 genes between MEAM1 and MED; 3,073 genes between MEAM1 and Asia II 3; and 3,644 genes between MED and Asia II 3 were differentially expressed. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the differently expressed genes between the invasive and indigenous whiteflies were significantly enriched in the term of ‘oxidoreductase activity’. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that carbohydrate, amino acid and glycerolipid metabolisms were more active in MEAM1 and MED than in Asia II 3, which may contribute to their differences in biological characteristics. Our analysis also illustrated that the majority of genes involved in ‘drug metabolic pathway’ were expressed at a higher level in MEAM1 and MED than in Asia II 3. Taken together, these results revealed that the genes related to basic metabolism and detoxification were expressed at an elevated level in the invasive whiteflies, which might be responsible for their higher resistance to insecticides and environmental stresses. Conclusions/Significance The extensive comparison of MEAM1, MED and Asia II 3 gene expression may serve as an invaluable resource for revealing the molecular

  13. Whitefly-transmitted viruses in cucurbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three whitefly-transmitted virsues have recently been reported infecting various cucurbit crops, including squash and watermelon, in Florida. In September 2008, Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Squash vein yellowing virus were found infection cucurbits in west-central Florida....

  14. QTL Mapping of Whitefly Resistance in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most damaging insects attacking crops in the world. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], in addition to causing plant stress and reduced seed size, they also can be vectors of viruses, e.g. soybean crinkle mosaic, and soybean dwarf mosaic. Resistance...

  15. THERMAL COTTON DEFOLIATION: IMPACT ON LATE-SEASON WHITEFLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential upper thermal limits of the silverleaf whitefly were evaluated in the laboratory. Leaves infested with whitefly nymphs and pupae were collected from the field and exposed to a series of increasing temperatures in a drying oven. Heat treatments began at ~158°F (~70°C) and increased at...

  16. Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus: Efficiency of Whitefly Transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a widespread pest. It is highly adaptive and feeds on taxonomically diverse species of plants. This whitefly damages plants directly by feeding on leaves, but the problem is compounded because B. tabaci is known to vector numerous plant virus...

  17. Rugose Spiraling Whitefly: A new invasive pest in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, commonly known as gumbo limbo or rugose spiraling whitefly is a new addition in the list of devastating whitefly species found in Florida. Because it is a fairly new species to science (identified less than a decade ago) not much information is available about thi...

  18. Whitefly-transmitted viruses: cultural strategies in vegetable crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted viruses are important problems in agriculture on a global scale. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a notable vector because of the extensive number of viruses that it transmits and the extensive number of host plants that it feeds on. To help develop str...

  19. Whitefly Transmission of a New Virus Infecting Cucurbits in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A virus isolated from squash collected in Hillsborough County, FL in 2003, which was subsequently determined to be an ipomovirus, was transmitted by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci B strain in laboratory experiments. The virus was acquired by whiteflies after a 3-h access period on infected ...

  20. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistant tomato cultivars are a major tool for management of this economically important virus. Results presented emphasize that such resistant tomatoes can serve as virus and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence virus epidemics....

  1. 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference Proceedings (Abstracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Frank W. Telewski; Lothar H. Koehler; Frank W. Ewers

    2003-07-20

    The 4th International Plant Biomechanics Conference facilitated an interdisciplinary exchange between scientists, engineers, and educators addressing the major questions encountered in the field of Plant Biomechanics. Subjects covered by the conference include: Evolution; Ecology; Mechanoreception; Cell Walls; Genetic Modification; Applied Biomechanics of Whole Plants, Plant Products, Fibers & Composites; Fluid Dynamics; Wood & Trees; Fracture Mechanics; Xylem Pressure & Water Transport; Modeling; and Introducing Plant Biomechanics in Secondary School Education.

  2. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae, against sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) under laboratory and glasshouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, A G S; Walters, K F A; Northing, P; Luo, W

    2007-02-01

    The potential of using the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae to control the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) has been established in previous laboratory studies. However, laboratory studies can overestimate the level of control achieved by biocontrol agents in the glasshouse. Glasshouse trials are therefore required to confirm laboratory results before full-scale commercial development is considered. Under both controlled laboratory and glasshouse conditions high mortality of second instar B. tabaci (>90% and >80%, respectively) was recorded after application of S. feltiae. The efficacy of the biocontrol agent at various application rates was also investigated, where halving the rate of S. feltiae application caused no significant reduction in B. tabaci mortality on tomato foliage. Steinernema feltiae has shown much potential for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies for the control of B. tabaci. PMID:17298677

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Salivary Glands of an Invasive Whitefly

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. Conclusions/Significance: The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands

  4. Analysis of a native whitefly transcriptome and its sequence divergence with two invasive whitefly species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic divergence between invasive and native species may provide insight into the molecular basis underlying specific characteristics that drive the invasion and displacement of closely related species. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of an indigenous species, Asia II 3, of the Bemisia tabaci complex and compared its genetic divergence with the transcriptomes of two invasive whiteflies species, Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), respectively. Results More than 16 million reads of 74 base pairs in length were obtained for the Asia II 3 species using the Illumina sequencing platform. These reads were assembled into 52,535 distinct sequences (mean size: 466 bp) and 16,596 sequences were annotated with an E-value above 10-5. Protein family comparisons revealed obvious diversification among the transcriptomes of these species suggesting species-specific adaptations during whitefly evolution. On the contrary, substantial conservation of the whitefly transcriptomes was also evident, despite their differences. The overall divergence of coding sequences between the orthologous gene pairs of Asia II 3 and MEAM1 is 1.73%, which is comparable to the average divergence of Asia II 3 and MED transcriptomes (1.84%) and much higher than that of MEAM1 and MED (0.83%). This is consistent with the previous phylogenetic analyses and crossing experiments suggesting these are distinct species. We also identified hundreds of highly diverged genes and compiled sequence identify data into gene functional groups and found the most divergent gene classes are Cytochrome P450, Glutathione metabolism and Oxidative phosphorylation. These results strongly suggest that the divergence of genes related to metabolism might be the driving force of the MEAM1 and Asia II 3 differentiation. We also analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms within the orthologous gene pairs of indigenous and invasive whiteflies which are helpful for the investigation of

  5. Bifrost: A 4th Generation Launch Architecture Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrschneider, R. R.; Young, D.; St.Germain, B.; Brown, N.; Crowley, J.; Maatsch, J.; Olds, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    A 4th generation launch architecture is studied for the purpose of drastically reducing launch costs and hence enabling new large mass missions such as space solar power and human exploration of other planets. The architecture consists of a magnetic levitation launch tube placed on the equator with the exit end elevated to approximately 20 km. Several modules exist for sending manned and unmanned payloads into Earth orbit. Analysis of the launch tube operations, launch trajectories, module aerodynamics, propulsion modules, and system costs are presented. Using the hybrid logistics module, it is possible to place payloads into low Earth orbit for just over 100 per lb.

  6. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  7. Resistance of Citrullus Colocynthis to Whiteflies and Spidermites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) are serious pests of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus) (Cucurbitaceae). United ...

  8. A 95 GHz, 4th harmonic gyro-oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, T.A.; Scheitrum, G.P.; Bemis, T.; Higgins, L.

    1994-12-31

    There is currently an interest in medium power ({approximately}100 kW), compact 95 GHz amplifiers for future radar applications. Size, weight, and efficiency are critical for airborne applications. Litton has been investigating a 4th harmonic, 4-cavity gyro-amplifier. The key to success of the amplifier is the axis-encircling electron beam from a new type of electron gun, the advanced center post (ACP) gun. Gun simulations incorporating the actual magnetic field and thermal velocity spread in the emitted electrons show that axial velocity spreads of less than 2% are attainable, which is significantly better than other gun concepts. The amplifier utilizes coaxial-magnetron-type cavities operating in the {pi} mode. In this cavity, vanes extend nearly down to the electron beam`s outside diameter. The majority of the RF stored energy in the system is in the coaxial cavity, so that the resonant frequency and quality factor of each coaxial magnetron cavity may be adjusted by varying only the coaxial cavity. Several components are being tested individually. To test the cavity design, a 4th harmonic oscillator based on a coaxial magnetron cavity has been designed. Results of the oscillator testing will be presented.

  9. Special Issue: 4th International Workshop on Space Radiation (IWSRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This special issue of the journal "Radiation and Environmental Biophysics" contains 20 peer-reviewed papers contributed by leading space radiation researcher's world-wide attending the 4th IWSRR. Manuscripts cover a broad range of topics ranging from radiation environments and transport in shielding and planetary surfaces to new results in understanding the biological effects of protons and high-charge and energy (HZE) nuclei on the risk of cancer, and degenerative diseases such as central nervous system effects, heart disease, and cataracts. The issue provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field, demonstrating both the important results gathered in the past few years with experiments at accelerators, and the need for more research to quantify the risk and develop countermeasures.

  10. [Time--the 4th dimision in medicine and psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Günther

    2003-01-01

    Time is presented as well in his historical meaning and as 4th dimension in its medical and psychotherapeutic context. In this medical and psychotherapeutic process it has an important function and is a variable of a process procedure. The difference between "kairos" = (the right point of time) and "chronos" = (the period of time) is historically meanful. The subjective experienced time is as well emphasized by the development of time in the relation to the development of the "self" as in the subjective experience of time in medical and psychotherapeutic situations. There are also changed conceptions and understandings of time running parallel to the development of nature sciences. The importance of time is explained for the medical practice and the meeting with the patient--especially for chronic diseases. The connection of confidence and time is particularly emphasized in the systemic approach. PMID:12764877

  11. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Breastfeeding and cancer.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Key, Timothy J; Anderson, Annie S; Armaroli, Paola; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Leitzmann, Michael; Norat, Teresa; Powers, Hilary; Schüz, Joachim; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women, and incidence rates have been rising in European Union (EU) countries over recent decades due in part to a sharp decline in breastfeeding practices. Evidence for a protective association between breastfeeding and the risk of breast cancer at all ages is convincing, and modest protective relationships between breastfeeding and the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers have been suggested. The reduction in breast cancer risk is estimated at 2% for an increase of 5 months of lifetime breastfeeding. The longer women breastfeed, the more they are protected against breast cancer. In addition, breastfeeding is associated with several health benefits for both the mother and the breastfed child. Taking all this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Breastfeeding reduces the mother's cancer risk. If you can, breastfeed your baby". PMID:26116994

  12. The Epilepsy Foundation's 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Schachter, Steven C; Sirven, Joseph; Porter, Roger

    2015-05-01

    On June 5 and 6, 2014, the Epilepsy Foundation held its 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference, an initiative of the Epilepsy Therapy Project, which showcased the most promising epilepsy innovations from health-care companies and academic laboratories dedicated to pioneering and advancing drugs, biologics, technologies, devices, and diagnostics for epilepsy. Speakers and attendees included emerging biotech and medical technology companies, major pharmaceutical and device companies, as well as investigators and innovators at the cutting-edge of epilepsy. The program included panel discussions on collaboration between small and large companies, how to get products in need of funding to the marketplace, who is currently funding epilepsy and CNS innovation, and how the NIH facilitates early-stage drug development. Finally, the conference featured the third annual "Shark Tank" competition. The presentations are summarized in this paper, which is followed by a compilation of the meeting poster abstracts. PMID:25922152

  13. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  14. Ecdysteroids and Juvenile Hormones of Whiteflies, Important Insect Vectors for Plant Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs) regulate many physiological events throughout the insect life cycle, including molting, metamorphosis, ecdysis, diapause, reproduction and behavior. Fluctuation of whitefly ecdysteroid levels and the identity of the whitefly molting hormone have only been re...

  15. Compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium and insecticides for eradication of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Walters, Keith F A; Deppe, Carola

    2005-08-01

    The compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium and chemical insecticides used to control the second instar stages of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, was investigated. The effect on spore germination of direct exposure for 24 h to the insecticides imidacloprid, buprofezin, teflubenzuron and nicotine was determined. Only exposure to buprofezin was followed by acceptable spore germination. However, all chemicals significantly reduced spore germination when compared to a water control. Infectivity of L. muscarium in the presence of dry residues of buprofezin, teflubenzuron and nicotine (imidacloprid is a systemic pesticide) on foliage were also investigated. No significant detrimental effects on the level of control of B. tabaci was recorded when compared with fungi applied to residue free foliage on either tomato or verbena plants. Fungi in combination with imidacloprid gave higher B. tabaci mortality on verbena foliage compared to either teflubenzuron or nicotine and fungi combinations. Use of these chemical insecticides with L. muscarium in integrated control programmes for B. tabaci is discussed. PMID:16160767

  16. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zone for the annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of...

  17. 77 FR 39172 - Safety Zone: Skagway Harbor, Skagway, AK for 4th of July Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Skagway Harbor, Skagway, AK for 4th of July... 4th of July Fireworks display. Persons desiring to transit within this safety zone must contact the... Inlet for the City of Skagway, Alaska, sponsored 4th of July fireworks display. A no-action...

  18. Evaluating companion plants and plant products to control sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major insect pest of vegetables and horticultural crops in the southeast US is the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. We are evaluating the effect of companion/ repellent plants and products such as plant oils against this whitefly pest. In laboratory tests, whiteflies were released in potted...

  19. Survey of natural enemies of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt with new local and world records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are some of the most problematic global pests of agricultural crops. Natural enemies serve an effective role in controlling populations of different whitefly species. A survey was conducted to identify and record the natural enemies associated with whiteflies in...

  20. Feeding and development of Nephaspis Oculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on rugose spiraling whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nephaspis oculata (Blatchley, 1917) is a whitefly predatory lady beetle which has been studied for its biological control effect on different whiteflies. Here, we studied the feeding rate and development of this beetle on rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin 2004, an i...

  1. Survey of natural enemies of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt with new location and world records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On a global scale, there is an extensive number of species of whiteflies which feed on an extensive number of host plants. Whiteflies are known to be attacked by diverse natural enemies. A survey was done to access the natural enemies of whiteflies in Egypt. Materials and Methods: New data on the...

  2. A swarm of whiteflies--the first record of gregarious behavior from Eocene Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, Jacek; Drohojowska, Jowita

    2016-04-01

    A new whitefly Snotra christelae gen. et sp. n. is characterized, illustrated, and described from the Baltic amber. It represents the first record of gregarious behavior of Aleyrodinae (Aleyrodidae) whiteflies in fossil state. Implications of this finding on interpretation of whiteflies and their host-plant relationships and evolutionary traits of the group are discussed. PMID:27023734

  3. DNA barcode development for three recent exotic whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invaders in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several new whitefly species have become established in Florida in the past decade. Three, in particular, have caused noticible damage to residential plants in the landscape such as ficus hedges, palms, and bird of paradise. These are fig whitefly (FW), rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), and Bondar’s ...

  4. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm2); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm2 on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest. PMID:25861117

  5. PREFACE: 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shu; Sekino, Tohru; Tanaka, Shun-ichiro; Sato, Tsugio; Lu, Li; Xue, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    The 4th International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM2011) was held in Sendai, Japan, on 2-6 August 2011. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) consists of partial manuscripts which were presented at ISFM2011. Advanced materials have experienced a dramatic increase in demand for research, development and applications. The aim of the International Symposium on Functional Materials (ISFM) was to provide an overview of the present status with historical background and to foresee future trends in the field of functional materials. The 4th symposium, ISFM 2011, covered a wide variety of topics within state-of-the-art advanced materials science and technology, and focused especially on four major categories including: Environmental Materials, Electronic Materials, Energy Materials and Biomedical Materials. As you know, a massive earthquake and the Tsunami that followed occurred near the Tohoku region on 11 March 2011. After the earthquake, although there were many difficulties in continuing to organize the symposium, we received warm encouragement from many researchers and societies, especially from the members of the International Advisory Committee and Organizing Committee, so that ISFM2011 could be held on schedule. We are honored that ISFM2011 was the first formal international academic conference held in the Tohoku area of Japan after the 11 March earthquake. About 140 participants from 14 countries took part in the ISFM2011 symposium, which included five plenary talks by world-leading scientists, 32 invited talks, and many oral and poster presentations. We are delighted to see that many researchers are interested in the synthesis and the properties as well as the applications of functional materials. Many fruitful and exciting research achievements were presented in the symposium. We believe that this symposium provided a good chance for scientists to communicate and exchange opinions with each other. We would also like to

  6. Managing haemophilia for life: 4th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Astermark, J; Dolan, G; Hilberg, T; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Laffan, M; Lassila, R; Lobet, S; Martinoli, C; Perno, C-F

    2014-07-01

    The 4th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Potsdam, Germany, in September 2013 and brought together an international faculty of haemophilia experts and delegates from multidisciplinary backgrounds. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored global perspectives in haemophilia care, discussing practical approaches to the optimal management of haemophilia now and in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance and potential to influence haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Jan Astermark reviews current understanding of risk factors for the development of inhibitory antibodies and discusses whether this risk can be modulated and minimized. Factors key to the improvement of joint health in people with haemophilia are explored, with Carlo Martinoli and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste discussing the utility of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy. Other aspects of care necessary for the prevention and management of joint disease in people with haemophilia are outlined by Thomas Hilberg and Sébastian Lobet, who highlight the therapeutic benefits of physiotherapy and sports therapy. Riitta Lassila and Carlo-Federico Perno describe current knowledge surrounding the risk of transmission of infectious agents via clotting factor concentrates. Finally, different types of extended half-life technology are evaluated by Mike Laffan, with a focus on the practicalities and challenges associated with these products. PMID:24924596

  7. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt. PMID:26164653

  8. Actuation development and evaluation for INSTAR: inertially stabilized rifle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brei, Diann E.; Vendlinski, James; Frecker, Mary I.; Bharti, Smita

    2003-08-01

    In the use of piezoelectric actuators, it is a clear choice to use stack (or d33 mode) architectures when very high force is required or benders (or d31 mode) architectures when very high displacements are needed. However, the choice isn't as clear for applications that need simultaneously a moderate force and displacement. This paper presents one such application, INSTAR that is posed with this dilemma. INSTAR is a novel rifle system that has an inertially stabilized barrel via an active suspension based on piezoelectric actuation. While the frequency required for this application was low (~10Hz), the displacement (+/- 200 to 400 microns) and the force (22-45 N) are moderate. Two very different actuation approaches were developed, modeled, fabricated and experimentally validated within the INSTAR demonstration platform: 1) a d31 approach based on the Recurve architecture with focus on generating higher forces than is common for d31 actuators and 2) a d33 approach based upon a compliant mechanism designed using topology optimization with focus on providing more amplified strain than is common for d33 actuators. Both approaches were successful in meeting the INSTAR requirements, but each had its on advantages and disadvantages.

  9. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace". PMID:26272517

  10. PREFACE: 4th International Hadron Physics Conference (TROIA'14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağ, Hüseyin; Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ

    2014-11-01

    The 4th International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'14, was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 1-5 July 2014. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. It aimed at bringing together the experts and the young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 50 participants from 10 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: . Chiral Perturbation Theory . QCD Sum Rules . Effective Field Theory . Exotic Hadrons . Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD . Experimental Results and Future Perspectives . Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks. The speakers of the invited talks were: C. Alexandrou, A. Gal, L. Tolos, J.R. Pelaez and M. Schindler. We had also guest speakers D. A. Demir and T. Senger. The conference venue was a resort hotel around Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient Troia town and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to supporting agencies and to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Bora Işıldak, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 30.10.2014 The Editors

  11. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Instar Effects on Rate of Parasitism by Eretmocerus mundus and Encarsia pergandiella (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to compare preference among Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, Biotype B instars for parasitization by Encarsia pergandiella Howard and Eretmocerus mundus Mercet when provided one instar only, two different instars, and four different instars simultaneously. In the single instar-choic...

  12. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  13. Persistent, circulative transmission of begomoviruses by whitefly vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Begomoviruses comprise an emerging and economically important group of plant viruses exclusively transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci in many regions of the world. The past twenty years have witnessed significant progress in studying the molecular interactions between members of th...

  14. Q-BIOTYPE WHITEFLY: A TIME FOR ACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grower’s who have been watching the news are aware that, earlier this spring, an agricultural frenzy threatened to develop following the discovery of the Q-Biotype whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) by Dr. Tim Dennehy at the University of Arizona. The cotton industry in Arizona and California was alarmed, Ar...

  15. Control of rugose spiraling whitefly using biological insecticides, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selected biological insecticides against a new invasive whitefly pest, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, in white bird of paradise under field condition. The trial was conducted at United States Horticultural Research Laboratory in Fort P...

  16. MANAGING WHITEFLY VECTORS OF THREE CUCURBIT VIRUSES NEW TO FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, three whitefly-transmitted viruses have become a serious problem for growers of cucurbits, especially watermelon, in Florida. Squash vein yellowing virus, an Ipomovirus transmitted in a semi-persistent manner, was identified in 2005 as the causal agent of watermelon vine decline (WV...

  17. Reliable molecular identification of nine tropical whitefly species

    PubMed Central

    Ovalle, Tatiana M; Parsa, Soroush; Hernández, Maria P; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    The identification of whitefly species in adult stage is problematic. Morphological differentiation of pupae is one of the better methods for determining identity of species, but it may vary depending on the host plant on which they develop which can lead to misidentifications and erroneous naming of new species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment amplified from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene is often used for mitochondrial haplotype identification that can be associated with specific species. Our objective was to compare morphometric traits against DNA barcode sequences to develop and implement a diagnostic molecular kit based on a RFLP-PCR method using the COI gene for the rapid identification of whiteflies. This study will allow for the rapid diagnosis of the diverse community of whiteflies attacking plants of economic interest in Colombia. It also provides access to the COI sequence that can be used to develop predator conservation techniques by establishing which predators have a trophic linkage with the focal whitefly pest species. PMID:25614792

  18. Evaluating plant and plant oil repellency against the sweetpotato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci is a major insect pest of vegetables world-wide. We evaluated the effect of commercial plant oils – garlic oil, hot pepper wax, and mustard oil against B. tabaci. Cucumber plants served as the control. Additional treatments included no plants or oil (clear ai...

  19. Superoxide Dismutase activity in temperature stressed viruliferous whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies’ remarkable ability to transmit and spread begomovirus diseases has had an immense impact on global food production and thus they have become one of the most serious crop pests throughout much of the world. Our hypothesis is that the ability of the whitefly to survive under extreme temper...

  20. Biotype Q in North America and whitefly control update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly control is still a major issue. We will discuss a rotation project that was published this year and our future plans to extend this work to additional rotation research in order to better manage resistance. This is extremely critical in light of the demands on the industry to reduce the use...

  1. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  2. Urban Infrasound Observations - Examples from July 4th 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, S.; Hayward, C.; Golden, P.; McKenna, M.; Simpson, C.

    2012-12-01

    , the Heroy Building Rooftop Array, is a two-element 30m line on a single rooftop. Large-scale fireworks displays in Dallas on 4 July 2012 provided an opportunity to identify and characterize known signals in an urban setting. The identified events were associated with one of these fireworks displays about 2 km from the arrays. Signals from these sources were used to tune processing parameters for an automatic coherent detection process, Progressive Multichannel Correlation Method (PMCC). PMCC was then used to scan the data for all possible firework sources in the urban environment and determine temporal, back azimuth, apparent velocity, and frequency information about the sources. The signal frequencies seen were 10-80 Hz and documented the details of the nearly 30 minute firework show. The resulting PMCC analysis showed potential to effectively identify other, lower frequency sources in the urban environment. These data were also is used to characterize the noise environment. Significant roof-to-roof noise differences may be related to the building configurations and mechanical equipment, as well as the interactions of the winds with the structures. During the evening of July 4th , additional ground deployed infrasound gauges provided a comparison of free surface and rooftop measurements. Permission to publish was granted by Director, Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory.

  3. Characterization of whitefly and whitefly-borne virus populations in tomato- and sweet pepper-growing greenhouses in the Cartago province, Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop production in greenhouse environments requires special care. Poor management can favor pest related problems which can lead to economic losses. Whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses are major constraints to the production of tomato and sweet pepper both in field and greenhouses settings. Limit...

  4. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display safety zone, from 9 a.m. through 10...

  5. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Skills of 4th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Didem; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of cooperative learning strategies on the vocabulary skills of 4th grade students. The study was also designed to ascertain the attitudes of the students in the experimental group towards cooperative learning. Out of 96 4th grade students enrolled in the private school where the study took…

  6. The school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...

  7. 75 FR 34636 - Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks Display... temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Lake Tahoe, for the Jameson Beach 4th of July Fireworks... has a substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt State law...

  8. 75 FR 34639 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA in the Federal Register (75 FR 26157). We received no comments on... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's... the Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic...

  9. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina... Berkeley Pier, Berkeley, CA in support of the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display... used in the fireworks display. Background and Purpose The City of Berkeley Marina will sponsor the...

  10. 75 FR 26157 - Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's Creek, Reedville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Reedville July 4th Celebration, Cockrell's..., VA in support of the Reedville July 4th Celebration event. This action is intended to restrict...

  11. Science Content Courses: Workshop in Food Chemistry for 4th Grade School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiyapechara, S.; Dong, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A science content course in food chemistry was offered as a 4-day summer workshop from 1999 to 2001 to 4th grade school teachers in the Seattle School District. The objectives of the workshop were to increase the teachers' knowledge of food science, to perform simple experiments that could be used in the 4th grade classroom, and to help the…

  12. Molecular characterization with RAPD-PCR: Application of genetic diagnostics to biological control of the sweetpotato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of genetic diagnostics under the umbrella of classical taxonomy was imperative for successful development and delivery of the biological control program against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius biotype B (= silverleaf whitefly, B. argentifolii Bellows and Perring)....

  13. An Adaptive Kernel Smoothing Method for Classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Guanjun; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks’ rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby’s growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods. PMID:26546689

  14. Comparison of three single-nozzle operator-carried spray applicators for whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) management on squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies cause problems in vegetable production on a global scale. The primary worldwide whitefly pest is Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Insecticides are commonly used to mitigate the whitefly problem in vegetable crops. In limited-resource crop production, operator-carried spray applicators are comm...

  15. 29. VIEW OF 4TH FLOOR'S TELEPHONE RACKS WITH CABLE TRAYS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF 4TH FLOOR'S TELEPHONE RACKS WITH CABLE TRAYS ABOVE. THESE ARE NEWER APPARATUS AND NOT ORIGINAL. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 4th floor roof, view west, north side of setback to left and delivery stair bulkhead to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  17. TID Test Results for 4th Generation iPad(TradeMark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, S. M.; Allen, G. R.; McClure, S. S.; LaBel, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    TID testing of 4th generation iPads is reported. Of iPad subsystems, results indicate that the charging circuitry and display drivers fail at lowest TID levels. Details of construction are investigated for additional testing of components.

  18. 18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED OFFSHORE VIEW OF 4TH TEE, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TRANSITION FROM WOOD BENTS TO CONCRETE BENTS - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. Extended survival of spiders (Aranaeae) feeding on whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) honeydew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew produced by homopteran insects such as aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, can be abundant in some crops and may represent an important food resource for spiders and other honeydew feeding natural enemies. Woolly whiteflies are common in south Texas citrus, and spiders consistently make up a...

  20. Combining Reflective Mulch and Host Plant Resistance for Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Management in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of reflective mulch and host plant resistance for the management of the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunberg) Matsum & Nakai]. Whitefly abundance data were collected under both g...

  1. Evaluation of Serangium parcesetosum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a biological control agent of the silverleaf whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coccinellid predator from India, Serangium parcesetosum Sicard, was studied as a potential biological control agent of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring [also known as the sweetpotato whitefly, B. tahaci (Gennadius) Biotype B]. Studies were performed on prey prefere...

  2. Life history and biological control of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. Since then, the whitefly has been found throughout southern Florida, as well as along both coasts of Florida up to central Florida. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followe...

  3. Enhanced Vitellogenesis in a Whitefly via Feeding on a Begomovirus-Infected Plant

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiu-ling; Cheng, Lu; Wan, Fang-Hao; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Zhou, Xue-ping; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Background The MEAM1 (B biotype) Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most widespread and damaging whitefly cryptic species. Our previous studies discovered that the MEAM1 whitefly indirectly benefits from interactions with the tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) via accelerated ovarian development and increased fecundity. However, the physiological mechanism of begomoviruse-infected plants acting on the reproduction of the insect vector was unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Biochemical and molecular properties of vitellogenin (Vg) and vitellin (Vt) were characterized in the MEAM1 whitefly. In addition, kinetics of Vt levels in ovary and Vg levels in hemolymph in different stages were detected using a sandwich ELISA. The level of hemolymph Vg increased rapidly after eclosion. A significantly higher level of hemolymph Vg and ovary Vt were observed in whiteflies feeding on virus-infected tobacco plants than those feeding on uninfected plants. In order to detect the levels of Vg mRNA transcription, complete vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA transcripts of 6474 bp were sequenced. Vg mRNA level in whiteflies feeding on virus-infected plants was higher than those feeding on uninfected plants. However, virus-infection of the whiteflies per se, as demonstrated using an artificial diet system, did not produce significant changes in Vg mRNA level. Conclusions/Significance In MEAM1 whitefly, increased levels of both vitellin and vitellogenin as well as increased transcription of Vg mRNA are associated with feeding on begomovirus-infected plants, thus providing a mechanism for accelerated vitellogenesis. We conclude that MEAM1 whitefly profits from feeding on begomovirus-infected plants for yolk protein synthesis and uptake, and thereby increases its fecundity. These results not only provide insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the elevated reproduction of a whitefly species through its association with a begomovirus-infected plant, but

  4. Systematically frameshifting by deletion of every 4th or 4th and 5th nucleotides during mitochondrial transcription: RNA self-hybridization regulates delRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, secondary structures punctuate post-transcriptional RNA processing. Recently described transcripts match the human mitogenome after systematic deletions of every 4th, respectively every 4th and 5th nucleotides, called delRNAs. Here I explore predicted stem-loop hairpin formation by delRNAs, and their associations with delRNA transcription and detected peptides matching their translation. Despite missing 25, respectively 40% of the nucleotides in the original sequence, del-transformed sequences form significantly more secondary structures than corresponding randomly shuffled sequences, indicating biological function, independently of, and in combination with, previously detected delRNA and thereof translated peptides. Self-hybridization decreases delRNA abundances, indicating downregulation. Systematic deletions of the human mitogenome reveal new, unsuspected coding and structural informations. PMID:27018206

  5. 75 FR 38721 - Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay, Lake Superior, Munising, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Munising 4th of July Fireworks, South Bay... is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of South Bay during the Munising 4th of July Fireworks... from hazards associated with the Munising 4th of July Fireworks display. Based on the explosive...

  6. 75 FR 34369 - Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks, Chicago, Illinois in the Federal Register (75 FR 22330). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration... associated with the City of Chicago's July 4th Celebration Fireworks. The Captain of the Port, Sector...

  7. 75 FR 34379 - Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Huron during the Mackinac Island 4th of July Fireworks... with the Mackinac Island 4th of July fireworks display. The fireworks display will occur between 9:45...

  8. 75 FR 38718 - Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks, St. Mary's River, Sault Sainte Marie, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks... the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks display, July ] 4, 2010. This temporary safety zone is... with the Sault Sainte Marie 4th of July Fireworks display. The fireworks display is planned to...

  9. Instar determination in forensically useful beetles Necrodes littoralis (Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2014-08-01

    In order to estimate postmortem interval from immature insects, it is necessary to accurately determine which instars are present in a corpse sample. Unfortunately, most forensically useful beetles lack morphological features specific for particular instars, and the only way to distinguish larval instars of particular species is to measure their size. The aim of this study was to test which measurements are useful for instar determination of Necrodes littoralis (Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae) and how to combine them to get accurate and easy to use instar classifier. Six morphological features were measured: distance between dorsal stemmata, width of the pronotum, length of the body, width of the mesonotum, width of the eighth abdominal tergite and length of the first segment of urogomphus. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to create and validate classifiers. Validation was made with fully sclerotized larvae and larvae just after ecdysis (not fully sclerotized and coloured). All the features were found to be useful for instar determination. The most useful features were the width of the mesonotum and the distance between dorsal stemmata. Complete classifiers (the ones incorporating all features) assigned larvae to instars with no misclassifications, unless larval specimens were just after ecdysis. Even in the case of larvae just after ecdysis complete classifiers were highly effective, although some third instars of C. maxillosus were misclassified as second instars. Simple classifiers (the ones incorporating only two, the best features) performed similarly well with fully sclerotized larvae, but in the case of larvae just after ecdysis they revealed higher misclassification rate than complete classifiers. These results indicate that measurement of any highly sclerotized larval structure of N. littoralis and C. maxillosus may be useful for instar determination. They also show that fully sclerotized larvae may be accurately classified

  10. The Facultative Symbiont Rickettsia Protects an Invasive Whitefly against Entomopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Martha S.; Baltrus, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Facultative endosymbionts can benefit insect hosts in a variety of ways, including context-dependent roles, such as providing defense against pathogens. The role of some symbionts in defense may be overlooked, however, when pathogen infection is transient, sporadic, or asymptomatic. The facultative endosymbiont Rickettsia increases the fitness of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in some populations through mechanisms that are not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Rickettsia in mediating the interaction between the sweet potato whitefly and Pseudomonas syringae, a common environmental bacterium, some strains of which are pathogenic to aphids. Our results show that P. syringae multiplies within whiteflies, leading to host death, and that whiteflies infected with Rickettsia show a decreased rate of death due to P. syringae. Experiments using plants coated with P. syringae confirmed that whiteflies can acquire the bacteria at a low rate while feeding, leading to increased mortality, particularly when the whiteflies are not infected with Rickettsia. These results suggest that P. syringae may affect whitefly populations in nature and that Rickettsia can ameliorate this effect. This study highlights the possible importance of interactions among opportunistic environmental pathogens and endosymbionts of insects. PMID:25217020

  11. Elevated O3 enhances the attraction of whitefly-infested tomato plants to Encarsia formosa

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongying; Su, Jianwei; Wei, Jianing; Hu, Yongjian; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally examined the effects of elevated O3 and whitefly herbivory on tomato volatiles, feeding and oviposition preferences of whiteflies and behavioural responses of Encarsia formosa to these emissions on two tomato genotypes, a wild-type (Wt) and a jasmonic acid (JA) defence-enhanced genotype (JA-OE, 35S). The O3 level and whitefly herbivory significantly increased the total amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), monoterpenes, green leaf volatiles (GLVs), and aldehyde volatiles produced by tomato plants. The 35S plants released higher amount of total VOCs and monoterpene volatiles than Wt plants under O3+herbivory treatments. The feeding and oviposition bioassays showed that control plants were preferred by adult whiteflies whereas the 35S plants were not preferred by whiteflies. In the Y-tube tests, O3+herbivory treatment genotypes were preferred by adult E. Formosa. The 35S plants were preferred by adult E. formosa under O3, herbivory and O3+herbivory treatments. Our results demonstrated that elevated O3 and whitefly herbivory significantly increased tomato volatiles, which attracted E. formosa and reduced whitefly feeding. The 35S plants had a higher resistance to B. tabaci than Wt plant. Such changes suggest that the direct and indirect defences of resistant genotypes, such as 35S, could strengthen as the atmospheric O3 concentration increases. PMID:24939561

  12. Effects of azadirachtin, abamectin, and spinosad on sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomato plants under laboratory and greenhouse conditions in the humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prabhat; Poehling, H M

    2007-04-01

    Direct and residual toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S (azadirachtin), Success (spinosad), and abamectin was tested against different life stages of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), under air-conditioned laboratory conditions and in a tropical net greenhouse. NeemAzal-T/S and abamectin deterred the settling of adults on tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (Solanaceae), plants and consequently reduced egg deposition. No such effect was detected for Success. All three pesticides influenced egg hatch. Effects of NeemAzal-T/ S were significantly altered if applied to different-aged eggs (1, 3, and 5 d old). In contrast, abamectin-treated eggs failed to hatch at any given age class. All three products caused heavy mortality of the three nymphal stages of B. tabaci, with the first instars being most susceptible, abamectin-treated nymphs died within 24 h postapplication. In contrast, 100% nymphal mortality with NeemAzal-T/S and Success was reached 6-9 d postapplication. abamectin caused 100% immature mortality at all residue ages (1, 5, 10, and 15 d) in the laboratory and greenhouse as well. Persistence of Success was comparably high in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse a faster decline of activity was evident by increased egg deposition, egg hatch, and reduced rates of immature mortality. Toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S however gradually declined under greenhouse conditions with time (5 d) postapplication. The findings are discussed within the context of integrated management of whitefly under protected cultivation in the humid tropics. PMID:17461066

  13. 20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH FLOOR WITH WHITE GLAZED TERRA COTTA SILL AND HEADERS. MULLIONS ARE ORANGE BROWN BRICKS LIKE THE WALLS. BRICKS ARE IN FLEMISH BOND PATTERN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. Using 4th order Runge-Kutta method for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, Miftachul; Anderson, Malcolm; Husein, Andri

    2016-03-01

    We study numerical solution, especially using 4th order Runge-Kutta method, for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation. We find numerically that the value of minimum energy per unit length of vortex solution for a twisted Skyrmion string is 20.37 × 1060 eV/m.

  15. 77 FR 39408 - Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Buffalo July 4th Fireworks, Lake Erie, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  16. Assessment of an Engineering Technology Outreach Program for 4th-7th Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Elizabeth M.; Christman, Jeanne; Garrick, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop led by female Engineering Technology students, with support from female faculty, to provide an introduction to Engineering Technology to 4th-7th grade girls through a series of interactive laboratory experiments. This outreach program was developed to improve attitudes towards science and engineering in middle…

  17. 75 FR 33170 - Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Martinez 4th of July Fireworks, Martinez, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for the launching of fireworks being sponsored by the City of...

  18. Improving Social Interaction among 4th Grade Students through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Shannon; Karwowski, Sandra; Shudes-Eitel, Jennifer

    This action research project implemented a program for improving social skills in order to establish positive interaction among 4th grade students at a northern Chicago suburban school. Social skills deficiency was documented through behavior checklists and referrals, teacher observations and student reflection. Teachers reported that low incomes,…

  19. Relationships between Grade Levels, Personal Factors, and Instructional Variation among 4th-12th Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate relationships between grade levels, personal factors of teachers, and instructional variety used by 4th-12th grade teachers in Kern County, California. The population under investigation included 2,844 teachers. 235 elementary, middle school/junior high, and secondary teachers…

  20. 77 FR 56208 - Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Kentucky has scheduled a...

  1. Reading Development and Achievement of 4th-Grade Hmong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahowald, Megan; Loughnane, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have noted that Hmong students in the United States do not achieve as well as their monolingual peers and other bilingual students. The current mixed-methods study is designed to describe reading development and achievement of 4th-grade Hmong students in one large, urban school district. This study explores the…

  2. MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH MAIN CEMETERY GATE TO CEMETERY'S MAIN STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18276, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  3. Polarimetric Microwave Emission from Snow Surface: 4th Strokes Component Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of ice on the polarimetric 4th Stokes component observations is investigated using WindSat data over Antarctica. The difference in the magnitude of the signal observed during (July 2003) and summer (February 2004) months is investigated using a second harmonic sine function of the azimuth...

  4. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY. 165.166 Section 165.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation...

  5. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  6. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  7. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  8. 33 CFR 165.166 - Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th Fireworks, East River, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (2) No vessels, except the Staten Island Ferries, will be allowed to transit the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Macy's July 4th... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...

  9. 11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO NORTHEAST, WITH WRAPPER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND CUTTER (RIGHT, BEHIND CHUTE); BUCKET CONVEYOR AT RIGHT MOVED WASTE FROM PRESS TO 5TH FLOOR FOR RE-MANUFACTURE - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  10. 4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4th level of 1945 warehouse indicating drag conveyor. From here screenings were pumped from the elevator leg to this conveyor. The grains were ground, then conveyed back down to the first floor for bagging. - Stewart Company Grain Elevator, 16 West Carson Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 94. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH 4TH TEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. VIEW OF PILINGS ON SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH 4TH TEE IN THE BACKGROUND, FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE TACKLE BOX. RAMP OF PIER EXTENSION IS VISIBLE ON RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Citrus Spiny Whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Implications for the Phylogeny of Whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Mu, Li-Xia; Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (15,220 bp) of the citrus spiny whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance), a well-known pest from the superfamily Aleyrodidae. The A. spiniferus mitogenome contains 36 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and a large non-coding region (control region, CR). Like most whiteflies, the A. spiniferus mitogenome had a large degree of rearrangement due to translocation of the nad3-trnG-cox3 gene cluster. The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN and generally terminated with TAA, although some used TAG or T as stop codons; atp6 showed the highest evolutionary rate, whereas cox2 appeared to have the lowest rate. The A. spiniferus mitogenome had 21 tRNAs with a typical cloverleaf secondary structure composed of four arms. Modeling of the two rRNA genes indicated that their secondary structure was similar to that of other insects. The CR of A. spiniferus was 920 bp and mapped between the nad3-trnG-cox3 and trnI-trnM gene clusters. One potential stem-loop structure and five tandem repeats were identified in the CR. Phylogenetic relationships of 11 species from the Aleyrodidae were analyzed based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the 13 PCGs and evolutionary characteristics were explored. Species with more genetic rearrangements were generally more evolved within the Aleyrodidae. PMID:27551782

  13. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Citrus Spiny Whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Implications for the Phylogeny of Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Mu, Li-Xia; Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (15,220 bp) of the citrus spiny whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance), a well-known pest from the superfamily Aleyrodidae. The A. spiniferus mitogenome contains 36 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and a large non-coding region (control region, CR). Like most whiteflies, the A. spiniferus mitogenome had a large degree of rearrangement due to translocation of the nad3-trnG-cox3 gene cluster. The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN and generally terminated with TAA, although some used TAG or T as stop codons; atp6 showed the highest evolutionary rate, whereas cox2 appeared to have the lowest rate. The A. spiniferus mitogenome had 21 tRNAs with a typical cloverleaf secondary structure composed of four arms. Modeling of the two rRNA genes indicated that their secondary structure was similar to that of other insects. The CR of A. spiniferus was 920 bp and mapped between the nad3-trnG-cox3 and trnI-trnM gene clusters. One potential stem-loop structure and five tandem repeats were identified in the CR. Phylogenetic relationships of 11 species from the Aleyrodidae were analyzed based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the 13 PCGs and evolutionary characteristics were explored. Species with more genetic rearrangements were generally more evolved within the Aleyrodidae. PMID:27551782

  14. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Brittany E.; Miller, Dini M.

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. PMID:26463070

  15. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brittany E; Miller, Dini M

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. PMID:26463070

  16. New state record for the silverleaf whitefly parasitoid Encarsia sophia in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hymenopteran parasitoid reared, Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) (= transvena Timberlake) [Aphelinidae], from silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), was collected with their host remains from infested cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in a greenhouse and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L., planted ...

  17. THE FIRST LASING OF 193 NM SASE, 4TH HARMONIC HGHG AND ESASE AT THE NSLS SDL.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG, X.J.; SHEN Y.; WATANABE, T.; MURPHY, J.B.; ROSE, J.; TSANG, T.

    2006-08-28

    The first lasing of three types of single-pass high-gain FELs, SASE at 193 nm, 4th harmonic HGHG at 199 nm and ESASE at the Source Development Lab (SDL) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is reported. The saturation of 4th harmonic HGHG and ESASE FELs was observed. We also observed the spectral broadening and instability of the 4th harmonic HGHG.

  18. Insect stings to change gear for healthy plant: Improving maize drought tolerance by whitefly infestation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-05-01

    Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants. Interestingly, the fresh weight of whitefly-infested maize plants is approximately 20% higher than in non-infected control plants under water stress conditions. Further investigation has revealed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulates in whitefly-infested maize plants after water stoppage. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of phytohormones- (i.e., IAA and JA) and H2O2-mediated maize signaling pathways triggered by aboveground whitefly infestation promotes drought resistance. They also provide an insight into how inter-kingdom interactions can improve drought tolerance in plants. PMID:27164447

  19. Imidacloprid applications by subirrigation for control of silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on poinsettia.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, M W; Oetting, R D; Hall, D B

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether silverleaf whiteflies, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotsch, can be controlled with imidacloprid applied by subirrigation. Different amounts of imidacloprid uptake by the growing medium were obtained by not watering the subirrigated plants for 0, 1, 2, or 4 d before the imidacloprid application. These treatments resulted in absorption of 12-175 ml of imidacloprid solution by the growing medium. These treatments were compared with untreated control plants and plants that were treated with a standard drench application (100 ml) to the top of the growing medium. All imidacloprid treatments resulted in a significant decrease in both the survival of adult whiteflies and number of immature whiteflies on the plants. Subirrigation treatments resulted in better control of adult and immature whiteflies than drench application. Withholding water for 2 or 4 d before the imidacloprid application by subirrigation improved control of immature whiteflies. This indicates that the application of imidacloprid to poinsettia by subirrigation is a practical and efficient method to control silverleaf whiteflies. PMID:10902335

  20. Mutation of a Cuticle Protein Gene, BmCPG10, Is Responsible for Silkworm Non-Moulting in the 2nd Instar Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiaoling; Kang, Lequn; Xia, Dingguo; Qiu, Zhiyong; Tang, Shunming; Li, Muwang; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng

    2016-01-01

    In the silkworm, metamorphosis and moulting are regulated by ecdysone hormone and juvenile hormone. The subject in the present study is a silkworm mutant that does not moult in the 2nd instar (nm2). Genetic analysis indicated that the nm2 mutation is controlled by a recessive gene and is homozygous lethal. Based on positional cloning, nm2 was located in a region approximately 275 kb on the 5th linkage group by eleven SSR polymorphism markers. In this specific range, according to the transcriptional expression of thirteen genes and cloning, the relative expression level of the BmCPG10 gene that encodes a cuticle protein was lower than the expression level of the wild-type gene. Moreover, this gene’s structure differs from that of the wild-type gene: there is a deletion of 217 bp in its open reading frame, which resulted in a change in the protein it encoded. The BmCPG10 mRNA was detectable throughout silkworm development from the egg to the moth. This mRNA was low in the pre-moulting and moulting stages of each instar but was high in the gluttonous stage and in newly exuviated larvae. The BmCPG10 mRNA showed high expression levels in the epidermis, head and trachea, while the expression levels were low in the midgut, Malpighian tubule, prothoracic gland, haemolymph and ventral nerve cord. The ecdysone titre was determined by ELISA, and the results demonstrated that the ecdysone titre of nm2 larvae was lower than that of the wild-type larvae. The nm2 mutant could be rescued by feeding 20-hydroxyecdysone, cholesterol and 7—dehydrocholesterol (7dC), but the rescued nm2 only developed to the 4th instar and subsequently died. The moulting time of silkworms could be delayed by BmCPG10 RNAi. Thus, we speculated that the mutation of BmCPG10 was responsible for the silkworm mutant that did not moult in the 2nd instar. PMID:27096617

  1. Mutation of a Cuticle Protein Gene, BmCPG10, Is Responsible for Silkworm Non-Moulting in the 2nd Instar Mutant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Pingyang; Zhao, Qiaoling; Kang, Lequn; Xia, Dingguo; Qiu, Zhiyong; Tang, Shunming; Li, Muwang; Shen, Xingjia; Zhang, Guozheng

    2016-01-01

    In the silkworm, metamorphosis and moulting are regulated by ecdysone hormone and juvenile hormone. The subject in the present study is a silkworm mutant that does not moult in the 2nd instar (nm2). Genetic analysis indicated that the nm2 mutation is controlled by a recessive gene and is homozygous lethal. Based on positional cloning, nm2 was located in a region approximately 275 kb on the 5th linkage group by eleven SSR polymorphism markers. In this specific range, according to the transcriptional expression of thirteen genes and cloning, the relative expression level of the BmCPG10 gene that encodes a cuticle protein was lower than the expression level of the wild-type gene. Moreover, this gene's structure differs from that of the wild-type gene: there is a deletion of 217 bp in its open reading frame, which resulted in a change in the protein it encoded. The BmCPG10 mRNA was detectable throughout silkworm development from the egg to the moth. This mRNA was low in the pre-moulting and moulting stages of each instar but was high in the gluttonous stage and in newly exuviated larvae. The BmCPG10 mRNA showed high expression levels in the epidermis, head and trachea, while the expression levels were low in the midgut, Malpighian tubule, prothoracic gland, haemolymph and ventral nerve cord. The ecdysone titre was determined by ELISA, and the results demonstrated that the ecdysone titre of nm2 larvae was lower than that of the wild-type larvae. The nm2 mutant could be rescued by feeding 20-hydroxyecdysone, cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7dC), but the rescued nm2 only developed to the 4th instar and subsequently died. The moulting time of silkworms could be delayed by BmCPG10 RNAi. Thus, we speculated that the mutation of BmCPG10 was responsible for the silkworm mutant that did not moult in the 2nd instar. PMID:27096617

  2. Persistent, circulative transmission of begomoviruses by whitefly vectors.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ran; Kanakala, Surapathrudu; Kliot, Adi; Cathrin Pakkianathan, Britto; Farich, Basheer Abu; Santana-Magal, Nadine; Elimelech, Meytar; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Cilia, Michelle; Ghanim, Murad

    2015-12-01

    Begomoviruses comprise an emerging and economically important group of plant viruses exclusively transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci in many regions of the world. The past twenty years have witnessed significant progress in studying the molecular interactions between members of this virus group and B. tabaci. Mechanisms and proteins encoded by the insect vector and its bacterial symbionts, which have been shown to be important for virus transmission, have been identified and thoroughly studied. Despite the economic importance of this group of viruses and their impact on the global agriculture, progress in investigating the virus-vector interactions is moving slowly when compared with similar virus-vector systems in plants and animals. Major advances in this field and future perspectives will be discussed in this review. PMID:26196230

  3. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented. PMID:18575693

  4. [Last instar larva and pupa of Melipotis cellaris (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2010-01-01

    The last instar larva and pupa of Melipotis cellaris (Guenée) are described and illustrated, based on specimens collected in northern Chile, associated with Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae). PMID:21120382

  5. 11th National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4th Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B.; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho e Melo, Teresa M.V.D.; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  6. 11(th) National Meeting of Organic Chemistry and 4(th) Meeting of Therapeutic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Maria Emília; Araújo, Maria João; do Vale, Maria Luísa; Andrade, Paula B; Branco, Paula; Gomes, Paula; Moreira, Rui; Pinho E Melo, Teresa M V D; Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    For the first time under the auspices of Sociedade Portuguesa de Química, the competences of two important fields of Chemistry are brought together into a single event, the 11st National Organic Chemistry Meeting and the the 4th National Medicinal Chemistry Meeting, to highlight complementarities and to promote new synergies. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27102166

  7. 10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 4TH FLOOR, HOTEL SOAP LINE No. 6 TO SOUTHWEST, WITH AUTOMATIC CUTTER (LEFT), PRESS (CENTER), AND WRAPPER (RIGHT); LARGE CHUTE AT CENTER FROM 5TH FLOOR BINS TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS; OVERHEAD AND FLOOR (LOWER RIGHT) FINISHED GOODS CONVEYORS TO G BLOCK (HAER NO. NJ-71-NN) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  8. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-01-01

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters.  PMID:24870629

  9. The structure and morphogenic changes of antennae of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Matsucoccidae) in different instars.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Yingping; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Weimin; Wu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    To better understand the functioning and morphogenic changes of the antennae of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana) in different instars, the antennae are examined using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the antennae of M. matsumurae display three different styles in morphology and sensillar distribution in different instars. The antennae of first instar nymphs are relatively simple, including one campaniform sensillum (Ca), four smooth aporous trichoid sensilla (SAt), two intersegmental sensilla (Ins), two coeloconic sensilla (Co), three multiporous pegs (Mp) and four uniporous pegs (Up). The antennae of adult females and third instar male nymphs both possess similar antennae, and exhibit seven types of sensilla. Adult female antennae have in total 82-108 sensilla, including 9-16 Böhm's bristle (Bb), 3-7 Ca, 50-75 SAt, 0-3 Ins, 3-10 Co, 8 Mp and 5 Up, whereas third instar male nymph antennae possess approximately 62-79 sensilla. Adult male antennae are the most developed, possessing 259-312 sensilla, including 7-15 Bb, 2-5 Ca, 7-11 grooved aporous trichoid sensilla, 4-9 SAt, 0-3 Ins, 2-7 Co, 23-29 knobbed seta sensilla, 179-230 multiporous trichoid sensilla and 8 Mp. Based on these results, the main functions and morphogenic changes of antennae M. matsumurae in different instars are discussed. PMID:26849968

  10. Enhanced Whitefly Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing Double Stranded RNA of v-ATPase A Gene

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Nidhi; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Verma, Praveen C.; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Pradhyumna K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA) designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi), thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA) coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. Conclusions/Significance Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops. PMID:24595215

  11. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

  12. Effect of three irrigation methods on incidences of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and some whitefly-transmitted viruses in four vegetable crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies and whitefly-transmitted viruses cause major agricultural problems in environments ranging from arid to humid climates. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of some cultural irrigation practices (drip, furrow and sprinkler) on the population of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisi...

  13. Instar growth and molt increments in Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) chalimus larvae.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Christiane; Hamre, Lars Are; Nilsen, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an ectoparasitic copepod causing severe problems to the fish farming industry and to wild salmonids. Morphologically, all stages in the life cycle of L. salmonis have been described in detail based on successive samples from host populations. However, the rate of development differs between males and females as well as between individuals. It has therefore been difficult to observe development within stages, and this has led to a longstanding misinterpretation of the number of chalimus stages. Here samples of chalimi obtained for 12 consecutive days were observed daily in incubators. Chalimus 1 was able to molt in incubators only when fully grown and close to molting, whereas chalimus 2 was able to molt at about 60% of total instar growth. Total length instar growth was about 35% in both chalimus 1 and chalimus 2 and about equal among males and females; the cephalothorax increased by about 12% and the posterior body by about 80%. Instar growth was probably the main factor that led to the former belief that L. salmonis had four chalimus stages. Relative total length increase at molting was at the same order of magnitude as instar growth, but total length of females increased significantly more than that of males at molting. Consequently, a sexual size dimorphism was established upon molting to chalimus 2 and males were about 10% smaller than females. While growth by molting was mainly caused by cephalothorax increase, instar growth was mainly due to increase of the posterior body. The cephalothorax/total length ratio decreased from beginning to end of the instar phase suggesting that it may be used as an instar age marker. Male and female chalimus 2 can almost uniquely be identified by cephalothorax length. Chalimus 1 lasted between 5 and 6 days for males and between 6 and 7 days for females at 10°C. Chalimus 2 males lasted between 6 and 7 days and females between 7 and 8 days. PMID:25451218

  14. Co-infection and localization of secondary symbionts in two whitefly species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whiteflies are cosmopolitan phloem-feeding pests that cause serious damage to many crops worldwide due to direct feeding and vectoring of many plant viruses. The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) are two of the most widespread and damaging whitefly species. To complete their unbalanced diet, whiteflies harbor the obligatory bacterium Portiera aleyrodidarum. B. tabaci further harbors a diverse array of secondary symbionts, including Hamiltonella, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Fritschea. T. vaporariorum is only known to harbor P. aleyrodidarum and Arsenophonus. We conducted a study to survey the distribution of whitefly species in Croatia, their infection status by secondary symbionts, and the spatial distribution of these symbionts in the developmental stages of the two whitefly species. Results T. vaporariorum was found to be the predominant whitefly species across Croatia, while only the Q biotype of B. tabaci was found across the coastal part of the country. Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella were detected in collected T. vaporariorum populations, however, not all populations harbored both symbionts, and both symbionts showed 100% infection rate in some of the populations. Only the Q biotype of B. tabaci was found in the populations tested and they harbored Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium, while Arsenophonus and Fritschea were not detected in any B. tabaci populations. None of the detected symbionts appeared in all populations tested, and multiple infections were detected in some of the populations. All endosymbionts tested were localized inside the bacteriocyte in both species, but only Rickettsia and Cardinium in B. tabaci showed additional localization outside the bacteriocyte. Conclusions Our study revealed unique co-infection patterns by secondary symbionts in B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum. Co-sharing of the bacteriocyte by the primary

  15. The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea and its compatibility with buprofezin: effects on the rugose spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus rugioperculatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gumbo limbo or rugose spiraling whitefly is a new invasive pest of palms, woody ornamentals, and fruits in Florida. The pathogenicity of a naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea (PFR 97) is well known for its activity against commonly found whiteflies species in the regi...

  16. Responses of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Predator of Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), to Relative Humidity: Oviposition, Hatch and Immature Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a predator of whiteflies. It is tropical in origin. Whiteflies are agricultural problems in environments ranging from humid to arid conditions. A study was conducted to determine if there were any humidity effects on oviposition, hatching...

  17. Infection of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Rickettsia spp. alters its interactions with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here we report that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies...

  18. Transcriptomics-guided development of RNA interference strategies to manage whiteflies: a globally distributed vector of crop viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 300 viruses are transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, with 90% of them belonging to the genus, Begomovirus. Begomoviruses are exclusively transmitted by whiteflies to a range of agriculture crops, resulting in billions of dollars lost annually, while jeopardizing food security worldwide....

  19. Population of the Sweetpotato Whitefly in Response to Different Rates of Three Sulfur-Containing Fertilizers on Ten Vegetable Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies in the Bemisia complex are a global pest on numerous horticultural crops. The effect of production practices on the population of the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is only partly understood. A study was conducted to examine the effect of different rates of ...

  20. Some cultural strategies to help manage Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and associated whitefly-viruses in vegetable crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is an important global pest of numerous crops as a result of its feeding and whitefly-transmitted plant viruses. To help develop a strategy to manage this pest and associated viruses in three vegetable crops in the Egyptian agricultural system, ...

  1. Pathogenicity of Isaria sp. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)against the sweetpotato whitefly B biotype, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of an indigenous entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria sp., found during natural epizootics on whiteflies in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, against the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius biotype B, was tested under laboratory conditions (27 ºC, 70% RH and a photoperiod...

  2. Resistance of tomato genotypes to the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Lucatti, Alejandro F; Alvarez, Adriana E; Machado, Cristina R; Gilardón, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, is the most common and abundant whitefly in Argentine horticultural greenhouse crops, especially in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Resistance in some wild tomato relatives, such as S. peruvianum, S. habrochaites and S. pennellii to the greenhouse whitefly has been described. The Mi gene confers effective resistance against several species of insects, among them the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius. Resistance to T. vaporariorum was found in the prebreeding line FCN 93-6-2, derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum cultivar Uco Plata INTA (MiMi) and the wild line FCN 3-5 S. habrochaites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate resistance to T. vaporariorum in tomato genotypes and to study the relationship between this resistance and the presence of the REX-1 marker, which is linked to the Mi gene. In a free-choice assay, the average number of adults per leaf and the number of immatures on the middle and basal plant parts were analyzed. In a no-choice assay, the oviposition rate and adult survival rate were calculated. For all variables analyzed, FCN 3-5 was the most resistant strain. Variations were found in the F2 progeny between the prebreeding line FCN 13-1-6-1 and cv. Uco Plata INTA. Results from the F2 progeny indicate that resistance to T. vaporariorum may be polygenic with transgressive segregation. Whitefly resistance was found to be independent of the REX-1 marker. PMID:21120390

  3. Whiteflies glycosylate salicylic acid and secrete the conjugate via their honeydew.

    PubMed

    VanDoorn, Arjen; de Vries, Michel; Kant, Merijn R; Schuurink, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    During insect feeding, a complex interaction takes place at the feeding site, with plants deciphering molecular information associated with the feeding herbivore, resulting in the upregulation of the appropriate defenses, and the herbivore avoiding or preventing these defenses from taking effect. Whiteflies can feed on plants without causing significant damage to mesophyll cells, making their detection extra challenging for the plant. However, whiteflies secrete honeydew that ends up on the plant surface at the feeding site and on distal plant parts below the feeding site. We reasoned that this honeydew, since it is largely of plant origin, may contain molecular information that alerts the plant, and we focused on the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA). First, we analyzed phloem sap from tomato plants, on which the whiteflies are feeding, and found that it contained salicylic acid (SA). Subsequently, we determined that in honeydew more than 80% of SA was converted to its glycoside (SAG). When whiteflies were allowed to feed from an artificial diet spiked with labeled SA, labeled SAG also was produced. However, manually depositing honeydew on undamaged plants resulted still in a significant increase in endogenous free SA. Accordingly, transcript levels of PR1a, an SA marker gene, increased whereas those of PI-II, a jasmonate marker gene, decreased. Our results indicate that whiteflies manipulate the SA levels within their secretions, thus influencing the defense responses in those plant parts that come into contact with honeydew. PMID:25563984

  4. Can astronomy enhance UNESCO World Heritage recognition? The paradigm of 4th Dynasty Egyptian pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The pyramids of Egypt, notably those of the 4th Dinasty as Giza, have always be considered an unmistikable part of human world heritage as the only surviving wonders of the Ancient World. Their majesty, technical hability and innovative character have always beeen considered as representative of ancient Egyptian ingenuity. However, past and present fringe theories about the pyramids and astronomy have always polluted the role of our discipline in the design, construction and symbolism of these impressive monuments. This is indeed unfear. Fortunately, things have started to change in the last couple of decades and now astronomy is interpreted as a neccessary tool for the correct interpretation of the astral eschatology present in the 5th and 6th Dynasty Texts of the Pyramids. Although the pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty are mute, there is however recent research showing that a strong astral symbolism could be hidden in many aspects of the complex architecture and in the design of these exceptional monuments. This idea comes from several hints obtained not only from planning and construction, but also from epigraphy and the analysis of celestial and local landscapes. Chronology also plays a most relevant role on this. The pyramid complexes of the 4th Dynasty at Meidum, Dahshur, Giza and Abu Rowash -- all of which enjoy UNESCO World Heritage recognition -- willl be scrutinized. As a consequence, we will show how astronomy can certainly enhance the face value of these extraordinary monuments as a definitive proof of the ancient Egyptian quest for Ma'at, i.e. their perennial obsesion for Cosmic Order.

  5. miR-155 Inhibition Sensitizes CD4+ Th Cells for TREG Mediated Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Rust, Werner; Labhart, Paul; Alexiadis, Vassili; Becker, Christian; Hafner, Mathias; Weith, Andreas; Lenter, Martin C.; Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Mennerich, Detlev

    2009-01-01

    Background In humans and mice naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (nTregs) are a thymus-derived subset of T cells, crucial for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by controlling not only potentially autoreactive T cells but virtually all cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. Recent work using Dicer-deficient mice irrevocably demonstrated the importance of miRNAs for nTreg cell-mediated tolerance. Principal Findings DNA-Microarray analyses of human as well as murine conventional CD4+ Th cells and nTregs revealed a strong up-regulation of mature miR-155 (microRNA-155) upon activation in both populations. Studying miR-155 expression in FoxP3-deficient scurfy mice and performing FoxP3 ChIP-Seq experiments using activated human T lymphocytes, we show that the expression and maturation of miR-155 seem to be not necessarily regulated by FoxP3. In order to address the functional relevance of elevated miR-155 levels, we transfected miR-155 inhibitors or mature miR-155 RNAs into freshly-isolated human and mouse primary CD4+ Th cells and nTregs and investigated the resulting phenotype in nTreg suppression assays. Whereas miR-155 inhibition in conventional CD4+ Th cells strengthened nTreg cell-mediated suppression, overexpression of mature miR-155 rendered these cells unresponsive to nTreg cell-mediated suppression. Conclusion Investigation of FoxP3 downstream targets, certainly of bound and regulated miRNAs revealed the associated function between the master regulator FoxP3 and miRNAs as regulators itself. miR-155 is shown to be crucially involved in nTreg cell mediated tolerance by regulating the susceptibility of conventional human as well as murine CD4+ Th cells to nTreg cell-mediated suppression. PMID:19777054

  6. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.

  7. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held at the Marriott Orlando World Center, Orlando, Florida, are contained in this document and encompass the research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. Specifically, the areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges, and power and energy applications.

  8. Multi-Dimensional Asymptotically Stable 4th Order Accurate Schemes for the Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Ditkowski, Adi

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm is presented which solves the multi-dimensional diffusion equation on co mplex shapes to 4th-order accuracy and is asymptotically stable in time. This bounded-error result is achieved by constructing, on a rectangular grid, a differentiation matrix whose symmetric part is negative definite. The differentiation matrix accounts for the Dirichlet boundary condition by imposing penalty like terms. Numerical examples in 2-D show that the method is effective even where standard schemes, stable by traditional definitions fail.

  9. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference and Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor); Burnham, Calvin (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the 4th International Conference Exhibition: World Congress on Superconductivity held June 27-July 1, 1994 in Orlando, Florida. These documents encompass research, technology, applications, funding, political, and social aspects of superconductivity. The areas covered included: high-temperature materials; thin films; C-60 based superconductors; persistent magnetic fields and shielding; fabrication methodology; space applications; physical applications; performance characterization; device applications; weak link effects and flux motion; accelerator technology; superconductivity energy; storage; future research and development directions; medical applications; granular superconductors; wire fabrication technology; computer applications; technical and commercial challenges; and power and energy applications.

  10. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a new predictor of disease predisposition?

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Bundred, P E

    2000-05-01

    The ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digits is: (a) fixed in utero; (b) lower in men than in women; (c) negatively related to testosterone and sperm counts; and (d) positively related to oestrogen concentrations. Prenatal levels of testosterone and oestrogen have been implicated in infertility, autism, dyslexia, migraine, stammering, immune dysfunction, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. We suggest that 2D:4D ratio is predictive of these diseases and may be used in diagnosis, prognosis and in early life-style interventions which may delay the onset of disease or facilitate its early detection. PMID:10859702

  11. Immune Defense Varies within an Instar in the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Booth, Kimberly; Cambron, Lizzette; Fisher, Nathan; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2015-01-01

    Research on how insect immunity changes with age as insects develop within an instar, or larval developmental stage, is limited and contradictory. Insects within an instar are preparing for the next developmental stage, which may involve changes in morphology or habitat. Immunity may also vary accordingly. To determine how immunity varies in the fifth instar, we tested humoral immune responses, antimicrobial peptide activity, and phenoloxidase activity using the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We determined that while M. sexta have more robust antimicrobial peptide and phenoloxidase responses at the beginning of their fifth instar, this did not translate into better survival of bacterial infection or lower bacterial load in the hemolymph. We also determined that M. sexta injected with bacteria early in the fifth instar experience lower growth rates and longer development times than caterpillars of the same age injected with sham. This could indicate a shift in energy allocation from growth and development to metabolically costly immune responses. Because of the importance of insects as pests and pollinators, understanding how immunity varies throughout development is critical. PMID:25730277

  12. Design of a Nb3Sn Magnet for a 4th Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Prestemon, S,; Trillaud, F.; Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Sabbi, G. L.; Lyneis, C. M.; Leitner, D.; Todd, D. S.; Hafalia, R.

    2008-08-17

    The next generation of Electron Cyclotron Resonant (ECR) ion sources are expected to operate at a heating radio frequency greater than 40 GHz. The existing 3rd generation systems, exemplified by the state of the art system VENUS, operate in the 10-28 GHz range, and use NbTi superconductors for the confinement coils. The magnetic field needed to confine the plasma scales with the rf frequency, resulting in peak fields on the magnets of the 4th generation system in excess of 10 T. High field superconductors such as Nb{sub 3}Sn must therefore be considered. The magnetic design of a 4th. generation ECR ion source operating at an rf frequency of 56 GHz is considered. The analysis considers both internal and external sextupole configurations, assuming commercially available Nb{sub 3}Sn material properties. Preliminary structural design issues are discussed based on the forces and margins associated with the coils in the different configurations, leading to quantitative data for the determination of a final magnet design.

  13. Spiritual Health Scale 2011: Defining and Measuring 4th Dimension of Health

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Neera; Chaturvedi, SK; Nandan, Deoki

    2011-01-01

    In the midst of physical comforts provided by the unprecedented developments in all spheres of life, the humanity is at cross roads and looking at something beyond these means. Spirituality has now been identified globally as an important aspect for providing answers to many questions related to health and happiness. The World Health Organization is also keen at looking beyond physical, mental and social dimensions of the health, and the member countries are actively exploring the 4th Dimension of the health i.e. the spiritual health and its impact on the overall health and happiness of an individual. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW), realized this need and initiated a research study in this direction. In this study, an effort was made to define this 4th Dimension of health from a common worldly person's perspective and measure it. 3 Domains, 6 Constructs and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test- retest reliability has been established for urban educated adult population. The scale is first of its kind in the world to measure the spiritual health of a common worldly person, which is devoid of religious and cultural bias. Its items have universal applicability. PMID:22279257

  14. Computational aspects of the nonlinear normal mode initialization of the GLAS 4th order GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navon, I. M.; Bloom, S. C.; Takacs, L.

    1984-01-01

    Using the normal modes of the GLAS 4th Order Model, a Machenhauer nonlinear normal mode initialization (NLNMI) was carried out for the external vertical mode using the GLAS 4th Order shallow water equations model for an equivalent depth corresponding to that associated with the external vertical mode. A simple procedure was devised which was directed at identifying computational modes by following the rate of increase of BAL sub M, the partial (with respect to the zonal wavenumber m) sum of squares of the time change of the normal mode coefficients (for fixed vertical mode index) varying over the latitude index L of symmetric or antisymmetric gravity waves. A working algorithm is presented which speeds up the convergence of the iterative Machenhauer NLNMI. A 24 h integration using the NLNMI state was carried out using both Matsuno and leap-frog time-integration schemes; these runs were then compared to a 24 h integration starting from a non-initialized state. The maximal impact of the nonlinear normal mode initialization was found to occur 6-10 hours after the initial time.

  15. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  16. Wolbachia Has Two Different Localization Patterns in Whitefly Bemisia tabaci AsiaII7 Species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peiqiong; He, Zhan; Li, Shaojian; An, Xuan; Lv, Ning; Ghanim, Murad; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Ren, Shun-Xiang; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a cosmopolitan insect species complex that harbors the obligate primary symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum and several facultative secondary symbionts including Wolbachia, which have diverse influences on the host biology. Here, for the first time, we revealed two different localization patterns of Wolbachia present in the immature and adult stages of B. tabaci AsiaII7 cryptic species. In the confined pattern, Wolbachia was restricted to the bacteriocytes, while in the scattered pattern Wolbachia localized in the bacteriocytes, haemolymph and other organs simultaneously. Our results further indicated that, the proportion of B. tabaci AsiaII7 individuals with scattered Wolbachia were significantly lower than that of confined Wolbachia, and the distribution patterns of Wolbachia were not associated with the developmental stage or sex of whitefly host. This study will provide a new insight into the various transmission routes of Wolbachia in different whitefly species. PMID:27611575

  17. Effect of starvation on vein preference of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on chilli as host plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siti Sakinah, A.; Mohamad Roff M., N.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a cosmopolitan pest of horticultural crops. It caused serious damaged to the plants by feeding on plant saps as direct damage and transmit virus as indirect damage. Vein preferences of both female and male whitefly (WF) on chilli plant were recorded using Dinolite, a portable microscope, under laboratory conditions. WF adults of both sexes were starved for 2 and 4 hours before used for observation while no starvation for control individual (treatment). Results showed that both female and male preferred to feed on secondary veins rather than lamina, midrib and vein. From the result of whitefly preferred target site, hopefully this information will help to improve control tactics in WF management.

  18. Crime rates and sedentary behavior among 4th grade Texas school children

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H Shelton; Pérez, Adriana; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Although per capita crime has generally fallen over the period which coincides with the obesity epidemic, it has not fallen uniformly across communities. It also has not fallen enough to allay fears on the part of parents. Over the past 30 years, technological changes have made the indoor alternatives to playing outside, where children are more vulnerable to criminal activity, more enjoyable (cable TV, video games, and the internet) and comfortable (the spread of air conditioning to low income neighborhoods). We determined whether indoor sedentary behavior patterns are associated with community crime statistics. 4th graders in the U.S. are typically 9 or 10 years old. Methods We used data from the 2004–2005 Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey linked with U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics data for the years 2000 through 2005 and Texas State data on sexual offenders. The probability-based sample included a total of 7,907 children in grade four. Multistage probability sampling weights were used. The dependent variables included were hours of TV watching, video game playing, computer use and total indoor sedentary behavior after school. Incremental Relative Rates were computed for community crime rates including robberies, all violent crimes, murders, assaults, property crimes, rapes, burglaries, larcenies and motor vehicle thefts as well as for sexual offenders living in the neighborhood. The neighborhood refers to the areas where the students at each school live. In the case of sexual offenders, sexual offenders per capita are estimated using the per capita rate in the zip code of the school attended; all other crime statistics are estimated by the crimes per capita in the police department jurisdiction covering the school attended. After controlling for sex, age, and African-American and Hispanic, cross-sectional associations were determined using multivariate Poisson regression

  19. Whiteflies stabilize their take-off with closed wings.

    PubMed

    Ribak, Gal; Dafni, Eyal; Gerling, Dan

    2016-06-01

    The transition from ground to air in flying animals is often assisted by the legs pushing against the ground as the wings start to flap. Here, we show that when tiny whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci, body length ca. 1 mm) perform take-off jumps with closed wings, the abrupt push against the ground sends the insect into the air rotating forward in the sagittal (pitch) plane. However, in the air, B. tabaci can recover from this rotation remarkably fast (less than 11 ms), even before spreading its wings and flapping. The timing of body rotation in air, a simplified biomechanical model and take-off in insects with removed wings all suggest that the wings, resting backwards alongside the body, stabilize motion through air to prevent somersaulting. The increased aerodynamic force at the posterior tip of the body results in a pitching moment that stops body rotation. Wing deployment increases the pitching moment further, returning the body to a suitable angle for flight. This inherent stabilizing mechanism is made possible by the wing shape and size, in which half of the wing area is located behind the posterior tip of the abdomen. PMID:27045098

  20. Instar development of the douglas-fir tussock moth in relation to field temperatures. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, R.C.; Grimble, D.G.; Weatherby, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    Instar development is recorded for the Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudot-sugata) for two different elevations in the Boise National Forest, Idaho, in 1991. The percentage of the population by instars is associated with accumulated degree-days after eclosion, which can be used to predict the proper timing for spray application. For all practical purposes, areas can be released for spraying when third instars are initially found.

  1. De novo characterization of a whitefly transcriptome and analysis of its gene expression during development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) causes extensive crop damage throughout the world by feeding directly on plants and by vectoring hundreds of species of begomoviruses. Yet little is understood about its genes involved in development, insecticide resistance, host range plasticity and virus transmission. Results To facilitate research on whitefly, we present a method for de novo assembly of whitefly transcriptome using short read sequencing technology (Illumina). In a single run, we produced more than 43 million sequencing reads. These reads were assembled into 168,900 unique sequences (mean size = 266 bp) which represent more than 10-fold of all the whitefly sequences deposited in the GenBank (as of March 2010). Based on similarity search with known proteins, these analyses identified 27,290 sequences with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology and clusters of orthologous group terms. In addition, we investigated the transcriptome changes during whitefly development using a tag-based digital gene expression (DGE) system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 2.5 million tags per sample and identified a large number of genes associated with specific developmental stages and insecticide resistance. Conclusion Our data provides the most comprehensive sequence resource available for whitefly study and demonstrates that the Illumina sequencing allows de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis in a species lacking genome information. We anticipate that next generation sequencing technologies hold great potential for the study of the transcriptome in other non-model organisms. PMID:20573269

  2. Susceptibility of four different vegetable brassicas to cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella L., Aleyrodidae) attack.

    PubMed

    Trdan, Stanislav; Papler, Ursa

    2002-01-01

    Cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella L.) is one of the most noticeable pests on cultivated Brassica species in the continental part of Slovenia. In year 2000 a susceptibility of four different vegetables of Brassica genus to cabbage whitefly attack had been examined. The highest number of imagoes and larvae was found on kale, significantly less on savoy cabbage and Brussels sprouts and only individual specimen on cabbage. Due to relatively small parcels, the most appropriate way of determining potential economic importance was to count imogoes and larvae on plants (visual inspection). On the other hand, monitoring with sticky yellow boards gave less satisfactory results. PMID:12696419

  3. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Alcohol drinking and cancer.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Anderson, Annie S; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Key, Timothy J; Leitzmann, Michael; Norat, Teresa; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is the third leading risk factor for disease and mortality in Europe. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs provide strengthened evidence that the consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally associated with cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectum and female breast, even for low and moderate alcohol intakes. The risk of cancer increases in a dose-dependent manner, and the higher the amount of alcohol consumed, the higher the risk of developing cancer. Several biological mechanisms explain the carcinogenicity of alcohol; among them, ethanol and its genotoxic metabolite acetaldehyde play a major role. Taking all this evidence into account, a recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer (ECAC) is: "If you drink alcohol of any type, limit your intake. Not drinking alcohol is better for cancer prevention." PMID:26115567

  4. General Chemistry Collection for Students (CD-ROM), Abstract of Special Issue 16, 4th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    The General Chemistry Collection contains both new and previously published JCE Software programs that are intended for use by introductory-level chemistry students. These peer-reviewed programs for Macintosh and for Windows are available on a single CD-ROM for convenient distribution to and access by students, and the CD may be adopted for students to purchase as they would a textbook. General Chemistry Collection covers a broad range of topics providing students with interesting information, tutorials, and simulations that will be useful to them as they study chemistry for the first time. There are 22 programs included in the General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition. Their titles and the general chemistry topics they cover are listed in Table 1. Features in This Edition General Chemistry Collection, 4th edition includes:

    • Lessons for Introductory Chemistry and INQUAL-S, two new programs not previously published by JCE Software (abstracts appear below)
    • Writing Electron Dot Structures (1) and Viscosity Measurement: A Virtual Experiment for Windows (2), two programs published individually by JCE Software
    • Periodic Table Live! LE, a limited edition of Periodic Table Live!, 2nd Edition (3) (this replaces Chemistry Navigator (4) and Illustrated Periodic Table (5))
    • Many of the programs from previous editions (6)1
    Hardware and Software Requirements System requirements are given in Table 2. Some programs have additional requirements. See the individual program abstracts at JCE Online, or documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Licensing and Discounts for Adoptions The General Chemistry Collection is intended for use by individual students. Institutions and faculty members may adopt General Chemistry Collection 4th Edition as they would a textbook. We can arrange for CDs to be packaged with laboratory manuals or other course materials or to be sold for direct distribution to students through the campus

  5. Quark masses and mixings in the RS1 model with a condensing 4th generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, A. E. Cárcamo; Dib, Claudio O.; Neill, Nicolás A.; Zerwekh, Alfonso R.

    2012-02-01

    We study the hierarchy of quark masses and mixings in a model based on a 5-dimensional spacetime with constant curvature of Randall-Sundrum type with two branes, where the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking is caused dynamically by the condensation of a 4th generation of quarks, due to underlying physics from the 5D bulk and the first KK gluons. We first study the hierarchy of quark masses and mixings that can be obtained from purely adjusting the profile localizations, finding that realistic masses are not reproduced unless non trivial hierarchies of underlying 4-fermion interactions from the bulk are included. Then we study global U(1) symmetries that can be imposed in order to obtain non-symmetric modified Fritzsch-like textures in the mass matrices that reproduce reasonably well quark masses and CKM mixings.

  6. Breakthrough in cardiac arrest: reports from the 4th Paris International Conference.

    PubMed

    Kudenchuk, Peter J; Sandroni, Claudio; Drinhaus, Hendrik R; Böttiger, Bernd W; Cariou, Alain; Sunde, Kjetil; Dworschak, Martin; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Deye, Nicolas; Friberg, Hans; Laureys, Steven; Ledoux, Didier; Oddo, Mauro; Legriel, Stéphane; Hantson, Philippe; Diehl, Jean-Luc; Laterre, Pierre-Francois

    2015-12-01

    Jean-Luc Diehl The French Intensive Care Society organized on 5th and 6th June 2014 its 4th "Paris International Conference in Intensive Care", whose principle is to bring together the best international experts on a hot topic in critical care medicine. The 2014 theme was "Breakthrough in cardiac arrest", with many high-quality updates on epidemiology, public health data, pre-hospital and in-ICU cares. The present review includes short summaries of the major presentations, classified into six main chapters: Epidemiology of CA Pre-hospital management Post-resuscitation management: targeted temperature management Post-resuscitation management: optimizing organ perfusion and metabolic parameters Neurological assessment of brain damages Public healthcare. PMID:26380990

  7. The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress in Lisbon: a personal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    The 4th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress, held in Lisbon, 18–21 June 2003, had a record turnout of more than 8600 delegates and the abstract submissions increased to 2600. A heat wave and a somewhat substandard venue hampered some of the activities, notably the poster sessions. The scientific program was comprehensive and of a high class, and it was organized in 10–12 parallel sessions. The European League Against Rheumatism standing committees are expanding their activities and stimulating European cooperation (e.g. by creating databases and guidelines, and by starting research programs). The standing committees presented several areas where European cooperative work is in progress. Advances in drug therapy were a prominent theme and were well presented. Commercialism remains a problem for this meeting as for other similar large meetings, where satellite symposia surround the scientific program of the congress and often duplicate this. PMID:14979931

  8. FAST DISPLACEMENT PROBABILITY PROFILE APPROXIMATION FROM HARDI USING 4TH-ORDER TENSORS.

    PubMed

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Vemuri, Baba C; Forder, John R

    2008-05-14

    Cartesian tensor basis have been widely used to approximate spherical functions. In Medical Imaging, tensors of various orders have been used to model the diffusivity function in Diffusion-weighted MRI data sets. However, it is known that the peaks of the diffusivity do not correspond to orientations of the underlying fibers and hence the displacement probability profiles should be employed instead. In this paper, we present a novel representation of the probability profile by a 4(th) order tensor, which is a smooth spherical function that can approximate single-fibers as well as multiple-fiber structures. We also present a method for efficiently estimating the unknown tensor coefficients of the probability profile directly from a given high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted (HARDI) data set. The accuracy of our model is validated by experiments on synthetic and real HARDI datasets from a fixed rat spinal cord. PMID:20046536

  9. Report on the 4th International IUPAP Women in Physics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Cynthia

    2011-10-01

    Stellenbosch, South Africa was the site of the 4^th International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) International Conference on Women in Physics, which took place on April 5^th-8^th. This conference brought together the diverse contributions of 250 female physicist attendees from nearly 60 countries worldwide to dissect the challenges faced by female physicists worldwide and to propose strategies to attract and retain more girls and women to the field. Having served as a member of the U.S. Delegation, I will discuss the resolutions reached and highlight the most important results of Global Survey of Physicists, where nearly 15,000 physicists shine light on how gender affects their lives and careers.

  10. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W

    2013-10-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  11. Report of the 4th World Climate Research Programme International Conference on Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Rixen, Michel; van Oevelen, Peter; Asrar, Ghassem; Compo, Gilbert; Onogi, Kazutoshi; Simmons, Adrian; Trenberth, Kevin; Behringer, Dave; Bhuiyan, Tanvir Hossain; Capps, Shannon; Chaudhuri, Ayan; Chen, Junye; Chen, Linling; Colasacco-Thumm, Nicole; Escobar, Maria Gabriela; Ferguson, Craig R.; Ishibashi, Toshiyuki; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Meng, Jesse; Molod, Andrea; Poli, Paul; Roundy, Joshua; Willett, Kate; Wollen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 4th WCRP International Conference on Reanalyses provided an opportunity for the international community to review and discuss the observational and modelling research, as well as process studies and uncertainties associated with reanalysis of the Earth System and its components. Characterizing the uncertainty and quality of reanalyses is a task that reaches far beyond the international community of producers, and into the interdisciplinary research community, especially those using reanalysis products in their research and applications. Reanalyses have progressed greatly even in the last 5 years, and newer ideas, projects and data are coming forward. While reanalysis has typically been carried out for the individual domains of atmosphere, ocean and land, it is now moving towards coupling using Earth system models. Observations are being reprocessed and they are providing improved quality for use in reanalysis. New applications are being investigated, and the need for climate reanalyses is as strong as ever. At the heart of it all, new investigators are exploring the possibilities for reanalysis, and developing new ideas in research and applications. Given the many centres creating reanalyses products (e.g. ocean, land and cryosphere research centres as well as NWP and atmospheric centers), and the development of new ideas (e.g. families of reanalyses), the total number of reanalyses is increasing greatly, with new and innovative diagnostics and output data. The need for reanalysis data is growing steadily, and likewise, the need for open discussion and comment on the data. The 4th Conference was convened to provide a forum for constructive discussion on the objectives, strengths and weaknesses of reanalyses, indicating potential development paths for the future.

  12. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Medical exposures, including hormone therapy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Friis, Søren; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Straif, Kurt; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    The 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends limiting - or avoiding when possible - the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) because of the increased risk of cancer, nevertheless acknowledging that prescription of HRT may be indicated under certain medical conditions. Current evidence shows that HRT, generally prescribed as menopausal hormone therapy, is associated with an increased risk of cancers of the breast, endometrium, and ovary, with the risk pattern depending on factors such as the type of therapy (oestrogen-only or combined oestrogen-progestogen), duration of treatment, and initiation according to the time of menopause. Carcinogenicity has also been established for anti-neoplastic agents used in cancer therapy, immunosuppressants, oestrogen-progestogen contraceptives, and tamoxifen. Medical use of ionising radiation, an established carcinogen, can provide major health benefits; however, prudent practices need to be in place, with procedures and techniques providing the needed diagnostic information or therapeutic gain with the lowest possible radiation exposure. For pharmaceutical drugs and medical radiation exposure with convincing evidence on their carcinogenicity, health benefits have to be balanced against the risks; potential increases in long-term cancer risk should be considered in the context of the often substantial and immediate health benefits from diagnosis and/or treatment. Thus, apart from HRT, no general recommendations on reducing cancer risk were given for carcinogenic drugs and medical radiation in the 4th edition of European Code against Cancer. It is crucial that the application of these measures relies on medical expertise and thorough benefit-risk evaluation. This also pertains to cancer-preventive drugs, and self-medication with aspirin or other potential chemopreventive drugs is strongly discouraged because of the possibility of serious, potentially lethal, adverse events. PMID:26390952

  13. Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539

  14. Description of the final-instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Chainthong, Damrong

    2014-01-01

    The final instar larva of Heliogomphus selysi Fraser, 1925, is described and illustrated for the first time based on specimens collected in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. Antennae, legs and paraprocts are similar morphologically to H. kelantanensis and H. scorpio but with a unique combination of dorsal hooks and lateral spines. PMID:24870650

  15. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: how many instars are there?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than a century since the description of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and dozens of scientific articles on the basic biology of the insect, there is still debate on the number of female larval instars. This paper analyzes the metamorphosis of H. hampei females thr...

  16. [Last instar larva, pupa and a new distribution record of Periploca otrebla Vargas (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2007-01-01

    A description and figures of the last instar larva and pupa of Periploca otrebla Vargas are presented, based on specimens collected on Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae) in the type locality, Azapa valley, Arica Province, northern Chile. The Chaca valley, Arica Province, northern Chile, is mentioned as a new locality for the geographic distribution of P. otrebla, previously known only from the type locality. PMID:18246263

  17. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  18. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  19. Unique biochemical and molecular biological mechanism of synergistic actions of formamidine compounds on selected pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides on the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph F A; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that formamidine pesticides such as amitraz and chlordimeform effectively synergize toxic actions of certain pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in some insect species on the 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Here we studied the biochemical basis of the synergistic actions of the formamidines in amplifying the toxicity of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids such as dinotefuran and thiamethoxam, as well as deltamethrin-fenvalerate type of pyrethroids. We tested the hypothesis that their synergistic actions are mediated by the octopamine receptor, and that the major consequence of octopamine receptor activation is induction of trehalase to increase glucose levels in the hemolymph. The results show that formamidines cause a significant up-regulation of the octopamine receptor and trehalase mRNA expressions. Furthermore, formamidines significantly elevate levels of free glucose when co-treated with dinotefuran, deltamethrin and fenvalerate, but not with permethrin or fenitrothion, which showed no synergistic toxic effects with formamidines. These results support the conclusion that the main mode of synergism is based on the ability to activate the octopamine receptor, which is particularly effective with insecticides causing hyperexcitation-induced glucose release and consequently leading to quick energy exhaustion. PMID:25987221

  20. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4(+) Th cells that enhance CD8(+) CTL-mediated tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8(+) CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4(+) Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4(+) Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4(+) Th1-like cells with CD8(+) CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4(+) Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8(+) CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4(+) Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  1. Conditions for the generation of cytotoxic CD4+ Th cells that enhance CD8+ CTL-mediated tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunyu; Baird, Margaret; Yang, Jianping; Jackson, Chris; Ronchese, Franca; Young, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4+ T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8+ CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4+ Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells. Taking advantage of the antigen-specificity of CD4+ Th cells from OT-II transgenic mice, we examined different methodologies for generating antigen-specific CD4+ Th1 cells in vitro. We found that cells grown in complete advanced-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with low-dose IL-2 and IL-7 induced substantial cell expansion. These Th cells were Th1-like, as they expressed multiple Th1-cytokines and exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity. In addition co-transfer of these CD4+ Th1-like cells with CD8+ CTL significantly enhanced tumor regression, leading to complete cure in 80% of mice bearing established B16-OVA. These observations indicate that the CD4+ Th1-like cells generated using the method we optimized are functionally active to eliminate their target cells, and can also assist CD8+ CTL to enhance tumor regression. The findings of this study provide valuable data for further research into in vitro expansion of CD4+ Th1-like cells, with potential applications to cancer treatment involving ACT. PMID:27588200

  2. Evaluations of melon germplasm reported to exhibit host plant resistance to sweetpotato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) displaced B. tabaci biotype A in 1991 in the lower desert area of southern California and the adjoining areas of Arizona and western Mexico. The search for high-level host plant resistance to this devastating insect has been ongoin...

  3. Effect of buprofezin and Isaria fumosorosea against rugose spiraling whitefly, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of selected insecticides alone or in combination against Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, the rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), a new invasive pest of ornamentals in Florida. The trial was conducted on an ornamental host, white bird of parad...

  4. Host plant resistance in melon (Cucumis melo L.) to sweetpotato whitefly in California and Arizona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) feeding severely impacts fall season melon yield and quality in the lower deserts of California and Arizona. Melon accessions PI 313970 and TGR 1551 (PI 482420) have been reported to exhibit host plant resistance (HPR) to SPWF. Pot...

  5. Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex, and its predation by a coccinellid beetle, Delphastus catalinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex, is a pest of ficus plant such as Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis and others. This invasive pest causes plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, wilting, and eventually, leaf drop. There is little information on the effectiveness of insect predators to contr...

  6. REPRODUCTION OF THE FICUS WHITEFLY, SINGHIELLA SIMPLEX (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE): A NEW INVASIVE PEST IN THE USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followed by leaf drop. The pest has been recorded on multiple ficus hosts including Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis, F. micro...

  7. Metabolic coevolution in the bacterial symbiosis of whiteflies and related plant sap-feeding insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In animals dependent on intracellular bacteria with very small genomes, the host cell is adapted to support the function of its bacterial symbionts, but the molecular basis of these adaptations is poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic coevolution between the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and th...

  8. Multitrophic interactions of the silverleaf whitefly,host plants, competing herbivores, and phytopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our laboratory confirmed that silverleaf whitefly (SLW; Bemisia argentifolii, Bellows & Perring) feeding alters host plant anatomy, physiology and chemistry. The SLW induces a number host plant defenses, including pathogenesis-related (PR) protein accumulation e.g., chitinases, B-1,3-glucanases, pe...

  9. Management of whitefly-transmitted viruses in open-field production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies are a key pest of crops in open field production throughout the tropics and subtropics. This is due in large part to the long and diverse list of devastating plant viruses transmitted by these vectors. Open field production provides many challenges to manage these viruses and in many case...

  10. A preliminary investigation of Giant red mustard (Brassica juncea) as a deterrent of silverleaf whitefly oviposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different pairs of plants planted in a single pot were tested in the greenhouse for oviposition preference by the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring [Homoptera: Aleyrodidae]). Treatments consisted of the following in single pots: 2 giant red mustard plants (Brassica juncea ...

  11. Evaluation of mustard plants and other products to control sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major insect pest of vegetables and horticultural crops in the southeast US is the sweetpotato whitefly.Scientists at the USDA-Agriculture Research Service, Center for Veterinary Entomology, Gainesaville, Florida, evaluated the effect of giant red mustard plants and commercial products to control ...

  12. Effect of dinotefuran on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous pest known to feed upon over 900 plant taxa, and is an effective vector of more than 100 plant damaging viruses. Among different biotypes of this cryptic species complex, MEAM1 and MED whitefly are the two most destructive members posing threats of several crops of ec...

  13. Management of Whitefly Populations for the Control of Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were designed to confirm that a new ipomovirus, Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), causes watermelon vine decline (WVD) in Florida and is transmitted by the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Biotype “B”). Two field studies were conducted in 2006 at SWFREC, Immokalee, FL, in the sp...

  14. Host plant resistance in melon to sweetpotato whitefly in California and Arizona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato whitefly biotype B (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) feeding severely impacts fall season melon (Cucumis melo L.) yield and quality in the lower deserts of California and Arizona. Melon accessions PI 313970 and TGR 1551 (PI 482420) have been reported to exhibit host plant r...

  15. Identification of unique volatile compounds associated with repelling whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base and are susceptible to many insect pests and diseases. The insects include whiteflies which cause serious economic damages to this important cucurbit crop. However, several United States Plant Introduction a...

  16. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  17. Ecology and Management of Whitefly-Transmitted Vegetable Viruses in the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh market vegetables are economically important crops in Florida and other states in the southeastern U.S. A variety of viruses, most vectored by insects (including whiteflies, thrips and aphids), are established in the environment and pose relatively continuous challenges to production of veget...

  18. EVALUATING SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY OVIPOSITION ON GIANT RED MUSTARD AND OTHER VEGETABLE CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major insect pests of vegetable crops is the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), due to direct feeding damage and its ability to transmit plant diseases. The use of companion crops with repellant or masking volatiles has been suggested as a potential crop p...

  19. Aerial electrostatic-charged spray for deposition and efficacy against sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficacy of aerial electrostatic-charged sprays was evaluated for spray deposit characteristics and season-long control of sweet potato whitefly (SWF), Bemisia tabaci biotype B (a.k.a. B. argentifolii), in an irrigated 24-ha cotton field. Treatments included electrostatic-charged sprays at full and ...

  20. Semipersistent whitefly transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were completed to determine efficiency of transmission, effects of different acquisition and inoculation access periods, the length of time that whiteflies retained transmissible virus, and the minimum time needed to complete a cycle of acquisition and inoculation for SqVYV. ...

  1. Identification and characterization of functional aquaporin water channel protein from alimentary tract of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some hemipteran xylem and phloem feeding insects have evolved specialized alimentary structures or filter chambers that rapidly transport water for excretion or osmoregulation. In the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, mass movement of water through opposing alimentary tract tissues within the filter chamber...

  2. Predation of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex by the coccinellid beetle, Delphastus catalinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followed by leaf drop. The pest has been recorded on multiple ficus hosts including Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis, F. micro...

  3. Metablic Coevolution in the bacterial symbiosis of whiteflies and related plant sap-feeding insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In animals dependent on intracellular bacteria with very small genomes, the host cell is adapted to support the function of its bacterial symbionts, but the molecular basis of these adaptations is poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic coevolution between the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and th...

  4. COMPARISON OF NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES WITH SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY INSECTICIDE STANDARDS FOR COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silverleaf whitefly (SLW) insecticide efficacy research trials were conducted during the cotton seasons of 1997-2000 at the U of CA Desert Res. and Ext. Center in the Imperial Valley, CA to evaluate neonicotinoid insecticides and standard insecticides for control of SLW in cotton. Neonicotinoid inse...

  5. Watermelon vine decline and other whitefly-transmitted virus diseases of cucurbits in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three whitefly-transmitted viruses of cucurbits are currently known in Florida - Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus. Present status of these three viruses, the diseases they cause and management options are presented....

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Some Reducing Sugars Against the Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, Biotype B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of 15 sugars on sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) survival were determined using bioassays. Arabinose, mannose, ribose and xylose were strongly inhibitory to both nymphal and adult survival. When 10% mannose was added to the diet, 10.5%, 1.0% and 0% of nymphs developed to the 2nd, ...

  7. Evaluation of aerial delivery systems for spray deposition and efficacy against sweet potato whitefly on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato whiteflies (SWF), Bemisia argentifolii, live on the bottom surface of cotton leaves. Except crawlers, nymphal stages of the insect will not move about to contact insecticides. Aerial sprays to suppress SWF require improved application techniques designed to increase spray deposition a...

  8. Ecology and management of whitefly-transmitted vegetable viruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon, tomato and other vegetable crops are infected by a wide variety of viral pathogens, many of which are transmitted by whiteflies. The inter-related ecology and management of four such viruses currently present in Florida, Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, Tomato y...

  9. Survey of Natural Enemies of the Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Ten Vegetable Crops in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a worldwide pest in diverse agroecosystems. There are numerous species of predators and parasitoids that are associated with this pest. Climate and species of vegetation can dramatically affect the distribution and incidence of these natural...

  10. Potential sources of whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) resistance in desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for host plant resistance and incorporation of natural resistance into cultivars is a fundamental strategy to control insects and diseases in an environmentally-sensitive manner, and may help reduce reliance on synthetic pesticides. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is...

  11. Isaria poprawskii sp. nov. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitacae), a new entomopathogenic fungus from Texas affecting sweet potato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isaria poprawskii is described as a new entomopathogenic species similar to Isaria javanica (=Paecilomyces javanicus). It was discovered ont he sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (LRGV), USA. Morphological and DNA examinations indicated the dist...

  12. Management of Whitefly-Transmitted Viral Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV, family: Potyviridae) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifes...

  13. FECUNDITY OF FICUS WHITEFLY, SINGHIELLA SIMPLEX (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE), AND ITS PREDATION BY DELPHASTUS CATALINAE (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followed by leaf drop. The pest has been recorded on multiple ficus hosts including Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis, F. micro...

  14. INVESTIGATING GIANT RED MUSTARD AS A DETERRENT OF SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY OVIPOSITION IN VEGETABLE CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major insect pests of vegetable crops is the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), due to direct feeding damage and its ability to transmit plant diseases. The use of companion crops with repellent or masking volatiles has been suggested ...

  15. Developmental plasticity in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Analysis of Instar Variation in Number and Development Time under Different Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The variation in instar number and the pattern of sequential instar development time of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied under 4 different diet regimes. Addition of dietary supplements consisting of dry potato or a mix of dry potato and dry egg whites significantly reduced...

  16. Ingestion of a marked bacterial pathogen of cotton conclusively demonstrates feeding by first instar southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-held dogma dictates that 1st instars of Nezara viridula (L.) do not feed, yet recent observations of stylet activity within a food source suggest otherwise. As a cosmopolitan pest of cotton and other high-value cash crops, confirmation of feeding by 1st instars may ultimately influence the biol...

  17. Using wing pad characteristics and head capsule widths to distinguish nymphal instars of the cotton fleahopper (Miridae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), often require the ability to distinguish between the five nymphal instars. The only guideline for distinguishing instars, based primarily on wing pad characteristics, was published in an experiment station bulletin in 1929. Alth...

  18. Replication of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in Its Whitefly Vector, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Pakkianathan, Britto Cathrin; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Lebedev, Galina; Mahadav, Assaf; Zeidan, Muhammad; Czosnek, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus transmitted exclusively by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a persistent, circulative manner. Replication of TYLCV in its vector remains controversial, and thus far, the virus has been considered to be nonpropagative. Following 8 h of acquisition on TYLCV-infected tomato plants or purified virions and then transfer to non-TYLCV-host cotton plants, the amounts of virus inside whitefly adults significantly increased (>2-fold) during the first few days and then continuously decreased, as measured by the amounts of genes on both virus DNA strands. Reported alterations in insect immune and defense responses upon virus retention led us to hypothesize a role for the immune response in suppressing virus replication. After virus acquisition, stress conditions were imposed on whiteflies, and the levels of three viral gene sequences were measured over time. When whiteflies were exposed to TYLCV and treatment with two different pesticides, the virus levels continuously increased. Upon exposure to heat stress, the virus levels gradually decreased, without any initial accumulation. Switching of whiteflies between pesticide, heat stress, and control treatments caused fluctuating increases and decreases in virus levels. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed these results and showed virus signals inside midgut epithelial cell nuclei. Combining the pesticide and heat treatments with virus acquisition had significant effects on fecundity. Altogether, our results demonstrate for the first time that a single-stranded DNA plant virus can replicate in its hemipteran vector. IMPORTANCE Plant viruses in agricultural crops are of great concern worldwide. Many of them are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by insects. Persistently transmitted viruses often have a complex association with their vectors; however, most are believed not to replicate within these vectors. Such replication is important, as it

  19. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (Nanosafe2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, F.; Damlencourt, J.-F.; Schuster, F.; Gaultier, V.

    2015-05-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials (NANOSAFE 2014) held in Grenoble, France, from 18th to 20th November 2014. The issues of fast progress in the field of Nanosafety are up to the potential benefits that nanotechnology can bring to mankind. Making more efficient - more sustainable - easier to share mineral resources, increasing the yields of new energy technologies, enabling drugs that act selectively and locally are just few examples of the wide range of nanomaterial applications that currently benefit humanity. Nevertheless, the dynamic development of nanomaterials requires the adhesion from the general public who rightly demand major progresses in Nanosafety as a prerequisite. This is our exciting responsibility and challenge! Following the successful outcome of the three past international conferences on safe production and use of nanomaterials: Nanosafe 2008, 2010 and 2012, the organizing committee has the pleasure to welcoming you again to Minatec, Grenoble with some of the most famous specialists in the field. This year, two new topics have been added dealing with the "New Application of Nanomaterials" and "Nano-responsible Development" in addition to the usual issues addressed in previous Nanosafe conferences such as Expology, Detection and Characterization, Toxicology, Environmental Interactions, Nanomaterials Release, Life Cycle Analysis, Regulation and Standardization, Risk Management. The debates in 2012 proved highly successful so this formula has been kept in 2014 with 3 round tables: Nano-Responsible Development, Risks and Benefits for the Environment, Toxicology Progress. In this 4th edition, there were more than 330 registered participants from 28 different countries including 160 oral presentation covering the whole Nanosafety issues in 12 sessions, satellite workshops and round tables. This high number of participants makes this edition one of

  20. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  1. Effects of selected defoliants in combination with insecticides on sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of two defoliants, Def (S, S, Stributylphosphorotrithioate) and Dropp (thidiazuron) alone and in combination with two commonly used insecticides, a pyrethroid, Karate (lambda-cyhalothrin) and an organophosphate, Guthion (azinphosmethyl) on sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius Bioty...

  2. Continuum Kinetic Plasma Modeling Using a Conservative 4th-Order Method with AMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogman, Genia; Colella, Phillip

    2012-10-01

    When the number of particles in a Debye sphere is large, a plasma can be accurately represented by a distribution function, which can be treated as a continuous incompressible fluid in phase space. In the most general case the evolution of such a distribution function is described by the 6D Boltzmann-Maxwell partial differential equation system. To address the challenges associated with solving a 6D hyperbolic governing equation, a simpler 3D Vlasov-Poisson system is considered. A 4th-order accurate Vlasov-Poisson model has been developed in one spatial and two velocity dimensions. The governing equation is cast in conservation law form and is solved with a finite volume representation. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to allow for efficient use of computational resources while maintaining desired levels of resolution. The model employs a flux limiter to remedy non-physical effects such as numerical dispersion. The model is tested on the two-stream, beam-plasma, and Dory-Guest-Harris instabilities. All results are compared with linear theory.

  3. PREFACE: 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    This volume contains selected full length technical papers amongst forty oral presentations made in the 4th National Conference on Processing and Characterization of Materials (NCPCM 2014), NIT Rourkela, Rourkela, Odisha, India, December 5 - 6, 2014. The first conference of the NCPCM series was held at the same place in December 2011. Seeing the enthusiasm of the participants, it was decided to organize such conference in Rourkela every year. The basic idea was to establish a periodical national forum for multi-scale approaches in processing and characterization of materials in the eastern part of India. The conference NCPCM 2014 has successfully carried the tradition of previous conferences; more than fifty participants from twenty different organizations across India have registered. The conference was consisted of six technical sessions of about fifty contributory talks along with three keynote lectures. A metallography contest was also organized during the event. Out of these, thirty four best peer-reviewed contributions are published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. We would like to thank all the contributors, members of the organizing committee, session chairs as well as colleagues and students who helped with the preparation of the conference and, particularly, with the preparation of this volume. We convey our heartiest gratitude to the sponsors and advertisers for their contribution.

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: 12 ways to reduce your cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Schüz, Joachim; Espina, Carolina; Villain, Patricia; Herrero, Rolando; Leon, Maria E; Minozzi, Silvia; Romieu, Isabelle; Segnan, Nereo; Wardle, Jane; Wiseman, Martin; Belardelli, Filippo; Bettcher, Douglas; Cavalli, Franco; Galea, Gauden; Lenoir, Gilbert; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Nicula, Florian Alexandru; Olsen, Jørgen H; Patnick, Julietta; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Puska, Pekka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Wiestler, Otmar; Zatonski, Witold

    2015-12-01

    This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. PMID:26164654

  5. 4th-International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Science - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hrvoje Petek

    2005-01-26

    The 4-th International Symposium on Ultrafast Surface Dynamics (UDS4) was held at the Telluride Summer Research Center on June 22-27, 2003. The International Organizing Committee consisting of Hrvoje Petek (USA), Xiaoyang Zhu (USA), Pedro Echenique (Spain) and Maki Kawai (Japan) brought together a total of 51 participants 16 of whom were from Europe, 10 from Japan, and 25 from the USA. The focus of the conference was on ultrafast electron or light induced processes at well-defined surfaces. Ultrafast surface dynamics concerns the transfer of charge and energy at solid surfaces on the femtosecond time scale. These processes govern rates of fundamental steps in surface reactions, interfacial electron transfer in molecular electronics, and relaxation in spin transport. Recent developments in femtosecond laser technology make it possible to measure by a variety of nonlinear optical techniques directly in the time domain the microscopic rates underlying these interfacial processes. Parallel progress in scanning probe microscopy makes it possible at a single molecular level to perform the vibrational and electronic spectroscopy measurements, to induce reactions with tunneling electrons, and to observe their outcome. There is no doubt that successful development in the field of ultrafast surface dynamics will contribute to many important disciplines.

  6. Multiwavelength Analysis of a Moving Type-IV Radio Burst on 4th March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluchamy, V.; Chen, Y.; Feng, S.; Du, G.; Song, H.; Kong, X.

    2015-12-01

    We performed a multiwavelength analysis of a moving Type-IV radio burst on 4th march 2012. The Type-IV radio burst is observed between 10:39 - 11:00 UT in the frequency range of 300 - 20 MHz. From the radio heliographic observation, the radio source of the type-IV burst is traced and their sky plane speed is estimated as ~ 370 km/s. A plasmoid structure is ejected during the impulsive phase of the flare, at the same time of the type-IV burst and the structure is clearly observed at SDO/AIA 131 Å channel. From this, we find that the radio source moves with the plasmoid. The high brightness temperature profile in the range of 108 - 109 K and the moderate polarization between -50 - 30 % supports the plasma emission mechanism. Further the differential emission measure (DEM) analysis will be carried out and their results will be presented to provide more evidence of the emission mechanism.

  7. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ultraviolet radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Greinert, Rüdiger; de Vries, Esther; Erdmann, Friederike; Espina, Carolina; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is part of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted naturally from the sun or from artificial sources such as tanning devices. Acute skin reactions induced by UVR exposure are erythema (skin reddening), or sunburn, and the acquisition of a suntan triggered by UVR-induced DNA damage. UVR exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, including cutaneous malignant melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, and squamous-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations, and its incidence has increased steeply over recent decades. According to estimates for 2012, about 100,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma and about 22,000 deaths from it occurred in Europe. The main mechanisms by which UVR causes cancer are well understood. Exposure during childhood appears to be particularly harmful. Exposure to UVR is a risk factor modifiable by individuals' behaviour. Excessive exposure from natural sources can be avoided by seeking shade when the sun is strongest, by wearing appropriate clothing, and by appropriately applying sunscreens if direct sunlight is unavoidable. Exposure from artificial sources can be completely avoided by not using sunbeds. Beneficial effects of sun or UVR exposure, such as for vitamin D production, can be fully achieved while still avoiding too much sun exposure and the use of sunbeds. Taking all the scientific evidence together, the recommendation of the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer for ultraviolet radiation is: "Avoid too much sun, especially for children. Use sun protection. Do not use sunbeds." PMID:26096748

  8. 4th annual primary care ethics conference: ethics education and lifelong learning

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; McKenzie-Edwards, Emma; Misselbrook, David

    2014-01-01

    Primary care ethics is a field of study that has recently found new life, with calls to establish the relevance of ethical discussion in general practice, to gather a body of literature and to carve out an intellectual space for primary care on the academic landscape of bioethics. In this report, we reflect on the key strands of the 4th primary care ethics conference held at the Royal Society of Medicine, on a theme of ethics education and lifelong learning: first, to produce insights that have relevance for policy and practice; and second, to illustrate the idea that not only is ethics relevant in primary care, but primary care is relevant in medical ethics. Core themes included the advantages and disadvantages of prescriptive ways of doing ethics in education, ethical reflection and potential risk to professional status, the need to deal with societal change and to take on board the insights gained from empirical work, whether this is about different kinds of fatherhood, or work on the causes of moral distress in healthcare workers. PMID:25949739

  9. Cutting orientations for non-complex parts in 4th axis machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Zahid, M. N.; Case, K.; Watts, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The application of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining for Rapid Manufacturing processes (CNC-RM) exploits the innate potential of 4th axis machining. The use of an indexer allows the workpiece to be rotated to various orientations which directly increased the region accessible to the cutting tool. However, in order to avoid thin webs and preserve tool life, cutting must be executed with a minimum of three orientations even for geometrically simple parts. Recent findings have suggested the separation of cutting orientations into roughing and finishing operations. Thus, the selection of orientations in finishing processes becomes more flexible and independent. This study was conducted to identify the effects of using a minimum of two cutting orientations in finishing operations for CNC-RM applications. This method is only applicable for non-complex parts where all the features can be machined from two directions. The results of the study illustrate the positive effects of minimizing the number of orientations. Despite improvement in machining operations, the complexity in defining the cutting orientations was also reduced.

  10. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk. PMID:26126928

  11. Project ASTRO: Local Coalitions for Bringing Astronomers to 4th - 9th Grade Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1998-05-01

    We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).

  12. A Teaching Model for Scaffolding 4th Grade Students' Scientific Explanation Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiu-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Improving students scientific explanations is one major goal of science education. Both writing activities and concept mapping are reported as effective strategies for enhancing student learning of science. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a teaching model, named the DCI model, which integrates a Descriptive explanation writing activity, Concept mapping, and an Interpretive explanation writing activity, is introduced in a 4th grade science class to see if it would improve students' scientific explanations and understanding. A quasi-experimental design, including a non-randomized comparison group and a pre- and post-test design, was adopted for this study. An experimental group of 25 students were taught using the DCI teaching model, while a comparison group received a traditional lecture teaching. A rubric and content analysis was used to assess students' scientific explanations. The independent sample t test was used to measure difference in conceptual understanding between the two groups, before and after instruction. Then, the paired t test analysis was used to understand the promotion of the DCI teaching model. The results showed that students in the experimental group performed better than students in the comparison group, both in scientific concept understanding and explanation. Suggestions for using concept mapping and writing activities (the DCI teaching model) in science classes are provided in this study.

  13. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  14. Microarray analysis of tomato plants exposed to the nonviruliferous or viruliferous whitefly vector harboring Pepper golden mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Musser, Richard O; Hum-Musser, Sue M; Gallucci, Matthew; DesRochers, Brittany; Brown, Judith K

    2014-01-01

    Plants are routinely exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses to which they have evolved by synthesizing constitutive and induced defense compounds. Induced defense compounds are usually made, initially, at low levels; however, following further stimulation by specific kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses, they can be synthesized in relatively large amounts to abate the particular stress. cDNA microarray hybridization was used to identify an array of genes that were differentially expressed in tomato plants 15 d after they were exposed to feeding by nonviruliferous whiteflies or by viruliferous whiteflies carrying Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) (Begomovirus, Geminiviridae). Tomato plants inoculated by viruliferous whiteflies developed symptoms characteristic of PepGMV, whereas plants exposed to nonviruliferous whitefly feeding or nonwounded (negative) control plants exhibited no disease symptoms. The microarray analysis yielded over 290 spotted probes, with significantly altered expression of 161 putative annotated gene targets, and 129 spotted probes of unknown identities. The majority of the differentially regulated "known" genes were associated with the plants exposed to viruliferous compared with nonviruliferous whitefly feeding. Overall, significant differences in gene expression were represented by major physiological functions including defense-, pathogen-, photosynthesis-, and signaling-related responses and were similar to genes identified for other insect-plant systems. Viruliferous whitefly-stimulated gene expression was validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of selected, representative candidate genes (messenger RNA): arginase, dehydrin, pathogenesis-related proteins 1 and -4, polyphenol oxidase, and several protease inhibitors. This is the first comparative profiling of the expression of tomato plants portraying different responses to biotic stress induced by viruliferous whitefly feeding (with resultant virus infection

  15. Winter survival of immature instars of Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon and Mansonia titillans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae), in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Juan P; Mulieri, Pablo R; Patitucci, Luciano D; Sander, Valeria A; Rodríguez, Patricia L; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a whole year research on the ecology of Mansonia indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, Costanera Sur Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The usage of different floating plants by immature instars and their overwintering was analyzed. The percentage of usage of the available floating macrophytes (Pistia, Limnobium, and Salvinia) by the larvae and pupae was studied. Also, we defined positivity (P+) as the percentage of plants with immature instars for each plant genus on a monthly basis. Ma. immature instars were captured throughout the year and Pistia was the resource most commonly exploited by the mosquitoes. The percentage of fourth-instar larvae and pupae on Pistia roots with respect to total immature instars captured was assessed on a monthly and seasonal basis. The proportion of fourth-instar larvae and pupae from both species of Mansonia on water lettuce roots, showed significant differences between months and seasons. Our results suggest that the populations of Ma. indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, survive during winter mainly as fourth-instar larvae. PMID:17072469

  16. Biochemical and histological effects of gibberellic acid on Locusta migratoria migratoria fifth instar larvae.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, Khemais; Ben Halima-Kamel, Monia; Acheuk, Fatma; Soltani, Noureddine; Aribi, Nadia; Hamouda, Mohamed HabibBen

    2013-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3), a plant growth regulator, on Locusta migratoria migratoria fifth instar larvae. Newly emerged larvae were exposed to various concentrations of GA3 administered by topical application or by forced ingestion. Results showed that treated insects exhibited toxic symptoms with a dose-dependent mortality. GA3 toxicity was also demonstrated by perturbation of the moult processes. In fact, we noted that treated insects present exuviations difficulties due to the impossibility to reject the old integuments causing mortality in the 5th instar larvae. Histological study of proventriculus revealed alterations in the epithelial cells and absence of apolysis phenomenon. Data also showed that GA3 induced significant quantitative variation of haemolymph metabolites. These changes result in a significant decrease in the total concentration of proteins and carbohydrates and an increase in the total concentration of haemolymph lipids. PMID:25149232

  17. Larval sampling and instar determination in field populations of northern and western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Hammack, Leslie; Ellsbury, Michael M; Roehrdanz, Richard L; Pikul, Joseph L

    2003-08-01

    Abundance and head capsule width were measured for northern (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence) and western corn rootworm (D. virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae recovered primarily from maize root systems but also from large soil cores each centered around a root system. Larvae for measurement derived from field populations under infestation and rotation regimes that allowed most specimens to be assigned to species. A frequency distribution of head capsule widths indicated three separate peaks for western corn rootworm, presumably representing frequency of the three larval instars, with no larvae measuring 280 or 420 microm in the valleys between peaks. Multiple normal curves fit to similar but partially overlapping peaks generated by northern corn rootworm suggested that division of first to second and second to third instar can best be made for this species at 267 and 406 microm, respectively (270 and 410 when measurements are made to the nearest 20 microm). These results implied that instar of individuals from mixed northern and western corn rootworm populations can be accurately judged from head capsule width without having to determine species. The relative abundance of western corn rootworm instars was similar in root systems removed from the center of 19-cm diameter x 19-cm deep soil cores and in soil cores from which the root systems were removed. Furthermore, the number of larvae from root systems correlated significantly with that from the surrounding soil. These results indicated that the former and much more convenient sampling unit can be used to estimate population developmental stage and possibly density, at least early in the season when these tests were done and young larvae predominated. PMID:14503586

  18. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  19. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alexandre; Abe, Sumiyoshi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains 24 contributed papers presented at the 4th International Workshop on Statistical Physics and Mathematics for Complex Systems (SPMCS) held during October 12-16, 2014 in Yichang, China. Each paper was peer-reviewed by at least one referee chosen from a distinguished international panel. The previous three workshops of this series were organized in 2008, 2010, and 2012, in Le Mans, France, Wuhan, China, and Kazan, Russia, respectively. The SPMCS international workshop series is destined mainly to communicate and exchange research results and information on the fundamental challenges and questions in the vanguard of statistical physics, thermodynamics and mathematics for complex systems. More specifically, the topics of interest touch, but are not limited to, the following: • Fundamental aspects in the application of statistical physics and thermodynamics to complex systems and their modeling • Finite size and non-extensive system • Fluctuation theorems and equalities, quantum thermodynamics • Variational principle for random dynamics • Fractal geometry, fractional mathematics More than 50 participants from 7 countries participated in SPMCS-2014. 35 oral contributions were presented at the workshop. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Scientific Program Committee, many of whom acted as reviewers of the papers and responded promptly. We would also like to thank the organizing committee, the session chairs, the technicians and the students for the smooth running of the whole workshop. Thanks also go to China Three Gorges University who provided generous support for the conference venue, as well as exquisite refreshments for the tea breaks. The workshop was also partially supported by Central China Normal University and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities under grant NO. B08033. Special thanks are due to Ms Juy Zhu who has done excellent editing work with great effort.

  20. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  1. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, A.; Green, P.

    2010-04-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on: Preservation and Conservation Issues in Digital Printing and Digital Photography. The conference was held at the Institute of Physics, London, UK on 27th-28th May 2010. Previous conferences in this series took place in 2000, 2003 and 2006. The aim of this conference series is to inform those responsible for the preservation of digitally printed materials about developments in digital photography and printing technologies. We aim to examine progress in research on inks and substrates and their significance for conservation and preservation issues and techniques. We also hope to develop links between related industries and the conservation/preservation world. Research areas explored in this conference include current developments and future trends in digital printing and photographic technologies; the effect of environmental, storage and salvage conditions on the durability of digital prints and photographs; image processing techniques; image permanence considerations and standards for fastness, permanence and the role of scanning and file formats. We would like to thank all participants for their contribution to the conference programme and these proceedings. Our thanks go to Ms C. Gu and Mr M. Sandy for chairing conference sessions. We are also grateful to Dawn Stewart and the Institute of Physics Conference Team for their invaluable support and assistance in arranging the conference and reception. Finally we would like to extend our thanks to the Society of Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T) for their sponsorship support. The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green (London College of Communication, University of the Arts London). Proceedings edited and compiled by Ms A Fricker and Dr. P Green.

  2. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions." PMID:26164655

  3. Learning Natural Selection in 4th Grade with Multi-Agent-Based Computational Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickes, Amanda Catherine; Sengupta, Pratim

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate how elementary school students develop multi-level explanations of population dynamics in a simple predator-prey ecosystem, through scaffolded interactions with a multi-agent-based computational model (MABM). The term "agent" in an MABM indicates individual computational objects or actors (e.g., cars), and these agents obey simple rules assigned or manipulated by the user (e.g., speeding up, slowing down, etc.). It is the interactions between these agents, based on the rules assigned by the user, that give rise to emergent, aggregate-level behavior (e.g., formation and movement of the traffic jam). Natural selection is such an emergent phenomenon, which has been shown to be challenging for novices (K16 students) to understand. Whereas prior research on learning evolutionary phenomena with MABMs has typically focused on high school students and beyond, we investigate how elementary students (4th graders) develop multi-level explanations of some introductory aspects of natural selection—species differentiation and population change—through scaffolded interactions with an MABM that simulates predator-prey dynamics in a simple birds-butterflies ecosystem. We conducted a semi-clinical interview based study with ten participants, in which we focused on the following: a) identifying the nature of learners' initial interpretations of salient events or elements of the represented phenomena, b) identifying the roles these interpretations play in the development of their multi-level explanations, and c) how attending to different levels of the relevant phenomena can make explicit different mechanisms to the learners. In addition, our analysis also shows that although there were differences between high- and low-performing students (in terms of being able to explain population-level behaviors) in the pre-test, these differences disappeared in the post-test.

  4. Adenylate cyclase in prothoracic glands during the last larval instar of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Gu, S H; Chow, Y S

    2001-04-27

    We have previously reported that the absence of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) signal transduction during the early last larval instar of Bombyx mori plays a role in leading to very low ecdysteroid levels in the hemolymph, inactivation of the corpora allata, as well as larval-pupal transformation. In the present study, adenylate cyclase was characterized in crude preparations of prothoracic gland cell membranes in an effort to localize the cause of refractoriness to PTTH. It was found that cyclase activity of the prothoracic glands from the day 6 last instar showed activation responses to fluoride, a guanine nucleotide analogue, as well as calmodulin (CaM) in dose-dependent fashions. The additive effects of day 5 prothoracic gland adenylate cyclase stimulation by fluoride and CaM imply that there may exist Gs protein-dependent and CaM-dependent forms of adenylate cyclase. For day 1 last instar prothoracic glands, which showed no response to stimulation by PTTH in either cAMP generation or ecdysteroidogenesis, adenylate cyclase activity exhibited far less responsiveness to Ca(2+)/CaM than did that from day 5 glands. These findings suggest that day 1 prothoracic glands may possess some lesions in the receptor-Ca(2+) influx-adenylate cyclase signal transduction pathway and these impairments in PTTH signal transduction may be, at least in part, responsible for decreased ecdysteroidogenesis. PMID:11267904

  5. Description of nymphal instars of Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, 1969 (Acari: Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Pevidor, Luisa Viana; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Ornithodoros mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera in the Neotropical region, where it also bites humans aggressively. Here we describe for the first time all nymphal instars (N1, N2 and N3) of O. mimon based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Although the nymphal instars of O. mimon resemble each other closely, there are characters that differentiate them: the N3 are taller that N1 and N2; the genital primordium occurs in some N2 and all N3; the spiracular plate in N1 and N2 is cone-like, but in N3 it is semicircular; and the submarginal dorsal groove is less distinct in N1 but more evident in N3. Nymphs of 0. mimon closely resemble the bat-associated species of the genus Ornithodoros included in the Alectorobius group. We review prior descriptions of nymphs of the Alectorobius group and make comparisons with nymphs of O. minon, highlighting characters with diagnostic information, such as the idiosomal shape, presence of discs and hood and absence subapical protuberance of tarsus I. The description of nymphal instars of O. mimon herein presented, improves the taxonomy of the family Argasidae, performing a work more detailed about the immature stage of this species. PMID:26106682

  6. 77 FR 39422 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Niceville July 4th Fireworks Show; Boggy Bayou; Niceville, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Niceville July...

  7. 75 FR 34374 - Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton, 4th of July Fireworks Display...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club and the City of Stockton will sponsor the Stockton Ports Baseball Club/City of... Ports Baseball Club/City of Stockton 4th of July Fireworks Display, Stockton, CA. (a) Location....

  8. 78 FR 23869 - Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ..., telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not plan to hold public meetings on this proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks...

  9. 78 FR 39998 - Safety Zone; Grand Haven 4th of July Fireworks; Grand River; Grand Haven, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Grand Haven 4th of July Fireworks; Grand... a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate, or by the private sector of...

  10. Examining General and Specific Factors in the Dimensionality of Oral Language and Reading in 4th-10th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population--adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to…

  11. 78 FR 23866 - Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July Fireworks; Crescent City Harbor, Crescent City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Crescent City 4th of July...

  12. 75 FR 35294 - Safety Zone; Marquette 4th of July Fireworks, Marquette Harbor, Lake Superior, Marquette, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Marquette Harbor, Lake Superior, Marquette, MI. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Marquette Harbor during the Marquette 4th of July Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a firework...

  13. 78 FR 39606 - Safety Zone; City of Menominee 4th of July Fireworks, Green Bay, Menominee, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; City of Menominee 4th of July Fireworks... that may result in the expenditure by a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate, or by...

  14. Impacts of a Discussion-Based Academic Language Program on Classroom Interactions in 4th through 7th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, James; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of treatment-control differences in the quality of classroom interactions in 4th through 7th grade urban classrooms. Word Generation (WG) is a research-based academic language program for middle school students designed to teach novel vocabulary and literacy through language arts, math, science, and…

  15. 76 FR 38015 - Safety Zones; July 4th Weekend Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port St. Petersburg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; July 4th Weekend Fireworks Displays Within... under Executive Order 13132, Federalism, if it has a substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt State law or impose a substantial direct cost of compliance on them....

  16. Teacher Implementation of Reform-Based Mathematics and Implications for Algebra Readiness: A Qualitative Study of 4th Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Stephen Korb

    2011-01-01

    This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (4th, Eindhoven, the Netherlands, July 6-8, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John

    2011-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2011) brings together researchers from computer science, education, psychology, psychometrics, and statistics to analyze large datasets to answer educational research questions. The conference, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, July 6-9, 2011, follows the three previous editions…

  18. Comparing Science Learning among 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-Grade Students: STS versus Textbook-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…

  19. The Influence of Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency on Phoneme Awareness in 2nd and 4th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics--neighborhood density and word frequency--interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods: Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation…

  20. 4th Annual SATN Conference 2011: Curriculum Transformation at Universities of Technology: Towards Development of New Generation Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthembu, T.

    2012-01-01

    The South African Technology Network (SATN) would like to thank the Editor of the "South African Journal of Higher Education" (SAJHE) for the opportunity to publish papers read at the 4th Annual SATN Conference that was hosted by Central University of Technology and held in Bloemfontein in November 2011. The journal makes it possible for…

  1. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  2. Impact of a Health and Media Literacy Curriculum on 4th-Grade Girls: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Heidi A.; Damico, Amy M.; Rodgers, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that young girls are preoccupied with their body size and that the media may be a contributing factor. This study aimed to discover the impact of an interdisciplinary media literacy intervention curriculum on 4th-grade girls in an urban elementary school. The authors developed and implemented a series of lessons that…

  3. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  4. 76 FR 72957 - 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health 4th Annual Trauma Spectrum Conference: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Clinical Practice of Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention... Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Recovery for the Iraq...

  5. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction to Teach Research Methods to 4th-Grade Students in an Urban Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Ellen M.; Cullen, Rebecca; Ciaravino, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    When a college professor who teaches research methods to graduate education students was approached by a local public urban elementary school to help them teach research skills to 4th-graders, it was thought that the process would be simple--take what we did at the college level and differentiate it for the childhood classroom. This article will…

  6. Characterization of HCV Specific CD4+Th17 Immunity in Recurrent Hepatitis C Induced Liver Allograft Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Basha, H. Ilias; Subramanian, Vijay; Seetharam, A.; Nath, D.S.; Ramachandran, S.; Anderson, C.D.; Shenoy, S.; Chapman, W.C.; Crippin, J.S.; Mohanakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) recurrence with accelerated fibrosis following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a universal phenomenon. To evaluate mechanisms contributing to HCV induced allograft fibrosis/cirrhosis, we investigated HCV specific CD4+Th17 cells and their induction in OLT recipients with recurrence utilizing 51 HCV+ OLT recipients, 15 healthy controls and 9 HCV- OLT recipients. Frequency of HCV specific CD4+ Tcells secreting IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10 was analyzed by ELISpot. Serum cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by LUMINEX. Recipients with recurrent HCV induced allograft inflammation and fibrosis/cirrhosis demonstrated a significant increase in frequency of HCV specific CD4+Th17 cells. Increased pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-17, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1), decreased IFN-γ, and increased IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 levels were identified. OLT recipients with allograft inflammation and fibrosis/cirrhosis demonstrated increased frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) that inhibited HCV specific CD4+Th1 but not Th17 cells. This suggests that recurrent HCV infection in OLT recipients induces an inflammatory milieu characterized by increased IL-6, IL-1β and decreased IFN-γ which facilitates induction of HCV specific CD4+Th17 cells. These cells are resistant to suppression by Tregs and may mediate an inflammatory cascade leading to cirrhosis in OLT recipients following HCV recurrence. PMID:21446979

  7. 75 FR 38723 - Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St....

  8. Apple scar skin viroid naked RNA is actively transmitted by the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    PubMed

    Walia, Yashika; Dhir, Sunny; Zaidi, Aijaz Asghar; Hallan, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid transfer between plants is a phenomenon which is likely to occur in many ways in nature. We report here the active transmission of Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) naked ssRNA species by the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Tv). Not only the viroid RNA, its DNA form was also identified from the insect. The viroid transfer efficiency was enhanced with the help of Cucumis sativus Phloem protein 2 (CsPP2), a plant protein known to translocate viroid RNAs. This PP2/ASSVd complex is stably present in the viroid infected cucumber plants, as was identified with the help of immunological reaction. As viroid-like secondary structures are found in some plant RNAs, and PP2 is known to bind and translocate several RNAs, the results have huge implications in transfer of these RNA species between plants visited by the whitefly. PMID:26327493

  9. Molecular markers for the identification and global tracking of whitefly vector-Begomovirus complexes.

    PubMed

    Brown, J K

    2000-11-01

    Recent unprecedented upsurges in populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) have drawn much attention to its worldwide importance as an insect pest and as the vector of emergent begomoviruses (Family: Geminiviridae; Genus: Begomovirus). Several begomoviruses that are considered 'new' and others previously regarded as minor pathogens have been linked to recent epidemics. Recent studies have revealed much variation in begomoviruses, despite the view that DNA-containing viruses do not rapidly accumulate mutations. Also, certain B. tabaci 'variants' are known that more effectively or selectively transmit certain begomoviruses and exhibit biotic differences that may influence their spread. Patterns of distribution and dissemination of begomoviruses transmitted by B. tabaci are poorly understood because standardized molecular-based tracking methods have not been available. Understanding virus/whitefly vector/host plant interrelationships in the context of emerging problems can be achieved only by linking predicted evolutionary histories with epidemiology using molecular phylogenetic approaches. Identification and validation of informative molecular sequences are essential initial steps in this process. Genus-wide degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers have been developed to amplify and sequence the 'core' region of the coat protein open reading frame (ORF) (V1), permitting 'universal' detection and provisional virus identification by comparisons with described viral genotypes. In subsequent studies reported here, several potentially informative viral ORFs and a non-coding region are explored. Of particular use for expanding diversity studies are group- or virus-specific sequences that can be targeted by utilizing newly available core CP sequences, or additional conserved regions around which broad spectrum primers can be designed to target variable sequences in key ORFs or non-coding regions. Prospective markers under exploration were selected with a

  10. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm. PMID:22958126

  11. Differential tolerance capacity to unfavourable low and high temperatures between two invasive whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Na; Pan, Li-Long; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Thermal response and tolerance to ambient temperature play important roles in determining the geographic distribution and seasonal abundance of insects. We examined the survival and performance, as well as expression of three heat shock protein related genes, of two species of invasive whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), of the Bemisia tabaci species complex following exposure to a range of low and high temperatures. Our data demonstrated that the MED species was more tolerant to high temperatures than the MEAM1 species, especially in the adult stage, and this difference in thermal responses may be related to the heat shock protein related genes hsp90 and hsp70. These findings may assist in understanding and predicting the distribution and abundance of the two invasive whiteflies in the field. PMID:27080927

  12. Differential tolerance capacity to unfavourable low and high temperatures between two invasive whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Na; Pan, Li-Long; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Thermal response and tolerance to ambient temperature play important roles in determining the geographic distribution and seasonal abundance of insects. We examined the survival and performance, as well as expression of three heat shock protein related genes, of two species of invasive whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), of the Bemisia tabaci species complex following exposure to a range of low and high temperatures. Our data demonstrated that the MED species was more tolerant to high temperatures than the MEAM1 species, especially in the adult stage, and this difference in thermal responses may be related to the heat shock protein related genes hsp90 and hsp70. These findings may assist in understanding and predicting the distribution and abundance of the two invasive whiteflies in the field. PMID:27080927

  13. First Report on the Whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the Coconut Palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm. PMID:22958126

  14. Thermal summation model and instar determination of all developmental stages of necrophagous beetle, Sciodrepoides watsoni (Spence) (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Necrophagous beetles are underrepresented in forensic entomology studies despite their undeniable utility for the field. In the present article, information is presented regarding the developmental biology and instar determination of Sciodrepoides watsoni (Spence, 1813), a very common species occurring across the Holarctic region. Wild collected beetles were kept in climate chambers at constant temperature (12, 15, 18, 21 and 28 °C) and their development was regularly documented. Parameters of thermal summation models and standard errors were calculated for each developmental stage. These models may be used for an estimation of post-mortem interval in legal investigations after further validation on local populations of S. watsoni. An additional methodology is introduced for future studies of size-based characteristics, addressing instar identification bias. The methodology provided estimations (mean, standard error and standard deviation) of S. watsoni larval head capsule width for preliminary larval instar determination. The methodology may be used with other morphological features to improve instar determination accuracy. PMID:27123379

  15. Diversity and evolution of the Wolbachia endosymbionts of Bemisia (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Xia, Wen-Qiang; Gui, Jia-Dong; Yan, Gen-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Wolbachia is the most prevalent symbiont described in arthropods to date. Wolbachia can manipulate host reproduction, provide nutrition to insect hosts and protect insect hosts from pathogenic viruses. So far, 13 supergroups of Wolbachia have been identified. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a complex containing more than 28 morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species. Some cryptic species of this complex are invasive. In this study, we report a comprehensive survey of Wolbachia in B. tabaci and its relative B. afer from 1658 insects representing 54 populations across 13 provinces of China and one state of Australia. Based on the results of PCR or sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the overall rates of Wolbachia infection were 79.6% and 0.96% in the indigenous and invasive Bemisia whiteflies, respectively. We detected a new Wolbachia supergroup by sequencing five molecular marker genes including 16S rRNA, groEL, gltA, hcpA, and fbpA genes. Data showed that many protein-coding genes have limitations in detecting and classifying newly identified Wolbachia supergroups and thus raise a challenge to the known Wolbachia MLST standard analysis system. Besides, the other Wolbachia strains detected from whiteflies were clustered into supergroup B. Phylogenetic trees of whitefly mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and Wolbachia multiple sequencing typing genes were not congruent. In addition, Wolbachia was also detected outside the special bacteriocytes in two cryptic species by fluorescence in situ hybridization, indicating the horizontal transmission of Wolbachia. Our results indicate that members of Wolbachia are far from well explored. PMID:25077022

  16. Effects of planting pattern of collards on resistance to whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and on parasitoid abundance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D M; Farnham, M W; Simmons, A M; Van Giessen, W A; Elsey, K D

    2000-08-01

    Fourteen collard entries, Brassica oleraceae L., Acephala group, were evaluated for resistance to natural populations of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring in replicated field plots in Charleston, SC. Glossy-leaf phenotypes ('SC Glaze', 'SC Landrace,' 'Green Glaze') were the most resistant collard entries and had fewer whiteflies than the nonglossy, open-pollinated cultivars. Also, two F1 hybrid cultivars with normal, nonglossy leaves ('Blue Max' and 'Top Bunch') were resistant. In laboratory experiments, there were no differences in the intrinsic rate of growth (rs) of B. argentifolii populations on either glossy or nonglossy collard phenotypes. Over a 2-yr period, there were no differences in the abundance of whiteflies on the glossy phenotype of Green Glaze when it was planted in solid 20-plant plots or when it was alternated (every other plant) with the nonglossy phenotype of Green Glaze. In a similarly designed experiment, there was no difference in the resistance of Blue Max in either solid or mixed planting scheme compared with the susceptible 'Morris Heading'. Higher numbers of whiteflies and parasitoids (primarily Eretmocerus spp.) were collected on yellow sticky cards in the solid plantings of the nonglossy phenotype of Green Glaze than were collected in the solid plantings of the glossy Green Glaze phenotype. Counts on sticky cards in the mixed plots were intermediate. These data show that planting pattern of collard entries is relatively unimportant in the deployment of these sources of host plant resistance. The data also suggest that nonpreference is the primary mode of resistance to whiteflies for certain collard entries. PMID:10985035

  17. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the

  18. FOREWORD: 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2014 (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2014.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 23, 2014. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (http://www.ncmip.org/2011/), and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 and May 2013, (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2012.html), (http://www.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2013.html). The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the

  19. Understanding cross-communication between aboveground and belowground tissues via transcriptome analysis of a sucking insect whitefly-infested pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Plants have developed defensive machinery to protect themselves against herbivore and pathogen attacks. We previously reported that aboveground whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) infestation elicited induced resistance in leaves and roots and influenced the modification of the rhizosphere microflora. In this study, to obtain molecular evidence supporting these plant fitness strategies against whitefly infestation, we performed a 300 K pepper microarray analysis using leaf and root tissues of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) applied with whitefly, benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), and the combination of BTH+whitefly. We defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as genes exhibiting more than 2-fold change (1.0 based on log2 values) in expression in leaves and roots in response to each treatment compared to the control. We identified a total of 16,188 DEGs in leaves and roots. Of these, 6685, 6752, and 4045 DEGs from leaf tissue and 6768, 7705, and 7667 DEGs from root tissue were identified in the BTH, BTH+whitefly, and whitefly treatment groups, respectively. The total number of DEGs was approximately two-times higher in roots than in whitefly-infested leaves subjected to whitefly infestation. Among DEGs, whitefly feeding induced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways in leaves and roots. Several transporters and auxin-responsive genes were upregulated in roots, which can explain why biomass increase is facilitated. Using transcriptome analysis, our study provides new insights into the molecular basis of whitefly-mediated intercommunication between aboveground and belowground plant tissues and provides molecular evidence that may explain the alteration of rhizosphere microflora and root biomass by whitefly infestation. PMID:24309116

  20. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E.; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects. PMID:26699853

  1. Ingestion of a marked bacterial pathogen of cotton conclusively demonstrates feeding by first instar southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Esquivel, J F; Medrano, E G

    2014-02-01

    Long-held dogma dictates that first instars of Nezara viridula (L.) do not feed, yet recent observations of stylet activity within a food source suggest otherwise. As a cosmopolitan pest of cotton and other high-value cash crops, confirmation of feeding by first instars may ultimately influence the knowledge on biology and management strategies for this pest. To determine whether first instars feed, newly hatched nymphs were provided sterile green beans (control) or beans infected with a rifampicin-resistant marked bacterial pathogen (Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife)) of cotton. Insects were exposed to beans for 2 d, and feeding was confirmed based on detection of marked bacteria ingested by the insect. Normal bacterial flora was detected in all insects; however, control insects did not possess the marked bacteria. Of the first instars surviving on infected beans, ≍65% possessed the marked bacteria internally. Furthermore, the frequency of insects with marked bacteria was higher in insects collected directly from the bean surface than those that were off the bean at time of collection. Densities of innate and marked bacteria were comparable (both ranging from 10(1) to 10(3)), suggesting that the marked bacteria did not exclude preexisting bacterial flora. Marked bacteria were also detected in a subset of second instars, indicating marked bacteria were retained through the molting process after ingesting bacteria as first instars. Our findings conclusively demonstrate feeding by first instars and redefine the long-held perspective of nonfeeding by first instars. These findings may necessitate changes to crop protection strategies against feeding and vectoring of plant pathogens by N. viridula. PMID:24342007

  2. Description of the final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936 (Odonata, Libellulidae), using rearing and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Philip O M; Butler, Stephen G; Dow, Rory A

    2016-01-01

    The final instar larva of Orthetrum borneense Kimmins, 1936, is described and figured for the first time based on exuviae from three male and six female larvae collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with an early instar larva, which was matched to the adult O. borneense by DNA barcoding, and the known larvae of other species of this genus that occur in the region. PMID:27394221

  3. Variations in the identity and complexity of endosymbiont combinations in whitefly hosts

    PubMed Central

    Zchori-Fein, Einat; Lahav, Tamar; Freilich, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    The target of natural selection is suggested to be the holobiont - the organism together with its associated symbiotic microorganisms. The well-defined endosymbiotic communities of insects make them a useful model for exploring the role of symbiotic interactions in shaping the functional repertoire of plants and animals. Here, we studied the variations in the symbiotic communities of the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) by compiling a dataset of over 2000 individuals derived from several independent screenings. The secondary endosymbionts harbored by each individual were clustered into entities termed Facultative Endosymbiont Combinations (FECs), each representing a natural assemblage of co-occurring bacterial genera. The association of FECs with whitefly individuals stratified the otherwise homogeneous population into holobiont units. We both identified bacterial assemblages that are specific to whitefly groups sharing unique genetic backgrounds, and characterized the FEC variations within these groups. The analysis revealed that FEC complexity is positively correlated with both distance from the equator and specificity of the genetic clade of the host insect. These findings highlight the importance of symbiotic combinations in shaping the distribution patterns of B. tabaci and possibly other insect species. PMID:25071729

  4. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.

    PubMed

    Stevens, T J; Kilmer, R L; Glenn, S J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, in New England greenhouse operations on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Koltz, using the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Gahan (Nile Delta strain). Partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for conventional verses biological control regimens. Four alternative whitefly control budgets are developed; two conventional chemical-based control budgets formulated with and without the use of imidacloprid, and two biological control budgets which demonstrate the impact of possibly greater pest monitoring efforts necessary to implement this type strategy successfully. The analysis shows that biological whitefly control costs were > 300% greater than conventional chemical-based control strategy costs. Most of this increase is caused by the higher costs of Encarsia formosa as the material control input. If monitoring costs are held constant across different strategies, labor costs actually decline for biological control. This is because of a significant reduction in the number of control applications made and the relatively lower cost of applying E. formosa. If more extensive monitoring efforts are required to implement biological control successfully, labor costs increase by 56% over the conventional pre-imidacloprid regimen. Based on these results, the authors conclude that cheaper and more reliable means of producing E. formosa must be developed before this strategy will become economically viable for commercial poinsettia greenhouse production. PMID:10902307

  5. The Evolution of Genomic Instability in the Obligate Endosymbionts of Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Daniel B.; Moran, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Many insects depend on ancient associations with intracellular bacteria to perform essential metabolic functions. These endosymbionts exhibit striking examples of convergence in genome architecture, including a high degree of structural stability that is not typical of their free-living counterparts. However, the recently sequenced genome of the obligate whitefly endosymbiont Portiera revealed features that distinguish it from other ancient insect associates, such as a low gene density and the presence of perfectly duplicated sequences. Here, we report the comparative analysis of Portiera genome sequences both within and between host species. In one whitefly lineage (Bemisia tabaci), we identify large-scale structural polymorphisms in the Portiera genome that exist even within individual insects. This variation is likely mediated by recombination across identical repeats that are maintained by gene conversion. The complete Portiera genome sequence from a distantly related whitefly host (Trialeurodes vaporarium) confirms a history of extensive genome rearrangement in this ancient endosymbiont. Using gene-order-based phylogenetic analysis, we show that the majority of rearrangements have occurred in the B. tabaci lineage, coinciding with an increase in the rate of nucleotide substitutions, a proliferation of short tandem repeats (microsatellites) in intergenic regions, and the loss of many widely conserved genes involved in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. These results indicate that the loss of recombinational machinery is unlikely to be the cause of the extreme structural conservation that is generally observed in obligate endosymbiont genomes and that large, repetitive intergenic regions are an important substrate for genomic rearrangements. PMID:23542079

  6. The Implications of Temperature-Mediated Plasticity in Larval Instar Number for Development within a Marine Invertebrate, the Shrimp Palaemonetes varians

    PubMed Central

    Oliphant, Andrew; Hauton, Chris; Thatje, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Variations in larval instar number are common among arthropods. Here, we assess the implications of temperature-mediated variations in larval instar number for larval development time, larval growth rates, and juvenile dry weight within the palaemonid shrimp, Palaemonetes varians. In contrast with previous literature, which focuses on terrestrial arthropods, particularly model and pest species often of laboratory lines, we use wild shrimp, which differ in their life history from previous models. Newly-hatched P. varians larvae were first reared at 5, 10, 17, 25, and 30°C to assess their thermal scope for development. Larvae developed at 17, 25, and 30°C. At higher temperatures, larvae developed through fewer larval instars. Two dominant developmental pathways were observed; a short pathway of four instars and a long pathway of five instars. Longer developmental pathways of six to seven instars were rarely observed (mostly at lower temperatures) and consisted of additional instars as ‘repeat’ instars; i.e. little developmental advance over the preceding instar. To assess the implications of temperature-mediated variation in larval instar number, newly-hatched larvae were then reared at 15, 20, and 25°C. Again, the proportion of larvae developing through four instars increased with temperature. At all temperatures, larval development time and juvenile dry weight were greater for larvae developing through five instars. Importantly, because of the increasing proportion of larvae developing through four instars with increasing temperature, larval traits associated with this pathway (reduced development time and juvenile dry weight) became more dominant. As a consequence of increasing growth rate with temperature, and the shift in the proportion of larvae developing through four instars, juvenile dry weight was greatest at intermediate temperatures (20°C). We conclude that at settlement P. varians juveniles do not follow the temperature-size rule; this is of

  7. Update on the watermelon vine decline virus and other whitefly-transmitted cucurbit viruses in Florida, and their effects on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was shown in the mid-2000’s to cause a watermelon vine decline in southwest and west-central Florida. More recently, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), also whitefly-transmitted, have bee...

  8. Efficacy of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea and an insect growth regulator against the rugose spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, infamous as gumbo limbo or rugose spiraling whitefly is a new addition in the list of devastating whitefly species found in Florida. It is a newly introduced pest of Central American origin, reported first time in Florida from Miami-Dade County in 2009. Since then...

  9. SILVERLEAF WHITEFLY: NATIONAL RESEARCH ACTION AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PLAN: FOURTH ANNUAL REVIEW OF THE SECOND 5-YEAR PLAN AND FINAL REPORT FOR 1992-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Strain B (= Silverleaf Whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring), National Research and Action Plans (1992-1997 and 1997-2002) were developed by USDA agencies (ARS, APHIS, and CSREES), state agencies, state agricultural experimental stat...

  10. Transcriptome analysis of Bemisia tabaci during tomato yellow leaf curl virus acquisition and ribonucleic acid interference to manage whitefly-transmitted viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 300 viruses are transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, with 90% of them belonging to the genus, Begomovirus. Begomoviruses are obligately transmitted by whiteflies to a wide range of agriculture crops, resulting in billions of dollars lost annually, while jeopardizing food security worldw...

  11. Implications Of Host Plant Resistance Against Whitefly-Transmitted Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus In Tomato For Virus Epidemics And Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) severely impacts tomato production in southeastern USA. Growers typically spray insecticides against whiteflies and plant TYLCV-resistant genotypes. Semi-dominant genes such as TY-1 and TY-2 confer resistance to TYLCV. Resistant genotypes ar...

  12. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  13. PREFACE: 4th Workshop on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors (TMCSIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, Stanko; Probert, Matt; Migliorato, Max; Pal, Joydeep

    2014-06-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at the 4th International Conference on Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductor materials and nanostructures. The conference was held at the MediaCityUK, University of Salford, Manchester, UK on 22-24 January 2014. The previous conferences in this series took place in 2012 at the University of Leeds, in 2010 at St William's College, York and in 2008 at the University of Manchester, UK. The development of high-performance computer architectures is finally allowing the routine use of accurate methods for calculating the structural, thermodynamic, vibrational, optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and their hetero- and nano-structures. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology, where there is substantial potential for time-saving in R&D. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Semi-empirical Electronic Structure Methods, Multi-scale Approaches, Modelling of PV devices, Electron Transport, and Graphene. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Photonic Structures, and Electronic Devices. This workshop ran for three days, with the objective of bringing together UK and international leading experts in the theoretical modelling of Group IV, III-V and II-VI semiconductors, as well as students, postdocs and early-career researchers. The first day focused on providing an introduction and overview of this vast field, aimed particularly at students, with several lectures given by recognized experts in various theoretical approaches. The following two days showcased some of the best theoretical research carried out in the UK in this field, with several contributions also from representatives of

  14. Transfer of a CD4+ Th1 cell line to nude mice effects clearance of Rhodococcus equi from the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, S T; Hines, S A; Palmer, G H

    1996-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, and intracellular respiratory pathogen, causes sever e granulomatous pneumonia in humans with AIDS and in young horses. Pulmonary clearance of R. equi requires functional CD4+ T cells and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) expression from bronchial lymph node cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether R. equi-specific CD4+ Th1 cells could effect clearance of R. equi from the lung. Adoptive transfer of a clearance of R. equi from the lungs. In contrast, mice transfused with a R. equi-specific CD4+ Th2 cell line expressed interleukin-4 but not IFN-gamma mRNA, failed to clear pulmonary infection, and developed granulomas in the lung. Control mice, which did not receive cells, did not produce IFN-gamma or interleukin-4 and developed small pulmonary granulomas. These results clearly show that a Th1 response is sufficient to effect pulmonary clearance of R. equi. PMID:8606068

  15. A selected review of abstracts from the 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2014-03-01

    The 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology (WFNO), San Francisco, CA, USA, 21-24 November 2013 The 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology (WFNO) was the largest neuro-oncology meeting that meets once every 4 years and brings together clinicians and scientists from all parts of the world whose focus is on new brain cancer clinical trials and research primarily pertaining to gliomas. The WFNO 2013 meeting included 1 education day, 2.5 days of presentation, 13 sunrise sessions, one town hall meeting, one mini-symposium, 130 oral presentations and 900 abstracts. This short meeting review highlights select adult clinical abstracts presented at WFNO 2013 that will only in part encompass the contents of a large and multifaceted meeting. PMID:25055016

  16. Estimation of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genome Size Based on k-mer and Flow Cytometric Analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpillai; Simmons, Alvin M; Wintermantel, William M; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) cryptic species complex are among the most important agricultural insect pests in the world. These phloem-feeding insects can colonize over 1000 species of plants worldwide and inflict severe economic losses to crops, mainly through the transmission of pathogenic viruses. Surprisingly, there is very little genomic information about whiteflies. As a starting point to genome sequencing, we report a new estimation of the genome size of the B. tabaci B biotype or Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) population. Using an isogenic whitefly colony with over 6500 haploid male individuals for genomic DNA, three paired-end genomic libraries with insert sizes of ~300 bp, 500 bp and 1 Kb were constructed and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 system. A total of ~50 billion base pairs of sequences were obtained from each library. K-mer analysis using these sequences revealed that the genome size of the whitefly was ~682.3 Mb. In addition, the flow cytometric analysis estimated the haploid genome size of the whitefly to be ~690 Mb. Considering the congruency between both estimation methods, we predict the haploid genome size of B. tabaci MEAM1 to be ~680-690 Mb. Our data provide a baseline for ongoing efforts to assemble and annotate the B. tabaci genome. PMID:26463411

  17. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A.; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26798295

  18. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26798295

  19. Comparison of transmission of Papaya leaf curl China virus among four cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tao; Guo, Qi; Cui, Xi-Yun; Liu, Yin-Quan; Hu, Jian; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Begomoviruses are transmitted by cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex, often in a species-specific manner. Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) has been recorded to infect several crops including papaya, tomato and tobacco in China. To help assess the risks of spread of this virus, we compared the acquisition, retention and transmission of PaLCuCNV among four species of whiteflies, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED), Asia 1 and Asia II 7. All four species of whiteflies are able to acquire, retain and transmit the virus, but with different levels of efficiency. Transmission tests using tomato as the host plant showed that MEAM1 transmitted PaLCuCNV with substantially higher efficiency than did MED, Asia 1 and Asia II 7. Furthermore, accumulation of PaLCuCNV in the whiteflies was positively associated with its efficiency of transmitting the virus. Altogether, these findings indicate that MEAM1 is the most efficient vector for PaLCuCNV in the four species of whiteflies, and suggest that risks of PaLCuCNV pandemics are high in regions where MEAM1 occurs. PMID:26486606

  20. Estimation of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genome Size Based on k-mer and Flow Cytometric Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K.; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpillai; Simmons, Alvin M.; Wintermantel, William M.; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) cryptic species complex are among the most important agricultural insect pests in the world. These phloem-feeding insects can colonize over 1000 species of plants worldwide and inflict severe economic losses to crops, mainly through the transmission of pathogenic viruses. Surprisingly, there is very little genomic information about whiteflies. As a starting point to genome sequencing, we report a new estimation of the genome size of the B. tabaci B biotype or Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) population. Using an isogenic whitefly colony with over 6500 haploid male individuals for genomic DNA, three paired-end genomic libraries with insert sizes of ~300 bp, 500 bp and 1 Kb were constructed and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 system. A total of ~50 billion base pairs of sequences were obtained from each library. K-mer analysis using these sequences revealed that the genome size of the whitefly was ~682.3 Mb. In addition, the flow cytometric analysis estimated the haploid genome size of the whitefly to be ~690 Mb. Considering the congruency between both estimation methods, we predict the haploid genome size of B. tabaci MEAM1 to be ~680–690 Mb. Our data provide a baseline for ongoing efforts to assemble and annotate the B. tabaci genome. PMID:26463411

  1. First-instar western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: chrysomelidae) response to carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, S.P.; Bergman, M.K.; Fulton, W.C.

    1986-08-01

    Responses of first-instar western corn rootworm to CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ gas gradients were studied in a laboratory test arena. Number of larvae reaching the gas source, number of turns toward and away from the gas source, larval velocity, and number of turns per cm traveled were recorded. Larvae exhibited a positive chemotactic response to CO/sub 2/ but not N/sub 2/ or air. There was no indication that a kinesis of any type was involved because velocities and turning rates were not significantly different among treatments. Results indicate that newly hatched larve may use CO/sub 2/ to locate corn roots.

  2. Susceptibility of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens to malathion, naled and resmethrin.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Schreiber, E T; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1993-03-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to measure the response of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens to commonly used mosquito adulticides: malathion, naled and resmethrin. The concentrations of pesticide causing 50% mortality (LC50) after 24 h was 2.87, 69.1 and 623 ppb for resmethrin, malathion and naled, respectively. Naled was determined to be the least toxic of the 3 compounds tested for integrated use with Tx. splendens. The latter assessments were based on comparisons between laboratory-derived dose-response curves and maximum concentrations reached in standing water calculated using standard application rates. PMID:8096872

  3. Catalogue and historical overview of juvenile instars of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida).

    PubMed

    Norton, Roy A; Ermilov, Sergey G

    2014-01-01

    Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) comprise a taxonomically and morphologically diverse suborder of about 10,000 described species, not including the hyporder Astigmata, with collectively a global distribution. They are primarily soil and litter inhabitants, feeding on fungi and decaying plant remains with various levels of specificity. Though all five active instars are important for reasons that relate to both ecology and systematics, most species are known only as adults. Our purpose was to gather the existing world literature on the active juvenile instars (i.e., excluding prelarva) of oribatid mites, to put classifications and nomenclature in a current context, and to identify the nature of the information in each paper. A selected historical overview identifies the contributions of 19th century authors C.L. Koch, H. Nicolet and A.D. Michael, and summarizes errors that resulted in various oribatid mite juveniles being classified in genera, families and even suborders that were different from those of their adult instars. The catalogue includes all species known to us for which juveniles have been described: 805 species in 310 genera, representing only about 8% of the known oribatid mite species and 30% of genera. These represent 118 families, about 70% of those known. At the superfamily level, representation is weakest among the diverse Oppioidea and Oribatuloidea, and those superfamilies with juveniles that are endophagous in organic substrates, such as Phthiracaroidea, Euphthiracaroidea and Carabodoidea. Representation is strongest in the middle-derivative hyporder Nothrina, in which adults and juveniles are more easily associated, and in brachypyline superfamilies that are mostly affiliated with aquatic, semiaquatic or intertidal environments, such as Limnozetoidea and Ameronothroidea. Juvenile instars remain unknown for 45 families of Brachypylina. Four new nomenclatural actions were proposed: Ojaithrus nymphoides Habeeb, 1982 is a junior synonym of

  4. A laboratory model of post-Newtonian gravity with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G.; Levy, M. C.; Wadud, M. A.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Bingham, R.

    2016-04-01

    Using the post-Newtonian formalism of gravity, we attempt to calculate the x-ray Thomson scattering cross section of electrons that are accelerated in the field of a high intensity optical laser. We show that our results are consistent with previous calculations, suggesting that the combination of high power laser and 4th generation light sources may become a powerful platform to test models exploring high order corrections to the Newtonian gravity.

  5. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem. PMID:27400705

  6. Further insight into reproductive incompatibility between putative cryptic species of the Bemisia tabaci whitefly complex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Li; Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), with its global distribution and extensive genetic diversity, is now known to be a complex of over 35 cryptic species. However, a satisfactory resolution of the systematics of this species complex is yet to be achieved. Here, we designed experiments to examine reproductive compatibility among species with different levels of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) divergence. The data show that putative species with mtCOI divergence of >8% between them consistently exhibited complete reproductive isolation. However, two of the putative species, Asia II 9 and Asia II 3, with mtCOI divergence of 4.47% between them, exhibited near complete reproductive compatibility in one direction of their cross, and partial reproductive compatibility in the other direction. Together with some recent reports on this topic from the literature, our data indicates that, while divergence in the mtCOI sequences provides a valid molecular marker for species delimitation in most clades, more genetic markers and more sophisticated molecular phylogeny will be required to achieve adequate delimitation of all species in this whitefly complex. While many attempts have been made to examine the reproductive compatibility among genetic groups of the B. tabaci complex, our study represents the first effort to conduct crossing experiments with putative species that were chosen with considerations of their genetic divergence. In light of the new data, we discuss the best strategy and protocols to conduct further molecular phylogenetic analysis and crossing trials, in order to reveal the overall pattern of reproductive incompatibility among species of this whitefly complex. PMID:27001484

  7. Agroecosystems shape population genetic structure of the greenhouse whitefly in Northern and Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To predict further invasions of pests it is important to understand what factors contribute to the genetic structure of their populations. Cosmopolitan pest species are ideal for studying how different agroecosystems affect population genetic structure within a species at different climatic extremes. We undertook the first population genetic study of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), a cosmopolitan invasive herbivore, and examined the genetic structure of this species in Northern and Southern Europe. In Finland, cold temperatures limit whiteflies to greenhouses and prevent them from overwintering in nature, and in Greece, milder temperatures allow whiteflies to inhabit both fields and greenhouses year round, providing a greater potential for connectivity among populations. Using nine microsatellite markers, we genotyped 1274 T. vaporariorum females collected from 18 greenhouses in Finland and eight greenhouses as well as eight fields in Greece. Results Populations from Finland were less diverse than those from Greece, suggesting that Greek populations are larger and subjected to fewer bottlenecks. Moreover, there was significant population genetic structure in both countries that was explained by different factors. Habitat (field vs. greenhouse) together with longitude explained genetic structure in Greece, whereas in Finland, genetic structure was explained by host plant species. Furthermore, there was no temporal genetic structure among populations in Finland, suggesting that year-round populations are able to persist in greenhouses. Conclusions Taken together our results show that greenhouse agroecosystems can limit gene flow among populations in both climate zones. Fragmented populations in greenhouses could allow for efficient pest management. However, pest persistence in both climate zones, coupled with increasing opportunities for naturalization in temperate latitudes due to climate change, highlight challenges for the

  8. Competitive displacement between two invasive whiteflies: insecticide application and host plant effects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Di-Bing; Liu, Yin-Quan; Qin, Li; Xu, Jing; Li, Fang-Fang; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    The cryptic species Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly referred to as 'B biotype', of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex entered China in the mid 1990s, and the Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species, formerly referred to as 'Q biotype', of the same whitefly complex entered China around 2003. Field surveys in China after 2003 indicate that in many regions MED has been replacing the earlier invader MEAM1. The factors underlying this displacement are unclear. We conducted laboratory experiments and field sampling to examine the effects of insecticide application on the competitive interactions between MEAM1 and MED. In the laboratory, on cotton, a plant showing similar levels of suitability to both whitefly species, MEAM1 displaced MED in five generations when initial populations of the two species were equal and no insecticide was applied. In contrast, MED displaced MEAM1 in seven and two generations, respectively, when 12.5 and 50.0 mg l⁻¹ imidacloprid was applied to the plants via soil drench. Field sampling indicated that in a single season MED displaced MEAM1 on crops heavily sprayed with neonicotinoid insecticides but the relative abundance of the two species changed little on crops without insecticide spray. We also examined the effects of host plants on the competitive interactions between the two species in the laboratory. When cohorts with equal abundance of MEAM1 and MED were set up on different host plants, MEAM1 displaced MED on cabbage and tomato in five and seven generations, respectively, but MED displaced MEAM1 on pepper in two generations. As field populations of MED have lower susceptibility than those of MEAM1 to nearly all commonly used insecticides including imidacloprid, insecticide application seems to have played a major role in shifting the species competitive interaction effects in favour of MED in the field across China. Host plants may also shape competition between the two species depending on the relative levels of plant

  9. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Responses of Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, to Thiamethoxam

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nina; Xie, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Li, Rumei; Pan, Huipeng; Liu, Baiming; Shi, Xiaobin; Fang, Yong; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Background The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most widely distributed agricultural pests. Although it has developed resistance to many registered insecticides including the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam, the mechanisms that regulate the resistance are poorly understood. To understand the molecular basis of thiamethoxam resistance, “omics” analyses were carried out to examine differences between resistant and susceptible B. tabaci at both transcriptional and translational levels. Results A total of 1,338 mRNAs and 52 proteins were differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible B. tabaci. Among them, 11 transcripts had concurrent transcription and translation profiles. KEGG analysis mapped 318 and 35 differentially expressed genes and proteins, respectively, to 160 and 59 pathways (p<0.05). Thiamethoxam treatment activated metabolic pathways (e.g., drug metabolism), in which 118 transcripts were putatively linked to insecticide resistance, including up-regulated glutathione-S-transferase, UDP glucuronosyltransferase, glucosyl/glucuronosyl transferase, and cytochrome P450. Gene Ontology analysis placed these genes and proteins into protein complex, metabolic process, cellular process, signaling, and response to stimulus categories. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated “omics” response, and suggested a highly overexpressed P450, CYP6CX1, as a candidate molecular basis for the mechanistic study of thiamethoxam resistance in whiteflies. Finally, enzymatic activity assays showed elevated detoxification activities in the resistant B. tabaci. Conclusions This study demonstrates the applicability of high-throughput omics tools for identifying molecular candidates related to thiamethoxam resistance in an agricultural important insect pest. In addition, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide a solid foundation for future functional investigations into the complex molecular mechanisms

  10. Caldecott 4th bore tunnel project: influence of ground water flows and inflows triggered by tectonic fault zones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhuber, G.; G. Neuhuber1, W. Klary1, A. Nitschke1, B. Thapa2, Chris Risden3, T. Crampton4, D. Zerga5

    2011-12-01

    The 4th Bore is a highway tunnel on California State Route 24 currently under construction. The 4th Bore is undertaken by the California State Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) and the Contra Costa County Transportation Commission (CCTC) to alleviate traffic congestion on SR24 connecting the cities of Oakland and Orinda in the San Francisco East Bay Area. The cost for the 4th Bore is estimated at $ 390.8 Mill. The 3,249 ft long 4th Bore tunnel will have excavated dimensions of approximately 40 ft height and 49 ft width. A total of 7 cross passages will run between the 3rd and the new 4th bore. Geology and Hydrogeology: The project is located in the Oakland Berkeley Hills of the SF Bay Area. The Caldecott Tunnels lie within the easterly assemblage of the Hayward fault zone province which consists of a sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks that accumulated in the interval between about 16 and 8.4 Ma (Miocene). The basal rocks of these Tertiary deposits consist of deep marine basin sediments of the Monterey Group. These rocks are overlain uncomfortably by an interbedded sequence of terrestrial sediments (Orinda Formation) and volcanic rocks (Moraga Formation). The Tertiary rocks have been folded into large amplitude, NW trending folds that are cut by N trending strike and slip faults. The SF Bay Region, which is crossed by 4 major faults (San Gregorio, San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras), is considered one of the more seismically active regions of the world. The active Hayward fault lies 0.9mi to the west of the Caldecott Tunnels and is the closest major fault to the project area. The tunnel is at the moment under top heading construction: West Portal (360ft) and East Portal (1,968.5ft). While major faults typically influence groundwater flow, characterization of such influences is extremely difficult because of the heterogeneity of the hydraulic systems and the different lithological parameters and influences. Four major inactive fault zones striking

  11. Roles of uptake, biotransformation, and target site sensitivity in determining the differential toxicity of chlorpyrifos to second to fourth instar Chironomous riparius (Meigen)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Sandahl, J.F.; Jenkins, J.J.; Curtis, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    Early life stages of aquatic organisms tend to be more sensitive to various chemical contaminants than later life stages. This research attempted to identify the key biological factors that determined sensitivity differences among life stages of the aquatic insect Chironomous riparius. Specifically, second to fourth instar larvae were exposed in vivo to both low and high waterborne concentrations of chlorpyrifos to examine differences in accumulation rates, chlorpyrifos biotransformation, and overall sensitivity among instars. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assays were performed with chlorpyrifos and the metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, to investigate potential target site sensitivity differences among instars. Earlier instars accumulated chlorpyrifos more rapidly than later instars. There were no major differences among instars in the biotransformation rates of chlorpyrifos to the more polar metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and chlorpyridinol (TCP). Homogenate AChE activities from second to fourth instar larvae were refractory to chlorpyrifos, even at high concentrations. In contrast, homogenate AChE activities were responsive in a dose-dependent manner to chlorpyrifos-oxon. In general, it appeared that chlorpyrifos sensitivity differences among second to fourth instar C. riparius were largely determined by differences in uptake rates. In terms of AChE depression, fourth instar homogenates were more sensitive to chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon than earlier instars. However, basal AChE activity in fourth instar larvae was significantly higher than basal AChE activity in second to third instar larvae, which could potentially offset the apparent increased sensitivity to the oxon. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Constituents of osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Burger, B V; Munro, Z; Röth, M; Spies, H S; Truter, V; Geertsema, H; Habich, A

    1985-08-01

    The defensive osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of the citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was found to contain methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, α-pinene, myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, β-caryophyllene, (E)-β-farnesene, and germacrene-A, as well as a further number of unidentified sesquiterpenoid constituents. The presence of germacrene-A in the secretion was inferred from the formation of β-elemene under certain GC conditions. Larvae of the second, third, and fourth instars produce qualitatively similar secretions. Remarkable quantitative differences were found between the secretions of individual larvae. These variations could not be correlated with the diet on which the larvae were fed, their sex, instar, or color form. However, in a number of larvae the two prongs of the osmeterium were found to produce quantitatively different secretions. PMID:24310333

  13. Morphology and identification of first instar larvae of Australian blowflies of the genus Chrysomya of forensic importance.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Wallman, James F

    2016-10-01

    Light microscopy photographs, line illustrations and scanning electron microscopy micrographs are provided for first instar larvae of six Australian species of Chrysomya. All species have confirmed or potential in forensic investigations given their carrion-breeding habits. Morphology of the first instar larvae of Ch. nigripes, Ch. rufifacies, Ch. saffranea and Ch. varipes is revised, while larvae of Ch. incisularis and Ch. latifrons are described for the first time. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, facial mask, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles and cephaloskeleton. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. Verification of earlier descriptions revealed major discrepancies between published data, especially in the case of Ch. nigripes. The present results allow clarification, correction and, especially, complementation of the existing information provided by numerous authors. Finally, an identification key for first instar larvae of Australian necrophagous Chrysomya is presented. PMID:27282097

  14. Absence of outer caudal setae on all larval instars of Phlebotomus tobbi from the Ionian Greek islands.

    PubMed

    Killick-Kendrick, R; Killick-Kendrick, M; Leger, N; Pesson, B; Madulo-Leblond, G; Page, A M

    1989-04-01

    Larval instars 2, 3 and 4 of Phlebotomus tobbi Adler, Theodor & Lourie from the Greek islands of Corfu and Zakynthos were found to have two caudal setae instead of the four usually present on these instars of Phlebotomus larvae. In a scanning electron microscope comparison with larvae of P. papatasi (Scopoli), a sensillum was seen in place of each outer seta of P. tobbi larvae, suggesting secondary loss of the setae. As the larvae of less than a tenth of the species and subspecies of the genus Phlebotomus have been seen and described, it cannot be assumed that those of P. tobbi are unique in having only two caudal setae. However, four caudal setae in late instars can no longer be considered as a constant character of the genus Phlebotomus. Observations on the larvae of P. tobbi also raise the question of the unknown function of the caudal setae. PMID:2519655

  15. Development of a solitary koinobiont hyperparasitoid in different instars of its primary and secondary hosts.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Fei, Minghui; Lammers, Mark; Kos, Martine; Zhu, Feng; Heinen, Robin; Poelman, Erik H; Gols, Rieta

    2016-07-01

    Parasitoid wasps are excellent organisms for studying the allocation of host resources to different fitness functions such as adult body mass and development time. Koinobiont parasitoids attack hosts that continue feeding and growing during parasitism, whereas idiobiont parasitoids attack non-growing host stages or paralyzed hosts. Many adult female koinobionts attack a broad range of host stages and are therefore faced with a different set of dynamic challenges compared with idiobionts, where host resources are largely static. Thus far studies on solitary koinobionts have been almost exclusively based on primary parasitoids, yet it is known that many of these are in turn attacked by both koinobiont and idiobiont hyperparasitoids. Here we compare parasitism and development of a primary koinobiont hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus gemellus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) in larvae of the gregarious primary koinobiont parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) developing in the secondary herbivore host, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). As far as we know this is the first study to examine development of a solitary primary hyperparasitoid in different stages of its secondary herbivore host. Pieris brassicae caterpillars were parasitized as L1 by C. glomerata and then these parasitized caterpillars were presented in separate cohorts to M. gemellus as L3, L4 or L5 instar P. brassicae. Different instars of the secondary hosts were used as proxies for different developmental stages of the primary host, C. glomerata. Larvae of C. glomerata in L5 P. brassicae were significantly longer than those in L3 and L4 caterpillars. Irrespective of secondary host instar, every parasitoid cluster was hyperparasitized by M. gemellus but all only produced male progeny. Male development time decreased with host stage attacked, whereas adult male body mass did not, which shows that M. gemellus is able to optimally exploit older host larvae in terms of adult size despite their

  16. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-10-01

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight were studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observation on smooth laboratory surfaces. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that escaped soil, fabric, and paper mulches over a soil or sand substrate ranged from 63 to 83, and 40-53%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that walked through the open interior of 1.52-6.10-m horizontal pipes of 1.5-2.0-cm inner diameter ranged from 57 to 81, and 27-61%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae that escaped through sand depths of 2.5-10.2, and 12.7-20.3 cm, ranged from 68 to 87, and 12-88%; and percentage adult females that escaped ranged from 46 to 58, and 38-70%, respectively. In 15.4-cm-inner-diameter pipes filled with different heights of sand, the highest percentage of the total number of adults that emerged in the control were found from 0 to 20.3 cm, and ranged from 37 to 71%. Ten to 47% of adults were found from 20.3 cm to below the surface, and 6-21% escaped to the top of 20.3-50.8 cm high sand columns. In column heights of 55.9 and 61 cm, pressures at the bottom caused by the weight of the sand above were 91.4 and 99.7 g/cm(2), respectively, and a mean of <1 adult escaped to the top. Before pupation, the late third instars were found to travel continuously for 6.9 h over 23.9 m at a speed of 6.0 cm per min, when placed on a smooth surface, at 22.2°C. Teneral females and males that could not fly, made ≍7 stops totaling 11-13 min, walked at a speed of 57-62 cm per min, and began a rest period of 83-84 min duration, at 85-89 min before flight. Males walked a distance of 13.1 m in 22 min, which was greater than females that walked for 9.6 m in 17 min, at 20-22°C and 35% RH. The

  17. Production of IL-16 correlates with CD4+ Th1 inflammation and phosphorylation of axonal cytoskeleton in multiple sclerosis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Skundric, Dusanka S; Cai, Juan; Cruikshank, William W; Gveric, Djordje

    2006-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system-specific autoimmune, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Infiltration of lesions by autoaggressive, myelin-specific CD4+Th1 cells correlates with clinical manifestations of disease. The cytokine IL-16 is a CD4+ T cell-specific chemoattractant that is biased towards CD4+ Th1 cells. IL-16 precursor is constitutively expressed in lymphocytes and during CD4+ T cell activation; active caspase-3 cleaves and releases C-terminal bioactive IL-16. Previously, we used an animal model of MS to demonstrate an important role for IL-16 in regulation of autoimmune inflammation and subsequent axonal damage. This role of IL-16 in MS is largely unexplored. Here we examine the regulation of IL-16 in relation to CD4+ Th1 infiltration and inflammation-related changes of axonal cytoskeleton in MS lesions. Methods We measured relative levels of IL-16, active caspase-3, T-bet, Stat-1 (Tyr 701), and phosphorylated NF(M+H), in brain and spinal cord lesions from MS autopsies, using western blot analysis. We examined samples from 39 MS cases, which included acute, subacute and chronic lesions, as well as adjacent, normal-appearing white and grey matter. All samples were taken from patients with relapsing remitting clinical disease. We employed two-color immunostaining and confocal microscopy to identify phenotypes of IL-16-containing cells in frozen tissue sections from MS lesions. Results We found markedly increased levels of pro- and secreted IL-16 (80 kD and 22 kD, respectively) in MS lesions compared to controls. Levels of IL-16 peaked in acute, diminished in subacute, and were elevated again in chronic active lesions. Compared to lesions, lower but still appreciable IL-6 levels were measured in normal-appearing white matter adjacent to active lesions. Levels of IL-16 corresponded to increases in active-caspase-3, T-bet and phosphorylated Stat-1. In MS lesions, we readily observed IL-16 immunoreactivity confined to

  18. 4th Quarter Transportation Report FY 2014: Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Louis

    2014-12-02

    This report satisfies the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) commitment to prepare a quarterly summary report of radioactive waste shipments to and from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at Area 5. There were no shipments sent for offsite treatment and returned to the NNSS this quarter. There was one shipment of two drums sent for offsite treatment and disposal. This report summarizes the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) shipments. This report also includes annual summaries for FY 2014.

  19. Defensive responses by a social caterpillar are tailored to different predators and change with larval instar and group size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Melanie; Despland, Emma

    2011-05-01

    Gregariousness in animals is widely accepted as a behavioral adaptation for protection from predation. However, predation risk and the effectiveness of a prey's defense can be a function of several other factors, including predator species and prey size or age. The objective of this study was to determine if the gregarious habit of Malacosoma disstria caterpillars is advantageous against invertebrate natural enemies, and whether it is through dilution or cooperative defenses. We also examined the effects of larval growth and group size on the rate and success of attacks. Caterpillars of M. disstria responded with predator-specific behaviors, which led to increased survival. Evasive behaviors were used against stinkbugs, while thrashing by fourth instar caterpillars and holding on to the silk mat by second instar caterpillars was most efficient against spider attacks. Collective head flicking and biting by groups of both second and fourth instar caterpillars were observed when attacked by parasitoids. Increased larval size decreased the average number of attacks by spiders but increased the number of attacks by both stinkbugs and parasitoids. However, increased body size decreased the success rate of attacks by all three natural enemies and increased handling time for both predators. Larger group sizes did not influence the number of attacks from predators but increased the number of attacks and the number of successful attacks from parasitoids. In all cases, individual risk was lower in larger groups. Caterpillars showed collective defenses against parasitoids but not against the walking predators. These results show that caterpillars use different tactics against different natural enemies. Overall, these tactics are both more diverse and more effective in fourth instar than in second instar caterpillars, confirming that growth reduces predation risk. We also show that grouping benefits caterpillars through dilution of risk, and, in the case of parasitoids, through

  20. Collaborative interactions between type 2 innate lymphoid cells and antigen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells exacerbate murine allergic airway diseases with prominent eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Lee, Jee-Boong; Chen, Chun-Yu; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana; Wang, Yui-Hsi

    2015-04-15

    Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the acquired CD4(+) Th2 and Th17 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental asthma; however, their roles in Ag-driven exacerbation of chronic murine allergic airway diseases remain elusive. In this study, we report that repeated intranasal rechallenges with only OVA Ag were sufficient to trigger airway hyperresponsiveness, prominent eosinophilic inflammation, and significantly increased serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE in rested mice that previously developed murine allergic airway diseases. The recall response to repeated OVA inoculation preferentially triggered a further increase of lung OVA-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, whereas CD4(+) Th17 and ILC2 cell numbers remained constant. Furthermore, the acquired CD4(+) Th17 cells in Stat6(-/-)/IL-17-GFP mice, or innate ILC2s in CD4(+) T cell-ablated mice, failed to mount an allergic recall response to OVA Ag. After repeated OVA rechallenge or CD4(+) T cell ablation, the increase or loss of CD4(+) Th2 cells resulted in an enhanced or reduced IL-13 production by lung ILC2s in response to IL-25 and IL-33 stimulation, respectively. In return, ILC2s enhanced Ag-mediated proliferation of cocultured CD4(+) Th2 cells and their cytokine production, and promoted eosinophilic airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia driven by adoptively transferred Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells. Thus, these results suggest that an allergic recall response to recurring Ag exposures preferentially triggers an increase of Ag-specific CD4(+) Th2 cells, which facilitates the collaborative interactions between acquired CD4(+) Th2 cells and innate ILC2s to drive the exacerbation of a murine allergic airway diseases with an eosinophilic phenotype. PMID:25780046

  1. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation Modulates Transcriptional Levels of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Jasmonic Acid Signaling-Related Genes and Augments the Cope with Drought Stress of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Bae, Dong-Won; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the potential underlying molecular mechanisms by which maize (Zea mays L.) plants elicit defense responses by infestation with a phloem feeding insect whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] have been barely elucidated against (a)biotic stresses. To fill this gap of current knowledge maize plants were infested with whitefly and these plants were subsequently assessed the levels of water loss. To understand the mode of action, plant hormone contents and the stress-related mRNA expression were evaluated. Whitefly-infested maize plants did not display any significant phenotypic differences in above-ground tissues (infested site) compared with controls. By contrast, root (systemic tissue) biomass was increased by 2-fold by whitefly infestation. The levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly higher in whitefly-infested plants. The biosynthetic or signaling-related genes for JA and anthocyanins were highly up-regulated. Additionally, we found that healthier plants were obtained in whitefly-infested plants under drought conditions. The weight of whitefly-infested plants was approximately 20% higher than that of control plants at 14 d of drought treatment. The drought tolerance-related genes, ZmbZIP72, ZmSNAC1, and ZmABA1, were highly expressed in the whitefly-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that IAA/JA-derived maize physiological changes and correlation of H2O2 production and water loss are modulated by above-ground whitefly infestation in maize plants. PMID:26630288

  2. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation Modulates Transcriptional Levels of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Jasmonic Acid Signaling-Related Genes and Augments the Cope with Drought Stress of Maize.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Bae, Dong-Won; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, the potential underlying molecular mechanisms by which maize (Zea mays L.) plants elicit defense responses by infestation with a phloem feeding insect whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] have been barely elucidated against (a)biotic stresses. To fill this gap of current knowledge maize plants were infested with whitefly and these plants were subsequently assessed the levels of water loss. To understand the mode of action, plant hormone contents and the stress-related mRNA expression were evaluated. Whitefly-infested maize plants did not display any significant phenotypic differences in above-ground tissues (infested site) compared with controls. By contrast, root (systemic tissue) biomass was increased by 2-fold by whitefly infestation. The levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were significantly higher in whitefly-infested plants. The biosynthetic or signaling-related genes for JA and anthocyanins were highly up-regulated. Additionally, we found that healthier plants were obtained in whitefly-infested plants under drought conditions. The weight of whitefly-infested plants was approximately 20% higher than that of control plants at 14 d of drought treatment. The drought tolerance-related genes, ZmbZIP72, ZmSNAC1, and ZmABA1, were highly expressed in the whitefly-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that IAA/JA-derived maize physiological changes and correlation of H2O2 production and water loss are modulated by above-ground whitefly infestation in maize plants. PMID:26630288

  3. Late-instar Behavior of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Different Thermal and Nutritive Environments.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, Michael H; Janairo, M Shawn

    2015-09-01

    The effects of temperature on ectotherm growth have been well documented. How temperature affects foraging behavior is less well explored, and has not been studied in larval mosquitoes. We hypothesized that temperature changes foraging behavior in the aquatic larval phase of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Based on empirical results in other systems, we predicted that foraging effort would increase at higher temperatures in these insects. We tested this prediction over three temperature conditions at two food levels. We measured behaviors by video recording replicated cohorts of fourth-instar mosquitoes and assessing individual behavior and time budgets using an ethogram. We found both food level and temperature had significant impacts on larval foraging behavior, with more time spent actively foraging at low food levels and at low temperatures, and more occurrences of active foraging at both temperature extremes. These results are contrary to some of our predictions, but fit into theoretical responses to temperature based upon dynamic energy budget models. PMID:26336228

  4. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

  5. Trap catches of the sweetpotato whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in the Imperial Valley, Caiifornia, from 1996 to 2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), biotype B occurred in the Imperial Valley, California in 1991. The insects destroyed melon crops and seriously damaged other vegetables, ornamentals and row crops. As a result of the need for sampling technology, we developed a w...

  6. The effect of time of whitefly infestation and plant nutrition on the development of tomato irregular ripening disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato irregular ripening (TIR) is a physiological plant disorder caused by Bemisia tabaci biotype B feeding on foliage and resulting in incomplete ripening of longitudinal sections of fruit.Our objective was to determine the effect of time of whitefly infestation and plant nutrition on the developm...

  7. The effect of time of sweetpotato whitefly infestation on plant nutrition and development of tomato irregular ripening disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato irregular ripening (TIR) disorder is associated with Bemisia tabaci biotype B feeding and is characterized by incomplete ripening of longitudinal sections of fruit. Our objective was to determine the effect of time of whitefly infestation on plant nutrition and the development of tomato irreg...

  8. A technique for the prevention of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana M130.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Jung-Bok; Kim, Beam-Soo; Nam, Young-Ho; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kim, Jin-Won; Kim, Jang-Eok; Kwon, Gi-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using hyphomycete fungi as suitable biocontrol agents against greenhouse whitefly has led to the isolation of various insect pathogenic fungi. Among them is Beauveria bassiana, one of the most studied entomopathogenic fungi. The objective of this study was to use B. bassiana M130 as an insecticidal agent against the greenhouse whitefly. M130 isolated from infected insects is known to be a biocontrol agent against greenhouse whitefly. Phylogenetic classification of M130 was determined according to its morphological features and 18S rRNA sequence analysis. M130 was identified as B. bassiana M130 and showed chitinase (342.28 units/ml) and protease (461.70 units/ml) activities, which were involved in the invasion of the host through the outer cuticle layer, thus killing them. The insecticidal activity was 55.2% in petri-dish test, 84.6% in pot test, and 45.3% in field test. The results of this study indicate that B. bassiana has potential as a biological agent for the control of greenhouse whitefly to replace chemical pesticides. PMID:24002449

  9. Nutrional Factors Influencing Whitefly Development and Flight Behavior: The Search for a Suitable Bio Assay to Test Hypothesis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obtaining adequate nitrogen (N) is considered to be one of the major evolutionary hurdles phytophagous insects had to overcome before they could exploit plants. Phloem feeders, like whiteflies, encounter some of the lowest levels of N, but they have excelled in this niche owing to physiological, mo...

  10. Estimation of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci genome size based on k-mer and flow cytometry analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), are one of the most important agricultural insect pests in the world. These phloem-feeding insects can colonize over 500 crop plants worldwide and inflict severe economic losses, mainly through the transmission of pathogenic viruses. Surprisingl...

  11. A knottin-like putative antimicrobial gene family in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci B: cloning and transcript regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a worldwide plant pest and the vector of agriculturally important plant pathogenic begomoviruses. Of two vectored begomoviruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transcriptionally active in B. tabaci and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV)is not. Comparative analyses...

  12. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several common cucurbit weed reservoirs for Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) were compared with watermelons as sources of inoculum. Weed susceptibility to SqVYV was also analyzed. In addition, behavior of the whitefly vector of SqVYV was studied on infected and non-infected plants. This report...

  13. Effects of Silver Plastic Mulch and Chemical Treatments on Development of Whitefly-Transmitted Viral Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) in Florida is caused by the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmitted virus called Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV, family: Potyviridae). WVD has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south west and west central Florida for the pas...

  14. First report of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in Costa Rica and detection of viruliferous whiteflies in greenhouses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies are a complex that comprises multiple species and biotypes or races which are capable of affecting crops by phloem feeding, virus transmission and promotion of fungal colonization. The distribution of these pests is worldwide. In Costa Rica, a country located in the tropics, the most prob...

  15. EFFECTS OF APPLAUD AND KNACK ON SWEETPOTATO WHITEFLY (SPW) NYMPH MORTALITY AND ADULT AND NYMPH HONEYDEW PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) produce honeydew that results in cotton lint contamination causing reduced lint processing efficiency. The insect growth regulators, Applaud® and Knack®, provide effective control of SPW on cotton by interfering with their reproduction and developm...

  16. Natural enemies managing the invasion of the Fig whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting a Ficus benjamina hedge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fig whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) is a recent invasive species that has become a major pest in Florida feeding on Ficus shrubs and trees. A pilot study was conducted on a weeping fig, Ficus benjamina shrub hedge to determine the efficacy and compatibility of a biopesticide (PFR 97™=Isaria...

  17. Molecular characterization with RAPD-PCR: application of genetic diagnostics to biological bontrol of the sweetpotato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 38 exotic and 2 native parasitoid populations of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B, were evaluated in pre-release quarantine efficacy tests. Numbers of B. tabaci parasitized were counted in sleeve cages on cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo‘Perlita’), cotton (Gossypium hirsu...

  18. Genome sequencing and analysis of the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) MEAM1, one of the most important vectors for plant viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among whiteflies, the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex is particularly important because of its ability to transmit hundreds of plant viruses, resulting in the loss of billions of U.S. dollars on agronomically important crops such as tomato, cucurbits, cassava, and cotton worl...

  19. Molecular determination of the predator community of a cassava whitefly in Colombia: Pest-specific primer development and field validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In South America, the whitefly Aleurotrachelus socialis is one of the principal pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), reaching high population levels throughout the Andean region. Management of this species is primarily based upon the use of insecticides, while biological control has received...

  20. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL WHITEFLY-TRANSMITTED MEMBER OF THE FAMILY POTYVIRIDAE ISOLATED FROM CUCURBITS IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. Koch’s pos...

  1. Effects of Host Plant Factors on the Bacterial Communities Associated with Two Whitefly Sibling Species

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ming-Ming; Guo, Lei; Tao, Yun-Li; Zhang, You-Jun; Wan, Fang-Hao; Chu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Although discrepancy in the specific traits and ecological characteristics of Bemisia tabaci between species are partially attributed to the B. tabaci-associated bacteria, the factors that affect the diversity of B. tabaci-associated bacteria are not well-understood. We used the metagenomic approach to characterize the B. tabaci-associated bacterial community because the approach is an effective tool to identify the bacteria. Methodology and Results To investigate the effects of the host plant and a virus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), on the bacterial communities of B. tabaci sibling species B and Q, we analyzed the bacterial communities associated with whitefly B and Q collected from healthy cotton, healthy tomato, and TYLCV-infected tomato. The analysis used miseq-based sequencing of a variable region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene. For the bacteria associated with B. tabaci, we found that the influence of the host plant species was greater than that of the whitefly cryptic species. With further analysis of host plants infected with the TYLCV, the virus had no significant effects on the B. tabaci-associated bacterial community. Conclusions The effects of different plant hosts and TYLCV-infection on the diversity of B. tabaci-associated bacterial communities were successfully analyzed in this study. To explain why B. tabaci sibling species with different host ranges differ in performance, the analysis of the bacterial community may be essential to the explanation. PMID:27008327

  2. Acyl sugars and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) resistance in segregating populations of tomato genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Marodin, J C; Matos, R; Lustosa, I F; Resende, N C V

    2016-01-01

    The wild tomato, Solanum pennellii, is an important source of resistance genes against tomato pests. This resistance is due to the presence of acyl sugars (AS), which are allelochemicals that have negative effects on arthropod pests. There are no commercially available tomato cultivars that exhibit significant levels of resistance to arthropod pests. Therefore, this study evaluated resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in F2 and F2RC1 tomato genotypes with high AS levels from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Redenção' and the S. pennellii accession, LA-716. Plants were exposed to B. tabaci biotype B at the pre-flowering stage. In both generations, there were significant, negative correlations between AS content and oviposition preference and nymph development. Whitefly exhibited a lower preference for oviposition and produced fewer nymphs in genotypes with high AS levels and the wild parent S. pennellii than in the low AS-level genotypes and Redenção cultivar, demonstrating that the breeding program was effective in transferring resistance to the F2 and F2RC1 generations. RVTA-2010-pl#31 and RVTA-2010-pl#94 in the F2 population are promising genotypes that produced materials with high AS levels in the F2RC1 generation (RVTA-2010-31-pl#177 and RVTA-2010-94-pl#381). PMID:27173206

  3. Differential temporal changes of primary and secondary bacterial symbionts and whitefly host fitness following antibiotic treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Na; Zhang, Fan-Di; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Where multiple symbionts coexist in the same host, the selective elimination of a specific symbiont may enable the roles of a given symbiont to be investigated. We treated the Mediterranean species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex by oral delivery of the antibiotic rifampicin, and then examined the temporal changes of its primary symbiont "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" and secondary symbiont "Ca. Hamiltonella defensa" as well as host fitness for three generations. In adults treated with rifampicin (F0), the secondary symbiont was rapidly reduced, approaching complete disappearance as adults aged. In contrast, the primary symbiont was little affected until later in the adult life. In the offspring of these adults (F1), both symbionts were significantly reduced and barely detectable when the hosts reached the adult stage. The F1 adults laid few eggs (F2), all of which failed to hatch. Mating experiments illustrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were exerted via female hosts but not males. This study provides the first evidence of differential temporal reductions of primary and secondary symbionts in whiteflies following an antibiotic treatment. Studies that disrupt functions of bacterial symbionts must consider their temporal changes. PMID:26510682

  4. Effects of plant virus and its insect vector on Encarsia formosa, a biocontrol agent of whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyuan; Xiang, Wensheng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Zhou, Xuguo; Wang, Shaoli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the tritrophic interactions among a persistently transmitted plant virus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), its insect vector, the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, and a parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan, one of the most extensively used biological control agents. As an emerging invasive pest worldwide, the two most damaging whiteflies are B. tabaci B and Q cryptic species. On healthy tomato plants, parasitoid-induced mortality was significantly higher in B. tabaci B than in Q. In contrast, similar mortality levels of B and Q were observed on TYLCV-infected plants. A higher rate of parasitism was consistently observed in B, independent of the TYLCV infection. Similarly, the life history traits of E. formosa were influenced by both TYLCV and the two cryptic species of B. tabaci. Specifically, E. formosa parasitizing B had a greater adult longevity and shorter developmental time on healthy plants, whereas the parasitoids developing from Q has a greater adult longevity on TYLCV-infected plants. The emergence rate of E. formosa was unaffected by either B. tabaci cryptic species or the virus. These results suggest that the vector-borne pathogen can manipulate the host suitability of a parasitoid and hence the parasitoid-host interactions. PMID:25096549

  5. Differential temporal changes of primary and secondary bacterial symbionts and whitefly host fitness following antibiotic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chang-Rong; Shan, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Na; Zhang, Fan-Di; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yin-Quan; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Where multiple symbionts coexist in the same host, the selective elimination of a specific symbiont may enable the roles of a given symbiont to be investigated. We treated the Mediterranean species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex by oral delivery of the antibiotic rifampicin, and then examined the temporal changes of its primary symbiont “Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum” and secondary symbiont “Ca. Hamiltonella defensa” as well as host fitness for three generations. In adults treated with rifampicin (F0), the secondary symbiont was rapidly reduced, approaching complete disappearance as adults aged. In contrast, the primary symbiont was little affected until later in the adult life. In the offspring of these adults (F1), both symbionts were significantly reduced and barely detectable when the hosts reached the adult stage. The F1 adults laid few eggs (F2), all of which failed to hatch. Mating experiments illustrated that the negative effects of rifampicin on host fitness were exerted via female hosts but not males. This study provides the first evidence of differential temporal reductions of primary and secondary symbionts in whiteflies following an antibiotic treatment. Studies that disrupt functions of bacterial symbionts must consider their temporal changes. PMID:26510682

  6. Challenges with managing insecticide resistance in agricultural pests, exemplisfied by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Denholm, I.

    1998-01-01

    For many key agricultural pests, successful management of insecticide resistance depends not only on modifying the way that insecticides are deployed, but also on reducing the total number of treatments applied. Both approaches benefit from a knowledge of the biological characteristics of pests that promote or may retard the development of resistance. For the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), these factors include a haplodiploid breeding system that encourages the rapid selection and fixation of resistance genes, its breeding cycle on a succession of treated or untreated hosts, and its occurrence on and dispersal from high-value crops in greenhouses and glasshouses. These factors, in conjunction with often intensive insecticide use, have led to severe and widespread resistance that now affects several novel as well as conventional control agents. Resistance-management strategies implemented on cotton in Israel, and subsequently in south-western USA, have nonetheless so far succeeded in arresting the resistance treadmill in B. tabaci through a combination of increased chemical diversity, voluntary or mandatory restrictions on the use of key insecticides, and careful integration of chemical control with other pest-management options. In both countries, the most significant achievement has been a dramatic reduction in the number of insecticide treatments applied against whiteflies on cotton, increasing the prospect of sustained use of existing and future insecticides.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of Novaluron for toxicity to nymphal instars of field collected southern green stink bug on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of novaluron (Diamond [TM] 0.83 EC) on cotton against nymphs of different instars of field collected southern green stink bug (SGSB), Nezara viridula (L.), was investigated in a spray table using two nozzles, 650033 and 8002E. The nozzles delivered spray rates of 18.7 and 46.7 L/ha, re...

  8. Analysis of growth and development in the final instar of three species of predatory Coccinellidae under varying prey availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insects like aphidophagous lady beetles, whose preferred food naturally varies in space and time, variation in adult body size is most likely a reflection of food acquired and allocated to growth by the final larval instar. We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the nature of variation in ...

  9. Toxic responses of developing fifth instar milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera), to aflatoxin B/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Gee, C.L.; Sherertz, P.C.

    1988-03-01

    Although studies on the aflatoxins have involved test systems ranging from cell cultures to laboratory animals, there appears to be a general lack of information on the ecological and economic effects of aflatoxins on insects. However, this situation is gradually changing. These studies involved the toxic responses of fifth instar milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatus) to AFB/sub 1/. Milkweed bugs pass through five distinct nymphal instars. In the fifth instar stage, the insect is marked with lateral spots on all of the abdominal pleurites and median spots on the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth dorsal abdominal tergites. The apex of the ventral abdominal surface is black and the remainder of the body is reddish-orange. Also, the adult is elongate to oval, and it is black and red in color. Because of this insect's ability to live and reproduce normally when provided dried sunflower seeds and water, it is a very desirable model to study through out the year. It is thought that juvenile insect stages are more sensitive to AFT than are adults, thus the instar and its developmental and sexual responses to aflatoxins are of interest.

  10. Classification of forensically-relevant larvae according to instar in a closely related species of carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae).

    PubMed

    Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2016-06-01

    Carrion beetle larvae of Necrodes littoralis (Linnaeus, 1758), Oiceoptoma thoracicum (Linnaeus, 1758), Thanatophilus sinuatus (Fabricius, 1775), and Thanatophilus rugosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Silphidae: Silphinae) were studied to test the concept that a classifier of the subfamily level may be successfully used to classify larvae according to instar. Classifiers were created and validated using a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). LDA generates classification functions which are used to calculate classification values for tested specimens. The largest value indicates the larval instar to which the specimen should be assigned. Distance between dorsal stemmata and width of the pronotum were used as classification features. The classifier correctly classified larvae of N. littoralis and O. thoracicum, whereas in the case of T. sinuatus and T. rugosus a few misclassifications were recorded. For this reason, a separate genus level classifier was created for larvae of Thanatophilus. We conclude that larval instar classifiers of the subfamily or genus level have very high classification accuracy and therefore they may be safely used to classify carrion beetle larvae according to instar in forensic practice. PMID:27071758

  11. Differential patterns of insecticide resistance in eggs and first instars of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from Argentina and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Germano, Monica; Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Vassena, Claudia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María Inés

    2008-05-01

    Previous work at our laboratory has indicated high resistance levels to deltamethrin correlated with failures of chemical control in field populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in northern Argentina and southern Bolivia. The aim of the present work was to study the resistance patterns in eggs and first instars of T. infestans in populations from Argentina and Bolivia. At the egg stage, a population from Salvador Mazza, Argentina, showed the highest resistance ratio to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and it was susceptible to fipronil and fenitrothion. A population from Mataral, Bolivia, showed very low resistance ratios to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and it was susceptible to fipronil and fenitrothion. A Sucre population was susceptible to deltamethrin and fenitrothion, and it showed very low resistant ratios to lambdacyhalothrin and fipronil. A Yacuiba population was susceptible to deltamethrin. At the first instar, the Salvador Mazza population was susceptible to fipronil, whereas the Mataral and Sucre populations were susceptible to fenitrothion, and they showed very low resistance ratios to lambda-cyhalothrin but the high resistance to fipronil. The Salvador Mazza population was resistant to deltamethrin at the larval stage. Remarkable differences were found in the resistance profile to fipronil in first instars and eggs from Sucre and Mataral. These indicated that the expression of insecticide resistance in eggs varies between populations and that the pyrethroid resistance diagnosed in T. infestans first instars is not indicative of resistance in the egg stage. PMID:18533435

  12. A Plant Virus Manipulates the Behavior of Its Whitefly Vector to Enhance Its Transmission Efficiency and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Delafuente, Ana; Garzo, Elisa; Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Plant viruses can produce direct and plant-mediated indirect effects on their insect vectors, modifying their life cycle, fitness and behavior. Viruses may benefit from such changes leading to enhanced transmission efficiency and spread. In our study, female adults of Bemisia tabaci were subjected to an acquisition access period of 72 h in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-infected and non-infected tomato plants to obtain viruliferous and non-viruliferous whiteflies, respectively. Insects that were exposed to virus-infected plants were checked by PCR to verify their viruliferous status. Results of the Ethovision video tracking bioassays indicated that TYLCV induced an arrestant behavior of B. tabaci, as viruliferous whitefly adults remained motionless for more time and moved slower than non-viruliferous whiteflies after their first contact with eggplant leaf discs. In fact, Electrical Penetration Graphs showed that TYLCV-viruliferous B. tabaci fed more often from phloem sieve elements and made a larger number of phloem contacts (increased number of E1, E2 and sustained E2 per insect, p<0.05) in eggplants than non-viruliferous whiteflies. Furthermore, the duration of the salivation phase in phloem sieve elements (E1) preceding sustained sap ingestion was longer in viruliferous than in non-viruliferous whiteflies (p<0.05). This particular probing behavior is known to significantly enhance the inoculation efficiency of TYLCV by B. tabaci. Our results show evidence that TYLCV directly manipulates the settling, probing and feeding behavior of its vector B. tabaci in a way that enhances virus transmission efficiency and spread. Furthermore, TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions are mutually beneficial to both the virus and its vector because B. tabaci feeds more efficiently after acquisition of TYLCV. This outcome has clear implications in the epidemiology and management of the TYLCV-B. tabaci complex. PMID:23613872

  13. Sequencing and comparison of the Rickettsia genomes from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia Minor I.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan-Tong; Xia, Wen-Qiang; Rao, Qiong; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Ghanim, Murad; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2016-08-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, harbors the primary symbiont 'Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum' and a variety of secondary symbionts. Among these secondary symbionts, Rickettsia is the only one that can be detected both inside and outside the bacteriomes. Infection with Rickettsia has been reported to influence several aspects of the whitefly biology, such as fitness, sex ratio, virus transmission and resistance to pesticides. However, mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear, largely due to the lack of genomic information of Rickettsia. In this study, we sequenced the genome of two Rickettsia strains isolated from the Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the B. tabaci complex in China and Israel. Both Rickettsia genomes were of high coding density and AT-rich, containing more than 1000 coding sequences, much larger than that of the coexisted primary symbiont, Portiera. Moreover, the two Rickettsia strains isolated from China and Israel shared most of the genes with 100% identity and only nine genes showed sequence differences. The phylogenetic analysis using orthologs shared in the genus, inferred the proximity of Rickettsia in MEAM1 and Rickettsia bellii. Functional analysis revealed that Rickettsia was unable to synthesize amino acids required for complementing the whitefly nutrition. Besides, a type IV secretion system and a number of virulence-related genes were detected in the Rickettsia genome. The presence of virulence-related genes might benefit the symbiotic life of the bacteria, and hint on potential effects of Rickettsia on whiteflies. The genome sequences of Rickettsia provided a basis for further understanding the function of Rickettsia in whiteflies. PMID:27273750

  14. A plant virus manipulates the behavior of its whitefly vector to enhance its transmission efficiency and spread.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Delafuente, Ana; Garzo, Elisa; Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Plant viruses can produce direct and plant-mediated indirect effects on their insect vectors, modifying their life cycle, fitness and behavior. Viruses may benefit from such changes leading to enhanced transmission efficiency and spread. In our study, female adults of Bemisia tabaci were subjected to an acquisition access period of 72 h in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-infected and non-infected tomato plants to obtain viruliferous and non-viruliferous whiteflies, respectively. Insects that were exposed to virus-infected plants were checked by PCR to verify their viruliferous status. Results of the Ethovision video tracking bioassays indicated that TYLCV induced an arrestant behavior of B. tabaci, as viruliferous whitefly adults remained motionless for more time and moved slower than non-viruliferous whiteflies after their first contact with eggplant leaf discs. In fact, Electrical Penetration Graphs showed that TYLCV-viruliferous B. tabaci fed more often from phloem sieve elements and made a larger number of phloem contacts (increased number of E1, E2 and sustained E2 per insect, p<0.05) in eggplants than non-viruliferous whiteflies. Furthermore, the duration of the salivation phase in phloem sieve elements (E1) preceding sustained sap ingestion was longer in viruliferous than in non-viruliferous whiteflies (p<0.05). This particular probing behavior is known to significantly enhance the inoculation efficiency of TYLCV by B. tabaci. Our results show evidence that TYLCV directly manipulates the settling, probing and feeding behavior of its vector B. tabaci in a way that enhances virus transmission efficiency and spread. Furthermore, TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions are mutually beneficial to both the virus and its vector because B. tabaci feeds more efficiently after acquisition of TYLCV. This outcome has clear implications in the epidemiology and management of the TYLCV-B. tabaci complex. PMID:23613872

  15. An Ecological Study of Food Desert Prevalence and 4th Grade Academic Achievement in New York State School Districts

    PubMed Central

    Frndak, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. Results The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Conclusions Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public health The prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at

  16. Augmentation and Evaluation of a Parasitoid, Encarsia inaron, and a Predator, Clitostethus arcuatus, for Biological Control of the Pomegranate Whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pomegranate whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), attacks at least 60 plant species of economic importance including pomegranate (Punica granatum), apple (Malus domestica), pear (Pyrus communis) and ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A study was conducted to evaluate the b...

  17. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30th July until the 3rd August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  18. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30(th) July until the 3(rd) August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  19. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4(th)/5(th) Century CE).

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Makki, Mahsasadat; Heidari, Zahra; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Araujo, Adauto; Boenke, Nicole; Aali, Abolfazl; Stollner, Thomas; Mobedi, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4(th)/5(th) century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  20. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4th/5th Century CE)

    PubMed Central

    MOWLAVI, Gholamreza; MAKKI, Mahsasadat; HEIDARI, Zahra; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ARAUJO, Adauto; BOENKE, Nicole; AALI, Abolfazl; STOLLNER, Thomas; MOBEDI, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4th/5th century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  1. [Guideline for the additional test positions according to the EPQC 4th Edition for Digital Mammography Systems].

    PubMed

    Sommer, A; Lenzen, H; Blaser, D; Ehlers, S-E; Schopphoven, S; John, C

    2009-09-01

    Within the physical-technical quality assurance of the German breast cancer screening program all digital mammography systems have to perform the contrast resolution test and the determination of the average glandular dose based on the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis (4th Edition). Since 1.1.2009 this applies to digital systems outside the screening program too. To accomplish uniform measurements in all federal states of Germany, the physical board of the reference centers developed together a special guideline for these test position. This Guideline describes the determination of the average glandular dose for different types of mammography systems, the CDMAM image acquisition and the CDMAM image evaluation as well. This guideline was verified by the German task group "Röntgenverordnung". PMID:19676011

  2. Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children.

    PubMed

    Otto, D A; Skalik, I; House, D E; Hudnell, H K

    1996-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of school children in the Czech Republic indicate that 2nd-grade children could perform the following NES tests satisfactorily: Finger Tapping, Visual Digit Span. Continuous Performance, Symbol-Digit Substitution, Pattern Comparison, and simpler conditions of Switching Attention. Comparative scores of boys and girls from the 2nd, 4th, and 8th grades and power analyses to estimate appropriate sample size were presented. Performance varied systematically with grade level and gender. Larger samples were needed with younger children to achieve comparable levels of statistical power. Gender comparisons indicated that boys responded faster, but made more errors than girls. PMID:8866533

  3. The influence of neighborhood density and word frequency on phoneme awareness in 2nd and 4th grades

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Tiffany P.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Storkel, Holly L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that two lexical characteristics – neighborhood density and word frequency – interact to influence performance on phoneme awareness tasks. Methods Phoneme awareness was examined in a large, longitudinal dataset of 2nd and 4th grade children. Using linear logistic test model, the relation between words' neighborhood density, word frequency, and phoneme awareness performance was examined across grades while covarying type and place of deletion. Results A predicted interaction was revealed: words from dense neighborhoods or those with high frequency were more likely to yield correct phoneme awareness responses across grades. Conclusions Findings support an expansion to the lexical restructuring model to include interactions between neighborhood density and word frequency to account for phoneme awareness. PMID:20691979

  4. 4th Annual Conference for African-American Researchers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4). Preliminary Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tapia, Richard

    1998-06-01

    In June, The Center for Research on Parallel Computation (CRPC), an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center, hosted the 4th Annual Conference for African-American Reserachers in the Mathematical Sciences (CAARMS4) at Rice University. The main goal of this conference was to highlight current work by African-American researchers and graduate students in mathematics. This conference strengthened the mathematical sciences by encouraging the increased participation of African-American and underrepresented groups into the field, facilitating working relationships between them and helping to cultivate their careers. In addition to the talks there was a graduate student poster session and tutorials on topics in mathematics and computer science. These talks, presentations, and discussions brought a broader perspective to the critical issues involving minority participation in mathematics.

  5. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Islam, Md Nazrul; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  6. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  7. Reduction of viral load in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) feeding on RNAi-mediated bean golden mosaic virus resistant transgenic bean plants.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Nayhanne T; de Faria, Josias C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-01

    The RNAi concept was explored to silence the rep gene from the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) and a genetically modified (GM) bean immune to the virus was previously generated. We investigated if BGMV-viruliferous whiteflies would reduce viral amount after feeding on GM plants. BGMV DNA amount was significantly reduced in whiteflies feeding in GM-plants (compared with insects feeding on non-GM plants) for a period of 4 and 8 days in 52% and 84% respectively. PMID:26297125

  8. Thermal Death Kinetics of Fifth-Instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min−1 using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466–592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. PMID:25843578

  9. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min(-1) using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466-592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. PMID:25843578

  10. Identifying 1st instar larvae for three forensically important blowfly species using "fingerprint" cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2014-07-01

    Calliphoridae are known to be the most forensically important insects when it comes to establishing the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) in criminal investigations. The first step in calculating the PMImin is to identify the larvae present to species level. Accurate identification which is conventionally carried out by morphological analysis is crucial because different insects have different life stage timings. Rapid identification in the immature larvae stages would drastically cut time in criminal investigations as it would eliminate the need to rear larvae to adult flies to determine the species. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis on 1st instar larvae has been applied to three forensically important blowflies; Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that each species holds a distinct "fingerprint" hydrocarbon profile, allowing for accurate identification to be established in 1-day old larvae, when it can be challenging to apply morphological criteria. Consequently, this GC-MS based technique could accelerate and strengthen the identification process, not only for forensically important species, but also for other entomological samples which are hard to identify using morphological features. PMID:24815992

  11. Culex quinquefasciatus larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Marcus J.; Prager, Sean M.; Walton, William E.; Trumble, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Like many insects, mosquitoes, rely on endosymbionts to grow and develop. These can be acquired from the environment. We used next generation 454 pyrosequencing to discern the whole-body microbiome of the mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus in various larval stadia and following exposure to common pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) found in wastewater. PPCP treatments included environmentally-relevant concentrations; 1) a combination of common antibiotics, 2) a combination of mammalian hormones, 3) a mixture of the antibiotic and hormone treatments plus acetaminophen and caffeine and, 4) an untreated control. Within control groups, the predominant families of bacterial symbionts change with each larval instar despite consistent diets and rearing conditions. This trend was also seen in hormone treatments but not in the antibiotic or the mixture treatments. Richness and evenness were reduced in both antibiotic and mixture treatments, suggesting that antibiotics remove certain bacteria or inhibit them from increasing to proportions seen in the control treatment. Interestingly, the mixture treatments had greater richness and evenness compared to antibiotic alone treatments, possibly due to the other contaminants facilitating growth of different bacteria. These findings illuminate the complexity of the microbiome of C. quinquefasciatus and may have implications for more effective control strategies. PMID:26912375

  12. Culex quinquefasciatus larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Marcus J; Prager, Sean M; Walton, William E; Trumble, John T

    2016-01-01

    Like many insects, mosquitoes, rely on endosymbionts to grow and develop. These can be acquired from the environment. We used next generation 454 pyrosequencing to discern the whole-body microbiome of the mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus in various larval stadia and following exposure to common pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) found in wastewater. PPCP treatments included environmentally-relevant concentrations; 1) a combination of common antibiotics, 2) a combination of mammalian hormones, 3) a mixture of the antibiotic and hormone treatments plus acetaminophen and caffeine and, 4) an untreated control. Within control groups, the predominant families of bacterial symbionts change with each larval instar despite consistent diets and rearing conditions. This trend was also seen in hormone treatments but not in the antibiotic or the mixture treatments. Richness and evenness were reduced in both antibiotic and mixture treatments, suggesting that antibiotics remove certain bacteria or inhibit them from increasing to proportions seen in the control treatment. Interestingly, the mixture treatments had greater richness and evenness compared to antibiotic alone treatments, possibly due to the other contaminants facilitating growth of different bacteria. These findings illuminate the complexity of the microbiome of C. quinquefasciatus and may have implications for more effective control strategies. PMID:26912375

  13. Global haplotype analysis of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci cryptic species Asia I in Asia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Chen, Yong-Dui; Jiang, Zhi-Lin; Nardi, Francesco; Yang, Tai-Yuan; Jin, Jie; Zhang, Zhong-Kai

    2015-04-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidiae), is a cryptic species complex comprising a minimum of 24 cryptic species. Some members of this complex are important agricultural pests, causing considerable damage to vegetable as well as ornamental and horticultural crops. Asia I, one of the cryptic species of B. tabaci, is widely distributed in Asia. One hundred and sixty mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences from eight countries have been analyzed to investigate the geographic origin and current genetic structure of this cryptic species. Sixty different haplotypes were identified, with levels of genetic distances ranging from 0.001 to 0.021. A sign of possible genetic differentiation emerges from the differential distribution of dominant haplotypes in Indonesia and India compared to China. A possible ancient separation between Asia I in India and Indonesia and secondary contact in China has been hypothesized. PMID:24460161

  14. Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Thangavel; Karuppuchamy, Palaniappan; Singh, Soibam B.; Kalyanasundaram, Manickavasagam; Mohankumar, S.; Ravi, Madhaiyan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta) during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population). The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus in both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava. PMID:26691465

  15. Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, Thangavel; Karuppuchamy, Palaniappan; Singh, Soibam B; Kalyanasundaram, Manickavasagam; Mohankumar, S; Ravi, Madhaiyan

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Lecanicillium lecanii and Isaria fumosorosea were tested for their efficacy in managing the exotic spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta) during 2 seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). The fungi I. fumosorosea and L. lecanii exhibited promising levels of control (> 70% mortality of the A. dispersus population). The percent mortality increased over time in both seasons. Application of I. fumosorosea was highly pathogenic to A. dispersus in both seasons compared to the other entomopathogenic fungi. Analysis of the percent mortality in both seasons revealed differences in efficacy between 3 and 15 days after treatment. The season also influenced the effects of the fungi on the A. dispersus population. Thus, entomopathogenic fungi have the potential to manage A. dispersus infestation of cassava. PMID:26691465

  16. Metabolic Coevolution in the Bacterial Symbiosis of Whiteflies and Related Plant Sap-Feeding Insects

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K.; Simmons, Alvin M.; Wintermantel, William M.; Ling, Kai-Shu; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic decay is a common feature of intracellular bacteria that have entered into symbiosis with plant sap-feeding insects. This study of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and two bacteria (Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa) cohoused in each host cell investigated whether the decay of Portiera metabolism genes is complemented by host and Hamiltonella genes, and compared the metabolic traits of the whitefly symbiosis with other sap-feeding insects (aphids, psyllids, and mealybugs). Parallel genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed that the host genome contributes multiple metabolic reactions that complement or duplicate Portiera function, and that Hamiltonella may contribute multiple cofactors and one essential amino acid, lysine. Homologs of the Bemisia metabolism genes of insect origin have also been implicated in essential amino acid synthesis in other sap-feeding insect hosts, indicative of parallel coevolution of shared metabolic pathways across multiple symbioses. Further metabolism genes coded in the Bemisia genome are of bacterial origin, but phylogenetically distinct from Portiera, Hamiltonella and horizontally transferred genes identified in other sap-feeding insects. Overall, 75% of the metabolism genes of bacterial origin are functionally unique to one symbiosis, indicating that the evolutionary history of metabolic integration in these symbioses is strongly contingent on the pattern of horizontally acquired genes. Our analysis, further, shows that bacteria with genomic decay enable host acquisition of complex metabolic pathways by multiple independent horizontal gene transfers from exogenous bacteria. Specifically, each horizontally acquired gene can function with other genes in the pathway coded by the symbiont, while facilitating the decay of the symbiont gene coding the same reaction. PMID:26377567

  17. Gene expression profiling in the thiamethoxam resistant and susceptible B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shao-Ii; Wu, Qing-jun; Yang, Ni-na; Li, Ru-mei; Jiao, Xiao-guo; Pan, Hui-peng; Liu, Bai-ming; Feng, Yun-tao; Xu, Bao-yun; Zhou, Xu-guo; Zhang, You-jun

    2012-01-01

    Thiamethoxam has been used as a major insecticide to control the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Due to its excessive use, a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam has developed worldwide over the past several years. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance in B. tabaci, gene profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible strains were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library approach. A total of 72 and 52 upand down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These expressed sequence tags (ESTs) belong to several functional categories based on their gene ontology annotation. Some categories such as cell communication, response to abiotic stimulus, lipid particle, and nuclear envelope were identified only in the forward library of thiamethoxam-resistant strains. In contrast, categories such as behavior, cell proliferation, nutrient reservoir activity, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, and signal transducer activity were identified solely in the reverse library. To study the validity of the SSH method, 16 differentially expressed genes from both forward and reverse SSH libraries were selected randomly for further analyses using quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were fairly consistent with the SSH results; however, only 50% of the genes showed significantly different expression profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible whiteflies. Among these genes, a putative NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase was substantially over-expressed in the thiamethoxamresistant adults compared to their susceptible counterparts. The distributed profiles show that it was highly expressed during the egg stage, and was most abundant in the abdomen of adult females. PMID:22957505

  18. Metabolic Coevolution in the Bacterial Symbiosis of Whiteflies and Related Plant Sap-Feeding Insects.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K; Simmons, Alvin M; Wintermantel, William M; Ling, Kai-Shu; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-09-01

    Genomic decay is a common feature of intracellular bacteria that have entered into symbiosis with plant sap-feeding insects. This study of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and two bacteria (Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa) cohoused in each host cell investigated whether the decay of Portiera metabolism genes is complemented by host and Hamiltonella genes, and compared the metabolic traits of the whitefly symbiosis with other sap-feeding insects (aphids, psyllids, and mealybugs). Parallel genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed that the host genome contributes multiple metabolic reactions that complement or duplicate Portiera function, and that Hamiltonella may contribute multiple cofactors and one essential amino acid, lysine. Homologs of the Bemisia metabolism genes of insect origin have also been implicated in essential amino acid synthesis in other sap-feeding insect hosts, indicative of parallel coevolution of shared metabolic pathways across multiple symbioses. Further metabolism genes coded in the Bemisia genome are of bacterial origin, but phylogenetically distinct from Portiera, Hamiltonella and horizontally transferred genes identified in other sap-feeding insects. Overall, 75% of the metabolism genes of bacterial origin are functionally unique to one symbiosis, indicating that the evolutionary history of metabolic integration in these symbioses is strongly contingent on the pattern of horizontally acquired genes. Our analysis, further, shows that bacteria with genomic decay enable host acquisition of complex metabolic pathways by multiple independent horizontal gene transfers from exogenous bacteria. Specifically, each horizontally acquired gene can function with other genes in the pathway coded by the symbiont, while facilitating the decay of the symbiont gene coding the same reaction. PMID:26377567

  19. Gene Expression Profiling in the Thiamethoxam Resistant and Susceptible B-biotype Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shao-Ii; Wu, Qing-jun; Yang, Ni-na; Li, Ru-mei; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Pan, Hui-peng; Liu, Bai-ming; Feng, Yun-tao; Xu, Bao-yun; Zhou, Xu-guo; Zhang, You-jun

    2012-01-01

    Thiamethoxam has been used as a major insecticide to control the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Due to its excessive use, a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam has developed worldwide over the past several years. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance in B. tabaci, gene profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible strains were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library approach. A total of 72 and 52 upand down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These expressed sequence tags (ESTs) belong to several functional categories based on their gene ontology annotation. Some categories such as cell communication, response to abiotic stimulus, lipid particle, and nuclear envelope were identified only in the forward library of thiamethoxam-resistant strains. In contrast, categories such as behavior, cell proliferation, nutrient reservoir activity, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, and signal transducer activity were identified solely in the reverse library. To study the validity of the SSH method, 16 differentially expressed genes from both forward and reverse SSH libraries were selected randomly for further analyses using quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were fairly consistent with the SSH results; however, only 50% of the genes showed significantly different expression profiles between the thiamethoxam-resistant and thiamethoxam-susceptible whiteflies. Among these genes, a putative NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase was substantially over-expressed in the thiamethoxamresistant adults compared to their susceptible counterparts. The distributed profiles show that it was highly expressed during the egg stage, and was most abundant in the abdomen of adult females. PMID:22957505

  20. Resistance to the Whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis, in Wild Populations of Cassava, Manihot Tristis

    PubMed Central

    Carabalí, A.; Bellotti, A. C.; Montoya-Lerma, J.; Fregene, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The levels of resistance in the wild species of cassava, Manihot tristis Muell-Arg. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), to the whitefly, Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar (Hemiptera: Alelyrodidae), the most important economic pest in cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) crops in South America, were estimated under glasshouse conditions. The parameters of the life history of A. socialis were studied on TST-26 and TST-18 accessions of the wild parent and compared with the susceptible (CMC-40) and resistant (MEcu-72) cultivars. The average longevity on the wild accessions (TST-26, 4.1; TST-18, 4.6 days) and oviposition rates (TST-26, 2.0; TST-18, 1.6 eggs/female/2 days) of the A. socialis females were not significantly different from those of MEcu-72 (5.1 days and 3.4 eggs/female/2days). The longevity and oviposition rates on CMC-40 were highest (11 days and 8.6 eggs/female/2days). Analyses of the demographic parameters (Ro, rm; DT) showed a significant impact of the M. tristis accessions on the potential growth of A. socialis. The average survival time of adults that fed on TST-26, TST-18, and MEcu-72 were significantly different from those recorded on the susceptible genotype. Results from this study revealed important levels of resistance to the whitefly A. socialis on the TST-26 and TST-18 accessions due to the marked differences found for longevity and reproduction, which influenced and were consistent with the differences found in the net reproduction rate (Ro), intrinsic growth rate (rm) and population doubling time (DT). The combined effect of these parameters indicated that M. tristis accessions were inappropriate hosts for A. socialis. PMID:21062208

  1. [A development of Byzantine Christian charities during the 4(th)-7(th) centuries and the birth of the hospital].

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to examine the beginning and the development of Christian Charities during the 4(th)-6(th) centuries which would eventually result in the birth of the hospital in modern sense in the first half of the 7(th) century. For this purpose, I looked carefully into various primary sources concerning the early Christian institutions for the poor and the sick. Above all, it's proper to note that the first xenodocheion where hospitality was combined with a systematic caring, is concerned with the Trinitarian debate of the 4(th) century. In 356, Eustathios, one of the leaders of homoiousios group, established xenodocheion to care for the sick and the lepers in Sebaste of Armenia, whereas his opponent Aetios, doctor and leader of the heteroousios party, was reckoned to have combined the medical treatment with his clerical activities. Then, Basil of Caesarea, disciple of Eustathios of Sebaste, also founded in 372 a magnificent benevolent complex named 'Basileias' after its founder. I scrupulously analysed several contemporary materials mentioning the charitable institution of Caesarea which was called alternatively katagogia, ptochotropheion, xenodocheion. John Chrysostome also founded several nosokomeia in Constantinople at the end of the 4(th) century and the beginning of the 5(th) century. Apparently, the contemporary sources mention that doctors existed for these Charities, but there is no sufficient proof that these 'Christian Hospitals,' Basileias or nosokomeia of Constantinople were hospitals in modern sense. Imperial constitutions began to mention ptochotropheion, xenodocheion and orphanotropheion since the second half of the 5(th) century and then some Justinian laws evoked nosokomium, brephotrophia, gerontocomia. These laws reveal that 'Christian Hospitals' were well clarified and deeply rooted in Byzantine society already in these periods. And then, new benevolent institutions emerged in the 6(th) century: nosokomeia for a specific class and

  2. Description of the second- and third-instar larva of South African Stenomastigus longicornis (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Kilian, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The second- and third-instar larvae of the South African species of Mastigini, Stenomastigus longicornis, are described. The serial homology of chaetotaxic structures and differences between larval instars are discussed. The larva of Stenomastigus is very similar to that of Palaeostigus, but differences in proportions of body parts, number of setae on the head, thorax and abdomen and possibly also the shape of the antennal sensory appendage can be used to distinguish them. A frontal impression surrounded by modified setae with greatly enlarged surface, presumably functioning as a glandular evaporation apparatus, and the antennomere II subdivided into three sections, are suggested as synapomorphies of Mastigini; within Mastigitae this tribe is also unique in lacking the urogomphs, which are present in larvae of Leptomastacini and Clidicini. Geniculate and slender antennae with a strongly oblique distal margin of antennomere II are a putative larval synapomorphy of Mastigitae. PMID:27615878

  3. Comparison of the transmission of Theileria parva between different instars of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus.

    PubMed

    Ochanda, H; Young, A S; Wells, C; Medley, G F; Perry, B D

    1996-09-01

    The transmission of Theileria parva by nymphal and adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was compared by the assessment of salivary gland infections in tick batches fed on the same group of infected cattle at the same time. When larval and nymphal R. appendiculatus Muguga ticks were fed concurrently on cattle undergoing acute infection with T. parva Muguga, the resultant nymphae developed a slightly lower prevalence of infection than did the adult ticks. The abundance of infection was 5-20 times higher in the adult ticks than in the nymphae. When larval and nymphal R. appendiculatus Muguga and R. appendiculatus McIlwaine were fed to repletion on cattle infected with T. parva Boleni, a parasite causing subacute infection, resultant adult tick batches had a relatively high prevalence of infection, but infection was not detected in resultant nymphal batches. When cattle that were carriers of 2 stocks of T. parva, Marikebuni and Kiambu 5, were used as the source of infection, the infections developing in adult R. appendiculatus Muguga ticks were much higher than those developing in nymphae. The structure of salivary glands differed between nymphal ticks, adult males and adult females, and this is considered to be an important factor affecting the infection levels. The morphology of the type III acini, the target acini for sporogony, was similar, but the mean numbers of type III acini were different, with 87 in nymphae, 1346 in males and 1736 in females. This difference was correlated with the different tick instars and sexes was similar, the rate of sporogony was fastest in feeding nymphae, taking on average 2-3 days. compared to 3-4 days in females and an irregular period in the males. These results are discussed in relation to the epidemiology of T. parva. PMID:8811849

  4. Extremely miniaturised and highly complex: the thoracic morphology of the first instar larva of Mengenilla chobauti (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Osswald, Judith; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2010-07-01

    Thoracic structures of the extremely small first instar larva of the strepsipteran species Mengenilla chobauti (ca. 200 microm) were examined, described and reconstructed 3-dimensionally. The focus is on the skeletomuscular system. The characters were compared to conditions found in other insect larvae of very small (Ptiliidae) or large (Dytiscus) size (both Coleoptera) and features of "triungulin" larvae, first instar larvae of Rhipiphoridae, Meloidae (both Coleoptera), and Mantispidae (Neuroptera). The specific lifestyle and the extreme degree of miniaturisation result in numerous thoracic modifications. Many sclerites of the exo- and endoskeleton are reduced. Cervical sclerites, pleural ridges, furcae and spinae are absent. Most of the longitudinal muscles are connected within the thorax, and a pair of ventral longitudinal muscles is present in the pleural region of the meso- and metathorax. This results in a high intersegmental flexibility. Due to the size reduction and the correlated shift of the brain to the thorax, with 94 identified muscles the thoracic musculature appears highly compact. Compared to larger larvae the number of both the individual muscles and the muscle bundles are distinctly reduced. The thorax of the first instar larvae displays many additional strepsipteran autapomorphies. At least partly due to the highly specialised condition, potential synapomorphies with other groups were not found. PMID:19874911

  5. First instar larvae morphology of Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies. Implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Félix D; Liedo, Pablo; Nieto-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Mireles, Héctor; Barrera, Juan F; Montoya, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the first instars of the Opiinae braconids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Utetes anastrephae and Opius hirtus (the first is exotic, and the others are natives to Mexico), parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies, are described and compared. The possible implications on interspecific competition among these species are discussed. The most significant adaptations found were: (1) the mouth apparatus, where the large mandibles and fang-shaped maxillary lobes present in D. longicaudata and U. anastrephae larvae were absent in O. hirtus, D. areolatus and D. crawfordi larvae, and (2) the degree of mobility for exploration and escape, such as the lateral and caudal appendages that were only present in D. longicaudata (ventrolateral appendages in the base of the head capsule), U. anastrephae (caudal lobe with two appendages) and D. areolatus (caudal lobe with a round apex with a globular shape). The first instar larvae of the species D. longicaudata show morphological adaptations that apparently confer competitive advantages against the larvae of D. areolatus, D. crawfordi and O. hirtus. However, the first instar larvae of U. anastrephae show larger mandibles, an adaptation that could enable this species to resist competition from D. longicaudata. PMID:26806764

  6. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews in four Turkish elementary schools. Focus group interviews with 47 students and individual interviews with 17 teachers and 10 parents were conducted. Participants identified a wide range of SIS, including TV, magazines, newspapers, internet, peers, teachers, families, science centers/museums, science exhibitions, textbooks, science books, and science camps. Students reported using various SIS in school-based and non-school contexts to satisfy their cognitive, affective, personal, and social integrative needs. SIS were used for science courses, homework/project assignments, examination/test preparations, and individual science-related research. Students assessed SIS in terms of the perceived accessibility of the sources, the quality of the content, and the content presentation. In particular, some sources such as teachers, families, TV, science magazines, textbooks, and science centers/museums ("directive sources") predictably led students to other sources such as teachers, families, internet, and science books ("directed sources"). A small number of sources crossed context boundaries, being useful in both school and out. Results shed light on the connection between science education and science communication in terms of promoting science learning.

  7. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4+ T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4+ Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma. PMID:25993655

  8. A study of personality factors and interaction in 4th-year dental students and their teachers.

    PubMed

    Watts, T L; Millard, L

    1997-02-01

    No previous investigation has considered dental student and teaching staff opinions on their relationship with each other. In a day when students are increasingly asked for feedback on the quality of teaching by staff, such investigations are of particular interest. This exploratory study was designed to compare the personality characteristics of a clinical year of dental students with those of the teaching staff they most frequently encountered, and to investigate these factors for possible associations with the quality of perceived teaching-learning interaction between the 2 groups. A complete 4th year of dental students (n = 87), and those teachers whom they met regularly (n = 80), were asked to participate. Subjects completed a form of the Myers-Briggs personality questionnaire simplified for use in education, and were asked to assess their relationship with persons in the other group. All the students and 75% of the staff, after follow-up, returned usable data. There was close similarity between staff and student personality profiles, and perception of working relationships by both groups was largely independent of personality factors and temperament. There were differences in staff perception of their relationship with extrovert and introvert students. Students showed minor differences in their perception of staff relationships with respect to two other personality factors. These findings indicate a substantial similarity between staff and students, and suggest a mature and stable relationship between people in the 2 groups. PMID:9567907

  9. Meeting report: 4th ISIRV antiviral group conference: Novel antiviral therapies for influenza and other respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L; Fry, Alicia M

    2016-05-01

    The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) held its 4th Antiviral Group Conference at the University of Texas on 2-4 June, 2015. With emerging resistance to the drugs currently licensed for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza viruses, primarily the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) and the M2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, and the lack of effective interventions against other respiratory viruses, the 3-day programme focused on the discovery and development of inhibitors of several virus targets and key host cell factors involved in virus replication or mediating the inflammatory response. Virus targets included the influenza haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and M2 proteins, and both the respiratory syncytial virus and influenza polymerases and nucleoproteins. Therapies for rhinoviruses and MERS and SARS coronaviruses were also discussed. With the emerging development of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics, the potential implications of antibody-dependent enhancement of disease were also addressed. Topics covered all aspects from structural and molecular biology to preclinical and clinical studies. The importance of suitable clinical trial endpoints and regulatory issues were also discussed from the perspectives of both industry and government. This meeting summary provides an overview, not only for the conference participants, but also for those interested in the current status of antivirals for respiratory viruses. PMID:26872862

  10. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  11. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  12. Advances in Urea cycle Neuroimaging: Proceedings from the 4th International symposium on Urea cycle disorders, Barcelona, Spain, September 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Colon, Ileana; Fricke, Stanley; VanMeter, John; Gropman, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous imaging research performed as part of a Urea Cycle Rare Disorders Consortium (UCRDC) grant, has identified specific biomarkers of neurologic injury in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, OTCD. While characterization of mutations can be achieved in most cases, this information does not necessarily predict the severity of the underlying neurological syndrome. The biochemical consequences of any mutation may be modified additionally by a large number of factors, including contributions of other enzymes and transport systems that mediate flux through the urea cycle, diet and other environmental factors. These factors likely vary from one patient to another, and they give rise to heterogeneity of clinical severity. Affected cognitive domains include non-verbal learning, fine motor processing, reaction time, visual memory, attention, and executive function. Deficits in these capacities may be seen in symptomatic patients, as well as asymptomatic carriers with normal IQ and correlate with variances in brain structure and function in these patients. Using neuroimaging we can identify biomarkers that reflect the downstream impact of UCDs on cognition. This manuscript is a summary of the presentation from the 4th International Consortium on Urea cycle disorders held in, Barcelona, Spain, September 2, 2014. PMID:25066103

  13. Molecular evidence for multiple phylogenetic groups within two species of invasive spiny whiteflies and their parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, R; Sato, Y; Han, B-Y; Huang, Z-D; Yara, K; Furuhashi, K

    2016-06-01

    The invasive orange spiny whitefly (OSW) Aleurocanthus spiniferus has extended its distribution to non-native areas since the early 20th century. In a similar manner, the invasive tea spiny whitefly (TSW) A. camelliae has been expanding over East Asia in recent decades. In this study, the genetic diversity of OSW and TSW and of their important parasitoid wasp Encarsia smithi was investigated in China and Japan to enable more efficient biological control policies. We detected two phylogenetic groups (haplogroups A1 and A2) in OSW and three phylogenetic groups (haplotypes B1 and B2, and haplogroup B3) in TSW in China; however, only a single haplotype was detected in each whitefly species in Japan. Based on historical records and molecular data, OSW was considered to be native to China whereas TSW has probably expanded to China from a more southern location in the last 50 years; China appears to be the source region for OSW and TSW invading Japan. In E. smithi, two phylogenetic groups were detected in Japan: haplotype I, associated with OSW, and haplogroup II mostly associated with TSW, except in two locations. These data support the hypothesis that E. smithi parasitizing TSW in Japan did not originate from the existent population parasitizing OSW but was newly imported into Japan following the invasion of its host. PMID:26782948

  14. Competitive Ability and Fitness Differences between Two Introduced Populations of the Invasive Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Q in China

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yi-Wei; Liu, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Hua-Li; Jiang, De-Feng; Chu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background Our long-term field survey revealed that the Cardinium infection rate in Bemisia tabaci Q (also known as biotype Q) population was low in Shandong, China over the past few years. We hypothesize that (1) the Cardinium-infected (C+) B. tabaci Q population cannot efficiently compete with the Cardinium-uninfected (C−) B. tabaci Q population; (2) no reproductive isolation may have occurred between C+ and C−; and (3) the C− population has higher fitness than the C+ population. Methodology and Results To reveal the differences in competitive ability and fitness between the two introduced populations (C+ and C−), competition between C+ and C− was examined over several generations. Subsequently, the reproductive isolation between C+ and C− was studied by crossing C+ with C− individuals, and the fitnesses of C+ and C− populations were compared using a two-sex life table method. Our results demonstrate that the competitive ability of the C+ whiteflies was weaker than that of C−. There is that no reproductive isolation occurred between the two populations and the C− population had higher fitness than the C+ population. Conclusion The competitive ability and fitness differences of two populations may explain why C− whitefly populations have been dominant during the past few years in Shandong, China. However, the potential role Cardinium plays in whitefly should be further explored. PMID:24945699

  15. Difference in Feeding Behaviors of Two Invasive Whiteflies on Host Plants with Different Suitability: Implication for Competitive Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baiming; Yan, Fengming; Chu, Dong; Pan, Huipeng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    In China, Bemisia tabaci Q (commonly known as biotype Q) has rapidly displaced B (commonly known as biotype B) in the past 6 years. The mechanisms underlying such phenomenon have been studied extensively in recent years; however, we have not come to a definitive conclusion yet. In the present study, the differences in host suitability between B and Q whitefly adults to five host plants (cabbage, cotton, cucumber, poinsettia, and tomato) were evaluated based on their respective feeding behaviors using a direct-current electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) system. Pair-wise comparisons of B. tabaci B and Q feeding on each of the five host plants clearly indicate that Q feeds better than B on tomato, cotton and poinsettia, while B feeds better than Q on cabbage and cucumber. The EPG parameters related to both phloem and non-phloem phases confirm that cabbage and cucumber are best suited to B, while tomato, cotton, and poinsettia are best suited to Q. Our present results support the contention that host suitability and adult feeding behavior contribute to the competitive displacement of biotype B by biotype Q. The discrepancy between field (previous studies) and laboratory results (this study), however, suggests that 1) whitefly displacement is apparently contributed by multiple factors; and 2) factor(s) other than the host plant suitability may play a vital role in dictating the whitefly biotypes in the field. PMID:22701340

  16. Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) Reveal Novel Begomovirus Species in the New and Old Worlds

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Karyna; Seah, Yee Mey; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E.; Duffy, Siobain; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-01-01

    Whitefly-transmitted viruses belonging to the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) represent a substantial threat to agricultural food production. The rapid evolutionary potential of these single-stranded DNA viruses combined with the polyphagous feeding behavior of their whitefly vector (Bemisia tabaci) can lead to the emergence of damaging viral strains. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize begomoviruses circulating in different regions and crops globally. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) coupled with high-throughput sequencing to survey begomoviruses directly from whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Begomoviruses were detected in all locations, with the highest diversity identified in Guatemala where up to seven different species were identified in a single field. Both bipartite and monopartite viruses were detected, including seven new begomovirus species from Guatemala, Puerto Rico, and Spain. This begomovirus survey extends the known diversity of these highly damaging plant viruses. However, the new genomes described here and in the recent literature appear to reflect the outcome of interactions between closely-related species, often resulting from recombination, instead of unique, highly divergent species. PMID:26516898

  17. Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae) Reveal Novel Begomovirus Species in the New and Old Worlds.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Seah, Yee Mey; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E; Duffy, Siobain; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-10-01

    Whitefly-transmitted viruses belonging to the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) represent a substantial threat to agricultural food production. The rapid evolutionary potential of these single-stranded DNA viruses combined with the polyphagous feeding behavior of their whitefly vector (Bemisia tabaci) can lead to the emergence of damaging viral strains. Therefore, it is crucial to characterize begomoviruses circulating in different regions and crops globally. This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) coupled with high-throughput sequencing to survey begomoviruses directly from whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Begomoviruses were detected in all locations, with the highest diversity identified in Guatemala where up to seven different species were identified in a single field. Both bipartite and monopartite viruses were detected, including seven new begomovirus species from Guatemala, Puerto Rico, and Spain. This begomovirus survey extends the known diversity of these highly damaging plant viruses. However, the new genomes described here and in the recent literature appear to reflect the outcome of interactions between closely-related species, often resulting from recombination, instead of unique, highly divergent species. PMID:26516898

  18. Development of respiratory structures in embryos and first and second instars of the bark scorpion, Centruroides gracilis (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2008-09-01

    The SEM was used to study the development of respiratory structures in successive stages in relation to the overall changes occurring in the scorpions. Book lung development is a slow process, starting with spiracles and a sac-like atrium in the early embryo and continuing lamellar formation to 150 or more in the adult. In the embryo, the primordial epithelial cells become aligned in a planar pattern as they secrete granules of material that aggregate spontaneously to form the cuticular walls of the lamellae. A blade-like structure is formed consisting of cells sandwiched within the two cuticle walls they secreted. These cells are in the primordial air channel. The adjacent hemolymph channel is nearly devoid of cells, but cross-bridges develop and help stabilize the cuticle walls and maintain the width of the channel. The cells in the primordial air channel undergo cytolysis, leaving it open for air except for cuticular cross-bridges. Development continues in the newborn (first instars); the air channels of some lamellae still contain cells and are not yet functional for gas exchange. The first instars are weak and relatively inactive. They climb up on the mother's dorsum until the first molt (about 8 days). With the cuticular walls of the lamellae in place, cells adhering to the wall in the hemolymph channel produce a thin, new tissue layer (epithelium) on the lamellar wall facing the hemolymph channel. This layer has many discontinuities as though it is slowly developing. Formation of the tissue layer and cytolysis of the cells in the air channels continue through the first molt in which little book lung cuticle is shed as exuvium. The air channels of the second instars (foraging nymphs) are now cell free and open for air passage except for the cross-bridges. The tissue layer is still incomplete and continues to be formed. It may provide the hypodermal primordium for cuticle replacement in later molts, but development was not studied beyond the second instar

  19. Effect of benserazid and 6-hydroxydopamine on the development of the last larval instar of the house cricket, Acheta domestica L.

    PubMed

    Rózsa, K S; Chudakova, I V; Hiripi, L

    1986-01-01

    The effect of benserazid and 6-OHDA on the duration of the last larval instar and development of wings with intact corpora allata and following allatectomy on Acheta domestica L. was studied. 6-OHDA failed to alter the duration of the last larval instar in the nymphs with intact corpora allata but prolonged it in the allatectomized crickets. Introduction of 6-OHDA in the second phase of the last larval instar caused a deformation of the wings both in allatectomized and intact crickets. Injection of benserazid to the nymphs of the last larval instar prolonged the duration of this phase only in the presence of the corpora allata. The effect of benserazid can be connected to elimination of central inhibition of the corpora allata involving dopaminergic neurons of the brain. PMID:2869911

  20. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

  1. Benefits of a 4th Ice Class in the Simulated Radar Reflectivities of Convective Systems Using a Bulk Microphysics Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Stephen E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous cloud microphysical schemes designed for cloud and mesoscale models are currently in use, ranging from simple bulk to multi-moment, multi-class to explicit bin schemes. This study details the benefits of adding a 4th ice class (hail) to an already improved 3-class ice bulk microphysics scheme developed for the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model based on Rutledge and Hobbs (1983,1984). Besides the addition and modification of several hail processes from Lin et al. (1983), further modifications were made to the 3-ice processes, including allowing greater ice super saturation and mitigating spurious evaporationsublimation in the saturation adjustment scheme, allowing graupelhail to become snow via vapor growth and hail to become graupel via riming, and the inclusion of a rain evaporation correction and vapor diffusivity factor. The improved 3-ice snowgraupel size-mapping schemes were adjusted to be more stable at higher mixing rations and to increase the aggregation effect for snow. A snow density mapping was also added. The new scheme was applied to an intense continental squall line and a weaker, loosely-organized continental case using three different hail intercepts. Peak simulated reflectivities agree well with radar for both the intense and weaker case and were better than earlier 3-ice versions when using a moderate and large intercept for hail, respectively. Simulated reflectivity distributions versus height were also improved versus radar in both cases compared to earlier 3-ice versions. The bin-based rain evaporation correction affected the squall line case more but did not change the overall agreement in reflectivity distributions.

  2. Breakfast patterns among low-income, ethnically-diverse 4th-6th grade children in an urban area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing school breakfast participation has been advocated as a method to prevent childhood obesity. However, little is known about children’s breakfast patterns outside of school (e.g., home, corner store). Policies that increase school breakfast participation without an understanding of children’s breakfast habits outside of school may result in children consuming multiple breakfasts and may undermine efforts to prevent obesity. The aim of the current study was to describe morning food and drink consumption patterns among low-income, urban children and their associations with relative weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 651 4th-6th graders (51.7% female, 61.2% African American, 10.7 years) in 2012. Students completed surveys at school that included all foods eaten and their locations that morning. Height and weight were measured by trained research staff. Results On the day surveyed, 12.4% of youth reported not eating breakfast, 49.8% reported eating one breakfast, 25.5% reported eating two breakfasts, and 12.3% reported eating three or more breakfasts. The number of breakfasts consumed and BMI percentile showed a significant curvilinear relationship, with higher mean BMI percentiles observed among children who did not consume any breakfast and those who consumed ≥ 3 breakfasts. Sixth graders were significantly less likely to have consumed breakfast compared to younger children. A greater proportion of obese youth had no breakfast (18.0%) compared to healthy weight (10.1%) and overweight youth (10.7%, p = .01). Conclusions When promoting school breakfast, policies will need to be mindful of both over- and under-consumption to effectively address childhood obesity and food insecurity. Clinical trial registration NCT01924130 from http://clinicaltrials.gov/. PMID:24928474

  3. Autism: Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the National Society for Autistic Children (4th, June 22-24, 1972, Flint Michigan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society for Autistic Children, Syracuse, NY.

    Presented are proceedings of the 4th annual (1972) meeting of the National Society for Autistic Children including 11 papers given at the meeting. Listed are officers and board members of the society, the convention committee members, and recipients of citations and awards. The president's report notes past goals, accomplishments, and future…

  4. Examining Differentiation and Utilization of iPads across Content Areas in an Independent, PreK-4th Grade Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Natalie B.; Carlson-Bancroft, Angela; Vanden Boogart, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods case study examined the implementation of a 1:1 iPad initiative in a suburban, co-educational, independent, preK-4th grade elementary school in the United States. This article focuses on how teachers used iPads to differentiate instruction and across multiple content areas. Findings show the processes by which teachers employed…

  5. An Assessment of 4th, 8th, and 11th Grade Students' Knowledge Related to Marine Science and Natural Resource Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; Koch, Helmut

    In an effort to contribute information for science teachers and curriculum developers in Maine, this study generated base line data on 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students' knowledge of marine science and natural resources principles in relation to the Gulf of Maine. Five concept maps representing 15 major content principles were developed. Two…

  6. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  7. The Effect of Direct Instruction Strategy on Math Achievement of Primary 4th and 5th Grade Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Makahleh, Ahmad Abdulhameed Aufan

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to verify the effect of direct instruction strategy on Math achievment of students with learning difficulties in the fourth and fifth grade levels and measure the improvement in their attitudes to Mathematics. Sample consisted of sixty (60) students with Math learning difficulties attending 4th and 5th grade level resource rooms…

  8. Color Duplex Assessment of 4th and 5th Internal Mammary Artery Perforators: The Pedicles of the Medially Based Lower Pole Breast Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monem, Kareem; Elshahat, Ahmed; Abou-Gamrah, Sherif; Eldin Abol-Atta, Hossam; Abd Eltawab, Reda; Massoud, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Reconstruction of a breast after mastectomy using the contralateral lower pole breast flap is an appealing procedure because it uses the tissues that were going to be excised during reduction of the sound breast to achieve symmetry. Literature mentioned that these flaps are supplied by the lower internal mammary artery perforators (IMAPs) with no further details. The aim of this study was to determine the site, size, and number of the 4th and 5th IMAPs by using preoperative color Duplex ultrasound and intraoperative exploration. Method: Twenty breasts in 10 patients who presented for reduction mammoplasty were included in this study. Preoperative color duplex was used to determine IMAPs in the 4th and 5th intercostal spaces. These perforators were localized intraoperatively. Intravenous fluorescein injection was used to determine the perfusion of the lower pole breast flap on the basis of these perforators. Results: Statistically, the 4th IMAPs diameters were significantly larger than the 5th IMAPs diameters (P < .05). The lower pole breast flap was perfused through these perforators. Conclusion: Color Duplex ultrasound is an accurate tool to preoperatively determine the 4th and 5th IMAPs. PMID:22292100

  9. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  10. Meeting Materials for the 4th NRC Meeting on the Guidance for and the Review of EPA's Toxicological Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 2-3, 2015, the National Research Council (NRC) hosted the 4th meeting of the committee formed to peer review the draft IRIS assessment of inorganic arsenic. EPA presented background and overview materials during the public session on December 2nd. This information co...

  11. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  12. Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference (Lithuania, October 21-22, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 4th international conference "Nation and Language: Modern Aspects of Socio-Linguistic Development" continues an eight-year old tradition. The conference is organized by Kaunas University of Technology Panevezys Institute and aims to bring scientists and researchers together for a general scientific discussion on new trends in sociolinguistic,…

  13. Laboratory evaluation of products to reduce settling of sweetpotato whitefly adults.

    PubMed

    Schuster, D J; Thompson, S; Ortega, L D; Polston, J E

    2009-08-01

    The impact of trademarked and commercial products on settling of adults of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), was studied in the laboratory. A no-choice bioassay using leaf disks of tomato, Solanum esculentum L., was developed to evaluate the impact of concentration series of products on settling of B. tabaci adults. The concentration of each product that would reduce settling by 50% (SC50) was estimated for each product using standard probit analyses, and the values were compared with that of Ultra-Fine Oil, a paraffinic oil product that is known to reduce settling of whitefly adults. Twenty-two trademarked products and 42 other products were evaluated in the laboratory bioassay. Based upon comparisons of fiducial limits of the respective SC50 values, Dawn detergent and E-RASE jojoba oil were the only trademarked products that were as effective as Ultra-Fine Oil in reducing settling of B. tabaci adults. Of the nontrademarked products, 25 were similar to Ultra-Fine Oil, although cedar, geranium, ginger, Hamlin (citrus), patchouli, olive and wintergreen oils, as well as citronellal and limonene, had ratios of respective SC50 values with that of Ultra-Fine Oil of approximately 1.5 or less. Combinations of limonene and citronellal with either olive oil or Ultra-Fine Oil were 15 and 30 times, respectively, more effective than Ultra-Fine Oil alone. Candidate products and combinations of products were further evaluated on tomato seedlings in no-choice screenhouse trials for effects on oviposition and on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus, TYLCV) by B. tabaci. Ultra-Fine Oil and olive oil reduced oviposition and transmission of TYLCV in the screenhouse trials. Ginger oil and limonene reduced oviposition in at least one screenhouse trial but did reduce transmission of TYLCV. The laboratory bioassay provided a rapid and relatively easy method to compare products for reducing settling of B. tabaci adults

  14. Book gill development in embryos and first and second instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2010-09-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the development of the opisthosomal appendages and book gills of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Later embryonic stages were examined as well as the first and second instars. The observations are compared with a much earlier light microscopic description of book gill development in the horseshoe crab and with book lung development in scorpion embryos and first and second instars in a recent study with SEM. After the third embryonic molt in the horseshoe crab, the opisthosomal appendages are of sufficient size so they could be fractured or dissected open so internal cells and other structures could be examined. The opisthosomal appendages and book gill lamellae of first and second instars were also opened. The observations support the earlier histological report that the gill lamellae are a hypodermal outgrowth from the posterior surface of the preceding branchial appendages. The genital operculum, branchial appendages and gill lamellae are very thin and consist of external cuticle, hypodermis and space holders. The latter help hold the cuticle walls in place so hemolymph can flow through the narrow channels. The space holders are formed from cell processes that extend into the lumen from the hypodermis just inside the external cuticle. In the recent SEM study in scorpion embryos and in some histological investigations in spider embryos, the book lung lamellae are formed by alignment of cells from an invaginated sac or mass of cells. This clearly differs from the mode of formation of gill lamellae as observed in this and earlier investigations. These reports of differences in embryology refine but do not preclude hypotheses about book gill/book lung homology since addition, deletion or modification of ancestral features often occur for the benefit of the embryos and larvae. PMID:20420937

  15. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, “The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner,” “I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship,” and “I think all students should participate in a similar experience.” When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills

  16. A Brief Boot Camp for 4th-Year Medical Students Entering into Pediatric and Family Medicine Residencies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Rebekah; Adler, Mark; Mangold, Karen; Trainor, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The transition from medical student to intern is a challenging process characterized by a steep learning curve. Focused courses targeting skills necessary for success as a resident have increased self-perceived preparedness, confidence, and medical knowledge. Our aim was to create a brief educational intervention for 4th-year medical students entering pediatric, family practice, and medicine/pediatric residencies to target skills necessary for an internship. The curriculum used a combination of didactic presentations, small group discussions, role-playing, facilitated debriefing, and simulation-based education. Participants completed an objective structured clinical exam requiring synthesis and application of multiple boot camp elements before and after the elective. Participants completed anonymous surveys assessing self-perceived preparedness for an internship, overall and in regards to specific skills, before the elective and after the course. Participants were asked to provide feedback about the course. Using checklists to assess performance, students showed an improvement in performing infant lumbar punctures (47.2% vs 77.0%; p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.2, 0.4%) and providing signout (2.5 vs. 3.9 (5-point scale) p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.6, 2.3). They did not show an improvement in communication with a parent. Participants demonstrated an increase in self-reported preparedness for all targeted skills, except for obtaining consults and interprofessional communication. There was no increase in reported overall preparedness. All participants agreed with the statements, "The facilitators presented the material in an effective manner," "I took away ideas I plan to implement in internship," and "I think all students should participate in a similar experience." When asked to assess the usefulness of individual modules, all except order writing received a mean Likert score > 4. A focused boot camp addressing key knowledge and skills required for

  17. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  18. MicroRNA of the fifth-instar posterior silk gland of silkworm identified by Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Jisheng; Ye, Lupeng; Wang, Shaohua; Che, Jiaqian; You, Zhengying; Zhong, Boxiong

    2014-12-01

    No special studies have been focused on the microRNA (miRNA) in the fifth-instar posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori. Here, using next-generation sequencing, we acquired 93.2 million processed reads from 10 small RNA libraries. In this paper, we tried to thoroughly describe how our dataset generated from deep sequencing which was recently published in BMC genomics. Results showed that our findings are largely enriched silkworm miRNA depository and may benefit us to reveal the miRNA functions in the process of silk production. PMID:26484119

  19. MicroRNA of the fifth-instar posterior silk gland of silkworm identified by Solexa sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jisheng; Ye, Lupeng; Wang, Shaohua; Che, Jiaqian; You, Zhengying; Zhong, Boxiong

    2014-01-01

    No special studies have been focused on the microRNA (miRNA) in the fifth-instar posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori. Here, using next-generation sequencing, we acquired 93.2 million processed reads from 10 small RNA libraries. In this paper, we tried to thoroughly describe how our dataset generated from deep sequencing which was recently published in BMC genomics. Results showed that our findings are largely enriched silkworm miRNA depository and may benefit us to reveal the miRNA functions in the process of silk production. PMID:26484119

  20. Isolation of fourth-instars larva of Aedes (Finlaya) harveyi (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Nilgiri hills, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Hiriyan, J; Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2016-03-01

    During the post monsoon season of 2012, the ovitraps were employed for dengue vector surveillance nearer to human habitations in the Nilgiri hills of Southern India. All the eggs obtained were brought to laboratory, and reared individually to adult stage for identification. A total of 30 exuviae of fourth-instars larva specimen were identified as Aedes (Finlaya) harveyi which were compared to other closely related species. Though the adult male and female of Aedes (Finlaya) harveyi were recorded from some parts of India but so far the larval stage has not been recorded. PMID:27065629

  1. Intra- and interspecific competition between western flower thrips and sweetpotato whitefly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Jun; Hou, Wen-Jie; Li, Fei; Xu, Bao-Yun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shao-Li; Zhang, You-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), are both invasive insect pests and are present in most of the same agricultural crops without a clear dominance of either species. Here, intra- and interspecific competition in B. tabaci and F. occidentalis was determined under controlled experiments. The results showed that intraspecific competition was distinct in F. occidentalis and that the co-occurrence of B. tabaci had a strong effect on F. occidentalis, resulting in a decrease in oviposition. Significant intraspecific competition was found in B. tabaci, and the coexistence of F. occidentalis had limited effect on the oviposition of B. tabaci. In a selective host plant preference experiment, both F. occidentalis and B. tabaci preferred eggplants most, followed by cucumbers and tomatoes. On cucumber plants, B. tabaci was predominant, whereas on eggplant and tomato plants, F. occidentalis and B. tabaci exhibited comparative competitive abilities during the initial stage. However, over time, higher numbers of B. tabaci than that of F. occidentalis were found on the two host plants. Our in vitro and potted plant experiments indicate that B. tabaci is competitively superior to F. occidentalis, which might help to explain their differential distribution patterns in China. PMID:25480973

  2. Aphid-induced Defences in Chilli Affect Preferences of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Saad, Khalid A; Mohamad Roff, M N; Hallett, Rebecca H; Idris, A B

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly (WF), Bemisia tabaci, is a major pest that damages a wide range of vegetable crops in Malaysia. WF infestation is influenced by a variety of factors, including previous infestation of the host plant by other insect pests. This study investigated the effects of previous infestation of host chilli plants by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on the olfactory behavioural response of B. tabaci, using free-choice bioassay with a Y-tube olfactometer. We analysed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by non-infested and M. persicae-infested chilli plants using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results showed that female WFs preferred non-infested to pre-infested plants. Collection and analysis of volatile compounds emitted by infested plants confirmed that there were significant increases in the production of monoterpenes (cymene; 1,8-cineole), sesquiterpenes (β-cadinene, α-copaene), and methyl salicylate (MeSA) compared to non-infested plants. Our results suggest that host plant infestation by aphids may induce production of secondary metabolites that deter B. tabaci from settling on its host plants. These results provide important information for understanding WF host selection and dispersal among crops, and also for manipulating WF behaviour to improve IPM in chilli. PMID:26334135

  3. Genetic structure of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci populations in Colombia following a recent invasion.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Fernando; Endersby, Nancy M; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-08-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the most important pests causing economic losses in a variety of cropping systems around the world. This species was recently found in a coastal region of Colombia and has now spread inland. To investigate this invasive process, the genetic structure of B. tabaci was examined in 8 sampling locations from 2 infested regions (coastal, inland) using 9 microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial COI gene. The mitochondrial analysis indicated that only the invasive species of the B. tabaci complex Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM 1 known previously as biotype B) was present. The microsatellite data pointed to genetic differences among the regions and no isolation by distance within regions. The coastal region in the Caribbean appears to have been the initial point of invasion, while the inland region in the Southwest showed genetic variation among populations most likely reflecting founder events and ongoing changes associated with climatic and topographical heterogeneity. These findings have implications for tracking and managing B. tabaci. PMID:24753322

  4. Manipulation of Host Quality and Defense by a Plant Virus Improves Performance of Whitefly Vectors.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi; Preisser, Evan L; Zhou, Xiao Mao; Xie, Wen; Liu, Bai Ming; Wang, Shao Li; Wu, Qing Jun; Zhang, You Jun

    2015-02-01

    Pathogen-mediated interactions between insect vectors and their host plants can affect herbivore fitness and the epidemiology of plant diseases. While the role of plant quality and defense in mediating these tripartite interactions has been recognized, there are many ecologically and economically important cases where the nature of the interaction has yet to be characterized. The Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) cryptic species Mediterranean (MED) is an important vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), and performs better on virus-infected tomato than on uninfected controls. We assessed the impact of TYLCV infection on plant quality and defense, and the direct impact of TYLCV infection on MED feeding. We found that although TYLCV infection has a minimal direct impact on MED, the virus alters the nutritional content of leaf tissue and phloem sap in a manner beneficial to MED. TYLCV infection also suppresses herbivore-induced production of plant defensive enzymes and callose deposition. The strongly positive net effect on TYLCV on MED is consistent with previously reported patterns of whitefly behavior and performance, and provides a foundation for further exploration of the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects and the evolutionary processes that shape them. PMID:26470098

  5. Nature lessons: The whitefly bacterial endosymbiont is a minimal amino acid factory with unusual energetics.

    PubMed

    Calle-Espinosa, Jorge; Ponce-de-Leon, Miguel; Santos-Garcia, Diego; Silva, Francisco J; Montero, Francisco; Peretó, Juli

    2016-10-21

    Reductive genome evolution is a universal phenomenon observed in endosymbiotic bacteria in insects. As the genome reduces its size and irreversibly losses coding genes, the functionalities of the cell system, including the energetics processes, are more restricted. Several energetic pathways can also be lost. How do these reduced metabolic networks sustain the energy needs of the system? Among the bacteria with reduced genomes Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, obligate endosymbiont of whiteflies, represents an extreme case since lacks several key mechanisms for ATP generation. Thus, to analyze the cell energetics in this system, a genome-scale metabolic model of this endosymbiont was constructed, and its energy production capabilities dissected using stoichiometric analysis. Our results suggest that energy generation is coupled to the synthesis of essential amino acids and carotenoids, crucial metabolites in the symbiotic association. A deeper insight showed that ATP production via carotenoid synthesis is also connected with amino acid production. This unusual association of energy production with anabolism suggests that, although minimized, endosymbiont metabolic networks maintain a remarkable biosynthetic potential. PMID:27473768

  6. Aphid-induced Defences in Chilli Affect Preferences of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Khalid A.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Hallett, Rebecca H.; Idris, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly (WF), Bemisia tabaci, is a major pest that damages a wide range of vegetable crops in Malaysia. WF infestation is influenced by a variety of factors, including previous infestation of the host plant by other insect pests. This study investigated the effects of previous infestation of host chilli plants by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on the olfactory behavioural response of B. tabaci, using free-choice bioassay with a Y-tube olfactometer. We analysed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by non-infested and M. persicae-infested chilli plants using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Our results showed that female WFs preferred non-infested to pre-infested plants. Collection and analysis of volatile compounds emitted by infested plants confirmed that there were significant increases in the production of monoterpenes (cymene; 1,8-cineole), sesquiterpenes (β–cadinene, α-copaene), and methyl salicylate (MeSA) compared to non-infested plants. Our results suggest that host plant infestation by aphids may induce production of secondary metabolites that deter B. tabaci from settling on its host plants. These results provide important information for understanding WF host selection and dispersal among crops, and also for manipulating WF behaviour to improve IPM in chilli. PMID:26334135

  7. Something going on in Milan: a review of the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference.

    PubMed

    Segré, C

    2010-01-01

    The 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference was held at the IFOM-IEO-Campus in Milan from 19-21 May 2010 http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.phpThe Conference covered many topics related to cancer, from basic biology to clinical aspects of the disease. All attendees presented their research, by either giving a talk or presenting a poster. This conference is an opportunity to introduce PhD students to top cancer research institutes across Europe.THE CORE PARTICIPANTING INSTITUTES INCLUDED: European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)-IFOM-IEO Campus, MilanBeatson Institute for Cancer Research (BICR), GlasgowCambridge Research Institute (CRI), Cambridge, UKMRC Gray Institute of Radiation Biology (GIROB), OxfordLondon Research Institute (LRI), LondonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research (PICR), ManchesterThe Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam'You organizers have crushed all my prejudices towards Italians. Congratulations, I enjoyed the conference immensely!' Even if it might have sounded like rudeness for sure this was supposed to be a genuine compliment (at least, that's how we took it), also considering that it was told by a guy who himself was the fusion of two usually antithetical concepts: fashion style and English nationality.The year 2010 has marked an important event for Italian research in the international scientific panorama: the European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM) had the honour to host the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference, which was held from 19-21 May 2010 at the IFOM-IEO-Campus (http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php) in Milan.The conference was attended by more than one hundred students, coming from a selection of cutting edge European institutes devoted to cancer research. The rationale behind it is the promotion of cooperation among young scientists across Europe to debate about science and to exchange ideas and experiences. But that is not all, it is also designed for PhD students to get in touch

  8. Contribution to our knowledge of the whitefly genus Aleuroclava Singh (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in China, including Taiwan and Hong Kong, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Two new whitefly species, Aleuroclava sterculiae sp. nov., collected from Sterculia nobilis (Malvales: Sterculiaceae) of Qingxiu hill park (Guangxi, China), and Aleuroclava rosae sp. nov., collected from Stranvaesia sp. (Rosales: Rosaceae) of Maoer Mountain (Guangxi, China), are described with morphology, line illustrations, photographs and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. In addition, two other whitefly species, Aleuroclava lefroyi (Sundararaj & David) and Aleuroclava manii (David), are reported as new to the fauna of China, and are discussed. An identification key to Aleuroclava species known from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong is provided. The specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Yangzhou University (YZU). PMID:27470767

  9. Altered differential hemocyte count in 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as a response to chronic exposure of Acephate

    PubMed Central

    Rajak, Prem; Dutta, Moumita

    2015-01-01

    Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1st instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3rd instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count. Three types of cells are found in Drosophila hemolymph, namely, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocyte count was found to decrease with successive increase in treatment concentrations. Crystal cells showed an increasing trend in their number. Though the number of lamellocytes was very low, a bimodal response was noticed. Lamellocyte number was found to increase with the initial three concentrations, followed by a dose dependent reduction in their number. As hemocytes are directly linked to the immune system of fruit flies, fluctuations in normal titer of these cells may affect insect immunity. Hemocytes share homologies in their origin and mode of action with the immune cells of higher organisms including man. Thus the present findings suggest that immune cells of humans and other organisms may be affected adversely under chronic exposure to Acephate. PMID:27486365

  10. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Nelson A.; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex. PMID:26798253

  11. Exploring the Diversity of Plant DNA Viruses and Their Satellites Using Vector-Enabled Metagenomics on Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Duffy, Siobain; Polston, Jane E.; Bixby, Elise; Vallad, Gary E.; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual symptomatic plants. Since many damaging plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, we have developed “vector-enabled metagenomics” (VEM) to investigate the diversity of plant viruses. VEM involves sampling of insect vectors (in this case, whiteflies) from plants, followed by purification of viral particles and metagenomic sequencing. The VEM approach exploits the natural ability of highly mobile adult whiteflies to integrate viruses from many plants over time and space, and leverages the capability of metagenomics for discovering novel viruses. This study utilized VEM to describe the DNA viral community from whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from two important agricultural regions in Florida, USA. VEM successfully characterized the active and abundant viruses that produce disease symptoms in crops, as well as the less abundant viruses infecting adjacent native vegetation. PCR assays designed from the metagenomic sequences enabled the complete sequencing of four novel begomovirus genome components, as well as the first discovery of plant virus satellites in North America. One of the novel begomoviruses was subsequently identified in symptomatic Chenopodium ambrosiodes from the same field site, validating VEM as an effective method for proactive monitoring of plant viruses without a priori knowledge of the pathogens. This study demonstrates the power of VEM for describing the circulating viral community in a given region, which will enhance our understanding of plant viral diversity, and facilitate emerging plant virus surveillance and management of viral

  12. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36–26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6–7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  13. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingyan; Zhang, Bowen; Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  14. Exploring the diversity of plant DNA viruses and their satellites using vector-enabled metagenomics on whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Duffy, Siobain; Polston, Jane E; Bixby, Elise; Vallad, Gary E; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual symptomatic plants. Since many damaging plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, we have developed "vector-enabled metagenomics" (VEM) to investigate the diversity of plant viruses. VEM involves sampling of insect vectors (in this case, whiteflies) from plants, followed by purification of viral particles and metagenomic sequencing. The VEM approach exploits the natural ability of highly mobile adult whiteflies to integrate viruses from many plants over time and space, and leverages the capability of metagenomics for discovering novel viruses. This study utilized VEM to describe the DNA viral community from whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from two important agricultural regions in Florida, USA. VEM successfully characterized the active and abundant viruses that produce disease symptoms in crops, as well as the less abundant viruses infecting adjacent native vegetation. PCR assays designed from the metagenomic sequences enabled the complete sequencing of four novel begomovirus genome components, as well as the first discovery of plant virus satellites in North America. One of the novel begomoviruses was subsequently identified in symptomatic Chenopodium ambrosiodes from the same field site, validating VEM as an effective method for proactive monitoring of plant viruses without a priori knowledge of the pathogens. This study demonstrates the power of VEM for describing the circulating viral community in a given region, which will enhance our understanding of plant viral diversity, and facilitate emerging plant virus surveillance and management of viral diseases

  15. Rapid Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus in China Is Aided Differentially by Two Invasive Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qi; Liu, Baiming; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Xie, Wen; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Li, Rumei; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Xu, Baoyun; Brown, Judith K.; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was introduced into China in 2006, approximately 10 years after the introduction of an invasive whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype. Even so the distribution and prevalence of TYLCV remained limited, and the economic damage was minimal. Following the introduction of Q biotype into China in 2003, the prevalence and spread of TYLCV started to accelerate. This has lead to the hypothesis that the two biotypes might not be equally competent vectors of TYLCV. Methodology/Principal Findings The infection frequency of TYLCV in the field-collected B. tabaci populations was investigated, the acquisition and transmission capability of TYLCV by B and Q biotypes were compared under the laboratory conditions. Analysis of B. tabaci populations from 55 field sites revealed the existence of 12 B and 43 Q biotypes across 18 provinces in China. The acquisition and transmission experiments showed that both B and Q biotypes can acquire and transmit the virus, however, Q biotype demonstrated superior acquisition and transmission capability than its B counterparts. Specifically, Q biotype acquired significantly more viral DNA than the B biotype, and reached the maximum viral load in a substantially shorter period of time. Although TYLCV was shown to be transmitted horizontally by both biotypes, Q biotype exhibited significantly higher viral transmission frequency than B biotype. Vertical transmission result, on the other hand, indicated that TYLCV DNA can be detected in eggs and nymphs, but not in pupae and adults of the first generation progeny. Conclusions/Significance These combined results suggested that the epidemiology of TYLCV was aided differentially by the two invasive whiteflies (B and Q biotypes) through horizontal but not vertical transmission of the virus. This is consistent with the concomitant eruption of TYLCV in tomato fields following the recent rapid invasion of Q biotype whitefly in China. PMID:22514670

  16. Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (<0.1 ppb), but it is known to photo-degrade and sorb to organic materials. Previous work has compared these tracers with small-scale laboratory analyses and field experiments on small headwater streams. The limitations and advantages to each of these tracers, as applied to large river slug injections, are not clearly understood. This work seeks to answer the following questions: 1) Does RWT improve the tracer window of detection (time of tracer arrival to time of tracer non-detection), compared to NaCl? 2) Are there differences in the late-time tailing behavior of each tracer? More specifically, can we compare RWT and NaCl breakthrough curve tail shapes to understand processes contributing to late time solute transport (transient storage or sorption-desorption)? During the summer of 2012, combined slug additions of RWT and NaCl were injected into a 1.5-kilometer reach on the Kuparuk River, a 4th order tundra river underlain by continuous permafrost located on Alaska's North Slope. Fluorescence and electrical conductivity were continuously logged at the upstream and downstream ends of the reach. Preliminary results show that the window of detection is expanded when using RWT under both high and low flow conditions by 0.2 times the advective transport timescale. Tail shapes are more similar under higher discharge conditions and dissimilar under lower discharge conditions. For example, using an exponential regression model (c(t) = eat) to quantify tail shapes, at Q = 500 l/s the exponential coefficient ratio, aRWT:aNaCl, is 0

  17. Implication of the Bacterial Endosymbiont Rickettsia spp. in Interactions of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    PubMed Central

    Kliot, Adi; Cilia, Michelle; Czosnek, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous animal and plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors in a persistent, circulative manner. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. We report here that infection with Rickettsia spp., a facultative endosymbiont of whiteflies, altered TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions. A B. tabaci strain infected with Rickettsia acquired more TYLCV from infected plants, retained the virus longer, and exhibited nearly double the transmission efficiency compared to an uninfected B. tabaci strain with the same genetic background. Temporal and spatial antagonistic relationships were discovered between Rickettsia and TYLCV within the whitefly. In different time course experiments, the levels of virus and Rickettsia within the insect were inversely correlated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of Rickettsia-infected midguts provided evidence for niche exclusion between Rickettsia and TYLCV. In particular, high levels of the bacterium in the midgut resulted in higher virus concentrations in the filter chamber, a favored site for virus translocation along the transmission pathway, whereas low levels of Rickettsia in the midgut resulted in an even distribution of the virus. Taken together, these results indicate that Rickettsia, by infecting the midgut, increases TYLCV transmission efficacy, adding further insights into the complex association between persistent plant viruses, their insect vectors, and microorganism tenants that reside within these insects. IMPORTANCE Interest in bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods and many aspects of their host biology in agricultural and human health systems has been increasing. A recent and relevant studied example is the influence of Wolbachia on dengue virus transmission by mosquitoes. In parallel with our recently studied whitefly-Rickettsia-TYLCV system, other studies have shown that dengue virus levels in the mosquito vector are inversely correlated with

  18. Syntheses and single-crystal structures of CsTh(MoO 4) 2Cl and Na 4Th(WO 4) 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang Jin, Geng; Soderholm, L.

    2011-02-01

    Colorless crystals of CsTh(MoO 4) 2Cl and Na 4Th(WO 4) 4 have been synthesized at 993 K by the solid-state reactions of ThO 2, MoO 3, CsCl, and ThCl 4 with Na 2WO 4. Both compounds have been characterized by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of CsTh(MoO 4) 2Cl is orthorhombic, consisting of two adjacent [Th(MoO 4) 2] layers separated by an ionic CsCl sublattice. It can be considered as an insertion compound of Th(MoO 4) 2 and reformulated as Th(MoO 4) 2·CsCl. The Th atom coordinates to seven monodentate MoO 4 tetrahedra and one Cl atom in a highly distorted square antiprism. Na 4Th(WO 4) 4 adopts a scheelite superlattice structure. The three-dimensional framework of Na 4Th(WO 4) 4 is constructed from corner-sharing ThO 8 square antiprisms and WO 4 tetrahedra. The space within the channels is filled by six-coordinate Na ions. Crystal data: CsTh(MoO 4) 2Cl, monoclinic, P2 1/ c, Z=4, a=10.170(1) Å, b=10.030(1) Å, c=9.649(1) Å, β=95.671(2)°, V=979.5(2) Å 3, R( F)=2.65% for I>2 σ( I); Na 4Th(WO 4) 4, tetragonal, I4 1/ a, Z=4, a=11.437(1) Å, c=11.833(2) Å, V=1547.7(4) Å 3, R( F)=3.02% for I>2 σ( I).

  19. 2.5 Gbps clock data recovery using 1/4th-rate quadricorrelator frequency detector and skew-calibrated multi-phase clock generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tontisirin, S.; Tielert, R.

    2006-09-01

    A Gb/s clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit using 1/4th-rate digital quadricorrelator frequency detector and skew-calibrated multi-phase voltage-controlled oscillator is presented. With 1/4th-rate clock architecture, the coil-free oscillator can have lower operation frequency providing sufficient low-jitter operation. Moreover, it is an inherent 1-to-4 DEMUX. The skew calibration scheme is applied to reduce phase offset in multi-phase clock generator. The CDR with frequency detector can have small loop bandwidth, wide pull-in range and can operate without the need for a local reference clock. This 1/4th-rate CDR is implemented in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology. It has an active area of 0.7 mm2 and consumes 100 mW at 1.8 V supply. The CDR has low jitter operation in a wide frequency range from 1-2.25 Gb/s. Measurement of Bit-Error Rate is less than 10-12 for 2.25 Gb/s incoming data 27-1 PRBS, jitter peak-to-peak of 0.7 unit interval (UI) modulation at 10 MHz.

  20. Guest Editor's introduction: Selected papers from the 4th USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sventek, Joe

    1998-12-01

    Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA Introduction The USENIX Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems (COOTS) is held annually in the late spring. The conference evolved from a set of C++ workshops that were held under the auspices of USENIX, the first of which met in 1989. Given the growing diverse interest in object-oriented technologies, the C++ focus of the workshop eventually became too narrow, with the result that the scope was widened in 1995 to include object-oriented technologies and systems. COOTS is intended to showcase advanced R&D efforts in object-oriented technologies and software systems. The conference emphasizes experimental research and experience gained by using object-oriented techniques and languages to build complex software systems that meet real-world needs. COOTS solicits papers in the following general areas: application of, and experiences with, object-oriented technologies in particular domains (e.g. financial, medical, telecommunication); the architecture and implementation of distributed object systems (e.g. CORBA, DCOM, RMI); object-oriented programming and specification languages; object-oriented design and analysis. The 4th meeting of COOTS was held 27 - 30 April 1998 at the El Dorado Hotel, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Several tutorials were given. The technical program proper consisted of a single track of six sessions, with three paper presentations per session. A keynote address and a provocative panel session rounded out the technical program. The program committee reviewed 56 papers, selecting the best 18 for presentation in the technical sessions. While we solicit papers across the spectrum of applications of object-oriented technologies, this year there was a predominance of distributed, object-oriented papers. The accepted papers reflected this asymmetry, with 15 papers on distributed objects and 3 papers on object-oriented languages. The papers in this special issue are

  1. The Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Knottin-1 Gene Is Implicated in Regulating the Quantity of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Ingested and Transmitted by the Insect.

    PubMed

    Hariton Shalev, Aliza; Sobol, Iris; Ghanim, Murad; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Czosnek, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a major pest to agricultural crops. It transmits begomoviruses, such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), in a circular, persistent fashion. Transcriptome analyses revealed that B. tabaci knottin genes were responsive to various stresses. Upon ingestion of tomato begomoviruses, two of the four knottin genes were upregulated, knot-1 (with the highest expression) and knot-3. In this study, we examined the involvement of B. tabaci knottin genes in relation to TYLCV circulative transmission. Knottins were silenced by feeding whiteflies with knottin dsRNA via detached tomato leaves. Large amounts of knot-1 transcripts were present in the abdomen of whiteflies, an obligatory transit site of begomoviruses in their circulative transmission pathway; knot-1 silencing significantly depleted the abdomen from knot-1 transcripts. Knot-1 silencing led to an increase in the amounts of TYLCV ingested by the insects and transmitted to tomato test plants by several orders of magnitude. This effect was not observed following knot-3 silencing. Hence, knot-1 plays a role in restricting the quantity of virions an insect may acquire and transmit. We suggest that knot-1 protects B. tabaci against deleterious effects caused by TYLCV by limiting the amount of virus associated with the whitefly vector. PMID:27455309

  2. Plant reservoirs of Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, and other whitefly-transmitted cucurbit viruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was identified in cucurbits in Florida in 2005 and shown to be sufficient to induce a watermelon vine decline and fruit rind necrosis that had been observed for several years previously. This novel virus species was shown to be whitefly-transmissible and has now ...

  3. The Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Knottin-1 Gene Is Implicated in Regulating the Quantity of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Ingested and Transmitted by the Insect

    PubMed Central

    Hariton Shalev, Aliza; Sobol, Iris; Ghanim, Murad; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Czosnek, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a major pest to agricultural crops. It transmits begomoviruses, such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), in a circular, persistent fashion. Transcriptome analyses revealed that B. tabaci knottin genes were responsive to various stresses. Upon ingestion of tomato begomoviruses, two of the four knottin genes were upregulated, knot-1 (with the highest expression) and knot-3. In this study, we examined the involvement of B. tabaci knottin genes in relation to TYLCV circulative transmission. Knottins were silenced by feeding whiteflies with knottin dsRNA via detached tomato leaves. Large amounts of knot-1 transcripts were present in the abdomen of whiteflies, an obligatory transit site of begomoviruses in their circulative transmission pathway; knot-1 silencing significantly depleted the abdomen from knot-1 transcripts. Knot-1 silencing led to an increase in the amounts of TYLCV ingested by the insects and transmitted to tomato test plants by several orders of magnitude. This effect was not observed following knot-3 silencing. Hence, knot-1 plays a role in restricting the quantity of virions an insect may acquire and transmit. We suggest that knot-1 protects B. tabaci against deleterious effects caused by TYLCV by limiting the amount of virus associated with the whitefly vector. PMID:27455309

  4. Elimination of Arsenophonus and decrease in the bacterial symbionts diversity by antibiotic treatment leads to increase in fitness of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Raina, Harpreet Singh; Rawal, Vagisha; Singh, Shama; Daimei, Guisuibou; Shakarad, Mallikarjun; Rajagopal, Raman

    2015-06-01

    Bemisia tabaci is an invasive agricultural pest with more than 24 genetic groups harboring different bacterial endosymbionts categorized into obligatory and facultative endosymbionts. Arsenophonus is one of the facultative endosymbionts prevalent in B. tabaci of Indian sub-continent. Not much is known about the functional role of this endosymbiont in its host. Some studies have revealed its involvement in virus transmission by B. tabaci, but how it effects the biology of B. tabaci is unknown. In this study, tetracycline was used to eliminate Arsenophonus from B. tabaci to study its effects with regard to development and other fitness parameters. Bacteria specific 16S Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to ascertain Arsenophonus absence with differential effects on other secondary endosymbionts present in B. tabaci. Our results revealed that Arsenophonus negative (A(-)) whiteflies had more fecundity, increased juvenile developmental time, increased nymphal survival and increased adult life span as compared to control (A(+)) whiteflies. Thus, our results demonstrate that A(+) whiteflies have lesser fitness as compared to A(-) whiteflies. These observations give a new insight about the probable role of Arsenophonus in B. tabaci, that need to be explored further. PMID:25801610

  5. Infestation by Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and incidence of whitefly-transmitted viruses after the application of four biorational insecticides in some crops in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a global insect pest that transmits many important plant viruses. A field study was conducted on infestation by B. tabaci and incidence of whitefly-transmitted viruses after the application of selected foliar and seed-treated biorational insecti...

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis in Bemisia tabaci in response to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and development of ribonucleic acid interference to manage whitefly-transmitted viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci transmits over 300 plant viruses, with the majority of them belonging to the Begomovirus genus. Begomoviruses are obligately transmitted to a wide range of agriculture crops, resulting in the loss of billions of dollars annually, while jeopardizing food security worldwid...

  7. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse. PMID:26463195

  8. Evaluating mustard as a potential companion crop for collards to control the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae): outdoor and olfactometer experiments.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three varieties of mustard (giant red mustard, tender green mustard and ragged leaf mustard) were evaluated as possible repellent companion crops for collards against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii in outdoor potted experiments and through laboratory studies using a Y-tube olfactomete...

  9. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse. PMID:26463195

  10. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  11. Viral infection of tobacco plants improves performance of Bemisia tabaci but more so for an invasive than for an indigenous biotype of the whitefly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Li, Meng; Li, Jun-min; Huang, Chang-jun; Zhou, Xue-ping; Xu, Fang-cheng; Liu, Shu-sheng

    2010-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant-virus-vector interactions on invasion of alien plant viral vectors have been rarely investigated. We examined the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) by the invasive Q biotype and the indigenous ZHJ2 biotype of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a plant viral vector, as well as the influence of TYLCCNV-infection of plants on the performance of the two whitefly biotypes. Both whitefly biotypes were able to acquire viruses from infected plants and retained them in their bodies, but were unable to transmit them to either tobacco or tomato plants. However, when the Q biotype fed on tobacco plants infected with TYLCCNV, its fecundity and longevity were increased by 7- and 1-fold, respectively, compared to those of the Q biotype fed on uninfected tobacco plants. When the ZHJ2 biotype fed on virus-infected plants, its fecundity and longevity were increased by only 2- and 0.5-fold, respectively. These data show that the Q biotype acquired higher beneficial effects from TYLCCNV-infection of tobacco plants than the ZHJ2 biotype. Thus, the Q biotype whitefly may have advantages in its invasion and displacement of the indigenous ZHJ2 biotype. PMID:20043350

  12. A Primary Screening and Applying of Plant Volatiles as Repellents to Control Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenxiao; Han, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yubo; Qin, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of finding a new way to reduce population densities of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in greenhouses, seven repellent volatile chemicals and their combinations were screened. The mixture of DLCO (D-limonene, citral and olive oil (63:7:30)) had a better cost performance(SC50 = 22.59 mg/ml)to repel whiteflies from settling than the other mixtures or single chemicals. In the greenhouse, in both the choice test and the no-choice tests, the number of adult whiteflies that settled on 1% DLCO-treated tomato plants was significantly lower than those settling on the control plants for the different exposure periods (P < 0.01). In the choice test, the egg amount on the treated tomato plants was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that on the control plants, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the number of eggs on treated and control plants in the no-choice test. Compared with the controls, 1% DLCO did not cause significantly statistic mortality rates (P > 0.05) out of different living stages of B. tabaci. The tests for evaluating the repellent efficacy, showed that a slow-releasing bottle containing the mixture had a period of efficacy of 29 days, and the application of this mixture plus a yellow board used as a push-pull strategy in the greenhouse was also effective. PMID:26907368

  13. A Primary Screening and Applying of Plant Volatiles as Repellents to Control Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wenxiao; Han, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yubo; Qin, Yuchuan

    2016-02-01

    With the goal of finding a new way to reduce population densities of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in greenhouses, seven repellent volatile chemicals and their combinations were screened. The mixture of DLCO (D-limonene, citral and olive oil (63:7:30)) had a better cost performance(SC50 = 22.59 mg/ml)to repel whiteflies from settling than the other mixtures or single chemicals. In the greenhouse, in both the choice test and the no-choice tests, the number of adult whiteflies that settled on 1% DLCO-treated tomato plants was significantly lower than those settling on the control plants for the different exposure periods (P < 0.01). In the choice test, the egg amount on the treated tomato plants was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that on the control plants, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the number of eggs on treated and control plants in the no-choice test. Compared with the controls, 1% DLCO did not cause significantly statistic mortality rates (P > 0.05) out of different living stages of B. tabaci. The tests for evaluating the repellent efficacy, showed that a slow-releasing bottle containing the mixture had a period of efficacy of 29 days, and the application of this mixture plus a yellow board used as a push-pull strategy in the greenhouse was also effective.

  14. Sequence variation of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Protein 2 in cryptic species B and Q: New DNA markers for whitefly recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Xia; Ma, Hong-Mei; Xie, Hong-Yan; Xuan, Ning; Picimbon, Jean-François

    2016-01-15

    Bemisia tabaci Gennadius biotypes B and Q are two of the most important worldwide agricultural insect pests. Genomic sequences of Type-2 B. tabaci chemosensory protein (BtabCSP2) were cloned and sequenced in B and Q biotypes, revealing key biotype-specific variations in the intron sequence. A Q260 sequence was found specifically in Q-BtabCSP2 and Cucumis melo LN692399, suggesting ancestral horizontal transfer of gene between the insect and the plant through bacteria. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) method was then developed to differentiate B and Q based on the sequence variation in exon of BtabCSP2 gene. The performances of CSP2-based CAPS for whitefly recognition were assessed using B. tabaci field collections from Shandong Province (P.R. China). Our SacII based CAPS method led to the same result compared to mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-based CAPS method in the field collections. We therefore propose an explanation for CSP origin and a new rapid simple molecular method based on genomic DNA and chemosensory gene to differentiate accurately the B and Q whiteflies of the Bemisia complex around the world. PMID:26481237

  15. Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Karyna; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E.; Breitbart, Mya

    2016-01-01

    Monopartite begomoviruses (Geminiviridae), which are whitefly-transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses known for causing devastating crop diseases, are often associated with satellite DNAs. Since begomovirus acquisition or exchange of satellite DNAs may lead to adaptation to new plant hosts and emergence of new disease complexes, it is important to investigate the diversity and distribution of these molecules. This study reports begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs identified during a vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) survey of begomoviruses using whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Protein-encoding satellite DNAs, including alphasatellites and betasatellites, were identified in Israel, Puerto Rico, and Guatemala. Novel alphasatellites were detected in samples from Guatemala and Puerto Rico, resulting in the description of a phylogenetic clade (DNA-3-type alphasatellites) dominated by New World sequences. In addition, a diversity of small (~640–750 nucleotides) satellite DNAs similar to satellites associated with begomoviruses infecting Ipomoea spp. were detected in Puerto Rico and Spain. A third class of satellite molecules, named gammasatellites, is proposed to encompass the increasing number of reported small (<1 kilobase), non-coding begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs. This VEM-based survey indicates that, although recently recovered begomovirus genomes are variations of known genetic themes, satellite DNAs hold unexplored genetic diversity. PMID:26848679

  16. Differential expression patterns among heat-shock protein genes and thermal responses in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (MEAM 1).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Fernando; Orobio, Rony F; Chavarriaga, Paul; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2015-08-01

    There is convincing evidence that heat-shock proteins (HSP) are upregulated by stress conditions in insects; however, the relative contribution of each HSP gene to the heat-shock response remains unclear. Here we considered the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (MEAM 1), a phloem feeder and invasive species whose molecular stress response is an important mechanism for overcoming heat stress. We assessed the expression of the hsp23, 40, 70 and 90 genes at the mRNA level when submitted to heat shocks of 40 and 44°C/1h (control at 25°C). For this, we evaluated a set of available and suitable reference genes in order to perform data normalization using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) technique, and then confirmed the production of HSP70 protein based on Western blot. Results were compared with the hardening capacity of B. tabaci, measured by fitness components as a response to heat shocks, using 40°C as the induction temperature. Three of the four genes (hsp23, 70 and 90) were upregulated by heat stress at mRNA, showing differential expression patterns. Hsp70 expression was confirmed at the protein level. Hardening significantly increased fitness following heat stress, suggesting that HSPs may contribute to hardening capacity in B. tabaci. Potential role of each gene in the heat-shock response for whiteflies is discussed. PMID:26267515

  17. Transcriptional responses of invasive and indigenous whiteflies to different host plants reveal their disparate capacity of adaptation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Xing; Hong, Yue; Zhang, Min-Zhu; Wang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci contains more than 35 cryptic species. The higher adaptability of Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) cryptic species has been recognized as one important factor for its invasion and displacement of other indigenous species worldwide. Here we compared the performance of the invasive MEAM1 and the indigenous Asia II 3 whitefly species following host plant transfer from a suitable host (cotton) to an unsuitable host (tobacco) and analyzed their transcriptional responses. After transfer to tobacco for 24 h, MEAM1 performed much better than Asia II 3. Transcriptional analysis showed that the patterns of gene regulation were very different with most of the genes up-regulated in MEAM1 but down-regulated in Asia II 3. Whereas carbohydrate and energy metabolisms were repressed in Asia II 3, the gene expression and protein metabolisms were activated in MEAM1. Compared to the constitutive high expression of detoxification genes in MEAM1, most of the detoxification genes were down-regulated in Asia II 3. Enzymatic activities of P450, GST and esterase further verified that the detoxification of MEAM1 was much higher than that of Asia II 3. These results reveal obvious differences in responses of MEAM1 and Asia II 3 to host transfer. PMID:26041313

  18. Infectivity, effects on helper viruses and whitefly transmission of the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ishtiaq; Orílio, Anelise F.; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Briddon, Rob W.; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes that are frequently associated with DNA satellites. These satellites include non-coding satellites, for which the name deltasatellites has been proposed. Although the first deltasatellite was identified in the late 1990s, little is known about the effects they have on infections of their helper begomoviruses. Recently a group of deltasatellites were identified associated with sweepoviruses, a group of phylogenetically distinct begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae including sweet potato. In this work, the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses are shown to be transreplicated and maintained in plants by the virus with which they were identified, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV). These deltasatellites were shown generally to reduce symptom severity of the virus infection by reducing virus DNA levels. Additionally they were shown to be maintained in plants, and reduce the symptoms induced by two Old World monopartite begomoviruses, tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus. Finally one of the satellites was shown to be transmitted plant-to-plant in the presence of SPLCV by the whitefly vector of the virus, Bemisia tabaci, being the first time a deltasatellite has been shown to be insect transmitted. PMID:27453359

  19. Infectivity, effects on helper viruses and whitefly transmission of the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ishtiaq; Orílio, Anelise F; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Briddon, Rob W; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes that are frequently associated with DNA satellites. These satellites include non-coding satellites, for which the name deltasatellites has been proposed. Although the first deltasatellite was identified in the late 1990s, little is known about the effects they have on infections of their helper begomoviruses. Recently a group of deltasatellites were identified associated with sweepoviruses, a group of phylogenetically distinct begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae including sweet potato. In this work, the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses are shown to be transreplicated and maintained in plants by the virus with which they were identified, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV). These deltasatellites were shown generally to reduce symptom severity of the virus infection by reducing virus DNA levels. Additionally they were shown to be maintained in plants, and reduce the symptoms induced by two Old World monopartite begomoviruses, tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus. Finally one of the satellites was shown to be transmitted plant-to-plant in the presence of SPLCV by the whitefly vector of the virus, Bemisia tabaci, being the first time a deltasatellite has been shown to be insect transmitted. PMID:27453359

  20. A Primary Screening and Applying of Plant Volatiles as Repellents to Control Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenxiao; Han, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yubo; Qin, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of finding a new way to reduce population densities of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in greenhouses, seven repellent volatile chemicals and their combinations were screened. The mixture of DLCO (D-limonene, citral and olive oil (63:7:30)) had a better cost performance(SC50 = 22.59 mg/ml)to repel whiteflies from settling than the other mixtures or single chemicals. In the greenhouse, in both the choice test and the no-choice tests, the number of adult whiteflies that settled on 1% DLCO-treated tomato plants was significantly lower than those settling on the control plants for the different exposure periods (P < 0.01). In the choice test, the egg amount on the treated tomato plants was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that on the control plants, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the number of eggs on treated and control plants in the no-choice test. Compared with the controls, 1% DLCO did not cause significantly statistic mortality rates (P > 0.05) out of different living stages of B. tabaci. The tests for evaluating the repellent efficacy, showed that a slow-releasing bottle containing the mixture had a period of efficacy of 29 days, and the application of this mixture plus a yellow board used as a push-pull strategy in the greenhouse was also effective. PMID:26907368

  1. New Insecticides for Management of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl, a Virus Vectored by the Silverleaf Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H. A.; Giurcanu, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse studies using a randomized complete block design were carried out to evaluate the effect of six insecticides on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Miller) (Solanales: Solanaceae), seedlings that were inoculated with whiteflies from a TYLCV colony in cages 3, 7, or 14 d after treatment with insecticide. The purpose was to reveal differences in residual efficacy of four materials that are nearing registration for use on tomato—cyazypyr, flupyradifurone, pyrafluquinazon, and sulfoxaflor—and to compare them with two established insecticides, pymetrozine and a zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin combination. Differences in efficacy were expected because these six materials represent five distinct modes of action and both contact and systemic materials. Percentage of tomato seedlings expressing virus symptoms tended to be lowest in seedlings treated with flupyradifurone. The zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin insecticide demonstrated comparable efficacy to flupyradifurone in some trials at 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations, but not the 14 d after treatment inoculation. Pyrafluquinazon was not statistically different from cyazypyr or sulfoxaflor in percentage of plants with virus symptoms in any trial. Percentage virus in the cyazypyr and sulfoxaflor treatments was not statistically different in the 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations. Among seedlings treated with insecticide, percentage with virus symptoms tended to be highest in the seedlings treated with pymetrozine. PMID:25368089

  2. Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E; Breitbart, Mya

    2016-02-01

    Monopartite begomoviruses (Geminiviridae), which are whitefly-transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses known for causing devastating crop diseases, are often associated with satellite DNAs. Since begomovirus acquisition or exchange of satellite DNAs may lead to adaptation to new plant hosts and emergence of new disease complexes, it is important to investigate the diversity and distribution of these molecules. This study reports begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs identified during a vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) survey of begomoviruses using whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Protein-encoding satellite DNAs, including alphasatellites and betasatellites, were identified in Israel, Puerto Rico, and Guatemala. Novel alphasatellites were detected in samples from Guatemala and Puerto Rico, resulting in the description of a phylogenetic clade (DNA-3-type alphasatellites) dominated by New World sequences. In addition, a diversity of small (~640-750 nucleotides) satellite DNAs similar to satellites associated with begomoviruses infecting Ipomoea spp. were detected in Puerto Rico and Spain. A third class of satellite molecules, named gammasatellites, is proposed to encompass the increasing number of reported small (<1 kilobase), non-coding begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs. This VEM-based survey indicates that, although recently recovered begomovirus genomes are variations of known genetic themes, satellite DNAs hold unexplored genetic diversity. PMID:26848679

  3. Mixed release of two parasitoids and a polyphagous ladybird as a potential strategy to control the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaoling; Hu, Nana; Zhang, Fan; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas; Wang, Su; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mixed species release of parasitoids is used to suppress outbreaks of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); however, this biocontrol may be inhibited by interspecific interactions. We investigated the effects of mixed releases of natural enemies of B. tabaci on predation rates, parasite performance and adult parasitoid emergence under greenhouse conditions. We tested the polyphagous predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and two whitefly-specific parasitoids, namely Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia (both, Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Harmonia axyridis exhibited the lowest rates of predation when released with each parasitoid than with both parasitoid species together and showed a significant preference for non-parasitized nymphs as prey. Both E. formosa and E. sophia parasitized more B. tabaci when released with the ladybird than when the wasps were released either alone or mixed with the other parasitoid. We also found that the presence of H. axyridis significantly reduced adult parasitoid emergence; the highest rate of adult emergence was obtained with parasitoids released alone. Our results indicate that different combinations of natural enemies can influence observed rates of predation, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence. Therefore, the combination of natural enemies to be used for a particular biological control program should depend on the specific objectives. PMID:27312174

  4. Mixed release of two parasitoids and a polyphagous ladybird as a potential strategy to control the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaoling; Hu, Nana; Zhang, Fan; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas; Wang, Su; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mixed species release of parasitoids is used to suppress outbreaks of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); however, this biocontrol may be inhibited by interspecific interactions. We investigated the effects of mixed releases of natural enemies of B. tabaci on predation rates, parasite performance and adult parasitoid emergence under greenhouse conditions. We tested the polyphagous predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and two whitefly-specific parasitoids, namely Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia (both, Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Harmonia axyridis exhibited the lowest rates of predation when released with each parasitoid than with both parasitoid species together and showed a significant preference for non-parasitized nymphs as prey. Both E. formosa and E. sophia parasitized more B. tabaci when released with the ladybird than when the wasps were released either alone or mixed with the other parasitoid. We also found that the presence of H. axyridis significantly reduced adult parasitoid emergence; the highest rate of adult emergence was obtained with parasitoids released alone. Our results indicate that different combinations of natural enemies can influence observed rates of predation, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence. Therefore, the combination of natural enemies to be used for a particular biological control program should depend on the specific objectives. PMID:27312174

  5. Reference Gene Selection for qRT-PCR Analysis in the Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rumei; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhou, Xiaomao; Bai, Lianyang; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate evaluation of gene expression requires normalization relative to the expression of reliable reference genes. Expression levels of “classical” reference genes can differ, however, across experimental conditions. Although quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively to decipher gene function in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a world-wide pest in many agricultural systems, the stability of its reference genes has rarely been validated. Results In this study, 15 candidate reference genes from B. tabaci were evaluated using two Excel-based algorithms geNorm and Normfinder under a diverse set of biotic and abiotic conditions. At least two reference genes were selected to normalize gene expressions in B. tabaci under experimental conditions. Specifically, for biotic conditions including host plant, acquisition of a plant virus, developmental stage, tissue (body region of the adult), and whitefly biotype, ribosomal protein L29 was the most stable reference gene. In contrast, the expression of elongation factor 1 alpha, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A and heat shock protein 40 were consistently stable across various abiotic conditions including photoperiod, temperature, and insecticide susceptibility. Conclusion Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized quantitative real-time PCR procedure following the MIQE (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR Experiments) guideline in an agriculturally important insect pest, and provides a solid foundation for future RNA interference based functional study in B. tabaci. PMID:23308130

  6. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Favaro, Carla F; Azevedo, Kamila E X; Landi, Carolina H; Maluta, Nathalie K P; Bento, José Mauricio S; Lopes, Joao R S

    2016-01-01

    Virus infection frequently modifies plant phenotypes, leading to changes in behaviour and performance of their insect vectors in a way that transmission is enhanced, although this may not always be the case. Here, we investigated Bemisia tabaci response to tomato plants infected by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), a non-circulative-transmitted crinivirus, and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), a circulative-transmitted begomovirus. Moreover, we examined the role of visual and olfactory cues in host plant selection by both viruliferous and non-viruliferous B. tabaci. Visual cues alone were assessed as targets for whitefly landing by placing leaves underneath a Plexiglas plate. A dual-choice arena was used to assess whitefly response to virus-infected and mock-inoculated tomato leaves under light and dark conditions. Thereafter, we tested the whitefly response to volatiles using an active air-flow Y-tube olfactometer, and chemically characterized the blends using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Visual stimuli tests showed that whiteflies, irrespective of their infectious status, always preferred to land on virus-infected rather than on mock-inoculated leaves. Furthermore, whiteflies had no preference for either virus-infected or mock-inoculated leaves under dark conditions, but preferred virus-infected leaves in the presence of light. ToSRV-infection promoted a sharp decline in the concentration of some tomato volatiles, while an increase in the emission of some terpenes after ToCV infection was found. ToSRV-viruliferous whiteflies preferred volatiles emitted from mock-inoculated plants, a conducive behaviour to enhance virus spread, while volatiles from ToCV-infected plants were avoided by non-viruliferous whiteflies, a behaviour that is likely detrimental to the secondary spread of the virus. In conclusion, the circulative persistent begomovirus, ToSRV, seems to have evolved together with its vector B. tabaci to optimise its own spread. However

  7. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Favaro, Carla F.; Azevedo, Kamila E. X.; Landi, Carolina H.; Maluta, Nathalie K. P.; Bento, José Mauricio S.; Lopes, Joao R.S.

    2016-01-01

    Virus infection frequently modifies plant phenotypes, leading to changes in behaviour and performance of their insect vectors in a way that transmission is enhanced, although this may not always be the case. Here, we investigated Bemisia tabaci response to tomato plants infected by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), a non-circulative-transmitted crinivirus, and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), a circulative-transmitted begomovirus. Moreover, we examined the role of visual and olfactory cues in host plant selection by both viruliferous and non-viruliferous B. tabaci. Visual cues alone were assessed as targets for whitefly landing by placing leaves underneath a Plexiglas plate. A dual-choice arena was used to assess whitefly response to virus-infected and mock-inoculated tomato leaves under light and dark conditions. Thereafter, we tested the whitefly response to volatiles using an active air-flow Y-tube olfactometer, and chemically characterized the blends using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Visual stimuli tests showed that whiteflies, irrespective of their infectious status, always preferred to land on virus-infected rather than on mock-inoculated leaves. Furthermore, whiteflies had no preference for either virus-infected or mock-inoculated leaves under dark conditions, but preferred virus-infected leaves in the presence of light. ToSRV-infection promoted a sharp decline in the concentration of some tomato volatiles, while an increase in the emission of some terpenes after ToCV infection was found. ToSRV-viruliferous whiteflies preferred volatiles emitted from mock-inoculated plants, a conducive behaviour to enhance virus spread, while volatiles from ToCV-infected plants were avoided by non-viruliferous whiteflies, a behaviour that is likely detrimental to the secondary spread of the virus. In conclusion, the circulative persistent begomovirus, ToSRV, seems to have evolved together with its vector B. tabaci to optimise its own spread. However

  8. Review of the last instar larvae and pupae of Hexatoma (Eriocera) and Hexatoma (Hexatoma) (Diptera, Limoniidae, Limnophilinae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Gelhaus, Jon K

    2015-01-01

    Description, illustrations and habitat characteristics are given for the previously unknown larvae and pupae of Nearctic species Hexatoma (Eriocera) californica, H. (E.) fuliginosa and East Palaearctic species H. (E.) sachalinensis, H. (E.) stackelbergi, H. (E.) ussuriensis and H. (s.str.) nubeculosa. Hexatoma (E.) sachalinensis, H. (E.) stackelbergi, and H. (s.str.) nubeculosa are reported new for Mongolia based on larval and reared adult collections. There are no distinguishing morphological characters to separate last instar larvae of the subgenera H. (Eriocera) and H. (Hexatoma), while pupae of these subgenera can be separated by the size and shape of the spines on the terminal segments. This study indicates that microscopic setae on the last abdominal segment, length of maxillary palpi, sclerotization of the spiracular field, length of spiracular lobes, length of setae on the apical part of the ventral lobes, the shape of the labrum and the arrangement of sensory structures on the labrum are the main larval characters to distinguish among species in this genus. The shape and length of the respiratory horns, size and number of the horns of the cephalic crest, length of the antennal sheaths, the lengths of the sheaths of the legs, size and shape of tubercles on the antennal scape are the main distinguishing pupal characters for the species of this genus. Nearly all known species of Hexatoma develop in sand or gravel in bottom of large and medium size rivers, smaller streams and creeks while last instar larvae and pupae can be found in the riparian zone, usually in gravel, sand or under stones. PMID:26624121

  9. The 4th Bi-annual international African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium conference: building capacity to address cancer health disparities in populations of African descent.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Elizabeth; Campbell, Jasmine; Bowen, Carlene; Delmoor, Ernestine; Jean-Louis, Gilda; Noumbissi, Raphiatou; O'Garro, Yvonne; Richards-Waritay, Oni; Straughter, Stanley; Tolbert, Vera; Wilson, Barbara; Ragin, Camille

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the 4(th) International Meeting of the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3), organized and sponsored by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC), and held on July 21-22, 2012 at the Lincoln University Graduate Center, Lincoln Plaza, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. AC3 investigators gathered in Philadelphia, PA to present the results of our ongoing collaborative research efforts throughout the African Diaspora. The general theme addressed cancer health disparities and presentations represented all cancer types. However, there was particular emphasis on women's cancers, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:26422007

  10. 4H-Chromene-based anticancer agents towards multi-drug resistant HL60/MX2 human leukemia: SAR at the 4th and 6th positions.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Manohar; Zhao, Xinghua; Casemore, Denise; Zhou, Bo; Aridoss, Gopalakrishnan; Narayanapillai, Sreekanth; Xing, Chengguo

    2016-03-15

    4H-Chromene-based compounds, for example, CXL017, CXL035, and CXL055, have a unique anticancer potential that they selectively kill multi-drug resistant cancer cells. Reported herein is the extended structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, focusing on the ester functional group at the 4th position and the conformation at the 6th position. Sharp SARs were observed at both positions with respect to cellular cytotoxic potency and selectivity between the parental HL60 and the multi-drug resistant HL60/MX2 cells. These results provide critical guidance for future medicinal optimization. PMID:26867486

  11. Efficacy of an Esfenvalerate plus Methoprene Aerosol for the Control of Eggs and Fifth Instars of the Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol insecticides may provide an alternative to fumigants for control of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), a major insect pest of stored processed food. In this study, eggs and larvae (5th instars) of P. interpunctella were exposed to aerosol applications of the pyrethroid esf...

  12. Ultrastructure and development of the new stylets inside pre-molting first instar nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure and development of new stylets was studied in pre-molting first instar nymph of Diaphorina citri. Two oval-shaped masses of cuboidal hypodermal cells, located in the cephalic region, had long extensions that ended with developing pairs of mandibular and maxillary stylets, apparent...

  13. Description of the last instar larva and new contributions to the knowledge of the pupa of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya (Diptera, Culicomorpha, Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Florentina; Anjos-Santos, Danielle; Funes, Amparo; Ronderos, María M

    2016-07-11

    The fourth instar larva of Dasyhelea mediomunda Minaya is described for the first time and a complete description of the pupa is provided, through use of phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Studied specimens were collected in a pond connected to a small wetland "mallin" on the Patagonian steppe, Chubut province, Argentina. PMID:27411066

  14. CHLORPYRIFOS IMMERSION TO ELIMINATE THIRD INSTAR JAPANESE BEETLE (COLEOPTERA:SCARABAEIDAE) IN BALLED AND BURLAPPED TREES AND SUBSEQUENT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON RED MAPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined chlorpyrifos immersion of balled and burlapped (B&B) root balls for elimination of third instar Japanese beetle (JB) (Popillia japonica Newman) and for phytotoxicity on red maple (Acer rubrum L.). Trees were harvested as 45 and 60 cm diameter B&B and immersed in chlorpyrifos at ...

  15. The Development of Adultoid Reproductives and Brachypterous Neotenic Reproductives From the Last Instar Nymphs in Reticulitermes labralis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiao Hong; Xue, Wei; Liu, He; Chen, Jiao Ling; Zhang, Xiao Jing; Xing, Lian Xi; Liu, Ming Hua

    2015-01-01

    Secondary reproductives develop primarily from nymphs. However, they have been rarely studied; in particular, the development of adultoid reproductives (AR) with floppy wings is still unclear. In this study, the change in juvenile hormone (JH) levels, vitellogenin gene expression, and oogenesis during the development of AR and brachypterous neotenic reproductives (BN) from the last instar nymphs of Reticulitermes labralis are investigated and compared. The results showed that the AR derived from the last instar nymphs by molting, and they were more similar to neotenic reproductives in morphology. In addition, the paired AR were not able to survive in the absence of workers. In R. labralis, the process of the last instar nymphs developing into AR and BN took an increase in JH level as a starting point. The JH level of the last instar nymphs molting into BN was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that of the AR. Additionally, The JHIII level of BN peaked on day 5, and that of AR peaked on day 10, which induced the onset of vitellogenesis in BN and AR, respectively. After molting, the vitellogenin gene expression levels of both BN and AR initially increased and then declined, and the expression levels in the BN were significantly higher than those in the AR. In addition, the oocytes of BN matured earlier than those of the AR, and the number of eggs laid by the BN was higher than the number laid by the AR. Our results demonstrate that, in R. labralis, the last instar nymphs can develop into AR, which are significantly different from BN in their development. PMID:26494776

  16. The development of adultoid reproductives and brachypterous neotenic reproductives from the last instar nymphs in Reticulitermes labralis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao Hong; Xue, Wei; Liu, He; Chen, Jiao Ling; Zhang, Xiao Jing; Xing, Lian Xi; Liu, Ming Hua

    2015-01-01

    Secondary reproductives develop primarily from nymphs. However, they have been rarely studied; in particular, the development of adultoid reproductives (AR) with floppy wings is still unclear. In this study, the change in juvenile hormone (JH) levels, vitellogenin gene expression, and oogenesis during the development of AR and brachypterous neotenic reproductives (BN) from the last instar nymphs of Reticulitermes labralis are investigated and compared. The results showed that the AR derived from the last instar nymphs by molting, and they were more similar to neotenic reproductives in morphology. In addition, the paired AR were not able to survive in the absence of workers. In R. labralis, the process of the last instar nymphs developing into AR and BN took an increase in JH level as a starting point. The JH level of the last instar nymphs molting into BN was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that of the AR. Additionally, The JHIII level of BN peaked on day 5, and that of AR peaked on day 10, which induced the onset of vitellogenesis in BN and AR, respectively. After molting, the vitellogenin gene expression levels of both BN and AR initially increased and then declined, and the expression levels in the BN were significantly higher than those in the AR. In addition, the oocytes of BN matured earlier than those of the AR, and the number of eggs laid by the BN was higher than the number laid by the AR. Our results demonstrate that, in R. labralis, the last instar nymphs can develop into AR, which are significantly different from BN in their development. PMID:26494776

  17. Humoral immunity and CD4+ Th1 cells are both necessary for a fully protective immune response upon secondary infection with Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; De Trez, Carl; Akira, Shizuo; Ryffel, Bernhard; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2014-04-15

    Brucella spp are intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the most common zoonoses in the world. Given the serious medical consequences of this disease, a safe and effective human vaccine is urgently needed. Efforts to develop this vaccine have been hampered by our lack of understanding of what constitutes a protective memory response against Brucella. In this study, we characterize the cells and signaling pathways implicated in the generation of a protective immune memory response following priming by the injection of heat-killed or live Brucella melitensis 16M. Using a panel of gene-deficient mice, we demonstrated that during a secondary recall response, both the Brucella-specific humoral response and CD4+ Th1 cells must act together to confer protective immunity in the spleen to B. melitensis infection. Humoral protective immunity is induced by the inoculation of both heat-killed and live bacteria, and its development does not require T cells, MyD88/IL-12p35 signaling pathways, or an activation-induced deaminase-mediated isotype switch. In striking contrast, the presence of memory IFN-γ-producing CD4+ Th1 cells requires the administration of live bacteria and functional MyD88/IL-12p35 pathways. In summary, our work identifies several immune markers closely associated with protective immune memory and could help to define a rational strategy to obtain an effective human vaccine against brucellosis. PMID:24646742

  18. The Neumann system for the 4th-order eigenvalue problem and constraint flows of the coupled KdV-type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ye; Gu, Zhuquan; Liu, Yafeng

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, the Neumann system for the 4th-order eigenvalue problem Ly = (∂4+ q∂2+∂2 q+ ip∂+ i∂ p+ y = Λy) has been given. By means of the Neumann constraint condition, the perfect constraint set Γ and the relations between the potentials { q, p, r} and the eigenvector y are obtained. Then, based on the Euler-Lagrange function and Legendre transformations, a reasonable Jacobi-Ostrogradsky coordinate system has been found, which can be equal to the real Hamiltonian canonical coordinate system in R 8 N . Using Cao's method and Moser's constraint manifold, the Lax pairs of the evolution equation hierarchy with the 4th-order eigenvalue problems are nonlinearized. So a new finite-dimensional integrable Hamilton system on the constraint submanifold R 8 N-4 is generated. Moreover, the solutions of the evolution equations for the infinite-dimensional soliton systems are obtained by the involutive flow of the finite-dimensional completely integrable systems.

  19. Aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants are as toxic as Imidacloprid to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Ateyyat, Mazen A; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

  20. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873